Science.gov

Sample records for geological reference materials

  1. Evaluation of New Geological Reference Materials for U-Series Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, J. S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Nunn, A. J.; Ui Chearnaigh, K.; Amato, R.; Murrell, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium-series analytical measurements are widely used in geochemistry, geochronology, paleoclimatology, volcanology, environmental risk assessment and other fields. Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques e.g. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS present numerous opportunities for the geoanalytical community. As with other analytical techniques, the quality of the elemental concentration and isotopic data obtained through microanalytical techniques is dependent on the accurate characterization of suitable reference materials. Even for the case of fs-laser ablation applications, a range of well-characterized standards are required for high precision U-series work. Advances have been made in evaluating existing standard reference materials for U-series isotopic analysis, but this work is ongoing as more reference materials become available. In this study we present MC-TIMS and MC-ICP-MS results for uranium and thorium isotopic ratios and elemental concentrations measured in a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of chemical compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite and a soil. U concentrations for these glasses range from ≈2 to 14 μg/g and [Th]/[U] ratios range from ≈4 to 6. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data will also be presented for rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru, which can be used as a rhyolitic reference material. These high-precision and high-accuracy ratios, from a suite of standards that exhibit a range of natural, non-basaltic compositions, will complement data from existing standards and expand the catalogue of reference materials that are appropriate for in situ U-series work. These results can be used to assess the performance of microanalytical techniques and will facilitate inter-laboratory comparison of data within the broader geoscience community.

  2. Evaluation of new geological reference materials for uranium-series measurements: Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) and macusanite obsidian.

    PubMed

    Denton, J S; Murrell, M T; Goldstein, S J; Nunn, A J; Amato, R S; Hinrichs, K A

    2013-10-15

    Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques present numerous opportunities for the analytical community, provided accurately characterized reference materials are available. Here, we present multicollector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data obtained by isotope dilution for a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite, and a soil. Uranium concentrations for these glasses range from ∼2 to 14 μg g(-1), Th/U weight ratios range from ∼4 to 6, (234)U/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.93 to 1.02, and (230)Th/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.98 to 1.12. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data are also presented for a rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru (macusanite). This glass can also be used as a rhyolitic reference material, has a very low Th/U weight ratio (around 0.077), and is approximately in (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th secular equilibrium. The U-Th concentration data agree with but are significantly more precise than those previously measured. U-Th concentration and isotopic data agree within estimated errors for the two measurement techniques, providing validation of the two methods. The large (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th disequilibria for some of the glasses, along with the wide range in their chemical compositions and Th/U ratios should provide useful reference points for the U-series analytical community. PMID:24004454

  3. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    PubMed Central

    Creech, J.B.; Baker, J.A.; Handler, M.R.; Bizzarro, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a 196Pt-198Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias. Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily dissolved in acid in preparation for anion-exchange chemistry. Pt was recovered from anion-exchange resin in concentrated HNO3 acid after elution of matrix elements, including the other platinum group elements (PGE), in dilute HCl and HNO3 acids. The separation method has been calibrated using a precious metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ≥90% with purity of ≥95%. Using this chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one sample from the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary layer. Pt concentrations in these samples range from ca. 5 ng g−1 to 4 μg g−1. This analytical method has been shown to have an external reproducibility on δ198Pt (permil difference in the 198Pt/194Pt ratio from the IRMM-010 standard) of ±0.040 (2 sd) on Pt solution standards (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2 sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a range of δ198Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These results

  4. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, John F.; McKay, David S.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  5. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with.

  6. Development of Microanaytical Reference Materials for In-situ Anaysis at the U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S.

    2006-05-01

    With the increased use of microanalysis in geochemical investigations comes the need for a reliable and diversified supply of reference materials homogenous at the micrometer scale to assist analysts in element quantification. To meet these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to develop a series of reference materials which cover a range of sample types currently being investigated in our microanalytical laboratories. Initial efforts have focused on the development of natural basalt glasses (BCR- 2G, BHVO-2G, BIR-1G, TB-1G, NKT-1G) from a variety of geologic settings. In addition to these natural basalt materials a series of synthetic basalt glasses GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G have also been developed with 65 trace elements at 0, 3, 30, and 300, ppm respectively. The homogeneity of these materials and their use in international microanalytical proficiency studies will be presented. Application of this technology to the development of glass reference materials as part of a USGS/NASA collaborative studies on the development of Lunar Soil Simulant material will also be discussed.

  7. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  8. Choosing optimal exposure times for XRF core-scanning: Suggestions based on the analysis of geological reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Löwemark, Ludvig; Chang, Queenie; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Huei-Fen; Song, Sheng-Rong; Wei, Kuo-Yen

    2016-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core-scanning is a fast and nondestructive technique to assess elemental variations of unprocessed sediments. However, although the exposure time of XRF-scanning directly affects the scanning counts and total measurement time, only a few studies have considered the influence of exposure time during the scan. How to select an optimal exposure time to achieve reliable results and reduce the total measurement time is an important issue. To address this question, six geological reference materials from the Geological Survey of Japan (JLK-1, JMS-1, JMS-2, JSD-1, JSD-2, and JSD-3) were scanned by the Itrax-XRF core scanner using the Mo- and the Cr-tube with different exposure times to allow a comparison of scanning counts with absolute concentrations. The regression lines and correlation coefficients of elements that are generally used in paleoenvironmental studies were examined for the different exposure times and X-ray tubes. The results show that for those elements with relatively high concentrations or high detectability, the correlation coefficients are higher than 0.90 for all exposure times. In contrast, for the low detectability or low concentration elements, the correlation coefficients are relatively low, and improve little with increased exposure time. Therefore, we suggest that the influence of different exposure times is insignificant for the accuracy of the measurements. Thus, caution must be taken when interpreting the results of elements with low detectability, even when the exposure times are long and scanning counts are reasonably high.

  9. [Determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhao-chu; Gao, Shan; Liu, Xiao-ming; Yuan, Hong-lin; Liu, Ye; Diwu, Chun-rong

    2007-12-01

    The authors studied in detail the memory effect of Bi, Sb, As and Te in ICP-MS. The produced memory effects of these element were in the order of Bi>Sb>Te>As. Bi was seriously adsorbed by the polypropylene sample storing bottle and the sample introduction system in the low nitric acid medium (0.01%-1% HNO3). The washout effect of 0.1% HF was found to be better than those of 6% HNO3 and 0.1% HClO4. Under the given experiment conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.001 and 0.0001 ng x mL(-1) for Sb and Bi, respectively. The authors report the determination of Sb and Bi in 24 international geological reference materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS (including AGV-2, BHVO-2, BCR-2, etc.). Most of the results were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported values in the literature. The authors' determined values of Sb for GSR-1 (granite; 0.30 microg x g(-1)) and JP-1 (peridotite; 0.045 microg x g(-1)) are obviously higher than those reported values. This is attributed to the efficient pressurized acid digestion, which is generally much more efficient than conventional wet digestions for insoluble minerals. PMID:18330312

  10. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  11. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  12. Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-10-07

    One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay

  13. Characterization of reference materials for the Barrier Materials Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.A.; Aden, G.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Jones, T.E.; Lane, D.L.; Noonan, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    Initial characterization of the geologic and engineered barrier materials for a nuclear waste repository in basalt has been completed. Data have been obtained on the characteristics of the reference waste forms which are being studied for eventual disposal in such a repository. Reference basalt entablature, colonnade, and flow top specimens have been selected from the Umtanum flow, which is the primary basalt flow under consideration for repository siting. Material from the Mabton Interbed Stratum, Pomona Flow basalt, smectite clay from the Pomona Flow, a potassium clinoptilolite, Beverly sandstone and tuff, and Grande Ronde groundwater are also included in the suite of reference geologic materials. Reference engineered barrier materials include sodium bentonite and canister metals such as carbon steel, cupronickel, Hastelloy and Inconel alloys. Spent fuel, borosilicate glass, and supercalcine ceramic comprise the reference waste forms. Analyses were made for physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics using techniques ranging from simple observations of color to sophisticated ultrastructural analysis in the electron microscope. Analyses of the elemental and phase chemistries for most of the reference materials have been completed on typical samples. Determinations of material homogeneity are currently being performed.

  14. The Geological Context of Vesta's Dark Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Otto, K.; Krohn, K.; McCord, T. B.; Williams, D. A.; Yingst, R.; Stephan, K.; Combe, J.; Palomba, E.; Tosi, F.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    origin of the dark material is still debated and it is tentatively suggested that dark material could be either exogenic, from carbon-rich low velocity impactors, or endogenic, from freshly exposed mafic material or impact melt (3). However the variety of geological settings of dark material suggest more than one process involved in their formation and also more than one source of its origin. References: (1) Jaumann et al., 2012, LPSC 43, #1807; (2) Jaumann, et al., 2012, Science 336, 687-690; (3) McCord, et al., 202, Nature, accepted. Grateful Support of the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams is acknowledged. This work is supported by DLR, by NASA through the Dawn project and the Dawn at Vesta Participating Scientist program and by ASI.

  15. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes.

    PubMed

    Finkelman, Robert B

    2006-12-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. PMID:17159275

  16. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  17. Infrared Analysis of Geological Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Clark, E. Roy

    1980-01-01

    Describes the infrared analysis of geological specimens which can form the basis of a laboratory exercise, allowing some minerals to be identified by "fingerprint" technique. Students can gain insight into the concept of symmetry and environment around an atom. (Author/SA)

  18. Impact jetting of geological materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenbo; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1995-08-01

    To understand jetting of earth materials, gabbro slabs (5 mm thick) were accelerated to 1.5-2 km sec -1 and impacted gabbro (5-10 mm thick), novaculite (10 mm thick), and porous sandstone (12 mm thick) targets at inclination angles of 30°-60°. The ejecta were collected using a catcher box filled with styrofoam and the particles are extracted using chloroform. Jetting angles are determined by the relative positions of the target and the crater produced by the ejecta. The mass of the ejected particles per unit area (˜50 mg cm -2) of the impactor remains almost independent of the impact velocity, inclination angle, thickness of the target and sample mineralogy, and density. Hydrodynamic models are used to calculate the jetting mass, angle, and velocity. Theoretical models predict ˜6 times more ejecta than the experimentally measured as the inclination angle increases. X-ray diffraction of the recovered ejecta shows that it is still in crystalline form, which agrees with thermodynamic calculations. Because the experimental results indicate that the theoretical jetting model for thin metal plates provides a poor description of the experiments, the application of metal plate theory to planet-sized objects appears to be questionable.

  19. Flameless atomic-absorption determination of gold in geological materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Gold in geologic material is dissolved using a solution of hydrobromic acid and bromine, extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone, and determined using an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace atomizer. A comparison of results obtained by this flameless atomic-absorption method on U.S. Geological Survey reference rocks and geochemical samples with reported values and with results obtained by flame atomic-absorption shows that reasonable accuracy is achieved with improved precision. The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method allows acquisition of data on the distribution of gold at or below its crustal abundance. ?? 1980.

  20. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  2. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is... information only and may not be all inclusive. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference Air Transport... sections in which the material is referenced. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference...

  3. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is... information only and may not be all inclusive. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference Air Transport... sections in which the material is referenced. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference...

  4. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Material is... information only and may not be all inclusive. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference Air Transport... sections in which the material is referenced. Source and name of material 49 CFR reference...

  5. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs. PMID:21744516

  6. Bisphenol A polycarbonate as a reference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Williams, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Test methods require reference materials to standardize and maintain quality control. Various materials have been evaluated as possible reference materials, including a sample of bisphenol A polycarbonate without additives. Screening tests for relative toxicity under various experimental conditions were performed using male mice exposed to pyrolysis effluents over a 200-800 C temperature range. It was found that the bisphenol A polycarbonate served as a suitable reference material as it is available in large quantities, and does not significantly change with time.

  7. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  8. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  9. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., amendment 1 (2011). Table 1 to 49 CFR 171.7—Materials Not Incorporated by Reference Source and name of material 49 CFR reference American Biological Safety Association 1202 Allanson Road, Mundelein, IL...

  10. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., into § 173.417. (2) Table 1 to 49 CFR 171.7—Materials Not Incorporated by Reference Source and name of material 49 CFR reference American Biological Safety Association 1202 Allanson Road, Mundelein, IL...

  11. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. The materials listed in this section...

  12. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. The materials listed in this section...

  13. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reference materials. 92.5 Section 92.5... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.5 Reference materials. The materials listed in this section...

  14. Pilot study for U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Water Samples for pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, L.C.; Fishman, M. J.; Boyle, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has been preparing and maintaining a library of standard reference water samples for inorganic constituents for 19 years. Recently, a pilot study was conducted to see if the reference-sample program could be expanded to include pesticides and other organic materials. Two samples containing organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides, and chlorophenoxy acid herbicides were distributed to a number of laboratories in the United States. One of the samples also contained polychlorinated biphenyls. Interlaboratory data obtained from these round robin studies are presented with intralaboratory information on long-term stability.

  15. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  16. Final recommendations for reference materials in black carbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Skjemstad, Jan O.

    Last summer, a symposium was held to discuss aspects of global biogeochemical cycles, including organic matter cycling in soils, rivers, and marine environments; black carbon particle fluxes and the biological pump; dissolved organic matter; and organic matter preservation. Seventy scientists from various disciplines, including oceanography, soil science, geology, and chemistry attended the 3-day meeting at the Friday Harbor Laboratories, a research station of the University of Washington.“New Approaches in Marine Organic Biogeochemistry” commemorated the life and science of a colleague and friend, John I. Hedges, who was also involved in several groups developing chemical reference materials. Part of this symposium included a workshop on chemical reference materials, where final recommendations of the Steering Committee for Black Carbon Reference Materials were presented.

  17. Reference Materials: Significance, General Requirements, and Demand.

    PubMed

    Kiełbasa, Anna; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-05-01

    Reference materials play an important part in the quality control of measurements. Rapid development of such new scientific disciplines as proteomics, metabolomics, and genomics also necessitates development of new reference materials. This is a great challenge due to the complexity of the production of new reference materials and difficulties associated with achieving their homogeneity and stability. CRMs of tissue are of particular importance. They can be counted among the matrices that are most complex and time consuming in preparation. Tissue is the place of transformation and accumulation of many substances (e.g., metabolites, which are intermediate or end products resulting from metabolic processes). Trace amounts of many substances in tissues must be determined with adequate precision and accuracy. To meet the needs stemming from research and from problems and challenges faced by chemists, analysts, and toxicologists, the number of certified reference materials should be continuously increased. PMID:26042643

  18. Compilation of references on geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    More than 1,100 references concerning geology and hydrology of the Snake River drainage basin above Weiser, Idaho, are compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's RASA (Regional Aquifer-System Analysis) study of the Snake River Plain. The list of references is intended as a primary source of information for investigators concerned with previous studies in the basin. Reference numbers correlate with a key-word index to help the user select and locate desired references. (USGS)

  19. Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) which have values assigned for legacy organic pollutants and toxic elements. Existing SRMs serve as homogenous materials that can be used for method development, meth...

  20. Myths of Isotopic Reference Materials Busted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplen, T.

    2007-12-01

    During the past several years, the determination of the isotopic abundances of elements including H, Li, B, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Tl, and Se has substantially increased because of expanded use in hydrology, environmental studies, microbiology, forensic investigations, atmospheric investigations, oceanography, etc. Improvements in instrumentation enable increasingly precise isotope-amount-ratio measurements in these fields, but these improvements in precision commonly do not lead to improvements in accuracy because of the lack or improper use of isotopic reference materials. When properly used, these critically important materials enable any laboratory worldwide to measure the same homogeneous sample and report the same isotopic abundance within analytical uncertainty. For example, for stable isotopic analysis of gaseous hydrogen samples, the agreement among 36 laboratories worldwide before normalization to any hydrogen gas reference material was 11.8 per mill. After normalization to anchors (gaseous H isotopic reference materials) at each end of the delta H-2 scale, the agreement was 0.85 per mill, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude. Consistency of delta C-13 measurements often can be improved by nearly 50 percent by anchoring the delta C-13 scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in C-13 mole fraction, namely NBS 19 calcite and L-SVEC lithium carbonate. Agreement of delta C-13 values of four expert laboratories analyzing USGS40 L- glutamic acid by CF-IRMS methods improved from 0.084 to 0.015 per mill with use of the two scale anchors (NBS 19 and L-SVEC). Solid oxygen isotopic reference materials (IAEA-600 caffeine, IAEA-601 and IAEA-602 benzoic acids, IAEA-NO-3, USGS32, USGS34, and USGS35 nitrates, NBS-127, IAEA-SO-5, and IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfates) are poorly calibrated. Calibrating these solids to the VSMOW-SLAP reference water scale has been very difficult because both the solids and reference

  1. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  2. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Table 2 of § 94.5—ISO Materials Document No. and name 40 CFR part 94 reference ISO 8178-1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines—Exhaust emission measurement—Part 1: Test-bed measurement of gaseous and... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA,...

  3. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Table 2 of § 94.5—ISO Materials Document No. and name 40 CFR part 94 reference ISO 8178-1, Reciprocating internal combustion engines—Exhaust emission measurement—Part 1: Test-bed measurement of gaseous and... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA,...

  4. Development of solid thorium-232 reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, P.R.; Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    Thorium-232 reference materials having a matrix similar to soil and uranium-mill tailings are necessary for ensuring uniform standardization among measurements performed by remedial-action contractors. A task was undertaken by the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) to prepare some 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of Th-232 reference material by diluting a thorium ore with soil. Target values for Th-232 content were 70, 30, and 10 pCi/g. The recommended thorium-232 concentrations for the three reference materials are 71.2 +- 2.0 pCi/g, 30.5 +- 0.6 pCi/g, and 10.2 +- 0.3 pCi/g.

  5. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil

    PubMed Central

    Poster, Dianne L.; Schantz, Michele M.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil. PMID:27308183

  6. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  7. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  8. Mycotoxins: regulations, quality assurance and reference materials.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, H P

    1995-01-01

    Some 60 countries have currently enacted or proposed regulations for control of mycotoxins (primarily the aflatoxins) in food and animal feed. Various factors influence the establishment of limits for certain mycotoxins, but there is no consistent rationale for setting limits or for enforcement control. The enforcement of the regulations requires monitoring of suspected commodities. Many laboratories perform large numbers of determinations of mycotoxins, in particular aflatoxins, and consider their results to be reliable. Nevertheless, it often happens that laboratories find quite different analytical results on samples that have been especially homogenized for interlaboratory studies. The application of Quality Assurance principles contributes to the reliability of mycotoxin measurements. Quality Assurance is focused on the organizational process and the conditions under which laboratory studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, reported and archived. This is, in itself, an important contribution to the scientific value of a study. A Quality Assurance programme should include various elements, including (certified) reference materials, if available. Certified reference materials are stable, homogeneous products with certified values of the analyte(s) of interest. Various certified reference materials for mycotoxins have been prepared by the European Commission's Community Bureau of Reference, in co-operation with several European laboratories (aflatoxin M1 in milk powder, aflatoxins B1 B2, G1, and G2 in peanut butter, aflatoxin B1 in peanut meal and compound feed, deoxynivalenol in wheat and maize flour). Other reference materials are in a well-advanced development stage (ochratoxin A in wheat flour and pig kidney, fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize). PMID:7664922

  9. Development of Argon Isotope Reference Standards for the U.S. Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Miiller, Archie P.

    2006-01-01

    The comparison of physical ages of geological materials measured by laboratories engaged in geochronological studies has been limited by the accuracy of mineral standards or monitors for which reported ages have differed by as much as 2 %. In order to address this problem, the U.S. Geological Survey is planning to calibrate the conventional 40Ar/40K age of a new preparation of an international hornblende standard labeled MMhb-2. The 40K concentration in MMhb-2 has already been determined by the Analytical Chemistry Division at NIST with an uncertainty of 0.2 %. The 40Ar concentration will be measured by the USGS using the argon isotope reference standards that were recently developed by NIST and are described in this paper. The isotope standards were constructed in the form of pipette/reservoir systems and calibrated by gas expansion techniques to deliver small high-precision aliquots of high-purity argon. Two of the pipette systems will deliver aliquots of 38Ar having initial molar quantities of 1.567 × 10−10 moles and 2.313 × 10−10 moles with expanded (k = 2) uncertainties of 0.058 % and 0.054 %, respectively. Three other pipette systems will deliver aliquots (nominally 4 × 10−10 moles) of 40Ar:36Ar artificial mixtures with similar accuracy and with molar ratios of 0.9974 ± 0.06 %, 29.69 ± 0.06 %, and 285.7 ± 0.08 % (k = 2). These isotope reference standards will enable the USGS to measure the 40Ar concentration in MMhb-2 with an expanded uncertainty of ≈ 0.1 %. In the process of these measurements, the USGS will re-determine the isotopic composition of atmospheric Ar and calculate a new value for its atomic weight. Upon completion of the USGS calibrations, the MMhb-2 mineral standard will be certified by NIST for its K and Ar concentrations and distributed as a Standard Reference Material (SRM). The new SRM and the NIST-calibrated transportable pipette systems have the potential for dramatically improving the accuracy of interlaboratory

  10. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. [474 references

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 474 references, is the fourth in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base was created for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Project by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The references in the bibliography are arranged by subject category: (1) geochemistry, (2) exploration, (3) mineralogy, (4) genesis of deposits, (5) geology of deposits, (6) uranium industry, (7) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas, and (8) reserves and resources. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, and keyword.

  11. 15 CFR 230.3 - New Standard Reference Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New Standard Reference Materials. 230... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS General Information § 230.3 New Standard Reference Materials. When new...

  12. Pesticide sorption on geologic material of varying organic carbon content.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, D C; Wood, A L

    1988-09-01

    Sorption of three pesticides on geologic material ranging in organic carbon content from 0.33 to 6.9 g kg-1 was measured in soil columns using a miscible displacement technique. An octanol-water partitioning model was shown to be inappropriate for predicting sorption of the less hydrophobic pesticides on the low organic carbon materials. PMID:3255290

  13. Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon Materials as Candidate Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, M.; Abe, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method have been investigated in order to establish a thermal diffusivity standard. In many cases, thermal-conductivity values of bulk materials are calculated from the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and bulk density. The thermal diffusivity is one of the transport properties. It depends on the material and is sensitive to the structure. So, it is important to measure the thermal diffusivity of each material. The laser-flash method is one of the most popular methods for thermal-diffusivity measurements of bulk materials above room temperature. Because the method realizes a short-time method and is a non-contact method, it is very suitable for practical use. And it is known as a highly reliable measurement since one-dimensional heat diffusion phenomena observed in these measurements are simple. On the other hand, more reliable values measured by the method are important in the view of thermal design. According to the background, there is a need of a standard for thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method to obtain reliable thermal diffusivities. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in AIST has established reference materials for the laser-flash method and is supplying them. However, they are not sufficient to cover the whole range of thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thus, some candidate materials have been investigated to establish another reference material. Carbon materials are considered since it is preferable for the laser-flash method that the material is optically nontransparent and dark colored (ideally black). In this study, the thermal diffusivity of a pyrolytic graphite that is expected to be a candidate reference material for the laser-flash method is investigated. It was found that the intrinsic thermal diffusivities can be determined along the in-plane and cross-plane directions. The high thermal diffusivity of the in-plane direction, 1.19 × 10^{-3} m2

  14. Determination of carbonate carbon in geological materials by coulometric titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engleman, E.E.; Jackson, L.L.; Norton, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A coulometric titration is used for the determination of carbonate carbon in geological materials. Carbon dioxide is evolved from the sample by the addition of 2 M perchloric acid, with heating, and is determined by automated coulometric titration. The coulometric titration showed improved speed and precision with comparable accuracy to gravimetric and gasometric techniques. ?? 1985.

  15. 47 CFR 0.411 - General reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General reference materials. 0.411 Section 0... Information Printed Publications § 0.411 General reference materials. The following reference materials are... finding aids. See 1 CFR appendix C. (2) The Federal Register. As rules are adopted, amended, or...

  16. 15 CFR 230.2 - Identification of Standard Reference Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of Standard Reference Materials. 230.2 Section 230.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS...

  17. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in five standard reference materials and six reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Gill, L M

    2000-01-01

    A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the materials were certified for selected organic constituents. Ten of these materials (Standard Reference Material [SRM] 1,563 Cholesterol and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Coconut Oil [Natural and Fortified], SRM 1,566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1,570a Spinach Leaves, SRM 1,974a Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis), RM 8,415 Whole Egg Powder, RM 8,418 Wheat Gluten, RM 8,432 Corn Starch, RM 8,433 Corn Bran, RM 8,435 Whole Milk Powder, and RM 8,436 Durum Wheat Flour) were recently distributed by NIST to 4 laboratories with expertise in food analysis for the measurement of proximates (solids, fat, protein, etc.), calories, and total dietary fiber, as appropriate. SRM 1846 Infant Formula was distributed as a quality control sample for the proximates and for analysis for individual fatty acids. Two of the materials (Whole Egg Powder and Whole Milk Powder) were distributed in an earlier interlaboratory comparison exercise in which they were analyzed for several vitamins. Value assignment of analyte concentrations in these 11 SRMs and RMs, based on analyses by the collaborating laboratories, is described in this paper. These materials are intended primarily for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of nutrients in foods of similar composition (based on AOAC INTERNATIONAL's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle). They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value assignment of in-house control materials of similar composition. The addition of proximate information for 10 existing reference materials means that RMs are now available from NIST with assigned values for proximates in 6 of the 9 sectors of

  18. Thermal-infrared spectral observations of geologic materials in emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Luth, Sharon J.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal-infrared spectra of geologic materials in emission were studied using the prototype Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). A variety of of processes and surface modifications that may influence or alter the spectra of primary rock materials were studied. It was confirmed that thermal emission spectra contain the same absorption features as those observed in transmission and reflection spectra. It was confirmed that the TES instrument can be used to obtain relevant spectra for analysis of rock and mineral composition.

  19. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected...., Philadelphia, PA 19103. The table follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference ASTM D 86-95... follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference SAE Paper 770141, Optimization of a...

  20. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected...., Philadelphia, PA 19103. The table follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference ASTM D 86-95... follows: Document number and name 40 CFR part 92 reference SAE Paper 770141, Optimization of a...

  1. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  2. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  3. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  4. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  5. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, Air and Radiation Docket...

  6. Electrostatic aggregation of finely-comminuted geological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John R.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Electrostatic forces are known to have a significant effect on the behavior of finely comminuted particulate material: perhaps the most prevalent expression of this being electrostatic aggregation of particles into relatively coherent clumps. However, the precise role of electrostatic attraction and repulsion in determining the behavior of geological materials (such as volcanic ash and aeolian dust) is poorly understood. Electrostatic aggregation of fine particles is difficult to study on earth either in the geological or laboratory environment principally because the material in an aggregated state remains airborne for such a short period of time. Experiments conducted in the NASA/JSC - KC135 aircraft are discussed. The aircraft experiments are seen as precursors to more elaborate and scientifically more comprehensive Shuttle or Space Station activities.

  7. Electrostatic aggregation of finely-comminuted geological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Greeley, R.

    1986-01-01

    Electrostatic forces are known to have a significant effect on the behavior of finely comminuted particulate material: perhaps the most prevalent expression of this being electrostatic aggregation of particles into relatively coherent clumps. However, the precise role of electrostatic attraction and repulsion in determining the behavior of geological materials (such as volcanic ash and aeolian dust) is poorly understood. Electrostatic aggregation of fine particles is difficult to study on Earth either in the geological or laboratory environment principally because the material in an aggregated state remains airborne for such a short period of time. Experiments conducted in the NASA/JCS - KC135 aircraft are discussed. The aircraft experiments are seen as precursors to more elaborate and scientifically more comprehensive Shuttle or Space Station activities.

  8. Structure and Thermal Properties of Porous Geological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Simon; Williamson, David

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of porous geological materials is important for developing models of the explosive loading of rock in mining applications. To this end it is essential to first characterise its complex internal structure. Knowing the structure shows how the properties of the component materials relate to the overall properties of rock. The structure and mineralogy of Gosford sandstone was investigated and this information was used to predict its thermal properties. The thermal properties of the material were measured experimentally and compared against these predictions.

  9. 40 CFR 1065.1010 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels 1065.701 ASTM D6985-04a,...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.1010 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... of the International System of Units (SI), Barry N. Taylor, Physics Laboratory 1065.20,...

  11. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  12. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at US EPA, OAR, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave... 19428-2959. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference ASTM D86-97: “Standard Test Method for... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June...

  13. Engineering considerations for the recovery of cesium from geologic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, C.

    1993-05-18

    Sorption coefficients for cesium in a variety of media have been compiled from a search of the open literature. The sorption coefficient, or K{sub d}, is a description of a dissolved substance`s tendency to attach to a solid substrate. The compilation of K{sub d}S reported here for cesium demonstrate that this element readily sorbs onto-geological material. As a result of this sorption, the mass transport of cesium in the environment will be retarded. This retarded mass transport, characterized by the retardation factor, can be expected to be significant when compared to water velocities through porous-sorbing medium, such as geologic materials. K{sub d}S for cesium are in the range of 100 m{ell}/g up to 10,000 m{ell}/g. K{sub d}S are also an important parameter in the design of engineered systems for the purpose of recovering cesium from soils. The engineering design is based on a material-balance description of the extraction process. The information presented in this report provides a basis to predict the movement of cesium through geologic materials and also to design and predict the performance of extraction processes such as soil washing.

  14. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard reference materials. 200.104..., PROCEDURES, AND FEES § 200.104 Standard reference materials. Often the performance of a device or structure... response to a stable, homogeneous reference specimen which has been well-characterized with regard to...

  15. New Carbonate Standard Reference Materials for Boron Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Christopher, S. J.; Day, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic composition of boron (δ11B) in marine carbonates is well established as a proxy for past ocean pH. Yet, before palaeoceanographic interpretation can be made, rigorous assessment of analytical uncertainty of δ11B data is required; particularly in light of recent interlaboratory comparison studies that reported significant measurement disagreement between laboratories [1]. Well characterised boron standard reference materials (SRMs) in a carbonate matrix are needed to assess the accuracy and precision of carbonate δ11B measurements throughout the entire procedural chemistry; from sample cleaning, to ionic separation of boron from the carbonate matrix, and final δ11B measurement by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To date only two carbonate reference materials exist that have been value-assigned by the boron isotope measurement community [2]; JCp-1 (porites coral) and JCt-1 (Giant Clam) [3]. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will supplement these existing standards with new solution based inorganic carbonate boron SRMs that replicate typical foraminiferal and coral B/Ca ratios and δ11B values. These new SRMs will not only ensure quality control of full procedural chemistry between laboratories, but have the added benefits of being both in abundant supply and free from any restrictions associated with shipment of biogenic samples derived from protected species. Here we present in-house δ11B measurements of these new boron carbonate SRM solutions. These preliminary data will feed into an interlaboratory comparison study to establish certified values for these new NIST SRMs. 1. Foster, G.L., et al., Chemical Geology, 2013. 358(0): p. 1-14. 2. Gutjahr, M., et al., Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP): Development of a new carbonate standard for stable isotopic analyses. Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly 2014, 2014. 16(EGU2014-5028-1). 3. Inoue, M., et al., Geostandards and

  16. Single And Multiple Jet Penetration Experiments Into Geologic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklo, R; Murphy, M J; Rambur, T A; Switzer, L L; Summers, M A

    2003-12-19

    This paper presents the results of experiments that investigate the effect of single and multiple jet penetration into geologic materials. In previous studies of jet penetration into concrete targets, we demonstrated that an enhanced surface crater could be created by the simultaneous penetration of multiple shaped charge jets and that an enhanced target borehole could be created by the subsequent delayed penetration of a single shaped charge jet. This paper describes an extension of the multiple jet penetration research to limestone and granite.

  17. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  18. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  19. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  20. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  1. Reproducibility of polycarbonate reference material in toxicity evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    A specific lot of bisphenol A polycarbonate has been used for almost four years as the reference material for the NASA-USF-PSC toxicity screening test method. The reproducibility of the test results over this period of time indicate that certain plastics may be more suitable reference materials than the more traditional cellulosic materials.

  2. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... Embankment, London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom, or http://www.imo.org, or 44-(0)20-7735-7611. (1) Revised...

  3. delta 15N and non-carbonate delta 13C values for two petroleum source rock reference materials and a marine sediment reference material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Otter, Marshall L.; Silva, Steven R.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of United States Geological Survey (USGS) Certified Reference Materials USGS Devonian Ohio Shale (SDO-1), and USGS Eocene Green River Shale (SGR-1), and National Research Council Canada (NRCC) Certified Marine Sediment Reference Material (PACS-2), were sent for analysis to four separate analytical laboratories as blind controls for organic rich sedimentary rock samples being analyzed from the Red Dog mine area in Alaska. The samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon (delta13Cncc) and nitrogen (delta15N), percent non-carbonate carbon (Wt % Cncc) and percent nitrogen (Wt % N). SDO-1, collected from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, near Morehead, Kentucky, and SGR-1, collected from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation are petroleum source rocks used as reference materials for chemical analyses of sedimentary rocks. PACS-2 is modern marine sediment collected from the Esquimalt, British Columbia harbor. The results presented in this study are, with the exceptions noted below, the first published for these reference materials. There are published information values for the elemental concentrations of 'organic' carbon (Wt % Corg measured range is 8.98 - 10.4) and nitrogen (Wt % Ntot 0.347 with SD 0.043) only for SDO-1. The suggested values presented here should be considered 'information values' as defined by the NRCC Institute for National Measurement Reference Materials and should be useful for the analysis of 13C, 15N, C and N in organic material in sedimentary rocks.

  4. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  5. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  6. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  7. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  8. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation Docket, room M-1500, 401 M St., SW., Washington D.C. 20460, or at the National Archives and Records... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia,...

  9. AOAC INTERNATIONAL's Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) Reference Materials Database.

    PubMed

    Zink, Donna

    2016-09-01

    The Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) of AOAC INTERNATIONAL recommends policy and criteria to facilitate the development and use of reference materials (RMs) in the validation, implementation, and routine use of AOAC INTERNATIONAL methods. To aid analysts in these areas, TDRM has developed a searchable online database to identify RMs suitable for use with AOAC Official Methods of Analysis(SM) (OMA). RMs can be queried by analyte, by analyte and matrix, or by the selection of an OMA, based on analytes and matrixes described within the scope of the selected method. Only essential information is included in the database, to maximize usefulness and minimize the effort required to keep information current. Additional information, such as measurement uncertainty and purchasing instructions, is available through a link to the producer's Web site, when that information is available online. Data sets are solicited on a voluntary basis from National Metrology Institutes and accredited producers. Consideration of ease-of-use and ease-of-operation is a guiding principle in this database, as is cost management. PMID:27619655

  10. 40 CFR 86.1 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hybrid-Electric Vehicles, Including Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles, June 2010, IBR approved for § 86.1811-04(n... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone... page 170 (13.170)), IBR approved for §§ 86.111-94; 86.1311-94. (2) SAE J1634, Electric Vehicle...

  11. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K.; Conover, M.F.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)

  12. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Malchow, Russell L.; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela; Marsac, Kara; Hausrath, Elisabeth; Adcock, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  13. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  15. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  16. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  17. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Peter F.

    1982-10-08

    A consolidated reference of materials for downhole equipment used in geothermal energy exploitation is nearing completion. The reference is a summary of recent developments in the areas of tubular goods materials, highly alloyed metals, high temperature cements, high temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downwell pumps. A brief overview is presented in this paper.

  18. Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

    2011-08-01

    The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

  19. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.133 Section 431.133 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.133 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) General. The...

  20. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 430.3 Section 430.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS General Provisions § 430.3 Materials incorporated by reference. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 78848, Dec. 16, 2010. (a) General. We...

  1. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.133 Section 431.133 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.133 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) General. We incorporate...

