Science.gov

Sample records for geological granite disposal

  1. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  2. The Necessity of Geologic Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    R. Linden

    2004-07-01

    deep geologic disposal, and are evaluating sites in granites, argillaceous rocks, and salt formations.

  3. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  4. The ‘granite encapsulation’ route to the safe disposal of Pu and other actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-03-01

    Waste actinides, including plutonium, present a long-term management problem and a serious security issue. Immobilisation in mineral or ceramic waste forms for interim storage is a widely proposed first step. The safest, most secure geological disposal for Pu is in very deep boreholes and we propose that the key step to combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is encapsulation of the waste form in cylinders of recrystallized granite. We discuss the underpinning science, focusing on experimental work, and consider implementation. Finally, we present and discuss analyses of zircon, UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia from high pressure and temperature experiments in granitic melts that demonstrate the viability of this solution and that actinides can be isolated from the environment for millions, maybe hundreds of millions, of years.

  5. Granite geomorphology and its geological controls, Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoń, Piotr; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-12-01

    Serra da Estrela is an elevated granite massif in central Portugal, characterized by extensive plateau surfaces incised by deep valleys affected by Quaternary glaciation, bounded by steep fault-generated escarpments. The presence of seven major textural variants of granite provides an opportunity to study the relationships between lithology and relief, whereas DEM analysis helped to show the relationships between lithology and topography objectively. The higher ground is associated with fine- to medium-grained granites and is typified by planar surfaces of low gradient, with occasional angular tors and rock pedestals. Block fields built by angular material are common in the parts that were not previously glaciated. Less elevated parts of the plateau are supported by medium- to coarse-grained granites and show more varied topography, with an abundance of tors, boulder piles, and depressions. Lithological boundaries locally coincide with slope breaks but this is not the rule. In the northern part of the massif a deep topographic basin has evolved in biotite granite, whereas deeply incised valleys follow major fault lines. Geological controls show a hierarchy, in that gross relief reflects the pattern of tectonic uplift and subsidence, whereas lithology and then fracture patterns become more and more important if one focuses on smaller and smaller landforms.

  6. The Suitable Geological Formations for Spent Fuel Disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Marunteanu, C.; Ionita, G.; Durdun, I.

    2007-07-01

    Using the experience in the field of advanced countries and formerly Romanian program data, ANDRAD, the agency responsible for the disposal of radioactive wastes, started the program for spent fuel disposal in deep geological formations with a documentary analysis at the national scale. The potential geological formations properly characterized elsewhere in the world: salt, clay, volcanic tuff, granite and crystalline rocks,. are all present in Romania. Using general or specific selection criteria, we presently consider the following two areas for candidate geological formations: 1. Clay formations in two areas in the western part of Romania: (1) The Pannonian basin Socodor - Zarand, where the clay formation is 3000 m thick, with many bentonitic strata and undisturbed structure, and (2) The Eocene Red Clay on the Somes River, extending 1200 m below the surface. They both need a large investigation program in order to establish and select the required homogeneous, dry and undisturbed zones at a suitable depth. 2. Old platform green schist formations, low metamorphosed, quartz and feldspar rich rocks, in the Central Dobrogea structural unit, not far from Cernavoda NPP (30 km average distance), 3000 m thick and including many homogeneous, fine granular, undisturbed, up to 300 m thick layers. (authors)

  7. The geology and petrogenesis of the southern closepet granite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayananda, M.; Mahabaleswar, B.; Oak, K. A.; Friend, C. R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Closepet Granite is a polyphase body intruding the Peninsular Gneiss Complex and the associated supracrustal rocks. The granite out-crop runs for nearly 500 km with an approximate width of 20 to 25 km and cut across the regional metamorphic structure passing from granulite facies in the South and green schist facies in the north. In the amphibolite-granulite facies transition zone the granite is intimately mixed with migmatites and charnockite. Field observations suggests that anatexis of Peninsular gneisses led to the formation of granite melt, and there is a space relationship between migmatite formation, charnockite development and production and emplacement of granite magma. Based on texture and cross cutting relationships four major granite phases are recognized: (1) Pyroxene bearing dark grey granite; (2) Porphyritec granite; (3) Equigranular grey granite; and (4) Equigranular pink granite. The granite is medium to coarse grained and exhibit hypidiomorphic granular to porphyritic texture. The modal composition varies from granite granodiorite to quartz monzonite. Geochemical variation of the granite suite is consistent with either fractional crystallization or partial melting, but in both the cases biotite plus feldspar must be involved as fractionating or residual phases during melting to account trace element chemistry. The trace element data has been plotted on discriminant diagrams, where majority of samples plot in volcanic arc and within plate, tectonic environments. The granite show distinct REE patterns with variable total REE content. The REE patterns and overall abundances suggests that the granite suite represents a product of partial melting of crustal source in which fractional crystallization operated in a limited number of cases.

  8. Experimental investigations on the thermal conductivity characteristics of Beishan granitic rocks for China's HLW disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. G.; Wang, J.; Chen, F.; Li, P. F.; Ma, L. K.; Xie, J. L.; Liu, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Crystalline rocks are potential host rock types for the construction of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. A better understanding of thermal conductivity of rocks is essential to safe evaluation and engineering optimization of a HLW disposal system in the rock at depth. In the present study, experimental investigations on the thermal conductivity characteristics of 47 pairs of granitic rock specimens were conducted using the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method. The specimens were collected from borehole cores in the Beishan area, which is being considered as the most potential candidate area for China's HLW repository. To evaluate geological nature of the rocks, mineralogical compositions of the rocks were identified, and porosity of the specimens was measured. The thermal conductivities of the specimens under dry and water-saturated conditions were determined, and the effect of water saturation on the thermal conductivity was investigated. In addition, the influence of temperature and axial compression stress on the thermal conductivity of dry specimens was studied. The results revealed that the thermal conductivity of tested rocks was dependent on water saturation, temperature and compression stress. Based on the obtained data, some models considering porosity were established for describing the thermal conductivity characteristics of the tested rocks. Furthermore, when the rocks have a similar porosity, the quartz content dominates the thermal conductivity, and there exists an obvious increase of the thermal conductivity with increasing quartz content. The test results constitute the first systematic measurements on the Beishan granitic rocks and can further be used for the development of thermal models for predicting thermal response near the underground excavations for HLW disposal.

  9. Granite disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Lee, Joon H.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Francis D.; Price, Ronald H.; Lord, Anna Snider

    2011-08-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of disposing U.S. high-level radioactive waste in granite several hundred meters below the surface of the earth. The U.S. has many granite formations with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar crystalline formations have been extensively studied by international programs, two of which, in Sweden and Finland, are the host rocks of submitted or imminent repository license applications. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in granite media. In this report we develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified by international investigators, to support generic conclusions regarding post-closure safety. Unlike the safety analyses for disposal in salt, shale/clay, or deep boreholes, the safety analysis for a mined granite repository depends largely on waste package preservation. In crystalline rock, waste packages are preserved by the high mechanical stability of the excavations, the diffusive barrier of the buffer, and favorable chemical conditions. The buffer is preserved by low groundwater fluxes, favorable chemical conditions, backfill, and the rigid confines of the host rock. An added advantage of a mined granite repository is that waste packages would be fairly easy to retrieve, should retrievability be an important objective. The results of the safety analyses performed in this study are consistent with the results of comprehensive safety assessments performed for sites in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. They indicate that a granite repository would satisfy established safety criteria and suggest that a small number of FEPs would largely control the release and transport of radionuclides. In the event the U.S. decides to pursue a potential repository in granite, a detailed evaluation of these FEPs would be needed to inform site

  10. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-06-08

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval.

  11. Geology of the Integrated Disposal Facility Trench

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Fecht, Karl R.

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the geology of the integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Trench. The stratigraphy consists of some of the youngest sediments of the Missoula floods (younger than 770 ka). The lithology is dominated sands with minor silts and gravels that are largely unconsolidated. The stratigraphy can be subdivided into five geologic units that can be mapped throughout the trench. Four of the units were deposited by the Missoula floods and the youngest consists of windblown sand and silt. The sediment has little moisture and is consistent with that observed in the characterization boreholes. The sedimentary layers are flat lying and there are no faults or folds present. Two clastic dikes were encountered, one along the west wall and one that can be traced from the north to the southwall. The north-south clastic dike nearly bifurcates the trench but the west wall clastic dike can not be traced very far east into the trench. The classic dikes consist mainly of sand with clay-lined walls. The sediment in the dikes is compacted to partly cemented and are more resistant than the layered sediments.

  12. Berdyaush pluton of rapakivi granites, South Urals: New data on the geological structure and geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snachev, V. I.; Bazhin, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The new version of the geological structure of the Berdyaush pluton (a single intrusion of rapakivi granites in the Urals) presented in this paper is significantly distinct from the previous structural schemes. Rapakivi granites compose no more than 10-20% of the area of the pluton and they are widespread only in its northeastern and southwestern flanks. The contacts between gabbro (I phase), hybrid syenodiorites (II phase), and rapakivi granites (III phase) are transitional, metasomatic. The hybrid syenodiorites and rapakivi granites are formed after gabbroic rocks as a result of their intense thermal and metasomatic transformation by the deep fluids. The driving force of this process could be the unilateral compression of the Berdyaush pluton resulting from formation of the eastward continental rift in the beginning of the Middle Riphean.

  13. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in

  14. Geological Disposal Concept Selection Aligned with a Voluntarism Process - 13538

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Glenda; King, Samantha

    2013-07-01

    The UK's Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) is currently at a generic stage in its implementation programme. The UK site selection process is a voluntarist process and, as yet, no communities have decided to participate. RWMD has set out a process to describe how a geological disposal concept would be selected for the range of higher activity wastes in the UK inventory, including major steps and decision making points, aligned with the stages of the UK site selection process. A platform of information is being developed on geological disposal concepts at various stages of implementation internationally and, in order to build on international experience, RWMD is developing its approach to technology transfer. The UK has a range of different types of higher activity wastes with different characteristics; therefore a range of geological disposal concepts may be needed. In addition to identifying key aspects for considering the compatibility of different engineered barrier systems for different types of waste, RWMD is developing a methodology to determine minimum separation distances between disposal modules in a co-located geological disposal facility. RWMD's approach to geological disposal concept selection is intended to be flexible, recognising the long term nature of the project. RWMD is also committed to keeping alternative radioactive waste management options under review; an approach has been developed and periodic reviews of alternative options will be published. (authors)

  15. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    SciTech Connect

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories.

  16. Radioactive high level waste insight modelling for geological disposal facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Alexander; Kelly, Martin; Bailey, Lucy

    Within this paper we present a simplified analytical model to provide insight into the key performance measures of a generic disposal system for high level waste within a geological disposal facility. The model assumes a low solubility waste matrix within a corrosion resistant disposal container surrounded by a low permeability buffer. Radionuclides migrate from the disposal area through a porous geosphere to the biosphere and give a radiological dose to a receptor. The system of equations describing the migration is transformed into Laplace space and an approximation used to determine peak values for the radionuclide mass transfer rate entering the biosphere. Results from the model are compared with those from more detailed numerical models for key radionuclides in the UK high level waste inventory. Such an insight model can provide a valuable second line of argument to assist in confirming the results of more detailed models and build confidence in the safety case for a geological disposal facility.

  17. Reconnaissance geology and geochronology of the Precambrian of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell E.; Hildreth, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    The Precambrian of the western part of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, contains a metamorphic complex of gneisses, schists, and amphibolites that were derived through amphibolite-grade metamorphism from a sedimentary-volcanic sequence perhaps similar to that exposed in the southeastern Wind River Mountains. Whole-rock Rb-Sr dating places the time of metamorphism at 2,860?80 million years. A high initial 87Sr/ 86 S r ratio of 0.7048 suggests that either the protoliths or the source terrane of the sedimentary component is several hundred million years older than the time of metamorphism. Following an interval of 300:t100 million years for which the geologic record is lacking or still undeciphered, the metamorphic complex was intruded by a batholith and satellite bodies of medium- to coarse-grained, generally massive biotite granite and related pegmatite and aplite. The main body of granite is dated at 2,550?60 million years by the Rb-Sr method. Limited data suggest that diabase dikes were emplaced and nephrite veins were formed only shortly after intrusion of the granite. Emplacement of the granite at about 2,550 million years ago appears to be related to a major period of regional granitic plutonism in the Precambrian of southern and western Wyoming. Granites, in the strict sense, that are dated between 2,450 and 2,600 million years occur in the Teton Range, the Sierra Madre, the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Laramie Range. This episode of granitic plutonism occured some 50 to 100 million years later than the major tonalitic to granitic plutonism in the Superior province of northern Minnesota and adjacent Ontario-the nearest exposed Precambrian W terrane that is analogous to the Wyoming province. Initial 87Sr / 86Sr ratios of some of the Wyoming granites are higher than expected if the rocks had been derived from juvenile magmas and it is likely that older crustal rocks were involved to some degree in the generation of these granites. Slightly to highly disturbed

  18. The El Berrocal project: Geological characterization and radionuclide migration studies in a fractured granitic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.M.; Perez del Villar, L.; Gomez, P.

    1995-12-31

    El Berrocal is an abandoned uranium mine in a mineralized quartz vein hosted by a Hyercynian granite in central Spain. This mine is the focus of an international project to characterize and model natural elemental migration in a fractured-rock environment as an aid to understanding and predicting processes that may occur in a geological repository for radioactive wastes. Uranium in the mineralized quartz vein has been shown to have originated from the orthomagmatic uraninite in the granite with the elemental removal and migration occurring predominantly by hydrothermal fluids. Mobilization of uranium from the mineralized quartz vein and from granite adjacent to hydraulically-active fractures away from the vein occurred over the geologically-recent past and in the present-day. The most recent mobilization is evidenced by dissolution features seen in SEM photomicrographs; mineral growth and sorption signatures identified by enhanced uranium concentrations on the surfaces of preexisting minerals; and measured disequilibrium in the uranium series for whole rock close to fracture walls. Present-day groundwaters in the studied area are young meteoric waters. They are generally calcium-sulfate enriched, oxidizing and mildly acidic near the surface, becoming more bicarbonate-rich with near neutral pH in the deeper zones, except around the mineralized vein where the waters are acid (pH around 3) due to oxidation of the sulfide minerals. No deep, chemically-reducing groundwaters have yet been identified in the El Berrocal boreholes.

  19. Geology of a Transect Across a Mesoproterozoic Anorthosite - Granite Batholith, Nain, Northern Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, J.

    2004-05-01

    A five year research project at Memorial University, supported by VBN/INCO and NSERC, is studying the geology of a transect across the Nain Plutonic Suite to better understand the geological setting of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit. This study is based on new geological mapping at a scale of 1:20 000, completed between 1999-2003 by Furlong, Gaskill, Goddard, Rawlings-Hinchey, Myers, Tettelaar, Voordouw and Wright. The talk outlines the regional geology determined by this collective study in a transect 80 km long and 40 km wide. The Nain Plutonic Suite forms a batholith comprising numerous plutons, dykes and sheets of anorthosite, leuconorite, leucotroctolite, troctolite, ferrodiorite, monzonite and granite. The batholith is 70 km wide and over 200 km long and was emplaced from 1360 to 1290 Ma along a 1860 Ma suture between two Archean continents. Within the Nain Plutonic Suite, pluton and dyke emplacement was associated with intermittent extension and transcurrent movements on east-west and NNW-SSE faults. During successive emplacement, older structures tended to be reactivated by younger intrusions. The same kinds of magmas were intruded intermittently throughout the development of the batholith. In many cases, intrusion was accompanied by fragmentation of the adjacent wall and roof rocks, and probably involved cauldron subsidence. Anorthosite and granite form large tabular plutons whereas composite ferrodiorite-monzonite intrusions mostly form arcuate dykes, small circular plutons, or narrow remnants in the margins of large anorthosite plutons. Relatively small amounts of troctolite mainly form sheet-like bodies. There is an overall longitudinal asymmetry to the batholith with rapakivi granite predominant in the west and anorthosite in the east. The anorthosite is further spatially divided into older, partly deformed and recrystallized anorthosite and leuconorite in the west and north, and younger, undeformed and unrecrystallized anorthosite and

  20. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD’s International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  1. Immobilization and geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste.

    PubMed

    Tait, J C

    1984-08-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is developing methods for the safe disposal of both used nuclear fuel and fuel recycle waste. The disposal strategy is based on interim storage of the used fuel, immobilization of either used fuel or recycle waste, and disposal, deep in a stable geological formation in the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept proposes a multibarrier system to inhibit the release of the radioactive waste from the disposal vault. The principal components of the multibarrier system are (i) the waste form in which the radionuclides are immobilized, (ii) engineered barriers including high integrity containers, buffers and backfills designed to retard the movement of groundwaters in the disposal vault, and (iii) the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation itself. The research programs to investigate this concept are discussed briefly. Several different waste forms are being developed for the immobilization of high-level fuel recycle waste, including glass, glass-ceramics and crystalline materials. Dissolution of these materials in groundwater is the only likely scenario that could lead to radionuclide release. The factors that influence the aqueous dissolution behaviour of these materials are reviewed. PMID:6488089

  2. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Bryan, Charles R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  3. Geologic map of the Granite 7.5' quadrangle, Lake and Chaffee Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The geologic map of the Granite 7.5' quadrangle, Lake and Chaffee Counties, Colorado, portrays the geology in the upper Arkansas valley and along the lower flanks of the Sawatch Range and Mosquito Range near the town of Granite. The oldest rocks, exposed in the southern and eastern parts of the quadrangle, include gneiss and plutonic rocks of Paleoproterozoic age. These rocks are intruded by younger plutonic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age. Felsic hypabyssal dikes, plugs, and plutons, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous or Paleocene to late Oligocene, locally intruded Proterozoic rocks. A small andesite lava flow of upper Oligocene age overlies Paleoproterozoic rock, just south of the Twin Lakes Reservoir. Gravelly fluvial and fan deposits of the Miocene and lower Pliocene(?) Dry Union Formation are preserved in the post-30 Ma upper Arkansas valley graben, a northern extension of the Rio Grande rift. Mostly north-northwest-trending faults displace deposits of the Dry Union Formation and older rock units. Light detection and ranging (lidar) imagery suggests that two short faults, near the Arkansas River, may displace surficial deposits as young as middle Pleistocene. Surficial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age are widespread in the Granite quadrangle, particularly in the major valleys and on slopes underlain by the Dry Union Formation. The main deposits are glacial outwash and post-glacial alluvium; mass-movement deposits transported by creep, debris flow, landsliding, and rockfall; till deposited during the Pinedale, Bull Lake, and pre-Bull Lake glaciations; rock-glacier deposits; and placer-tailings deposits formed by hydraulic mining and other mining methods used to concentrate native gold. Hydrologic and geologic processes locally affect use of the land and locally may be of concern regarding the stability of buildings and infrastructure, chiefly in low-lying areas along and near stream channels and locally in areas of moderate to steep slopes. Low

  4. Predictive geology: with emphasis on nuclear-waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    De Marsily, G.; Merriam, D.F.

    1982-11-01

    Reviews book which primarily discusses applications of earth science to the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Points out that very little is said regarding practical experience with, or the epistemological foundation of, prediction in the earth and geotechnical sciences. Suggests that an in-depth examination of the difficulties of retrodiction in the earth sciences might have provided the philosophical overview missing in a volume whose title stresses predictive geology.

  5. Interface management for the Mined Geologic Disposal System

    SciTech Connect

    Ashlock, K.J.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the interface management process that is to be used for Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) development. As part of the systems engineering and integration performed on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), interface management is critical in the development of the potential MGDS. The application of interface management on the YMP directly addresses integration between physical elements of the MGDS and the organizations responsible for their development.

  6. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.

  7. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (< 1 day) pumping tests, which facilitated the characterization of some of the fractures. The hydraulic properties were then used for other fractures that, according to geophysics and structural geology, belonged to the same families. Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  8. Current Mined Geologic Disposal System concept of operations

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, R.B.; Teraoka, G.M.

    1998-07-01

    The concept of operations for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) provides an integrated, conceptual description of the physical architecture and operating concept of the potential repository. The document facilitates a common understanding of the operations among system planners, developers and implementors by summarizing design solutions and operating concepts. During this past year, the MGDS Concept of Operations document was updated to reflect the Viability Assessment (VA) design and operating concept. Previously, this document reflected the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). This paper presents a description of the significant operational changes from ACD to VA design that are now captured in the concept of operations document.

  9. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R. ); Guzowski, R.V. )

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Onofrei, M.

    1996-04-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from <10{sup -7} m s{sup -1} to 10{sup -9} m s{sup -1} and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 {mu}m. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment.

  11. Quaternary geology and waste disposal in South Norfolk, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. M.

    South Norfolk is dominated by the till plain of the Anglian Glaciation in eastern England, and therefore there are very few disused gravel pits and quarries suitable for the landfilling of municipal waste. Consequently, in May 1991, Norfolk County Council applied for planning permission to develop an above ground or 'landraise' waste disposal site at a disused U.S. World War II Airfield at Hardwick in South Norfolk. The proposal involved excavating a pit 2-4 m deep into the Lowestoft Till and overfilling it to create a hill of waste up to 10 m above the existing till plain. In general, leachate containment was to be achieved by utilising the relatively low permeability till on the floor of the site, but with reworking of the till around the site perimeter because of sand lenses in the upper part of the till. This paper examines three aspects of the proposal and the wider issues relating to Quaternary geology and waste disposal planning in South Norfolk: (i) the suitability of the till as a natural leachate containment system; (ii) the appropriateness of the landraise landform; and (iii) alternative sites. A Public Inquiry into the proposals was held in January/February 1993 and notification of refusal of planning permission was published in August 1993. Among the grounds for refusal were an inadequate knowledge of the site's geology and hydrogeology and the availability of alternative sites. The paper concludes by stressing that a knowledge of Quaternary geology is crucial to both the planning and design of landfill sites in areas of glacial/Quaternary sediments.

  12. Formation and Geological Sequestration of Uranium Nanoparticles in Deep Granitic Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yohey; Mukai, Hiroki; Ishimura, Toyoho; Yokoyama, Takaomi D.; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The stimulation of bacterial activities that convert hexavalent uranium, U(VI), to tetravalent uranium, U(IV), appears to be feasible for cost-effective remediation of contaminated aquifers. However, U(VI) reduction typically results in the precipitation of U(IV) particles less than 5 nanometers in diameter, except for environmental conditions enriched with iron. Because these tiny particles are mobile and susceptible to oxidative dissolution after the termination of nutrient injection, in situ bioremediation remains to be impractical. Here we show that U(IV) nanoparticles of coffinite (U(SiO4)1−x(OH)4x) formed in fracture-filling calcium carbonate in a granitic aquifer. In situ U-Pb isotope dating demonstrates that U(IV) nanoparticles have been sequestered in the calcium carbonate for at least 1 million years. As the microbiologically induced precipitation of calcium carbonate in aquifer systems worldwide is extremely common, we anticipate simultaneous stimulation of microbial activities for precipitation reactions of calcium carbonate and U(IV) nanoparticles, which leads to long-term sequestration of uranium and other radionuclides in contaminated aquifers and deep geological repositories. PMID:26948389

  13. Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Disposal - No New Taxes - 12469

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, James; Wright, Judith

    2012-07-01

    To some, the perceived inability of the United States to dispose of high-level nuclear waste justifies a moratorium on expansion of nuclear power in this country. Instead, it is more an example of how science yields to social pressure, even on a subject as technical as nuclear waste. Most of the problems, however, stem from confusion on the part of the public and their elected officials, not from a lack of scientific knowledge. We know where to put nuclear waste, how to put it there, how much it will cost, and how well it will work. And it's all about the geology. The President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future has drafted a number of recommendations addressing nuclear energy and waste issues (BRC 2011) and three recommendations, in particular, have set the stage for a new strategy to dispose of high-level nuclear waste and to manage spent nuclear fuel in the United States: 1) interim storage for spent nuclear fuel, 2) resumption of the site selection process for a second repository, and 3) a quasi-government entity to execute the program and take control of the Nuclear Waste Fund in order to do so. The first two recommendations allow removal and storage of spent fuel from reactor sites to be used in the future, and allows permanent disposal of actual waste, while the third controls cost and administration. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NPWA 1982) provides the second repository different waste criteria, retrievability, and schedule, so massive salt returns as the candidate formation of choice. The cost (in 2007 dollars) of disposing of 83,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) high-level waste (HLW) is about $ 83 billion (b) in volcanic tuff, $ 29 b in massive salt, and $ 77 b in crystalline rock. Only in salt is the annual revenue stream from the Nuclear Waste Fund more than sufficient to accomplish this program without additional taxes or rate hikes. The cost is determined primarily by the suitability of the geologic formation, i.e., how

  14. Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Formations: What are the Major Remaining Scientific Issues?

