Science.gov

Sample records for geology norm biology

  1. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  2. Geology and genesis of NORM industrial links and depositional processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has now been found to be associated with many industrial activities that extends far beyond oil and gas production. There are approximately 59 naturally occurring radionuclides that might end up in a train of NORM contamination, which could impact at least 13 industries. It is appropriate and indeed necessary to examine the geological roots of NORM and its concentration in various industries. Impacted NORM industries and their associated problems are presented. Some plant and environmental managers may not even suspect they have NORM problems, because one cannot ``sense`` NORM without instrumentation, until it might be too late for the health and safety of the effected employees and surrounding community. Others want to ``see no evil, hear no evil or speak any evil`` until they are forced into ``reactive`` environmental management, rather than ``proactive`` management. It has been the experience of many that reactive management is far more costly than proactive management.

  3. AStudy of the Relationship of Geological Formation to the Norm.

    SciTech Connect

    Bursh, T.P.; Derald Chriss

    1997-07-08

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) is a common and costly contaminant of produced waters associated with natural gas production and exploration. One way of combating this problem is by identifying the problem beforehand. Our approach to this problem involves development of NORM prediction capabilities based on the geological environment. During the eleventh quarter of this project, emphasis again remained on two major tasks; identifying new sampling sites and seeking approval for final project revisions. In light of the delays experienced, the project has been granted a one year extension, and a revision is currently under review.

  4. A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF GEOLOGICAL FORMATION TO THE NORM

    SciTech Connect

    Derald Chriss; Talmage P. Bursh

    2002-11-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are everywhere and we are constantly exposed to it. Natural radiation has been around since the beginning of the Earth and is found in our bodies, our food, and in the products we use. This study investigates the presence and activity of naturally occurring radioactive materials contained in produced water which is associated with oil and gas exploration. Specifically the principal radionuclide used to measure NORM was radium. We also measured , where possible, other parameters which may have had an effect on the NORM activity. Produced water samples from two different oil field sites, Fausse Pointe and North Broussard, have been used as test sites for this water analysis study. The overall purpose was to determine the specific, selected parameters associated with the produced waters, which are defined as the waters which are brought to the surface along with oil and natural gas. This study is also a precursor in an attempt to predict the activity of naturally occurring radioactive materials and the other factors which may affect the activity and/or occurrence of NORM in produced water samples. A control site used for comparison, was Lake Kernan on the Southern University Campus. The average reading for the first site, Fausse Point, was pH 6.39, with the total dissolved solids, and conductivity readings off scale for our system. The radium analysis of the Fausse Point site (avg value of 0.5291 pCi/mL) indicates a relatively ''hot'' NORM area of activity. This activity indicates a potential, future NORM regulatory problem for this site. The average reading for the second site, North Broussard, was pH 7.39, with the total dissolved solids, and conductivity readings again being very high. The radium analysis of the North Broussard site (avg. of 0.4697 pCi/mL) also indicates a relatively ''hot'' NORM area of activity. The average readings for our control site, Lake Kernan, were pH 7.29, total dissolved solids 62

  5. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

  6. Sex Education Representations in Spanish Combined Biology and Geology Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cabeza, Belén; Sánchez-Bello, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Sex education is principally dealt with as part of the combined subject of Biology and Geology in the Spanish school curriculum. Teachers of this subject are not specifically trained to teach sex education, and thus the contents of their assigned textbooks are the main source of information available to them in this field. The main goal of this study was to determine what information Biology and Geology textbooks provide with regard to sex education and the vision of sexuality they give, but above all to reveal which perspectives of sex education they legitimise and which they silence. We analysed the textbooks in question by interpreting both visual and text representations, as a means of enabling us to investigate the nature of the discourse on sex education. With this aim, we have used a qualitative methodology, based on the content analysis. The main analytical tool was an in-house grid constructed to allow us to analyse the visual and textual representations. Our analysis of the combined Biology and Geology textbooks for Secondary Year 3 revealed that there is a tendency to reproduce models of sex education that take place within a framework of the more traditional discourses. Besides, the results suggested that the most of the sample chosen for this study makes a superficial, incomplete, incorrect or biased approach to sex education.

  7. Mars Field Geology, Biology. and Paleontology Workshop: Summary and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Current NASA planning envisions human missions to Mars as early as 2013, on a mission that would send six crew members for a 500-day stay on the surface of Mars. While our understanding of how we would get there and back is fairly mature, the planning for what the crew would do to explore while on the surface for 500 days is less detailed. Mission objectives are to understand the composition and geo- morphology of the martian surface, and to continue to investigate and sample the geologic history of Mars. Special emphasis will focus on exploring for possible biogenic signatures, past or present, and on analyzing pre-biotic chemistry. The purpose of this workshop was to explore the strategies, desired capabilities, skills, and operational realities required to lend success to the first human missions to Mars. Current mission planning dictates that there will be considerable mobility, sampling and analytical capability available to human crews, at a site warranting long-term geologic and possibly biological interest. However, the details of specific capabilities are not yet clearly defined.