  2. [Review of normal spectral emissivity standard reference materials].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun; Liu, Yu-Fang; Zhao, Yue-Jin

    2012-11-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of spectral emissivity measurement, standard reference materials of spectral emissivity as the dissemination of quantity in spectral emissivity measurement are used for the calibration of spectral emissivity measurement apparatus. In the present paper, firstly the standard reference materials data proposed by the American National Institute of Standards and Technology are introduced, and some underlying standard reference materials suggested by some metering departments in Europe are analyzed in detail For the standard reference material Armco iron and SiC proposed by some researchers, the advantages and disadvantages were explored. Finally, the characteristics of standard reference materials are summarized, and the future development of spectral emissivity measurement standard is prospected. PMID:23387148

  3. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Brownsword, M.; Heath, T.G.; Ilett, D.J.; McCrohon, R.; Tweed, C.J.; Yui, M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Sample Project: Performance Evaluation of Analytical Laboratories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, H. Keith; Daddow, Richard L.; Farrar, Jerry W.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1962, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated the Standard Reference Sample Project to evaluate the performance of USGS, cooperator, and contractor analytical laboratories that analyze chemical constituents of environmental samples. The laboratories are evaluated by using performance evaluation samples, called Standard Reference Samples (SRSs). SRSs are submitted to laboratories semi-annually for round-robin laboratory performance comparison purposes. Currently, approximately 100 laboratories are evaluated for their analytical performance on six SRSs for inorganic and nutrient constituents. As part of the SRS Project, a surplus of homogeneous, stable SRSs is maintained for purchase by USGS offices and participating laboratories for use in continuing quality-assurance and quality-control activities. Statistical evaluation of the laboratories results provides information to compare the analytical performance of the laboratories and to determine possible analytical deficiences and problems. SRS results also provide information on the bias and variability of different analytical methods used in the SRS analyses.

  5. Isotopic Compositions of Uranium Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, B.; Borg, L. E.; Williams, R. W.; Brennecka, G.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2009-12-01

    Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in 238U/235U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of ~1.3‰ are now being observed in 238U/235U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The 238U/235U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed 233U-236U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. This tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured 238U/235U ratios of ~0.03. The values obtained for 238U/235U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 ± 0.020 (n=15), SRM950a = 137.870 ± 0.018 (n=8), and CRM112a = 137.866 ± 0.030 (n=16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. Our measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 ± 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified 238U/235U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for 234U/235U are: SRM950a = (7.437 ± 0.043)x10-3 (n=18), and CRM112a = (7.281 ± 0.050)x10-3 (n=16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for 236U/235U in SRM950a was determined to be (8.48 ± 2.63)x10-6, whereas 236U was not detected in CRM112a. We are currently obtaining the U isotopic composition of

  6. ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF URANIUM REFERENCE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, B; Borg, L; Williams, R; Brennecka, G; Hutcheon, I

    2009-09-03

    Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of {approx} 1.3{per_thousand} are now being observed in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed {sup 233}U-{sup 236}U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. this tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios of {approx} 0.03. The values obtained for {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 {+-} 0.020 (n = 15), SRM950a = 137.870 {+-} 0.018 (n = 8), and CRM112a = 137.866 {+-} 0.030 (n = 16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. The measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 {+-} 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U are: SRM950a = (7.437 {+-} 0.043) x 10{sup -3} (n = 18), and CRM112a = (7.281 {+-} 0.050) x 10{sup -3} (n = 16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for

  7. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  8. Building a geological reference platform using sequence stratigraphy combined with geostatistical tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgine, Bernard; Lasseur, Éric; Leynet, Aurélien; Badinier, Guillaume; Ortega, Carole; Issautier, Benoit; Bouchet, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    In 2012 BRGM launched an extensive program to build the new French Geological Reference platform (RGF). Among the objectives of this program is to provide the public with validated, reliable and 3D-consistent geological data, with estimation of uncertainty. Approx. 100,000 boreholes over the whole French national territory provide a preliminary interpretation in terms of depths of main geological interfaces, but with an unchecked, unknown and often low reliability. The aim of this paper is to present the procedure that has been tested on two areas in France, in order to validate (or not) these boreholes, with the aim of being generalized as much as possible to the nearly 100,000 boreholes waiting for validation. The approach is based on the following steps, and includes the management of uncertainty at different steps: (a) Selection of a loose network of boreholes owning a logging or coring information enabling a reliable interpretation. This first interpretation is based on the correlation of well log data and allows defining 3D sequence stratigraphic framework identifying isochronous surfaces. A litho-stratigraphic interpretation is also performed. Be "A" the collection of all boreholes used for this step (typically 3 % of the total number of holes to be validated) and "B" the other boreholes to validate, (b) Geostatistical analysis of characteristic geological interfaces. The analysis is carried out firstly on the "A" type data (to validate the variogram model), then on the "B" type data and at last on "B" knowing "A". It is based on cross-validation tests and evaluation of the uncertainty associated to each geological interface. In this step, we take into account inequality constraints provided by boreholes that do not intersect all interfaces, as well as the "litho-stratigraphic pile" defining the formations and their relationships (depositing surfaces or erosion). The goal is to identify quickly and semi-automatically potential errors among the data, up to

  9. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    PubMed

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  10. Sexuality Education. Selected Materials from the NCEMCH Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This annotated bibliography describes materials from the National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health (NCEMCH) reference collection. The 125 items focus on children and sexuality education. Most materials about preventing AIDS/HIV, adolescent pregnancy prevention, and school health education in general, however, are omitted because…

  11. Preparation and characterization of ``exhausted electrowinning electrolyte'' reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arana, G.; Amigo, J. M.; Etxebarria, N.; Fernandez, L. A.; Raposo, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    The number of available reference materials of complex matrices is continuously growing but it is still far from ideal. There are too many different matrices which are of interest for too many different analytes. The certified reference materials are expensive and are intended for the validation of methods or for the assurance of traceability of the analytical result. However, many determinations are carried out on a daily basis and the quality control for these determinations requires the use of reference materials, although not certified but laboratory reference materials. These materials are not certified but must be homogeneous and stable with respect to the concentration of the analytes of interest and they must have a similar matrix compared to the samples to be analysed, in order to be able to perform the quality control of the analytical determinations. The reference material herein presented is an exhausted electrowinning electrolyte from a local copper producing company. The analytical determination of the metals in the solution was performed using ICP-AES with a multivariate calibration procedure. The analytes are the following : As, Ca, Cu, Fe, Na, Ni, Sb and Zn.

  12. Selenium Preconcentration in Geological Materials for Determination at sub-μ g\\ g-1 Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, L. P.

    2004-05-01

    Selenium is important because it is a path finder element in economic geology. It has similar geochemical properties as sulfur, but slightly less mobile and less volatile in sulfides. Although its environmental cycle is better understood, its geological cycle is almost unknown. In geological samples, Se concentration ranges 0,02-1 μ g\\ g-1. Se has many spectral interefences in ICP-MS, rendering difficult to determine. INAA detection limit for geological samples is about 10 μ g\\ g-1. The analytical difficulties are one of the main reason why the geological cycle of Se is so poorly known. The preconcentration of Se with Thiol Cotton Fiber (TCF) followed by atomic absorption (AA) has been modified to be used with INAA. The modified technique involves sample dissolution (HF-HNO3) and evaporation to dryness at low temperature (55-60 oC) to keep Se in solution. Se is converted to SeIV by adding 5-6 mol l-1 HCl and heating covered in a boiling bath (95-100oC). Sample is diluted with deionized water to obtain 0,3 - 1 mol l-1 HCl and then collected on TCF. TCF is put in a polyethylene vial for irradiation in the SLOWPOKE II reactor for 10 seconds at a neutron flux of 1015 m-2 s-1. The 162 KeV peak of 77Se (half-life 17,36 sec) is read for 20 seconds after a decay of 7 seconds. Results for certified reference materials show the TCF preconcentration technique followed by INAA provides results comparable with AA with a detection limit of approximately 0,05 μ g\\ g-1. Moreover INAA provides many advantages such as eliminating the desorption step and is less time consuming than AA.

  13. Reference materials and reference measurement systems in laboratory medicine. Harmonization of nomenclature and definitions in reference measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Dybkaer, R

    1995-12-01

    Reliability of clinical laboratory results is obtained through quality assurance in both their production and transmission. The former involves a reference measurement system of reference materials and reference measurement procedures with metrological and statistical verification of results. The latter requires that sender and receiver have access to a common terminology. Thus, two data banks are required. A plurilingual systematic vocabulary related to the reference measurement system, giving concepts with terms and definitions concerning measurement standards, reference measurement procedures, internal quality control, external quality assessment, probability and statistics-mainly based on existing authoritative publications. The material should be processed by standard scientific terminological procedure and offered to pertinent organizations and specialists for comment before finalization and authorization. A multilingual collection of systematic names for properties examined by the branches of Laboratory Medicine, such as clinical chemistry, clinical immunology, clinical microbiology, clinical pharmacology, haematology and blood banking, and histochemistry and cytology. The database should function as a reference to consultation and as a link in the transmission of data between local laboratory "dialects". This should be based on the ongoing comprehensive IUPAC/IFCC project for forming names in collaboration with relevant scientific organisations and area specialists. The relational data base including "run-time" software would be accessed by e-mail (gopher or other storage medium). PMID:8845435

  14. Certification of reference materials for the determination of alkylphenols.

    PubMed

    Hanari, Nobuyasu; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Otsuka, Satoko; Iwasawa, Ryoko; Fujiki, Naomi; Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Kato, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are playing an increasingly important role in national and international standardizing activities. In Japan, primary standard solutions for analyses of endocrine disrupters are supplied under the national standards dissemination system named the Japan Calibration Service System (JCSS). For the traceability on reference materials used for preparation of the primary standard solutions based on the JCSS, the National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has developed and certified high-purity reference materials of alkylphenols as NMIJ CRMs, such as 4-n-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Thereafter, it is essential to determine the alkylphenols by using these solutions based on the JCSS for environmental monitoring and risk assessments because analytical values obtained by using the solutions can ensure the reliability and traceability of the chemical analyses. PMID:25656848

  15. Digestion of titanium bearing geologic materials involving microwaves.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Anju; Chattopadhyay, Partha

    2007-10-01

    An environmentally friendly and rapid digestion procedure involving 10 mL of acid mixture (HNO3 : HCl : HF = 2:2:1) for 0.1 g of sample in closed vessel microwave digester following heating program : 250W for 10 min., hold time 2 min., 600 W for 17 min, and Ventilation time 10 min was developed. The operating parameters were varied and optimized by factorial design approach using "Steepest Ascent" method. The validity of the recommended digestion procedure were examined by analyzing several well characterized standard reference materials such as diabase (W2), basalt (BIR-1, JB-3, BHVO-1), granite (G2), gabbro (JGb-1), Mn-nodule (Nod-A-1, Nod-P-1), sediment (STSD-4, LKSD-2), limestone (KH-2), soil (SAu-1), ilmenite (IGS-31), rutile (IGS-32), Zircon (IGS-35) and titanium dioxide (SRM-154b) employing both inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and well known spectrophotometric method. An excellent agreement between the methods and the certified values of standard reference materials suggest that the digestion procedure can be used for quality control and allied purposes. PMID:18153999

  16. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  17. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  18. Developing a matrix reference material for screening of transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Li; Li, Yunjing; Wu, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) that are compatible with detection methods are needed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Screening is the first detection step in determining the possible presence of GMO ingredients in food or feed; however, screening has been hindered by the lack of GMO CRMs. In this study, transgenic rice materials were developed via the transformation of a construct harboring 11 commonly used screening elements. Digital PCR was utilized to identify a homozygous single-copy line termed SDrice. The qualitative detections of 11 elements in 21 transgenic materials demonstrated that the genomic DNA of the SDrice was suitable for use as a positive control in the screening of GMO ingredients. The suitability of SDrice as reference material was further checked by testing the sensitivity of 11 known conventional PCR assays, ranging from 10 to 50 copies of the SDrice genome. The standard curves that were created using SDrice DNA series as calibrators all exhibited good linearities in the relationships of the Ct values with the template copy numbers in these 11 real-time PCR assays. The LODs of the real-time PCR assays were estimated to be two to five copies of the SDrice genome. Comparisons of the SDrice with other GM rice revealed that significant differences existed in both the intercepts of the standard curves and the ΔCt values of the exogenous and reference genes for the P-35S, T-nos, HPT, T-35S, and Bar assays; the SDrice was not fit for quantification of other GM rice events. This study provided a matrix reference material (RM) that was suitable for screening GM rice, determination of sensitivity and a LOD of PCR assays, and overcame some of the drawbacks of plasmid DNA as reference material. PMID:26462921

  19. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization... AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials incorporated by reference....

  20. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization... AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials incorporated by reference....

  1. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of...

  2. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse Spray... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of...

  3. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  4. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  5. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  6. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  7. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (a) The procedures... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine...

  8. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Resource Room of the Building... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 430.3 Section...

  9. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... Renewable Energy, Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., 6th Floor... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 430.3 Section...

  10. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to this... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL)...

  11. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to this... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL)...

  12. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to this... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL)...

  13. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting... procedures incorporated by reference. (1) Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, may be obtained from...

  14. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.15 Section 431.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  15. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 572.110 Section 572.110 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male...

  16. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy... Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard F2324-03, “Standard Test Method for Prerinse...

  17. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to...

  18. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to...

  19. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means... Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section...

  20. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means... Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section...

  1. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431.303 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to...

  2. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means... Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section...

  3. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.293 Section 431.293 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  4. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program), 1000... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.203 Section 431.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  5. 10 CFR 431.323 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor... Friday, except Federal holidays, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.323 Section...

  6. 10 CFR 431.63 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.63 Section 431.63 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  7. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.223 Section 431.223 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  8. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.223 Section 431.223 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  9. 10 CFR 431.323 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor... Friday, except Federal holidays, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.323 Section...

  10. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting... Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., ISSN 1041-2336. (c) Availability of references. The building...

  11. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Test Procedures § 431.133 Materials... Ice-Makers.” (2) American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of...

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

  13. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.95 Section 431.95... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent... October 27, 2011 and updated by addendum 1 in December 2010 and addendum 2 in June 2011 (AHRI...

  14. Accurate determination of cobalt traces in several biological reference materials.

    PubMed

    Dybczyński, R; Danko, B

    1994-01-01

    A newly devised, very accurate ("definitive") method for the determination of trace amounts of cobalt in biological materials was validated by the analysis of several certified reference materials. The method is based on a combination of neutron activation and selective and quantitative postirradiation isolation of radiocobalt from practically all other radionuclides by ion-exchange and extraction chromatography followed by gamma-ray spectrometric measurement. The significance of criteria that should be fulfilled in order to accept a given result as obtained by the "definitive method" is emphasized. In view of the demonstrated very good accuracy of the method, it is suggested that our values for cobalt content in those reference materials in which it was originally not certified (SRM 1570 spinach, SRM 1571 orchard leaves, SRM 1577 bovine liver, and Czechoslovak bovine liver 12-02-01) might be used as provisional certified values. PMID:7710879

  15. Determination of the rare-earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.; Meier, A.L.; Crock, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method of analysis of geological materials for the determination of the rare-earth elements using the Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique (ICP-MS) has been developed. Instrumental parameters and factors affecting analytical results have been first studied and then optimized. Samples are analyzed directly following an acid digestion, without the need for separation or preconcentration with limits of detection of 2-11 ng/g, precision of ?? 2.5% relative standard deviation, and accuracy comparable to inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. A commercially available ICP-MS instrument is used with modifications to the sample introduction system, torch, and sampler orifice to reduce the effects of high salt content of sample solutions prepared from geologic materials. Corrections for isobaric interferences from oxide ions and other diatomic and triatomic ions are made mathematically. Special internal standard procedures are used to compensate for drift in metahmetal oxide ratios and sensitivity. Reference standard values are used to verify the accuracy and utility of the method.

  16. High-precision isotopic characterization of USGS reference materials by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Dominique; Kieffer, Bruno; Maerschalk, Claude; Barling, Jane; de Jong, Jeroen; Williams, Gwen A.; Hanano, Diane; Pretorius, Wilma; Mattielli, Nadine; Scoates, James S.; Goolaerts, Arnaud; Friedman, Richard M.; Mahoney, J. Brian

    2006-08-01

    The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at the University of British Columbia has undertaken a systematic analysis of the isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions and concentrations of a broad compositional range of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials, including basalt (BCR-1, 2; BHVO-1, 2), andesite (AGV-1, 2), rhyolite (RGM-1, 2), syenite (STM-1, 2), granodiorite (GSP-2), and granite (G-2, 3). USGS rock reference materials are geochemically well characterized, but there is neither a systematic methodology nor a database for radiogenic isotopic compositions, even for the widely used BCR-1. This investigation represents the first comprehensive, systematic analysis of the isotopic composition and concentration of USGS reference materials and provides an important database for the isotopic community. In addition, the range of equipment at the PCIGR, including a Nu Instruments Plasma MC-ICP-MS, a Thermo Finnigan Triton TIMS, and a Thermo Finnigan Element2 HR-ICP-MS, permits an assessment and comparison of the precision and accuracy of isotopic analyses determined by both the TIMS and MC-ICP-MS methods (e.g., Nd isotopic compositions). For each of the reference materials, 5 to 10 complete replicate analyses provide coherent isotopic results, all with external precision below 30 ppm (2 SD) for Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (27 and 24 ppm for TIMS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively). Our results also show that the first- and second-generation USGS reference materials have homogeneous Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Nd isotopic compositions by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS agree to within 15 ppm for all reference materials. Interlaboratory MC-ICP-MS comparisons show excellent agreement for Pb isotopic compositions; however, the reproducibility is not as good as for Sr and Nd. A careful, sequential leaching experiment of three first- and second-generation reference materials (BCR, BHVO, AGV) indicates that the heterogeneity in Pb isotopic compositions

  17. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for Standard Reference Samples Distributed in March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Jerry W.; Copen, Ashley M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-161 (trace constituents), M-154 (major constituents), N-65 (nutrient constituents), N-66 nutrient constituents), P-34 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-30 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2000 to 144 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 132 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  18. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, B.F.; Currier, J.P.; Woodworth, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-163 (trace constituents), M-156 (major constituents), N-67 (nutrient constituents), N-68 (nutrient constituents), P-35 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-31 (mercury) -- that were distributed in October 2000 to 126 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 122 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  19. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in April 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, M.T.; Connor, B.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-165 (trace constituents), M-158 (major constituents), N-69 (nutrient constituents), N-70 (nutrient constituents), P-36 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-32 (mercury) -- that were distributed in April 2001 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 73 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  20. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for standard reference samples distributed in March 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Jerry W.; Chleboun, Kimberly M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for 8 standard reference samples -- T-157 (trace constituents), M-150 (major constituents), N-61 (nutrient constituents), N-62 (nutrient constituents), P-32 (low ionic strength constituents), GWT-5 (ground-water trace constituents), GWM- 4 (ground-water major constituents),and Hg-28 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 1999 to 120 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 111 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the seven reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the 8 standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  1. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in September 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-171 (trace constituents), M-164 (major constituents), N-75 (nutrient constituents), N-76 (nutrient constituents), P-39 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-35 (mercury) -- that were distributed in September 2002 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 102 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  2. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in March 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-173 (trace constituents), M-166 (major constituents), N-77 (nutrient constituents), N-78 (nutrient constituents), P-40 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-36 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2003 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 110 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  3. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-167 (trace constituents), M-160 (major constituents), N-71 (nutrient constituents), N-72 (nutrient constituents), P-37 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-33 (mercury) -- that were distributed in September 2001 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 98 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  4. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in October 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-159 (trace constituents), M-152 (major constituents), N-63 (nutrient constituents), N-64 (nutrient constituents), P-33 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-29 (mercury) -- that were distributed in October 1999 to 149 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 131 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  5. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for Standard Reference Samples Distributed in March 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, M.T.; Conner, B.F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T- 169 (trace constituents), M- 162 (major constituents), N-73 (nutrient constituents), N-74 (nutrient constituents), P-38 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-34 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2002 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored intedaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 93 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  7. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  8. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  9. Reference Materials for Reactor Neutron Fluence Rate and Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.

    2003-06-01

    Certified reference materials are distributed by the European Commission through the BCR® programme (over 500 CRMs) including a series of activation and fission monitor materials originally proposed by the Euratom Working Group on Reactor Dosimetry. The current range (18 CRMs) includes materials to cover the complete energy spectrum, and suitable for different irradiation times. Fission monitors are 238UO2 or 237NpO2 in the form of microspheres. Activation monitors are high purity metals (Ni, Cu, Al, Fe, Nb, Rh, or Ti), certified for interfering trace impurities, or dilute aluminium-based alloys. Reference materials newly certified are IRMM-530R A1-0.1%Au, replacing the exhausted IRMM-530 material, used as comparator for k0- standardisation, and three new Al-Co alloys (0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%Co). Others in the process of certification are A1-0.1%Ag and A1-2%Sc for thermal and epithermal fluence rate measurements and two uranium-doped glass materials intended for dosimetry by the fission-track technique. Various alloy compositions have been prepared for use as melt-wire temperature monitors with melting points ranging from 198 to 327ºC.

  10. Emission spectrographic determination of volatile trace elements in geologic materials by a carrier distillation technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, H.N.

    1986-01-01

    Trace levels of chalcophile elements that form volatile sulfide minerals are determined in stream sediments and in the nonmagnetic fraction of a heavy-mineral concentrate of stream sediments by a carrier distillation emission spectrographic method. Photographically recorded spectra of samples are visually compared with those of synthetic standards for the two sample types. Rock and soil samples may also be analyzed by comparison with the stream-sediment standards. A gallium oxide spectrochemical carrier/buffer enhances the early emission of the volatile elements. Detection limits in parts per million attained are: Sb 5, As 20, Bi 0.1, Cd 1, Cu 1, Pb 2, Ag 0.1, Zn 2, and Sn 0.1. A comparison with other methods of analysis, total-burn emission and atomic absorption spectroscopy, shows good correlation for standard reference for materials and samples from a variety of geologic terranes. ?? 1986.

  11. Developing Potential New Reference Materials for Light Isotopes in Foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, Russell; Van Hale, Robert; Clarke, Dianne; Abrahim, Aiman; Resch, Christian; Mayr, Leopold; Cannavan, Andrew; Gröning, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of subtle variations in stable isotope ratios provide the means for verifying food integrity in numerous ways. Adulterants usually have different isotopic composition so their presence in a food is readily detectable. Stable isotope measurements can also be used to determine the region of production of the food. In most cases the ability of stable isotope measurements to verify, or otherwise reject, the authenticity of the food is greatly enhanced by comparison of a result to a reference database. The more high-quality data in the database, the more statistical power is afforded by the comparison. A serious weakness at present is the lack of reference materials in food matrices available to the community. Thus researchers have to rely on in-house standards for calibration and quality assurance. The result is that there are numerous datasets published that may be internally consistent but it is exceedingly difficult to combine these datasets into a cohesive database. This is particularly important for measurements of the hydrogen isotopes. Here we present a survey of the stable isotope (^2H, ^13C and ^15N) composition of 12 Reference Materials from the International Atomic Energy Agency catalogue. All but one of these materials are plant matter and have been developed as reference materials for other applications such as radionuclide or trace element measurements. Thus they have been verified as suitable materials in terms of stability and homogeneity for those tests. The purpose of this work is to ascertain if they are similarly suitable as stable isotope reference materials. The results from our survey show that there is a wide range in elemental and isotopic composition among these materials. For example, the ^15N values range from-13.5‰ to +18.6‰ and the nitrogen elemental composition range is from 0.7% to 9.7%. The ^13C values range from -20‰ to -40‰ and the carbon elemental composition ranges from 15% to 47%. We are now in the process of

  12. Preparation and stability of milk somatic cell reference materials.

    PubMed

    Di Marzo, Larissa; Wojciechowski, Karen L; Barbano, David M

    2016-09-01

    Our objectives were to develop a method to produce milk somatic cell count (SCC) reference materials for calibration of electronic somatic cell count (ESCC) using gravity separation and to determine the effect of refrigerated storage (4°C) and freeze-thaw stability of the skim and whole milk SCC reference materials. Whole raw milk was high-temperature short-time pasteurized and split into 2 portions. One portion was gravity separated at 4°C for 22 h and the second portion was centrifugally separated to produce skim milk that was also gravity separated with somatic cells rising to the surface. After 22 h, stock solutions (low SCC skim milk, high SCC skim milk, high SCC whole milk) were prepared and preserved (bronopol). Two experiments were conducted, one to compare the shelf-life of skim and whole milk SCC standards at 4°C and one to determine the effect of freezing and thawing on SCC standards. Both experiments were replicated 3 times. Gravity separation was an effective approach to isolate and concentrate somatic cells from bovine milk and redistribute them in a skim or whole milk matrix to create a set of reference materials with a wider and more uniformly distributed range of SCC than current calibration sets. The liquid SCC reference materials stored using the common industry practice at 4°C were stable (i.e., fit for purpose, no large decrease in SCC) for a 2-wk period, whereas frozen and thawed reference materials may have a much longer useful life. A gradual decrease occurred in residual difference in ESCC (SCC × 1,000/mL) versus original assigned reference SCC over duration of refrigerated storage for both skim and whole milk SCC samples, indicating that milk ESCC of the preserved milks was gradually decreasing during 28 d of storage at 4°C by about 15,000 SCC/mL. No difference in the ESCC for skim milk was detected between refrigerated and frozen storage, whereas for whole milk the ESCC for frozen was lower than refrigerated samples. Future work is

  13. Primary certification of reference material for electrolytic conductivity of bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. F.; Gomes, M. R. F.; Cassini, G. C.; Faria, A. C. V.; Fraga, I. C. S.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays the preservation of the planet is spreading into the international scene with the use of renewable energy sources such as bioethanol. The challenge is to guarantee the quality of produced bioethanol, and the electrolytic conductivity (EC) is one of the specified parameters for this purpose. However, is necessary to demonstrate the metrological traceability of the measurement results for EC in this matrix. This study presents the certification of a reference material for EC in bioethanol by using only primary measurements. The value of primary certified reference material (CRM) is (0.77 ± 0.06) µS.cm-1, and its use will provide the metrological traceability needed for measurement results in laboratories.

  14. Methods to Characterize Ricin for the Development of Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sook-Kyung; Hancock, Diane K.; Wang, Lili; Cole, Kenneth D.; Reddy, Prasad T.

    2006-01-01

    Ricin is an abundant protein from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis. Because of its high toxicity and the simplicity of producing mass quantities, ricin is considered a biological terrorism agent. We have characterized ricin extensively with a view to develop Reference Materials that could be used to test and calibrate detection devices. The characterization of ricin includes: 1) purity test of a commercial batch of ricin using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels, 2) biological activity assay by measuring its ability to inhibit protein synthesis, 3) quantitation of protein concentration by amino acid analysis, 4) detection of ricin by an immunoassay using a flow cytometer, and 5) detection of ricin genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction using nine different primer sets. By implementing these five methods of characterization, we are in a position to develop a reference material for ricin. PMID:27274935

  15. Water as a source of errors in reference materials.

    PubMed

    Rückold, S; Grobecker, K H; Isengard, H D

    2001-06-01

    In the field of reference materials, long-term stability is of highest importance. Particularly for biological matrices, any kind of deterioration must be avoided during shelf-life. In the production precautions are taken to prevent these, but possible alterations caused by intensive drying have been underestimated until today. This presentation discusses several mechanisms of deterioration related to water activity and water content. Comparison of the results for water and moisture for six reference materials and their water sorption isotherms serve as a base to discuss the importance of accurate dry mass corrections for certified values. It is shown that the method chosen for dry mass correction influences certified contents significantly and a method description must be given. Furthermore, it is confirmed that for biological matrices optimal ranges of water activity and water content exist, where hygroscopicity is low without significant danger of product deterioration. Additionally, handling is facilitated in the optimised ranges. PMID:11451234

  16. Clinical Biospecimens: Reference Materials, Certified for Nominal Properties?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This report makes the case for clinical biospecimens to be certified for nominal properties, in particular the diagnosis, and to attain the level of Reference Materials. Clinical certified biospecimens that are collected, processed, characterized, stored, and distributed by biobanks are urgently needed to facilitate diagnostic test development, evaluation, and quality assurance. Four examples are provided to illustrate this purpose and the certification approaches that could be applied are proposed. PMID:24749878

  17. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... material listed for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... follows: clauses 2, 3, 4.1, 6.1, 7, and 10, and Tables 1, 2 and 4, IBR approved for § 431.12. (d) IEEE...-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html. (1) IEEE Std...

  18. Characterization of the NIST seaweed Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Outola, I; Filliben, J; Inn, K G W; La Rosa, J; McMahon, C A; Peck, G A; Twining, J; Tims, S G; Fifield, L K; Smedley, P; Antón, M P; Gascó, C; Povinec, P; Pham, M K; Raaum, A; Wei, H-J; Krijger, G C; Bouisset, P; Litherland, A E; Kieser, W E; Betti, M; Aldave de las Heras, L; Hong, G H; Holm, E; Skipperud, L; Harms, A V; Arinc, A; Youngman, M; Arnold, D; Wershofen, H; Sill, D S; Bohrer, S; Dahlgaard, H; Croudace, I W; Warwick, P E; Ikäheimonen, T K; Klemola, S; Vakulovsky, S M; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) for seaweed was developed through an interlaboratory comparison with 24 participants from 16 countries. After evaluating different techniques to calculate certified values for the radionuclides, the median method was found to be the most representative technique. The certified values were provided for 13 radionuclides and information values were given for 15 more radionuclides. Results for the natural decay series showed disequilibrium in both the uranium and thorium series. PMID:16549359

  19. Development of a Thin Film Magnetic Moment Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, D. P.; Halloran, S. T.; Owings, R. R.; da Silva, F. C. S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a magnetic moment reference material for low moment magnetic samples. We first conducted an inter-laboratory comparison to determine the most useful sample dimensions and magnetic properties for common instruments such as vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM), SQUIDs, and alternating gradient field magnetometers. The samples were fabricated and then measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their magnetic moments were calibrated by tracing back to the NIST YIG sphere, SRM 2853. PMID:27096108

  20. Development of a Thin Film Magnetic Moment Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Pappas, D P; Halloran, S T; Owings, R R; da Silva, F C S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a magnetic moment reference material for low moment magnetic samples. We first conducted an inter-laboratory comparison to determine the most useful sample dimensions and magnetic properties for common instruments such as vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM), SQUIDs, and alternating gradient field magnetometers. The samples were fabricated and then measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their magnetic moments were calibrated by tracing back to the NIST YIG sphere, SRM 2853. PMID:27096108

  1. Homogeneity study of candidate reference material in fish matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A material is perfectly homogeneous with respect to a given characteristic, or composition, if there is no difference between the values obtained from one part to another. Homogeneity is usually evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, the requirement that populations of data to be processed must have a normal distribution and equal variances greatly limits the use of this statistical tool. A more suitable test for assessing the homogeneity of RMs, known as "sufficient homogeneity", was proposed by Fearn and Thompson. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the two statistical treatments for assessing homogeneity of methylmercury (MeHg) in candidate reference material of fish tissue.

  2. Nondestructive assay of fluorine in geological and other materials by instrumental photon activation analysis with a microtron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Chvátil, David; Krist, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Reliable determination of low concentrations of fluorine in geological and coal samples is difficult. It usually requires tedious decomposition and dissolution of the sample followed by chemical conversion of fluorine into its anionic form. The present paper examines possibilities of non-destructive determination of fluorine, mainly in minerals, rocks and coal, by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using the MT-25 microtron. The fluorine assay consists of counting the positron-electron annihilation line of 18F at 511 keV, which is a product of the photonuclear reaction 19F(γ, n)18F and a pure positron emitter. The assay is complicated by the simultaneous formation of other positron emitters. The main contributors to interference in geological samples are from 45Ti and 34mCl, whereas those from 44Sc and 89Zr are minor. Optimizing beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, together with using interfering element calibration standards, allowed reliable IPAA determination of fluorine in selected USGS and CRPG geochemical reference materials, NIST coal reference materials, and NIST RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. In agreement with the published data obtained by PIGE, the results of the F assay by IPAA have revealed erroneous reference values provided for the NIST reference materials SRM 1632 Bituminous Coal and RM 8414 Bovine Muscle. The detection limits in rock and coal samples are in the range of 10-100 μg g-1.

  3. GeoReM: A new Geochemical Database for Reference Materials and Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, K. P.; Nohl, U.; Herwig, K.; Lammel, E.; Stoll, B.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2005-12-01

    (state August 2005) contains more than 650 geological reference materials and standards, 5500 analyses and 550 publications. [1] Lehnert et al. (2000), Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 1, 1999GC000026

  4. Aluminum analysis in biological reference material by nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Arendt, A.; Keck, B.; Glascock, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the determination of aluminum in biological materials has become the subject of many research projects. This interest stems from an increasing knowledge of the toxicity of aluminum to both aquatic and human life. Unfortunately, the detection of aluminum in biological materials has proven troublesome. The use of traditional chemical determinations has been shown to be very long and somewhat complicated. Several attempts have been made using neutron activation analysis, but an interfering reaction must be taken into account. In this experiment the rabbit irradiation facilities at the University of Missouri Research Reactor were used. The aluminum concentrations for eight certified reference materials are shown. When US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) value is given as certified or as an information value, results agree very well. The results for NBS 1572 citrus leaves agree, and NBS 1577 results agree very well with that of Glascock et al.

  5. Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.

    2000-02-29

    The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

  6. Material Spectral Emissivity Measurement Based on Two Reference Blackbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jing; Yang, Yongjun; Liao, Li; Lyu, Guoyi

    2015-12-01

    Spectral emissivity is one of the important physical properties of materials. Emissivity measurement is critical for accurate temperature measurements and the evaluation of the stealth performance for materials. In this paper, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and an energy comparison method are used to study material emissivity measurements. Two reference blackbodies are employed for real-time measurement and correction of the spectrometer background function to enhance the emissivity measurement accuracy, to improve the design of a three-parabolic-mirror optical system, and to enlarge the optical field of view to meet the measurement requirements. The linearity of the system is measured using a mercury cadmium telluride detector and a deuterated triglycine sulfate detector. The results indicate that the linear range of the system meets the emissivity measurement requirements for the temperature range from 50°C to 1000° C. The effective radiation surface is introduced as a parameter of the reference blackbodies to reduce the influence of the measurement distance. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is used to measure the spectral emissivity of a conductive silica film and SiC, respectively, at different temperatures in the wavelength range of 1 \\upmu m to 25 \\upmu m. The expanded uncertainty is less than 5 %.

  7. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  8. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-12-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon "gold standards" are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  9. An ion-selective electrode method for determination of chlorine in geological materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aruscavage, P. J.; Campbell, E.Y.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of chlorine in geological materials, in which a chloride-selective ion electrode is used after decomposition of the sample with hydrofluoric acid and separation of chlorine in a gas-diffusion cell. Data are presented for 30 geological standard materials. The relative standard deviation of the method is estimated to be better than 8% for amounts of chloride of 10 ??g and greater. ?? 1983.

  10. Molecularly uniform poly(ethylene glycol) certified reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kayori; Matsuyama, Shigetomo; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Ehara, Kensei; Sakurai, Hiromu; Horikawa, Yoshiteru; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Bounoshita, Masao

    2015-02-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for poly(ethylene glycol) with no distribution in the degree of polymerization was developed. The degree of polymerization of the CRM was accurately determined to be 23. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was used to separate the molecularly uniform polymer from a standard commercial sample with wide polydispersity in its degree of polymerization. Through the use of a specific fractionation system coupled with SFC, we are able to obtain samples of poly(ethylene glycol) oligomer with exact degrees of polymerization, as required for a CRM produced by the National Metrology Institute of Japan.

  11. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  12. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, M.O.; Cole, C.R.; Washburn, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated.

  13. Determination of Mercury in Aqueous and Geologic Materials by Continuous Flow-Cold Vapor-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CVAFS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    New methods for the determination of total mercury in geologic materials and dissolved mercury in aqueous samples have been developed that will replace the methods currently (2006) in use. The new methods eliminate the use of sodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O7 ?2H2O) as an oxidizer and preservative and significantly lower the detection limit for geologic and aqueous samples. The new methods also update instrumentation from the traditional use of cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry to cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. At the same time, the new digestion procedures for geologic materials use the same size test tubes, and the same aluminum heating block and hot plate as required by the current methods. New procedures for collecting and processing of aqueous samples use the same procedures that are currently (2006) in use except that the samples are now preserved with concentrated hydrochloric acid/bromine monochloride instead of sodium dichromate/nitric acid. Both the 'old' and new methods have the same analyst productivity rates. These similarities should permit easy migration to the new methods. Analysis of geologic and aqueous reference standards using the new methods show that these procedures provide mercury recoveries that are as good as or better than the previously used methods.