    SciTech Connect

    Toulhoat, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    For more than thirty years, considerable efforts have been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of disposing of high level wastes in deep geological formations. Different rock types have been examined, such as water-under-saturated tuffs (USA), granites or crystalline rocks (Canada, Sweden, and Finland), clays (France, Belgium, and Switzerland), rock-salt (Germany). Deep clays and granites, (provided that the most fractured zones are avoided in the second case) are considered to fulfill most allocated functions, either on short term (reversibility) or long term. Chemically reducing conditions favor the immobilization of actinides and most fission products by precipitation, co-precipitation and sorption. If oxidizing conditions prevail, the safety demonstration will mostly rely on the performance of artificial confinement systems. Rock-salt offers limited performance considering the issue of reversibility, which is now perceived as essential, mostly for ethical and sociological reasons. However, several issues would deserve additional research programs, and as a first priority, a clear description of time/space succession of processes during the evolution of the repository. This will allow a better representation of coupled processes in performance assessment, such as the influence of gases (H{sub 2}) generated by corrosion, on the long term dynamics of the re-saturation. Geochemical interactions between the host formation and the engineered systems (packages + barriers) are still insufficiently described. Additional gains in performance could be obtained when taking into account processes such as isotopic exchange. Imaginative solutions, employing ceramic- carbon composite materials could be proposed to replace heavy and gas-generating overpacks, or to accommodate the small but probably significant amount of 'ultimate' wastes that will be inevitably produced by Generation IV reactor systems. (author)

  15. Treatment of uncertainties in the geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cranwell, R.M.

    1985-12-31

    Uncertainty in the analysis of geologic waste disposal is generally considered to have three primary components: (1) computer code/model uncertainty, (2) model parameter uncertainty, and (3) scenario uncertainty. Computer code/model uncertainty arises from problems associated with determination of appropriate parameters for use in model construction, mathematical formulatin of models, and numerical techniques used in conjunction with the mathematical formulation of models. Model parameter uncertainty arises from problems associated with selection of appropriate values for model input, data interpretation and possible misuse of data, and variation of data. Scenario uncertainty arises from problems associated with the "completeness` of scenarios, the definition of parameters which describe scenarios, and the rate or probability of scenario occurrence. The preceding sources of uncertainty are discussed below.

  16. Status of LLNL granite projects

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-12-31

    The status of LLNL Projects dealing with nuclear waste disposal in granitic rocks is reviewed. This review covers work done subsequent to the June 1979 Workshop on Thermomechanical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository and is prepared for the July 1980 Workshop on Thermomechanical-Hydrochemical Modeling for a Hardrock Waste Repository. Topics reviewed include laboratory determination of thermal, mechanical, and transport properties of rocks at conditions simulating a deep geologic repository, and field testing at the Climax granitic stock at the USDOE Nevada Test Site.

  17. Modeling Biogeochemical Reactive Transport in Fractured Granites: Implications for the Performance of a Deep Geological Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinero, J.; Samper, J.; Pedersen, K.; Puigdomenech, I.

    2003-12-01

    Several countries around the world are considering deep repositories in fractured granitic formations for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Evaluating the long term safety of such repositories requires sound conceptual and numerical models which are being developed from data and knowledge gained from in situ experiments carried out at deep underground laboratories such as that of Žsp” in Sweden. One of the key aspects for performance assessment concerns to groundwater redox conditions because: (a) the presence of oxygen will affect to the corrosion of canisters, (b) possible production of hydrogen sulphide from sulphate reduction will also have a negative effect on these metallic containers, and (c) several long-lived radionuclides are much more soluble and mobile under oxidizing conditions. Several projects have been performed at Žsp” to investigate different aspects of the groundwater redox evolution. The vast amount of in situ-generated information has been used in this work to set up coupled hydrobiogeochemical models. Numerical models account for saturated groundwater flow, solute transport by advection, dispersion and molecular diffusion, geochemical reactions involving both the liquid and solid phases, and microbially-catallyzed processes. For the Žsp” site, modelling results provide quantitative support for the following conclusions. (A) At the operational phase of the repository, shallow fresh groundwater could reach the depth of the underground facility. Shallow groundwaters loose dissolved oxygen during the infiltration through soil layers and then, respiration of dissolved organic matter is induced along the flow paths through the reduction of Fe(III)-bearing minerals of the fracture zones. Microbial anaerobic respiration of DOC provides additional reducing capacity at the depth of the tunnel. (B) After repository closure, atmospheric oxygen will remain trapped within the tunnel. Abiotic consumption of this oxygen has been

  18. Reversible Experiments: Putting Geological Disposal to the Test.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Jan Peter

    2016-06-01

    Conceiving of nuclear energy as a social experiment gives rise to the question of what to do when the experiment is no longer responsible or desirable. To be able to appropriately respond to such a situation, the nuclear energy technology in question should be reversible, i.e. it must be possible to stop its further development and implementation in society, and it must be possible to undo its undesirable consequences. This paper explores these two conditions by applying them to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (GD). Despite the fact that considerations of reversibility and retrievability have received increased attention in GD, the analysis in this paper concludes that GD cannot be considered reversible. Firstly, it would be difficult to stop its further development and implementation, since its historical development has led to a point where GD is significantly locked-in. Secondly, the strategy it employs for undoing undesirable consequences is less-than-ideal: it relies on containment of severely radiotoxic waste rather than attempting to eliminate this waste or its radioactivity. And while it may currently be technologically impossible to turn high-level waste into benign substances, GD's containment strategy makes it difficult to eliminate this waste's radioactivity when the possibility would arise. In all, GD should be critically reconsidered if the inclusion of reversibility considerations in radioactive waste management has indeed become as important as is sometimes claimed. PMID:26364214

  19. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW.

  20. Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1995-12-31

    Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

  1. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  2. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like. PMID:25981511

  3. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  4. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  5. Spent fuel test-climax: a test of geologic storage of high-level waste in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.; Ballou, L.B.; Patrick, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A test of retrievable geologic storage of spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor is underway at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) of the US Department of Energy. This generic test is located 420 m below the surface in the Climax granitic stock. Eleven canisters of spent fuel approximately 2.5 years out of reactor core (about 1.6 kW/canister thermal output) were emplaced in a storage drift along with 6 electrical simulator canisters. Two adjacent drifts contain electrical heaters, which are operated to simulate within the test array the thermal field of a large repository. Fuel was loaded during April to May 1980 and initial results of the test will be presented.

  6. Repository size for deep geological disposal of partitioning and transmutation high level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nishihara, Kenji; Nakayama, Shinichi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2007-07-01

    In order to reveal the impact of the partitioning and transmutation (PT) technology on the geological disposal, we investigated the production and disposal of the radioactive wastes from the PT facilities including the dry reprocessing for the spent fuel from accelerator-driven system. After classifying the PT wastes according to the heat generations, the emplacement configurations in the repository were assumed for each group based on the several disposal concepts proposed for the conventional glass waste form. Then, the sizes of the repositories represented by the vault length, emplacement area and excavation volume were estimated. The repository sizes were reduced by PT technology for all disposal concepts. (authors)

  7. Geology and tin-greisen mineralization of the Akash granite, northern Arabian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.; Smith, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The western margin of the postorogenic Akash granite, 30 km E of Ha'il in the northern Arabian Shield, is greisenized and contains anomalous concentrations of Sn. The pluton intrudes metamorphic and intrusive rocks, and crops out as a 10 by 15 km elliptical body with its long axis oriented N. It consists predominantly of metaluminous alkali-feldspar granite or syenogranite, with accessory biotite and muscovite, and traces of fluorite. Greisenization extends discontinuously in a zone at least 3 km long parallel to the western contact, and along E-trending hematitic quartz veins for more than 2 km from the contact. The veins occupy fractures that were probably conduits for ascending mineralizing fluids. Within about 20 m of the contact, they are enclosed in quartz-white mica greisen containing hematite, fluorite, and locally, topaz and cassiterite. Composite chip samples from the greisenized zone have an average Sn content of 710 ppm, and a maximum of 1600 ppm. Anomalous values for Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Bi and Cu also occur, but none of the samples contain detectable W. Three samples of hematitic quartz averaged 126 ppm Sn, and one contained 200 ppm W. ?? 1986.

  8. 3D surface roughness recreation and data processing of granitic rocks and claystones, potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buocz, Ildikó; Török, Ákos; Rozgonyi-Boissinot, Nikoletta

    2015-04-01

    The determination and modelling of the stability of rock slopes, tunnels, or underground spaces, i.e. radioactive waste disposal facilities, is an important task in engineering. The appropriate estimation of the mechanical parameters for a realistic description of the behaviour of rocks results in higher safety and more economic design. The failure of stability is primarily due to the shear failure of the rock masses along fractures and joints: therefore the correct determination of the shear strength is crucial. One of the most important parameters influencing the shear strength along rock joints is their surface roughness. Although the quantification of surface roughness has been an open question during the past century, several attempts have been made, starting with 2D and continuing with 3D measurements, to provide engineers with a method for determining shear strength numerically. As technology evolved, the 3D methods became more popular and several scientists started to investigate the surface properties through laser scanning and different photogrammetrical methods. This paper shows a photogrammetric method for the 3D digital recreation of joint surfaces of granitic rock and claystone, both potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. The rocks derived from Bátaapáti (South Hungary) and Mont Terri (North Switzerland) respectively. The samples are laboratory scaled specimens with an areal size of 50x50 mm. The software used is called ShapeMetrix3D, developed by 3GSM GmbH in Austria. The major steps of the creation of the 3D picture are presented, as well as the following data processing which leads to the quantification of the 3D surface roughness.

  9. Ukranian program of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    SciTech Connect

    Khrushchov, D.P.; Pavlovsky, M.A.; Starodoumov, V.M.

    1996-12-01

    On the initiative of State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization the purposeful investigations in the frames of interinstitutional program `isolation of radioactive waste in geologic formations` has been started in 1998. A preparatory stage of R&D program has been completed.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal; fiscal year 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert; Trask, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research is described according to whether it is related most directly to: (1) High-level and transuranic wastes; (2) Low-level wastes, or (3) Uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, to investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and to studies of regions or environments where waste-disposal sites might be located. A significant part of the activity is concerned with techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and (or) retention of waste radionuclides.

  11. International safeguards relevant to geologic disposal of high-level wastes and spent fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles placed in underground repositories have the potential to become attractive targets for diversion and/or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. The first geologic repository in the US, as currently designed, will contain approximately 500 Mt of plutonium, 60,000 Mt of uranium and a host of other fissile and strategically important elements. This paper identifies some of the international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for disposing of the spent fuel. In the context of the US program for geologic disposal of spent fuels, this paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries, the Department of Energy, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality. Based on US spent fuel discharges, an example is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying spent fuel inventories. The geologic disposal scenario for high-level wastes originating from defense facilities produced a practicably irrecoverable'' waste form. Therefore, safeguards issues for geologic disposal of high-level waste now in the US are less pressing. 56 refs. , 2 figs.

  12. Impacts of a high-burnup spent fuel on a geological disposal system design

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, D.K.; Lee, Y.; Lee, J.Y.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W.

    2007-07-01

    The influence of a burnup increase of a spent nuclear fuel on a deep geological disposal system was evaluated in this study. First, the impact of a burnup increase on each aspect related to thermal and nuclear safety concerns was quantified. And then, the tunnel length, excavation volume, and the raw materials for a cast insert, copper, bentonite, and backfill needed to constitute a disposal system were comprehensively analyzed based on the spent fuel inventory to generate 1 Terawatt-year (TWa), to establish the overall effects and consequences on a geological disposal. As a result, impact of a burnup increase on the criticality safety and radiation shielding was shown to be negligible. The disposal area, however, is considerably affected because of a higher thermal load. And, it is reasonable to use a canister such as the Korean Reference Disposal Canister (KDC-1) containing 4 spent fuels up to 50 GWD/MtU, and to use a canister containing 3 spent fuels beyond 50 GWD/MtU. Although a considerable increased, 33 % in the tunnel length and 30 % in the excavation volume, was observed as the burnup increases from 50 to 60 GWD/MtU, because a decrease in the canister needs can offset an increase in the excavation volume, it can be concluded that a burnup increase of a spent fuel is not a critical concern for a geological disposal of a spent fuel. (authors)

  13. Criticality safety considerations in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; McNair, G.W.; Heaberlin, S.W.

    1980-05-01

    Features of geologic disposal which hamper the demonstration that criticality cannot occur therein include possible changes of shape and form, intrusion of water as a neutron moderator, and selective leaching of spent fuel constituents. If the criticality safety of spent fuel disposal depends on burnup, independent measurements verifying the burnup should be performed prior to disposal. The status of nondestructive analysis method which might provide such verification is discussed. Calculations were performed to assess the potential for increasing the allowed size of a spent fuel disposal canister if potential water intrusion were limited by close-packing the enclosed rods. Several factors were identified which severely limited the potential of this application. The theoretical limit of hexagonal close-packing cannot be achieved due to fuel rod bowing. It is concluded that disposal canisters should be sized on the basis of assumed optimum moderation. Several topics for additional research were identified during this limited study.

  14. Heat transfer analysis of the geologic disposal of spent fuel and high level waste storage canisters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. K.

    1980-08-01

    Near-field temperatures resulting from the storage of high-level waste canisters and spent unreprocessed fuel assembly canisters in geologic formations were determined. Preliminary design of the repository was modeled for a heat transfer computer code, HEATING5, which used the finite difference method to evaluate transient heat transfer. The heat transfer system was evaluated with several two and three dimensional models which transfer heat by a combination of conduction, natural convention, and radiation. Physical properties of the materials in the model were based upon experimental values for the various geologic formations. The effects of canister spacing, fuel age, and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the spent fuel canisters; salt, granite, and basalt were considered as the storage media. The effects of canister diameter and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the high-level waste canisters; salt was considered as the only storage media for high-level waste canisters.

  15. Development of an Environmental Safety Case for a Geological Disposal Facility in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, L.; Clark, H.; Wellstead, M.

    2012-04-01

    Geological disposal is the UK policy for the long-term management of higher activity radioactive waste. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for implementing geological disposal. The implementation process is founded on the principles of voluntarism and partnership and the UK Government has set in place a process that encourages communities to participate in the siting process. Developing an environmental safety case (ESC) that gives confidence that a geological disposal facility (GDF) for higher activity radioactive wastes will remain passively safe for hundreds of thousands of years after the facility has been closed, and is no longer actively maintained, is an important and challenging part of the programme to implement geological disposal. Our approach for building confidence in long-term safety is to use multiple barriers to isolate and contain the wastes and to explain our confidence in the performance of these barriers by developing a multi-factor safety case. We will develop a safety case based on varied and different lines of reasoning, including both quantitative aspects and qualitative arguments. We will use a range of safety arguments to support the ESC, drawing on underpinning science and engineering. We have published a generic ESC (that is not specific to any site or disposal facility design) that considers the long-term safety of illustrative generic disposal facility design examples in stylised geological environments. This generic ESC explains how engineered and natural barriers can work together to isolate and contain the radioactivity in the wastes. The safety arguments in the generic ESC are supported by calculations using a simple model that is illustrative of a broad range of disposal facility designs and geological environments. The generic ESC provides a benchmark enabling us to undertake disposability assessments for waste packages, without

  16. Lessons from Natural Analog Studies for Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    For over fifty years natural analog studies have provided lessons addressing scientific, technical, and social problems concerning geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Idealized concepts for permanent disposal environments evolved from an understanding of the geological, geochemical and hydrological characteristics of analogous rocks including natural salt deposits (as advocated by the US National Academy of Sciences in 1957), ancient cratonic rocks (as investigated at Lac du Bonnet, Canada, Aspö, Sweden, and Vienne, France), and marine sedimentary rock formations (as studied at Mol, Belgium, and Bure, France). Additional multidisciplinary studies have been conducted at natural sites that bear characteristics analogous to potential repository systems, notably at natural uranium (and thorium) deposits including Poços de Caldas, Brazil, Alligator Rivers, Australia, Peña Blanca, Mexico, and Oklo, Gabon. Researchers of natural analogs for geologic disposal have addressed technical uncertainties regarding processes that have transpired over large time and space scales, which are generally inaccessible to laboratory studies. Principal questions for nuclear waste disposal include the geochemical stability and alteration rates of radionuclide bearing minerals and the mechanisms and rates of transport of radionuclides in groundwater. In their most direct applications, natural analogs studies have been devoted to testing specific models for repository performance and the experimental data that support those models. Parameters used in predictive performance assessment modeling have been compared to natural system data, including mineral solubilities, sorption coefficients, diffusion rates, and colloid transport properties. For example, the rate of uraninite oxidation and the natural paragenesis of uranium mineral alteration at Peña Blanca have been compared favorably to results of experimental studies of spent fuel alteration related to the proposed repository

  17. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, F M; Schofield, D I; Shaw, R P; Norris, S

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1millionyears into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. PMID:27457674

  18. The Pan-African high-K calc-alkaline peraluminous Elat granite from southern Israel: geology, geochemistry and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyal, M.; Litvinovsky, B. A.; Katzir, Y.; Zanvilevich, A. N.

    2004-10-01

    Calc-alkaline leucocratic granites that were emplaced at the late post-collision stage of the Pan-African orogeny are abundant in the northern half of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Commonly, they are referred to as the Younger Granite II suite. In southern Israel such rocks are known as Elat granite. Studies of these rocks enable to recognize two types of granites: coarse-grained, massive Elat granite (EG), and fine- to medium-grained Shahmon gneissic granite (SGG). Both granite types are high-K and peraluminous ( ASI ranges from 1.03 to 1.16). They are similar in modal composition, mineral and whole-rock chemistry. Within the EG, a noticeable distinction in whole-rock chemistry and mineral composition is observed between rocks making up different plutons. In particular, the granite of Wadi Shelomo, as compared to the Rehavam pluton, is enriched in SiO 2, FeO∗, K 2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and impoverished in MgO, Na 2O, Sr, and HREE. The Eu/Eu∗ values in the granite are low, up to 0.44. Mass-balance calculations suggest that chemical and mineralogical variations were caused by fractionation of ˜16 wt.% plagioclase from the parental Rehavam granite magma at temperature of 760-800 °C (muscovite-biotite geothermometer). The Rb-Sr isochrons yielded a date of 623 ± 24 Ma for the EG, although high value of age-error does not allow to constrain time of emplacement properly. The Rb-Sr date for SGG is 640 ± 9 Ma; however, it is likely that this date points to the time of metamorphism. A survey of the literature shows that peraluminous, high-K granites, similar to the EG, are abundant among the Younger Granite II plutons in the Sinai Peninsula and Eastern Desert, Egypt. They were emplaced at the end of the batholithic (late post-collision) stage. The most appropriate model for the generation of the peraluminous granitic magma is partial melting of metapelite and metagreywacke.

  19. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part II. Geologic and hydrologic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, K.A.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1985-12-31

    The geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province of the western conterminous United States are characterized in a series of data sets depicted in maps compiled for evaluation of prospective areas for further study of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The data sets include: (1) average precipitation and evaporation; (2) surface distribution of selected rock types; (3) tectonic conditions; and (4) surface- and ground-water hydrology and Pleistocene lakes and marshes. Rocks mapped for consideration as potential host media for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste are widespread and include argillaceous rocks, granitic rocks, tuffaceous rocks, mafic extrusive rocks, evaporites, and laharic breccias. The unsaturated zone, where probably as thick as 150 meters (500 feet), was mapped for consideration as an environment for isolation of high-level waste. Unsaturated rocks of various lithologic types are widespread in the Province. Tectonic stability in the Quaternary Period is considered the key to assessing the probability of future tectonism with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Tectonic conditions are characterized on the basis of the seismic record, heat-flow measurements, the occurrence of Quaternary faults, vertical crustal movement, and volcanic features. Tectonic activity, as indicated by seismicity, is greatest in areas bordering the western margin of the Province in Nevada and southern California, the eastern margin of the Province bordering the Wasatch Mountains in Utah and in parts of the Rio Grande valley. Late Cenozoic volcanic activity is widespread, being greatest bordering the Sierra Nevada in California and Oregon, and bordering the Wasatch Mountains in southern Utah and Idaho. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  20. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary.

  1. MINED GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEM (MGDS) MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEMS CENTRALIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McGrath

    1998-03-31

    The objective of this report is to identify and document Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) requirements for centralized command and control. Additionally, to further develop the MGDS monitoring and control functions. This monitoring and control report provides the following information: (1) Determines the applicable requirements for a monitoring and control system for repository operations and construction (excluding Performance Confirmation). (2) Makes a determination as to whether or not centralized command and control is required.

  2. Effects of shield brine on the safe disposal of waste in deep geologic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.-J.; Sudicky, E. A.; Sykes, J. F.

    2009-08-01

    The salinity of groundwater increases with depth in the Canadian Shield (up to 1.3 kg/L of density). The existence of brine can be critically important for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes, as dense brine can significantly retard the upward migration of radionuclides released from repositories. Static and flushing conditions of the deep brine are analyzed using a U-tube analogy model. Velocity reduction due to the presence of dense brine is derived under flushing conditions. A set of illustrative numerical simulations in a two-dimensional cross section is presented to demonstrate that dense brine can significantly influence regional groundwater flow patterns in a shield environment. It is implied from the results that (1) the existence of Shield brine can be an indicator of a hydrogeologically stable environment, (2) activities near ground surface may not perturb the stable groundwater environment in the deep brine region, and thus, (3) the deep brine region can be considered as a candidate geologic site for the safe disposal of waste. In addition to brine, other issues associated with long-term waste disposal, such as geological, glacial and seismic events, may need to be considered for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel in a shield environment.

  3. Temperature-package power correlations for open-mode geologic disposal concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest L.

    2013-02-01

    Logistical simulation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in the U.S. combines storage, transportation and disposal elements to evaluate schedule, cost and other resources needed for all major operations leading to final geologic disposal. Geologic repository reference options are associated with limits on waste package thermal power output at emplacement, in order to meet limits on peak temperature for certain key engineered and natural barriers. These package power limits are used in logistical simulation software such as CALVIN, as threshold requirements that must be met by means of decay storage or SNF blending in waste packages, before emplacement in a repository. Geologic repository reference options include enclosed modes developed for crystalline rock, clay or shale, and salt. In addition, a further need has been addressed for open modes in which SNF can be emplaced in a repository, then ventilated for decades or longer to remove heat, prior to permanent repository closure. For each open mode disposal concept there are specified durations for surface decay storage (prior to emplacement), repository ventilation, and repository closure operations. This study simulates those steps for several timing cases, and for SNF with three fuel-burnup characteristics, to develop package power limits at which waste packages can be emplaced without exceeding specified temperature limits many years later after permanent closure. The results are presented in the form of correlations that span a range of package power and peak postclosure temperature, for each open-mode disposal concept, and for each timing case. Given a particular temperature limit value, the corresponding package power limit for each case can be selected for use in CALVIN and similar tools.

  4. Reversed mining and reversed-reversed mining: the irrational context of geological disposal of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2000-06-01

    Man does not only extract material from the Earth but increasingly uses the underground for storage and disposal purposes. One of the materials that might be disposed of this way is high-level nuclear waste. The development of safe disposal procedures, the choice of suitable host rocks, and the design of underground facilities have taken much time and money, but commissions in several countries have presented reports showing that — and how — safe geological disposal will be possible in such a way that definite isolation from the biosphere is achieved. Political views have changed in the past few years, however, and there is a strong tendency now to require that the high-level waste disposed of will be retrievable. Considering the underlying arguments for isolation from the biosphere, and also considering waste policy in general, this provides an irrational context. The development of new procedures and the design of new disposal facilities that allow retrieval will take much time again. A consequence may be that the high-active, heat-generating nuclear waste will be stored temporarily for a much longer time than objectively desirable. The delay in disposal and the counterproductive requirement of retrievability are partly due to the fact that earth-science organisations have failed to communicate in the way they should, possibly fearing public (and financial) reactions if taking a position that is (was?) considered as politically incorrect. Such an attitude should not be maintained in modern society, which has the right to be informed reliably by the scientific community.

  5. Proceedings of the Symposium on Uncertainties Associated with the Regulation of the Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocher, D. C.

    1982-03-01

    Technical aspects related to the development of standards for regulating geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste, with particular emphasis on the sources and magnitudes of uncertainties associated with methods for predicting post closure repository performance and potential health risks to future generations are discussed. Important licensing and regulatory issues involved in geologic waste disposal, and the social and political climate in which issues of high level waste management are being debated are also considered.

  6. Bacterial Diversity in Bentonites, Engineered Barrier for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita; Cherkouk, Andrea; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar; Boon, Nico; Sanchez-Castro, Ivan; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2015-11-01

    The long-term disposal of radioactive wastes in a deep geological repository is the accepted international solution for the treatment and management of these special residues. The microbial community of the selected host rocks and engineered barriers for the deep geological repository may affect the performance and the safety of the radioactive waste disposal. In this work, the bacterial population of bentonite formations of Almeria (Spain), selected as a reference material for bentonite-engineered barriers in the disposal of radioactive wastes, was studied. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based approaches were used to study the bacterial community of the bentonite samples by traditional clone libraries and Illumina sequencing. Using both techniques, the bacterial diversity analysis revealed similar results, with phylotypes belonging to 14 different bacterial phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia and an unknown phylum. The dominant groups of the community were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A high diversity was found in three of the studied samples. However, two samples were less diverse and dominated by Betaproteobacteria. PMID:26024740

  7. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. The geology and hydrogeology of Bear Creek Valley Waste Disposal Areas A and B

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-01

    A study was undertaken of the Oil Landfarm and Burial Grounds A and B, which are three disposal sites within the Bear Creek Waste Disposal Area. The area is located west of the Y-12 plant, about 3 miles southwest of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this interim report is to present data collected at the Burial Grounds A and B, and to provide the results of hydrogeologic analyses. The Oil Landfarm geologic and hydrogeologic data and analyses have been submitted in a January 1984 interim report. The overall objectives of the study were to characterize the types and extent of wastes present and to define the occurrence and movement of ground water beneath the sites. The intention of this work is to provide criteria on which a design for containing the waste can be developed. Specific activities performed by Bechtel included: drilling for subsurface geologic data; installing monitoring wells; measuring permeability and ground-water flow directions; and collecting soil, sediment, surface- and ground-water, and liquid-waste samples for chemical analysis. Results are presented on the geology and ground waters.