  8. Mars Field Geology, Biology, and Paleontology Workshop: Summary and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Current NASA planning envisions human missions to Mars as early as 2013, on a mission that would send six crew members for a 500-day stay on the surface of Mars. While our understanding of how we would get there and back is fairly mature, the planning for what the crew would do to explore while on the surface for 500 days is less detailed. Mission objectives are to understand the composition and geo- morphology of the martian surface, and to continue to investigate and sample the geologic history of Mars. Special emphasis will focus on exploring for possible biogenic signatures, past or present, and on analyzing pre-biotic chemistry. The purpose of this workshop was to explore the strategies, desired capabilities, skills, and operational realities required to lend success to the first human missions to Mars. Current mission planning dictates that there will be considerable mobility, sampling and analytical capability available to human crews, at a site warranting long-term geologic and possibly biological interest. However, the details of specific capabilities are not yet clearly defined.

  9. Geology shapes biogeography: Quaternary river-capture explains New Zealand's biologically 'composite' Taieri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Jonathan M.; Wallis, Graham P.; Burridge, Christopher P.; Craw, Dave

    2015-07-01

    Geological processes are hypothesised to strongly affect species distributions. In particular, a combination of geological and biological data has suggested that tectonic processes can drive vicariant isolation and speciation in freshwater-limited taxa. Here we synthesise geological and biological evidence to demonstrate a composite geological and biological history for New Zealand's 290-km long Taieri River. Specifically, we assess evidence from structural geology and petrology, combined with phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of galaxiid fishes, to show that the modern Taieri River was formed via capture of the ancestral Kye Burn during the mid-late Quaternary. Molecular dating analyses support a late-Quaternary timeframe for the geologically-mediated divergence between formerly-connected sister taxa Galaxias depressiceps and G. 'teviot'. Fish biogeography lends further support to the geological hypothesis, as there is a substantial biogeographic disjunction between the lower- (ancestral) and upper (captured) portions of the Taieri River. Geological and biological data are assessed independently yet yield consilient patterns and timeframes for the evolutionary events inferred. Broadly, this study highlights the interplay between physical and biological processes in a geologically dynamic setting.

  10. Geological Time, Biological Events and the Learning Transfer Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Claudia C.; Middendorf, Joan; Rehrey, George; Dalkilic, Mehmet M.; Cassidy, Keely

    2014-01-01

    Comprehension of geologic time does not come easily, especially for students who are studying the earth sciences for the first time. This project investigated the potential success of two teaching interventions that were designed to help non-science majors enrolled in an introductory geology class gain a richer conceptual understanding of the…

  11. Beyond the Golden Gate; oceanography, geology, biology, and environmental issues in the Gulf of the Farallones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A., (Edited By); Chin, John L.; Ueber, Edward; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W., II

    2001-01-01

    In the 1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored a multidisciplinary, multiagency investigation of the Gulf of the Farallones, which lies offshore of the San Francisco Bay region. This book discussess the results of the endeavor, covering the topics of oceanography and geology, biology and ecological niches, and issues of environmental management.

  12. Reconstructing Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the constructs "cultural scripts" and "social representations", and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced by social…

  13. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  14. Biology and Geology Teachers' Domain-Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Kubasko, Dennis S., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews eight students enrolled in a secondary-science curriculum class and four experienced high school biology and geology teachers to determine reasons for disciplinary variance in the teaching of evolution. Finds variance imbedded in inherent differences in content and methodology of the two scientific disciplines. (Contains 27 references.)…

  15. The Treatment of Geological Time & the History of Life on Earth in High School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gerald; Decker, Todd; Barrow, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the importance of geological time in evolutionary biology, misconceptions about historical events in the history of life on Earth are common. Glenn (1990) has documented a decline from 1960 to 1989 in the amount of space devoted to the history of life in high school earth science textbooks, but we are aware of no similar study in…

  16. Biological and Geological Characteristics of the Gakkel Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.; Bailey, J.; Edmonds, H.; Forte, P.; Helmke, E.; Humphris, S.; Kemp, J.; Nakamura, K.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Singh, H.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    `pebbly' material that may represent older microbial byproducts or inorganic material remnant of past microbial activity. The microbial mats were often associated with weak temperature (e.g., 0.07°C) and Eh anomalies (up to 80 mV) less than 3 meters above the mats, suggesting that they live in regions where reducing and slightly warm fluids are seeping through cracks in the fresh volcanic terrain. The rock margins adjacent to the microbial mats were orange-brown suggesting bio-chemical alteration. The microbial mat material may be sustained by weak fluid discharge from cracks in the young volcanic surfaces. Biological samples, including mat material, sponges, and amphipods were preserved for shore-based taxonomic, phylogenetic, and biogeographic analyses.