  14. A selected bibliography of references on geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Midwestern Basins and Arches region; Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Anthony; Bugliosi, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains selected references used for the Midwestern Basins and Arches Regional Aquifer System Analysis project of the U.S. Geological Survey. The project was begun in 1988 to study the geologic framework, hydrology, and geochemistry of the surficial and the Silurian and Devonian carbonate-rock aquifers in the Midwestern Basins and Arches Region. The area of data collection is 90,000 square miles and includes parts of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois. Geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical references that apply to the hydrogeology and geochemistry of the region were collected and are presented in this bibliography by State and by geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical categories for each State.

  15. Purity Determination of Acetaldehyde in an Acetaldehyde Certified Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Taichi; Watanabe, Takuro; Nakamura, Satoe; Kato, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde is regulated as a toxic substance in various fields, and the method for monitoring or analysis of acetaldehyde is important. However, handling is difficult because of the high reactivity and low boiling point of acetaldehyde. Therefore, a reference material for high purity acetaldehyde with high accuracy was not available. Although the measuring method of acetaldehyde as a reagent is published in the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) where the specification of acetaldehyde purity is more than 80%, the analytical method described in JIS is not enough for an accuracy purity determination method. In this research, the high precision purity determination method for development of a certified reference material (CRM) of acetaldehyde was examined. By controlling the volatility and reactivity of acetaldehyde, we established the purity determination method of acetaldehyde with a relative standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. Furthermore, this method was applied to develop a high purity acetaldehyde CRM with an expanded uncertainty of 0.005 kg kg(-1) (k = 2). PMID:26063006

  16. Copper Oxide Precipitates in NBS Standard Reference Material 482

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Eric S.; Carlton, Robert A.; Gillen, Greg; Wight, Scott A.; Bright, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Copper oxide has been detected in the copper containing alloys of NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 482. This occurrence is significant because it represents heterogeneity within a standard reference material that was certified to be homogeneous on a micrometer scale. Oxide occurs as elliptically to spherically shaped precipitates whose size differs with alloy composition. The largest precipitates occur in the Au20-Cu80 alloy and range in size from submicrometer up to 2 μm in diameter. Precipitates are observed using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS has demonstrated that the precipitates are present within all the SRM 482 wires that contain copper. Only the pure gold wire is precipitate free. Initial results from the analysis of the Au20-Cu80 alloy indicate that the percentage of precipitates is less than 1 % by area. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of large (2 μm) precipitates in this same alloy indicates that precipitates are detectable by EPMA and that their composition differs significantly from the certified alloy composition. The small size and low percentage of these oxide precipitates minimizes the impact that they have upon the intended use of this standard for electron probe microanalysis. Heterogeneity caused by these oxide precipitates may however preclude the use of this standard for automated EPMA analyses and other microanalysis techniques. PMID:27446759

  17. Copper Oxide Precipitates in NBS Standard Reference Material 482.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Eric S; Carlton, Robert A; Gillen, Greg; Wight, Scott A; Bright, David S

    2002-01-01

    Copper oxide has been detected in the copper containing alloys of NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 482. This occurrence is significant because it represents heterogeneity within a standard reference material that was certified to be homogeneous on a micrometer scale. Oxide occurs as elliptically to spherically shaped precipitates whose size differs with alloy composition. The largest precipitates occur in the Au20-Cu80 alloy and range in size from submicrometer up to 2 μm in diameter. Precipitates are observed using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS has demonstrated that the precipitates are present within all the SRM 482 wires that contain copper. Only the pure gold wire is precipitate free. Initial results from the analysis of the Au20-Cu80 alloy indicate that the percentage of precipitates is less than 1 % by area. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of large (2 μm) precipitates in this same alloy indicates that precipitates are detectable by EPMA and that their composition differs significantly from the certified alloy composition. The small size and low percentage of these oxide precipitates minimizes the impact that they have upon the intended use of this standard for electron probe microanalysis. Heterogeneity caused by these oxide precipitates may however preclude the use of this standard for automated EPMA analyses and other microanalysis techniques. PMID:27446759

  18. In situ imaging of microorganisms in geologic material.

    PubMed

    Tobin, K J; Onstott, T C; DeFlaun, M F; Colwell, F S; Fredrickson, J

    1999-09-01

    In order to fully delineate the interactions of microorganisms with geological substrates, unequivocal identification of intact microbial cells within geologic samples is required without the disruption of either the rock texture or the relationship of the microorganisms to the mineral fabric. To achieve this objective we developed a protocol that enables the visualization of intact microbial cells in petrographic thin sections, avoids detaching the cells from their host mineral surfaces and avoids microbial contamination during the lapidary process. Propidium iodide and POPO-3, nucleic acid stains that specifically target double-stranded DNA and RNA were utilized for in situ visualization of cells in surface and subsurface basalts from northeastern Idaho. Additionally, examination of samples incubated with acetic acid-UL-14C via phosphor imagining facilitated the in situ visualization of 14C labeled biomass. Biomass observed was low (<10(7) cells/g). These observations indicate that the microbial distribution in these rocks exhibits a high degree of spatial heterogeneity at the sub-centimeter scale. PMID:10480264

  19. New technique for the determination of trace noble metal content in geological and process materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitkin, V. N.; Zayakina, S. B.; Anoshin, G. N.

    2003-02-01

    A new two-step sample preparation technique is proposed for the instrumental determination of trace quantities of noble metals (NM) in refractory geological and process materials. The decomposition procedure is based on the oxidizing fluorination of samples with subsequent sulfatization (OFS) of the sample melt or cake. Fluorination of samples is accomplished using a mixture of KHF 2+KBrF 4 or KHF 2+BrF 3 depending on the ratio of sample mass to oxidizing mixture. Both cakes and melts can result using this procedure. Sulfatization of resulting fluorides is completed using concentrated sulfuric acid heated to 550 °C. Validation studies using certified geostandard reference materials (GSO VP-2, ZH-3, Matte RTP, HO-1, SARM-7) have shown that the proposed method is fast, convenient and most often produces non-hygroscopic homogeneous residues suitable for analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). Results obtained for NM concentrations in reference materials agreed with certified concentration ranges and results obtained using other methods of analysis. The OFS procedure combined with direct current plasma d.c. plasma AES achieved the following limits of detection (LOD) for the noble metals: Ag, Au, Pd, 1-2×10 -6; Pt, 5×10 -6; and Ru, Rh, Ir, Os, 1-3×10 -7 wt.%. Using graphite furnace AAS (GFAAS) combined extraction pre-concentration the following LODs for NMs were achieved: Pt, Ru, 1×10 -6; Pd, Rh, 1×10 -7; and Au, Ag, 1-2×10 -8 wt.%. The relative standard deviation for NM determinations ( Sr) was dependent on NM concentration and sample type, but commonly was in the range of 3-15% for d.c. plasma AES and 5-30% for GFAAS.

  20. Mapping watershed potential to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials to receiving streams, southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Hoos, Anne B.; Harned, Douglas; Garcia, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of the southeastern United States SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) water-quality model implementation, the U.S. Geological Survey created a dataset to characterize the contribution of phosphorus to streams from weathering and erosion of surficial geologic materials. SPARROW provides estimates of total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in surface waters from point and nonpoint sources. The characterization of the contribution of phosphorus from geologic materials is important to help separate the effects of natural or background sources of phosphorus from anthropogenic sources of phosphorus, such as municipal wastewater or agricultural practices. The potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from naturally occurring geologic materials to streams was characterized by using geochemical data from bed-sediment samples collected from first-order streams in relatively undisturbed watersheds as part of the multiyear U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Survey. The spatial pattern of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration is offered as a tool to represent the best available information at the regional scale. One issue may weaken the use of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration as a surrogate for the potential for geologic materials in the watershed to contribute to instream levels of phosphorus-an unknown part of the variability in bed-sediment phosphorus concentration may be due to the rates of net deposition and processing of phosphorus in the streambed rather than to variability in the potential of the watershed's geologic materials to contribute phosphorus to the stream. Two additional datasets were created to represent the potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials disturbed by mining activities from active mines and

  1. Simulation of Shock Loading in Saturated Geologic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B T; Lomov, I; Vorobiev, O

    2004-09-17

    The effective stress model is used to model the stress-strain, volumetric, and strength behavior in saturated materials under shock loading. The effective stress concept provides a predictive model of the behavior of wet porous materials based on the dry material properties. An effective stress model that allows for arbitrary fluid and solid equations of state and varying levels of saturation is incorporated into an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) Eulerian shock physics hydrocode. Good agreement is found between simulation results and experimental data for saturated materials, even at moderately high pressures.

  2. Determination of gold in geological materials by carbon slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Ryszard; Kuryło, Michał; Otto, Magdalena; Mróz, Agnieszka

    2012-09-15

    A simple and cost effective preconcentration method on modified activated carbons is described for the determination of traces of gold (Au) in geological samples by carbon slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The basic parameters affecting the adsorption capacity of Au(III) ions on modified activated carbons were studied in detail and the effect of activated carbons modification has been determined by studying the initial runs of adsorption isotherms. The influence of chlorides and nitrates on adsorption ability of Au(III) ions onto the modified activated carbons for diluted aqueous solution was also studied in detail in respect to the determination of gold in solid materials after digestion steps in the analytical procedure, which usually involves the application of aqua regia. SEM-EDX and XPS studies confirmed that the surface reduction of Au(III) ions to Au(0) is the main gold adsorption mechanism on the activated carbon. Determination of gold after its preconcentration on the modified activated carbon was validated by applying certified reference materials. The experimental results are in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of Au in real samples using aqueous standards. PMID:22967620

  3. Preparation and Comprehensive Characterization of a Calcium Hydroxyapatite Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Milenko; Fowler, Bruce O.; Tung, Ming S.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous biological and chemical studies involve the use of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. In this study detailed physicochemical characterization of HA, prepared from an aqueous solution, was carried out employing different methods and techniques: chemical and thermal analyses, x-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, scanning and transmission microscopies, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface-area method. The contents of calcium (Ca2+), phosphate (PO43−), hydroxide (OH−), hydrogenphosphate (HPO42−), water (H2O), carbonate (CO32−), and trace constituents, the Ca/P molar ratio, crystal size and morphology, surface area, unit-cell parameters, crystallinity, and solubility of this HA were determined. This highly pure, homogeneous, and highly crystalline HA is certified as a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material, SRM 2910. PMID:27366634

  4. Bias detection and certified reference materials for random measurands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhin, Andrew L.

    2015-12-01

    A problem that frequently occurs in metrology is the bias checking of data obtained by a laboratory against the specified value and uncertainty estimate given in the certificate of analysis. The measurand—a property of a certified reference material (CRM)—is supposed to be random with a normal distribution whose parameters are given by the certificate specifications. The laboratory’s data from subsequent measurements of the CRM (a CRM experiment) are summarized by the sample mean value and its uncertainty which is commonly based on a repeatability standard deviation. New confidence intervals for the lab’s bias are derived. Although they may lack intuitive appeal, those obtained by using higher order asymptotic methods, compared and contrasted in this paper, are recommended.

  5. Production of Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; Robert S. Marshall

    1999-03-01

    Nondestructive waste assay (NDA) methods are employed to determine the mass and activity of waste-entrained radionuclides as part of the National TRU (Trans-Uranic) Waste Characterization Program. In support of this program the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Mixed Waste Focus Area developed a plan to acquire capability/performance data on systems proposed for NDA purposes. The Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was designed to evaluate the NDA systems of commercial contractors by subjecting all participants to identical tests involving 55 gallon drum surrogates containing known quantities and distributions of radioactive materials in the form of sealed-source standards, referred to as working reference materials (WRMs). Although numerous Pu WRMs already exist, the CEP WRM set allows for the evaluation of the capability and performance of systems with respect to waste types/configurations which contain increased amounts of {sup 241}Am relative to weapons grade Pu, waste that is dominantly {sup 241}Am, as well as wastes containing various proportions of depleted uranium. The CEP WRMs consist of a special mixture of PuO{sub 2}/AmO{sub 2} (IAP) and diatomaceous earth (DE) or depleted uranium (DU) oxide and DE and were fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The IAP WRMS are contained inside a pair of welded inner and outer stainless steel containers. The DU WRMs are singly contained within a stainless steel container equivalent to the outer container of the IAP standards. This report gives a general overview and discussion relating to the production and certification of the CEP WRMs.

  6. Precise Measurement of Stable Neodymium Isotopes of Geological Materials by Using MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Wei, G.; Liu, Y.; Ren, Z.; Xu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A method has developed to determine high-precision high precision stable Nd isotopes in geological materials by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) using sample-standard-bracketing (SSB) mode. Nd was pre-concentrated and purifed and through a two column ion-exchange chromatographic procedure, yeilding a recovery of >96% for Nd with the interferences such as Ce and Sm being removed to cause little influence on the stable Nd isotopic compositions. The internal precision for the stable Nd isotopic compositions, ɛ142Nd, ɛ145Nd, ɛ146Nd and ɛ148Nd were generally better than ×0.2 (2SEM: standard error of the mean), and the external precision were generally better than ×0.2 (1SD: standard deviation) for ɛ142Nd, ɛ145Nd and ɛ146Nd, and better than ×0.5 (1SD) for ɛ148Nd estimated by the long-term results of the Nd standard solutions, such as La Jolla, Nd-GIG and NIST 3135a. Such precision id comparable to those by double spike method. Our measured ɛ142Nd, ɛ145Nd, ɛ146Nd and ɛ148Nd results of La Jolla are indentical to those by double spike method winthin analytical error. Thus, our method can provide comparable results for stable Nd isotopes to those by double spike method, but free from the inconvenience of calibrationg double spikes. This provides a more convenient means for studying stabe Nd isotopes in geological processes. By using this method, the stable Nd isotopic compositions for a series of international rock standard references were measured.

  7. Processing of Neutron Diffraction Data for Strain Measurement in Geological Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom; An, Ke; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Bingham, Philip R; Carmichael, Justin R; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius

    2014-01-01

    : Conventional rock mechanics testing techniques typically involve the loading of samples and measurement of displacements or strains on the outer boundary of the specimen surface. Neutron diffraction based strain measurement techniques represent a unique and powerful tool for measuring the strain within geological materials under load. The structural variability and non-uniform crystallinity of geological materials, however, create many complexities in the intensity patterns that must be analyzed to quantify strains within the material. The attenuating and scattering properties of the pressure cell housing the sample further add difficulties to the data analysis. This paper describes the methods and processes used to process neutron scattering data for strain measurement in geological materials. It is intended to provide a primer for those in the rock mechanics community that are interested in utilizing this technique along with additional discussion of neutron diffraction experimental factors that may affect data quality.

  8. Development of reference conditions for geologic repositories for nuclear waste in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Raines, G.E.; Rickertsen, L.D.; Claiborne, H.C.; McElroy, J.L.; Lynch, R.W.

    1980-10-01

    Activities to determine interim reference conditions for temperatures, pressure, fluid, chemical, and radiation environments that are expected to exist in commercial and defense high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt, basalt, tuff, granite, and shale are summarized. These interim conditions are being generated by the Reference Repository Conditions Interface Working Groups (RRC-IWG), an ad hoc IWG established by the National Waste Terminal Storage Program's (NWTS) Isolation Interface Control Board (I-ICB).

  9. Anorganic fluorescence reference materials for decay time of fluorescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Ottermann, C.; Klahn, J.; Korb, T.; Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Kynast, U.; Rupertus, V.

    2008-02-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools, detection methods and imaging applications for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and bio-technical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics, and drug screening. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for steady state fluorescence diagnostics, a method having the drawback of giving relative values for fluorescence intensities only. Therefore reference materials for a quantitative characterization have to be related directly to the materials under investigation. In order to evaluate these figures it is necessary to calculate absolute numbers such as absorption/excitation cross sections and quantum yield. This has been done for different types of dopands in different materials such as glass, glass ceramics, crystals or nano crystalline material embedded in polymer matrices. Samples doped with several fluophores of different emission wavelengths and decay times are required for fluorescent multiplexing applications. Decay times shorter than 100 ns are of special interest. In addition, a proper knowledge is necessary of quantum efficiency in highly scattering media. Recently, quantum efficiency in YAG:Ce glass ceramics has been successfully investigated. Glass and glass ceramics doped with threefold charged rare earth elements are available. However, these samples have the disadvantage of emission decay times much longer than 1 microsecond, due to the excitation and emission of their optical forbidden electronic transitions. Therefore first attempts have been made to produce decay-time standards based on organic and inorganic fluophores. Stable LUMOGEN RED pigments and YAG:Ce phosphors are diluted simultaneously in silicone matrices using a wide range of concentrations between 0.0001 and 2 wt%. Organic LUMOGEN RED has decay times in the lower nanosecond range with a slight dependency on concentration

  10. SIMULATION OF SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION AND DAMAGE IN GEOLOGIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, I; Vorobiev, O; Antoun, T H

    2004-09-17

    A new thermodynamically consistent material model for large deformation has been developed. It describes quasistatic loading of limestone as well as high-rate phenomena. This constitutive model has been implemented into an Eulerian shock wave code with adaptive mesh refinement. This approach was successfully used to reproduce static triaxial compression tests and to simulate experiments of blast loading and damage of limestone. Results compare favorably with experimentally available wave profiles from spherically-symmetric explosion in rock samples.

  11. Transportation of reagents, reference materials and samples: the international perspective.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E; Edwards, S

    2006-01-01

    The International Regulations for the transport of infectious substances, which could include reagents, reference material and samples, are based on the 13th revision of the United Nations Model Regulations and are the standard for transport of infectious substances by all means of transportation. The 13th revision, effective January 2005 and further amended in March and July 2005, made major improvements in these shipping regulations. They specifically exempt certain substances, including those that have been neutralized or inactivated to destroy any pathogens and samples from "normal" animals. Infectious substances are divided into Category A, which includes primarily cultures of the more pathogenic agents and Category B, which includes all other substances that do not meet the Category A criteria. Tissue specimens, submitted for diagnosis, are included in Category B. Category A shipments must have a Dangerous Goods Certificate and meet other requirements; Category B shipments do not. The National requirements, such as import permits, and certain airline restrictions must also be met. PMID:17058481

  12. Standard reference material 2036 near-infrared reflection wavelength standard.

    PubMed

    Choquette, Steven J; Duewer, David L; Hanssen, Leonard M; Early, Edward A

    2005-04-01

    Standard Reference Material 2036 (SRM 2036) is a certified transfer standard intended for the verification and calibration of the wavelength/wavenumber scale of near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers operating in diffuse or trans-reflectance mode. SRM 2036 Near-Infrared Wavelength/Wavenumber Reflection Standard is a combination of a rare earth oxide glass of a composition similar to that of SRM 2035 Near-Infrared Transmission Wavelength/Wavenumber Standard and SRM 2065 Ultraviolet-Visible-Near-Infrared Transmission Wavelength/Wavenumber Standard, but is in physical contact with a piece of sintered poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). The combination of glass contacted with a nearly ideal diffusely reflecting backing provides reflection-absorption bands that range from 15% R to 40% R. SRM 2036 is certified for the 10% band fraction air wavelength centroid location, (10%)B, of seven bands spanning the spectral region from 975 nm to 1946 nm. It is also certified for the vacuum wavenumber (10%)B of the same seven bands in the spectral region from 10 300 cm(-1) to 5130 cm(-1) at 8 cm(-1) resolution. Informational values are provided for the locations of thirteen additional bands from 334 nm to 804 nm. PMID:15901335

  13. Reference material manufacture and certification for the AVNG

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan; Thron, Jonathan L; Livke, Alexander; Kondratov, Sergey; Razinkov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Testing and demonstration of any radiation measurement system requires the use of appropriate radioactive sources. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an attribute measurement system built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. The AVNG detects neutron and gamma radiation signatures and displays the three unclassified attributes of 'plutonium presence,' 'plutonium mass > 2 kg,' and 'plutonium isotopic ratio ({sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu) < 0.1.' The AVNG was tested using a number of reference material (RM) sources with masses and isotopic ratios above and below these thresholds. The AVNG was demonstrated in June 2009 using several of these sources in addition to detector calibration sources. Since the AVNG was designed to measure multi-kg plutonium sources, the RM was manufactured specifically for use with this system. In addition, the RM was used to test the thresholds in the AVNG, so the size and composition of each RM was certified prior to use. In this presentation, we will describe the various steps in the manufacture and certification of these RM sources.

  14. Development of a southern oceanic air standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Brailsford, Gordon; Possolo, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    In 2009, the United States Congress charged the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with supporting climate change research. As part of this effort, the Gas Sensing Metrology Group at NIST began developing new gas standard mixtures for greenhouse gas mixtures relevant to atmospheric measurements. Suites of gravimetrically prepared primary standard mixtures (PSMs) were prepared at ambient concentration levels for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-air balance. In parallel, 30 gas cylinders were filled, by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) in Wellington, New Zealand, to high pressure from pristine southern oceanic air at Baring Head, New Zealand, and shipped to NIST. Using spectroscopic instrumentation, NIST analyzed the 30 cylinder samples for mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O. Certified values were assigned to these mixtures by calibrating the instrumentation with the PSM suites that were recently developed at NIST. These mixtures became NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1721 Southern Oceanic Air and are certified for ambient mole fraction, the first of their kind for NIST. The relative expanded uncertainties corresponding to coverage intervals with 95% probability are no larger than 0.06% of the certified values, representing the smallest uncertainties to date ever assigned to an NIST gas SRM. PMID:26650733

  15. Reference material manufacture and certification for the AVNG

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Thron, Jonathan; MacArthur, Duncan W.; Livke, Alexander; Bulatov, M; Kondratov, Sergey; Leplyavkina, M; Razinkov, Sergey; Sivachev, D; Tsybryaev, S; V'yushin, A

    2010-07-09

    Testing and demonstration of any radiation measurement system requires the use of appropriate radioactive sources. An attribute measurement system (A VNG) was developed and fabricated at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, VNIIEF, Russia, under contract with LANL, USA. The A VNG detects neutron and gamma radiation signatures and compares the data analysis results with the specified threshold values for three unclassified attributes; plutonium is present or absent, plutonium mass is greater than or less than the specified threshold value and plutonium isotopic ratio 240Pu to 239Pu) is greater than or less then the threshold value. A set of reference materials (RMs) was specially manufactured for the A VNG with masses and isotopic ratios above and below the selected thresholds. The set of RMs was certified in compliance with the Russian metrological requirements. The RMs were used to debug and test the A VNG and to demonstrate the A VNG operation to an American delegation in June 2009. In this presentation, we will describe the various steps in the manufacture and certification of these RM sources.

  16. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase...

  17. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase...

  18. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase...

  19. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase Procedure § 230.6 Standard Reference Materials out of stock....

  20. 15 CFR 230.6 - Standard Reference Materials out of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Reference Materials out of stock. 230.6 Section 230.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS Purchase Procedure § 230.6 Standard Reference Materials out of stock....

  1. Geologic utility of improved orbital measurement capabilities in reference to non-renewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H.; Marsh, S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and spatial characteristics necessary for future orbital remote sensing systems are defined. The conclusions are based on the past decade of experience in exploring for non-renewable resources with reference to data from ground, aircraft, and orbital systems. Two principle areas of investigation are used in the discussion: a structural interpretation in a basin area for hydrocarbon exploration, and a discrimination of altered areas in the Cuprite district in Nevada.

  2. Mica Mountain Muscovite: A New Silicate Hydrogen Isotope Standard Reference Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonero, A.; Larson, P. B.; Neill, O. K.

    2015-12-01

    A new standard reference material consisting of finely ground muscovite flakes has been developed and utilized at Washington State University to calibrate hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) measurements to the VSMOW scale. This standard was prepared from a single crystal 'book' of a muscovite-bearing pegmatite near Deary, ID. The value we obtained for this muscovite standard (MMM) is: δD VSMOW = -79.1 ± 2.0‰ relative to NBS-30 biotite at -65.7‰ compared to a VSMOW value of 0.00‰. This mean value was determined for the muscovite and has been used as our working standard. There have been many recent geological applications to continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. When hydrogen isotope ratios are of interest, a suitable standard for hydrogen in silicate systems often is not available. With supplies of the older NBS-30 biotite standard exhausted, much D/H data measured on silicate minerals have been linked to the VSMOW scale via non-silicate reference materials which may not behave similarly to minerals under study. Some recent studies have shown the NBS-30 standard to have poor intra-laboratory agreement with that material's measured and accepted isotopic values (Qi et al., 2014). Many laboratories which would measure D/H in silicate minerals would benefit from using a silicate-based standard for hydrogen. With further characterization, this muscovite may also be useful as a standard for silicate oxygen ratios as well as for some major element cations. This muscovite standard gives consistent values and it is easy to work with and does not leave much combustion residue. Also, because muscovite contains little iron, metal-hydride formation and associated fractionation factors is greatly reduced during the sample combustion. A new silicate-hydrogen standard is needed by the community, and this work represents an example of what a replacement standard material could look like.

  3. 10 CFR 51.109 - Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of materials license with respect to a geologic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... license with respect to a geologic repository. 51.109 Section 51.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Public hearings in proceedings for issuance of materials license with respect to a geologic repository... waste repository at a geologic repository operations area under parts 60 and 63 of this chapter, and...

  4. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G. T.; Finger, L. W.; Evans, H. T.; Gabe, E. J.; Enright, G. D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L. P.; Hubbard, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material® for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies– are rhombohedral, with space group R3¯c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013 Å, and c = 12

  5. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment.

    PubMed

    Wong-Ng, W; Siegrist, T; DeTitta, G T; Finger, L W; Evans, H T; Gabe, E J; Enright, G D; Armstrong, J T; Levenson, M; Cook, L P; Hubbard, C R

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material(®) for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies- are rhombohedral, with space group [Formula: see text]. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013

  6. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) for Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G.T.; Finger, L.W.; Evans, H.T., Jr.; Gabe, E.J.; Enright, G.D.; Armstrong, J.T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L.P.; Hubbard, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material?? for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ???3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0 420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals' the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 A?? ?? 0.0062 A??, and c=12.9979 A?? ?? 0.020 A?? (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Ha??gg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies_ are rhombohedral, with space group R3c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080 ?? 0.00029 A??, and c=12 99568 A?? ?? 0.00087 A?? (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Ha??gg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 A?? ?? 0

  7. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mast, M Alisa

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970-2010 and 1990-2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO₂ emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed. PMID:23715732

  8. Development of a multi-VOC reference material for quality assurance in materials emission testing.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm

    2015-04-01

    Emission test chamber measurement is necessary to proof building materials as sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results of such measurements are used to evaluate materials and label them according to their potential to emit harmful substances, polluting indoor air. If only labelled materials were installed indoors, this would improve indoor air quality and prevent negative impacts on human health. Because of the complex testing procedure, reference materials for the quality assurance are mandatory. Currently, there is a lack of such materials because most building products show a broad variation of emissions even within one batch. A previous study indicates lacquers, mixed with volatile organic pollutants, as reproducible emission source for a wide range of substances. In the present study, the curing of the lacquer-VOC mixture inside micro-chambers was optimised. Therefore, the humidity and the chamber flow were varied. Typical indoor air pollutants with a wide range of volatilities, for example, styrene, n-hexadecane, dimethyl and dibutyl phthalate were selected. It turned out that, under optimised curing parameters inside the micro-chamber, their emission can be reproduced with variations of less than 10 %. With this, a next important step towards a reference material for emission testing was achieved. PMID:25543146

  9. New Ca-Tims and La-Icp Analyses of GJ-1, Plesovice, and FC1 Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, J. D.; Möller, A.; Walker, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon geochronology relies on external reference standards to monitor and correct for different mass fractionation effects and instrument drift. Common zircon reference materials used within the community, including the KU Isotope Geochemistry Laboratory, are GJ-1 (207Pb/206Pb age: 608.53 +/- 0.37Ma; Jackson et al., 2004), Plesovice (337.13 +/- 0.37 Ma; Slama et al., 2008), and FC-1 (1099.0 +/-0.6 Ma; Paces and Miller, 1993). The age distribution of zircon reference material varies slightly from sample fraction to sample fraction, and the published results for GJ-1 are slightly discordant. As a result, using the published data for the distributed standard splits can lead to small systematic variations when comparing datasets from different labs, and more high precision data are needed to evaluate potential inhomogeneity of sample splits used in different laboratories. Here we characterize these reference materials with cathodoluminescence, LA-ICP-MS traverses across grains, and high precision CA-TIMS to better constrain the ages and assess zoning of these standards, and present the data for comparison with other laboratories. Reducing systematic error by dating our own reference material lends confidence to our analyses and allows for inter-laboratory age reproducibility of unknowns. Additionally, the reduction in propagated uncertainties (especially in GJ-1, for which both the red and yellow variety will be analyzed) will be used to improve long-term reproducibility, comparisons between samples of similar age, detrital populations and composite pluton zircons. Jackson, S.E., et al., 2004, Chemical Geology, v. 211, p. 47-69. Paces, J.B. & Miller, J.D., 1993, Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 80, p. 13997-14013. Slama, J., et al., 2008, Chemical Geology, v. 249. p. 1-35.

  10. Development of a Northern Continental Air Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kitzis, Duane R; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Hall, Bradley D; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Tans, Pieter P; Possolo, Antonio; Carney, Jennifer

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently began to develop standard mixtures of greenhouse gases as part of a broad program mandated by the 2009 United States Congress to support research in climate change. To this end, NIST developed suites of gravimetrically assigned primary standard mixtures (PSMs) comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-natural air balance at ambient mole fraction levels. In parallel, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado, charged 30 aluminum gas cylinders with northern hemisphere air at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. These mixtures, which constitute NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1720 Northern Continental Air, were certified by NIST for ambient mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O relative to NIST PSMs. NOAA-assigned values are also provided as information in support of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Program for CO2, CH4, and N2O, since NOAA serves as the WMO Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Relative expanded uncertainties at the 95% confidence interval are <±0.06% of the certified values for CO2 and N2O and <0.2% for CH4, which represents the smallest relative uncertainties specified to date for a gaseous SRM produced by NIST. Agreement between the NOAA (WMO/GAW) and NIST values based on their respective calibration standards suites is within 0.05%, 0.13%, and 0.06% for CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively. This collaborative development effort also represents the first of its kind for a gaseous SRM developed by NIST. PMID:26890890

  11. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  12. 40 CFR 600.011-93 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the U.S. Environmental Protection.... Document number and name 40 CFR part 600 reference ASTM E 29-67 (Reapproved 1973) Standard Recommended... the U.S. and Canada), or at http://www.sae.org. Document No. and name 40 CFR part 600 reference...

  13. Archean, Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic Crust of Central East Antarctica: New Insights on Subglacial Geology from Proxy Geologic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodge, J. W.; Fanning, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Fisher, C. M.; Nissen, C. I.

    2013-12-01

    Uncovering the ice-covered geology of East Antarctica is critical for understanding its ancient crustal history, its role in supercontinent formation, and its relationship to development of the Cenozoic ice cap. Multiple approaches--including detrital-mineral provenance study, analysis of glacial clasts, airborne and passive geophysics, and future sub-ice drilling--are rapidly improving our view of the remote continental interior. Proxy geologic materials such as detrital zircons and glacial clasts provide indirect means to sample the ice-covered crust, although spatial-geographic resolution is poor; geophysical data are spatially accurate yet limited by uncertainty in geologic significance. In addition to U-Pb zircon ages of ~3.1, 2.5 and 1.7 Ga from Nimrod Group outcrop, detrital-zircon provenance and glacial clast studies from the central Transantarctic Mountains show that central East Antarctica was formed by a series of episodic magmatic events at 2.01, 1.88-1.79, 1.57, 1.48-1.43, and 1.22-1.06 Ga. Zircon Hf and O isotopic compositions from a suite of granitoid clasts collected from glacial catchments draining central East Antarctica have variable compositions that indicate both juvenile, mantle-derived melts and those involving older crustal sources. None of these igneous clast ages are known from limited Antarctic outcrop in the region. Detrital zircon ages in Neoproterozoic rift-margin strata confirm important populations of 1.88-1.72, 1.64-1.36, and 1.28-1.04 Ga, strengthening a case for episodic magmatic growth of East Antarctic crust. After a juvenile Archean magmatic origin, central East Antarctica was consolidated by further crustal assembly at ~1.9 (Nuna time), ~1.7 (Mawson), and ~1.2 Ga (Rodinia), as indicated by monazite U-Pb ages from metamorphic leucogneiss clasts. Monazite ages record suspected but previously undocumented Proterozoic tectonometamorphic events in central East Antarctica, overprinted by younger Neoproterozoic metamorphism. Together

  14. Determination of halogens, with special reference to iodine, in geological and biological samples using pyrohydrolysis for preparation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography for measurement.

    PubMed

    Schnetger, B; Muramatsu, Y

    1996-11-01

    A method for determining iodine, bromine, chlorine and fluorine in geological and biological materials is described. In a quartz tube, solid material was heated to 1100 degrees C under a wet oxygen flow (pyrohydrolysis). By this process the halogens (I, Br, Cl, F) were separated from the matrix and then collected in a receiver solution. The chemical yield of iodine was determined by a radioactive tracer. ICP-MS and ion chromatographic measurements were used for the determination of the halogens. The method was optimized by investigating different experimental conditions. All four halogens can be trapped in the receiver solution from one combustion procedure. Precision and accuracy were evaluated by the analysis of environmental standard reference materials (rock, soil, milk, leaves, marine tissue). The concentrations in the materials analysed were in the ranges 0.006-50 mg kg-1 for I, 0.06-1300 mg kg-1 for Br, 50-1100 mg kg-1 for F and 400-11000 mg kg-1 for Cl. The lower values represent the practical detection limit of this method. The results obtained by the proposed method and the certified values are in good agreement. PMID:8952450

  15. 40 CFR 600.011-93 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the U.S... below: (b) ASTM. The following material is available from the American Society for Testing and Materials. Copies of these materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials,...

  16. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy... paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  17. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51...://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) U.S....

  18. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any.... Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ...

  19. Determination of total tin in geological materials by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry using a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of total tin in geological materials, with use of a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace. The sample is decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 10% hydrochloric acid. Tin is then extracted into trioctylphosphine oxide-methyl isobutyl ketone prior to atomization. Impregnation of the furnace with a sodium tungstate solution increases the sensitivity of the determination and improves the precision of the results. The limits of determination are 0.5-20 ppm of tin in the sample. Higher tin values can be determined by dilution of the extract. Replicate analyses of eighteen geological reference samples with diverse matrices gave relative standard deviations ranging from 2.0 to 10.8% with an average of 4.6%. Average tin values for reference samples were in general agreement with, but more precise than, those reported by others. Apparent recoveries of tin added to various samples ranged from 95 to 111% with an average of 102%. ?? 1984.

  20. The group separation of the rare-earth elements and yttrium from geologic materials by cation-exchange chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.; Wildeman, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Demand is increasing for the determination of the rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium in geologic materials. Due to their low natural abundance in many materials and the interferences that occur in many methods of determination, a separation procedure utilizing gradient strong-acid cation-exchange chromatography is often used to preconcentrate and isolate these elements from the host-rock matrix. Two separate gradient strong-acid cation-exchange procedures were characterized and the major elements as well as those elements thought to provide the greatest interference for the determination of the REE in geologic materials were tested for separation from the REE. Simultaneous inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICAP-AES) measurements were used to construct the chromatograms for the elution studies, allowing the elution patterns of all the elements of interest to be determined in a single fraction of eluent. As a rock matrix, U.S. Geological Survey standard reference BCR-1 basalt was digested using both an acid decomposition procedure and a lithium metaborate fusion. Hydrochloric and nitric acids were tested as eluents and chromatograms were plotted using the ICAP-AES data; and we observed substantial differences in the elution patterns of the REE and as well as in the solution patterns of Ba, Ca, Fe and Sr. The nitric acid elution required substantially less eluent to elute the REE and Y as a group when compared to the hydrochloric acid elution, and provided a clearer separation of the REE from interfering and matrix elements. ?? 1984.