  9. Microbial reduction of Fe(III) under alkaline conditions relevant to geological disposal.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adam J; Morris, Katherine; Shaw, Sam; Byrne, James M; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether biologically mediated Fe(III) reduction is possible under alkaline conditions in systems of relevance to geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a series of microcosm experiments was set up using hyperalkaline sediments (pH ~11.8) surrounding a legacy lime working site in Buxton, United Kingdom. The microcosms were incubated for 28 days and held at pH 10. There was clear evidence for anoxic microbial activity, with consumption of lactate (added as an electron donor) concomitant with the reduction of Fe(III) as ferrihydrite (added as the electron acceptor). The products of microbial Fe(III) reduction were black and magnetic, and a range of analyses, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism confirmed the extensive formation of biomagnetite in this system. The addition of soluble exogenous and endogenous electron shuttles such as the humic analogue anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate and riboflavin increased both the initial rate and the final extent of Fe(III) reduction in comparison to the nonamended experiments. In addition, a soluble humic acid (Aldrich) also increased both the rate and the extent of Fe(III) reduction. These results show that microbial Fe(III) reduction can occur in conditions relevant to a geological disposal facility containing cement-based wasteforms that has evolved into a high pH environment over prolonged periods of time (>100,000 years). The potential impact of such processes on the biogeochemistry of a geological disposal facility is discussed, including possible coupling to the redox conditions and solubility of key radionuclides. PMID:23524677

  10. Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) under Alkaline Conditions Relevant to Geological Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Adam J.; Morris, Katherine; Shaw, Sam; Byrne, James M.; Boothman, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether biologically mediated Fe(III) reduction is possible under alkaline conditions in systems of relevance to geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a series of microcosm experiments was set up using hyperalkaline sediments (pH ∼11.8) surrounding a legacy lime working site in Buxton, United Kingdom. The microcosms were incubated for 28 days and held at pH 10. There was clear evidence for anoxic microbial activity, with consumption of lactate (added as an electron donor) concomitant with the reduction of Fe(III) as ferrihydrite (added as the electron acceptor). The products of microbial Fe(III) reduction were black and magnetic, and a range of analyses, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism confirmed the extensive formation of biomagnetite in this system. The addition of soluble exogenous and endogenous electron shuttles such as the humic analogue anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate and riboflavin increased both the initial rate and the final extent of Fe(III) reduction in comparison to the nonamended experiments. In addition, a soluble humic acid (Aldrich) also increased both the rate and the extent of Fe(III) reduction. These results show that microbial Fe(III) reduction can occur in conditions relevant to a geological disposal facility containing cement-based wasteforms that has evolved into a high pH environment over prolonged periods of time (>100,000 years). The potential impact of such processes on the biogeochemistry of a geological disposal facility is discussed, including possible coupling to the redox conditions and solubility of key radionuclides. PMID:23524677

  11. Summary of key directives governing permanent disposal in a geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, S.C. III

    1993-11-01

    This document was developed in support of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP). It is largely comprised of flow diagrams summarizing the key regulatory requirements which govern permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The key purposes are (1) to provide an easy and effective tool for referencing or cross referencing federal directives (i.e., regulations and orders), (2) to provide a method for examining the requirements in one directive category against the requirements in another, and (3) to list actions that must be taken to ensure directive compliance. The document is categorically broken down into a Transportation section and a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) section to ensure that the interrelationship of the entire disposal system is considered. The Transportation section describes the transportation packaging requirements, testing methods, and safety requirements imposed on fissile material shipments. The MGDS section encompasses technical aspects involved in siting, licensing, waste interaction with the container, container design features, physical characteristics of the surrounding environment, facility design features, barrier systems, safety features, criticality considerations, migration restrictions, implementation guidelines, and so forth. For purposes of illustration, the worst case scenario is outlined. It is important that the approaches and considerations contained in this document be integrated into the efforts of the SF&WMTDP so that every applicable aspect of the regulatory requirements can be evaluated to avoid investing large sums of money into projects that do not take into account all of the aspects of permanent waste disposal. Not until an overall picture and clear understanding of these regulations is established can a basis be developed to govern the direction of future activities of the SF&WMTDP.

  12. EC MoDeRn Project: In-situ Demonstration of Innovative Monitoring Technologies for Geological Disposal - 12053

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, B.J.; Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Mayer, S.; Schroeder, T.J.; Verstricht, J.

    2012-07-01

    Monitoring to provide information on the evolution of geological disposal presents several challenges. The 4-year, euros M 5, EC MoDeRn Project (http://www.modern-fp7.eu/), which commenced in 2009, addresses monitoring processes, state-of-the-art technology and innovative research and development of monitoring techniques. This paper discusses some of the key drivers for the development of innovative monitoring techniques and provides outlines of the demonstration programmes being conducted within MoDeRn. The aim is to develop these innovative monitoring techniques and to demonstrate them under realistic conditions present in underground laboratories. These demonstration projects, applying a range of different monitoring techniques, are being carried out at underground research facilities in different geological environments at HADES URL in Belgium (plastic clay), Bure in France (indurated clay) and at Grimsel Test Site (granite) in Switzerland. These are either built upon existing infrastructure (EC ESDRED Low pH shotcrete and TEM experiments at Grimsel; and PRACLAY experiment and underground galleries in HADES) or will be attached to infrastructure that is being developed and financed by resources outside of this project (mock-up disposal cell in Bure). At Grimsel Test Site, cross-hole and hole-to-tunnel seismic methods are being employed as a means to monitor induced changes in an artificially saturated bentonite wall confined behind a shotcrete plug. Recognising the limitations for travel-time tomography for monitoring a disposal cell, full waveform inversion techniques are being employed to enhance the capacity to monitor remote from the excavation. At the same Grimsel location, an investigation will be conducted of the potential for using a high frequency wireless (HFW) sensor network embedded within the barrier system; this will include the possibility of providing energy remotely to isolated sensors. At the HADES URL, the monitoring programme will utilise

  13. Development of Wireless Data Transmission System for the Monitoring in Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12063

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kei; Eto, Jiro; Tanabe, Hiromi; Esaki, Taichi; Takamura, Hisashi; Suyama, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    The authors have been developing a wireless data transmission system to monitor the performance of a geological disposal system for radioactive waste. The system's concepts, advantages, and a recent development focused on reducing transmitter size to suit narrow spaces such as bentonite buffers and boreholes. A wireless transmitter with a built-in temperature sensor and a connector for external sensors has been developed, measuring 130 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter. The capability of the transmitter was confirmed by transmission tests on the ground and in a bentonite block. (authors)

  14. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  15. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C.

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  16. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  17. The consideration of geological uncertainty in the siting process for a Geological Disposal Facility for radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; McEvoy, Fiona; Shaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Any decision about the site of a Geological Disposal Facility at depth for medium to high level radioactive waste is based on a safety case which in turn is based on an understanding of the geological environment which enables, for example, understanding groundwater flows and groundwater chemical composition. Because the information on which geological understanding is based cannot be fully understood, it is important to ensure that: i. Inferences are made from data in a way that is consistent with the data. ii. The uncertainty in the inferred information is described, quantitatively where this is appropriate. Despite these uncertainties decisions can and must be made, and so the implications of the uncertainty need to be understood and quantified. To achieve this it is important to ensure that: i. An understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools. Information which is collected to support the decision-making process may be used as input into models of various kinds to generate further information. For example, a process model may be used to predict groundwater flows, so uncertainty in the properties which are input to the model (e.g. on rock porosity and structure) will give rise to uncertainty in the model predictions. Understanding how this happens is called the analysis of error propagation. It is important that there is an understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools, and therefore knowledge of how much uncertainty remains in the process at any stage. As successive phases of data collection take place the analysis of error propagation shows how the uncertainty in key model outputs is gradually reduced. ii. The implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. A clear analysis of the decision-making process is necessary so that the implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. This means that, when a final decision is made, one can state with a high level of confidence

  18. Analytical model for radionuclide transport in the buffer zone of the deep geological disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, L. D.; Chen, J. S.; Li, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    Radioactive nuclear waste poses long-term threat to human beings and the environment because that remains radioactive after millions of years. Therefore, radioactive wastes must be isolated from the living environment for millennia. A deep geological disposal entails a combination of four parts: vitrified waste form, imaginary zone, buffer zone and excavation-affected zone. The buffer zone constituted by bentonite clay provides a high level of containment of the radioactivity in the wastes over a very long time period. Analytical solution is an efficient tool for the performance evaluation of the buffer zone. This study develops a new analytical model to diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinate for describing radionuclide transport in the buffer zone. The derived solution is compared against the previous solution to illustrate the validity of previous solution which was derived using a diffusion equation in Cartesian coordinates.

  19. Geotechnical, geological, and selected radionuclide retention characteristics of the radioactive waste disposal site near the Farallon Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Poppe, L.J.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A geotechnical and geological investigation of the Farallon Islands low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal area was conducted to qualitatively assess the host sediments' relative effectiveness as a barrier to radionuclide migration, to estimate the portion of the barrier that is in contact with the waste packages at the three primary disposal sites, and to provide a basic physical description of the sediments. Box cores recovered from within the general disposal area at depths of 500, 1000, and 1500 m were subcored to provide samples (~30 cm in length) for detailed descriptions, textural and mineralogical analyses, and a suite of geotechnical tests (index property, CRS consolidation, and CIU triaxial compression). -from Authors

  20. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agency's 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  1. Performance assessment for the geological disposal of Deep Burn spent fuel using TTBX

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Akker, B.P.; Ahn, J.

    2013-07-01

    The behavior of Deep Burn Modular High Temperature Reactor Spent Fuel (DBSF) is investigated in the Yucca Mountain geological repository (YMR) with respect to the annual dose (Sv/yr) delivered to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) from the transport of radionuclides released from the graphite waste matrix. Transport calculations are performed with a novel computer code, TTBX which is capable of modeling transport pathways that pass through heterogeneous geological formations. TTBX is a multi-region extension of the existing single region TTB transport code. Overall the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is seen to be four orders of magnitude lower than the regulatory threshold for exposure, even under pessimistic scenarios. A number of factors contribute to the favorable performance of DBSF. A reduction of one order of magnitude in the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is observed for every order of magnitude increase in the waste matrix lifetime, highlighting the importance of the waste matrix durability and suggesting graphite's utility as a potential waste matrix for the disposal of high-level waste. Furthermore, we see that by incorporating a higher fidelity far-field model the peak annual dose calculated to be received by the RMEI is reduced by two orders of magnitude. By accounting for the heterogeneities of the far field we have simultaneously removed unnecessary conservatisms and improved the fidelity of the transport model. (authors)

  2. Birds of a Feather - Developments towards shared, regional geological disposal in the EU?

    SciTech Connect

    Codee, H.D.K.; Verhoef, E.V.; McCombie, Ch.

    2008-07-01

    Geological disposal is an essential component of the long-term management of spent fuel, high level and other long-lived radioactive waste. In the EU, all 25 member states generate radioactive waste. Of course, there are large differences in type and quantity between the member states, but all of them need a long-term solution. Even a country with only lightning rods with radium will need a long-term solution for the disposal. The 1600 year half-life of radium does not fit in a solution with a span of control of just a few hundred years. Implementation of a suitable deep repository may, however, be difficult or impossible for countries with small volumes of waste, because of the high costs involved. Will economy of scale force these birds of a feather to wait to flock together and share a repository? Implementing a small repository and operating it for very long times is very costly. There are past and current examples of countries being prepared to accept radioactive waste from others if a better environmental solution is thus achieved and if the arrangements are fair for all parties involved. The need for supranational surveillance also points to shared solutions. Although the European Parliament and the Commission have both supported the concept of shared regional repositories in Europe, (national) political and societal constraints have hampered the realization of such facilities up to now. The first step in this staged process was the EC funded project, SAPIERR I. The project (2003 to 2005) studied the feasibility of shared regional storage facilities and geological repositories, for use by European countries. It showed that, if shared regional repositories are to be implemented even some decades ahead, efforts must already be increased now. The next step in the process is to develop a practical implementation strategy and organizational structures to work on shared EU radioactive waste storage and disposal activities. This is addressed in the EC funded

  3. Groundwater study using drill holes in the Abukuma granitic province, NE Japan: chemical and isotopic features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H. A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic features of groundwater in a granitic province are considered to be controlled by water origin, water-rock reaction and/or fracture connection in rocks. Under the depth of a weathering layer, groundwater is existed only in cracks of granite, and its chemical nature or origin has been poorly understood because of difficulties on collection of water samples preserving its natural conditions. On the other hand, a geological tectonic line in a granitic province might provide an influence to groundwater as a path for ascending deep fluid. We conducted a study for chemical processes of groundwater in cracks with investigation of an influence of tectonic line by drilling three bore holes at two sites in a same rock body; Miharu site is located ca. 1.2km west from the Morioka-Shirakawa tectonic line, and Shirasawa site is ca. 5km west. In situ sampling of waters in cracks of granite are done with the single and double packer methods. The drill holes were made 305m and 135m at the Miharu site and 230m at the Shirasawa site. Using these bole holes, groundwater features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line can be compared with those outside it. Chemical type of groundwater has a variety with depth; the shallower groundwater is categorized as Ca-HCO3- type with slight NO3 contamination whereas deeper groundwater has Na-HCO3- type. Stable isotope composition of water showed that all the sample water is meteoric origin. Those have significantly low values (ca. 10‰ of δD lower than shallow groundwater) obviously indicating that the groundwater does not originate from the present meteoric water. Groundwater with low δD and δ18O values is likely recharged in an ice age consistent with the 14C date showing the age of carbon ranging from 10000 to 15000 yrBP. The vertical trends of chemical and isotopic components are similar between the two holes at the Miharu site, but different between the two sites, Miharu and Shirasawa. The

  4. Geologic, hydrologic, and cultural factors in the selection of sites for the land disposal of wastes in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Alvord, R.C.; Olson, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a program to deal with the problems of waste disposal in Washington, the Department of Ecology (WDOE), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, completed a study designed to provide the geologic, hydrologic, and cultural data needed to evaluate the suitability of State land areas for the disposal of wastes. Data portraying the distribution of factors that could affect the suitability of areas in Washington for waste disposal were presented in a series of 18 maps (overlays). The factors selected include major geologic units; natural hazards from earthquakes, faulting, and volcanoes; climate; locations of major surface-water and groundwater bodies; population density; and land and water uses. Within each factor (map) the data were grouped into class intervals and the intervals for most factors ranked according to their relative suitability/unsuitability for land disposal of wastes following criteria supplied by WDOE. Areas of the State considered completely unsuitable (as determined by WDOE personnel) for waste disposal because of current or proposed land uses were excluded from ranking. (USGS)

  5. Generation and stability of bentonite colloids at the bentonite/granite interface of a deep geological radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Úrsula; Turrero, Maria Jesús

    2003-03-01

    The possible mechanisms of colloid generation at the near field/far field interface of a radioactive repository have been investigated by means of novel column experiments simulating the granite/bentonite boundary, both in dynamic and in quasi-static water flow conditions. It has been shown that solid particles and colloids can be detached from the bulk and mobilised by the water flow. The higher the flow rate, the higher the concentration of particles found in the water, according to an erosion process. However, the gel formation and the intrinsic tactoid structure of the clay play an important role in the submicron particle generation even in the compacted clay and in a confined system. In fact, once a bentonite gel is formed, in the regions where the clay is contacted with water, clay colloids can be formed even in quasi-static flow conditions. The potential relevance of these colloids in radionuclide transport has been studied by evaluating their stability in different chemical environments. The coagulation kinetics of natural bentonite colloids was experimentally studied as a function of the ionic strength and pH, by means of time-resolved light scattering techniques. It has been shown that these colloids are very stable in low saline (˜1×10 -3 M) and alkaline (pH≥8) waters.

  6. Generation and stability of bentonite colloids at the bentonite/granite interface of a deep geological radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Missana, Tiziana; Alonso, Ursula; Turrero, Maria Jesús

    2003-03-01

    The possible mechanisms of colloid generation at the near field/far field interface of a radioactive repository have been investigated by means of novel column experiments simulating the granite/bentonite boundary, both in dynamic and in quasi-static water flow conditions. It has been shown that solid particles and colloids can be detached from the bulk and mobilised by the water flow. The higher the flow rate, the higher the concentration of particles found in the water, according to an erosion process. However, the gel formation and the intrinsic tactoid structure of the clay play an important role in the submicron particle generation even in the compacted clay and in a confined system. In fact, once a bentonite gel is formed, in the regions where the clay is contacted with water, clay colloids can be formed even in quasi-static flow conditions. The potential relevance of these colloids in radionuclide transport has been studied by evaluating their stability in different chemical environments. The coagulation kinetics of natural bentonite colloids was experimentally studied as a function of the ionic strength and pH, by means of time-resolved light scattering techniques. It has been shown that these colloids are very stable in low saline (approximately 1 x 10(-3) M) and alkaline (pH > or = 8) waters. PMID:12598091

  7. Retention of Anionic Species on Granite: Influence of Granite Composition - 12129

    SciTech Connect

    Videnska, Katerina; Havlova, Vaclava

    2012-07-01

    Technetium (Tc-99, T{sub 1/2} = 2.1.10{sup 5} yrs) and selenium (Se-79, T{sub 1/2} = 6.5.10{sup 4} yrs) belong among fission products, being produced by fission of nuclear fuel. Both elements can significantly contribute to risk due to their complicated chemistry, long life times, high mobility and prevailing anionic character. Therefore, knowledge of migration behaviour under different conditions can significantly improve input into performance and safety assessment models. Granite is considered as a potential host rock for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in many countries. Granitic rocks consist usually of quartz, feldspar, plagioclase (main components), mica, chlorite, kaolinite (minor components). The main feature of the rock is advection governed transport in fractures, complemented with diffusion process from fracture towards undisturbed rock matrix. The presented work is focused on interaction of anionic species (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) with granitic rock. Furthermore, the importance of mineral composition on sorption of anionic species was also studied. The batch sorption experiments were conducted on the crushed granite from Bohemian Massive. Five fractions with defined grain size were used for static batch method. Mineral composition of each granitic fraction was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. The results showed differences in composition of granitic fractions, even though originating from one homogenized material. Sorption experiments showed influence of granite composition on adsorption of both TcO4{sup -} and SeO3{sup 2-} on granitic rock. Generally, Se(IV) showed higher retention than Tc(VII). Se(VI) was not almost sorbed at all. Fe containing minerals are pronounced as a selective Se and Tc sorbent, being reduced on their surface. As micas in granite are usually enriched in Fe, increased sorption of anionic species onto mica enriched fractions can be explained by this reason. On the other hand

  8. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  9. Microbiology and Biogeochemical Study of Underground Research Tunnel for the Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y.; Oh, J.; Seo, H.; Rhee, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Underground Research Tunnel (URT) located in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, South Korea was recently constructed as an experimental site to study radionuclide transport, biogeochemistry, radionuclide-mineral interactions for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. Groundwater sampled from URT was used to examine microbial diversity and to enrich metal reducing bacteria for studying microbe- metal interactions. Genomic analysis indicated that the groundwater contained diverse microorganisms such as metal reducers, metal oxidizers, anaerobic denitrifying bacteria, and bacteria for reductive dechlorination. Metal- reducing bacteria enriched from the groundwater was used to study metal reduction and biomineralization. The metal-reducing bacteria enriched with acetate or lactate as the electron donors showed the bacteria reduced Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, Mn(IV) oxide, and Cr(VI) as the electron acceptors. Preliminary study indicated that the enriched bacteria were able to use glucose, lactate, acetate, and hydrogen as electron donors while reducing Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III) oxyhydroxide as the electron acceptor. The bacteria exhibited diverse mineral precipitation capabilities including the formation of magnetite, siderite, and rhodochrosite. The results indicated that Fe(III)- and metal-reducing communities are present in URT at the KAERI.

  10. Geological setting and petrogenesis of symmetrically zoned, miarolitic granitic pegmatites at Stak Nala, Nanga Parbat - Haramosh Massif, northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laurs, B.M.; Dilles, J.H.; Wairrach, Y.; Kausar, A.B.; Snee, L.W.

    1998-01-01

    Miarolitic granitic pegmatites in the Stak valley in the northeast part of the Nanga Parbat - Haramosh Massif, in northern Pakistan, locally contain economic quantities of bi- and tricolored tourmaline. The pegmatites form flat-lying sills that range from less than 1 m to more than 3 m thick and show symmetrical internal zonation. A narrow outer or border zone of medium-to coarse-grained oligoclase - K-feldspar - quartz grades inward to a very coarse-grained wall zone characterized by K-feldspar - oligoclase - quartz - schorl tourmaline. Radiating sprays of schorl and flaring megacrysts of K-feldspar (intermediate microcline) point inward, indicating progressive crystallization toward the core. The core zone consists of variable mixtures of blocky K-feldspar (intermediate microcline), oligoclase, quartz, and sparse schorl or elbaite, with local bodies of sodic aplite and miarolitic cavities or "pockets". Minor spessartine-almandine garnet and lo??llingite are disseminated throughout the pegmatite, but were not observed in the pockets. The pockets contain well-formed crystals of albite, quartz, K-feldspar (maximum microcline ?? orthoclase overgrowths), schorl-elbaite tourmaline, muscovite or lepidolite, topaz, and small amounts of other minerals. Elbaite is color-zoned from core to rim: green (Fe2+- and Mn2+-bearing), colorless (Mn2+-bearing), and light pink (trace Mn3+). Within ???10 cm of the pegmatites, the granitic gneiss wallrock is bleached owing to conversion of biotite to muscovite, with local quartz and albite added. Schorl is disseminated through the altered gneiss, and veins of schorl with bleached selvages locally traverse the wallrock up to 1 m from the pegmatite contact. The schorl veins can be traced into the outer part of the wall zone, which suggests that they formed from aqueous fluids derived during early saturation of the pegmatite-forming leucogranitic magma rich in H2O, F, B, and Li. Progressive crystallization resulted in a late-stage sodic

  11. Monte Carlo simulations for generic granite repository studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Shaoping; Lee, Joon H; Wang, Yifeng

    2010-12-08

    In a collaborative study between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the DOE-NE Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign project, we have conducted preliminary system-level analyses to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A general modeling framework consisting of a near- and a far-field submodel for a granite GDSE was developed. A representative far-field transport model for a generic granite repository was merged with an integrated systems (GoldSim) near-field model. Integrated Monte Carlo model runs with the combined near- and farfield transport models were performed, and the parameter sensitivities were evaluated for the combined system. In addition, a sub-set of radionuclides that are potentially important to repository performance were identified and evaluated for a series of model runs. The analyses were conducted with different waste inventory scenarios. Analyses were also conducted for different repository radionuelide release scenarios. While the results to date are for a generic granite repository, the work establishes the method to be used in the future to provide guidance on the development of strategy for long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a granite repository.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E.; Serne, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Peters, R.; Williford, R.E.

    1987-09-01

    This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.

  13. Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Neerdael, Bernard

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify conditions which affect public concern (either increase or decrease) and political acceptance for developing and implementing programmes for geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also looks how citizens and relevant actors can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input is enriching the outcome towards a more socially robust and sustainable solution. Finally, it aims at learning from the interaction how to optimise risk management addressing needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. In order to meet these objectives, factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified, described and analysed. Subsequently these factors are looked for in the real world of nuclear waste management through cases in several countries. The analysis is conducted for six stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realisation of the repository itself. The diversity of characteristics of such contexts increases insight in the way society and values of reference are influencing technological decision making. These interrelated factors need to be integrated in step by step decision making processes as emerging the last years in HLW disposal management. In the conclusions, the effect of each factor on acceptance is derived from the empirical record. In the course of carrying out this analysis, it became clear that acceptance had a different meaning in the first three stages of the process, more generic and therefore mainly discussed at policy level and the other stages, by nature more site-specific, and therefore requesting both public and political acceptance. Experience as clearly addressed in this report has shown that a feasible solution has its technical dimension but that 'an acceptable solution' always will have a combined technical and social dimension. If the paper provides tentative answers

  14. International Socio-Technical Challenges for Geological Disposal (InSOTEC): Project Aims and Preliminary Results - 12236

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmans, Anne; Schroeder, Jantine; Simmons, Peter; Barthe, Yannick; Meyer, Morgan; Sundqvist, Goeran; Martell, Merixell; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate

    2012-07-01

    InSOTEC is a social sciences research project which aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in radioactive waste management and, in particular, in the design and implementation of geological disposal. It currently investigates and analyses the most striking socio-technical challenges to implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste in 14 national programs. A focus is put on situations and issues where the relationship between the technical and social components is still unstable, ambiguous and controversial, and where negotiations are taking place in terms of problem definitions and preferred solutions. Such negotiations can vary from relatively minor contestation, over mild commotion, to strong and open conflicts. Concrete examples of socio-technical challenges are: the question of siting, introducing the notion of reversibility / retrievability into the concept of geological disposal, or monitoring for confidence building. In a second stage the InSOTEC partners aim to develop a fine-grained understanding of how the technical and the social influence, shape, build upon each other in the case of radioactive waste management and the design and implementation of geological disposal. How are socio-technical combinations in this field translated and materialized into the solutions finally adopted? With what kinds of tools and instruments are they being integrated? Complementary to providing better theoretical insight into these socio-technical challenges/combinations, InSOTEC aims to provide concrete suggestions on how to address these within national and international contexts. To this end, InSOTEC will deliver insights into how mechanisms for interaction between the technical community and a broad range of socio-political actors could be developed. (authors)

  15. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part III. Geologic and hydrologic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Brady, B.T.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the first phase in evaluating the geology and hydrology of the Basin and Range Province for potential suitability of geohydrologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media. The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About one-half of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study. The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  16. A tree diagram for compiling a methodology to evaluate suitability of host rock for geological disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayano, A.; Sawada, A.; Goto, J.; Ishii, E.; Moriya, T.; Inagaki, M.; Kubota, S.; Ebashi, T.