  1. [Reference ranges of 9 plasmatic proteins in Tunisian population based on the new IFCC reference material CRM 470].

    PubMed

    Znazen, Raja; Ben Ayed, Mourad; Gargouri, Jalel; Bel Hadj Hmida, Youssef; Kassis, Mondher; Damak, Jamel; Masmoudi, Hatem

    2003-04-01

    The interpretation of biological exam results requires the knowledge of physiological variation factors and reference values for every parameter. Following the preparation and the diffusion by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) of a new reference material for the dosage of plasmatic proteins (CRM470) and in order to take part in the international effort of standardization of these dosages, we established reference ranges in the tunisian population for 9 plasmatic proteins: the Immunoglobulines G, A and M, complement factors C3 and C4, albumin, transferrin, haptoglobin and the a 1-glycoprotéin acid. Our sample of 211 healthy blood donors aged between 18 and 63 years. Reference limits 0.95 that we obtained are located within variation of most reference values lately found in the literature. PMID:12848010

  2. Acquisition of improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected NIST reference materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Kawamura, H; Iyengar, G V

    1999-01-01

    As part of a study on the ingestion and organ content of some trace elements of importance in radiological protection, additional work has been undertaken to acquire improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in four selected reference materials provided by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. The materials are SRM-1548 Total Diet, SRM-1548a Typical Diet, SRM-1486 Bone Meal, and RM-8414 Bovine Muscle. A coordinated study was undertaken with the help of seven selected laboratories in five countries. Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were the analytical main techniques used. PMID:10676473

  3. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reference. (1) Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) Standard 210/240-2003 published in 2003, “Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment,” IBR approved for § 431.96. (2) ARI Standard 340/360-2004, “Performance Rating of Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat...

  4. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... §§ 431.444; 431.447. (c) IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or go to...

  5. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... Test Methods for Single- and Three-Phase Small Motors, IBR approved for § 431.444. (2) (c) IEEE...-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or go to http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html. (1)...

  6. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1... Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from...

  7. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1... Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from...

  8. 10 CFR 431.203 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.... Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1... Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from...

  9. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., Fifth Edition, Approved March 26, 2009, IBR approved for § 430.2. (e) (f) ASHRAE. American Society of... Society of Mechanical Engineers, Service Center, 22 Law Drive, P.O. Box 2900, Fairfield, NJ 07007,...

  10. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any... §§ 431.444; 431.447. (c) IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane,...

  11. 10 CFR 435.3 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... performance standard listed in paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR Part 435 subpart A. The Director of... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Any subsequent amendment to....gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html (2) U.S. Department of...

  12. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this...-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or go to http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html. (1)...

  13. A Bibliography of Reference Materials for Evaluating Foreign Student Credentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefling, Robert, Ed.

    The Academic Advisory Staff (AAS) of the Office of International Training (OIT), Agency for International Development (AID) analyzes and interprets the academic credentials of AID participants from cooperating countries in terms of the educational system of the U. S. To carry out this service the AAS has developed a library of reference materials…

  14. An Annotated Bibliography of Day Care Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reif, Nadine

    This annotated bibliography contains day care reference sources available through ERIC. Specific contents are: (1) After School Care; (2) Analysis; (3) Analysis, Cost; (4) Bibliographies; (5) Comprehensive Programs; (6) Community-Coordinated Child Care; (7) Demonstration Centers; (8) Programs for the Disadvantaged; (9) Effects of Day Care; (10)…

  15. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-10-13

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (approximately 3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. PMID:16222294

  16. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. A fundamental discussion of what triggers localized deformation in geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Max; Paesold, Martin; Poulet, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Veveakis, Manolis

    2015-04-01

    critical amount of dissipative work translated into heat over the diffusive capacity of the system by an instability study designed for such materials (Gruntfest, 1963). With respect to our numerical experiments, this critical parameter determines the timing when the entire amount of deformation energy translated into heat cannot be diffusively transported out of the system anymore. The resulting local temperature rise then induces strain localization. In contrast to classical shear heating scenarios with (catastrophic) thermal runaways, temperature variations of less than 1 K are sufficient for this localization mode to occur due to the balance between heat producing (e.g. dislocation creep) and consuming (grain growth) processes in the present setup. We demonstrate that this rise in latent heat is sufficient to provoke grain growth, operating as an endothermic reaction, stabilizing the simulated localized structure in turn. Various localized ductile structures, such as folded or boudinaged layers, can therefore be placed at the same material failure mode due to fundamental energy bifurcations triggered by dissipative work out of homogeneous state. Finally, we will discuss situations, in which structural heterogeneities are considered negligible and where the energy theory described here plays an underlying role by means of a comparison between numerical experiments and natural examples. REFERENCES Austin, N. and Evans, B. (2007). Paleowattmeters: A scaling relation for dynamically recrystallized grain size. Geology, 35. Gruntfest, I.J. (1963). Thermal feedback in liquid flow, plane shear at constant stress. Transactions of the Society of Rheology, 7. Hansen, L.N. and Zimmermann, M.E. and Dillman, A.M. and Kohlstedt, D.L (2012). Strain localization in olivine aggregates at high temperature: a laboratory comparison of constant-strain-rate and constant-stress boundary conditions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 333-334. Herwegh, M., Poulet, T., Karrech, A. and

  18. A fundamental discussion of what triggers localized deformation in geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Max; Paesold, Martin; Poulet, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Veveakis, Manolis

    2015-04-01

    critical amount of dissipative work translated into heat over the diffusive capacity of the system by an instability study designed for such materials (Gruntfest, 1963). With respect to our numerical experiments, this critical parameter determines the timing when the entire amount of deformation energy translated into heat cannot be diffusively transported out of the system anymore. The resulting local temperature rise then induces strain localization. In contrast to classical shear heating scenarios with (catastrophic) thermal runaways, temperature variations of less than 1 K are sufficient for this localization mode to occur due to the balance between heat producing (e.g. dislocation creep) and consuming (grain growth) processes in the present setup. We demonstrate that this rise in latent heat is sufficient to provoke grain growth, operating as an endothermic reaction, stabilizing the simulated localized structure in turn. Various localized ductile structures, such as folded or boudinaged layers, can therefore be placed at the same material failure mode due to fundamental energy bifurcations triggered by dissipative work out of homogeneous state. Finally, we will discuss situations, in which structural heterogeneities are considered negligible and where the energy theory described here plays an underlying role by means of a comparison between numerical experiments and natural examples. REFERENCES Austin, N. and Evans, B. (2007). Paleowattmeters: A scaling relation for dynamically recrystallized grain size. Geology, 35. Gruntfest, I.J. (1963). Thermal feedback in liquid flow, plane shear at constant stress. Transactions of the Society of Rheology, 7. Hansen, L.N. and Zimmermann, M.E. and Dillman, A.M. and Kohlstedt, D.L (2012). Strain localization in olivine aggregates at high temperature: a laboratory comparison of constant-strain-rate and constant-stress boundary conditions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 333-334. Herwegh, M., Poulet, T., Karrech, A. and

  19. A Multimedia Reference Listing of Materials on Drug Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This multimedia resource guide provides a listing of various materials on drug education. The materials listed include the following: advertisements; charts; editorials; posters; audio and video tapes; audiovisual catalogs; bibliographies; books; drug education kits; essays; film reviews; films; filmstrips; general articles; pamphlets and…

  20. Homogeneity of the geochemical reference material BRP-1 (paraná basin basalt) and assessment of minimum mass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotta, Aloisio J. B.; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Wilson, Stephen A.; Perez, Carlos A.; Nardy, Antonio J. R.; Larizzatti, Joao H.

    2007-01-01

    Reference materials (RM) are required for quantitative analyses and their successful use is associated with the degree of homogeneity, and the traceability and confidence limits of the values established by characterisation. During the production of a RM, the chemical characterisation can only commence after it has been demonstrated that the material has the required level of homogeneity. Here we describe the preparation of BRP-1, a proposed geochemical reference material, and the results of the tests to evaluate its degree of homogeneity between and within bottles. BRP-1 is the first of two geochemical RM being produced by Brazilian institutions in collaboration with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Association of Geoanalysts (IAG). Two test portions of twenty bottles of BRP-1 were analysed by wavelength dispersive-XRF spectrometry and major, minor and eighteen trace elements were determined. The results show that for most of the investigated elements, the units of BRP-1 were homogeneous at conditions approximately three times more rigorous than those strived for by the test of “sufficient homogeneity”. Furthermore, the within bottle homogeneity of BRP-1 was evaluated using small beam (1 mm2) synchrotron radiation XRF spectrometry and, for comparison, the USGS reference materials BCR-2 and GSP-2 were also evaluated. From our data, it has been possible to assign representative minimum masses for some major constituents (1 mg) and for some trace elements (1-13 mg), except Zr in GSP-2, for which test portions of 74 mg are recommended.

  1. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a... Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, (610)...

  2. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a..._federal_ regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at...

  3. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. This material is also available for inspection at...

  4. ECUT energy data reference series: lightweight materials for ground transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Abarcar, R.B.; Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes information that describes the use of lightweight materials in automobiles. The information on this mode of transportation represents the largest potential energy savings for substitution of lightweight materials in the transportation sector. Included are data on energy conversion efficiency of the engine and its relationship to vehicle weight, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the service activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  5. ECUT energy data reference series: Lightweight materials for ground transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarcar, R. B.; Hane, G. J.; Johnson, D. R.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes information that describes the use of lightweight materials in automobiles. The information on this mode of transportation represents the largest potential energy savings for substitution of lightweight materials in the transportation sector. Included are data on energy conversion efficiency of the engine and its relationship to vehicle weight, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the service activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  6. Atomic-absorption spectrochemical analysis for ultratrace elements in geological materials by hydride-forming techniques: Selenium.

    PubMed

    Sighinolfi, G P; Gorgoni, C

    1981-03-01

    A method based on hydride generation for the AAS determination of selenium at nanogram levels in geological materials is described. The sample is decomposed by aqua regia attack in a sealed Teflon bomb. After treatment with hydrochloric acid, selenium is converted into hydrogen selenide by reaction with sodium borohydride and determined by AAS. Matrix interference effects have been investigated, but though they are rarely significant, the standard-additions method is recommended. The absolute sensitivity of the method is about 2.0 ng of Se (in 10 ml of solution). Detection limits of about 5-10 ng in a 1.0-g sample have been achieved with the use of "Suprapure" reagents. The selenium content of some USGS, CRPG and ANRT reference samples is reported. PMID:18962885

  7. Dynamic simulations of geologic materials using combined FEM/DEM/SPH analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

    2008-03-26

    An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, there are many application involving geologic materials where fluid-structure interaction is important. To facilitate solution of this class of problems a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC to simulate fully coupled systems involving geologic materials and a saturating fluid. We will present results from a study of a broad range of geomechanical problems that exercise the various components of LDEC in isolation and in tandem.

  8. Application of Uranium Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry in the preparation of New Certified Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasözbek, A.; Mathew, K. J.; Orlowicz, G.; Srinivasan, B.; Narayanan, U.

    2012-04-01

    Proven measurement techniques play a critical role in the preparation of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) - those requiring high accuracy and precision in the measurement results. Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is one such measurement method commonly used in the quantitative analysis of uranium in nuclear safeguards and isotope geology applications. In this project, we evaluated the possibility of using some of the uranium isotopic and assay CRMs made earlier by the New Brunswick laboratory as IDMS spikes to define the uranium mass fraction in future preparations of CRMs. Uranium solutions prepared from CRM 112-A (a highly pure uranium metal assay standard) and CRM 115 (a highly pure uranium oxide isotopic and assay standard) were used as spikes in the determination of uranium. Two different thermal ionization mass spectrometer instruments (MAT 261 and TRITON) were used for the isotopic measurements. Standard IDMS equation was used for data reduction to yield results for uranium mass fraction along with uncertainties, the latter calculated according to GUM. The results show that uranium mass fraction measurements can be made with the required accuracy and precision for defining the uranium concentration in new CRMs as well as in routine samples analyses.

  9. Reference data for thermocouple materials below the ice point.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, L. L.; Powell, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Standard thermoelectric data have been determined for four thermocouple combinations used below the ice point: commercial types E, K, and T and the special combination of KP vs Au-0.07 at.% Fe. Power series coefficients necessary to generate E = f(T) data for these combinations are given. In addition, extensive tests were carried out to ascertain the variability between materials from different manufacturers. Typical wires processed for low-temperature usage often have slightly thermoelectric properties (up to 1%) from those, nominally identical, wires made for high-temperature applications. Generally, type E is the most satisfactory standardized commercial combination. The Au-0.07 at.% Fe material has been examined in particular detail, because it is not yet an ISA standard material. It has excellent sensitivity in the liquid helium/liquid hydrogen temperature range and a nearly linear thermovoltage at higher temperatures.

  10. 40 CFR 1045.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, 1301 Constitution... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1045.810 What materials does this part reference?...

  11. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the listed materials by the standard-setting... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water... the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of...

  12. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the listed materials by the standard-setting... AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water... the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of...

  13. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section into 10 CFR part 433. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the.... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting... CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3...

  14. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by... Z21.47-1998”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved by ANSI on June 9, 1998, IBR approved for §...

  15. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by... Z21.47-1998”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved by ANSI on June 9, 1998, IBR approved for §...

  16. Collective Bargaining for Public Managers (State and Local): Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Labor Relations Training Center.

    The book contain pertinent articles on various subjects related to collective bargaining. It was developed and the materials specially written for use by instructors in a collective bargaining course designed to assist public sector managers in attaining a stable and productive labor relations environment. Each article has been keyed to the…

  17. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash... Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096....

  18. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash... Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096....

  19. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash... Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096....

  20. Household Hazardous Materials and Their Labels: A Reference for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Lillian F.

    Household hazardous materials are products or wastes which are toxic, corrosive, reactive, and/or ignitable. Although common products such as pesticides, oils, gasoline, solvents, cleaners, and polishes are hazardous, students and adults are not always aware of potential dangers. This sourcebook contains definitions and examples of household…

  1. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at NHTSA's Docket Section... assembly drawing SA-150 M060, revision A, titled “Pelvis and Abdomen Assembly,” dated May 18, 1994....

  2. 10 CFR 431.63 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment..._of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at U.S... http://www.ari.org/std/standards.html: (1) ARI Standard 1200-2006, Performance Rating of...

  3. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  4. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  5. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  6. Fluid flow through very low permeability materials: A concern in the geological isolation of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.

    1992-12-31

    The geological isolation of waste usually involves the selection of sites where very low permeability materials exist, but there are few earth materials that are truly impermeable. Regulatory concerns for the containment of radioactive material extend for geologic periods of time (i.e., 10,000 years or more), and it becomes nearly impossible to ``assure`` the behavior of the site for such long periods of time. Experience at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shows that very slow movements of fluid can take place through materials that may, in fact, have no intrinsic permeability in their undisturbed condition. Conventional hydrologic models may not be appropriate to describe flow, may provide modeling results that could be in significant variance with reality, and may not be easy to defend during the compliance process. Additionally, the very small volumes of fluid and very slow flow rates involved are difficult to observe, measure, and quantify. The WIPP disposal horizon is excavated 655 m below the surface in bedded salt of Permian age. Salt has some unique properties, but similar hydrologic problems can be expected in site investigations were other relatively impermeable beds occur, and especially in deep sites where significant overburden and confining pressures may be encountered. Innovative techniques developed during the investigations at the WIPP may find utility when investigating other disposal sites. Ongoing work at the WIPP is expected to continue to advance understanding of flow through very low permeability materials. The study of flow under these conditions will become increasingly important as additional waste disposal sites are designed that require assurance of their safety for geological periods of time.

  7. Multi-block analysis coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for sorting geological materials from caves.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Faten; Bassel, Léna; Ferrier, Catherine; Lacanette, Delphine; Chapoulie, Rémy; Bousquet, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In this study, multi-block analysis was applied for the first time to LIBS spectra provided by a portable LIBS system (IVEA Solution, France) equipped with three compact Czerny-Turner spectrometers covering the spectral ranges 200-397nm, 398-571nm and 572-1000nm. 41 geological samples taken from a laboratory-cave situated in the "Vézère valley", an area rich with prehistoric sites and decorated caves listed as a UNESCO world heritage in the south west of France, were analyzed. They were composed of limestone and clay considered as underlying supports and of two types of alterations referred as moonmilk and coralloid. Common Components and Specific Weights Analysis (CCSWA) allowed sorting moonmilk and coralloid samples. The loadings revealed higher amounts of magnesium, silicon, aluminum and strontium in coralloids and the saliences emphasized that among the three spectrometers installed in the LIBS instrument used in this work; that covering the range 572-1000nm was less contributive. This new approach for processing LIBS data not only provides good results for sorting geological materials but also clearly reveals which spectral range contains most of the information. This specific advantage of multi-block analysis could lead for some applications to simplify the design and to reduce the size of LIBS instruments. PMID:27474310

  8. SAND SPIKED WITH COPPER AS A REFERENCE TOXICANT MATERIAL FOR SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTING: A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Routine use of solid-phase sediment toxicity tests for scientific and regulatory purposes necessitates the development of solid-phase reference toxicant materials. n order to evaluate an approach for developing such materials, 12 solid-phase 96-h reference toxicant tests were con...

  9. The geological nature of dark material on Vesta and implications for the subsurface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Nass, A.; Otto, K.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; McCord, T. B.; Williams, D. A.; Raymond, C. A.; Blewett, D. T.; Hiesinger, H.; Yingst, R. A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Palomba, E.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2014-09-01

    Deposits of dark material appear on Vesta’s surface as features of relatively low-albedo in the visible wavelength range of Dawn’s camera and spectrometer. Mixed with the regolith and partially excavated by younger impacts, the material is exposed as individual layered outcrops in crater walls or ejecta patches, having been uncovered and broken up by the impact. Dark fans on crater walls and dark deposits on crater floors are the result of gravity-driven mass wasting triggered by steep slopes and impact seismicity. The fact that dark material is mixed with impact ejecta indicates that it has been processed together with the ejected material. Some small craters display continuous dark ejecta similar to lunar dark-halo impact craters, indicating that the impact excavated the material from beneath a higher-albedo surface. The asymmetric distribution of dark material in impact craters and ejecta suggests non-continuous distribution in the local subsurface. Some positive-relief dark edifices appear to be impact-sculpted hills with dark material distributed over the hill slopes. Dark features inside and outside of craters are in some places arranged as linear outcrops along scarps or as dark streaks perpendicular to the local topography. The spectral characteristics of the dark material resemble that of Vesta’s regolith. Dark material is distributed unevenly across Vesta’s surface with clusters of all types of dark material exposures. On a local scale, some craters expose or are associated with dark material, while others in the immediate vicinity do not show evidence for dark material. While the variety of surface exposures of dark material and their different geological correlations with surface features, as well as their uneven distribution, indicate a globally inhomogeneous distribution in the subsurface, the dark material seems to be correlated with the rim and ejecta of the older Veneneia south polar basin structure. The origin of the dark material is still

  10. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part.... (a) ASTM material. Table 1 to this section lists material from the American Society for Testing and... these materials from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box...

  11. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part.... (a) ASTM material. Table 1 to this section lists material from the American Society for Testing and... these materials from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box...

  12. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  13. Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI): Multispectral Imaging of Geological Materials at a Handlens Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. D.; Nunez, J. I.; Sellar, R. G.; Gardner, P. B.; Manatt, K. S.; Dingizian, A.; Dudik, M. J.; McDonnell, G.; Le, T.; Thomas, J. A.; Chu, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) is a prototype instrument presently under development for future astrobiological missions to Mars. The MMI is designed to be a arm-mounted rover instrument for use in characterizing the microtexture and mineralogy of materials along geological traverses [1,2,3]. Such geological information is regarded as essential for interpreting petrogenesis and geological history, and when acquired in near real-time, can support hypothesis-driven exploration and optimize science return. Correlated microtexure and mineralogy also provides essential data for selecting samples for analysis with onboard lab instruments, and for prioritizing samples for potential Earth return. The MMI design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and an uncooled focal plane array to achieve the low-mass (<1kg), low-cost, and high reliability (no moving parts) required for an arm-mounted instrument on a planetary rover [2,3]. The MMI acquires multispectral, reflectance images at 62 μm/pixel, in which each image pixel is comprised of a 21-band VNIR spectrum (0.46 to 1.73 μm). This capability enables the MMI to discriminate and resolve the spatial distribution of minerals and textures at the microscale [2, 3]. By extending the spectral range into the infrared, and increasing the number of spectral bands, the MMI exceeds the capabilities of current microimagers, including the MER Microscopic Imager (MI); 4, the Phoenix mission Robotic Arm Camera (RAC; 5) and the Mars Science Laboratory's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI; 6). In this report we will review the capabilities of the MMI by highlighting recent lab and field applications, including: 1) glove box deployments in the Astromaterials lab at Johnson Space Center to analyze Apollo lunar samples; 2) GeoLab glove box deployments during the 2011 Desert RATS field trials in northern AZ to characterize analog materials collected by astronauts during simulated EVAs; 3) field deployments on Mauna Kea

  14. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase - An Interactive Database Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. B.; Burns, Dewitt (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this program is to collect at one site much of the knowledge accumulated about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based on ground testing, the effects of this outgassing observed on spacecraft in flight, and the broader contamination environment measured by instruments on-orbit. We believe that this Web site will help move contamination a step forward, away from anecdotal folklore toward engineering discipline. Our hope is that once operational, this site will form a nucleus for information exchange, that users will not only take information from our knowledge base, but also provide new information from ground testing and space missions, expanding and increasing the value of this site to all. We urge Government and industry users to endorse this approach that will reduce redundant testing, reduce unnecessary delays, permit uniform comparisons, and permit informed decisions.

  15. Reference materials and intercomparison samples available from the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, E.J.; Laska, P.R.

    1985-06-01

    Reference materials and intercomparison samples may be obtained by laboratories involved in the analysis of environmental samples containing radioactivity, pesticides, toxic inorganic species, or toxic organic species. These reference materials and intercomparison samples are available from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Quality Assurance Division located at the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). These materials are useful for incorporation into a laboratory's quality control program for the evaluation of the precision and accuracy of analytical work. Media used for radiation reference materials are pitchblende, Monazite ore, uranium mill tailings, Mancos shale, fly ash, and water spiked with radionuclides. Radioactivity intercomparison samples consist of water, milk, air, urine, and a simulated diet slurry spiked with radionuclides. Media available for toxic organic reference materials are sludge, shale oil, and rag oil, and for intercomparison samples are soil and water. Characterized fly ash, foundry sludge, and river sediment serve as reference materials for toxic inorganics, while spiked soil and water serve as intercomparison samples. Finally, spiked adipose tissue, blood plasma, urine, and water comprise the pesticide intercomparison samples, and, after the disclosure of the true pesticide compositions and concentrations of these samples, the laboratory can use the samples as reference materials. The reference materials are generally available continuously, but the intercomparison samples are distributed on a scheduled basis and in some cases only to certain laboratories. 9 tables.

  16. Nuclear reference materials to meet the changing needs of the global nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.R.; Gradle, C.G.; Narayanan, U.I.; Oldham, R.D.; Mitchell, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) serves as the US Government`s Certifying Authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards. In this role, NBL provides nuclear reference materials certified for chemical and/or isotopic compositions traceable to a nationally accepted, internationally compatible reference base. Emphasis is now changing as to the types of traceable nuclear reference materials needed as operations change within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and at nuclear facilities around the world. Environmental and waste minimization issues, facilities and materials transitioning from processing to storage modes with corresponding changes in the types of measurements being performed, emphasis on requirements for characterization of waste materials, difficulties in transporting nuclear materials, and International factors, including International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspection of excess US nuclear materials, are all contributing influences. During these changing times, ft is critical that traceable reference materials be provided for calibration or validation of the performance of measurement systems. This paper will describe actions taken and planned to meet the changing reference material needs of the global nuclear community.

  17. New biological reference materials - in vivo incorporated toxic metals in water hyacinth tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.R.; Simon, S.J.; Williams, L.R.; Beckert, W.F.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that high-quality reference materials, containing high levels of multiple toxic elements, can be produced with in vivo incorporation procedures. The approach taken was to produce water hyacinth tissue materials - leaves and stems containing high levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury - as follows: apply a hydroponic feeding procedure for the in vivo incorporation of toxic elements into water hyacinths; dry, blend, and homogenize the plant materials and determine the levels of the incorporated elements and the homogeneity of the generated plant material; demonstrate that low-level control materials can be successfully blended with high-level materials to yield a homogeneous material with intermediate toxicant levels; evaluate the precision of the analytical methods used to determine toxic element levels in the materials; and evaluate the stability of the resulting materials. Sufficient quantities of the parent materials were produced so that characterized reference materials can now be made available on request. Levels of the toxic elements incorporated in water hyacinth leaves were 100, 300, 60, and 27 times the levels present in the control leaves for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. Overall precision of sampling, subsampling, and digestion, and chemical analysis of the treated materials, ranged from 3 to 10% relative standard deviation and was generally comparable to that of three NBS biological reference materials tested. 3 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  18. The MEMIN Research Unit: New results from impact cratering experiments into geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelchau, M. H.; Deutsch, A.; Thoma, K.; Kenkmann, T.

    2013-09-01

    The MEMIN research unit (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling Impact research Network) is focused on performing hypervelocity impact experiments, analyzing experimental impact craters and modeling cratering rocesses in geological materials. The main goal of the MEMIN project is to comprehensively quantify impact processes by conducting stringently controlled experimental impact cratering campaigns on the mesoscale with a multidisciplinary analytical approach. As a unique feature we use two-stage light gas guns capable of producing impact craters in thedecimeter size-range in solid rocks that, in turn, allow detailed spatial analysis of petrophysical, structural, and geochemical changes in target rocks and ejecta.

  19. Applications of New Synthetic Uranium Reference Materials for Geochemistry Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, S.; Weyer, S.; Alonso, A.; Aregbe, Y.; Kuehn, H.; Eykens, R.; Verbruggen, A.; Wellum, R.

    2009-12-01

    For many applications in geochemistry research isotope ratio measurements play a significant role. In geochronology isotope abundances of uranium and its daughter products thorium and lead are being used to determine the age and history of various samples of geological interest. For measuring the isotopic compositions of these elements by mass spectrometry, suitable isotope reference materials are needed to validate measurement procedures and to calibrate multi-collector and ion counting detector systems. IRMM is a recognized provider for nuclear isotope reference materials to the nuclear industry and nuclear safeguards authorities, which are also being applied widely for geochemical applications. The preparation of several new synthetic uranium reference materials at IRMM during the recent five years has provided significant impacts on geochemical research. As an example, the IRMM-074 series of gravimetrically prepared uranium mixtures for linearity testing of secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) has been applied for the redetermination of the secular equilibrium 234U/238U value and the 234U half-life by Cheng et al (2009). Due to the use of IRMM-074, results with smaller uncertainties were obtained, which are shifted by about 0.04% compared to the commonly used values published earlier by Cheng et al. in 2000. This has a significant impact for U isotope measurements in geochemistry.. As a further example, the new double spike IRMM-3636 with a 233U/236U ratio of 1:1 and an expanded uncertainty as low as 0.016% (coverage factor k=2, 95% confidence level) was prepared gravimetrically. This double spike allows internal mass fractionation correction for high precision 235U/238U ratio measurements of close to natural samples. Using the new double spike IRMM-3636, the 235U/238U ratios for several commonly used natural U standard materials from NIST/NBL and IRMM, such as e.g. NBS960 (=NBL CRM-112a), NBS950a,b and IRMM-184, have been re-measured with improved precision

  20. Nuclear reference materials to meet the changing needs of the global nuclear community

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.R.; Gradle, C.G.; Narayanan, U.I.; Oldham, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) serves as the U.S. Government`s certifying authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards. In this role, NBL provides nuclear reference materials certified for chemical and/or isotopic compositions traceable to a nationally accepted, internationally compatible reference base. Emphasis is now changing as to the types of traceable nuclear reference materials needed as operations change within the Department of Energy complex and at nuclear facilities around the world. New challenges include: environmental and waste minimization issues, facilities and materials transitioning from processing to storage modes with corresponding changes in the types of measurements being performed, emphasis on requirements for characterization of waste materials, and difficulties in transporting nuclear materials and international factors, including IAEA influences. During these changing times, it is critical that traceable reference materials be provided for calibration or validation of the performance of measurement systems. This paper will describe actions taken and planned to meet the changing reference material needs of the global nuclear community.

  1. Reference Materials for Secondary School Library Media Centers. Library Resources #2 [and] Selected Bibliography of Elementary Reference Materials. Library Resources #25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Bettie

    These two annotated bibliographies list reference materials for the secondary school and elementary school levels. Each bibliography contains entries arranged alphabetically by title under Dewey Decimal Classification headings, i.e., 000s through 900s. Entries consist of the title, author/published, publication date, and cost; elementary-level…

  2. Embrapa's experience in the production and development of agriculture reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, A. R. A.; Souza, G. B.; Bossu, C. M.; Bianchi, S. R.; Verhalen, T. R.; Silva, P. T.; Peixoto, A. A. J.; Silva, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The main challenge of Embrapa is to develop a model of genuine Brazilian tropical agriculture and livestock. To get this task, the quality of laboratories results is mandatory, increasing the demand for reference materials. Projects were proposed to produce reference materials to support the national agriculture laboratories and consolidate a network able to perform reliable and reproducible analytical testing laboratory within the internationally standards required. Reference materials were produced and available to interested laboratories and collaborative tests were conducted to obtain consensus values. The results and statistical evaluations were performed with the use of software developed by Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste.

  3. Simplified method for the determination of Ru, Pd, Re, Os, Ir and Pt in chromitites and other geological materials by isotope dilution ICP-MS and acid digestion.

    PubMed

    Meisel, T; Moser, J; Fellner, N; Wegscheider, W; Schoenberg, R

    2001-03-01

    A method for the determination of low Ru, Pd, Re, Os, Ir and Pt abundances in geological reference materials by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid digestion in a high pressure asher (HPA-S) is presented. The digestion technique is similar to that using Carius tubes but easier to handle and reaches higher temperatures. Osmium can be determined as OsO4 with ICP-MS directly after digestion through a sparging technique. The remaining elements are preconcentrated by means of anion column chromatography. The resin is digested directly without elution leading to high yields but this causes problems if Zr is present at higher levels in the silicate rich materials. The analytical results for international platinum group element (PGE) reference materials, chromitite CHR-Bkg, basalt TDB-1 and gabbro WGB-1, are presented and compared with literature data, demonstrating the validity of the described method. Although higher in concentration, PGEs determined for reference material WGB-1 were worse than for TDB-1 indicating a more inhomogeneous distribution of the platinum group mineral phases. The low PGE abundance chromitite standard, CHR-Bkg, is likely to be homogeneous for Ru, Re, Os and Ir and is recommended as a reference material for the study of chromitites. Detection limits (3s x total procedure blank) range from 0.012 ng (Re and Os) to 0.77 ng (Pt), which could be further improved by applying higher quality acids. PMID:11284333

  4. Compilation of elemental concentration data for the United States geological survey's six geochemical exploration reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gladney, E.S.

    1980-08-01

    Elemental composition data on USGS GXR1 ..-->.. GXR6 have been collected and summarized from 13 journal papers and reports. Data from one report concerning the influence of rock dissolution method on subsequent atomic absorption analysis are summarized for aluminium, silver, calcium, iron, and manganese.

  5. New Organic Stable Isotope Reference Materials for Distribution through the USGS and the IAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping

    2014-05-01

    The widespread adoption of relative stable isotope-ratio measurements in organic matter by diverse scientific disciplines is at odds with the dearth of international organic stable isotopic reference materials (RMs). Only two of the few carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) organic RMs, namely L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 [1], both available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provide an isotopically contrasting pair of organic RMs to enable essential 2-point calibrations for δ-scale normalization [2, 3]. The supply of hydrogen (H) organic RMs is even more limited. Numerous stable isotope laboratories have resorted to questionable practices, for example by using 'CO2, N2, and H2 reference gas pulses' for isotopic calibrations, which violates the principle of identical treatment of sample and standard (i.e., organic unknowns should be calibrated directly against chemically similar organic RMs) [4], or by using only 1 anchor instead of 2 for scale calibration. The absence of international organic RMs frequently serves as an excuse for indefensible calibrations. In 2011, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded an initiative of 10 laboratories from 7 countries to jointly develop much needed new organic RMs for future distribution by the USGS and the IAEA. The selection of targeted RMs attempts to cover various common compound classes of broad technical and scientific interest. We had to accept compromises to approach the ideal of high chemical stability, lack of toxicity, and low price of raw materials. Hazardous gases and flammable liquids were avoided in order to facilitate international shipping of future RMs. With the exception of polyethylene and vacuum pump oil, all organic RMs are individual, chemically-pure substances, which can be used for compound-specific isotopic measurements in conjunction with liquid and gas chromatographic interfaces. The compounds listed below are under isotopic calibration by

  6. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1976-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials. The sample is digested with HF-HCl-H2O2; the final solution for analysis is in 10 % (v/v) HCl. Copper and zinc are determined directly by aspirating the solution into an air-acetylene flame. A separate aliquot of the solution is used for determination of lead; lead is extracted into TOPO-MIBK from the acidic solution in the presence of iodide and ascorbic acid. For a 0.50-g sample, the limits of determination are 10-2000 p.p.m. for Cu and Zn, and 5-5000 p.p.m. for Pb. As much as 40 % Fe or Ca. and 10 % Al, Mg, or Mn in the sample do not interfere. The proposed method can be applied to the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in a wide range of geological materials including iron- and manganese-rich, calcareous and carbonate samples. ?? 1976.

  7. Sixth IASLIC Seminar Papers. Part I: Reference Service-in-Action. Part II: Processing & Servicing of Special Materials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Association of Special Libraries & Information Centres, Calcutta (India).

    Part I contains 22 papers covering all aspects of the library reference services including sources of reference materials, an evaluation of reference sources, building a reference collection, training a reference librarian, and the needs of the industrial and medical communities for reference services. All the papers are slanted toward the special…

  8. REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

  9. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES (PRODUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF ANALYTICAL REFERENCE MATERIALS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA programs in pesticides, toxics, and hazardous waste require analytical reference materials. This project emphasized the collection of and analysis of urine, fat, and blood for ultimate use as reference samples. Another objective of the project concerned the practicality of us...

  10. Certification of elements in and use of standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets was issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2009 and has certified and reference mass fraction values for 13 vitamins, 26 elements, and 2 carotenoids. Elements were measured using two or more ana...

  11. Evaluation of glucoiberin reference material from Iberis amara by spectroscopic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Jaki, Birgit; Sticher, Otto; Veit, Markus; Fröhlich, Roland; Pauli, Guido F

    2002-04-01

    Increasing worldwide regulations require increased efforts toward validation of analytical and pharmacological reference materials. A detailed survey of glucoiberin, a prototype lead constituent of therapeutic value, using 1D/2D NMR, MS, and X-ray spectroscopy provided precise phytochemical data for structure assignment. Quantitative reference validation was achieved by the recently proposed qNMR method. PMID:11975492

  12. Applications of New Synthetic Uranium Reference Materials for Research in Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Stephan; Alonso, Adolfo; Aregbe, Yetunde; Eykens, Roger; Jacobsson, Ulf; Kuehn, Heinz; Verbruggen, Andre; Weyer, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    For many applications in geochemistry research isotope ratio measurements play a significant role. In geochronology isotope abundances of uranium and its daughter products thorium and lead are being used to determine the age and history of various samples of geological interest. For measuring the isotopic compositions of these elements by mass spectrometry, suitable isotope reference materials are needed to validate measurement procedures and to calibrate multi-collector and ion counting detector systems. IRMM is a recognized provider for nuclear isotope reference materials to the nuclear industry and nuclear safeguards authorities, which are also being applied widely for geochemical applications. Firstly, the double spike IRMM-3636 with a 233U/236U ratio of 1:1 was prepared which allows internal mass fractionation correction for high precision 235U/238U ratio measurements. The 234U abundance of this double spike material is low enough to allow an accurate and precise correction of 234U/238U ratios, even for measurements of close to equilibrium uranium samples. The double spike IRMM-3636 is offered in 3 concentrations: 1mg/g, 0.1mg/g and 0.005mg/g. Secondly, the 236U single spike IRMM-3660 was prepared and is offered in 3 concentrations: 1mg/g, 0.1mg/g and 0.01mg/g. Thirdly, a "Quad"-isotope reference material, IRMM-3101, has been prepared which is characterized by 233U/235U/236U/238U=1/1/1/1. This material is useful for checking Faraday cup efficiencies and inter-calibration of MIC (multiple ion counting) detectors. The quad-IRM is offered in 3 concentrations: 1mg/g, 0.1mg/g and 0.01mg/g. As one example for the significant influence of synthetic reference materials for geochemical research, the IRMM-074 series of gravimetrically prepared uranium mixtures for linearity testing of secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) has been applied for the redetermination of the secular equilibrium 234U/238U value and the 234U half-life by Cheng et al (2009). Due to the use of

  13. Atomic-absorption determination of beryllium in geological materials by use of electrothermal atomization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, E.Y.; Simon, F.O.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for the atomic-absorption determination of beryllium in geological materials, that utilizes electrothermal atomization after a separation by solvent extraction. Samples are decomposed with hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in Teflon-lined pressure decomposition vessels. Beryllium is isolated by its extraction as beryllium acetylacetonate at pH 8 into xylene and back-extraction in 3M hydrochloric acid. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of beryllium in 14 U.S. Geological Survey standard rocks. Four subsamples from four bottles of each standard sample were analysed in random order. The mean beryllium contents (ppm) are: AGV-1, 1.98; PCC-1, 0.024; MAG-1, 2.84; BHVO-1, 0.90; DTS-1, 0.026; SCo-1, 1.74; SDC-1, 2.52; BCR-1, 1.44; GSP-1, 1.22; SGR-1, 0.86; QLO-1, 1.83; RGM-1, 2.21; STM-1, 8.75; G-2, 2.29. An analysis of variance shows that all the samples may be considered homogeneous at F0.95 except AGV-1 and DTS-1 which may be considered homogeneous at F0.99. ?? 1978.

  14. Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acid Concentrations in Biological Standard Reference Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned ...

  15. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  16. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  17. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  18. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  19. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  20. 17 CFR 260.7a-31 - Incorporation by reference of contested material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contested material. 260.7a-31 Section 260.7a-31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 260.7a-31 Incorporation by reference of contested material. Notwithstanding any particular provision... the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or otherwise) or to an order entered under either of those sections....

  1. Soiled-based uranium disequilibrium and mixed uranium-thorium series radionuclide reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology has assigned the Technical Measurements Center (TMC), located at the DOE Grand Junction Colorado, Projects Office and operated by UNC Geotech (UNC), the task of supporting ongoing remedial action programs by providing both technical guidance and assistance in making the various measurements required in all phases of remedial action work. Pursuant to this task, the Technical Measurements Center prepared two sets of radionuclide reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. A total of six reference materials, two sets comprising three reference materials each, were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides using mill tailings materials, ores, and a river-bottom soil diluent. One set (disequilibrium set) contains varying amounts of uranium with nominal amounts of radium-226. The other set (mixed-nuclide set) contains varying amounts of uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay series nuclides. 14 refs., 10 tabs.

  2. Characterization of high-fired PuO/sub 2/ as a certified reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Legeled, M.A.; Cacic, C.G.; Crawford, D.W.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1984-07-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), U.S. Department of Energy, has certified a plutonium dioxide reference material, CRM 122, for plutonium assay and isotopic composition. The PuO/sub 2/ standard, one of several certified Pu reference materials currently being developed at NBL for use in instrumentation calibration and measurement control for safeguards, establishes traceability to the national measurement base. This plutonium reference material in the oxide form provides more directly demonstrable traceability than metal because it undergoes the same chemical treatment for dissolution as PuO/sub 2/ fuel materials. Various tests for achieving a constant weight and for dissolving CRM 122 high-fired PuO/sub 2/ were conducted. Results of these tests as well as the certification data generated by controlled-potential coulometry for plutonium assay and by thermal ionization mass spectrometry for isotopic composition will also be presented and discussed.

  3. NBS/EPA (NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: STATUS REPORT 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A traceability procedure has been established which allows specialty gas producers to prepare gaseous pollutant Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). The accuracy, stability and homogeneity of the CRMs approach those of NBS Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Part of this proced...

  4. NBS/EPA (NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: STATUS REPORT 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    A traceability procedure has been established which allows specialty gas producers to prepare gaseous pollutant Certified Reference Materials (CRM's). The accuracy, stability and homogeneity of the CRM's approach those of NBS Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). As of October 19...

  5. An atomic-absorption method for the determination of gold in large samples of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanSickle, Gordon H.; Lakin, Hubert William

    1968-01-01

    A laboratory method for the determination of gold in large (100-gram) samples has been developed for use in the study of the gold content of placer deposits and of trace amounts of gold in other geologic materials. In this method the sample is digested with bromine and ethyl ether, the gold is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone, and the determination is made by atomicabsorption spectrophotometry. The lower limit of detection is 0.005 part per million in the sample. The few data obtained so far by this method agree favorably with those obtained by assay and by other atomic-absorption methods. About 25 determinations can be made per man-day.

  6. Determination of gold in geologic materials by solvent extraction and atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Claude; Mensik, J.D.; Riley, L.B.

    1967-01-01

    The two methods presented for the determination of traces of gold in geologic materials are the cyanide atomic-absorption method and the fire-assay atomic-absorption method. In the cyanide method gold is leached with a sodium-cyanide solution. The monovalent gold is then oxidized to the trivalent state and concentrated by extracting into methyl isobutyl ketone prior to estimation by atomic absorption. In the fire-assay atomic-absorption method, the gold-silver bead obtained from fire assay is dissolved in nitric and hydrochloric acids. Gold is then concentrated by extracting into methyl isobutyl ketone prior to determination by atomic absorption. By either method concentrations as low as 50 parts per billion of gold can be determined in a 15-gram sample.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test for Assessing Water Reactivity and Leaching Potential of Mine Wastes, Soils, and Other Geologic and Environmental Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a fast (5-minute), effective, simple, and cost-effective leach test that can be used to simulate the reactions that occur when materials are leached by water. The USGS Field Leach Test has been used to predict, assess, and characterize the geochemical interactions between water and a broad variety of geologic and environmental matrices. Examples of some of the samples leached include metal mine wastes, various types of dusts, biosolids (processed sewage sludge), flood and wetland sediments, volcanic ash, forest-fire burned soils, and many other diverse matrices. The Field Leach Test has been an integral part of these investigations and has demonstrated its value as a geochemical characterization tool. It has enabled investigators to identify which constituents are water reactive, soluble, mobilized, and made bioaccessible because of leaching by water, and to understand potential impacts of these interactions on the surrounding environment.

  8. Laser-Based Dynamic Compression of Geological Materials to Ultrahigh Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    Laser-based dynamic compression provides new opportunities to study the structures and properties of geological materials to ultrahigh pressure conditions reaching 1 terapascal and beyond. By controlling the shape and duration of the incident laser pulse, either shock or ramp (shockless) loading can be produced. Samples can be compressed for ~10s of nanoseconds on spatial scales of ~1 millimeter. Diagnostics include velocity interferometry from which the stress-density response of the material can be determined and X-ray diffraction from which lattice-level structural information is obtained. Our experiments are being carried out at a suite of facilities including the Omega Laser (U. of Rochester), Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and National Ignition Facility (Livermore). Using ramp compression we have constrained pressure-density states in a variety of materials including iron, magnesium oxide, and carbon. X-ray diffraction has been used as a diagnostic to probe the B1-B2 phase transition in MgO under both ramp and shock loading to multi-megabar pressures. We have also examined this same phase transition at more modest pressures on sodium chloride at the LCLS, observing both the B1-B2 transition upon compression and its back transformation upon release. X-ray diffraction measurements have also been used to study the melting curves and high-pressure phase stability of transition metals and alloys, including compositions relevant to the cores of Earth and super-Earth planets.

  9. Determination of rare earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled argon plasma/atomic emission spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    Inductively coupled argon plasma/optical emission spectrometery (ICAP/OES) is useful as a simultaneous, multielement analytical technique for the determination of trace elements in geological materials. A method for the determination of trace-level rare earth elements (REE) in geological materials using an ICAP 63-channel emission spectrometer is described. Separation and preconcentration of the REE and yttrium from a sample digest are achieved by a nitric acid gradient cation exchange and hydrochloric acid anion exchange. Precision of 1-4% relative standard deviation and comparable accuracy are demonstrated by the triplicate analysis of three splits of BCR-1 and BHVO-1. Analyses of other geological materials including coals, soils, and rocks show comparable precision and accuracy.

  10. Determination of sub-microgram amounts of selenium in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomisation after solvent extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method with electrothermal atomisation has been developed for the determination of selenium in geological materials. The sample is decomposed with a mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids and heated with hydrochloric acid to reduce selenium to selenium (IV). Selenium is then extracted into toluene from a hydrochloric acid - hydrobromic acid medium containing iron. A few microlitres of the toluene extract are injected into a carbon rod atomiser, using a nickel solution as a matrix modifier. The limits of determination are 0.2-200 p.p.m. of selenium in a geological sample. For concentrations between 0.05 and 0.2 p.p.m., back-extraction of the selenium into dilute hydrochloric acid is employed before atomisation. Selenium values for reference samples obtained by replicate analysis are in general agreement with those reported by other workers, with relative standard deviations ranging from 4.1 to 8.8%. Recoveries of selenium spiked at two levels were 98-108%. Major and trace elements commonly encountered in geological materials do not interfere. Arsenic has a suppressing effect on the selenium signals, but only when its concentration is greater than 1000 p.p.m. Nitric acid interferes seriously with the extraction of selenium and must be removed by evaporation in the sample-digestion step.

  11. The calibration of XRF polyethylene reference materials with k0-NAA and ICP-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swagten, Josefien; Bossus, Daniël; Vanwersch, Hanny

    2006-08-01

    Due to the lack of commercially available polyethylene reference materials for the calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF), DSM Resolve, in cooperation with PANalytical, prepared and calibrated such a set of standards in 2005. The reference materials were prepared based on the addition of additives to virgin polyethylene. The mentioned additives are added to improve the performance of the polymers. The elements present in additives are tracers for the used additives. The reference materials contain the following elements: F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti and Zn in the concentration range of 5 mg/kg for Ti, up to 600 mg/kg for Mg. The calibration of the reference materials, including a blank, was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis ( k0-NAA). ICP-AES was used to determine the elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti and Zn whereas k0-NAA was used for F, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti and Zn. Over the complete concentration range, a good agreement of the results was found between the both techniques. This project has shown that within DSM Resolve, it is possible to develop and to calibrate homogenous reference materials for XRF.

  12. Development of new reference materials for the determination of cadmium, chromium, mercury and lead in polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kil Jae; Lee, Yeo Jin; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Jeong Sook; Kim, Youn Sung; Heo, Soo Bong

    2013-01-01

    Reference materials for quantitative determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in polycarbonate were developed. Reference materials with two concentration level of elements were prepared by adding appropriate amounts of chemicals to a blank polycarbonate base material. It was shown that ten bottles with triplicate analysis are enough to demonstrate the homogeneity of these candidate reference materials. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in both short-term stability test for four weeks and long-term stability test for twelve months. The certification of the four elements was carried out by isotope-dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) with microwave-assisted digestion. Certification of candidate reference materials in a single laboratory was confirmed with interlaboratory comparison participated by a certain number of well-recognized testing laboratories in Korea. The certified values and expanded uncertainties (k=2) for the candidate reference material with low level and the one with high level were (51.7±2.1)mgkg(-1) Cd, (103.8±2.9)mgkg(-1) Cd, (98.8±4.5)mgkg(-1) Cr, (1004±49.8)mgkg(-1) Cr, (107.4±4.6)mgkg(-1) Hg, (1133±50.7)mgkg(-1) Hg, (94.8±3.7)mgkg(-1) Pb and (988.4±53.6)mgkg(-1) Pb, respectively. The reference materials developed in this study demonstrated their suitability for the quality assurance in Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb analysis for the implementation of RoHS Directive. PMID:23245892

  13. Evaluation of polymeric standard reference materials for monitoring the performance of X-ray photoelectron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, Brian R.

    1991-04-01

    The use of standard reference materials is a common practice in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA). Recently, several polymeric standard reference materials have become available for monitoring various performance aspects of ESCA spectrometers. These reference materials include polyethylene (PE), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and dimethyl silicon (DMS). The advantages and disadvantages encountered when using these materials as standards were investigated in this study. Results indicated that PEG, PTFE and DMS are useful standards for checking or determining relative elemental sensitivity factors for C, O, F and/or Si. These three materials can also be used for monitoring the linearity and stability of the instrumental binding energy scale. However, in general, metallic standards such as gold, silver and/or copper are superior to the polymeric standards for this purpose, because their photoelectron lines cover a wider binding energy range and their respective peak positions are much better known. Although PE exhibits a fairly narrow C1s line that can be used to monitor variations in the instrumental energy resolution, the FWHM observed for the C1s line is much broader that the FWHM values obtained from the appropriate lines of sputtered-cleaned metals. Results also indicated that the use of PTFE as a standard reference material must be done with caution, because PTFE readily degrades with time under X-ray exposure.

  14. Development of Reference Materials for Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements by the Flash Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, M.; Abe, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal conductivity of solid materials used for thermal simulations and thermal designs can be obtained as the product of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and bulk density in many cases. The thermal diffusivity is usually measured by the flash method, and the specific heat capacity is usually measured by differential scanning calorimetry. In order to obtain reliable thermal conductivities for strict thermal design, it is necessary to measure the thermal diffusivity using the flash method, a well-validated apparatus. Reference materials are an effective means for validation of most practical measurement apparatus. For the flash method, isotropic graphite was selected as a candidate reference material. A batch of isotropic graphite samples was prepared and characterized in detail in order to be a certified reference material for thermal-diffusivity measurement. The detailed characterization ensures the traceability of the measurement results to the international system of units (SI). A convenient reference material for thermal conductivity was also obtained by using the known thermal-diffusivity measurements, specific heat capacity, and density of the material.

  15. CD Reference Materials Fabricated on Monolithic 200 mm Wafers for Automated Metrology Tool Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Richard A.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Cresswell, Michael W.; Guthrie, William F.; Shulver, Byron J. R.; Bunting, A. S.; Stevenson, J. T. M.; Walton, Anthony J.

    2007-09-01

    Recently, prototype isolated-line, single-crystal critical dimension (CD) reference materials (SCCDRMs) with linewidths as narrow as 40 nm±1.5 nm have been reported. These reference materials, designated NIST Prototype Reference Material (RM) 8111, were configured as 10 mm by 11 mm silicon test chips mounted in 200 mm carrier wafers. The RM 8111 chips were fabricated using microelectromechanical (MEMS) process techniques, which assure the alignment of the sidewalls of the features to silicon (111) lattice planes, and were calibrated in a sequence involving atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) metrology. This paper reports initial results on SCCDRMs fabricated on 200 mm bulk wafers; this monolithic approach would eliminate the need for carrier wafers.

  16. Development and Characterization of Reference Materials for Genetic Testing: Focus on Public Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Lisa V; Datta, Vivekananda; Williams, Mickey; Zook, Justin M; Salit, Marc L; Han, Jin Yeong

    2016-11-01

    Characterized reference materials (RMs) are needed for clinical laboratory test development and validation, quality control procedures, and proficiency testing to assure their quality. In this article, we review the development and characterization of RMs for clinical molecular genetic tests. We describe various types of RMs and how to access and utilize them, especially focusing on the Genetic Testing Reference Materials Coordination Program (Get-RM) and the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) Consortium. This review also reinforces the need for collaborative efforts in the clinical genetic testing community to develop additional RMs. PMID:27578503

  17. Evaluation of homogeneity of a certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, B.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneity of the marine reference material TORT-1, a spray-dried and acetone-extracted hepatopancreatic material from the lobster, was tested for 26 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on six analyses on each of six bottles of TORT-1, it was concluded that the between-bottle heterogeneity is no greater than the within-bottle heterogeneity. The analytical results for those elements for which values were provided by NRC agree with the NRC values within 95% confidence limits. 8 references, 6 tables.

  18. Application of the Bammann inelasticity internal state variable constitutive model to geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherburn, J. A.; Horstemeyer, M. F.; Bammann, D. J.; Baumgardner, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    We describe how the Bammann internal state variable (ISV) constitutive approach, which has proven highly successful in modelling deformation processes in metals, can be applied with great benefit to silicate rocks and other geological materials in modelling their deformation dynamics. In its essence, ISV theory provides a constitutive framework to account for changing history states that arise from inelastic dissipative microstructural evolution of a polycrystalline solid. In this paper, we restrict our attention to a Bammann ISV elastic-viscoplastic model with temperature and strain rate dependence and use isotropic hardening and anisotropic hardening as our two ISVs. We show the Bammann model captures the inelastic behaviour of olivine aggregates (with and without water), lherzolite (with and without water), Carrara marble and rock salt using some experimental data found in the literature. These examples illustrate that when more experimental stress-strain data are gathered on other rock materials, much more realistic numerical simulation of rock behaviour becomes feasible. Though not available in the literature, we outline a set of experiments to obtain unique Bammann ISV model constants.

  19. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stéphane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterisation of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots. This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a 'reference material' (ISO Guide 30:2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of 'representative test material' (ISO TS 16195:2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to representative test material or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use.

  20. Assessment of international reference materials for isotope-ratio analysis (IUPAC Technical Report)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the number of international measurement standards for anchoring stable isotope delta scales has mushroomed from 3 to more than 30, expanding to more than 25 chemical elements. With the development of new instrumentation, along with new and improved measurement procedures for studying naturally occurring isotopic abundance variations in natural and technical samples, the number of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials with a specified delta value has blossomed in the last six decades to more than 150 materials. More than half of these isotopic reference materials were produced for isotope-delta measurements of seven elements: H, Li, B, C, N, O, and S. The number of isotopic reference materials for other, heavier elements has grown considerably over the last decade. Nevertheless, even primary international measurement standards for isotope-delta measurements are still needed for some elements, including Mg, Fe, Te, Sb, Mo, and Ge. It is recommended that authors publish the delta values of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials that were used for anchoring their measurement results to the respective primary stable isotope scale.

  1. Matrix effects on the determination of manganese in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry under different flame conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1978-01-01

    Suppression caused by five of the seven matrix elements studied (Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg) was observed in the atomic-absorption determination of manganese in geological materials, when synthetic solutions and the recommended oxidizing air-acetylene flame were used. The magnitude of the suppression effects depends on (1) the kind and concentration of the interfering elements, (2) the type of acid medium, and (3) the concentration of manganese to be determined. All interferences noted are removed or alleviated by using a reducing nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The atomic-absorption method using this flame can be applied to the determination of total and extractable manganese in a wide range of geological materials without interferences. Analyses of six U.S. Geological Survey rock standards for manganese gave results in agreement with the reported values. ?? 1978.

  2. Development and certification of green tea-containing standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, L C; Bedner, M; Tims, M C; Yen, J H; Duewer, D L; Porter, B; Christopher, S J; Day, R D; Long, S E; Molloy, J L; Murphy, K E; Lang, B E; Lieberman, R; Wood, L J; Payne, M J; Roman, M C; Betz, J M; NguyenPho, A; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A

    2012-01-01

    A suite of three green tea-containing Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 3254 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Leaves, SRM 3255 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract, and SRM 3256 Green Tea-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. The materials are characterized for catechins, xanthine alkaloids, theanine, and toxic elements. As many as five methods were used in assigning certified and reference values to the constituents, with measurements carried out at NIST and at collaborating laboratories. The materials are intended for use in the development and validation of new analytical methods, and for use as control materials as a component in the support of claims of metrological traceability. PMID:22127575

  3. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. PMID:27216677

  4. Image analysis techniques with special reference to analysis and interpretation of geological features from LANDSAT imagery. [India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, D. S.; Majumder, K. L.; Naik, S. D.; Swaminathan, V. L.

    1977-01-01

    The principal component analysis enhances the contrast existing between the different cover types present in an imagery. A procedure is presented with regards to the determination of the principal components. The method is tested for a portion of the LANDSAT imagery pertaining to Anantapur region. Another technique, using the concept of non-linear contrast stretching is defined and developed and carried out on the same imagery. The results are presented as photographs. An interpretation of the geology of the region is derived from these photographs.

  5. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  6. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material. PMID:25704713

  7. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Use of gelatin gels as a reference material for performance evaluation of meat shear force measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing standards for meat tenderness based on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) is complicated by the lack of methods for certifying WBSF testing among texture systems or laboratories. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of using gelatin gels as a reference material ...

  9. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Using Other Reference Materials. Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 45 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on using reference books are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities for employers--CE 016…

  10. Field-Tested Reference Materials: A Survey of What Has Worked Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Brenda; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 33 reference items--including several CD-ROM products--published during 1991-92 that were recommended by librarians. Materials are listed in the following areas: general works; business, science, and technology; fine arts; history and genealogy; medicine and health; and social sciences and humanities. A…

  11. [Effect of emotional content and self reference of learning materials on recall performance].

    PubMed

    Spies, K

    1994-01-01

    It is assumed that high affective value and high self-reference of learning material help to improve memory performance as these factors allow better memory consolidation (activation hypothesis) or better integration of the new material into existing knowledge structures (extent-of-processing hypothesis). To test this assumption, 60 subjects were shown 16 short advertising films characterized by low vs. high affective value and low vs. high self-reference. Both factors were varied within subjects. After the films had each been presented twice, subjects had to recall the product names and answer two questions to each film. Results showed for both dependent variables that films with high affective values were better remembered than films with low affective values. The same held true--though to a lower extent--with respect to self-reference. According to the expected linear trend, performance was best for material scoring high on affective value as well as on self-reference, while it was worst for material scoring low on both factors. PMID:7754642

  12. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  13. QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF NUTRIENTS IN FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in validating the accuracy of analytical data and have been used extensively in the USDA's ongoing National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP), which generates contract analytical food composition data for inclusion in the USDA Nation...

  14. New matrix-free reference material for ethene in the form of optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Słomińska, Marta; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    Reference materials are indispensable in the quality control and quality assurance of analytical measurements. One novel approach to the generation of standard gaseous mixtures of toxic, reactive, volatile, labile, and malodorous substances involves thermal decomposition or rearrangement, under defined temperature conditions, of compounds immobilized, by chemical bonding, on the surface of an appropriate carrier to release specific amounts of a volatile compound. In this technique the type of support used to immobilize the compound is extremely important, because the amount of analyte released depends directly on the choice of material. In this paper we report the novel preparation of a matrix-free ethene standard in the form of glass fibres coated with a thin layer of aluminium, the surface of which is modified by reaction with a specific compound. As a result of thermal decomposition of this compound, gaseous ethene is formed. In this paper we present the results obtained from tests of stability and homogeneity, two properties of crucial importance in the preparation of reference materials, by comparison of a series of results obtained for randomly chosen samples of the reference material. Interlaboratory comparative studies resulted in determination of a reference value for the ethene formed after thermal decomposition of the surface compound ((2.12 ± 0.14) ng per fibre). PMID:23239177

  15. URBAN AEROSOL ACIDS: ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL 1649

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban air particulate matter, collected from Washington, D.C. and certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as Standard Reference Material 1649, was extracted and fractionated into acid, base and neutral fractions. ach fraction was tested for biologic...

  16. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE material. Table 1 to this section lists... Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 1 follows: Table 1 to §...

  17. DIRECT CALIBRATION OF GC/MS SYSTEMS USING SRM (STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL) GAS CYLINDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cryogenic trapping system has been developed for use in calibrating GC/MS systems for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. This system provides for direct Standard Reference Material (SRM) traceability on data generated on gaseous samples. The cryogenic trap is a coil of...

  18. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE material. Table 1 to this section...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are available to ship freight? (a) The following is a partial list of handbooks and guides available from...

  20. Reference Materials for Food and Nutrition Metrology: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970’s the first “biological” RM of Bowens Kale, as well as Orchard Leaves and Bovine Liver SRMs, from the ...

  1. UPDATED ESTIMATES OF THE SELENOMETHIONINE CONTENTS OF NIST WHEAT REFERENCE MATERIALS BY GC-IDMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Updated estimates of the selenomethionine contents of four NIST wheat reference materials have been obtained using a revised gas chromatography-stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry method. The revised method makes use of digestion with methanesulfonic acid, providing a more complete accounting ...

  2. An Annotated Bibliography of Reference Materials for Use in a Junior-Senior High School Library Media Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitely, Faye McConnell

    Designed to assist the librarian and/or teacher by serving as a checklist for a basic collection of reference materials, this annotated bibliography presents a list of reference sources that are appropriate for Alabama students in grades 7 through 12. The reference materials are intended to support the curriculum of a comprehensive public…

  3. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass Standard Reference Material. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Crawford, C.L.; Pickett, M.A.

    1993-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Primary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCI). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

  4. Development of a new cucumber reference material for pesticide residue analysis: feasibility study for material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Susana; Harbeck, Stefan; Shegunova, Penka; Seghers, John; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Dabrio, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The feasibility of the production of a reference material for pesticide residue analysis in a cucumber matrix was investigated. Cucumber was spiked at 0.075 mg/kg with each of the 15 selected pesticides (acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, (α + β)-endosulfan, fenitrothion, imazalil, imidacloprid, iprodione, malathion, methomyl, tebuconazole and thiabendazole) respectively. Three different strategies were considered for processing the material, based on the physicochemical properties of the vegetable and the target pesticides. As a result, a frozen spiked slurry of fresh cucumber, a spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder and a freeze-dried cucumber powder spiked by spraying the powder were studied. The effects of processing and aspects related to the reconstitution of the material were evaluated by monitoring the pesticide levels in the three materials. Two separate analytical methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were developed and validated in-house. The spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder was selected as the most feasible material and more exhaustive studies on homogeneity and stability of the pesticide residues in the matrix were carried out. The results suggested that the between-unit homogeneity was satisfactory with a sample intake of dried material as low as 0.1 g. A 9-week isochronous stability study was undertaken at -20 °C, 4 °C and 18 °C, with -70 °C designated as the reference temperature. The pesticides tested exhibited adequate stability at -20 °C during the 9-week period as well as at -70 °C for a period of 18 months. These results constitute a good basis for the development of a new candidate reference material for selected pesticides in a cucumber matrix. PMID:25627789

  5. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case

    PubMed Central

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stephane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterization of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a “reference material” (ISO Guide 30, 2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of “representative test material (RTM)” (ISO/TS 16195, 2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates, and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to RTM or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use. PMID:26539428

  6. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; Connick, William B.; Spitz, Henry B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Oldham, Warren J.

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  7. Optimal mapping of terrestrial gamma dose rates using geological parent material and aerogeophysical survey data.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, B G; Scheib, C; Tyler, A N; Beamish, D

    2012-12-01

    Regulatory authorities need ways to estimate natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates (nGy h⁻¹) across the landscape accurately, to assess its potential deleterious health effects. The primary method for estimating outdoor dose rate is to use an in situ detector supported 1 m above the ground, but such measurements are costly and cannot capture the landscape-scale variation in dose rates which are associated with changes in soil and parent material mineralogy. We investigate the potential for improving estimates of terrestrial gamma dose rates across Northern Ireland (13,542 km²) using measurements from 168 sites and two sources of ancillary data: (i) a map based on a simplified classification of soil parent material, and (ii) dose estimates from a national-scale, airborne radiometric survey. We used the linear mixed modelling framework in which the two ancillary variables were included in separate models as fixed effects, plus a correlation structure which captures the spatially correlated variance component. We used a cross-validation procedure to determine the magnitude of the prediction errors for the different models. We removed a random subset of 10 terrestrial measurements and formed the model from the remainder (n = 158), and then used the model to predict values at the other 10 sites. We repeated this procedure 50 times. The measurements of terrestrial dose vary between 1 and 103 (nGy h⁻¹). The median absolute model prediction errors (nGy h⁻¹) for the three models declined in the following order: no ancillary data (10.8) > simple geological classification (8.3) > airborne radiometric dose (5.4) as a single fixed effect. Estimates of airborne radiometric gamma dose rate can significantly improve the spatial prediction of terrestrial dose rate. PMID:23147566

  8. Impact Craters on Earth: Lessons for Understanding Martian Geological Materials and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Impact cratering is one of the most ubiquitous geological processes in the Solar System and has had a significant influence on the geological evolution of Mars. Unlike the Moon and Mercury, the Martian impact cratering record is notably diverse, which is interpreted to reflect interactions during the impact process with target volatiles and/or the atmosphere. The Earth also possesses a volatile-rich crust and an atmosphere and so is one of the best analogues for understanding the effects of impact cratering on Mars. Furthermore, fieldwork at terrestrial craters and analysis of samples is critical to ground-truth observations made based on remote sensing data from Martian orbiters, landers, and rovers. In recent years, the effect of target lithology on various aspects of the impact cratering process has emerged as a major research topic. On Mars, volatiles have been invoked to be the primary factor influencing the morphology of ejecta deposits - e.g., the formation of single-, double- and multiple-layered ejecta deposits - and central uplifts - e.g., the formation of so-called "central pit" craters. Studies of craters on Earth have also shown that volatiles complicate the identification of impactites - i.e., rocks produced and/or affected by impact cratering. Identifying impactites on Earth is challenging, often requiring intensive and multi-technique laboratory analysis of hand specimens. As such, it is even more challenging to recognize such materials in remote datasets. Here, observations from the Haughton (d = 23 km; Canada), Ries (d = 24 km; Germany), Mistastin (d = 28 km; Canada), Tunnunik, (d = 28 km; Canada), and West Clearwater Lake (d = 36 km; Canada) impact structures are presented. First, it is shown that some impactites mimic intrusive, volcanic, volcanoclastic and in some cases sedimentary clastic rocks. Care should, therefore, be taken in the identification of seemingly unusual igneous rocks at rover landing sites as they may represent impact melt

  9. Development of NIST standard reference material 2373: Genomic DNA standards for HER2 measurements.

    PubMed

    He, Hua-Jun; Almeida, Jamie L; Lund, Steve P; Steffen, Carolyn R; Choquette, Steve; Cole, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    NIST standard reference material (SRM) 2373 was developed to improve the measurements of the HER2 gene amplification in DNA samples. SRM 2373 consists of genomic DNA extracted from five breast cancer cell lines with different amounts of amplification of the HER2 gene. The five components are derived from the human cell lines SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-453, and BT-474. The certified values are the ratios of the HER2 gene copy numbers to the copy numbers of selected reference genes DCK, EIF5B, RPS27A, and PMM1. The ratios were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and digital PCR, methods that gave similar ratios. The five components of SRM 2373 have certified HER2 amplification ratios that range from 1.3 to 17.7. The stability and homogeneity of the reference materials were shown by repeated measurements over a period of several years. SRM 2373 is a well characterized genomic DNA reference material that can be used to improve the confidence of the measurements of HER2 gene copy number. PMID:27335805

  10. Development of laboratory reference material: Soil 1. Baseline and highly elevated concentrations of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kupiec, K; Konieczka, P; Namieśnik, J

    2011-01-01

    Reference materials play a key part in systems of inspection and quality control of results of analytical measurements. The main limitation in using certified reference materials (CRM) is their high price, which results from the long and costly process of producing the reference material. An alternative to costly CRM materials is the employment of laboratory reference materials, particularly for interlaboratory control of measurement results and procedures. Under the auspices of the Chair of Analytical Chemistry at the Chemical Department of Gdansk University of Technology, research on the development of new reference materials is being conducted. At present, the research is aimed at producing a new laboratory reference material (LRM): 'Soil 1. Baseline and Highly Elevated Concentrations of Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' - LRM soil 1. This paper presents the production stages of the developed laboratory reference material: acquisition of raw material from soil samples taken from the environment of the Tri-city (in Polish, Trójmiasto Gdansk, Sopot, Gdynia) bypass road, homogenization and subsequent dosage into appropriate containers, tests of homogeneity of sampled material within one container and between containers, based on the results of the determination of selected parameters (total carbon, content of optional metals - Hg, Fe, Cu Zn, Mn, Mg, water content, content of PAH-group analytes). The obtained results of homogeneity tests of the proposed future laboratory reference material have confirmed the homogeneity of soil samples within a container and between containers. Currently, interlaboratory tests are being carried out to determine the reference value. PMID:21473281

  11. Preparation and characterization of standard reference material 1849 infant/adult nutritional formula.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Lindstrom, Richard M; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Karen W; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Schantz, Michele M; Spatz, Rabia O; Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Turk, Gregory C; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H

    2010-01-01

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a replacement for SRM 1846 Infant Formula, issued in 1996. Extraction characteristics of SRM 1846 have changed over time, as have NIST's analytical capabilities. While certified mass fraction values were provided for five constituents in SRM 1846 (four vitamins plus iodine), certified mass fraction values for 43 constituents are provided in SRM 1849 (fatty acids, elements, and vitamins) and reference mass fraction values are provided for an additional 43 constituents including amino acids and nucleotides, making it the most extensively characterized food-matrix SRM available from NIST. PMID:20922961

  12. Material Units, Structures/Landforms, and Stratigraphy for the Global Geologic Map of Ganymede (1:15M)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, G. Wesley; Head, James W.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louis M.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    2008-01-01

    In the coming year a global geological map of Ganymede will be completed that represents the most recent understanding of the satellite on the basis of Galileo mission results. This contribution builds on important previous accomplishments in the study of Ganymede utilizing Voyager data and incorporates the many new discoveries that were brought about by examination of Galileo data. Material units have been defined, structural landforms have been identified, and an approximate stratigraphy has been determined utilizing a global mosaic of the surface with a nominal resolution of 1 km/pixel assembled by the USGS. This mosaic incorporates the best available Voyager and Galileo regional coverage and high resolution imagery (100-200 m/pixel) of characteristic features and terrain types obtained by the Galileo spacecraft. This map has given us a more complete understanding of: 1) the major geological processes operating on Ganymede, 2) the characteristics of the geological units making up its surface, 3) the stratigraphic relationships of geological units and structures, and 4) the geological history inferred from these relationships. A summary of these efforts is provided here.

  13. Consensus Characterization of 16 FMR1 Reference Materials: A Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Amos Wilson, Jean; Pratt, Victoria M.; Phansalkar, Amit; Muralidharan, Kasinathan; Highsmith, W. Edward; Beck, Jeanne C.; Bridgeman, Scott; Courtney, Ebony M.; Epp, Lidia; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Hjelm, Nick L.; Holtegaard, Leonard M.; Jama, Mohamed A.; Jakupciak, John P.; Johnson, Monique A.; Labrousse, Paul; Lyon, Elaine; Prior, Thomas W.; Richards, C. Sue; Richie, Kristy L.; Roa, Benjamin B.; Rohlfs, Elizabeth M.; Sellers, Tina; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Siegrist, Karen A.; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Kalman, Lisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, which is caused by expansion of a (CGG)n repeat in the FMR1 gene, occurs in approximately 1:3500 males and causes mental retardation/behavioral problems. Smaller (CGG)n repeat expansions in FMR1, premutations, are associated with premature ovarian failure and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. An FMR1-sizing assay is technically challenging because of high GC content of the (CGG)n repeat, the size limitations of conventional PCR, and a lack of reference materials available for test development/validation and routine quality control. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association for Molecular Pathology, together with the genetic testing community, have addressed the need for characterized fragile X mutation reference materials by developing characterized DNA samples from 16 cell lines with repeat lengths representing important phenotypic classes and diagnostic cutoffs. The alleles in these materials were characterized by consensus analysis in nine clinical laboratories. The information generated from this study is available on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Coriell Cell Repositories websites. DNA purified from these cell lines is available to the genetics community through the Coriell Cell Repositories. The public availability of these reference materials should help support accurate clinical fragile X syndrome testing. PMID:18165276

  14. Present status and strategic plan for the stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will give the overview of the stable isotope reference materials (SI-RMs) under distribution by the IAEA, its stable isotope laboratory and capacities related to material testing & production as well as future plans. Historically, most of the IAEA reference materials were produced and made available via collaborations with expert stable isotope laboratories worldwide. The IAEA plans include several directions as follows: • Maintaining the scale-defining SI-RMs at the highest level and introducing adequate replacements when needed; • Monitoring existing SI-RMs for any potential alteration(s) and of isotopic values assigned; • Identifying and then addressing the needs for new SI-RMs, with the priority to address the most critical applications (environmental and climate related applications, human health, food safety studies) and newly emerging analytical isotope techniques; • Performing all measurements aimed for characterisation of new SI-RMs and the corresponding uncertainty evaluation in accordance to the latest metrological concepts; • Promoting metrological approaches on traceability and uncertainty evaluation in every day practice of stable isotope measurements; • Expanding the IAEA capacities for SI-RMs by (i) planning a renewed laboratory at IAEA; (ii) enlarging collaboration with expert laboratories aimed to help IAEA in production and characterisation of new SI-RMs. These major directions will help to address the increasing demand for Stable Isotope Reference Materials.