    2012-12-01

    In Japan, the Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act states that the siting process of geological repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived nuclides (TRU waste) shall consist of three stages. In the first stage, the Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs) will be selected by excluding these areas where future significant impacts of natural phenomena such as volcanism and rock deformation are expected based on literature information. The Detailed Investigation Areas (DIAs) will be then selected in the second stage among PIAs focusing on suitability of the host rock where the underground facility is constructed, as well as confirming the results of the first stage through a series of surface-based field activities such as regional geophysics and borehole investigations. The suitability of the host rock is evaluated taking account of thermal, hydrologic, mechanical and geochemical conditions and the volume of host rock, based on the site descriptive models which are constructed by integrating geoscientific information obtained from step-wise investigations. However, due to the limitation of such information in particular in the early stages of investigation, the relatively large uncertainties are associated with the developed site descriptive models. In addition, the integration of above-mentioned multi-disciplinary site investigation information into a site descriptive model is very complex task. It is therefore essential to clarify relationships between the important factors for both safety assessment (SA) and repository design (Design) and the information obtained by the site investigations via site descriptive models. Taking this into account, we have developed a method for evaluating the suitability of the host rock by linking site investigations, SA and Design. In this method, special attention has been paid to uncertainties associated with the site descriptive models and the degree

  17. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of waste management and disposal; a bibliography of publications by U.S. Geological Survey authors, 1950-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.

    1983-01-01

    References to more than 550 reports, articles, and maps are listed alphabetically by author and are indexed by subject. The subject index includes geographic-area terms. Citations from 69 series are included; series are listed separately. The publications listed report the results of U.S. Geological Survey research and field projects throughout the Nation concerning earth-science aspects of waste management and disposal. They include organic, inorganic, and radioactive wastes and related topics such as mathematical models of solute transport. Most of the references are to (1) Geological Survey report series such as Water-Supply Papers, Professional Papers, Bulletins, Circulars, Water-Resources Investigations, and Open-File Reports, (2) technical journals of professional organizations, or (3) reports by other Federal and State agencies.

  18. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10-30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of magnitude. Hydraulic tests in deeper boreholes (test intervals below 300 m) yielded hydraulic conductivities <10-12 m/s, even though joints and faults were included in some of the test intervals. These measurements are consistent with hydrogeological data from Opalinus Clay sections in ten tunnels in the Folded Jura of northern Switzerland. Despite extensive faulting, only a few indications of minor water inflow were encountered in more than 6,600 m of tunnel. All inflows were in tunnel sections where the overburden is less than 200 m. The hydraulic data are consistent with clay pore-water hydrochemical and isotopic data. The extensive hydrogeological data base - part of which derives from particularly unfavourable geological environments - provides arguments that advective transport through faults and joints is not a critical issue for the suitability of Opalinus Clay as a host rock for deep geological waste disposal. Résumé. Dans le cadre du programme suisse de stockage de déchets hautement radioactifs, une formation argileuse du Jurassique, l'argile à Opalinus, a été étudiée en tant que roche hôte potentielle. Des observations dans des cavités dans l'argile et les résultats du programme de recherche allemand consacré au stockage de déchets à risques ont démontré que, à des profondeur de 10 à 30 m, la perméabilité des argiles à Opalinus décroît de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. Des essais hydrauliques dans des forages plus profonds (intervalles de test á une profondeur de plus de 300 m) ont donné des conductivités hydrauliques inférieures à 10-12 m/s, m

  19. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10-30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of magnitude. Hydraulic tests in deeper boreholes (test intervals below 300 m) yielded hydraulic conductivities <10-12 m/s, even though joints and faults were included in some of the test intervals. These measurements are consistent with hydrogeological data from Opalinus Clay sections in ten tunnels in the Folded Jura of northern Switzerland. Despite extensive faulting, only a few indications of minor water inflow were encountered in more than 6,600 m of tunnel. All inflows were in tunnel sections where the overburden is less than 200 m. The hydraulic data are consistent with clay pore-water hydrochemical and isotopic data. The extensive hydrogeological data base - part of which derives from particularly unfavourable geological environments - provides arguments that advective transport through faults and joints is not a critical issue for the suitability of Opalinus Clay as a host rock for deep geological waste disposal. Résumé. Dans le cadre du programme suisse de stockage de déchets hautement radioactifs, une formation argileuse du Jurassique, l'argile à Opalinus, a été étudiée en tant que roche hôte potentielle. Des observations dans des cavités dans l'argile et les résultats du programme de recherche allemand consacré au stockage de déchets à risques ont démontré que, à des profondeur de 10 à 30 m, la perméabilité des argiles à Opalinus décroît de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. Des essais hydrauliques dans des forages plus profonds (intervalles de test á une profondeur de plus de 300 m) ont donné des conductivités hydrauliques inférieures à 10-12 m/s, m

  20. Evaluation of a method for designing sealing plugs for HLW geological disposal facilities, taking into account the heterogeneous characteristics of the geological environment

    SciTech Connect

    Suyama, Yasuhiro; Yanagizawa, Koichi; Toida, Masaru

    2007-07-01

    In order to ensure that a repository for the geological disposal of HLW is isolated from the human environment, underground excavations, including pits and tunnels, must be properly sealed. Effective sealing requires that these excavations are backfilled, and that the Excavation Damage or Disturbed Zone (EDZ), which includes preferential flow paths, must be intersected by sealing plugs. Methods for constructing a full-scale sealing plug and their influence on plug performance were evaluated and confirmed by a Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX). This experiment was carried out by an international partnership of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). However certain specific roles of the scaling plugs at the scale of the whole repository were not studied. There remain issues to be clarified, notably the effectiveness of sealing plugs in a geological environment with heterogeneous characteristics and the resulting influences of the heterogeneities in performance assessment. Focusing on a geological environment with spatially heterogeneous characteristics, the authors have developed a method for designing the sealing plugs, based on a concept of 'primarily design for closure, secondarily design for construction'. Though the proposed method for designing sealing plugs has presently been developed only at a conceptual level, it indicates the possibility of establishing a repository even in a strongly heterogeneous geological environment that may have been considered previously to be inappropriate for a repository. (authors)

  1. A Methodology for Characterizing Potential Uranium Transport in Deep Geological Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reimus, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    In order to make safe and reasonable decisions about radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic sites, it is important to understand the fate and potential transport of long half-life transuranic radionuclides over a wide range of time and distance scales. The objective of this study was to evaluate and demonstrate new experimental methods for quantifying the potential for actinide transport in deep fractured crystalline rock formations. We selected a fractured/weathered granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model system because field experiments involving uranium, as well as other actinides, have already been conducted. Working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experimental results with field-scale observations. Drilled rock cores and weathered fracture fill material (FFM) from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy, and used in batch sorption/desorption and column breakthrough experiments. Uranium solutions were made by adding uranium to a synthetic Grimsel groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry found in the GTS groundwater. Batch and breakthrough experiments were conducted using solutions between pH 6.9 and 9.0. All column experiments were conducted using syringe pumps at low flow rate (<0.3 ml h-1) in small columns containing 5 g of material with pore volumes of 2-3 ml. These small columns allow rapid and economical evaluation of sorption/desorption behavior under flowing conditions (and in duplicate or triplicate). Solutions were switched to uranium-free synthetic Grimsel groundwater after equilibration in batch experiments or after near-steady uranium breakthrough occurred in column experiments. The measurement of uranium concentrations as a function of time under these conditions allowed interrogation of desorption rates which we believe control uranium fate and transport over long time and distance scales. Uranium transport

  2. Interpretation and Modelling of Data from Site Investigations for a Geological Disposal facility located in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, H.; Bailey, L.; Parkes, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for implementing geological disposal in the United Kingdom. The implementation process envisaged is that once a candidate site or sites for a geological disposal facility have been identified, NDA-RWMD will undertake surface-based investigations at the site or sites. The information acquired through these investigations would be used as an input to the development of the safety case, for engineering design of the disposal facility and to demonstrate confidence to the key stakeholders that the potential disposal facility site is adequately understood. NDA-RWMD proposes to develop and present the information derived from site characterisation activities in the form of a single integrated Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the geometry, properties of the bedrock and water, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms, which will be used to address the information requirements of all the end users (including the safety case). It is anticipated that, in a similar way to the approach adopted by international radioactive waste programmes led by SKB (Sweden) and Posiva (Finland), the integrated Site Descriptive Model will be divided into parts comprising clearly defined disciplines which may form either chapters or discipline-based models such as: • Geology; • Hydrogeology; • Hydrochemistry; • Geotechnical; • Radionuclide Transport Properties; • Thermal Properties; and • Biosphere. The integrated Site Descriptive Model will evolve as understanding of the particular site advances and will describe the current understanding of a specific site and, where relevant, the historical development of conditions at the site where this supports the conceptual understanding. The Site Descriptive Model will not include prediction of the future evolution of the conditions at the site: this will be an important component

  3. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part III. Geologic and hydrolic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Brady, B.T.

    1983-12-31

    The geologic and hydrologic factors considered in the Province evaluation include distribution of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions and data on ground-water hydrology. Potential host media considered include argillaceous rocks, tuff, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks, evaporites, and the unsaturated zone. The tectonic factors considered are Quaternary faults, late Cenozoic volcanics, seismic activity, heat flow, and late Cenozoic rates of vertical uplift. Hydrologic conditions considered include length of flow path from potential host rocks to discharge areas, interbasin and geothermal flow systems and thick unsaturated sections as potential host media. The Basin and Range Province was divided into 12 subprovinces; each subprovince is evaluated separately and prospective areas for further study are identified. About one-half of the Province appears to have combinations of potential host rocks, tectonic conditions, and ground-water hydrology that merit consideration for further study. The prospective areas for further study in each subprovince are summarized in a brief list of the potentially favorable factors and the issues of concern. Data compiled for the entire Province do not permit a complete evaluation of the favorability for high-level waste isolation. The evaluations here are intended to identify broad regions that contain potential geohydrologic environments containing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Use of in-vitro experimental results to model in-situ experiments: bio-denitrification under geological disposal conditions.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kaoru; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Yoshitaka; Kato, Osamu; Kato, Ko; Honda, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Some of the low level radioactive wastes from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels contain nitrates. Nitrates can be present in the form of soluble salts and can be reduced by various reactions. Among them, reduction by metal compounds and microorganisms seems to be important in the underground repository. Reduction by microorganism is more important in near field area than inside the repository because high pH and extremely high salt concentration would prevent microorganism activities. In the near field, pH is more moderate (pH is around 8) and salt concentration is lower. However, the electron donor may be limited there and it might be the control factor for microorganism's denitrification activities. In this study, in-vitro experiments of the nitrate reduction reaction were conducted using model organic materials purported to exist in underground conditions relevant to geological disposal. Two kinds of organic materials were selected. A super plasticizer was selected as being representative of the geological disposal system and humic acid was selected as being representative of pre-existing organic materials in the bedrock. Nitrates were reduced almost to N2 gas in the existence of super plasticizer. In the case of humic acids, although nitrates were reduced, the rate was much lower and, in this case, dead organism was used as an electron donor instead of humic acids. A reaction model was developed based on the in-vitro experiments and verified by running simulations against data obtained from in-situ experiments using actual groundwaters and microorganisms. The simulation showed a good correlation with the experimental data and contributes to the understanding of microbially mediated denitrification in geological disposal systems. PMID:24010028

  5. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  6. Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform From the Strategic Research Agenda to its Deployment - 12015

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, P.; Palmu, Marjatta; Eng, Torsten

    2012-07-01

    Several European waste management organizations (WMOs) have initiated a technology platform for accelerating the implementation of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Europe. The most advanced waste management programmes in Europe (i.e. Finland, Sweden, and France) have already started or are prepared to start the licensing process of deep geological disposal facilities within the next decade. A technology platform called Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) was launched in November 2009. A shared vision report for the platform was published stating that: 'Our vision is that by 2025, the first geological disposal facilities for spent fuel, high-level waste, and other long-lived radioactive waste will be operating safely in Europe'. In 2011, the IGD-TP had eleven WMO members and about 70 participants from academia, research, and the industry committed to its vision. The IGD-TP has started to become a tool for reducing overlapping work, to produce savings in total costs of research and implementation and to make better use of existing competence and research infrastructures. The main contributor to this is the deployment of the IGD-TP's newly published Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). The work undertaken for the SRA defined the pending research, development and demonstration (RD and D) issues and needs. The SRA document describing the identified issues that could be worked on collaboratively was published in July 2011. It is available on the project's public web site (www.igdtp.eu). The SRA was organized around 7 Key Topics covering the Safety Case, Waste forms and their behaviour, Technical feasibility and long-term performance of repository components, Development strategy of the repository, Safety of construction and operations, Monitoring, and Governance and stakeholder involvement. Individual Topics were prioritized within the Key Topics. Cross-cutting activities like Education and Training or Knowledge

  7. Report of the second meeting of the consultants on coupled processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Mangold, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    The second meeting of the Consultants on Coupled Processes Associated with Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste occurred on January 15-16, 1985 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). All the consultants were present except Dr. K. Kovari, who presented comments in writing afterward. This report contains a brief summary of the presentations and discussions from the meeting. The main points of the speakers' topics are briefly summarized in the report. Some points that emerged during the discussions of the presentations are included in the text related to the respective talks. These comments are grouped under the headings: Comments on Coupled Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Porous Media, Comments on Overview of Coupled Processes, Presentations by Consultants on Selected Topics of Current Interest in Coupled Processes, and Recommendations for Underground Field Tests with Applications to Three Geologic Environments.

  8. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

  9. A Safety Case Approach for Deep Geologic Disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in Bedded Salt - 13350

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Frank D.

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and utility of developing a defensible safety case for disposal of United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) high-level waste (HLW) and DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a conceptual deep geologic repository that is assumed to be located in a bedded salt formation of the Delaware Basin [1]. A safety case is a formal compilation of evidence, analyses, and arguments that substantiate and demonstrate the safety of a proposed or conceptual repository. We conclude that a strong initial safety case for potential licensing can be readily compiled by capitalizing on the extensive technical basis that exists from prior work on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), other U.S. repository development programs, and the work published through international efforts in salt repository programs such as in Germany. The potential benefits of developing a safety case include leveraging previous investments in WIPP to reduce future new repository costs, enhancing the ability to effectively plan for a repository and its licensing, and possibly expediting a schedule for a repository. A safety case will provide the necessary structure for organizing and synthesizing existing salt repository science and identifying any issues and gaps pertaining to safe disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in bedded salt. The safety case synthesis will help DOE to plan its future R and D activities for investigating salt disposal using a risk-informed approach that prioritizes test activities that include laboratory, field, and underground investigations. It should be emphasized that the DOE has not made any decisions regarding the disposition of DOE HLW and DOE SNF. Furthermore, the safety case discussed herein is not intended to either site a repository in the Delaware Basin or preclude siting in other media at other locations. Rather, this study simply presents an approach for accelerated development of a safety case for a potential

  10. Hydrologic Nuclide Transport Models in Cyder, A Geologic Disposal Software Library - 13328

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Kathryn D.

    2013-07-01

    Component level and system level abstraction of detailed computational geologic repository models have resulted in four rapid computational models of hydrologic radionuclide transport at varying levels of detail. Those models are described, as is their implementation in Cyder, a software library of interchangeable radionuclide transport models appropriate for representing natural and engineered barrier components of generic geology repository concepts. A proof of principle demonstration was also conducted in which these models were used to represent the natural and engineered barrier components of a repository concept in a reducing, homogenous, generic geology. This base case demonstrates integration of the Cyder open source library with the Cyclus computational fuel cycle systems analysis platform to facilitate calculation of repository performance metrics with respect to fuel cycle choices. (authors)

  11. Assessment of spent-fuel waste-form/stabilizer alternatives for geologic disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einziger, R. E.; Himes, D. A.

    1982-09-01

    The possibility of burying canisterized unreprocessed spent fuel in a deep geologic repository is studied. One aspect is an assessment of the possible spent fuel waste forms. The fuel performance portion was to evaluate five candidate spent fuel waste forms for postemplacement performance with emphasis on their ability to retard the release of radiouclides to the repository geology. Spent fuel waste forms under general consideration were: (1) unaltered fuel assembly; (2) fuel assembly with end fittings removed to shorten the length; (3) rods vented to remove gases and resealed; (4) disassembled fuel bundles to close pack the rods; and (5) rods chopped and fragments immobilized in a matrix material.

  12. Geophysical investigation for the evaluation of the long-time safety of repositories and underground disposals in deep geological formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, A.; Salinar Group

    2003-04-01

    The performance assessment of underground disposal facilities is an indispensable premise to ensure that repositories fulfil the requirements for permanent and safe disposal of hazardous waste. The geological barrier is supposed to be a virtually impermeable host formation like rock salt. The efficiency of the barrier is endangered by the presence of risk zones such as faults or fractures particularly with regard to water-bearing host rocks. Thus the evaluation of the long-time safety of the geological barrier has to be carried out with a minimum of invasion of the future host formation and a maximum of spatial coverage and resolution. Especially geophysical methods are suitable to investigate the geological barrier due to their non-destructive character and spatial information content. Three research projects supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are engaged in the design and enhancement of a complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system for the investigation of problem zones of the geological barrier in rock salt. The benefit of the combination of high-performance geophysical measuring techniques as seismics, DC-geoelectrics, ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetics and sonar together with strong knowledge of regional salt geology is to increase essentially the reliability of the interpretation of underground measurements. The measuring methods and interpretation tools for host rock characterisation were applied, developed and improved in a flat salt seam structure of an inoperative salt mine in the Lower Harz region. The joint interpretation of the underground geophysical measurements revealed a by-then unknown wet zone, which was tectonically affected. With the scope of refining the complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system and transferring the precedingly acquired experiences to another type of host formation, an operating potassium salt mine in the vicinity of Hannover/Germany was chosen as a new

  13. Preliminary report on the geology and gold mineralization of the South Pass granite-greenstone terrain, Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming (US)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausel, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    The South Pass granite-greenstone terrain lies near the southern tip of the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming. This Archean supracrustal pile has been Wyoming's most prolific source of gold and iron ore. From 1962 to 1983, more than 90 million tons of iron ore were recovered from oxide-facies banded iron formation, and an estimated 325,000 ounces of gold were mined from metagreywacke-hosted shears and associated placers. Precambrian rocks at South Pass are unconformably overlain by Paleozoic sediments along the northeast flank, and a Tertiary pediment buries Archean supracrustals on the west and south. To the northwest, the supracrustals terminate against granodiorite of the Louis Lake batholith; to the east, the supracrustals terminate against granite of the Granite Mountains batholith. The Louis Lake granodiorite is approximately 2,630 + or - 20 m.y. old, and the Granite Mountains granite averages 2,600 m.y. old. The geometry of the greenstone belt is best expressed as a synform that has been modified by complex faulting and folding. Metamorphism is amphibolite grade surrounding a small island of greenschist facies rocks. The younger of the Archean supracrustal successions is the Miners Delight Formation. This unit yielded a Rb-Sr isochron of 2,800 m.y. A sample of galena from the Snowbird Mine within the Miners Delight Formation yielded a model age averaging 2,750 m.y. The Snowbird mineralization appears to be syngenetic and is hosted by metavolcanics of calc-alkaline affinity. Discussion follows.

  14. Burying uncertainty: Risk and the case against geological disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shrader-Frechette, K.S.

    1996-12-31

    The author of this book asserts that moral and ethical issues must be considered in the development of nuclear waste disposal policies. The book develops this theme showing that to date no technology has provided a fool-proof method of isolating high-level nuclear wastes and that technological advances alone will not increase public acceptance. She supports a plan for the federal government to negotiate construction of MRS facilities that would safely house high-level nuclear waste for about 100 years, providing a temporary solution and a moral and ethical alternative to permanent storage.

  15. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  16. Impact of iron-reducing bacteria on the corrosion rate of carbon steel under simulated geological disposal conditions.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marta K; Schlegel, Michel L; Libert, Marie; Bildstein, Olivier

    2015-06-16

    The current projects for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste rely on underground burial and confinement by metallic envelopes that are susceptible to corrosion processes. The impact of microbial activity must be fully clarified in order to provide biological parameters for predictive reactive transport models. This study investigates the impact of hydrogenotrophic iron-reducing bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1) on the corrosion rate of carbon steel under simulated geological disposal conditions by using a geochemical approach. It was found that corrosion damage changes mostly according to the experimental solution (i.e., chemical composition). Magnetite and vivianite were identified as the main corrosion products. In the presence of bacteria, the corrosion rate increased by a factor of 1.3 (according to weight loss analysis) to 1.8 (according to H2 measurements), and the detected amount of magnetite diminished. The mechanism likely to enhance corrosion is the destabilization and dissolution of the passivating magnetite layer by reduction of structural Fe(III) coupled to H2 oxidation. PMID:25988515

  17. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, L.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  18. Initial public perceptions of deep geological and oceanic disposal of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, Claire R; Morgan, M Granger; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Keith, David W

    2004-12-15

    Two studies were conducted to gauge likely public perceptions of proposals to avoid releasing carbon dioxide from power plants to the atmosphere by injecting it into deep geological formations or the deep ocean. Following a modified version of the mental model interview method, Study 1 involved face-to-face interviews with 18 nontechnical respondents. Respondents shared their beliefs after receiving basic information about the technologies and again after getting specific details. Many interviewees wanted to frame the issue in the broader context of alternative strategies for carbon management, but public understanding of mitigation strategies is limited. The second study, administered to a sample of 126 individuals, involved a closed-form survey that measured the prevalence of general beliefs revealed in study 1 and also assessed the respondent's views of these technologies. Study results suggest that the public may develop misgivings about deep injection of carbon dioxide because it can be seen as temporizing and perhaps creating future problems. Ocean injection was seen as more problematic than geological injection. An approach to public communication and regulation that is open and respectful of public concerns is likely to be a prerequisite to the successful adoption of this technology. PMID:15669298

  19. The Belgian approach towards the study of the compatibility of Eurobitum with the geological disposal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Valcke, Elie; Gens, Robert

    2007-07-01

    In Belgium, EUROBITUM bituminized radioactive waste containing large amount of soluble salts (NaNO{sub 3}) is to be disposed of in a final repository in a clay formation. Since the emplacement of the waste will induce many interdependent processes that could negatively affect the interesting radionuclide retarding properties of the clay, the study of the compatibility of EUROBITUM is very complex. To better structure the research and to identify possible knowledge gaps, NIRAS/ONDRAF, the Belgian Radioactive Waste Management Agency, developed the safety functions and safety statements approach. In this paper, we present the application of this approach for the case of EUROBITUM. The approach is illustrated with new and old results on water uptake, swelling, swelling pressure build-up, and ageing, obtained from tests performed in the laboratories of SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre. (authors)

  20. Assessment of spent-fuel waste-form/stabilizer alternatives for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Himes, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is studying the possibility of burying canisterized unreprocessed spent fuel in a deep geologic repository. One aspect of this study is an assessment of the possible spent fuel waste forms. The fuel performance portion of the Waste Form Assessment was to evaluate five candidate spent fuel waste forms for postemplacement performance with emphasis on their ability to retard the release of radionuclides to the repository geology. Spent fuel waste forms under general consideration were: (1) unaltered fuel assembly; (2) fuel assembly with end fittings removed to shorten the length; (3 rods vented to remove gases and resealed; (4) disassembled fuel bundles to close-pack the rods; and (5) rods chopped and fragments immobilized in a matrix material. Thirteen spent fuel waste forms, classified by generic stabilizer type, were analyzed for relative in-repository performance based on: (1) waste form/stabilizer support against lithostatic pressure; (2) long-term stability for radionuclide retention; (3) minimization of cladding degradation; (4) prevention of canister/repository breach due to pressurization; (5) stabilizer heat transfer; (6) the stabilizer as an independent barrier to radionuclide migration; and (7) prevention of criticality. The waste form candidates were ranked as follows: (1) the best waste form/stabilizer combination is the intact assembly, with or without end bells, vented (and resealed) or unvented, with a solid stabilizer; (2) a suitable alternative is the combination of bundled close-packed rods with a solid stabilizer around the outside of the bundle to resist lithostatic pressure; and (3) the other possible waste forms are of lower ranking with the worst waste form/stabilizer combination being the intact assembly with a gas stabilizer or the chopped fuel.