  15. Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.

    1962-01-01

    The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which

  16. Interlaboratory comparison program for nondestructive assay of prototype uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Trahey, N.M.; Smith, M.M.; Voeks, A.M.; Bracey, J.T.

    1986-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), New Brunswick Laboratory (NBS), designed and administered an interlaboratory comparison program based on the measurement of NBL-produced prototype uranium nondestructive assay (NDA) reference materials for scrap and waste. The objectives of the program were to evaluate the reliability of NDA techniques as applied to nuclear safeguards materials control and accountability needs and to investigate the feasibility of providing practical NDA scrap and waste reference materials for use throughout the nuclear safeguards community. Fourteen facilities representing seven DOE contractors, four US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees, one EURATOM Laboratory, and NBL, participated in this program. Three stable, well-characterized uranium reference materials were developed and certified for this program. Synthetic calcined ash, cellulose fiber, and ion-exchange resin simulate selected uranium scrap and waste forms which are often encountered in fabrication and recovery operations. The synthetic calcined ash represents an intermediate density inorganic matrix while the cellulose fiber and ion-exchange resin are representative of low-density organic matrices. The materials, containing from 0 to 13% uranium enriched at 93% /sup 235/U, were sealed in specially selected containers. Nineteen prototype reference samples, plus three empty containers, one to accompany each set, was circulated to the participants between August 1979 and May 1984. Triplicate measurements for /sup 235/U on each of the 19 filled containers were required. In addition, participants could opt to perform modular configuration measurements using containers from Sets IIA and IIB to simulate non-homogeneously dispersed uranium in waste containers. All data were reported to NBL for evaluation.

  17. Determination of the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio in USGS silicate reference materials by multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcaen, Lieve; Schrijver, Isabel De; Moens, Luc; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2005-04-01

    Multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) was used for 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio determination in newly introduced silicate reference materials from the US Geological Survey (USGS): granite G-3, andesite AGV-2, and basalt BCR-2. Next to the SrCO3 isotopic standard NIST SRM 987, also analogous USGS reference materials from the previous generation, and for which reference 87Sr/86Sr data obtained by TIMS are available, were analysed for validation purposes. Sample preparation consisted of acid digestion and subsequent isolation of Sr by means of a dedicated and commercially available crown ether-based resin. The Sr fractions thus obtained were analysed via MC-ICP-MS whereby mass discrimination was corrected for internally, while the isobaric interference at a mass-to-charge ratio of 86 caused by Kr impurities in the Ar gas was mathematically corrected for by using the signal for a Kr isotope free from spectral overlap. Finally, also the effect of the small amount of Rb that may still be present in the Sr fraction was corrected for mathematically on the basis of the signal intensity for 85Rb. The MC-ICP-MS results for G-2, AGV-1 and BCR-1 showed an excellent agreement with the corresponding TIMS values (<0.003% bias in all cases), such that it can be assumed that also the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio results obtained for the new reference materials are reliable.

  18. k0-NAA, a valuable tool for reference-material producers.

    PubMed

    Robouch, P; Eguskiza, M; Maguregui, M I; Pommé, S; Pauwels, J

    2001-06-01

    The main concern of producers of certified reference materials (CRM) is the preparation of high-quality products with demonstrated homogeneity and stability, combined with a well established set of certified characteristics. CRM producers must, furthermore, comply with other constraints imposed by the ISO Guide 34: production processes, production control, and certification analyses should be performed by expert laboratories, using validated protocols documented in their respective quality assurance manuals; laboratory mean values and the corresponding "expanded" uncertainties, must be used for the determination of the certified values, as recommended by the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainties in Measurements (GUM); and when possible, traceability of the certified value to the SI units, using appropriately validated and/or primary methods, must be ensured. k0-NAA, i.e. neutron activation analysis with k0 standardization, is one of the analytical techniques implemented at the Reference Material Unit of IRMM; it meets the first two requirements. PMID:11451247

  19. Development of green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Kuroda, Youko; Numata, Masahiko; Iwata, Hitoshi; Mizukoshi, Kazushi; Nakamura, Munetomo; Watai, Masatoshi; Mitsuda, Hitoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ota, Hidekazu

    2011-08-24

    Green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for the analysis of pesticide residues were issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Green onion and cabbage samples were grown so as to contain several kinds of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides, and those were collected from a field in the Kochi Prefecture in Japan. The certification was carried out by using multiple analytical methods to ensure the reliability of analytical results; the values of target pesticides (diazinon, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, etofenprox, and permethrin for green onion and chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, and permethrin for cabbage) were obtained by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Certified values of target pesticides were 0.96-13.9 and 2.41-6.9 mg/kg for green onion and cabbage, respectively. These are the first green onion and cabbage powder certified reference materials in which organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides are determined. PMID:21774469

  20. Development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Xu, X; Cui, W; Xi, Z

    2001-08-01

    The development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is described; this is the first natural matrix CRM for organic environmental analysis in China. The homogeneity and stability of this material have been tested by HPLC. The concentrations of several PAH were determined by use of two independent, different methods--solvent extraction-HPLC analysis with UV detection coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD) and solvent extraction, isolation with a silica column, and GC analysis with flame ionization detection (FID). Five certified values were determined: phenanthrene 7.1 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), anthracene 2.0 +/- 0.8 microg g(-1), fluoranthene 7.4 +/- 1.9 microg g(-1), pyrene 7 +/- 2 microg g(-1), and benzo[a]pyrene 1.3 +/- 0.3 microg g(-1). Reference values for several other PAH are also suggested. PMID:11583083

  1. The production and certification of a plutonium equal-atom reference material: NBL CRM 128

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.W. . Office of Safeguards and Security); Gradle, C.G.; Soriano, M.D. )

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the design, production, and certification of the New Brunswick Laboratory plutonium equal-atom certified reference material (CRM), NBL CRM 128. The primary use of this CRM is for the determination of bias corrections encountered in the operation of a mass spectrometer. This reference material is available to the US Department of Energy contractor-operated and government-operated laboratories, as well as to the international nuclear safeguards community. The absolute, or unbiased, certified value for the CRM's Pu-242/Pu-239 ratio is 1.00063 {plus minus} 0.00026 (95% confidence interval) as of October 1, 1984. This value was obtained through the quantitative blending of high-purity, chemically and isotopically characterized separated isotopes, as well as through intercomparisons of CRM samples with calibration mixtures using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. 32 tabs.

  2. Reference Materials for Calibration of Analytical Biases in Quantification of DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hannah; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Yang, Inchul

    2015-01-01

    Most contemporary methods for the quantification of DNA methylation employ bisulfite conversion and PCR amplification. However, many reports have indicated that bisulfite-mediated PCR methodologies can result in inaccurate measurements of DNA methylation owing to amplification biases. To calibrate analytical biases in quantification of gene methylation, especially those that arise during PCR, we utilized reference materials that represent exact bisulfite-converted sequences with 0% and 100% methylation status of specific genes. After determining relative quantities using qPCR, pairs of plasmids were gravimetrically mixed to generate working standards with predefined DNA methylation levels at 10% intervals in terms of mole fractions. The working standards were used as controls to optimize the experimental conditions and also as calibration standards in melting-based and sequencing-based analyses of DNA methylation. Use of the reference materials enabled precise characterization and proper calibration of various biases during PCR and subsequent methylation measurement processes, resulting in accurate measurements. PMID:26368560

  3. Aflatoxin B1 in peanut meal reference materials: intercomparisons of methods.

    PubMed

    Van Egmond, H P; Wagstaffe, P J

    1989-01-01

    The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is preparing a series of animal feed reference materials to provide a basis for analytical quality assurance for aflatoxin B1 analysis, a problem of particular importance in view of Community legislation. Before reference values can be assigned to the reference materials the major errors in the underlying measurements must be identified and reduced. This paper presents the results of two intercomparison exercises involving some 20 European laboratories who applied a wide variety of analytical methods. It is shown that the major source of error and discrepancy is connected with incomplete extraction and/or losses during clean-up and that, provided correction for recovery/background interference is made, many methods can achieve acceptable accuracy. Sources of error and their control are discussed, and essential details of the methods used are presented. It is concluded that analytical QA is more important than the use of standardized methods when a high degree of accuracy and comparability are required. PMID:2498137

  4. Metrological approaches to organic chemical purity: primary reference materials for vitamin D metabolites.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael A; Bedner, Mary; Lang, Brian E; Toman, Blaza; Lippa, Katrice A

    2015-11-01

    Given the critical role of pure, organic compound primary reference standards used to characterize and certify chemical Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), it is essential that associated mass purity assessments be fit-for-purpose, represented by an appropriate uncertainty interval, and metrologically sound. The mass fraction purities (% g/g) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) reference standards used to produce and certify values for clinical vitamin D metabolite CRMs were investigated by multiple orthogonal quantitative measurement techniques. Quantitative (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (qNMR) was performed to establish traceability of these materials to the International System of Units (SI) and to directly assess the principal analyte species. The 25(OH)D standards contained volatile and water impurities, as well as structurally-related impurities that are difficult to observe by chromatographic methods or to distinguish from the principal 25(OH)D species by one-dimensional NMR. These impurities have the potential to introduce significant biases to purity investigations in which a limited number of measurands are quantified. Combining complementary information from multiple analytical methods, using both direct and indirect measurement techniques, enabled mitigation of these biases. Purities of 25(OH)D reference standards and associated uncertainties were determined using frequentist and Bayesian statistical models to combine data acquired via qNMR, liquid chromatography with UV absorbance and atmospheric pressure-chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (LC-UV, LC-ACPI-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Karl Fischer (KF) titration. PMID:26345446

  5. Development of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes certified gaseous reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brum, M. C.; Sobrinho, D. C. G.; Fagundes, F. A.; Oudwater, R. J.; Augusto, C. R.

    2016-07-01

    The work describes the production of certified gaseous reference materials of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) in nitrogen from the gravimetric production up to the long term stability tests followed by the certifying step. The uncertainty in the amount fractions of the compounds in these mixtures was approximately 4% (relative) for the range studied from 2 to 16 µmol/mol. Also the adsorption of the BTEX on the cylinder surface and the tubing were investigated as potential uncertainty source.

  6. Compositional analysis of biomass reference materials: Results from an interlaboratory study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2015-10-29

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached andmore » an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. Here, the major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  7. Compositional analysis of biomass reference materials: Results from an interlaboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2015-10-29

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached and an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. Here, the major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  8. Software Management Environment (SME) release 9.4 user reference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrick, R.; Kistler, D.; Manter, K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains user reference material for the Software Management Environment (SME) prototype, developed for the Systems Development Branch (Code 552) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SME provides an integrated set of management tools that can be used by software development managers in their day-to-day management and planning activities. This document provides an overview of the SME, a description of all functions, and detailed instructions concerning the software's installation and use.

  9. The role of adequate reference materials in density measurements in hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, A.; Moutinho, J.; Moura, S.; Oliveira, F.; Filipe, E.

    2015-02-01

    In hemodialysis, oscillation-type density meters are used to measure the density of the acid component of the dialysate solutions used in the treatment of kidney patients. An incorrect density determination of this solution used in hemodialysis treatments can cause several and adverse events to patients. Therefore, despite the Fresenius Medical Care (FME) tight control of the density meters calibration results, this study shows the benefits of mimic the matrix usually measured to produce suitable reference materials for the density meter calibrations.

  10. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Calibration of Critical Dimension (CD) Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    ALLEN, RICHARD A.; CRESSWELL, MICHAEL W.; EVERIST, SARAH C.; GHOSHTAGORE, RATHINDRA N.; HEADLEY, THOMAS J.; LINHOLM, LOREN W.

    1999-09-21

    NIST and Sandia have developed a procedure for producing and calibrating critical dimension (CD), or linewidth, reference materials. These reference materials will be used to calibrate metrology instruments used in semiconductor manufacturing. The artifacts, with widths down to 100 nm, are produced in monocrystalline silicon with all feature edges aligned to specific crystal planes. A two-part calibration of these linewidths is used: the primary calibration, with accuracy to within a few lattice plane thicknesses, is accomplished by counting the lattice planes across the sample as-imaged through use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The secondary calibration is the high-precision electrical CD technique. NIST and Sandia are developing critical dimension (CD), or linewidth, reference materials for use by the semiconductor industry. To meet the current requirements of this rapidly changing industry, the widths of the reference features must be at or below the widths of the finest features in production and/or development. Further, these features must produce consistent results no matter which metrology tool (e.g., scanning electron microscope, scanned probe microscope, electrical metrology) is used to make the measurement. This leads to a requirement for the samples to have planar surfaces, known sidewall angles, and uniform material composition. None of the production techniques in use in semiconductor manufacturing can produce features with all these characteristics. In addition, requirements specified in the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors indicate that the width of the feature must be accurately calibrated to approximately 1-2 nm, a value well beyond the current capabilities of the instruments used for semiconductor metrology.

  11. Compositional Analysis of Biomass Reference Materials: Results from an Interlaboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached and an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. The major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  12. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  13. Collection and characterization of a bulk PM2.5 air particulate matter material for use in reference materials.

    PubMed

    Heller-Zeisler, S F; Ondov, J M; Zeisler, R

    1999-01-01

    A contemporary PM2.5 (particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter) aerosol material from an urban site has been collected for the production of a new standard reference material that will be made available for the development of new PM2.5 air quality standards. Air particulate matter corresponding to the PM2.5 fraction was collected at an established Environmental Protection Agency monitoring site in Baltimore, Maryland. The air-sampling system that has been constructed for this collection separates fine particles with a cyclone separator and deposits them onto an array of Teflon membrane filters. The fine air particulate material is removed by ultrasonication or by mechanical means and collected for further preparation of standards. The composition of the collected PM2.5 aerosol, as well as the composition of the deposited PM2.5 aerosol, are determined by instrumental nuclear activation analysis and other techniques. PMID:10676493

  14. Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance. PMID:25086341

  15. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of the NIST mAb reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Liu, Yun; Krueger, Susan; Curtis, Joseph

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are of great interest to the biopharmaceutical industry because they can be engineered to target specific antigens. Due to their importance, the biomanufacturing initiative at NIST is developing an IgG1 mAb reference material `NIST mAb', which can be used by industry, academia, and regulatory authorities. As part of this collaborative effort, we aim at characterizing the reference material using neutron scattering techniques. We have studied the small-angle scattering profile of the NIST mAb in a histidine buffer at 0 and 150 mM NaCl. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate an ensemble of structures and calculate their theoretical scattering profile, which can be directly compared with experimental data. Moreover, we analyze the structure factor to understand the effect of solution conditions on the protein-protein interactions. Finally, we have measured the solution scattering of the NIST mAb, while simultaneously performing freeze/thaw cycles, in order to investigate if the solution structure was affected upon freezing. The results from neutron scattering not only support the development of the reference material, but also provide insights on its stability and guide efforts for its development under different formulations.

  16. Geology of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.

    1962-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is a structural and topographic basin occupying an area of about 20,000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming arid southeastern Montana. The Basin is about 230 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and is about 100 miles wide. It is bounded on three sides by mountains in which rocks of Precambrian age are exposed. The Basin is asymmetrical with a steep west limb adjacent to the Bighorn Mountains and a gentle east limb adjacent to the Black Hills. Sedimentary rocks within the Basin have a maximum thickness of about 18,000 feet and rocks of every geologic period are represented. Paleozoic rocks are about 2,500 feet thick and consist of marine bonate rocks and sandstone; Mesozoic rocks are about 9,500 feet thick and consist of both marine and nonmarine siltstone and sandstone; and Cenozoic rocks are from 4,000 to 6,000 feet thick and consist of coal-bearing sandstone and shale. Radioactive waste could be stored in the pore space of permeable sandstone or in shale where space could be developed. Many such rock units that could be used for storing radioactive wastes are present within the Powder River Basin. Permeable sandstone beds that may be possible reservoirs for storage of radioactive waste are present throughout the Powder River Basin. These include sandstone beds in the Flathead Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Deadwood Formation, the Tensleep Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Minnelusa Formation and the Sundance Formation in rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. However, most of the possible sandstone reservoirs are in rocks of Cretaceous age and include sandstone beds in the Fall River, Lakota, Newcastle, Frontier, Cody, and Mesaverde Formations. Problems of containment of waste such as clogging of pore space and chemical incompatibility would have to be solved before a particular sandstone unit could be selected for waste disposal. Several thick sequences of impermeable shale such as those in the Skull Creek, Mowry, Frontier

  17. Stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum and geochemical reference materials at pressure below 1 torr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang-Jae; Choi, Soo-Jin; Yoh, Jack J.

    2014-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopy that utilizes a highly irradiated pulse laser focused on the target surface to produce plasma. We obtain spectroscopic information from the microplasma and determine the chemical composition of the sample based on its elemental and molecular emission peaks. We develop a stand-off LIBS system to analyze the effect of the remote sensing of aluminum and various geochemical reference materials at pressures below 1 torr. Using a commercial 4 inch refracting telescope, our stand-off LIBS system is configured at a distance of 7.2 m from the four United States Geological Survey (USGS) geochemical samples that include granodiorite, quartz latite, shale-cody, and diabase, which are selected for planetary exploration. Prepared samples were mixed with a paraffin binder containing only hydrogen and carbon, and were pelletized for experimental convenience. The aluminum plate sample is considered as a reference prior to using the geochemical samples in order to understand the influence of a low pressure condition on the resulting LIBS signal. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and pulsed at 10 Hz with 21.7 to 48.5 mJ/pulse was used to obtain signals, which showed that the geochemical samples were successfully detected by the present stand-off detection scheme. A low pressure condition generally results in a decrease of the signal intensity, while the signal to noise ratio can vary according to the samples and elements of various types. We successfully identified the signals at below 1 torr with stand-off detection by a tightly focused light detection and by using a relatively larger aperture telescope. The stand-off LIBS detection at low pressure is promising for potential detection of the minor elements at pressures below 1 torr.

  18. A standard reference for chamber testing of material VOC emissions: Design principle and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yinping; Xiong, Jianyin; Li, Mu

    2012-02-01

    Environmental chambers are widely used to test formaldehyde and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from indoor materials and furniture. However, there is a lack of a proven method to assess the precision of the test results of the chamber system. In this paper, we describe a new standard reference, LIFE (liquid-inner tube diffusion-film-emission), to address this problem. This reference has the following salient features: (1) Constant emission rate, with less than 3.0% change with an ambient airflow speed (>0.014 m/s) at furniture emission range (0.1-1.0 mg/m 3 in a 30 m 3 chamber with air change rate of 1/h) under standard chamber test conditions as specified by ISO 16000-9 (23 °C, 50% RH); (2) Long duration of emissions, on the order of 1000 h; (3) Easy to store, apply and maintain. The design principle and criteria of the LIFE reference are presented. An analytical model and dimensionless analysis were applied to optimize the factors influencing the emission rate, and experiments were conducted to validate the analytical results. In addition, the equivalent emission parameters of the reference, i.e., the initial emittable concentration, the diffusion coefficient and the partition coefficient, were determined through a three-parameter optimizing regression. This can then be used to check the reliability of a chamber method for testing these three parameters. The developed standard reference should prove useful for calibrating chamber systems for indoor material/furniture VOC emissions tests.

  19. Exploration of optical fibres as a carrier for new benzene and toluene matrix-free reference materials.

    PubMed

    Słomińska, Marta; Marć, Mariusz; Szczygelska-Tao, Jolanta; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-07-01

    To meet high expectations concerning precision and accuracy of reference materials, preparation of matrix-free reference materials using thermal decomposition-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was proposed in this study. In the paper, the results obtained in preparation of the new reference materials for benzene and toluene are presented, based on the thermal decomposition technique of compounds chemically bound to the surface of optical fibre segments. The results obtained at various stages of the research procedure (homogeneity, stability) confirmed the possibility of using prepared laboratory samples of materials as reference materials for benzene and toluene. For the prepared batch of materials, reference values 1.26 ± 0.91 (ng/fibre) for benzene and 11.3 ± 7.4 (ng/fibre) for toluene were determined. PMID:25976396

  20. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds. PMID:17508757

  1. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concentrations in biological standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; O'Connell, Steven G; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Small, Jeff M; De Silva, Amila O; Muir, Derek C G; Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Reagen, William K; Malinsky, Michelle; Schäfer, Sandra; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Schantz, Michele M; Keller, Jennifer M

    2012-11-01

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy pollutants. These SRMs can also serve as test materials for method development, method validation, and measurement for contaminants of emerging concern. Because inter-laboratory comparison studies have revealed substantial variability of measurements of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), future analytical measurements will benefit from determination of consensus values for PFAAs in SRMs to provide a means to demonstrate method-specific performance. To that end, NIST, in collaboration with other groups, has been measuring concentrations of PFAAs in a variety of SRMs. Here we report levels of PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) determined in four biological SRMs: fish tissue (SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue), bovine liver (SRM 1577c), and mussel tissue (SRM 2974a). We also report concentrations for three in-house quality-control materials: beluga whale liver, pygmy sperm whale liver, and white-sided dolphin liver. Measurements in SRMs show an array of PFAAs, with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) being the most frequently detected. Reference and information values are reported for PFAAs measured in these biological SRMs. PMID:22476786

  2. Developing a reference material for diffusion-controlled formaldehyde emissions testing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cox, Steven S; Little, John C

    2013-11-19

    Formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen and mucous membrane irritant, is emitted from a variety of building materials and indoor furnishings. The drive to improve building energy efficiency by decreasing ventilation rates increases the need to better understand emissions from indoor products and to identify and develop lower emitting materials. To help meet this need, formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials are typically measured using environmental chambers. However, chamber testing results are frequently inconsistent and provide little insight into the mechanisms governing emissions. This research addresses these problems by (1) developing a reference formaldehyde emissions source that can be used to validate chamber testing methods for characterization of dynamic sources of formaldehyde emissions and (2) demonstrating that emissions from finite formaldehyde sources can be predicted using a fundamental mass-transfer model. Formaldehyde mass-transfer mechanisms are elucidated, providing practical approaches for developing diffusion-controlled reference materials that mimic actual sources. The fundamental understanding of emissions mechanisms can be used to improve emissions testing and guide future risk reduction actions. PMID:24102115

  3. 230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-05-28

    The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

  4. Validation of reference materials for uranium radiochronometry in the frame of nuclear forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Varga, Z; Mayer, K; Bonamici, C E; Hubert, A; Hutcheon, I; Kinman, W; Kristo, M; Pointurier, F; Spencer, K; Stanley, F; Steiner, R; Tandon, L; Williams, R

    2015-08-01

    The results of a joint effort by expert nuclear forensic laboratories in the area of age dating of uranium, i.e. the elapsed time since the last chemical purification of the material are presented and discussed. Completely separated uranium materials of known production date were distributed among the laboratories, and the samples were dated according to routine laboratory procedures by the measurement of the (230)Th/(234)U ratio. The measurement results were in good agreement with the known production date showing that the concept for preparing uranium age dating reference material based on complete separation is valid. Detailed knowledge of the laboratory procedures used for uranium age dating allows the identification of possible improvements in the current protocols and the development of improved practice in the future. The availability of age dating reference materials as well as the evolvement of the age dating best-practice protocol will increase the relevance and applicability of age dating as part of the tool-kit available for nuclear forensic investigations. PMID:26043276

  5. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  6. Reference Material Kydex(registered trademark)-100 Test Data Message for Flammability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Richardson, Erin; Davis, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) database contains, as an engineering resource, a large amount of material test data carefully obtained and recorded over a number of years. Flammability test data obtained using Test 1 of NASA-STD-6001 is a significant component of this database. NASA-STD-6001 recommends that Kydex 100 be used as a reference material for testing certification and for comparison between test facilities in the round-robin certification testing that occurs every 2 years. As a result of these regular activities, a large volume of test data is recorded within the MAPTIS database. The activity described in this technical report was undertaken to mine the database, recover flammability (Test 1) Kydex 100 data, and review the lessons learned from analysis of these data.

  7. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in standard reference material 2384 baking chocolate.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Brown Thomas, Jeanice; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Curtis S; Sieber, John R; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Howell, Daniel W

    2002-11-20

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) Baking Chocolate was recently issued, and the process used for value assignment of nutrient concentrations is reported herein. SRM 2384 is intended for use as a primary control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, and elements in chocolate and similar high-fat matrices. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2384 provides assigned values for concentrations of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, elements, and total dietary fiber, for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, as well as for catechins, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. These assigned values were based on measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. PMID:12428961

  8. Preparation and certification of standard reference material 3278 tocopherols in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Catherine A; Putzbach, Karsten; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C; Yen, James H

    2012-07-11

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3278 Tocopherols in Edible Oils has been issued for use as a quality assurance tool in the measurement of tocopherols. Like other natural-matrix SRMs, this material can be used in method validation or in assignment of tocopherol values to in-house quality control materials. Because most edible oils contain one predominant tocopherol isoform, the SRM is a blend of sunflower, soy, canola, and safflower oils to provide roughly comparable chromatographic peak heights of the two main tocopherols, γ and α, with smaller amounts of δ and β. The four tocopherol isoforms were determined by three independent liquid chromatography methods with absorbance and fluorescence detection. Various chromatographic and detection modes are used for assignment of certified values because biases inherent to one method should not be present in the other, and the existence of bias can therefore be identified. PMID:22686411

  9. The Enigmatic Longevity of Granular Materials on Mars: The Case for Geologically Episodic Dune Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    Martian sand dunes are concentrated in vast sand seas in the circumpolar belt of the planet's northern hemisphere, but they are also pervasive over the whole planet. Their occurrence is to be expected on a super-arid planetary surface subjected to boundary layer drag from a continually active atmosphere. Whilst their occurrence is to be expected, their survival is enigmatic. But the enigma only arises if the martian system is considered similar to Earth's --where sand is moved highly frequently, more or less on a seasonal basis. Experimentally it is readily demonstrated that active sand will soon wear down to small grains and eventually diminish to below the critical sand size required to sustain dune formation. According to conventional wisdom, sand moves at higher speeds on Mars than on Earth, and if it were to move as frequently as it does on Earth, then the dune-forming sand population should have long since disappeared, given the great longevity of the martian aeolian system (Sagan coined the term "kamikaze" grains to express this disappearance). No supply of sand could keep pace with this depletion, especially in light of the fact that Mars does not have very active weathering, nor significant crustal differentiation. On Earth, plate tectonics, magmatic activity, and general crustal differentiation over geological time have produced great concentrations of quartz crystals in the continental crustal masses. Not only are these quartz grains chemically and mechanically resilient, they are about the right size for being transported by either wind or water. Add to this, the geologically recent contribution of glacial grinding, and it is easy to see why there are dune field on Earth. So what are the martian dunes composed of, and how does the material survive the eons of attrition? In addition to experimental demonstrations of sand comminution in laboratory aeolian simulations, the problem can be approached from first principles. Sagan showed that by simple

  10. Full-Vector, Low-Temperature Magnetic Measurements of Geologic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J.; Sølheid, P.; Bowles, J. A.; Jackson, M. J.; Moskowitz, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The magnetic properties of geologic materials offer insights into an enormous range of important geophysical phenomena ranging from core dynamics to paleoclimate. Low-temperature (<300 K) magnetic behavior can indicate the dominant magnetic mineral phases in a sample, determine the grain size distribution of the constituent magnetic minerals, and even reveal evidence of biogenic iron minerals. Low-temperature cycling across the magnetite Verwey transition is sometimes used to remove remanence associated with multi-domain grains, which is undesirable for paleointensity and other paleomagnetic experiments. Despite the utility of low-temperature magnetic data, probing these low-temperature phenomena from the perspective of understanding the underlying physical behavior has been hampered by instrumental limitations. Until now, nearly all measurements of low-temperature magnetization have been single-axis and are rarely done in true zero-field environments. Low-temperature remanence measurements at the Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) have been carried out almost exclusively on the Quantum Designs Magnetic Properties Measurement System (MPMS) where magnetization is measured only in the vertical direction, and “zero-fields” of up to 1 μT are common. The IRM - with funding from the Instrumentation and Facilities Program of the National Science Foundation, Earth Science Division, and in conjunction with ColdEdge Technologies (Allentown, Pennsylvania) - is developing a low-cost, cryogenic insert designed to work with a standard, horizontal-loading, 2G Enterprises magnetometer. Full three-axis measurements may now be made in ultra-low-field environments (nT) from ~17 K to room temperature. The design is compatible with both the large (7.6 cm) and small (4.2 cm) bore magnetometers, as well as many standard pulse magnetizers. Used in conjunction with the in-line degausser on the IRM’s pass-through magnetometer, it will ultimately be possible to acquire anhysteretic

  11. On the status of IAEA delta-13C stable isotope reference materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2016-04-01

    For practical reasons all isotope measurements are performed on relative scales realized through the use of international, scale-defining primary standards. In fact these standards were materials (artefacts, similar to prototypes of meter and kg) selected based on their properties. The VPDB delta-13C scale is realised via two highest-level reference materials NBS19 and LSVEC, the first defining the scale and the second aimed to normalise lab-to-lab calibrations. These two reference materials (RMs) have been maintained and distributed by IAEA and NIST. The priority task is to maintain these primary RMs at the required uncertainty level, thus ensuring the long-term scale consistency. The second task is to introduce replacements when needed (currently for exhausted NBS19, work in progress). The next is to produce a family of lower level RMs (secondary, tertiary) addressing needs of various applications (with different delta values, in different physical-chemical forms) and their needs for the uncertainty; these RMs should be traceable to the highest level RMs. Presently three is a need for a range of RMs addressing existing and newly emerging analytical techniques (e.g. optical isotopic analysers) in form of calibrated CO2 gases with different delta-13C values. All that implies creating a family of delta-13C stable isotope reference materials. Presently IAEA works on replacement for NBS19 and planning new RMs. Besides, we found that LSVEC (introduced as second anchor for the VPDB scale in 2006) demonstrate a considerable scatter of its delta-13C value which implies a potential bias of the property value and increased value uncertainty which may conflict with uncertainty requirements for atmospheric monitoring. That is not compatible with the status of LSVEC, and therefore it should be replaced as soon as possible. The presentation will give an overview of the current status, the strategic plan of developments and the near future steps.

  12. Development of botanical and fish oil standard reference materials for fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; NguyenPho, Agnes; Betz, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3274 Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids and SRM 3275 Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil. SRM 3274 consists of one ampoule of each of four seed oils (3274-1 Borage (Borago officinalis), 3274-2 Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis), 3274-3 Flax (Linium usitatissimum), and 3274-4 Perilla (Perilla frutescens)), and SRM 3275 consists of two ampoules of each of three fish oils (3275-1 a concentrate high in docosahexaenoic acid, 3275-2 an anchovy oil high in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, and 3275-3 a concentrate containing 60% long-chain omega-3 fatty acids). Each oil has certified and reference mass fraction values for up to 20 fatty acids. The fatty acid mass fraction values are based on results from analyses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with mass fractions for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements. PMID:23371533

  13. Isotopic composition ( 238U/ 235U) of some commonly used uranium reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Daniel J.; McLean, Noah; Noble, Stephen R.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2010-12-01

    We have determined 238U/ 235U ratios for a suite of commonly used natural (CRM 112a, SRM 950a, and HU-1) and synthetic (IRMM 184 and CRM U500) uranium reference materials by thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (TIMS) using the IRMM 3636 233U- 236U double spike to accurately correct for mass fractionation. Total uncertainty on the 238U/ 235U determinations is estimated to be <0.02% (2σ). These natural 238U/ 235U values are different from the widely used 'consensus' value (137.88), with each standard having lower 238U/ 235U values by up to 0.08%. The 238U/ 235U ratio determined for CRM U500 and IRMM 184 are within error of their certified values; however, the total uncertainty for CRM U500 is substantially reduced (from 0.1% to 0.02%). These reference materials are commonly used to assess mass-spectrometer performance and accuracy, calibrate isotope tracers employed in U, U-Th and U-Pb isotopic studies, and as a reference for terrestrial and meteoritic 238U/ 235U variations. These new 238U/ 235U values will thus provide greater accuracy and reduced uncertainty for a wide variety of isotopic determinations.

  14. History of reference materials for food and nutrition metrology: As represented in the series of BERM Symposia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970s the first “biological” Reference Material (RM) of Bowens Kale, Orchard Leaves, and Bovine Liver from ...

  15. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z. Q. J.; Lowhorn, N. D.; Wong-Ng, W.; Zhang, W.; Thomas, E. L.; Otani, M.; Green, M. L.; Tran, T. N.; Caylor, C.; Dilley, N. R.; Downey, A.; Edwards, B.; Elsner, N.; Ghamaty, S.; Hogan, T.; Jie, Q.; Li, Q.; Martin, J.; Nolas, G.; Obara, H.; Sharp, J.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Willigan, R.; Yang, J.; Tritt, T.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  16. Spark ablation-inductively coupled plasma spectrometry for analysis of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golightly, D.W.; Montaser, A.; Smith, B.L.; Dorrzapf, A.F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Spark ablation-inductively coupled plasma (SA-ICP) spectrometry is applied to the measurement of hafnium-zirconium ratios in zircons and to the determination of cerium, cobalt, iron, lead, nickel and phosphorus in ferromanganese nodules. Six operating parameters used for the high-voltage spark and argon-ICP combination are established by sequential simplex optimization of both signal-to-background ratio and signal-to-noise ratio. The time-dependences of the atomic emission signals of analytes and matrix elements ablated from a finely pulverized sample embedded in a pressed disk of copper demonstrate selective sampling by the spark. Concentration ratios of hafnium to zirconium in zircons are measured with a precision of 4% (relative standard deviation, RSD). For ferromanganese nodules, spectral measurements based on intensity ratios of analyte line to the Mn(II) 257.610 nm line provide precisions of analysis in the range from 7 to 14% RSD. The accuracy of analysis depends on use of standard additions of the reference material USGS Nod P-1, and an independent measurement of the Mn concentration. ?? 1989.

  17. Reference waste forms and packing material for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-30

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, Calif., has been given the task of designing and verifying the performance of waste packages for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. NNWSI is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, for the potential construction of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This report gives a summary description of the three waste forms for which LLNL is designing waste packages: spent fuel, either as intact assemblies or as consolidated fuel pins, reprocessed commercial high-level waste in the form of borosilicate glass, and reprocessed defense high-level waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility in Aiken, S.C. Reference packing material for use with the alternative waste package design for spent fuel is also described. 14 references, 8 figures, 20 tables.