  1. Determination of Granites' Mineral Specific Porosities by PMMA Method and FESEM/EDAX

    SciTech Connect

    Leskinen, A.; Penttinen, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Alanso, U.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Patelli, Alessandro

    2007-07-01

    Over extended periods, long-lived radionuclides (RN) or activation products within geologic disposal sites may be released from the fuel and migrate to the geo/biosphere. In the bedrock, contaminants will be transported along fractures by advection and retarded by sorption on mineral surfaces and by molecular diffusion into stagnant pore water in the matrix along a connected system of pores and micro-fissures. The objective of this paper was to determine the connective porosity and mineral-specific porosities for three granite samples by {sup 14}C methyl-methacrylate ({sup 14}C-PMMA) autoradiography. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses (FESEM/EDAX) were performed in order to study the pore apertures of porous regions in greater detail and to identify the corresponding minerals. Finally, the porosity results were used to evaluate the diffusion coefficients of RNs from previous experiments which determined apparent diffusion coefficients for the main minerals in three granite samples by the Rutherford Backscattering technique. The total porosity of the Grimsel granite (0.75%) was significantly higher than the porosities of the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites (0.3%). The porosities of the Grimsel granite feldspars were two to three times higher than the porosities of the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites feldspars. However, there was no significant difference between the porosities of the dark minerals. A clear difference was found between the various quartz grains. Quartz crystals were non-porous in the El Berrocal and Los Ratones granites when measured by the PMMA method, but the quartz crystals in the Grimsel granite showed 0.5% intra granular porosity. The apparent diffusion coefficients calculated for uranium diffusion within Grimsel granite on different minerals were very similar (2.10{sup -13} {+-} 0.5 m{sup 2}/s), but differences within both Spanish granites were found from one mineral to another (9 {+-} 1.10{sup -14} m

  2. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  3. The origin of granites and related rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Michael, (Edited By); Piccoli, Philip M.

    1995-01-01

    This Circular is a compilation of abstracts for posters and oral presentations given at the third Hutton symposium on the Origin of granites and related rocks. The symposium was co-sponsored by the Department of Geology, University of Maryland at College Park; the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia; and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington.

  4. Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.

    1962-01-01

    The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which

  5. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  6. Melting granites to make granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Bruna B.; Sawyer, Edward W.; Janasi, Valdecir de A.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale partial melting in the continental crust is widely attributed to fluid-absent incongruent breakdown of hydrous minerals in the case of pelites, greywackes and meta-mafic rocks. Granite is a far more common rock in the continental crust, but fluid-absent hydrate-breakdown melting is unlikely to result in significant melting in granites because of their low modal abundance of mica or amphibole. Experiments show that fluid-present melting can produce ~30% melt at low temperatures (690°C). Thus, granites and leucogranites can be very fertile if H2O-present melting occurs via reactions such as plagioclase + quartz + K-feldspar + H2O = melt, because of their high modal proportions of the reactant phases. Our study investigates the Kinawa Migmatite in the São Francisco Craton, southeastern Brazil. This migmatite is derived from an Archaean TTG sequence and can be divided into; 1) pink diatexites, 2) leucosomes, 3) grey gneisses and 4) amphibolites. The migmatite records upper-amphibolite to beginning of granulite facies metamorphism in a P-T range from 5.1-6.6 kbar and ~650-780°C. Pink diatexites are the most abundant rocks, and their appearance varies depending on the amount of melt they contained. Three types are recognised: residual diatexites (low melt fraction (Mf)), schlieren diatexites (moderate Mf) and homogeneous diatexites (high Mf). They are very closely related spatially in the field, with mostly transitional contacts. There is a sequence with progressive loss of ferromagnesian minerals, schollen and schlieren through the sequence to the most melt-rich parts of the diatexites as magmatic flow became more intense. There are fewer ferromagnesian minerals, thus the melt becomes cleaner (more leucocratic) and, because the schlieren have disaggregated the aspect is more homogeneous. These parts are texturally similar to leucogranites in which the biotite is randomly distributed and pre-melting structures are completely destroyed. The likely protolith

  7. Geology, petrology, and tectonic setting of the Mafic rocks of the 1480 Ma old granite-rhyolite terrane of Missouri, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, P. J.

    Igneous and metamorphic mafic rocks form a volumetrically subordinate component of the 1480 Ma old granite rhyolite terrain of Missouri. The igneous rocks are present in the St. Francois Mountains and a drillcore from Shannon county and can be subdivided into two groups. The Silver Mines Mafic Group exhibits some calc-alkaline chemical affinities that may be the result of crustal contamination by a source with a bulk intermediate to felsic composition. The contaminant probably is not the exposed granites or rhyolites of the St. Francois Mountains. The 1500 to 1400 Ma old belt probably formed in an extensional tectonic setting. The Basin and Range province of the western United States may be the most similar modern analogue. Between 1400 to 1200 Ma ago, an incipient continental rift may have formed along the axis of the 1500 to 1400 Ma old magmatic belt. Mafic magma emplaced during the rifting event possibly included the Skrainka Mafic Group of Missouri, the Harp dikes and Seal Lake Group of Labrador, and some of the Gardar rocks of southwest Greenland.

  8. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Radionuclide release from spent fuel under geologic disposal conditions: An overview of experimental and theoretical work through 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, P.W.; Simonson, S.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents an overview of experimental and theoretical work on radionuclide release from spent fuel and uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) under geologic disposal conditions. The purpose of the report is to provide a source book of information that can be used to develop models that describe radionuclide release from spent fuel waste packages. Modeling activities of this nature will be conducted within the Waste Package Program (WPP) of the Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project (SRP). The topics discussed include experimental methods for investigating radionuclide release, how results have been reported from radionuclide release experiments, theoretical studies of UO/sub 2/ and actinide solubility, results of experimental studies of radionuclide release from spent fuel and UO/sub 2/ (i.e., the effects of different variables on radionuclide release), characteristics of spent fuel pertinent to radionuclide release, and status of modeling of radionuclide release from spent fuel. Appendix A presents tables of data from spent fuel radionuclide release experiments. These data have been digitized from graphs that appear in the literature. An annotated bibliography of literature on spent fuel characterization is provided in Appendix B.

  10. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-12-31

    The US Geological Survey`s program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, William; Weir, J.E., Jr.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000-50,000 ft or 9,140-15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000-20,000 ft or 305-6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000-10,000 ft or 305-3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000-20,000 ft or 610-6,100 m) o The geohydrologic investigation is made on the presumption that the concepts or methods of disposal are technically feasible. Field and laboratory experiments in the future may demonstrate whether or not any of the methods are practical and safe. All the conclusions drawn are tentative pending experimental confirmation. The investigation focuses principally on the geohydrologic possibilities of several methods of disposal in rocks other than salt. Disposal in mined chambers in salt is currently under field investigation, and this disposal method has been intensely investigated and evaluated by various workers under the sponsorship of the Atomic Energy Commission. Of the various geohydrologic factors that must be considered in the selection of optimum waste-disposal sites, the most important is hydrologic isolation to assure that the wastes will be safely contained within a small radius of the emplacement zone. To achieve this degree of hydrologic isolation, the host rock for the wastes must have very low permeability and the site must be virtually free of faults. In addition, the locality should be in (1) an area of low seismic risk where the possibility of large earthquakes rupturing the emplacement zone is very low, (2) where the possibility- of flooding by

  12. Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-09-02

    This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time.

  13. Two Approaches to the Geologic Disposal of Long-Lived Nuclear Waste: Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Levich, R. A.; Patterson, R. L.; Linden, R. M.

    2002-02-26

    A key component of the US energy program is to provide for the safe and permanent isolation of spent nuclear fuel and long-lived radioactive waste produced through programs related to national defense and the generation of electric power by nuclear utilities. To meet this challenge, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a multi-faceted approach to the geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes. Two sites are being developed or studied as current or potential deep geologic repositories for long lived radioactive wastes, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico and Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  14. Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-10-25

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to provide information on potential environmental impacts that could result from a Proposed Action to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada. The EIS also provides information on potential environmental impacts from an alternative referred to as the No-Action Alternative, under which there would be no development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

  15. Granites of southeast Asian tin belt

    SciTech Connect

    Cobbing, E.J.; Mallick, D.I.J.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Darbyshire, D.P.F.; Teoh, L.H.

    1986-07-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the essential granite geology of the southeast Asian tin belt, distinguishing plutons within batholiths and characterizing them by their component units, field relationships, lithology, texture, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, and mineral potential. To date, approximately 180 plutons have been recognized and partly or entirely described in the above terms. In addition, four granite provinces have been delineated, each with its own distinctive mineralization pattern. In all provinces, but particularly in the Main Range, granitoids designated as two-phase variants have been recognized where xenocrysts and xenoliths of coarse, primary texture granite are enclosed in and corroded by an invasive, equigranular quartzo-feldspathic matrix. These rocks form an essential part of the granite sequence in all provinces and have probably resulted from the infiltration and disruption of the host granite by late-stage magmatic fluids. Whole-rock geochemistry from peninsular Malaysia shows that the granites from the Main Range and Eastern provinces comprise two contrasted suites, which correspond approximately to the I- and S-type categories advocated by Chappell and White. In addition, individual plutons within batholiths in the two provinces have distinct geochemical parameters. Variation diagrams of plutons having the intrusive sequence primary texture granite-two-phase granite-microgranite show linear trends with increasing SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O, Rb, W, Sn, and U, and decreasing Sr, Ba, Th, and all other major elements.

  16. Possible effects of UO/sub 2/ oxidation on light water reactor spent fuel performance in long-term geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Almassy, M.Y.; Woodley, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a conventionally mined geologic formation is the nearest-term option for permanently isolating radionuclides from the biosphere. Because irradiated uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) fuel pellets retain 95 to 99% of the radionuclides generated during normal light water reactor operation, they may represent a significant barrier to radionuclide release. This document presents a technical assessment of published literature representing the current level of understanding of spent fuel characteristics and conditions that may degrade pellet integrity during a geologic disposal sequence. A significant deterioration mechanism is spent UO/sub 2/ oxidation with possible consequences identified as fission gas release, rod diameter increases, cladding breach extension, and release of solid fuel particles containing radionuclides. Areas requiring further study to support development of a comprehensive spent fuel performance prediction model are highlighted. A program and preliminary schedule to obtain the information needed to develop model correlations are also presented.

  17. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-03-30

    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs.

  18. Digital version of "Open-File Report 92-183: Geologic map of the Granite Spring Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, Howard G.; Bedford, David R.; Coleman, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    3. Plottable map representations of the database at 1:24,000 scale in PostScript and Adobe PDF formats. The plottable files consist of a color geologic map derived from the spatial database, composited with a topographic base map in the form of the USGS Digital Raster Graphic for the map area. Color symbology from each of these datasets is maintained, which can cause plot file sizes to be large.

  19. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition and geological significance of the Late Triassic Baijiazhuang and Lvjing granitic plutons in West Qinling Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Meng; Niu, Yaoling; Kong, Juanjuan; Sun, Pu; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shuo; Li, Jiyong

    2016-09-01

    The Qinling Orogen was a consequence of continental collision of the South China Craton with the North China Craton in the Triassic and caused widespread granitoid magmatism. However, the petrogenesis of these granitoids remains controversial. In this paper, we choose the Baijiazhuang (BJZ) and Lvjing (LJ) plutons in the West Qinling Orogen for a combined study of the zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock major and trace element compositions and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics. We obtained zircon crystallization ages of ~ 216 Ma and ~ 212 Ma for the BJZ and the LJ plutons, respectively. The granitoid samples from both plutons have high K2O metaluminous to peraluminous compositions. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in high field-strength elements (HFSEs) with significant negative Eu anomalies. The BJZ samples have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7032 to 0.7078, εNd(t) of - 10.99 to - 8.54 and εHf (t) of - 10.22 to - 6.41. The LJ granitoids have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7070 to 0.7080, εNd(t) of - 5.37 to - 4.58 and εHf(t) of - 3.64 to - 1.78. The enriched isotopic characteristics of the two plutons are consistent with their source being dominated by ancient continental crust. However, two BJZ samples show depleted Sr isotope compositions, which may infer possible involvement of mantle materials. Mantle-derived melt, which formed from partial melting of mantle wedge peridotite facilitated by dehydration of the subducted/subducting Mianlue ocean crust, provide the required heat for the crustal melting while also contributing to the compositions of these granitoids. That is, the two granitic plutons are magmatic responses to the closure of the Mianlue ocean basin and the continental collision between the Yangtze and South Qinling crustal terranes.

  20. Geology of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.

    1962-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is a structural and topographic basin occupying an area of about 20,000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming arid southeastern Montana. The Basin is about 230 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and is about 100 miles wide. It is bounded on three sides by mountains in which rocks of Precambrian age are exposed. The Basin is asymmetrical with a steep west limb adjacent to the Bighorn Mountains and a gentle east limb adjacent to the Black Hills. Sedimentary rocks within the Basin have a maximum thickness of about 18,000 feet and rocks of every geologic period are represented. Paleozoic rocks are about 2,500 feet thick and consist of marine bonate rocks and sandstone; Mesozoic rocks are about 9,500 feet thick and consist of both marine and nonmarine siltstone and sandstone; and Cenozoic rocks are from 4,000 to 6,000 feet thick and consist of coal-bearing sandstone and shale. Radioactive waste could be stored in the pore space of permeable sandstone or in shale where space could be developed. Many such rock units that could be used for storing radioactive wastes are present within the Powder River Basin. Permeable sandstone beds that may be possible reservoirs for storage of radioactive waste are present throughout the Powder River Basin. These include sandstone beds in the Flathead Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Deadwood Formation, the Tensleep Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Minnelusa Formation and the Sundance Formation in rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. However, most of the possible sandstone reservoirs are in rocks of Cretaceous age and include sandstone beds in the Fall River, Lakota, Newcastle, Frontier, Cody, and Mesaverde Formations. Problems of containment of waste such as clogging of pore space and chemical incompatibility would have to be solved before a particular sandstone unit could be selected for waste disposal. Several thick sequences of impermeable shale such as those in the Skull Creek, Mowry, Frontier

  1. ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE EFFECTS ON THE TREATMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEMS - EBS INPUT

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Sharma, M

    2012-04-25

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. The planning, construction, and operation of a nuclear disposal facility is a long-term process that involves engineered barriers that are tailored to both the geologic environment and the waste forms being emplaced. The UFD Campaign is considering a range of fuel cycles that in turn produce a range of waste forms. The UFD Campaign is also considering a range of geologic media. These ranges could be thought of as adding uncertainty to what the disposal facility design will ultimately be; however, it may be preferable to thinking about the ranges as adding flexibility to design of a disposal facility. For example, as the overall DOE-NE program and industrial actions result in the fuel cycles that will produce waste to be disposed, and the characteristics of those wastes become clear, the disposal program retains flexibility in both the choice of geologic environment and the specific repository design. Of course, other factors also play a major role, including local and State-level acceptance of the specific site that provides the geologic environment. In contrast, the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository license application (LA) is based on waste forms from an open fuel cycle (PWR and BWR assemblies from an open fuel cycle). These waste forms were about 90% of the total waste, and they were the determining waste form in developing the engineered barrier system (EBS) design for the Yucca Mountain Repository design. About 10% of the repository capacity was reserved for waste from a full recycle fuel cycle in which some actinides were extracted for weapons use, and the remaining fission products and some minor actinides were encapsulated

  2. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  3. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  4. GRANITE PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Donald F.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Peak Roadless Area occupies an area of about 5 sq mi in the southern part of the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, about 12 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Rock and stream-sediment samples were analyzed. All streams draining the roadless area were sampled and representative samples of the rock types in the area were collected. Background values were established for each element and anomalous values were examined within their geologic settings and evaluated for their significance. On the basis of mineral surveys there seems little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources.

  5. AMS studies in Portuguese variscan granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Martins, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    A large volume of Variscan granitic rocks outcrop in Central Iberian Zone which are well documented concerning geological mapping, petrography and geochemistry but whose magnetic characteristics and fabric remain unknown. In this study we summarize the available AMS data from approximately 644 sampling stations (5152 samples) on different massifs of Variscan Portuguese granites. Despite their different geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics, magnetic susceptibility (K) values obtained for the majority of the studied granites range from 15 to 300 × 10-6 SI. The dominant paramagnetic behaviour of the granite bodies reflects the presence of ilmenite as the main iron oxide. This feature indicates the reduced conditions involved in the granite melt formation during the Variscan orogeny. The two-mica granites show K values ranging between 15 to 70 × 10-6 SI which are lower than values displayed by the biotite-rich facies scattered within the interval of 70 and 300 × 10-6 SI. The magnetite-bearing granites are scarce but represented in Lavadores, Gerês and Manteigas. Even so, only the Lavadores body could be considered as a true magnetite-type granite (K >3.0 × 10-3 SI) in face of its K, comprised between 1550 and 19303 × 10-6 SI. Magnetic anisotropy can be used as a "marker" for the deformation experienced by granite mushes during their crustal emplacement and further cooling. Magnetic anisotropy can thus be correlated with the finite deformation of a rock, as record by mineral fabrics. Post-tectonic granites, such as those from Vila Pouca de Aguiar, Pedras Salgadas, Caria, Vila da Ponte, Chaves and Lamas de Olo, have a magnetic anisotropy <2.5% which corresponds to a deformation hardly visible to the naked eye. Nevertheless, at microscopic scale, these granites display almost ubiquitous magmatic to submagmatic microstructures (rare wavy extinction in quartz, erratic subgrain boundaries in quartz and, eventually, folded or kinked biotites). For

  6. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2016-07-01

    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.

  7. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Deep Geological Repository: A Domestic and Global Blueprint for Safe Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste - 12081

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.

    2012-07-01

    At the end of 2011, the world's first used/spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is projected to open in 2020, followed by two more in 2025. The related pre-opening periods will be at least 40 years, as it also would be if USA's candidate HLW-repository is resurrected by 2013. If abandoned, a new HLW-repository site would be needed. On 26 March 1999, USA began disposing long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological repository in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The related pre-opening period was less than 30 years. WIPP has since been re-certified twice. It thus stands to reason the WIPP repository is the global proof of principle for safe deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also stands to reason that the lessons learned since 1971 at the WIPP site provide a unique, continually-updated, blueprint for how the pre-opening period for a new HLW repository could be shortened both in the USA and abroad. (authors)

  8. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  9. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  10. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    SciTech Connect

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre

    2013-07-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  11. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  12. Critical conditions for initiation of localized corrosion of mild steels in contact with bentonite used in geological disposal packages of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Guen; Akashi, Masatsune

    1993-12-31

    In the current design of geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste, the use of bentonite to stand as an artificial barrier-cum-buffer between the host rock and the packages made of mild steel is being investigated. Although mild steels commonly have been considered to be passivity in alkaline environments, under certain circumstances, they become liable to localized corrosion, e.g., pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Since bentonite can turn the environment alkaline to a pH of approximately 10 when it is mixed with groundwater, critical conditions for the initiation of localized corrosion of mild steel must be known to evaluate the extremely long time integrity of disposal packages serving in such an environment. This paper presents and discusses the observations and results acquired in a series of critical conditions for the initiation of localized corrosion of mild steels in various groundwater-bentonite environments at 20C, with a deaerated aqueous solution of 1 mMol/L [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}] + 10 ppm [Cl{sup -}], simulating the natural groundwater and varying the bentonite content.

  13. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 1: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.Z.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  14. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 2: Methodology and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  15. Non-Darcian flow in low-permeability media: key issues related to geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste in shale formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai

    2014-05-01

    In clay or other low-permeability media, water flow becomes non-Darcian and characterized by the non-linear relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient. This work is devoted to addressing a number of key issues related to geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste in clay/shale formations. It is demonstrated that water flow velocity in the damaged zone (often considered as a potential preferential advection paths in a repository) surrounding the tunnel is extremely small, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. The finding is also consistent with the often-observed existence of persistent abnormal pressures in shale formations. While relative permeability is the key parameter for modeling the unsaturated flow process, without incorporating non-Darcian flow behavior, significant errors can occur in the determination of relative permeability values from traditional measurement methods. An approach for dealing with temperature impact on non-Darcian flow and a formulation to calculate non-Darcian water flux in an anisotropic medium are presented, taking into consideration that a geological repository is subject to temperature evolution in the near field as a result of heat generated by nuclear waste, and that shale formations are generally anisotropic.

  16. LLNL Input to SNL L2 MS: Report on the Basis for Selection of Disposal Options

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Halsey, W G

    2011-03-02

    This mid-year deliverable has two parts. The first part is a synopsis of J. Blink's interview of the former Nevada Attorney General, Frankie Sue Del Papa, which was done in preparation for the May 18-19, 2010 Legal and Regulatory Framework Workshop held in Albuquerque. The second part is a series of sections written as input for the SNL L2 Milestone M21UF033701, due March 31, 2011. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste is categorized in this review into several categories. Section II discusses alternatives to geologic disposal: space, ice-sheets, and an engineered mountain or mausoleum. Section III discusses alternative locations for mined geologic disposal: islands, coastlines, mid-continent, and saturated versus unsaturated zone. Section IV discusses geologic disposal alternatives other than emplacement in a mine: well injection, rock melt, sub-seabed, and deep boreholes in igneous or metamorphic basement rock. Finally, Secton V discusses alternative media for mined geologic disposal: basalt, tuff, granite and other igneous/metamorphic rock, alluvium, sandstone, carbonates and chalk, shale and clay, and salt.

  17. A Comparative Review of Hydrologic Issues Involved in Geologic Storage of CO2 and Injection Disposal of Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.-F.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-04-15

    The paper presents a comparison of hydrologic issues and technical approaches used in deep-well injection and disposal of liquid wastes, and those issues and approaches associated with injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in deep brine formations. These comparisons have been discussed in nine areas: (1) Injection well integrity; (2) Abandoned well problems; (3) Buoyancy effects; (4) Multiphase flow effects; (5) Heterogeneity and flow channeling; (6) Multilayer isolation effects; (7) Caprock effectiveness and hydrogeomechanics; (8) Site characterization and monitoring; and (9) Effects of CO{sub 2} storage on groundwater resources There are considerable similarities, as well as significant differences. Scientifically and technically, these two fields can learn much from each other. The discussions presented in this paper should help to focus on the key scientific issues facing deep injection of fluids. A substantial but by no means exhaustive reference list has been provided for further studies into the subject.

  18. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  19. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material--PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  20. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis within the post closure Performance and Safety Assessment of the French deep geological radwaste disposal: methodology, tool and examples of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, G.

    2009-04-01

    Within the framework of the December 30, 1991 french act, Andra submitted to the French Parliament in December 2005 a report on the feasibility of a high-level and long-lived radwaste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfodien clay layer (Meuse/Haute-Marne site). Further to 2006 french act, Andra is now involved in licensing of the reversible disposal up to 2015, which requires a great scientific and technical knowledge. Studies are based on many years of research carried out in France, in particular in Andra's Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (MHM URL), and international programs on radwastes, engineered barriers and deep clay formations. Intensive programs on hydraulic, solute transfer and radionuclides behaviour (solubility, retention) were and are carried out on Callovo-Oxfordian argilites (undisturbed and damaged), concrete materials and swelling clay based material, in order to provide a sound database. All these data allowed to perform firstly a sound description of the expected phenomenological evolution of the repository and its geological environment (including release and migration of radionuclides) from operating period to post closure period up to one million years, secondly a sound post-closure performance and safety assessment covering the different waste types (ILLW, HLW). Various safety scenarii were defined to quantify radiological impacts and to evaluate performance of the components and safety functions in post closure using specific indicators (concentration, molar rate, water flux…). According to the RFS III2.f (french safety rule related to deep geological radwaste disposad), there is no risk analysis in post closure and assessments are performed using deterministic situations, models and values. To complete analysis, propagation of uncertainties from models and input data in Performance and Safey Assessment (PA/SA) models is done using both deterministic and multiparametric probabilistic approach, with two main objectives: (i) to

  1. Corrosion of iron and low alloyed steel within a water saturated brick of clay under anaerobic deep geological disposal conditions: An integrated experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, F. A.; Bataillon, C.; Schlegel, M. L.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the corrosion behaviour of iron and low alloyed steels under simulated geological disposal conditions, related to long-term disposal of nuclear wastes in the site of Bure (Meuse-Haute Marne, Champagne, France). The dedicated experiment was a fully integrated set-up: three different bars of material (iron, steel or nickel) have been introduced inside a solid block of clay, which has been saturated with synthetic Bure water and maintained at 90 °C during 8 months. Two types of clay have been tested: first, a compacted MX80 (Wyoming, USA) and second, argilite directly taken from the Bure site (Callovo-Oxfordian). In situ electrochemistry has been performed: impedance spectra, chronopotentiometry… The samples have been analysed using a combination of techniques, such as SEM, XRD, EDS, μXAS, μRaman, gravimetry after desquamation. In both cases, the steel or the iron seemed to passivate in contact with the clay. Post-processing of the EIS determined the corrosion rates and the changes in the kinetics have been noticed. The post mortem analysis of the corrosion products showed in both cases the presence of an internal layer made of magnetite (Raman, EDX). The external layer was made of partially Ca-substituted siderite (Fe 1-xCa xCO 3), which could play an extra role in the passivation. Moreover, the samples embedded in the Bure argilite presented an intermediate unique layer containing Fe, O, Na and Si. This study suggests the corrosion products started to react with the silica issued from the dissolution of the Bure clay minerals, resulting in clay minerals neo-formation and in corrosion kinetic changes.

  2. Geologic observations at the 2800-meter radioactive waste disposal site and associated deepwater dumpsite 106 (DWD-106) in the Atlantic Ocean. (Revised). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rawson, M.D.; Ryan, W.B.F.

    1983-09-01

    During 1975 and 1976 a total of eight manned submersible dives with DSRV ALVIN were carried out in a relatively small region of the Atlantic 2800m radioactive waste dumpsite and were centered at 38 degrees 30'N and 72 degrees 09'W. Six other dives were distributed through the northern part of Deepwater Dumpsite 106 (DWD-106) near the boundary of the continental rise/continental slope. One of the primary purposes of these dives was to observe the geological conditions in this disposal region slightly south of the Hudson submarine Canyon. The lower continental slope was found to be incised by submarine canyons debouching into the northern side of DWD-106. The upper continental rise was incised by narrow meandering channels. One of these channels passed through the radioactive waste dumpsite and was surveyed in detail. On the upper continental rise the local terrain was relatively flat but studded with numerous tracks, trails, holes, and mounds of biological orgin. The sediment carpet was composed of a grapy silty-clay. Detailed mineralogical analysis was performed.

  3. Physico-chemical investigation of clayey/cement-based materials interaction in the context of geological waste disposal: Experimental approach and results

    SciTech Connect

    Dauzeres, A.; Le Bescop, P.; Sardini, P.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.

    2010-08-15

    Within the concepts under study for the geological disposal of intermediate-level long-lived waste, cement-based materials are considered as candidate materials. The clayey surrounding rock and the cement-based material being considered differ greatly in their porewater composition. Experiments are conducted on the diffusion of solutes constituting those porewaters in a confined clay/cement composite system using cells. The test temperature was set at 25 {sup o}C and 2, 6 and 12 months. Results supply new information: carbonation is low and not clog the interface. Such absence of carbonation allows for the diffusion of aqueous species and, thus, for the degradation of the cement paste and the illitisation of illite/smectite interstratifications. The cement material is subjected to a decalcification: portlandite dissolution and a CaO/SiO{sub 2} reduction in the calcium silicate hydrate. The sulphate in diffusion induces non-destructive ettringite precipitation in the largest pores. After 12 months, about 800 {mu}m of cement material is concerned by decalcification.

  4. Spent fuel radionuclide source term model for assessing spent fuel performance in geological disposal. Part II: Matrix alteration model and global performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinssot, Christophe; Ferry, Cécile; Lovera, Patrick; Jegou, Christophe; Gras, Jean-Marie

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the research conducted on the long term evolution of spent nuclear fuel under geological disposal conditions, a source term model has been developed to evaluate the instantaneous release of radionuclides (RN) (instant release fraction, IRF) and the delayed release of the RN which are embedded within the matrix. This model takes into account most of the scientific results currently available except the effect of hydrogen and the current knowledge of the uncertainties. IRF was assessed by considering the evolution with time of the RN inventories located within the fuel microstructure to which no confinement properties can be allocated over the long term (gap, rim, grain boundaries). This allows for bounding values for the IRF as a function of time of canister breach and burnup. The matrix radiolytic dissolution was modeled by a simple kinetic model neglecting the recombination of radiolytic species and the influence of aqueous ligands. The oxidation of the UO 2 matrix was assumed not to be kinetically controlled. Spent fuel performance was therefore demonstrated to mainly depend on the reactive surface area.

  5. Effects of chloride, bromide, and thiosulfate ions on the critical conditions for crevice corrosion of several stainless alloys as a material for geological disposal packages for nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Guen; Akashi, Masatsune; Wakamatsu, Hisao

    1993-12-31

    In addition to mild steel, several stainless alloys are being proposed as materials for packages for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. When buried deep underground, the greatest detriment to the integrity of packages made of these alloys is localized corrosion, for which critical conditions for initiation of crevice corrosion in chloride environments, with or without other ions, need be precisely known. Crevice corrosion behavior of Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, Alloy 825, Ti-Gr.1, and Ti-Gr.12 in solutions containing ions of chloride, bromide (these two for their ordinary presence in natural waters), or thiosulphate (this for the likelihood of microbially influenced corrosion) to varying concentrations have been empirically examined. All of these alloys exhibit much the same concentration dependency of crevice corrosion sensitivity for chloride and bromide ions, while Type 304 stainless steel is particularly sensitive to the thiosulphate ion. The region of insensitivity for chloride ion is wider in the increasing order of Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, Ti-Gr.1, and Ti-Gr.12, with that of Alloy 825 lying somewhere in between.

  6. Confocal {mu}-XRF, {mu}-XAFS, and {mu}-XRD Studies of Sediment from a Nuclear Waste Disposal Natural Analogue Site and Fractured Granite Following a Radiotracer Migration Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Denecke, Melissa A.; Brendebach, Boris; Rothe, Joerg; Simon, Rolf; Janssens, Koen; Nolf, Wout de; Vekemans, Bart; Falkenberg, Gerald; Somogyi, Andrea; Noseck, Ulrich

    2007-02-02

    Combined {mu}-XRF, {mu}-XAFS, and {mu}-XRD investigations of a uranium-rich tertiary sediment, from a nuclear repository natural analogue site, and a fractured granite bore core section after a column tracer experiment using a Np(V) containing cocktail have been performed. Most {mu}-XRF/{mu}-XAFS measurements are recorded in a confocal geometry to provide added depth information. The U-rich sediment results show uranium to be present as a tetravalent phosphate and that U(IV) is associated with As(V). Arsenic present is either As(V) or As(0). The As(0) forms thin coatings on the surface of pyrite nodules. A hypothesis for the mechanism of uranium immobilization is proposed, where arsenopyrite acted as reductant of ground water dissolved U(VI) leading to precipitation of less soluble U(IV) and thereby forming As(V). Results for the granite sample show the immobilized Np to be tetravalent and associated with facture material.

  7. IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of a 1980's geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of

  8. Geology, hydrology, and results of tracer testing in the Galena-Platteville aquifer at a waste-disposal site near Byron, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Prinos, Scott T.; Morrow, William S.; Vendl, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of the geohydrology of the dolomite bedrock at a waste-disposal site near Byron, Illinois. The study was designed to identify and characterize the flow pathways through the bedrock aquifer beneath the site. The geologic units of concern at the site are the Glenwood Formation of the Ancell Group, and the Platteville and Galena Groups. These deposits compose the Galena-Platteville aquifer and the underlying Harmony Hill Shale semiconfining unit. The Galena-Platteville aquifer is an unconfined aquifer. Geophysical logging, water levels, and aquifer-test data indicate the presence of interconnected, hydraulically active fractures in the middle of the Galena-Platteville aquifer (the upper flow pathway), and a second set of hydraulically active fractures (the lower flow pathway). The lower flow pathway may be present through much of the site. Few hydraulically active fractures are present in the upper part of the aquifer near the center of the site, but appear to be more numerous in the upper part of the aquifer in the western and northeastern parts of the site. Water-level data obtained during the tracer test indicate that pumping effects were present near the pumped wells. Pumping effects may have been present at several wells located along directions of identified fracture orientation from the pumped well. The upper part of the aquifer did not appear to be hydraulically well connected to the flow pathways supplying water to the pumped well. Large background changes in water levels obscured the effects of pumping and prevented calculation of aquifer properties. The velocity of the bromide tracer through the lower flow pathway under the hydraulic gradient resulting from the pumping was about 152 feet per day. Solution of the Darcy velocity equation results in a calculated effective porosity for this interval of 3.5 percent, indicating hydraulic interconnection between the

  9. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  10. GRANITE CHIEF WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Chief Wilderness study area encompasses 57 sq mi near the crest of the Sierra Nevada 6 mi west of Tahoe City, California. Geologic, geochemical, and mines and prospect studies were carried out to assess the mineral-resource potential of the area. On the basis of the mineral-resource survey, it is concluded that the area has little promise for the occurrence of precious or base metals, oil, gas, coal, or geothermal resources. Sand, gravel, and glacial till suitable for construction materials occur in the area, but inaccessability and remoteness from available markets preclude their being shown on the map as a potential resource.

  11. Peralkaline and peraluminous granites and related mineral deposits of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Existing geochemical and geologic data for many parts of the Arabian Shield were compiled as a basis for evaluating the resource potential of the granites of the Shield. Commodities associated with granites that have potential for economic mineral deposits include tin, tungsten, molybdenum, beryllium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, uranium, thorium, rare-earth elements, and fluorite. Prospecting methods useful in discriminating those granites having significant economic potential include reconnaissance geologic mapping, petrographic and mineralogic studies, geochemical sampling of rock and wadi sediment, and radiometric surveying.

  12. Seismogenic faulting in the Meruoca granite, NE Brazil, consistent with a local weak fracture zone.

    PubMed

    Moura, Ana Catarina A; Oliveira, Paulo H S DE; Ferreira, Joaquim M; Bezerra, Francisco H R; Fuck, Reinhardt A; Nascimento, Aderson F DO

    2014-10-24

    A sequence of earthquakes occurred in 2008 in the Meruoca granitic pluton, located in the northwestern part of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. A seismological study defined the seismic activity occurring along the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault, a 081° striking, 8 km deep structure. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between this seismic activity and geological structures in the Meruoca granite. We carried out geological mapping in the epicentral area, analyzed the mineralogy of fault rocks, and compared the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault with geological data. We concluded that the seismically-defined fault coincides with ∼E-W-striking faults observed at outcrop scale and a swarm of Mesozoic basalt dikes. We propose that seismicity reactivated brittle structures in the Meruoca granite. Our study highlights the importance of geological mapping and mineralogical analysis in order to establish the relationships between geological structures and seismicity at a given area. PMID:25352370

  13. Seismogenic faulting in the Meruoca granite, NE Brazil, consistent with a local weak fracture zone.

    PubMed

    Moura, Ana Catarina A; De Oliveira, Paulo H S; Ferreira, Joaquim M; Bezerra, Francisco H R; Fuck, Reinhardt A; Do Nascimento, Aderson F

    2014-12-01

    A sequence of earthquakes occurred in 2008 in the Meruoca granitic pluton, located in the northwestern part of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. A seismological study defined the seismic activity occurring along the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault, a 081° striking, 8 km deep structure. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between this seismic activity and geological structures in the Meruoca granite. We carried out geological mapping in the epicentral area, analyzed the mineralogy of fault rocks, and compared the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault with geological data. We concluded that the seismically-defined fault coincides with ∼E-W-striking faults observed at outcrop scale and a swarm of Mesozoic basalt dikes. We propose that seismicity reactivated brittle structures in the Meruoca granite. Our study highlights the importance of geological mapping and mineralogical analysis in order to establish the relationships between geological structures and seismicity at a given area. PMID:25590704

  14. Investigating α-particle radiation damage in phyllosilicates using synchrotron microfocus-XRD/XAS: implications for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, W. R.; Pearce, C. I.; Pimblott, S. M.; Haigh, S. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pattrick, R. A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mineral phases to the radiation fields that will be experienced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for nuclear waste is poorly understood. Phyllosilicates are critical phases in a GDF with bentonite clay as the backfill of choice surrounding high level wastes in the engineered barrier, and clays and micas forming the most important reactive component of potential host rocks. It is essential that we understand changes in mineral properties and behaviour as a result of damage from both α and γ radiation over long timescales. Radiation damage has been demonstrated to affect the physical integrity and oxidation state1 of minerals which will also influence their ability to react with radionuclides. Using the University of Manchester's newly commissioned particle accelerator at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility, UK, model phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. biotite, chlorite) were irradiated with high energy (5MeV) alpha particles at controlled dose rates. This has been compared alongside radiation damage found in naturally formed 'radiohalos' - spherical areas of discolouration in minerals surrounding radioactive inclusions, resulting from alpha particle penetration, providing a natural analogue to study lattice damage under long term bombardment1,2. Both natural and artificially irradiated samples have been analysed using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction mapping on Beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source; samples were probed for redox changes and long/short range disorder. This was combined with lattice scale imaging of damage using HR-TEM (TitanTM Transmission Electron Microscope). The results show aberrations in lattice parameters as a result of irradiation, with multiple damage-induced 'domains' surrounded by amorphous regions. In the naturally damaged samples, neo-formed phyllosilicate phases are shown to be breakdown products of highly damaged regions. A clear reduction of the Fe(III) component has been

  15. Granite magma formation, transport and emplacement in the Earth's crust.

    PubMed

    Petford, N; Cruden, A R; McCaffrey, K J; Vigneresse, J L

    2000-12-01

    The origin of granites was once a question solely for petrologists and geochemists. But in recent years a consensus has emerged that recognizes the essential role of deformation in the segregation, transport and emplacement of silica-rich melts in the continental crust. Accepted petrological models are being questioned, either because they require unrealistic rheological behaviours of rocks and magmas, or because they do not satisfactorily explain the available structural or geophysical data. Provided flow is continuous, mechanical considerations suggest that--far from being geologically sluggish--granite magmatism is a rapid, dynamic process operating at timescales of < or = 100,000 years, irrespective of tectonic setting. PMID:11130061

  16. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [Pumpkin Valley shales

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic-fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic-fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  17. Preliminary report on the geology and hydrology of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico, with reference to disposal of liquid low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltz, E.H.; Abrahams, J.H., Jr.; Purtyman, W.D.

    1963-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, selected the upper part of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico for a site for disposal of treated liquid low-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the part of a study of the geology and hydrology that was done from October 1960 through June 1961. Additional work is being continued. Mortandad Canyon is a narrow east-southeast-trending canyon about 9? miles long that heads on the central part of the Pajarito Plateau at an altitude of about 7,340 feet. The canyon is tributary to the Rio Grande. The drainage area of the part of Mortandad Canyon that was investigated is about 2 square miles, and the total drainage area is about 4.9 square miles. The Pajarito Plateau is capped by the Bandelier Tuff of Pleistocene age. Mortandad Canyon is cut in the Bandelier, and alluvium covers the floor of the canyon to depths ranging from less than 1 foot to as much as 100 feet. The Bandelier is underlain by silt, sand, conglomerate, and interbedded basalt of the Santa Fe Group of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene(?) age. Some ground water is perched in the alluvium in the canyon; however, the top of the main aquifer is in the Santa Fe Group at a depth of about 990 feet below the canyon floor. Joints in the Bandelier Tuff probably were caused by shrinkage of the tuff during cooling. The joints range in width from hairline cracks to fissures several inches wide. Water can infiltrate along the open joints where the Bandelier is at the surface; however, soil, alluvial fill, and autochthonous clay inhibit infiltration on the tops of mesas and probably in the alluvium-floored canyons also. Thirty-three test holes, each less than 100 feet deep, were drilled in 10 lies across Mortandad Canyon from the western margin of the study area to just west of the Los Alamos-Santa Fe County line. Ten of the holes were cased for observation wells to measure

  18. Silicified Granites (Bleeding Stone and Ochre Granite) as Global Heritage Stones Resources from Avila (Central of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo C.; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Molina-Ballesteros, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Silicified Granites have been widely used to build the main Romanesque monuments in the 12 th century of Avila city that was designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985. The stone was used in the Cathedral (12 th century); churches located interior and exterior of the Walls (e.g. Saint Vincent; Saint Peter). During the Renaissance and Gothic period, 15 th century Silicified Granites have been used mainly to buid ribbed vaults in Avila city (e.g. Royal Palace of the Catholic Monarchs, and Chapel of Mosén Rubí). Silicified Granites are related to an intermediate and upper parts of a complex palaeoweathering mantle developed on the Iberian Hercynian Basement (the greatest part of the western Iberian Peninsula and its oldest geological entity). In the Mesozoic the basement underwent tropical weathering processes. The weathered mantle were truncated by the Alpine tectonic movements during the Tertiary, and Its remnants were unconformably covered by more recent sediments and are located in the west and south part of the Duero Basin and in the north edge of the Ambles Valley graben. For the weathering profiles developed on the Hercynian Basement is possible to define three levels from bottom to top: 1) Lower level (biotitic granodiorite/porphyry and aplite dykes); 2) Intermediate level (ochre granite); 3) Upper level (red/white granite). The lower level has been much used as a source of ornamental stone, Avila Grey granite. The porphyry and applite dykes are mainly used to built the Walls of the City. The intermediate level is called Ochre granite or Caleño and was formed from the previous level through a tropical weathering process that, apart from variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the stone, has been accompanied by important mineralogical changes (2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicates) and decreases in the contents of the most mobile cations. The upper level has received several names, Bleeding stone, Red and White granite or Silcrete and was formed

  19. A slingram survey on the Nevada Test Site: part of an integrated geologic geophysical study of site evaluation for nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, Vincent J.

    1979-01-01

    A slingram geophysical survey was made in early 1978 as part of the integrated geologlcal-geophysical study aimed at evaluating the Eleana Formation as a possible repository for nuclear waste. The slingram data were taken over an alluvial fan and pediments along the eastern flank of Syncline Ridge about 45 km north of Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. The data show that the more conductive argillaceous Eleana Formation varies in depth from 40 to 85 m from west to east along traverse lines. Northeast-trending linear anomalies suggest rather abrupt changes in subsurface geology that may be associated with faults and fractures. The results of the slingram survey will, when interpreted in the light of other geologic and geophysical evidence, assist in understanding the shallow parts of the geologic setting of the Eleana Formation.

  20. Late variscan evolution of the Pelvoux Massif in the light of 3D mapping of granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzerzynski, P.; Guillot, S.; Courrioux, G.; Ledru, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Pelvoux massif is a fragment of Paleozoic crustal rock involved in the alpine belt. The inner part of the massif is composed by anatectic and amphibolitic gneisses intruded by Stephanian granites. The Turbat-Lauranoure, Etages and Berarde granites have a N160 vertical magmatic foliation cross cut by N135 vertical ductile strike slip faults. A three dimensional modeling of the shape of the Turbat-Lauranoure, Etages and Berarde granites has been realized using field and cartographic data. The method based on potential field allows the integration of structural data as foliation and contact orientation measurements. The granite shapes have been modeled with three types of surface with different geological significance: The first type of surface is constrained by granite foliation measurements. They are NNW-SSE and vertical oriented. They form the eastward and westward granite-gneiss and Etages-Berarde granites boundaries. The second surface is a well known alpine structure called the Meije-Muzele Trust. This structure is oriented N50 50^oSE. The third surface is a granite-gneiss boundary in where gneisses are located on of the top the granite. The granite-gneiss contact has a northward plunge on the north and a southward plunge on the south of the massif. The NNW-SSE elongated shape of the granite associated with a left lateral ductile strike slip fault and the dome like shape of the massif are consistent with a N-S direction of extension during Stephanian time. In order to integrate this Stephanian Pelvoux Massif magmatic event in the Variscan scheme, an anticlockwise rotation occurred during Permian time. The observed N20 dextral strike slip faults are at the origin of the Permian rotation of the Pelvoux Massif.

  1. Example of fracture characterization in granitic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, R.K.

    1981-03-01

    A detailed study of geologic discontinuities for an underground heater test in highly fractured granitic rock is reported. Several prominent shear fractures were delineated within a 6 x 30 x 15 m rock mass by correlating surface mapping and borehole fracture logs. Oblique-reverse faulting is suspected on at least one of the surfaces, and its inferred borehole intercepts appear to be collinear in the direction of slickensiding observed in the field. Four distinct joint sets were identified, one of which coincides with the shear fractures. Another lies nearly horizontal, and two others are steeply inclined and orthogonal. Fracture lengths and spacings for the four joint sets are represented by lognormal probability distributions.

  2. Late Paleozoic granitic rocks of the Chukchi Peninsula: Composition and location in the structure of the Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Natapov, L. M.; Belousova, E. A.; Katkov, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    An Early Carboniferous (352-359 Ma) U-Pb (TIMS, SIMS) age is established for granitic rocks of the Kibera pluton, quartz sienites of the Kuekvun pluton, and granites from the pebbles in the basement of Carboniferous rocks of the Kuul and Kuekvun uplifts in the Central Chukotka region. These data support the suggestion of granitic magmatism to occur in the region in the Late Paleozoic. The petrogeochemistry of most granitic rocks of the Kibera and Kuekvun plutons is similar to that of I-type granites, and their age coincides with tectonic events of Ellesmerian Orogeny in the Arctic region at the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous boundary. The Devonian-Early Carboniferous granitic complexes extend to the territories of the Arctic Alaska, Yukon, and Arctic Canada, which indicates a common geological evolution within the Chukotka-Arctic Alaska block, which experienced a motion away from Arctic Canada.

  3. New data on the age and geodynamic interpretation of the Kalba-Narym granitic batholith, eastern Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, P. D.; Khromykh, S. V.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Navozov, O. V.; Travin, A. V.; Karavaeva, G. S.; Kruk, N. N.; Murzintsev, N. G.

    2015-06-01

    Geological and new geochronological data are summarized for the Kalba-Narym granitic batholith in eastern Kazakhstan, and their geodynamic interpretation is suggested. In the structure of the batholith, we consider (from late to early) the Kunush plagiogranitic complex, the Kalguta granodiorite-granitic association, and the Kalba granitic, Monastery leucogranitic, and Kainda granitic complexes. The granitic complexes of the Kalba-Narym batholith were formed between the Carboniferous-Permian and the Early-Middle Permian (˜30 Ma). New data indicate that formation of the Kalba-Narym batholith was related to the activity of the Tarim mantle plume. Heating of the lithosphere by the plume coincided with postcollision collapse of the orogenic structure and led to the crust melting and formation of the studied granitic complexes in a relatively short period.

  4. Granite microcracks: Structure and connectivity at different depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fan; Dong, Yan-Hui; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Zhou, Peng-Peng; Wang, Li-Heng; Tong, Shao-Qing; Duan, Rui-Qi

    2016-07-01

    Granite is one rock type used to host high-level radioactive waste repositories, and the structure of microcracks in the rock can influence its hydraulic characteristics. Thus, a quantitative analysis of granite microcracks is relevant for understanding the hydrogeological characteristics of the rocks surrounding geological repositories. The analysis can also contribute scientific data to a seepage model for low permeability rocks and materials with microscopic pores. In this study, seven granite core samples were drilled from different depths up to 600 m in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. Using a grid survey method and image processing technology, micrographs were converted into binary images of microcracks. The geometric parameters of the microcracks, including their quantity, width, cranny ratio, crack intersections and dimensional parameters of the fracture network, were analyzed in order to fully describe their spatial distribution. In addition, the morphological characteristics and elemental compositions of the microcracks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS), and the natural moisture content was also determined through heated. Finally, two-dimensional microcrack network seepage models of the granite samples were simulated using the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which revealed the influence of the microcrack structure on their connectivity. The results show that the growth and development of microcracks in the granite samples generally decreases as sampling depth increases in this study area. Connectivity is positively correlated with a number of the geometric parameters: the quantity of microcracks, the cranny ratio, the number of crack intersections and dimensional parameters of the fracture network, which is revealed in the two-dimensional microcrack network seepage models for these granite samples.

  5. Contribution of Portuguese two-mica granites to stone built heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Angela; Begonha, Arlindo

    2013-04-01

    The present study deals with the importance of the application of natural stone in monuments in urban setting, both as the main building material during the historical evolution of a city and as a means to increase the public awareness of the social role of geological resources of a specific region. The City of Oporto, World Heritage of the Humanity , has been selected to illustrate the use of the local granite since ancient times to the present day, a two-mica peraluminous granite ,classified as syn-tectonic relatively to the third tectonic deformation phase of the Hercynian orogeny, included in an expressive group that occurs extensively in northern Portugal . The Oporto granite has been the object of several geochemical, structural and geotechnical approaches. Despite the urban development, outcrops of this granite can be observed in different areas of the city, side by side with the urban constructions, and particularly in the imposing and intensely fractured escarpments carved by the river Douro. Oporto monumental heritage goes back to Roman occupation and the profile has been developed by the construction of granite buildings, following history and the social evolution, of an impressive grey architecture according to different styles of granite work that characterize the city in all its aspects, namely the old city wall, the medieval and baroque churches, the neoclassic houses but also the small humble habitations. The Oporto granite is always affected by weathering processes and the buildings exhibit various aspects of stone decay such as granular desintegration, plates, flakes, black crusts, thin black layers, efflorescences and biological colonization. The description of selected sites within the historical centre , where it is possible to recognize the importance of the granite in the character of the city, aims to call the attention to the inextricable role of geology in built heritage and in the culture, as well as to diagnose the deterioration

  6. Numerical Studies of Fluid Leakage from a Geologic DisposalReservoir for CO2 Show Self-Limiting Feedback between Fluid Flow and HeatTransfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2005-03-22

    Leakage of CO2 from a hypothetical geologic storage reservoir along an idealized fault zone has been simulated, including transitions between supercritical, liquid, and gaseous CO2. We find strong non-isothermal effects due to boiling and Joule-Thomson cooling of expanding CO2. Leakage fluxes are limited by limitations in conductive heat transfer to the fault zone. The interplay between multiphase flow and heat transfer effects produces non-monotonic leakage behavior.

  7. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during 1976-1983 at the Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site and adjacent areas, Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogeologic studies were conducted at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976-84. Data in this report include water levels in wells, lake stages, inorganic, organic, and radiometric chemical analyses of ground and surface water, hydraulic conductivities of glacial materials, grain-size distribution, clay and carbonate mineralogy, and cation exchange capacities of the glacial materials. Also included are results of petrographic analyses, physical measurements of wells, stratigraphy and lithology of cores collected from test wells, and horizontal coordinates of wells.