  18. Development and Certification of a Standard Reference Material for Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Seruma

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Karen W.; Bedner, Mary; Tai, Susan S.-C.; Vamathevan, Veronica V.; Sander, Lane C.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Wise, Stephen A.; Yen, James H.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Coates, Paul M.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements (NIH-ODS), has developed a Standard Reference Material (SRM) for the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in serum. SRM 972 Vitamin D in Human Serum consists of four serum pools with different levels of vitamin D metabolites and has certified and reference values for 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3. Value assignment of this SRM was accomplished using a combination of three isotope-dilution mass spectrometry approaches, with measurements performed at NIST and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Chromatographic resolution of the 3-epimer of 25(OH)D3 proved to be essential for accurate determination of the metabolites. PMID:22141317

  19. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  20. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  1. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    PubMed

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061. PMID:26991280

  2. Development of apple certified reference material for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Kuroda, Youko; Numata, Masahiko; Iwata, Hitoshi; Watai, Masatoshi; Mitsuda, Hitoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ota, Hidekazu

    2013-06-01

    An apple certified reference material for the analysis of pesticide residues was issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides were sprayed on apples, and these were used as raw materials of certified reference material. The harvested apples were cut into small pieces, freeze-dried, pulverized, sieved, placed into 200 brown glass bottles (3g each), and sterilized by γ-irradiation. Stability and homogeneity assessment was performed, and the relative uncertainties due to instability (for an expiry date of 32 months) and inhomogeneity were 10.3-25.0% and 4.0-6.8%, respectively. The characterization was carried out using multiple analytical methods to ensure the reliability of analytical results; the values of target pesticides were obtained by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Certified values were 2.28 ± 0.82 mg/kg for diazinon, 3.14 ± 0.79 mg/kg for fenitrothion, 1.55 ± 0.81 mg/kg for cypermethrin, and 2.81 ± 0.70 mg/kg for permethrin. PMID:23411239

  3. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-12-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories' capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  4. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  5. Preparation and certification of Re-Os dating reference materials: Molybdenites HLP and JDC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du, A.; Wu, S.; Sun, D.; Wang, Shaoming; Qu, W.; Markey, R.; Stain, H.; Morgan, J.; Malinovskiy, D.

    2004-01-01

    Two Re-Os dating reference material molybdenites were prepared. Molybdenite JDC and molybdenite HLP are from a carbonate vein-type molybdenum-(lead)- uranium deposit in the Jinduicheng-Huanglongpu area of Shaanxi province, China. The samples proved to be homogeneous, based on the coefficient of variation of analytical results and an analysis of variance test. The sampling weight was 0.1 g for JDC and 0.025 g for HLP. An isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Re and Os. Sample decomposition and preconcentration of Re and Os prior to measurement were accomplished using a variety of methods: acid digestion, alkali fusion, ion exchange and solvent extraction. Negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used for the determination of Re and 187Os concentration and isotope ratios. The certified values include the contents of Re and Os and the model ages. For HLP, the Re content was 283.8 ?? 6.2 ??g g-1, 187Os was 659 ?? 14 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 221.4 ?? 5.6 Ma. For JDC, the Re content was 17.39 ?? 0.32 ng g-1, 187Os was 25.46 ?? 0.60 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 139.6 ?? 3.8 Ma. Uncertainties for both certified reference materials are stated at the 95% level of confidence. Three laboratories (from three countries: P.R. China, USA, Sweden) joined in the certification programme. These certified reference materials are primarily useful for Re-Os dating of molybdenite, sulfides, black shale, etc.

  6. Identification and quantitation of arsenic species in a dogfish muscle reference material for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Bednas, M.E.; Berman, S.S.; McLaren, J.W.; Siu, K.W.M.; Sturgeon, R.E.

    1988-10-15

    The arsenic species present in a dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1) have been identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS), thin-layer chromatography, and electron impact mass spectrometry and quantified by using HPLC/ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The major species is arsenobetaine (15.7 +/- 0.8 ..mu..g of As/g of DORM-1), constituting about 84% of the total arsenic. For this species, the HPLC/ICP-MS detection limit was 0.3 ng of As.

  7. Evaluation of the sulfur isotopic composition and homogeneity of the Soufre de Lacq reference material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmody, R.W.; Seal, R.R., II

    1999-01-01

    Sulfur isotopic analysis of the elemental sulfur reference material Soufre de Lacq, prepared as silver sulfide by chromous chloride reduction and as copper sulfide by sealed-tube synthesis, indicates that Soufre de Lacq is isotopically homogeneous across different size fractions to within analytical uncertainty (??0.15???). The sulfur isotopic composition of aliquots of Soufre de Lacq prepared by these two techniques are identical to within analytical uncertainty. The mean sulfur isotopic composition for Soufre de Lacq prepared as silver sulfide and copper sulfide (relative to VCDT) is +16.20 ?? 0.15??? (1??).

  8. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  9. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  10. Proposed program for and present status of the Geological Survey's investigation of domestic resources of radioactive raw materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulter, A.P., Jr.; Killeen, P.L.; Page, G.B.; Rubey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This interim report is designed to show the present status of the Geological Survey's information and the parts of a comprehensive program necessary to improve our information about the raw material resources of uranium and thorium. Rarely in geologic work has it been necessary. to determine so completely a nation's resources of useful minerals in so brief a span of time. Ordinarily, information on mineral resources Is accumulated during a long period of years. However, uranium and thorium were suddenly thrust from a position of subsidiary economic interest into one of great strategic importance. Information concerning their occurrence must, therefore, be obtained as rapidly as reliable methods of investigation will permit. Accordingly the program must be at once comprehensive and carried out over an area more extensive than is usual in the search for and appraisal of most other mineral resources.

  11. Reference Materials for Trace Element Microanalysis of Carbonates by SIMS and other Mass Spectrometric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    Today, many areas of geochemical research utilize microanalytical determinations of trace elements in carbonate minerals. In particular, there has been an explosion in the application of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to studies of marine biomineralization. SIMS provides highly precise determinations of Mg and Sr at the concentration levels normally encountered in corals, mollusks or fish otoliths. It is also a highly effective means for determining a wide range of other trace elements at ppm levels (e.g., Na, Fe, Mn, Ba, REE, Pb, Th, and U) in a variety of naturally occurring calcite and aragonite matrices - and so is potentially valuable in studies of diagenesis, hydrothermal fluids and carbonatitic magmas. For SIMS, modest time per spot (often <5 min), lateral spatial resolution (<10 μm), sample volume consumption (<10 ng) and overall reproducibility compare extremely favorably with other microanalytical techniques for these applications. However, accuracy and reproducibility are currently wholly limited by the homogeneity of available solid reference material - which is far inferior to the tenths of a percent levels of precision achieved by SIMS. Due to variation in the sputtered ion yields of most elements with the major element composition of the sample matrix, accuracy of SIMS depends intimately on matrix-matched solid reference materials. Despite its rapidly increasing use for trace element analyses of carbonates, there remains a dearth of certified reference materials suitable for calibrating SIMS. The pressed powders used by some analysts to calibrate LA-ICP-MS do not perform well for SIMS - they are not perfectly dense or homogeneous to the desired level at the micron scale of sampling. Further, they often prove incompatible with the sample high vacuum compatibility requirement for stable SIMS analysis (10-8 to 10-9 torr). Some naturally occurring calcite has apparent utility as a reference material. For example, equigranular calcite from some

  12. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  13. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes. PMID:24291528

  14. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  15. Extensive sequencing of seven human genomes to characterize benchmark reference materials.

    PubMed

    Zook, Justin M; Catoe, David; McDaniel, Jennifer; Vang, Lindsay; Spies, Noah; Sidow, Arend; Weng, Ziming; Liu, Yuling; Mason, Christopher E; Alexander, Noah; Henaff, Elizabeth; McIntyre, Alexa B R; Chandramohan, Dhruva; Chen, Feng; Jaeger, Erich; Moshrefi, Ali; Pham, Khoa; Stedman, William; Liang, Tiffany; Saghbini, Michael; Dzakula, Zeljko; Hastie, Alex; Cao, Han; Deikus, Gintaras; Schadt, Eric; Sebra, Robert; Bashir, Ali; Truty, Rebecca M; Chang, Christopher C; Gulbahce, Natali; Zhao, Keyan; Ghosh, Srinka; Hyland, Fiona; Fu, Yutao; Chaisson, Mark; Xiao, Chunlin; Trow, Jonathan; Sherry, Stephen T; Zaranek, Alexander W; Ball, Madeleine; Bobe, Jason; Estep, Preston; Church, George M; Marks, Patrick; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou, Sofia; Zheng, Grace X Y; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Ordonez, Heather S; Mudivarti, Patrice A; Giorda, Kristina; Sheng, Ying; Rypdal, Karoline Bjarnesdatter; Salit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Genome in a Bottle Consortium, hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is creating reference materials and data for human genome sequencing, as well as methods for genome comparison and benchmarking. Here, we describe a large, diverse set of sequencing data for seven human genomes; five are current or candidate NIST Reference Materials. The pilot genome, NA12878, has been released as NIST RM 8398. We also describe data from two Personal Genome Project trios, one of Ashkenazim Jewish ancestry and one of Chinese ancestry. The data come from 12 technologies: BioNano Genomics, Complete Genomics paired-end and LFR, Ion Proton exome, Oxford Nanopore, Pacific Biosciences, SOLiD, 10X Genomics GemCode WGS, and Illumina exome and WGS paired-end, mate-pair, and synthetic long reads. Cell lines, DNA, and data from these individuals are publicly available. Therefore, we expect these data to be useful for revealing novel information about the human genome and improving sequencing technologies, SNP, indel, and structural variant calling, and de novo assembly. PMID:27271295

  16. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma and serum Standard Reference Materials using independent analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Phinney, Karen W; Keller, Jennifer M

    2011-11-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in three National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) (SRMs 1950 Metabolites in Human Plasma, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum) using two analytical approaches. The methods offer some independence, with two extraction types and two liquid chromatographic separation methods. The first extraction method investigated the acidification of the sample followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a weak anion exchange cartridge. The second method used an acetonitrile extraction followed by SPE using a graphitized non-porous carbon cartridge. The extracts were separated using a reversed-phase C(8) stationary phase and a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phase. Measured values from both methods for the two human serum SRMs, 1957 and 1958, agreed with reference values on the Certificates of Analysis. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) values were obtained for the first time in human plasma SRM 1950 with good reproducibility among the methods (below 5% relative standard deviation). The nominal mass interference from taurodeoxycholic acid, which has caused over estimation of the amount of PFOS in biological samples, was separated from PFOS using the PFP stationary phase. Other PFCs were also detected in SRM 1950 and are reported. SRM 1950 can be used as a control material for human biomonitoring studies and as an aid to develop new measurement methods. PMID:21912833

  17. Modeling and Analysis of Scatterometry Signatures for Optical Critical Dimension Reference Material Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Heather J.; Germer, Thomas A.; Cresswell, Michael W.; Allen, Richard A.; Dixson, Ronald G.; Bishop, Michael

    2007-09-01

    We use an optical critical dimension (OCD) technique, matching modeled to measured scatterometry signatures, to obtain critical dimension linewidth of lines in grating targets fabricated on SIMOX (separation by implantation of oxygen) substrates using the single-crystal critical dimension reference materials (SCCDRM) process. We first compare experimentally obtained reflectance signatures for areas of the unpatterned substrate with signatures modeled using Fresnel theory, and show that the buried oxide (BOX) layer of the SIMOX is not well described optically by a single homogeneous layer of SiO2, but can be so described if a mixed Si-SiO2 boundary layer is included between the Si wafer and the BOX layer. We then obtain linewidths from OCD measurements on a series of grating targets with a range of design linewidths and pitches, and show that the linewidth obtained from the OCD technique is linearly related to the linewidth obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with a slope near unity and zero offset. While these results are very promising, further work in improving the fit of the simulated signatures to the measured signatures for some of the targets, reducing the target line roughness, and analyzing the uncertainties for potential optical critical dimension reference materials, is anticipated.

  18. Enantiomer fractions of polychlorinated biphenyls in three selected Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Joshua A; Bleackley, Derek S; Warner, Nicholas A; Wong, Charles S

    2007-01-01

    The enantiomer composition of six chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in three different certified Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 1946 (Lake Superior fish tissue), SRM 1939a (PCB Congeners in Hudson River Sediment), and SRM 2978 (organic contaminants in mussel tissue--Raritan Bay, New Jersey) to aid in quality assurance/quality control methodologies in the study of chiral pollutants in sediments and biota. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, and 183 were measured using a suite of chiral columns by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of target analytes were in agreement with certified values. Target analyte EFs in reference materials were measured precisely (<2% relative standard deviation), indicating the utility of SRM in quality assurance/control methodologies for analyses of chiral compounds in environmental samples. Measured EFs were also in agreement with previously published analyses of similar samples, indicating that similar enantioselective processes were taking place in these environmental matrices. PMID:16777177

  19. Extensive sequencing of seven human genomes to characterize benchmark reference materials

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Justin M.; Catoe, David; McDaniel, Jennifer; Vang, Lindsay; Spies, Noah; Sidow, Arend; Weng, Ziming; Liu, Yuling; Mason, Christopher E.; Alexander, Noah; Henaff, Elizabeth; McIntyre, Alexa B.R.; Chandramohan, Dhruva; Chen, Feng; Jaeger, Erich; Moshrefi, Ali; Pham, Khoa; Stedman, William; Liang, Tiffany; Saghbini, Michael; Dzakula, Zeljko; Hastie, Alex; Cao, Han; Deikus, Gintaras; Schadt, Eric; Sebra, Robert; Bashir, Ali; Truty, Rebecca M.; Chang, Christopher C.; Gulbahce, Natali; Zhao, Keyan; Ghosh, Srinka; Hyland, Fiona; Fu, Yutao; Chaisson, Mark; Xiao, Chunlin; Trow, Jonathan; Sherry, Stephen T.; Zaranek, Alexander W.; Ball, Madeleine; Bobe, Jason; Estep, Preston; Church, George M.; Marks, Patrick; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou, Sofia; Zheng, Grace X.Y.; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Ordonez, Heather S.; Mudivarti, Patrice A.; Giorda, Kristina; Sheng, Ying; Rypdal, Karoline Bjarnesdatter; Salit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Genome in a Bottle Consortium, hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is creating reference materials and data for human genome sequencing, as well as methods for genome comparison and benchmarking. Here, we describe a large, diverse set of sequencing data for seven human genomes; five are current or candidate NIST Reference Materials. The pilot genome, NA12878, has been released as NIST RM 8398. We also describe data from two Personal Genome Project trios, one of Ashkenazim Jewish ancestry and one of Chinese ancestry. The data come from 12 technologies: BioNano Genomics, Complete Genomics paired-end and LFR, Ion Proton exome, Oxford Nanopore, Pacific Biosciences, SOLiD, 10X Genomics GemCode WGS, and Illumina exome and WGS paired-end, mate-pair, and synthetic long reads. Cell lines, DNA, and data from these individuals are publicly available. Therefore, we expect these data to be useful for revealing novel information about the human genome and improving sequencing technologies, SNP, indel, and structural variant calling, and de novo assembly. PMID:27271295

  20. Production of trace elements in coastal sea water certified reference material NMIA MX014.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Jeffrey P; Saxby, David L; White, Ian E A W; Antin, Luminita; Murby, E John

    2016-06-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace elements in acidified sea water, NMIA MX014, has been produced by the National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA). The CRM consists of natural coastal sea water with 12 elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and V) fortified to levels relevant to environmental regulatory testing in Australia ranging from 0.4 to 22 μg/kg. Certified values for these 12 elements were assigned using reference methods developed at NMIA, using either isotope dilution or standard addition with ICP-MS measurement. Specialised sample preparation (coprecipitation) and ICP-MS optimisation (online dilution, collision/reaction chemistry, high mass resolution) were used to negate the effect of the high level of dissolved solids. Multiple confirmatory experiments were performed in order to verify that ICP-MS spectral interferences were eliminated and to estimate the measurement uncertainty contribution from method precision and method trueness. Extensive homogeneity and stability testing was performed and the measurement uncertainty of certified values includes contributions from between-bottle homogeneity, short-term stability, medium-term stability and long-term stability. Special attention was paid to the stability of Hg due to well-known preservation problems. Acidified sea water matrix was satisfactory for stabilising Hg at 0.4 μg/kg for at least 4 years. Relative expanded uncertainties (k = 2) for the 12 certified values were between 1 and 11 %. NMIA MX014 is intended for use as a reference material for analytical method validation and quality control for quantification of trace elements in saline water and other similar sample types. PMID:27108283

  1. High concentration aqueous sodium fluoride certified reference materials for forensic use certified by complexometric titration.

    PubMed

    Archer, Marcellé; Brits, Martin; Prevoo-Franzsen, Désirée; Quinn, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Sodium fluoride in concentrations of 1 to 2 % is used to prevent the formation of ethanol in blood and urine samples that are to be analysed for ethanol content. The majority of such samples form part of forensic investigations into alleged drunken driving. In South Africa, the laboratory performing the tests is required to prove that the sodium fluoride concentration in the blood samples is above 1 g/100 ml on receipt. This is done by using a fluoride ion-selective electrode calibrated with external aqueous solutions of sodium fluoride. The National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA) prepares sodium fluoride solutions in concentrations from 0.3 to 3.0 g/100 ml. No other certified sodium fluoride reference solutions in these concentrations are available commercially. The sodium fluoride is certified by precipitation of the fluoride as lead chlorofluoride (PbClF) through the addition of a known excess of lead nitrate. The excess lead is back-titrated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) using a photometric electrode to detect the endpoint. Aqueous sodium fluoride solutions are prepared and the concentrations verified by the precipitation/back-titration method. This paper shows the application of a classical complexometric method to the certification of reference materials and describes the procedures for the preparation of the sodium fluoride solutions, verification of the concentrations, homogeneity and stability by primary titrimetry. It also briefly covers the calculation of uncertainty, the establishment of traceability and the quality control measures applied to ensure the quality of the certified reference materials (CRMs). PMID:25326884

  2. Glass-based fluorescence reference materials used for optical and biophotonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Ottermann, C.; Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Schweizer, S.; Selling, J.; Spaeth, J.-M.; Rupertus, V.

    2006-04-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools and detection methods for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and biotechnical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics, and drug screening. For routine measurements by fluorescence techniques the existence of an improved quality assurance is one of the basic needs. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for fluorescence diagnostics having the drawback of giving relative values only. Typical requirements onto fluorescence reference materials or standards deal with the verification of the instrument performance as well as the improvement of the data comparability. Especially for biomedical applications fluorescence labels are used for the detection of proteins. In particular these labels consist of nano crystalline materials like CdS and CdSe. The field of Non-Cadmium containing materials is under investigation. In order to evaluate whether glass based materials can be used as standards it is necessary to calculate absolute values like absorption/excitation cross sections or relative quantum yields. This can be done using different quantities of dopands in glass, glass ceramics or crystals. The investigated materials are based on different types of glass, silicate, phosphate and boron glass, which play a dominant role for the absorption and emission mechanism. Additional to the so-called elementary fluorescence properties induced by raw earth elements the formation of defects lead to higher cross sections additionally. The main investigations deal with wavelength accuracy and lifetime of doped glasses, glass ceramics and crystalline samples. Moreover intensity patterns, homogeneity aspects and photo stability will be discussed.

  3. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  4. Distribution of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus and implications for the geologic history of the Nubium region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.; Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge D.

    1994-01-01

    Previous spectroscopic studies of the lunar crater Bullialdus, located in the Nubium Basin, indicated an unusual stratigraphy of two gabbroic layers overlying a noritic unit. The possible existence of a layered mafic pluton at Bullialdus was suggested. To investigate the geologic context with more detailed spatial information, charge-coupled device (CCD) images of Bullialdus were obtained using eight filters. A linear mixing model was used to investigate the fractional abundances of spectral end-members chosen from within the multispectral image. Since the reflectance properties of lunar materials over this wavelength range are sensitive to variations in composition and soil maturity, fractional abundance images were used to create a new geologic map of the crater. The spatial relationships of the surface materials confirm the previously inferred stratigraphy, and further reveal the central peaks to exhibit two distinct compositional units: noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. Three models for the origin of the observed stratigraphy are considered: Bullialdus has excavated stratigraphic units containing (1) early mare basalt overlying anorthositic-noritic crustal material, (2) part of a layered mafic pluton, and/or (3) part of an impact melt sheet formed by the Nubium Basin impact event.

  5. Sets of spectral lines for spectrographic thermometry and manometry in d.c. arcs of geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golightly, D.W.; Dorrzapf, A.F., Jr.; Thomas, C.P.

    1977-01-01

    Sets of 5 Fe(I) lines and 3 Ti(I)Ti(II) line pairs have been characterized for precise spectrographic thermometry and manometry, respectively, in d.c. arcs of geologic materials. The recommended lines are free of spectral interferences, exhibit minimal self absorption within defined concentration intervals, and are useful for chemically-unaltered silicate rocks, arced in an argon-oxygen stream. The functional character of these lines in thermometry and manometry of d.c. arcs for evaluations of electrical parameter effects, for temporal studies, and for matrix-effect investigations on real samples is illustrated. ?? 1977.

  6. USGS42 and USGS43: human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results.

    PubMed

    Coplen, Tyler B; Qi, Haiping

    2012-01-10

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales. PMID:21852055

  7. USGS42 and USGS43: Human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales.

  8. Geologic Mapping and Paired Geochemical-Paleomagnetic Sampling of Reference Sections in the Grande Ronde Basalt: An Example from the Bingen Section, Columbia River Gorge, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawlan, M.; Hagstrum, J. T.; Wells, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have completed comprehensive geochemical (GC) and paleomagnetic (PM) sampling of individual lava flows from eight reference stratigraphic sections in the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB), Columbia River Basalt Group [Hagstrum et al., 2009, GSA Ann. Mtg, Portland (abst); Hagstrum et al., 2010, AGU Fall Mtg, San Francisco (abst)]. These sections, distributed across the Columbia Plateau and eastern Columbia River Gorge, contain as many as 30 flows, are up to 670 m thick, span upper magneto-stratigraphic zones R2 and N2, and, in some locations, also contain one or more N1 flows. In concert with GC and PM sampling, we have carried out detailed geologic mapping of these sections, typically at a scale of 1:3,000 to 1:5,000, using GPS, digital imagery from the National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP), and compilation in GIS. GRB member and informal unit names of Reidel et al. [1989, GSA Sp. Paper 239] generally have been adopted, although two new units are identified and named within the N2 zone. Notably, a distinctive PM direction for intercalated lavas of several lower N2 units indicates coeval eruption of compositionally distinct units; this result contrasts with the scenario of serial stratigraphic succession of GRB units proposed by Reidel et al. [1989]. Our objectives in the mapping include: Confirming the integrity of the stratigraphic sequences by documenting flow contacts and intraflow horizons (changes in joint patterns or vesicularity); assessing fault displacements; and, establishing precisely located samples in geologic context such that selected sites can be unambiguously reoccupied. A geologic map and GC-PM data for the Bingen section, along the north side of the Columbia River, are presented as an example of our GRB reference section mapping and sampling. One of our thicker sections (670 m) along which 30 flows are mapped, the Bingen section spans 7 km along WA State Hwy 14, from near the Hood River Bridge ESE to Locke Lake. This section cuts obliquely through a

  9. Quaternary geologic map of Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of Minnesota is a compilation based both on the unique characteristics of satellite imagery and on the results of previous field investigations, both published and unpublished. The use of satellite imagery has made possible the timely and economical construction of this map. LANDSAT imagery interpretation proved more useful than expected. Most of the geologic units could be identified by extrapolating from specific sites where the geology had been investigated into areas where little was known. The excellent geographic registry coupled with the multi-spectral record of these images served to identify places where the geologic materials responded to their ecological environment and where the ecology responded to the geologic materials. Units were well located on the map at the scale selected for the study. Contacts between till units could be placed with reasonable accuracy. The reference points that were used to project delineations between units (rivers, lakes, hills, roads and other features), which had not been accurately located on early maps, could be accurately located with the help of the imagery. The tonal and color contrasts, the patterns reflecting geologic change and the resolution of the images permitted focusing attention on features which could be represented at the final scale of the map without distraction by other interesting but site-specific details.

  10. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  11. Distribution and geological sources of selenium in environmental materials in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Runxiang; Luo, Kunli; Tian, Xinglei; Yan, Songgui; Zhong, Jitai; Liu, Maoqiu

    2016-06-01

    The selenium (Se) distribution and geological sources in Taoyuan County, China, were determined by using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry on rock, soil, and food crop samples collected from various geological regions within the county. The results show Se contents of 0.02-223.85, 0.18-7.05, and 0.006-5.374 mg/kg in the rock, soil, and food crops in Taoyuan County, respectively. The region showing the highest Se content is western Taoyuan County amid the Lower Cambrian and Ediacaran black rock series outcrop, which has banding distributed west to east. A relatively high-Se environment is found in the central and southern areas of Taoyuan County, where Quaternary Limnetic sedimentary facies and Neoproterozoic metamorphic volcanic rocks outcrop, respectively. A relatively low-Se environment includes the central and northern areas of Taoyuan County, where Middle and Upper Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks and Cretaceous sandstones and conglomerates outcrop. These results indicate that Se distribution in Taoyuan County varies markedly and is controlled by the Se content of the bedrock. The Se-enriched Lower Cambrian and Ediacaran black rock series is the primary source of the seleniferous environment observed in Taoyuan County. Potential seleniferous environments are likely to be found near outcrops of the Lower Cambrian and Ediacaran black rock series in southern China. PMID:26563208

  12. Simulations of Fracture and Fragmentation of Geologic Materials using Combined FEM/DEM Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J P; Rubin, M B; Block, G I; Bonner, M P

    2005-05-26

    Results are presented from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geological media using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses with large numbers of intact polyhedral blocks. However, underground structures in jointed rock subjected to explosive loading can fail due to both rock motion along preexisting interfaces and fracture of the intact rock mass itself. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model these types of problems, we have implemented Cosserat point theory and cohesive element formulations into the current version of LDEC, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture and combined finite element/discrete element simulations. Results of a large-scale LLNL simulation of an explosive shock wave impacting an elaborate underground facility are also discussed. It is confirmed that persistent joints lead to an underestimation of the impact energy needed to fill the tunnel systems with rubble. Non-persistent joint patterns, which are typical of real geologies, inhibit shear within the surrounding rock mass and significantly increase the load required to collapse a tunnel.

  13. A new Certified Reference Material for radionuclides in Irish sea sediment (IAEA-385).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Povinec, P P; Andor, K; Arnold, D; Benmansour, M; Bikit, I; Carvalho, F P; Dimitrova, K; Edrev, Z H; Engeler, C; Fouche, F J; Garcia-Orellana, J; Gascó, C; Gastaud, J; Gudelis, A; Hancock, G; Holm, E; Legarda, F; Ikäheimonen, T K; Ilchmann, C; Jenkinson, A V; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kleinschmidt, R; Koukouliou, V; Kuhar, B; Larosa, J; Lee, S-H; Lepetit, G; Levy-Palomo, I; Liong Wee Kwong, L; Llauradó, M; Maringer, F J; Meyer, M; Michalik, B; Michel, H; Nies, H; Nour, S; Oh, J-S; Oregioni, B; Palomares, J; Pantelic, G; Pfitzner, J; Pilvio, R; Puskeiler, L; Satake, H; Schikowski, J; Vitorovic, G; Woodhead, D; Wyse, E

    2008-11-01

    A new Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in sediment (IAEA-385) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Eleven radionuclides ((40)K, (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am) have been certified and information mass activities with 95% confidence intervals are given for seven other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (210)Pb((210)Po), (235)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (241)Pu). Results for less frequently reported radionuclides ((60)Co, (99)Tc, (134)Cs, (155)Eu, (224)Ra and (239)Np) and information on some activity and mass ratios are also reported. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in sediment samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. PMID:18513984

  14. A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Giddings, Sabrina D; Reeves, Kelley L; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can contaminate shellfish and cause human illness. The European Union (EU) regulates the level of AZAs in shellfish destined for the commercial market, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being used as the official reference method for regulatory analysis. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools for the development, validation, and quality control of LC-MS methods. This paper describes the work that went into the planning, preparation, characterization, and certification of CRM-AZA-Mus, a tissue matrix CRM, which was prepared as a wet homogenate from mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs. The homogeneity and stability of CRM-AZA-Mus were evaluated, and the CRM was found to be fit for purpose. Extraction and LC-MS/MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of AZA1 (1.16 mg/kg), AZA2 (0.27 mg/kg), and AZA3 (0.21 mg/kg) in the CRM. Quantitation methods based on standard addition and matrix-matched calibration were used to compensate for the matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Other toxins present in this CRM at lower levels were also measured with information values reported for okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, yessotoxin, and several spirolides. PMID:25335820

  15. Trueness Assessment for Serum Glucose Measurement Using Commercial Systems through the Preparation of Commutable Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Xia, ChangYu; Liu, Ou; Wang, LanZhen

    2012-01-01

    Background Commutable reference materials (RMs) are suitable for end-users for evaluating the metrological traceability of values obtained using routine measurement systems. We assessed the performance of 6 routine measurement systems with validated secondary RMs. Methods We tested the homogeneity, stability, and commutability of 5 minimally processed human serum pools according to the standard guidelines. The serum pools were assigned values as per the reference procedure of the United States Centers for Disease Control and were used to evaluate the trueness of results from 6 commercial measurement systems based on enzymatic methods: 3 glucose oxidase (GOD) and 3 hexokinase (HK) methods. Results The prepared RMs were validated to be sufficiently homogenous, stable, and commutable with the patient samples. Method bias varied for different systems: GOD01, -0.17 to 2.88%; GOD02, 1.66 to 4.58%; GOD03, -0.17 to 3.14%; HK01, -3.48 to -0.85%; HK02, -3.83 to -0.11%, and HK03, -1.82 to -0.27%. Conclusions We observed that the prepared serum glucose RMs were qualified for trueness assessment. Most of the measurement systems met the minimal quality specifications. PMID:22779064

  16. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g-1.

  17. Characterization of Perchlorate in a New Frozen Human Urine Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lee L.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Davis, W. Clay; Kilpatrick, Eric L.; Oflaz, Rabia; Turk, Gregory C.; Leber, Dennis D.; Valentin, Liza; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate, an inorganic anion, has recently been recognized as an environmental contaminant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Urine is the preferred matrix for assessment of human exposure to perchlorate. Although the measurement technique for perchlorate in urine was developed in 2005, the calibration and quality assurance aspects of the metrology infrastructure for perchlorate are still lacking in that there is no certified reference material (CRM) traceable to the International System of Units (SI). To meet the quality assurance needs in biomonitoring measurements of perchlorate and the related anions that affect thyroid health, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3668 Mercury, Perchlorate, and Iodide in Frozen Human Urine. SRM 3668 consists of perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, iodine, and mercury in urine at two levels that represent the 50th and 95th percentiles, respectively, of the concentrations (with some adjustments) in the U.S. population. It is the first CRM being certified for perchlorate. Measurements leading to the certification of perchlorate were made collaboratively at NIST and CDC using three methods based on liquid or ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS or IC-MS/MS). Potential sources of bias were analyzed and results were compared for the three methods. Perchlorate in SRM 3668 Level I urine was certified to be 2.70 μg L−1 ± 0.21 μg L−1, and for SRM 3668 Level II urine, the certified value is 13.47 μg L−1 ± 0.96 μg L−1. PMID:22850897

  18. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    PubMed Central

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-01-01

    This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of −20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year. PMID:19609396

  19. T-2 and HT-2 toxins in oat flakes: development of a certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Köppen, Robert; Bremser, Wolfram; Stephan, Ina; Klein-Hartwig, Karin; Rasenko, Tatjana; Koch, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins, with T-2 and HT-2 toxins being the main representatives of the type A subgroup, are naturally and worldwide occurring contaminants frequently found in grain-based food and feed. Due to the high consumption of these products and the potential health risk associated herewith, concerns about the safety and quality of food and feed have increased over the last decades at both governmental and consumer levels. Since it is not possible to avoid their occurrence, tremendous efforts have been performed to identify and monitor mycotoxins in food and feed to make their consumption safe. However, suitable certified reference materials (CRMs) intended for quality assurance and quality control purposes are still lacking for many mycotoxin-matrix combinations. Therefore, in the framework of a European Reference Material (ERM®) project, the first CRM for T-2 and HT-2 toxin in ground oat flakes (ERM®-BC720) was developed according to the requirements of ISO Guide 35. The whole process of ERM®-BC720 development, including sample preparation, homogeneity and stability studies and value assignment, is presented. The assignment of the certified mass fractions was based upon an in-house study using high-performance liquid chromatography isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Simultaneously, an interlaboratory comparison study involving 24 expert laboratories was conducted in order to support the in-house certification study. The certified values and their corresponding expanded uncertainties (k = 2) for both T-2 and HT-2 toxin in ERM®-BC720, traceable to the international system of units, are (82 ± 4) μg kg(-1) and (81 ± 4) μg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:25399074

  20. Feasibility study on production of a matrix reference material for cyanobacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Hollingdale, Christie; Thomas, Krista; Lewis, Nancy; Békri, Khalida; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    The worldwide increase in cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes and rivers is of great concern as many cyanobacteria produce potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins (cyanotoxins). Such toxins pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems, livestock, and drinking water supplies. In addition, dietary supplements prepared from cyanobacteria can pose a risk to consumers if they contain toxins. Analytical monitoring for toxins in the environment and in consumer products is essential for the protection of public health. Reference materials (RMs) are an essential tool for the development and validation of analytical methods and are necessary for ongoing quality control of monitoring operations. Since the availability of appropriate RMs for cyanotoxins has been very limited, the present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of producing a cyanobacterial matrix RM containing various cyanotoxins. The first step was large-scale culturing of various cyanobacterial cultures that produce anatoxins, microcystins, and cylindrospermopsins. After harvesting, the biomass was lyophilized, blended, homogenized, milled, and bottled. The moisture content and physical characteristics were assessed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the production process. Toxin levels were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and ultraviolet detection. The reference material was found to be homogeneous for toxin content. Stability studies showed no significant degradation of target toxins over a period of 310 days at temperatures up to +40 °C except for the anatoxin-a, which showed some degradation at +40 °C. These results show that a fit-for-purpose matrix RM for cyanotoxins can be prepared using the processes and techniques applied in this work. PMID:25929442

  1. First certified reference materials for molecular fingerprinting of two approved probiotic Bacillus strains.

    PubMed

    De Baets, L; Van Iwaarden, P; Meeus, N; Schimmel, H; Philipp, W; Emons, H

    2009-01-31

    At present probiotic bacteria are widely used in human and animal nutrition because they beneficially influence the balance of the intestinal flora of the host. Positive effects related to probiotics are various and include enhancement of digestion, strengthening of the immune system and stimulation of vitamin production. Moreover, implementation of probiotics is intended to reduce the use of antibiotics and improve animal growth and feed conversion. To protect human and animal health and to improve consumer confidence, a strict legislation on the use of probiotics exists within the European Union (EU). Official controls by national authorities are performed to ensure verification of compliance with feed and food law. Apart from the risk of using unauthorized strains, mislabelling is a known problem, partly because of the use of phenotyping or genotyping methods with a lack of discriminative power. In addition to official controls, private controls by food and feed producing companies are important in the frame of protection of patented strains and industrial property rights. To support these applications, IRMM has developed certified reference materials (CRMs) consisting of genomic DNA inserts of B. subtilis DSM 5749 and B. licheniformis DSM 5750, two strains that received EU approval. In this study we investigated the use of these CRMs, IRMM-311 and IRMM-312, for the detection and unambiguous discrimination of Bacillus strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Identical fingerprints were obtained for the CRMs and control strains isolated from the feed additive Bioplus 2B. On the other hand a distinction could be made from other not approved B. licheniformis and B. subtilis strains. The reference materials discussed in this study are the first CRMs based on a whole bacterial genome and suitable for PFGE. They offer perspectives for applications in other domains such as analysis of foodborne pathogens in outbreaks or routine analysis. PMID:19062121

  2. Determination of indium in geological materials by electrothermal-atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with a tungsten-impregnated graphite furance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The sample is fused with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 15% (v/v) hydrobromic acid. Iron(III) is reduced with ascorbic acid to avoid its coextraction with indium as the bromide into methyl isobutyl ketone. Impregnation of the graphite furnace with sodium tungstate, and the presence of lithium metaborate and ascorbic acid in the reaction medium improve the sensitivity and precision. The limits of determination are 0.025-16 mg kg-1 indium in the sample. For 22 geological reference samples containing more than 0.1 mg kg-1 indium, relative standard deviations ranged from 3.0 to 8.5% (average 5.7%). Recoveries of indium added to various samples ranged from 96.7 to 105.6% (average 100.2%). ?? 1984.