  8. Some Fundamental Experiments on Apparent Dissolution Rate of Gas Phase in the Groundwater Recovery Processes of the Geological Disposal System - 12146

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshii, Taiki; Niibori, Yuichi; Mimura, Hitoshi

    2012-07-01

    The apparent dissolution rates of gas phase in the co-presence of solid phase were examined by in-room experiments in this study. The apparent dissolution rate of gas phase q (mol/m{sup 3}.s) was generally defined by q=aK{sub L}(γP{sub g}-c), where a (1/m) is specific surface area of the interface between gas and liquid phases, K{sub L} (m/s) is overall mass transfer coefficient, γ (mol/(Pa.m{sup 3})) is reciprocal number of Henry constant, P{sub g} (Pa) is partial pressure of gas phase, and c (mol/m{sup 3}) is the concentration of gas component in liquid phase. As a model gas, CO{sub 2} gas was used. For evaluating the values of K{sub L}, this study monitored pH or the migration rate of the interface between water/gas phases, using some experiments such as the packed beds and the micro channel consisting of granite chip and rubber sheet including a slit. In the results, the values of K{sub L} were distributed in the range from 5.0x10{sup -6} m/s to 5.0x10{sup -7} m/s. These values were small, in comparison with that (7.8x10{sup -4} m/s) obtained from the bubbling test where gas phase was continually injected into deionized water without solid phase. This means that the solid phase limits the local mixing of water phase near gas-liquid interfaces. (authors)

  9. Origin of alkali-feldspar granites: An example from the Poimena Granite, northeastern Tasmania, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, D.E.; Black, L.P.; Sun, Shensu )

    1988-10-01

    The Lottah Granite is a composite pluton of tin mineralized strongly peraluminous alkali-feldspar granite which intrudes the Poimena Granite, a major component of the mid-Devonian Blue Tier Batholith of northeastern Tasmania. Earlier workers interpreted the Lottah Granite as a metasomatised differentiate of the Poimena Granite. The Poimena Granite is a slightly peraluminous, felsic, I-type biotite granite which contains restite minerals and shows linear trends on Harker plots, both consistent with restite separation. The mineralogy, chemical variation, and isotopic characteristics of the Lottah Granite are consistent with origin as a magma genetically unrelated to the host granite. The Lottah Granite contains sanidine, albite, topaz, zinnwaldite and other minerals consistent with crystallization from a melt. Furthermore, Rb-Sr isotopic dating indicates that the Lottah Granite was emplaced about 10 Ma after the Poimena Granite, and initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicate that the Lottah Granite was derived from a higher-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, higher-{epsilon}Nd source composition. Chemical and mineralogical evolution of the Lottah Granite conform to the experimental behavior of Li-F-rich melts, and indicate a possible crystallization temperature range as extreme as 750-430{degree}C. Many other examples of alkali-feldspar granite, and much of the associated mineralization, are probably also of essentially primary magmatic origin rather than of metasomatic or hydrothermal origin as commonly interpreted. They may also be genetically unrelated to granites with which they are associated.

  10. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  11. Mapping possible subsurface granitic bodies in the northeastern Taiwan mountain belt using the VLF-EM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Yih; Huang, Chu-Lin; Tong, Lun-Tao; Lin, Ming-Juin; Chen, Chih-Sung; Huang, Hsin-Han

    2012-10-01

    Large gneiss bodies have been reported in the metamorphic complex in northern and eastern Taiwan for decades. Some of them are cut or intruded by granitic pegmatite dikes. However, increasing evidence suggests that the gneiss bodies are more likely to be granites or meta-granites. To validate the existence of the granites/meta-granites and propose their potential distribution in the metamorphic complex of northeastern Taiwan, a geological reconnaissance along with a crooked long-distance VLF-EM survey line of 19 km and a 4.4 km controlled experimental line were conducted in the Hoping geological area of the northeastern Taiwan mountain belt. The VLF-EM data were initially processed by using the Fraser linear filter and a nonlinear filtering method based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) technique to enhance the signal and to evaluate the data quality. A skin-depth added Karous-Hjelt filter was performed to generate the equivalent current density model. With the aid of the 3-D topographic representation, the equivalent current density model clearly indicates that a vast area of granites/meta-granites in the survey area is highly possible. In spite of a large uncertainty of the pseudo-quantitative model, the geological implication of our finding agrees with the tectonic framework that Taiwan and the adjacent southern Ryukyu arc system could be part of the rifted China continental margin before the collision of the Luzon and Ryukyu arcs started in late Cenozoic.

  12. Textural and chemical evolution of a fractionated granitic system: the Podlesí stock, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Müller, Axel; Leichmann, Jaromír; Gabašová, Ananda

    2005-03-01

    The Podlesí granite stock (Czech Republic) is a fractionated, peraluminous, F-, Li- and P-rich, and Sn, W, Nb, Ta-bearing rare-metal granite system. Its magmatic evolution involved processes typical of intrusions related to porphyry type deposits (explosive breccia, comb layers), rare-metal granites (stockscheider), and rare metal pegmatites (extreme F-P-Li enrichment, Nb-Ta-Sn minerals, layering). Geological, textural and mineralogical data suggest that the Podlesí granites evolved from fractionated granitic melt progressively enriched in H 2O, F, P, Li, etc. Quartz, K-feldspar, Fe-Li mica and topaz bear evidence of multistage crystallization that alternated with episodes of resorption. Changes in chemical composition between individual crystal zones and/or populations provide evidence of chemical evolution of the melt. Variations in rock textures mirror changes in the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization. Equilibrium crystallization was interrupted several times by opening of the system and the consequent adiabatic decrease of pressure and temperature resulted in episodes of nonequilibrium crystallization. The Podlesí granites demonstrate that adiabatic fluctuation of pressure ("swinging eutectic") and boundary-layer crystallization of undercooled melt can explain magmatic layering and unidirectional solidification textures (USTs) in highly fractionated granites.

  13. An integrated multi-scale hydrogeological model for performance and safety assessment of French geological high level and long live radwaste disposal in clay formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabderrahmane, H.; Cornaton, F. J.; Kerrou, J.

    2009-12-01

    A deep geological repository of high level and long live radwaste requires sound understanding of the far field and near field groundwater flow and transport properties. Andra, French National radioactive waste management Agency is developing since last 15 years, an integrated multi-scale hydrogeological model of whole Paris basin of 200'000 Km2 area (regional scale) to produce a regional flow field associated to groundwater behavior. It includes locally the Meuse / Haute Marne clay site of about 250 Km2 area in the eastern part of Paris basin that was chosen for the emplacement of a repository. Callovo-Oxfordian as host formation is a clay layer characterized by very low permeability, a mean thickness of 130 m at about 500 m depth and is embedded by calcareous formations as aquifers (Dogger and Oxfordian). The hydrogeological conceptual model is based on stratigraphic and petrophysic modeling of the Paris basin and is accounting for the sound structural, geological, hydrogeological and geochemical data in an integrated way. At Paris basin scale, the model is a multilayer system of 27 layers (hydrogeological units) from Trias to Tertiary. A refinement at local scale of the site defines 27 hydro-geological units from Trias to Portlandian within an area of 1800 Km2. Based on sound data acquisition from borehole and seismic campaigns performed by Andra, regional faults, minor and diffuse fractures are considered. A structural and petrophysical representation of the transition zone between the Paris basin scale and site scale, as well as a better handling of surface flow boundary conditions are considered. Finite element flow and transport simulator Ground Water code (GW) is used to solve for groundwater flow at steady-state in a 1.8 Million nodes model, considering current climatic conditions. The model is calibrated against about 1250 hydraulic head measurements, and results in maximum absolute hydraulic head differences of 20 meters at the regional scale and 5

  14. Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.

    2014-12-01

    Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks comprise some of the most diverse rock types on the Earth's surface and were formed during the early stages of the development of the planet from Eoarchaean to Neoarchaean times - a period extending back from about 4000 to 2500 million years ago. Because of their great age, these rocks have received unprecedented attention from a wide spectrum of Earth scientists striving to learn more about the evolution of the Earth, including its crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, the commencement of life, and the nature and distribution of mineral deposits. The knowledge gained thus far has accumulated incrementally, beginning with solid field-based studies, the latter being supplemented with increasingly advanced technological developments that have enabled scientists to probe fundamental questions of Earth history. Archaean granite-greenstone terranes display considerable variability of lithologies and geotectonic events, yet there are unifying characteristics that distinguish them from other geological environments. Most greenstone belts consist of a wide variety of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that reflect different evolutionary conditions of formation and all have invariably been influenced by subsequent geotectonic factors, including the intrusion of ultramafic, mafic and granitic complexes, resulting in widespread deformation, metamorphism, metasomatism, as well as mineralization. Geochemical and isotopic age determinations have shown how complex these ancient rocks are and efforts at understanding the nature and evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and primitive life have made Archaean terranes exciting environments in which to study. Conflicting views as to the nature, history and origin of many of the rock types and events in Archaean terranes has been ongoing and stimulating. This review attempts to describe the main lithotypes and other characteristics of granite-greenstone belt geology and points to some

  15. IRETHERM: Magnetotelluric studies of Irish radiothermal granites and their geothermal energy potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, T. F.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Feely, M.

    2013-12-01

    The IRETHERM project seeks to develop a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modeling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), heat-flow (HF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is of key importance in assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Leinster granite, the Galway granite and the buried Kentstown granite. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of an early 1980's EU-funded geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite. In the Galway granite batholith, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Ros a Mhil borehole. The lower heat-flow encountered at the Ros a Mhil borehole suggests that the associated high heat production does not extend to great depth. The buried Kentstown granite has associated with it a significant negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 485 m. Heat production has been measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30m of the granite. The core of this study consists of an ambitious program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, extending over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite extend to depths of 2-5 km. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total

  16. Practical aspects of geological prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Mallio, W.J.; Peck, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Nuclear waste disposal requires that geology be a predictive science. The prediction of future events rests on (1) recognizing the periodicity of geologic events; (2) defining a critical dimension of effect, such as the area of a drainage basin, the length of a fault trace, etc; and (3) using our understanding of active processes the project the frequency and magnitude of future events in the light of geological principles. Of importance to nuclear waste disposal are longer term processes such as continental denudation and removal of materials by glacial erosion. Constant testing of projections will allow the practical limits of predicting geological events to be defined. 11 refs.

  17. Gravity and magnetic modeling of granitic bodies in Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Pereira, Alcides

    2015-04-01

    A better understanding of the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in Central Portugal is the main goal of this work. The results are also relevant for the assessment of the geothermal potential of the same region. The study area is located in the Central Iberian Zone where the Beiras granite batholith outcrops. These variscan granitoids were emplaced into the "Complexo Xisto-Grauváquico" (CXG), a thick and monotonous megasequences of metapelites and metagreywackes. This metasedimentary sequence is affected by the Variscan deformation phases and a late Proterozoic to Cambrian age has been generally assumed for this rocks. The granitoids in the region are attributed to the magmatic activity associated to the post-collisional stages of the Variscan orogeny during the D3 stage. The granitic bodies in the study area are considered syn-D3 and late to post-D3. To achieve the goal of the research, magnetic and gravimetric surveys where performed in order to obtain the Bouguer and magnetic anomalies. All the standard corrections were applied to the gravimetric and magnetic data. Considering and integrating all the available geological data and physical proprieties (density and magnetic susceptibility) the mentioned potential fields were simultaneously modeled. In this way it was possible to characterize the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in the studied region. The modeling results show that the regional tectonic setting controls the geometry of the granitic bodies as well as the structure of the host CXG metasedimentary sequence. Through the modeling of the potential field the overall geometry, average and maximum depths of the granitic bodies in the study area was obtained. Some late to post-D3 plutons outcrop in spatial continuity and as they have similar ages, a common feeding zone is assumed as the most likely scenario. The sin-D3 pluton is more abrupt and vertical, suggesting the presence of a fault contact with the late-D3 pluton. According to the

  18. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  19. Crustal structure of the Archaean granite-greenstone terrane in the northern portion of the Kaapvaal Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debeer, J. H.; Stettler, E. H.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Vanreenen, D. D.; Bearncombe, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent investigations of the electrical resistivity, gravity and aeromagnetic signatures of the various granite-greenstone units in the northern portion of the Kaapvaal craton have revealed three features of significance: (1) the Archean greenstone belts are shallow features, rarely exceeding 5 km in depth; (2) the high resistivity upper crustal layer typical of the lower grade granite-greenstone terranes is absent in the granulite facies terrane; and (3) the aeromagnetic lineation patterns allow the granite-greenstone terrane to be subdivided into geologically recognizable tectono-metamorphic domains on the basis of lineation frequency and direction. A discussion follows.

  20. Spent fuel test project, Climax granitic stock, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-10-24

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of dry geologic storage of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The SFT-C is located at a depth of 420 m in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Eleven canisters of spent commercial PWR fuel assemblies are to be stored for 3 to 5 years. Additional heat is supplied by electrical heaters, and more than 800 channels of technical information are being recorded. The measurements include rock temperature, rock displacement and stress, joint motion, and monitoring of the ventilation air volume, temperature, and dewpoint.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of the Bulgarmarse Granite of the Fall River Pluton in the Avalonian Superterrane of southeastern New England

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, C.I.; Puffer, J.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    The 600 m.y. Bulgarmarsh Granite of the Fall River Pluton crops out along the SE margin of the Pennsylvanian-age Narragansett Basin in the Dedham terrane of the New England Avalonian Superterrane. The Bulgarmarsh is a coarse-grained, quartz-rich, very leucooratic granite, in which mafic minerals, generally less than 5--8%, occur chiefly as chlorite, biotite and garnet disequilibrium intergrowths. Most of the granite is very slightly deformed, but there are many localized zones of deformation, both brittle and plastic, that vary in degree of intensity. The Bulgarmarsh intrudes Basin margin metavolcanics similar to those of Price Neck Formation that crop out within the Basin in Newport and on Gould Island. The Bulgarmarsh Granite has many of the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of an A-type granite. Its geochemistry places it in the post-orogenic classification of Maniar and Piccoli (1989). New major and minor element geochemical data clearly discriminate between the Bulgarmarsh Granite and the adjacent calc-alkaline Metacom Granite Gneiss. Avalonian Orogeny, occupying a place in geologic history similar to that of the Newport Granite.

  2. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (< 0.7) and the lack of space, respectively. The most probable zones of microbial activity, those likely to develop sustainable biofilms are within the interface zones. A major restriction

  3. 75 FR 5561 - Information Collection; Disposal of Mineral Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Disposal of Mineral Materials AGENCY: Forest... on the extension of a currently approved information collection; Disposal of Mineral Materials. DATES... notice should be addressed to Ivette Torres, Liaison Specialist, Minerals and Geology Management,...

  4. In situ geomechanics: Climax granite, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Patrick, W.C.; De la Cruz, R.V.; Voss, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    The in situ modulus of the Climax granite in the Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) area of the Nevada Test Site was estimated using six different approaches. Our best estimate of field modulus as E/sub f/ = 26 GPa was obtained from a comparison of the various approaches. A best estimate of laboratory modulus acquired by comparing three different sources was E/sub l/ = 70 GPa. Therefore, the modulus reduction factor for the Climax granite appears to be E/sub f//E/sub l/ = 0.37. In turn, our estimate of in situ rock-mass deformability was used to back-calculate in situ values for the normal stiffness of the granite joints. Our analysis of former stress measurements by the US Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the horizontal stresses in the vicinity of SFT-C vary greatly with azimuth. An unexplained feature of the stresses at SFT-C is the fact that the vertical stress appears to be only 65 to 75% of the calculated lithostatic burden. From the three-dimensional stress ellipsoid at mid-length in the tunnels, assuming a plane strain condition, we were able to estimate an in situ Poisson`s ratio of the rock mass as {nu} = 0.246. Two other techniques were applied in an attempt to measure the stresses around the SFT-C heater and canister drifts: the undercoring method and the borehole jack fracturing approach. The former technique appears to have given reasonable estimates of tangential stresses in the roof of the heater drifts; the latter appears to give low results for stresses in the pillars. Specific recommendations are made for future tests to further characterize the mechanical properties of the Climax granite and the in situ stresses at SFT-C.

  5. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    . (In Russian). 3) Bulakh, A. G. Stone Town Guide, St Petersburg, 1-5. URL: [PDF] stone - GTK - Projects projects.gtk.fi/export/.../Bulakh_Stone_Guide 4) Paavo, H, Selonen, O, Luodes, H. The Wiborg Granite Batholith. The Main Production Area for Granite in Finland. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 5. Springer. 2015. P. 259-262. 5) Bulakh, A. G. Ornamental Stone in the History of St Petersburg Architecture. Geological Society, London, 2015. SP407. Global Heritage Stone: Towards International Recognition of Building and Ornamental Stones.

  6. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Clark, D.E. ); Lodding, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  7. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-12-31

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  8. 6. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13731, Granite Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied August 1971 from Photo 13731, Granite Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. GRANITE STATION, MAY 24, 1915. - Utah Power Company, Granite Hydroelectric Plant, Holladay, Salt Lake County, UT

  9. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  10. Fracture process zone in granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Ulkan-Dzhugdzhur ore-bearing anorthosite-rapakivi granite-peralkaline granite association, Siberian Craton: Age, tectonic setting, sources, and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, A. M.

    2014-07-01

    The paper systematizes and integrates the results of geological, isotopic geochronological, and geochemical studies of the igneous rocks that make up the Ulkan-Dzhugdzhur anorthosite-rapakivi granite-peralkaline granite association and related mineralization. This association is a typical example of anorogenic igneous rocks that formed in the within-plate geodynamic setting most likely under effect of the mantle superplume, which was active in the territory of the Siberian Craton 1.75-1.70 Ga ago. The igneous rock association formed in a discrete regime that reflected the pulsatory evolution of a sublithospheric mantle source. The prerift (1736-1727 Ma) and rift proper (1722-1705 Ma) stages and a number of substages are distinguished. All igneous rocks pertaining to this association have mixed mantle-crustal origin. Basic rocks crystallized from the OIB-type basaltic magma, which underwent crustal contamination at various depths. Felsic rocks are products of mantle and crustal magma mixing. The contribution of mantle component progressively increased in a time-dependent sequence: moderately alkaline subsolvus granite → moderately alkaline and alkaline hypersolvus granites → peralkaline hypersolvus granite. All endogenic deposits in the studied district are related to a single source represented by the mantle plume and its derivatives. The Fe-Ti-apatite deposits hosted in anorthosite formed as a result of intense lower crustal contamination of basaltic magma near the Moho discontinuity and two stages of fractional crystallization at lower and upper crustal depth levels. The rare-metal deposits are genetically related to peralkaline granite. Formation of uranium deposits was most likely caused by Middle Riphean rejuvenation of the region, which also involved rocks of the Ulkan-Dzhugdzhur association.

  12. Lunar granites with unique ternary feldspars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Marvin, U. B.; Bower, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    An unusually high concentration of granitic fragments, with textures ranging from holocrystalline to glassy, occurs throughout Boulder 1, a complex breccia of highland rocks from Apollo 17, Station 2. Among the minerals included in the granites are enigmatic K-Ca-rich feldspars that fall in the forbidden region of the ternary diagram. The great variability in chemistry and texture is probably the result of impact degradation and melting of a granitic source-rock. Studies of the breccia matrix suggest that this original granitic source-rock may have contained more pyroxenes and phosphates than most of the present clasts contain. Petrographic observations on Apollo 15 KREEP basalts indicate that granitic liquids may be produced by differentiation without immiscibility, and the association of the granites with KREEP-rich fragments in the boulder suggests that the granites represent a residual liquid from the plutonic fractional crystallization of a KREEP-rich magma. Boulder 1 is unique among Apollo 17 samples in its silica-KREEP-rich composition. We conclude that the boulder represents a source-rock unlike the bedrock of South Massif.

  13. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  14. Disposing of Canada's used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is assessing the permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel in a waste vault located 500 to 1,000 m deep in the Precambrian granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The specific objectives of the program are to develop and demonstrate the technology to site, design, build, and operate a disposal facility in a way that creates no, or negligible, burden on future generations. In addition, the program must develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system against safety criteria and demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Shield that satisfy regulatory criteria. These criteria are very stringent. As in other national high-level waste management programs, the Canadian concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes employs a multiple barrier system for isolating contaminants from the environment. The current phase of the work is generic in nature and is not site specific. Research and development (R and D) has advanced to the point where the generic concept will be evaluated under the Canadian environmental assessment review process, which involves public hearings and independent scientific review.

  15. URANIUM-SERIES DISEQUILIBRIUM IN TUFF AND GRANITE:HYDROGEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gasscoyne; N.H. Miller

    2000-10-27

    Uranium occurs naturally at trace levels in the major rock-forming minerals (quartz, feldspars, micas) in volcanic and plutonic rocks and is concentrated in accessory minerals (zircon, sphene, apatite). It may attain concentrations as high as 1000 ppm in the accessory minerals. Radiometric age determinations on zircon and sphene have shown that uranium migration from these minerals is generally negligible over prolonged periods of geologic time. Zircon grains separated from highly weathered igneous rocks have been found to retain most of their uranium. In contrast, the uranium fixed onto mineral grain boundaries or present in less-resistant minerals such as biotite or hornblende can be readily leached by groundwater. The ubiquitous presence of uranium in a rock makes it an ideal ''natural analogue'' for understanding the mobility of uranium at a potential site for nuclear fuel waste disposal and one that is easily overlooked in the search for suitable analogues for a disposal site. Several of the intermediate radionuclides in the decay series of the two long-lived isotopes of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) have half-lives greater than one year and are, therefore, of geological interest. In a sealed rock mass with no water-rock interactions, all intermediate radionuclides attain radioactive equilibrium with one another within a maximum 1-2 million years. Because rocks of the Yucca Mountain area and the Canadian Shield (both potential sites for nuclear waste disposal in the United States and Canadian programs, respectively) are considerably older, this condition (known as secular equilibrium) should exist in these rocks, and all daughter/parent radionuclide activity ratios should equal unity (1.000). If the ratios are found not to equal unity, then the rock has been disturbed, probably by groundwater transport of more soluble radionuclides into or away from the rock. How recently this migration has occurred can be determined from the half-life of the

  16. Potassium-argon dating of the cape granite and a granitized xenolith at sea point.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, G D; Basson, H H; Verbeek, A A

    1968-11-01

    Ages obtained by potassium-argon dating are reported for the total rock, light mineral fraction and heavy mineral fractions of the Cape Granite, and of a granitized xenolith derived from the Malmesbury sediments. These ages lie between 430 and 554 million years. The heavy mineral fractions from each rock type show the oldest age, 540 (granite) and 554 (xenolith) million years. These ages are interpreted as lower limits, and the granite age confirms the age of 553 million years found by rubidium-strontium dating. The coincidence of the ages of the different fractions of the granite and xenolith samples is discussed in the light of the different suggestions about the age of the Malmesbury sediments. The conclusion is reached that all pre-granitization history has been eliminated. The possibility of the use of argon retention as a measure of metamorphic activity is suggested. PMID:18960415

  17. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  18. Grusification of granite (scheme based on the study of granites from Sudety Mts., SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajdas, Bartlomiej; Michalik, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Gruses that are developed on the Karkonosze granite (three outcrops) and the Izera granite (one outcrop) were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS and electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction, IR spectrometry, chemical analysis (ICP-AES and ICP-MS), hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratio determination and K-Ar dating. Three groups of samples were distinguished according to the degree of grusification (group I - compact granite; group II - friable granite; group III - granitic grus). The results of the examination allowed to present the simplified scheme of the grusification: 1. Development of microcracks (caused by tectonic stress, mechanical upload or magma cooling processes) promote circulation of hydrothermal fluids in granites; 2. The presence of the microcracks in granite facilitate the circulation of low-temperature fluids (low-temperature hydrothermal or weathering fluids). Fluids cause hydration and expansion of primary biotite (vermiculitization), what leads to development of secondary cracks in a rock. Fluids can also induce advanced alteration of plagioclases into clay minerals (mainly smectite or vermiculite). Expansion of biotite during vermiculitization is the most important factor in grusification. Other processes of alteration also contribute to grusification. Hydrothermal fluids in granite contribute the increase of alteration degree of primary minerals (e.g. sericitization and albitization of feldspar, chloritization or muscovitization of biotite, decomposition of monazite-(Ce) and formation of secondary REE phosphates). If primary biotite is subjected to muscovitization or chloritization, complete grusification of granite does not occur because of lack of vermiculitation.