  3. Preparation of waterproof OSL dosimeters from hygroscopic materials with a special reference to NaCl:Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Kumar, Munish; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) originally developed for geological/archaeological dating, has been found very useful for diverse applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. There is still a scarcity of OSL materials with demonstrated properties suited to dosimetry applications. Progress on the development of OSL materials with engineered properties has been slow and most research has focused on the OSL characterization of existing materials. One of the reasons for availability of only a handful of OSL dosimetry materials with adequate properties is that they have to satisfy certain stringent conditions necessary for such applications. Especially, hygroscopic materials are considered totally unsuitable. The efforts were made in our laboratory to overcome this problem. It is shown here that "water-proof" dosimeters can be prepared from even hygroscopic materials such as NaCl.

  4. Stratigraphic studies: Part B: geologic setting of the dark mantling material in the Taurus-Littrow region of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, B.K.

    1973-01-01

    A dark-colored surficial deposit covers lowlands and highlands along the southeastern margin of the Serenitatis basin. Sampling of this material was a major exploration objective of the Apollo 17 mission. Since completion of the mission, the dark mantle has been the subject of considerable controversy, inasmuch as no obvious stratified deposit was found in the landing area. Yet the material can clearly be seen in the vicinity on orbital photographs, and it is distinctly darker than all the dark mare surrounding the Serenitatis basin (Fig. 29-11). Furthermore, the geologic setting as shown by Apollo 15 and 17 panoramic photographs shows critical relations that must be accounted for in future interpretations.

  5. Determining the hydraulic properties of saturated, low-permeability geological materials in the laboratory: Advances in theory and practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, M.; Takahashi, M.; Morin, R.H.; Endo, H.; Esaki, T.

    2002-01-01

    The accurate hydraulic characterization of low-permeability subsurface environments has important practical significance. In order to examine this issue from the perspective of laboratory-based approaches, we review some recent advancements in the theoretical analyses of three different laboratory techniques specifically applied to low-permeability geologic materials: constant-head, constant flow-rate and transient-pulse permeability tests. Some potential strategies for effectively decreasing the time required to confidently estimate the permeability of these materials are presented. In addition, a new and versatile laboratory system is introduced that can implement any of these three test methods while simultaneously subjecting a specimen to high confining pressures and pore pressures, thereby simulating in situ conditions at great depths. The capabilities and advantages of this innovative system are demonstrated using experimental data derived from Shirahama sandstone and Inada granite, two rock types widely encountered in Japan.

  6. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in geologic materials by fire assay and emission spectrography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapfty, J.; Riley, L.B.

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of palladium down to 4ppb (parts per billion, 109), platinum down to 10 ppb and rhodium down to 5 ppb in 15 g of sample. Fire-assay techniques are used to preconcentrate the platinum metals into a gold bead, then the bead is dissolved in aqua regia and diluted to volume with 1M hydrochloric acid. The solution is analysed by optical emission spectrography of the residue from 200 ??l of it evaporated on a pair of flat-top graphite electrodes. This method requires much less sample handling than most published methods for these elements. Data are presented for G-1, W-1, and six new standard rocks of the U.S. Geological Survey. The values for palladium in W-1 are in reasonable agreement with previously published data. ?? 1968.

  7. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  8. Development of a candidate certified reference material of cypermethrin in green tea.

    PubMed

    Sin, Della W M; Chan, Pui-kwan; Cheung, Samuel T C; Wong, Yee-Lok; Wong, Siu-kay; Mok, Chuen-shing; Wong, Yiu-chung

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the preparation of a candidate certified reference material (CRM) of cypermethrin in green tea, GLHK-11-01a according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Certification of the material was performed using a newly developed isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) approach, with gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed excellent agreement of the analytical data sets generated from the two mass spectrometric detections. The characterization methods have also been satisfactorily applied in an Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) interlaboratory comparison study. Both the GC-HRIDMS and GC-IDMS/MS methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of cypermethrin in dry mass fraction was 148 μg kg(-1) and the associated expanded uncertainty was 14μg kg(-1). The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample in homogeneity, long-term and short-term stability and variability in the characterization procedure. GLHK-11-01a is primarily developed to support the local and wider testing community on need basis in quality assurance work and in seeking accreditation. PMID:22405308

  9. Development of a certified reference material for the determination of acrylamide in potato chips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungjoo; Park, Sunyoung; Lee, Insun; Lim, Youngran; Hwang, Euijin; So, Hun-Young

    2010-09-01

    A certified reference material (CRM), KRISS CRM 108-10-003, has been developed for analysis of acrylamide in potato chips, as a representative of carbohydrate-rich food cooked in high-temperature oil. The material was prepared by grinding commercially available potato chips to a paste which was then homogenized, bottled in 15-g units, and stored at -70 °C. Certification, homogeneity and stability testing, were carried out by liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS). A single ID-LC-MS measurement was performed for each of 10 selected units for certification and homogeneity assessment. The mean measurement result for the 10 bottles, 0.455 ± 0.012 mg kg(-1), was assigned as the certified value of the CRM. The between-bottle homogeneity was 0.8% of the certified value. The within-bottle homogeneity, tested by measuring three replicate sub-samples from each of three randomly selected bottles, was similar to the between-bottle homogeneity. The stability of the CRM under storage conditions (-70 °C) was tested for 21 months and no change in the acrylamide content was observed within the measurement uncertainty. Stability of the CRM at -20 °C (storage at user's site) and room temperature (for regular use and transportation) was also tested. Also presented is the newly designed procedure for evaluating the uncertainty of the certified value for the characterization scheme used in this study. PMID:20625887

  10. Twenty five years of reference material activity at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, M

    2001-06-01

    In the mid 1970s, the available RMs, notably Bowen's Kale and Orchard Leaves and Bovine liver from National Bureau of Standards (NBS), although of great benefit, were overwhelmingly insufficiently representative, in respect of matrix and elemental composition, of the wide range of natural products submitted for analysis and in worldwide commerce. To provide additional coverage, an RM development project was initiated with input from cooperating analysts leading to an Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cooperative venture and development of a total of 12 different agricultural/food RMs. With a total of 303 concentration values for 34 elements and a wide range of matrix components such as ash, silica, protein, fat, carbohydrate and fiber, these RMs significantly augment the world repertoire of biological control materials. A final material under consideration is a highly reliable, discrete, synthetic RM for quality control and calibration. This paper summarizes the research and developmental activities undertaken during the past quarter of a century related to RM development at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and includes a short historical background, conceptual considerations, preparation, physical characterization, homogeneity estimation, chemical characterization, calculation of recommended reference values and associated uncertainties, methodology development and application, and performance of inorganic analytical methods in a multielement, multilaboratory, collaborative characterization campaign. PMID:11451252

  11. Two new standard reference materials for the determination of drugs of abuse in human hair.

    PubMed

    Welch, Michael J; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Tai, Susan

    2003-08-01

    Two new standard reference materials (SRM) for drugs of abuse in human hair have been developed. SRM 2379 consists of hair spiked with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, phencyclidine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. SRM 2380 consists of hair spiked with codeine, morphine, monoacetylmorphine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The SRMs were prepared by soaking the hair in a solution of the target analytes in water-dimethylsulfoxide. The concentration of each analyte was determined using two methods, one based upon gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and one based upon liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Both methods used 0.1 M HCl for extraction of all the analytes from the hair, except for THC, which was extracted with 1 M NaOH. For isolation of the analytes from the extracts, the GC/MS-based methods used different clean-up procedures from those used for the LC/MS-based methods. The results from the two methods were in good agreement with mean differences for the analytes ranging from 4% to 16%. These materials will enable laboratories performing analyses of hair for drugs of abuse to test the accuracy of their methods. PMID:12879199

  12. Preparation and application of a fortified hair reference material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Han, Eunyoung; Choe, Sanggil; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun

    2008-07-01

    Quality assurance is one of the major issues in forensic analytical laboratories, where the need for a reference material (RM) has rapidly increased. RMs are very useful for method development and validation, internal quality control or proficiency tests. In the present study, we prepared a RM using drug-free hair for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its main metabolite, amphetamine (AP) according to the recommendations of ISO Guide 35. The concentrations of MA and AP were determined using two extraction methods, agitation with 1% HCl in methanol at 38 degrees C and ultrasonication with methanol/5M HCl (20:1), followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). The assignment of values was conducted through the homogeneity study and characterization of the material. Furthermore, an internal proficiency test was performed with the prepared RM, of which the results were compared with those of the authentic hair RM prepared in our previous study. As a result, a hair RM containing MA and AP was prepared at the level of 4.86+/-0.69 ng/mg and 4.63+/-0.44 ng/mg, respectively. Most participants showed satisfactory performances in the internal proficiency test with the both RMs. The hair RM prepared in this study demonstrated its suitability for quality assurance in forensic laboratories. PMID:18502069

  13. Report on the U.S. Geological Survey's evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in April 1994; T-129 (trace constituents), M-130 (major constituents), N-42 (nutrients), P-22 (low ionic strength), and Hg-18 (mercury)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, H. Keith; Farrar, Jerry W.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for five standard reference samples--T-129 (trace constituents), M-130 (major constituents), N-42 (nutrients), P-22 (low ionic strength), Hg-18(mercury),--that were distributed in April 1994 to 157 laboratories registered in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 133 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to: overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the five reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the five standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  14. Use of ceramic materials in waste-package systems for geologic disposal of nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-12-01

    A study to investigate the potential use of ceramic materials as components in the waste package systems was conducted. The initial objective of the study was to screen and compare a large number of ceramic materials and identify the best materials for the proposed application. The principal method used to screen the candidates was to subject samples of each material to a series of leaching tests and to determine their relative resistance to attack by the leach solutions. A total of 14 ceramic materials, plus graphite and basalt were evaluated using three different leach solutions: demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford ground water, and a synthetic WIPP brine solution. The ceramic materials screened were Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99%), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99.8%), mullite (2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.SiO/sub 2/), vitreous silica (SiO/sub 2/), BaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiSiO/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, ZrSiO/sub 4/, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor Code 9658 machinable glass-ceramic. Average leach rates for the materials tested were determined from analyses of the leach solutions and/or sample weight loss measurements. Because of the limited scope of the present study, evaluation of the specimens was limited to ceramographic examination. Based on an overall evaluation of the leach rate data, five of the materials tested, namely graphite, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, and the two grades of alumina, exhibited much greater resistance to leaching than did the other materials tested. Based on all the experimental data obtained, and considering other factors such as cost, availability, fabrication technology, and mechanical and physical properties, graphite and alumina are the preferred candidates for the barrier application. The secondary choices are TiO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub 2/.

  15. Influence of tile-drainage on groundwater flow and nitrate transport in heterogeneous geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Schepper, G.; Therrien, R.; Refsgaard, J.

    2012-12-01

    Subsurface drainage is a common agricultural practice in poorly drained production fields to guarantee the productivity of crops and to reduce flooding risks. The impact of shallow tile-drainage networks on groundwater flow patterns and associated nitrate transport from the surface needs to be quantified for adequate agricultural management. A challenge is to represent tile-drain networks in numerical models, at the field scale, while accounting for the influence of subsurface heterogeneities on flow and transport. A numerical model of a tile-drainage system has been developed with the fully integrated HydroGeoSphere model for the Lillebaek agricultural catchment, Denmark. The Lillebaek catchment is an experimental study area where hydraulic heads, stream and drain discharges, as well as groundwater and surface water nitrate concentrations are regularly measured. This catchment includes various tile-drainage networks that are monitored on a daily basis; the one we have been focusing on is about 5 ha within a 34 ha model domain. The Lillebaek catchment subsurface is made of about 30 m thick Quaternary deposits which consist of a local sandy aquifer with upper and lower clayey till units, confining the aquifer in the upper part. The main modelling objective is to assess the influence of tile drains on the water flow pattern within the confining clayey till unit with and on the nitrate reduction zone depth, also known as the redox-interface, while accounting for local geological heterogeneities. Using the national-scale geological model for Denmark combined with available local data, a hydrogeological model at field scale has been generated. A proper representation of the tile-drains geometry is essential to calibrate and validate the water flow model associated with nitrate transport. HydroGeoSphere can represent drains directly into a model as one-dimensional features, which however requires a very fine mesh discretization that limits the size of the simulation

  16. Determination of arsenic in geological materials by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrometry after hydride generation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.; Welsch, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    Rock and soil samples are decomposed with HClO4-HNO3; after further treatment, arsine is generated and absorbed in a dilute silver nitrate solution. Aliquots of this solution are injected into a carbon rod atomizer. Down to 1 ppm As in samples can be determined and there are no significant interferences, even from chromium in soils. Good results were obtained for geochemical reference samples. ?? 1979.

  17. NIST bullet signature measurement system for RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Song, John; Whitenton, Eric; Zheng, Alan; Vorburger, Theodore; Zhou, Jack

    2004-07-01

    A bullet signature measurement system based on a stylus instrument was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the signature measurements of NIST RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets. The standard bullets are developed as a reference standard for bullet signature measurements and are aimed to support the recently established National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The RM bullets are designed as both a virtual and a physical bullet signature standard. The virtual standard is a set of six digitized bullet signatures originally profiled from six master bullets fired at ATF and FBI using six different guns. By using the virtual signature standard to control the tool path on a numerically controlled diamond turning machine at NIST, 40 RM bullets were produced. In this paper, a comparison parameter and an algorithm using auto-and cross-correlation functions are described for qualifying the bullet signature differences between the RM bullets and the virtual bullet signature standard. When two compared signatures are exactly the same (point by point), their cross-correlation function (CCF) value will be equal to 100%. The measurement system setup, measurement program, and initial measurement results are discussed. Initial measurement results for the 40 standard bullets, each measured at six land impressions, show that the CCF values for the 240 signature measurements are higher than 95%, with most of them even higher than 99%. These results demonstrate the high reproducibility for both the manufacturing process and the measurement system for the NIST RM 8240 standard bullets. PMID:15317178

  18. Principles of Geological Mapping of Marine Sediments (with Special Reference to the African Continental Margin). Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisitzin, Alexandre P.

    Designed to serve as a complement to the Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science, this report concentrates on theoretical and practical problems of geological mapping of the sea floor. An introduction is given to geological mapping procedures at continental margins as well as some practical recommendations taking as an example the African region…

  19. 40 CFR 1048.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone... name Part 1048reference ISO 9141-2 Road vehicles—Diagnostic systems—Part 2: CARB requirements...

  20. Atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of cobalt, nickel, and copper in geological materials with matrix masking and chelation-extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.; Crenshaw, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    An atomic-absorption spectrometric method is reported for the determination of cobalt, nickel, and copper in a variety of geological materials including iron- and manganese-rich, and calcareous samples. The sample is decomposed with HP-HNO3 and the residue is dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Ammonium fluoride is added to mask iron and 'aluminum. After adjustment to pH 6, cobalt, nickel, and copper are chelated with sodium diethyl-dithiocarbamate and extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone. The sample is set aside for 24 h before analysis to remove interferences from manganese. For a 0.200-g sample, the limits of determination are 5-1000 ppm for Co, Ni, and Cu. As much as 50% Fe, 25% Mn or Ca, 20% Al and 10% Na, K, or Mg in the sample either individually or in various combinations do not interfere. Results obtained on five U.S. Geological Survey rock standards are in general agreement with values reported in the literature. ?? 1979.

  1. Arsenic removal from groundwater of the Chaco-Pampean plain (Argentina) using natural geological materials as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Mellano, M Fernanda; Ramírez, Antonio E; Storniolo, Angel del R; Martín, Raúl A; Cortés, Julia; Litter, Marta I; Jean, Jiin-Shuh

    2011-01-01

    Use of natural geological materials for arsenic (As) removal is an emerging solution at a household level for poor people in remote rural settlements, especially when the materials are locally available and can be collected by the local population. Their low or zero cost makes these materials very attractive compared with synthetic or commercial materials. Sometimes, this may be the only option to provide safe water to very poor settlements. Their suitability for As removal from water is mainly due to adsorption, co-precipitation and ion exchange processes involving Fe- and Al-rich minerals and clay minerals present in the soils or sediments. In the present study, various clay-rich soils from the Santiago del Estero province (SDE, NW Argentina) and, for comparison, a laterite from the Misiones province have been tested as adsorbents for As in shallow naturally contaminated groundwaters of the Río Dulce alluvial aquifer in SDE. Batch adsorption experiments showed higher As(V) removal for the Misiones laterite sample (99 %) as compared with the soils from SDE (40-53 %), which can be related to lower contents of water-soluble and oxalate extractable Al and Fe in the last samples. These results suggest the application of the Misiones laterite soil as an alternative for As removal. However, high transportation costs from Misiones to SDE can be an economical restriction for the low-income population of SDE. PMID:21879863

  2. Reference Materials and Services for a Small Hospital Library. 5th Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesti, Julie, Comp.; Graham, Elaine, Comp.

    This manual suggests and describes recommended reference services and sources for a small hospital library. Focusing on reference services, the first section includes information on ready-reference services; bibliographic search services, including taking and processing a request for a bibliography, National Library of Medicine literature…

  3. Reference Materials Found in a Sample of Illinois School Library/Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Mary Ellen; Wert, Lucille M.

    1974-01-01

    A study to determine which reference works are most widely held, the age breakdown of reference holdings, and the relationship between size of school and size of reference holdings in a sample of schools with centralized media programs in Illinois. (Author/LS)

  4. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  5. Uranium isotopic ratio measurements of U3O8 reference materials by atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Albert J; Perea, Daniel E; Bartrand, Jonah; Arey, Bruce W; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2016-03-01

    We report results of measurements of isotopic ratios obtained with atom probe tomography on U3O8 reference materials certified for their isotopic abundances of uranium. The results show good agreement with the certified values. High backgrounds due to tails from adjacent peaks complicate the measurement of the integrated peak areas as well as the fact that only oxides of uranium appear in the spectrum, the most intense of which is doubly charged. In addition, lack of knowledge of other instrumental parameters, such as the dead time, may bias the results. Isotopic ratio measurements can be performed at the nanometer-scale with the expectation of sensible results. The abundance sensitivity and mass resolving power of the mass spectrometer are not sufficient to compete with magnetic-sector instruments but are not far from measurements made by ToF-SIMS of other isotopic systems. The agreement of the major isotope ratios is more than sufficient to distinguish most anthropogenic compositions from natural. PMID:26774651

  6. Multielemental analysis in small amounts of environmental reference materials with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dombovári, J; Becker, J S; Dietze, H J

    2000-07-01

    The lowest possible sample weight for performing multielemental trace element analysis on environmental and biological samples by ICP-MS has been investigated. The certified reference materials Bovine Liver NIST SRM 1577b, Human Hair NCS DC 73347 and Oriental Tobacco Leaves CTA-OTL-1 were applied at sample weights (1, 5, 20 and 50 mg aliquots, n = 10) which were significantly lower than those recommended with most recoveries in the range of 95-110%. Samples were digested in a mixture of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen fluoride by closed-vessel microwave digestion. Multielemental analysis was performed with an optimized ICP-QMS method. Aqueous standard solutions were applied for external calibration with rhodium as the internal standard element. The detection limits varied between 0.02-0.38 microg/g for Li, Na, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba and Pb, and up to 1.92 microg/g for Mg, Al, Ca, Fe and Ni. Digested human plasma samples were spiked with multielemental solution (0.5-10 microg/L) to test the analytical method and the recoveries were 95-105% for most analytes. Our results show that in the case of homogeneous SRMs it is possible to use them in very low amounts (1-5 mg) for method development and quality control. PMID:11227466

  7. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 1: Calibration Solutions.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Crain, Sheila; Lewis, Nancy; LeBlanc, Patricia; Hardstaff, William R; Perez, Ruth A; Giddings, Sabrina D; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Stefanova, Roumiana; Burton, Ian W; Kilcoyne, Jane; Melanson, Jeremy E; Quilliam, Michael A; McCarron, Pearse

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic polyethers produced by marine dinoflagellates. These toxins accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Regulatory testing of shellfish is essential to safeguard public health and for international trade. Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a key role in analytical monitoring programs. This paper presents an overview of the interdisciplinary work that went into the planning, production, and certification of calibration-solution CRMs for OA, DTX1, and DTX2. OA and DTX1 were isolated from large-scale algal cultures and DTX2 from naturally contaminated mussels. Toxins were isolated by a combination of extraction and chromatographic steps with processes adapted to suit the source and concentration of each toxin. New 19-epi-DSP toxin analogs were identified as minor impurities. Once OA, DTX1, and DTX2 were established to be of suitable purity, solutions were prepared and dispensed into flame-sealed glass ampoules. Certification measurements were carried out using quantitative NMR spectroscopy and LC-tandem MS. Traceability of measurements was established through certified external standards of established purity. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization, with components from the measurement, stability, and homogeneity studies being propagated into final combined uncertainties. PMID:27524810

  8. Uranium Isotopic Ratio Measurements of U3O8 Reference Materials by Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Albert J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Bartrand, Jonah AG; Arey, Bruce W.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2016-01-01

    We report results of measurements of isotopic ratios obtained with atom probe tomography on U3O8 reference materials certified for their isotopic abundances of uranium. The results show good agreement with the certified values. High backgrounds due to tails from adjacent peaks complicate the measurement of the integrated peak areas as well as the fact that only oxides of uranium appear in the spectrum, the most intense of which is doubly charged. In addition, lack of knowledge of other instrumental parameters, such as the dead time, may bias the results. Isotopic ratio measurements can be performed at the nanometer-scale with the expectation of sensible results. The abundance sensitivity and mass resolving power of the mass spectrometer are not sufficient to compete with magnetic-sector instruments but are not far from measurements made by ToF-SIMS of other isotopic systems. The agreement of the major isotope ratios is more than sufficient to distinguish most anthropogenic compositions from natural.

  9. Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Fluorine (F) is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts of F are incorporated into nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and clinopyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace amounts of F at both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, there are few well-established F concentrations for the glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories, particularly standards of low silica, basaltic composition. In this study, we determined the F content of fourteen commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic, intermediate, and rhyolitic composition. To serve as calibration standards, five basaltic glasses with ~0.2 to 2.5 wt% F were synthesized and characterized. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2. The mixture was heated in a 1 atmosphere furnace to 1440 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The EPMA used a 15 µm diameter defocused electron beam with a 15 kV accelerating voltage and a 25 nA primary current, a TAP crystal for detecting FKα X-rays, and Biotite 3 as the F standard. The F contents by EPMA agreed with the F added to the basalts after correction for mass loss during melting. The SIMS analyses used a primary beam of 16O- and detection of low-energy negative ions (-5 kV) at a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Both microanalytical techniques confirmed homogeneity, and the SIMS calibration defined by EPMA shows an excellent linear trend with backgrounds of 2 ppm or less. Analyses of basaltic glass standards based on our synthesized calibration standards gave the following F contents and 2σ errors (ppm): ALV-519 = 83 ± 3; BCR-2G = 359 ± 6; BHVO-2G = 322 ± 15; GSA-1G = 10 ± 1; GSC-1G = 11 ± 1; GSD-1G = 19 ± 2; GSE-1G = 173 ± 1; KL2G (MPI-DING) = 101 ± 1; ML3B-G (MPI-DING) = 49 ± 17. These values are lower than published values for BCR-2 and BHVO-2 (unmelted powders) and the “information values” for the MPI-DING glass standards. Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) was tested for the high silica samples. PIGE analyses (1.7 MeV Tandem Accelerator; reaction type: 19F(p, αγ)16O; primary current = 20-30 nA; incident beam voltage = 1.5 MeV) were calibrated with a crystal of fluor-topaz (F = 20.3 wt%) and gave F values of: NIST 610 = 266 ± 14 ppm; NIST 620 = 54 ± 5 ppm; and UTR-2 = 1432 ± 32 ppm. SIMS calibration defined by the PIGE analyses shows an excellent linear trend with low background similar to the basaltic calibration. The F concentrations of intermediate MPI-DING glasses were determined based on SIMS calibration generated from the PIGE analysis above. The F concentrations and 2σ errors (ppm) are: T1G = 219.9 ± 6.8; StHs/680-G = 278.0 ± 2.0 ppm. This study revealed a large matrix effect between the high-silica and basaltic glasses, thus requiring the use of appropriate standards and separate SIMS calibrations when analyzing samples of different compositions.

  10. Development of Lentivirus-Based Reference Materials for Ebola Virus Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Mattiuzzo, Giada; Ashall, James; Doris, Kathryn S.; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Nicolson, Carolyn; Wilkinson, Dianna E.; Harvey, Ruth; Almond, Neil; Anderson, Robert; Efstathiou, Stacey; Minor, Philip D.; Page, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The 2013-present Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa has prompted the production of many diagnostic assays, mostly based on nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAT). The calibration and performance assessment of established assays and those under evaluation requires reference materials that can be used in parallel with the clinical sample to standardise or control for every step of the procedure, from extraction to the final qualitative/quantitative result. We have developed safe and stable Ebola virus RNA reference materials by encapsidating anti sense viral RNA into HIV-1-like particles. The lentiviral particles are replication-deficient and non-infectious due to the lack of HIV-1 genes and Envelope protein. Ebola virus genes were subcloned for encapsidation into two lentiviral preparations, one containing NP-VP35-GP and the other VP40 and L RNA. Each reference material was formulated as a high-titre standard for use as a calibrator for secondary or internal standards, and a 10,000-fold lower titre preparation to serve as an in-run control. The preparations have been freeze-dried to maximise stability. These HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials were suitable for use with in-house and commercial quantitative RT-PCR assays and with digital RT-PCR. The HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials are stable at up to 37°C for two weeks, allowing the shipment of the material worldwide at ambient temperature. These results support further evaluation of the HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials as part of an International collaborative study for the establishment of the 1st International Standard for Ebola virus RNA. PMID:26562415

  11. Determination of thorium in geological materials by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry after anion exchange extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Roelandts, I.

    1983-08-01

    The exchange capacity of the resin was determined to be 1 m equiv of Th/g dry resin. Synthetic calibration standards of thorium were prepared over a large concentration range, for use as an independent method of calibration. The advantages and disadvantages of direct x-ray fluorescence analysis are discussed. The lower limit of detection has been calculated according to Currie's convention and was found to be equal to 13 ..mu..g of Th/250 mg of resin, sufficient for the range of concentrations found in Th bearing minerals and ores. Results using Canadian syenite rocks and a suite of South African reference minerals show that the proposed method appears to be relatively precise and accurate for exploration geochemistry. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  13. Dynamic and impact contact mechanics of geologic materials: Grain-scale experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, David M.; Hopkins, Mark A.; Ketcham, Stephen A.

    2013-06-18

    High fidelity treatments of the generation and propagation of seismic waves in naturally occurring granular materials is becoming more practical given recent advancements in our ability to model complex particle shapes and their mechanical interaction. Of particular interest are the grain-scale processes that are activated by impact events and the characteristics of force transmission through grain contacts. To address this issue, we have developed a physics based approach that involves laboratory experiments to quantify the dynamic contact and impact behavior of granular materials and incorporation of the observed behavior indiscrete element models. The dynamic experiments do not involve particle damage and emphasis is placed on measured values of contact stiffness and frictional loss. The normal stiffness observed in dynamic contact experiments at low frequencies (e.g., 10 Hz) are shown to be in good agreement with quasistatic experiments on quartz sand. The results of impact experiments - which involve moderate to extensive levels of particle damage - are presented for several types of naturally occurring granular materials (several quartz sands, magnesite and calcium carbonate ooids). Implementation of the experimental findings in discrete element models is discussed and the results of impact simulations involving up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 105 grains are presented.

  14. Analysis of geological materials containing uranium using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barefield, James E.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Campbell, Keri R.; Colgan, James P.; Kilcrease, David P.; Johns, Heather M.; Wiens, Roger C.; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Martinez, Ronald K.; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2016-06-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a rapid atomic emission spectroscopy technique that can be configured for a variety of applications including space, forensics, and industry. LIBS can also be configured for stand-off distances or in-situ, under vacuum, high pressure, atmospheric or different gas environments, and with different resolving-power spectrometers. The detection of uranium in a complex geological matrix under different measurement schemes is explored in this paper. Although many investigations have been completed in an attempt to detect and quantify uranium in different matrices at in-situ and standoff distances, this work detects and quantifies uranium in a complex matrix under Martian and ambient air conditions. Investigation of uranium detection using a low resolving-power LIBS system at stand-off distances (1.6 m) is also reported. The results are compared to an in-situ LIBS system with medium resolving power and under ambient air conditions. Uranium has many thousands of emission lines in the 200-800 nm spectral region. In the presence of other matrix elements and at lower concentrations, the limit of detection of uranium is significantly reduced. The two measurement methods (low and high resolving-power spectrometers) are compared for limit of detection (LOD). Of the twenty-one potential diagnostic uranium emission lines, seven (409, 424, 434, 435, 436, 591, and 682 nm) have been used to determine the LOD for pitchblende in a dunite matrix using the ChemCam test bed LIBS system. The LOD values determined for uranium transitions in air are 409.013 nm (24,700 ppm), 424.167 nm (23,780 ppm), 434.169 nm (24,390 ppm), 435.574 nm (35,880 ppm), 436.205 nm (19,340 ppm), 591.539 nm (47,310 ppm), and 682.692 nm (18,580 ppm). The corresponding LOD values determined for uranium transitions in 7 Torr CO2 are 424.167 nm (25,760 ppm), 434.169 nm (40,800 ppm), 436.205 nm (32,050 ppm), 591.539 nm (15,340 ppm), and 682.692 nm (29,080 ppm). The LOD values

  15. Constitutive model for geological and other porous materials under dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, T.N.

    1991-01-01

    An effective stress model is described for use in numerical calculations on porous materials which are partially or fully saturated with water. The flow rule chosen for the shear failure portion of the model is examined and shown to have significant influence on wave propagation results. A flow rule which produces dilatancy results in less attenuation than a rule producing shear-enhanced void collapse. The dilatancy producing rule is less prone to producing liquefaction and results in significantly higher stress levels behind the wave front. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Geologic Evolution of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate we just don't know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering.

  17. DNA copy number concentration measured by digital and droplet digital quantitative PCR using certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Corbisier, Philippe; Pinheiro, Leonardo; Mazoua, Stéphane; Kortekaas, Anne-Marie; Chung, Pui Yan Jenny; Gerganova, Tsvetelina; Roebben, Gert; Emons, Hendrik; Emslie, Kerry

    2015-03-01

    The value assignment for properties of six certified reference materials (ERM-AD623a-f), each containing a plasmid DNA solution ranging from 1 million to 10 copies per μL, by using digital PCR (dPCR) with the BioMark™ HD System (Fluidigm) has been verified by applying droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) using the QX100 system (Bio-Rad). One of the critical factors in the measurement of copy number concentrations by digital PCR is the partition volume. Therefore, we determined the average droplet volume by optical microscopy, revealing an average droplet volume that is 8 % smaller than the droplet volume used as the defined parameter in the QuantaSoft software version 1.3.2.0 (Bio-Rad) to calculate the copy number concentration. This observation explains why copy number concentrations estimated with ddPCR and using an average droplet volume predefined in the QuantaSoft software were systematically lower than those measured by dPCR, creating a significant bias between the values obtained by these two techniques. The difference was not significant anymore when the measured droplet volume of 0.834 nL was used to estimate copy number concentrations. A new version of QuantaSoft software (version 1.6.6.0320), which has since been released with Bio-Rad's new QX200 systems and QX100 upgrades, uses a droplet volume of 0.85 nL as a defined parameter to calculate copy number concentration. PMID:25600685

  18. Single crystal critical dimension reference materials (SCCDRM): process optimization for the next generation of standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald G.; Guthrie, William F.; Cresswell, Michael; Allen, Richard A.; Orji, Ndubuisi G.

    2007-03-01

    Critical dimension atomic force microscopes (CD-AFMs) are rapidly gaining acceptance in semiconductor manufacturing metrology. These instruments offer non-destructive three dimensional imaging of structures and can provide a valuable complement to critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) and optical metrology. Accurate CD-AFM metrology, however, is critically dependent upon calibration of the tip width. In response to this need, NIST has developed prototype single crystal critical dimension reference materials (SCCDRMs). In 2004, a new generation of SCCDRMs was released to the Member Companies of SEMATECH - a result of the fruitful partnership between several organizations. These specimens, which are fabricated using a lattice-plane-selective etch on (110) silicon, exhibit near vertical sidewalls and high uniformity and can be used to calibrate CD-AFM tip width to a standard uncertainty of about +/- 1 nm. Following the 2004 release, NIST began work on the "next generation" of SCCDRM standards. A major goal of this thrust was to improve upon the SCCDRM characteristics that impact user-friendliness: the linewidth uniformity and cleanliness. Toward this end, an experiment was designed to further optimize the process conditions. The first round of this experiment was recently completed, and the results show great promise for further improvement of the SCCDRM manufacturing process. Among other observations, we found that the minimum linewidth and linewidth uniformity were primarily sensitive to different factors - and can thus be independently tuned to meet our future goals - which include linewidths as small as 20 nm and a standard uncertainty due to non-uniformity at the +/- 0.5 nm level. Our future work will include a new refining experiment to further optimize the important factors that we have identified, and extension of the methodology to a monolithic 200 mm implementation.

  19. Comprehensive Chemical Characterization of Hydrocarbons in NIST Standard Reference Material 2779 Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Zhang, Haofei; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2015-11-17

    Comprehensive chemical information is needed to understand the environmental fate and impact of hydrocarbons released during oil spills. However, chemical information remains incomplete because of the limitations of current analytical techniques and the inherent chemical complexity of crude oils. In this work, gas chromatography (GC)-amenable C9-C33 hydrocarbons were comprehensively characterized from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 2779 Gulf of Mexico crude oil by GC coupled to vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (GC/VUV-MS), with a mass balance of 68 ± 22%. This technique overcomes one important limitation faced by traditional GC and even comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC): the necessity for individual compounds to be chromatographically resolved from one another in order to be characterized. VUV photoionization minimizes fragmentation of the molecular ions, facilitating the characterization of the observed hydrocarbons as a function of molecular weight (carbon number, NC), structure (number of double bond equivalents, NDBE), and mass fraction (mg kg(-1)), which represent important metrics for understanding their fate and environmental impacts. Linear alkanes (8 ± 1%), branched alkanes (11 ± 2%), and cycloalkanes (37 ± 12%) dominated the mass with the largest contribution from cycloalkanes containing one or two rings and one or more alkyl side chains (27 ± 9%). Linearity and good agreement with previous work for a subset of >100 components and for the sum of compound classes provided confidence in our measurements and represents the first independent assessment of our analytical approach and calibration methodology. Another crude oil collected from the Marlin platform (35 km northeast of the Macondo well) was shown to be chemically identical within experimental errors to NIST SRM 2779, demonstrating that Marlin crude is an appropriate surrogate oil for researchers conducting

  20. Retrospective Analysis of NIST Standard Reference Material 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, for Thermal Insulation Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zarr, Robert R; Heckert, N Alan; Leigh, Stefan D

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity data acquired previously for the establishment of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, as well as subsequent renewals 1450a, 1450b, 1450c, and 1450d, are re-analyzed collectively and as individual data sets. Additional data sets for proto-1450 material lots are also included in the analysis. The data cover 36 years of activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing and providing thermal insulation SRMs, specifically high-density molded fibrous-glass board, to the public. Collectively, the data sets cover two nominal thicknesses of 13 mm and 25 mm, bulk densities from 60 kg·m−3 to 180 kg·m−3, and mean temperatures from 100 K to 340 K. The analysis repetitively fits six models to the individual data sets. The most general form of the nested set of multilinear models used is given in the following equation: λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T+a3T3+a4e−(T−a5a6)2where λ(ρ,T) is the predicted thermal conductivity (W·m−1·K−1), ρ is the bulk density (kg·m−3), T is the mean temperature (K) and ai (for i = 1, 2, … 6) are the regression coefficients. The least squares fit results for each model across all data sets are analyzed using both graphical and analytic techniques. The prevailing generic model for the majority of data sets is the bilinear model in ρ and T. λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T One data set supports the inclusion of a cubic temperature term and two data sets with low-temperature data support the inclusion of an exponential term in T to improve the model predictions. Physical interpretations of the model function terms are described. Recommendations for future renewals of SRM 1450 are provided. An Addendum provides historical background on the origin of this SRM and the influence of the SRM on external measurement programs. PMID:26601034