  19. Trace-element compositions and Br/Cl ratios of fluid inclusions in the Tsushima granite, Japan: Significance for formation of granite-derived fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Masanori; Sasa, Kimikazu; Shin, Ki-Choel; Ishii, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz samples from a miarolitic cavity, two quartz veins, and a hydrothermal ore vein in the Tsushima granite, Japan, were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission to examine the chemistry and process of formation of hydrothermal fluids in an island-arc granite. Most of the inclusions were polyphase or vapor, and there were smaller numbers of two-phase aqueous inclusions. The inclusions contained Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ge, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb. For each inclusion, there was a strong positive correlation between Cl content and contents of other elements identified. Concentration ranges for most elements (other than Rb and Ge) in polyphase inclusions from the miarolitic cavity were comparable to those from cavities in alkaline granites; those from the ore vein were comparable to large-scale continental hydrothermal ore deposits. The lower Rb and higher Ge contents in the polyphase inclusions of the Tsushima granite may be characteristic of hydrothermal fluids from calc-alkaline granites in an island-arc setting. Br/Cl ratios (by weight) for the vapor and two-phase inclusions were 0.0013-0.0030 and differed among the three geological settings. Br/Cl ratios of polyphase inclusions increased with increasing Cl content in single-crystal and polycrystalline quartz, and high values of more than 0.0100 were found. The high Br/Cl ratios and the differences among the geological settings sampled may be due to pressure dependences of partitioning of Cl and Br between fluid and magma during fluid segregation and between liquid and vapor during boiling. Using a simple model based on these dependences, we calculated Br/Cl ratios greater than 0.01 in brine generated at pressures <0.89 kbar. Differences in Br/Cl ratios in polyphase and vapor inclusions from each geological setting were attributed to mixing between two end-member fluids: a high Br/Cl fluid generated at low pressure and a low Br/Cl fluid generated at high pressure. Br/Cl ratios of

  20. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  1. Neutrons and Granite: Transport and Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, P J

    2004-04-13

    In typical ground materials, both energy deposition and radionuclide production by energetic neutrons vary with the incident particle energy in a non-monotonic way. We describe the overall balance of nuclear reactions involving neutrons impinging on granite to demonstrate these energy-dependencies. While granite is a useful surrogate for a broad range of soil and rock types, the incorporation of small amounts of water (hydrogen) does alter the balance of nuclear reactions.

  2. Les Granites des Complexes Annulaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Peter

    This book, Manual and Methods 4, published by France's BRGM, together with a mouthwatering preface by R. Black promises much for the student of ring complexes. It consists of four distinct chapters, each divided into a number of subsections, with 52 text figures and 9 tables. Although in reality it is based on a doctoral dissertation concerned with the newly discovered ring structures in Corsica, it is spiced with references to past and present research in Nigeria, and observations from French expeditions to the Kerguelen Islands. There are also brief commentaries on the author's observations in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. The text effectively represents a distillation of knowledge concerned with oversaturated alkaline magmatism in continental and oceanic settings. The book has a good bibliography with English-language scientific literature references up to 1980. While aware that ring-complex compositions can be variable, ranging from calc-alkaline to alkaline, the author restricts his writings to granitic and related rocks of the alkaline and peralkaline spectrum.

  3. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-11-06

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  4. Stereology-based fabric analysis of microcracks in damaged granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Takato; Oda, Masanobu

    2004-08-01

    Crack-related fabric analyses were carried out in terms of crack tensors using Inada granite deformed inelastically in a triaxial vessel up to post-failure, focusing on the fabric changes during brittle failure. Complementarily, numerical simulation tests were conducted to determine the representative volume element (RVE) required for crack surveying. Numerical simulation tests show that the window size for crack surveying should be at least six times the mean trace length in order to obtain a statistically meaningful crack tensor. A larger window is needed to estimate the distribution of crack radii. In quartz, cracks grow preferentially parallel to the major loading axis. Crack tensors in quartz can provide a measure of damage reflecting inelastic deformation under differential stress in past geological events. During the first stage of inelastic deformation, the number density of cracks decreases with a rather sharp increase in crack diameters. This happens because pre-existing cracks in intact rock join together to make longer cracks. However, the density remains almost constant during the second stage of loading from 90% to 100% of the peak stress. The crack diameter gradually increases due to the stable propagation of cracks. When granite is further deformed beyond the peak stress, the number density decreases again while sharp increases in crack diameters appear as a result of the forking and coalescence of cracks. It is also suggested that load-normal grain boundary cracks are generated as a result of the rolling and sliding of disintegrated blocks in the post-failure stage.

  5. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

    2013-06-01

    In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

  6. Geochronology, geochemistry, and petrology of the Precambrian Sandia granite, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Precambrian Sandia granite of north-central New Mexico belongs to the 1.2-1.6 Ga crustal province of the western USA. The granite shows an intrusive contact with the metamorphic country rocks. The Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of the country rocks is 1.61 +/- 0.06 Ga, (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr)/sub 0/ = 0.705 +/- 0.001. The culmination of the intrusion of the Sandia granite took place at 1.44 +/- 0.04 GA. (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/)/sub 0/ = 0.7054 +/- 0.0005. Rb-Sr ages on biotite-whole rock pairs and an /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar dating of a biotite from the granite indicate final cooling to 300-350/sup 0/C at 1.33 Ga. This suggests slow cooling of the granite at rates which averaged 4/sup 0/C/Ma for about 100 Ma after its emplacement; during this period the Rb-Sr isotope system perhaps remained partially open. The Sandia granite shows compositional variation from granodiorite to quartz monzonite in both the northern and southern blocks. The field geology, petrology, and geochemistry of the two blocks suggest that they form a single pluton. Both the Sandia granite and mesocratic, two pyroxene granulite xenoliths therein give an ..delta../sup 18/O value of +8.0 +/- 0.5% indicating (meta)igneous source ricks for each of them. These values tend to rule out Condie's (1978) favored hypothesis for magma generation of 30-50% partial melting of siliceous gradulites. Rather, they favor an alternative hypothesis, equally satisfactory from the geochemical viewpoint, involving 5-10% melt of a gabbroic or two-pyroxene granulite parent rock in the lower crust. The Sandia granite, and by implication, the other high-Ca granitic rocks of the western USA thus do not seem to represent addition of new mantle-derived materials to the middle-late Proterozoic crust of this section of the continent.

  7. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  8. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  9. Disposable Scholarship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fredrick

    2004-01-01

    The digital materials that faculty produce for their classrooms often are saved only to storage devices that might become obsolete in a few years. Without an institutional effort to provide access systems, storage, and services for their digital media, are campuses in danger of creating "Disposable Scholarship"? In this article, the author…

  10. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  11. Age of granites of Wrangel Island metamorphic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, Marina; Sergeev, Sergey; Sokolov, Sergey; Tuchkova, Marianna

    2014-05-01

    Within huge arctic shelf of Eastern-Siberian and Chukchi seas the metamorphic basement (Wrangel complex, Berri Formation) is exposed only on the Wrangel Island. There are different points of views on the age of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex (Berri Formation): (1) Neoproterozoic (Kameneva, 1970; Ageev, 1979; Kos'ko et al., 1993, 2003), (2) Devonian (Til'man et al., 1964, 1970; Ganelin, 1989). Metamorphic basement is represented by stratified complex, composed of dislocated metavolcanic, metavolcaniclastic and metasedimentary rocks (schists, metasandstones, metaconglomerated) with single lenses and layers of carbonate rocks (Wrangel Island…, 2003). Among basement rocks in the central part of Wrangel Island there are felsic intrusive bodies. They form small tabular bodies from tens centimeters to 70-80 meters in thickness, rarely dikes and small stocks (up to 20 x 30 m) and are composed of granite-porphyres, rarely muscovite porphyr-like granites and granosyenites (Wrangel Island…, 2003). The age of intrusions allow to determine the age of basement formation. Earlier the age of intrusions was determined by different methods and correlated to the boundary between Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic: K-Ar 570-603 Ma, Pb-Pb 590±50 Ma (S.M. Pavlov, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), Rb-Sr 475±31 Ma (I.M.Vasil'eva, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), U-Pb 609, 633, 677 Ma (Geological Survey of Canada) (Wrangel Island…, 2003; Kos'ko et al., 1993; Cecile et al., 1991). In the lower part of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex there are conformable tabular bodies of gneissosed and foliated granitoides. The latter are meramorphosed and transformed in biotite-muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite and muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite gneisses and schists, where relics of primary minerals (quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, rarely biotite and muscovite) and equigranular granitic

  12. "Gris Quintana": a Spanish granite from the Past into the Future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    "Gris Quintana" is a medium-grained, biotite and amphibole granodiorite extracted in the Pluton of Quintana de la Serena (Extremadura, Spain). It is a constant light grey granite from the Hercynian geologic with excellent physicomechanical and physicochemical properties. The granodiorite is composed of plagioclase, biotite, quartz and alkali feldspar, with accessory allanite, titanite, apatite, zircon and ilmenite, mostly as inclusions within the biotite crystals. This commercial variety is extracted from many quarries in the late Hercynian plutons located in the Iberian Massif in Spain period (transition between Central Iberian and Ossa-Moren Zones), having large reserves of granite. Many of the quarries have their own transformation factory (high production zone), with which the sector is offered an endless variety of finishes and constructive rock typologies. A wide range of solutions to architects and designers are offered. Gris Quintana granite is one of the materials with highest technological benefits that are used in arquitecture. "Gris Quintana" granite has been used since ancient times, not only at a regional, but also at national and international level: paving, building (structural, exterior façadas, interior uses), urban decoration and funeral art. It can be found in monuments and more recently, in buildings of different styles and uses, that stand out in beauty and splendor, lasting in time. Some singular works in "Gris Quintana" granite all over the world: extension to the "Congreso de Diputados" (Parliament) in Madrid, "Puerta de San Vicente" in Madrid, Andalucia Parliament columns in Sevilla, New Senate Buiding in Madird, "Gran Vía" pavement in Madrid, "Teatro Real façade" in Madrid… "Gris Quintana" granite accomplishes all the requirements for its nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource, for both its use in construction and for artistic purposes.

  13. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  14. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  15. Origin of late Archean granite: geochemical evidence from the Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Warren C.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1986-07-01

    The 2,700-Ma Vermilion Granitic Complex of northern Minnesota is a granite-migmatite terrane composed of supracrustal metasedimentary rocks, mafic rocks, tonalitic and granodioritic plutonic rocks, and granite. The metasedimentary rocks are predominantly graywacke, which has been regionally metamorphosed to garnet-sillimanite-muscovite-bearing biotite schist, and has locally undergone anatexis. The mafic rocks form early phases within the complex and are of two types: (1) basaltic amphibolite, and (2) monzodiorite and essexite rich in large ion lithophile elements (LILE). The members of the early plutonic suite form small bodies that intrude the metasedimentary rocks and mafic rocks, producing an early migmatite. The granite is of two distinct varieties: (1) white garnet-muscovite-biotite leucogranite ( S-type; Chappell and White 1974) and (2) grayish-pink biotite-magnetite Lac La Croix Granite ( I-type). The leucogranite occurs in the early migmatite and in paragneissic portions of the complex, whereas the Lac La Croix Granite is a late-stage intrusive phase that invades the early migmatite and metasediment (producing a late migmatite) and forms a batholith. This study focuses specifically on the origin of granite in the Vermilion Granitic Complex. Chemical mass-balance calculations suggest that the S-type two-mica leucogranite had a metagraywacke source, and that the I-type Lac La Croix Granite formed via partial fusion of calc-alkaline tonalitic material, which may have been similar to rocks of the early plutonic suite. This model is satisfactory for petrogenesis of similar Late Archean post-kinematic granites throughout the Canadian Shield.

  16. Indoor radon risk associated to post-tectonic biotite granites from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, L M O; Gomes, M E P; Teixeira, R J S; Pereira, A J S C; Neves, L J P F

    2016-11-01

    At Vila Pouca de Aguiar area, northern Portugal, crops out a post-tectonic Variscan granite pluton, related with the Régua-Vila Real-Verín fault zone, comprising three types of biotite granites. Among these granites, PSG granite yield the highest average contents of U, probably due to its enrichment in accessory U-bearing minerals such as zircon. In the proximity of faults and joints, these granites are often affected by different degrees of hydrothermal alteration, forming reddish altered rocks, commonly known as "episyenites". These altered rocks are probably associated to the occurrence of hydrothermal processes, which led to uranium enrichment in the most advanced stages of episyenitization. In these granites, both average gamma absorbed dose rates in outdoor and indoor air are higher than those of the world average. Furthermore, even in the worst usage scenario, all these granites can be used as a building material, since their annual effective doses are similar to the limit defined by the European Commission. The geometric mean of radon activity of 91 dwellings located at the Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton is 568Bqm(-3), exceeding that of other northern Portuguese granites. Measurements carried out during a winter season, indicate that 62.6% of the analysed dwellings yield higher indoor radon average values than the Portuguese legislation limit (400Bqm(-3)), and annual effective doses due higher than the world's average value (1.2mSvy(-1)). The interaction of geogenic, architectural and anthropogenic features is crucial to explain the variance in the geometric mean of radon activity of dwellings from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, but the role of geologic faults is probably the most important decisive factor to increase the indoor radon concentration in dwellings. Hence, the development of awareness campaigns in order to inform population about the incurred radiological risks to radon exposure are highly recommended for this specific area. PMID:27448957

  17. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passero, Richard N.

    1978-01-01

    1977 was a year of continued and expanding efforts in the application of the geosciences to land-use planning, especially as they relate to geologic hazards, and elucidating the role of geology in public policy. The work of environmental geological programs is reviewed. (Author/MA)

  18. Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanpied, M.L.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors

  19. Proterozoic granitic magmatism in the Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapala, I.; Lahtinen, R.; Rämö, O. T.

    2003-04-01

    The main tectonic units of the Fennoscandian Shield are 1) the Archean 3.1--2.6 Ga granite gneiss (GGT) -- greenstone belt domain in the east, 2) the broad orogenic Svecofennian domain (1.9--1.8 Ga), and 3) the Southwest Scandinavian domain that consists of granitic gneisses, Gothian arc-type volcanic -- sedimentary and plutonic rocks (1.7--1.55 Ga), and has a Sveconorwegian (Grenvillian) overprint. The Svecofennian domain was formed by sequential accretion of volcanic arcs to the Archean craton (Lahtinen, 1994; Nironen, 1997). Rifting of the Archean craton at 2.50--2.44 Ga led to emplacement of a bimodal suite of layered mafic intrusions and minor A-type quartz syenites -- granites into the Archean crust in nortern Finland and adjacent Russia. Nd isotopes suggest Archean crustal source for some of the silicic plutons (Lauri and Mänttäri, 2003). The earliest Svecofennian granitoid rocks are ˜1.92 Ga gneissic calc-alkalic tonalities and granodiorites in central and northernmost Finland close to the Archean craton. I-type 1.89--1.87 Ga calc-alkalic granitoids of tonalite-granodiorite-granite association are common in the Svecofennian belts. In the Central Finland Granitoid Complex two suites can be separated: the 1.89--1.88 Ga calc-alkalic deformed granodiorites and granites, and the massive 1.88--1.87 Ga alkali-calcic or alkalic quartz monzonites and monzogranites (Nironen et al., 2000; Rämö et al., 2001). Southern Finland is characterized by 1.84--1.80 Ga migmatite-forming peraluminous S-type granites that were formed by anatectic melting of mainly sedimentary -- volcanic rocks of the thick Svecofennian crust. The Svecofennian plutonism was finished by intrusion of extension-related postorogenic (post-collisional) 1.80--1.77 Ga granite stocks that have a shoshonitic affinity and were possibly derived from enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd isotopes of the 1.81--1.77 Ga granites of northern Finland and the 1.88--1.86 Ga granites of eastern Finland near the

  20. A-type stratoid granites of Madagascar: evidence of Rodinia rifting at ca 790 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, Anne; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Bouchez, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    The so-called stratoid granites are sheet-like granites emplaced as conformable sills in the Precambrian basement of central Madagascar. Most of them have A-type affinities (Nédélec et al. 1995). They are everywhere characterized by the same structural pattern evidencing two stages of deformation. The first one (foliations mildly dipping to the west and lineations trending WSW) is regarded as the consequence of synkinematic magma emplacement. The second stage, characterized by interference folds, steeply dipping foliations and subhorizontal lineations trending to the north, corresponds to a more or less pronounced reworking in ductile conditions, regarded as the result of Late Pan-African transcurrent tectonics. To the north of Antananarivo, the stratoid granites are associated with comagmatic quartz-syenites. New U-Pb zircons ages obtained by in situ analyses reveal two group of ages: upper intercept ages of ca 790 Ma, and younger ages of ca 550 Ma corresponding to crystal rims. These new data question the geological significance of former TIMS ages of ca 630 Ma formerly obtained from the same rocks (Paquette & Nédélec 1998). It is suggested that the stratoid granites and syenites were emplaced during a crustal thinning event corresponding to an early Rodinia rifting stage. The Pan-African imprint on these rocks is therefore limited to reheating, tectonic reworking and deep fluid transfer in the vicinity of Late-Neoproterozoic shear zones at ca 550 Ma (Nédélec et al. 2014).

  1. Early Proterozoic syn-and postcollision granites in the northern part of the Baikal fold area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, A. M.; Sal'Nikova, E. B.; Kotov, A. B.; Makar'ev, L. B.; Yakovleva, S. Z.; Kovach, V. P.

    2006-10-01

    Early Proterozoic granitoids are of a limited occurrence in the Baikal fold area being confined here exclusively to an arcuate belt delineating the outer contour of Baikalides, where rocks of the Early Precambrian basement are exposed. Geochronological and geochemical study of the Kevakta granite massif and Nichatka complex showed that their origin was related with different stages of geological evolution of the Baikal fold area that progressed in diverse geodynamic environments. The Nichatka complex of syncollision granites was emplaced 1908 ± 5 Ma ago, when the Aldan-Olekma microplate collided with the Nechera terrane. Granites of the Kevakta massif (1846 ± 8 Ma) belong to the South Siberian postcollision magmatic belt that developed since ˜1.9 Ga during successive accretion of microplates, continental blocks and island arcs to the Siberian craton. In age and other characteristics, these granites sharply differ from granitoids of the Chuya complex they have been formerly attributed to. Accordingly, it is suggested to divide the former association of granitoids into the Chuya complex proper of diorite-granodiorite association ˜2.02 Ga old (Neymark et al., 1998) with geochemical characteristics of island-arc granitoids and the Chuya-Kodar complex of postcollision S-type granitoids 1.85 Ga old. The Early Proterozoic evolution of the Baikal fold area and junction zone with Aldan shield lasted about 170 m.y. that is comparable with development periods of analogous structures in other regions of the world.

  2. Radioactivity and gamma-dose rates observed at the Morungaba granites, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Fabio de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha

    2013-07-01

    A ground gamma-ray survey was conducted over part of a large granitic body located near the city of Campinas, eastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The dominant rock types are K-feldspar porphyries-rich granites, porphyritic biotite and hornblend-bearing granites, fine to medium-grained monzogranites and medium to gross grained, biotite and muscovite-bearing monzogranites. The radioactive element distribution reflects local geology, in part re-worked by weathering, and the most radioactive rocks are the K-feldspar-rich granites. The rate of the absorbed dose by the air reflects the integrated effects of the radioactive elements distribution. Most of the observed values vary between 67 and 130 nGy h(-1) and with localised spots with the absorbed dose rate values up to 193 nGy h(-1) and low values of ∼25 nGy h(-1). The mean air absorbed dose rate for the studied area is 77 nGy h(-1). PMID:23222823

  3. Geochemical evolution of the metaluminous and peraluminous granites of Ganawuri Younger Granite Complex, northern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imeokparia, Ebo. Gab.

    The Ganawuri Complex is one of the numerous high level composite granitoid bodies occurring in the central plateau sector of the Nigerian Younger Granite province. Lithologically the Complex is composed of a hastingsite-fayalite granite, hastingsite-biotite granite and biotite granite. Although the major element chemistry of the constituent rock types shows only subtle variation typical of granites with minimum melt composition, the trace elements data and variation indicate that the granites in the Complex formed essentially by fractional crystallization. Geochemically the late-stage rock types are characterized by anomalously high contents of F, Li, Y, Th, Ga, Rb, Sn and Nb and by unusually low contents of Ba, Sr and Zr. These geochemical peculiarities are interpreted to be due to extreme fractionation. The ultimate product of fractional crystallization was a water-saturated melt, enriched in incompatible elements whose crystallization resulted in tin mineralization. The chemistry of the rocks can be compared with A-type granites which are considered typical of anorogenic extensional environments and/or Continental rifts.

  4. Radionuclide transport in fractured granite interface zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q. H.; Möri, A.

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study migration paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, a micro-scale mapping technique was applied by interfacing laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to detect the small scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides in the interface zones between fractures and the granitic rock matrix. Long-lived 234U, 235U, and 237Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the diffusion accessible rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA-ICP-MS technique. The retarded actinides are mainly located at the fracture walls and in the fine grained fracture filling material as well as within the immediately adjacent wallrock. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. Actinides studied in this work did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as into the granite matrix, most likely due to the lower porosity, the enhanced sorption capacity and the disturbed diffusion paths of the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for 237Np and uranium isotopes over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modelling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results.

  5. Radionuclide migration in clayrock host formations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: advances in process understanding and up-scaling methods resulting from the EC integrated project `Funmig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, S.; Tournassat, C.; Goutelard, F.; Parneix, J. C.; Gimmi, T.; Maes, N.

    2009-04-01

    One of the ‘pillars' supporting Safety Cases for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in clayrock formations is the knowledge base regarding radionuclide (Rn) retention by sorption and diffusion-driven transport which is why the EC integrated project ‘Funmig' focused a major part of its effort on advancing understanding of these two macroscopic phenomena. This talk presents some of the main results of this four year effort (2005-2008). One of the keys to understanding diffusion-driven transport of anionic and cationic radionuclide species in clayrocks lies in a detailed understanding of the phenomena governing Rn total concentration and speciation (dissolved, adsorbed) in the different types of pore spaces present in highly-compacted masses of permanently charged clay minerals. Work carried out on a specifically synthesized montmorillonite (a model for the clay mineral fraction in clayrocks) led to development, and preliminary experimental validation, of a conceptually coherent set of theoretical models (molecular dynamics, electrostatic double layer, thermodynamic) describing dissolved ion and water solvent behavior in this material. This work, complemented by the existing state of the art, provides a sound theoretical basis for explaining such important phenomena as anion exclusion, cation exchange and the diffusion behavior of anions, weakly sorbing cations and water tracers. Concerning the behavior of strongly sorbing and/or redox-reactive radionuclides in clay systems, project research improved understanding of the nature of sorption reactions and sorbed species structure for key radioelements, or analogues (U, Se, Eu, Sm, Yb, Nd) on the basal surfaces and in the interlayers of synthetic or purified clay minerals. A probable mechanism for Se(IV) retention by reduction to Se° in Fe2+-containing clays was brought to light; this same process was also studied on the Callovo-Oxfordien clayrock targeted by the French radwaste management program. The

  6. Geological repository for nuclear high level waste in France from feasibility to design within a legal framework

    SciTech Connect

    Voizard, Patrice; Mayer, Stefan; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2007-07-01

    Over the past 15 years, the French program on deep geologic disposal of high level and long-lived radioactive waste has benefited from a clear legal framework as the result of the December 30, 1991 French Waste Act. To fulfil its obligations stipulated in this law, ANDRA has submitted the 'Dossier 2005 Argile' (clay) and 'Dossier 2005 Granite' to the French Government. The first of those reports presents a concept for the underground disposal of nuclear waste at a specific clay site and focuses on a feasibility study. Knowledge of the host rock characteristics is based on the investigations carried out at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory. The repository concept addresses various issues, the most important of which relates to the large amount of waste, the clay host rock and the reversibility requirement. This phase has ended upon review and evaluation of the 'Dossier 2005' made by different organisations including the National Review Board, the National Safety Authority and the NEA International Review Team. By passing the 'new', June 28, 2006 Planning Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste, the French parliament has further defined a clear legal framework for future work. This June 28 Planning Act thus sets a schedule and defines the objectives for the next phase of repository design in requesting the submission of a construction authorization application by 2015. The law calls for the repository program to be in a position to commission disposal installations by 2025. (authors)

  7. Geologic setting and mineralization of the Kougarok Sn(Ta-Nb) deposit, seaward peninsula, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Puchner, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Kougarok tin (tantalum-niobium) deposit is located in the north-central Seward Peninsula, roughly 130 kilometers north of Nome, Alaska. Tin and tantalum-niobium mineralization occur within granitic dikes, subhorizontal sheets, plugs, and in schists adjacent to the granite bodies. Rb/Sr and K/Ar age determinations indicate the granites at Kougarok are late Cretaceous in age and coeval with other tin granites of the Seward Peninsula. The host rock to the granites at Kougarok is polydeformed pelitic schists of possible Precambrian age. Known mineralization occurs in four geologic settings: 1) within steep cylindrical pipes of greisenized granite; 2) in greisenized dikes; 3) in greisen along the roof zone of a subhorizontal granite sheet; and 4) as stringer zones in schists. Tin mineralization is known in all the above geologic environments and occurs dominantly as disseminated cassiterite in quartz+/-tourmaline+/-topaz greisen. Grades of significant tin mineralization range from 0.1 to 15 percent tin and average approximately 0.5 percent tin. Tantalum-niobium mineralization is confined to the roof greisen environment. Tantalite-columbite occurs as disseminated grains in white mica altered granite lateral to tin-bearing quartz-tourmaline greisen. Grades for both tantalum and niobium range from 0.02 to 0.05 percent.

  8. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UNQUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, WITH UN-QUARRIED GRANITE OUTCROP IN BACKGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 3, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  9. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  10. The use of protective barriers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into a mined geologic facility for the disposal of radioactive waste: A review of previous investigations and potential concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Tolan, T.L.

    1993-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating the feasibility of developing protective barrier system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to thwart inadvertent human intrusion into this radioactive-waste disposal system for a period of 9,900 years after assumed loss of active institutional controls. The protective barrier system would be part of a series of enduring passive institutional controls whose long-term function will be to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent human activities (e.g., exploratory drilling for resources) that could disrupt the WIPP disposal system.