  17. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  18. Geologic nature of the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, San Francisco Peninsula, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    This short report attempts to illuminate the geological features that contributed to making the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) a unique research island within the rapidly urbanized San Francisco Peninsula. Written in the rocks of the Preserve is a history of continental growth that extends back to the Jurassic (???150 Ma) as the California continental margin grew by subduction and accretion. Movement along the San Andreas fault system has left an indelible mark on the topography by uplift and faulting, and is even now changing the landscape by measurable increments. The sediments of Searsville Lake preserve a chronology of logging in the last century and housing development in more recent decades. Continued multidisciplinary study of this dynamic island of preserved interlocking biological, geological, and hydrogeological records will enhance student, faculty, and docent research, and our understanding of this complex area. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological and geological carbon sources in a steppe ecosystem in the SE of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Ana; Belelli-Marchesini, Luca; Etiope, Giuseppe; Papale, Dario

    2015-04-01

    Widespread recognition of the importance of soil CO2 efflux as a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere has led to active research. A large soil respiration database and recent reviews have compiled data, methods, and current challenges. However, some processes of soil CO2 production and transport have not received enough attention. In the current soil respiration literature it has mostly been assumed that soil CO2 efflux is the result of biological processes (i.e. soil respiration) but recent studies demonstrate that pedochemical and geological processes, such as geothermal and volcanic CO2 degassing, are potentially important in some areas. We carried out a study in the SE of Spain that showed that wind was the main determinant of the net ecosystem carbon balance with anomalous CO2 fluxes that could not be attributed to biological activity alone and hypothesised the presence of a geo-CO2 source given that the site was located over an tectonic fault in an ancient volcanic area (Rey et al., 2012a). After proving the existence of a geological CO2 source (Rey et al., 2013b), we developed a methodology using parameters of the boundary layer to derive biological (FBIO) and geological (FGEO) components and then partitioned FBIO into gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration (Rey et al. 2013). We estimated that ca 50% of the carbon emitted annually came from geological sources. Thus these sources can be very important in some regions and confound our estimates of the CO2 exchange attributed to biological activity. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the processes involved in ecosystem and soil CO2 efflux and to standardise current methodologies among the scientific community. The complexity of the CO2 production and transport mechanisms will require a much better interdisciplinary integration (Rey 2014). This should be a research priority given the importance of this flux in the global carbon budget.

  20. The oxalate-carbonate pathway: at the interface between biology and geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junier, P.; Cailleau, G.; Martin, G.; Guggiari, M.; Bravo, D.; Clerc, M.; Aragno, M.; Job, D.; Verrecchia, E.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of calcite in otherwise carbonate-free acidic soils through the biological degradation of oxalate is a mechanism termed oxalate-carbonate pathway. This pathway lies at the interface between biological and geological systems and constitutes an important, although underestimated, soil mineral carbon sink. In this case, atmospheric CO2 is fixed by the photosynthetic activity of oxalogenic plants, which is partly destined to the production of oxalate used for the chelation of metals, and particularly, calcium. Fungi are also able to produce oxalate to cope with elevated concentrations of metals. In spite of its abundance as a substrate, oxalate is a very stable organic anion that can be metabolized only by a group of bacteria that use it as carbon and energy sources. These bacteria close the biological cycle by degrading calcium oxalate, releasing Ca2+ and inducing a change in local soil pH. If parameters are favourable, the geological part of the pathway begins, because this change in pH will indirectly lead to the precipitation of secondary calcium carbonate (calcite) in unexpected geological conditions. Due to the initial acidic soil conditions, and the absence of geological carbonate in the basement, it is unexpected to find C in the form of calcite. The activity of the oxalate-carbonate pathway has now been demonstrated in several places around the world, suggesting that its importance can be even greater than expected. In addition, new roles for each of the biological players of the pathway have been revealed recently forcing us to reconsider a global biogeochemical model for oxalate cycling.

  1. Papers presented to the Conference on Large Body Impacts and Terrestrial Evolution: Geological, Climatological, and Biological Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The effects of large impacts on the environment are discussed and include thermal effects, atmospheric effects, changes in ocean temperatures, and geomagnetic anomalies. Biological factors such as extinction and increases in mutation development were investigated. Geological anomalies studied include stratigraphic gaps, extinction of entire boundary layers from the geological record, and geochemical oddities. Evidence was examined for impact cratering throughout the world.

  2. NORM regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  3. Laser ablation ICP-MS applications using the timescales of geologic and biologic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, W. I.

    2003-04-01

    Geochemists commonly examine geologic processes on timescales of 10^4--10^9 years, and accept that often age relations, e.g., chemical zoning in minerals, can only be measured in a relative sense. The progression of a geologic process that involves geochemical changes may be assessed using trace element microbeam techniques, because the textural, and therefore spatial context, of the analytical scheme can be preserved. However, quantification requires appropriate calibration standards. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is proving particularly useful now that appropriate standards are becoming available. For instance, trace element zoning patterns in primary sulfides (e.g., pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena) and secondary phases can be inverted to examine relative changes in fluid composition during cycles of hydrothermal mineralization. In turn such information provides insights into fluid sources, migration pathways and depositional processes. These studies have only become possible with the development of appropriate sulfide calibration standards. Another example, made possible with the development of appropriate silicate calibration standards, is the quantitative spatial mapping of REE variations in amphibolite-grade garnets. The recognition that the trace and major elements are decoupled provides a better understanding of the various sources of elements during metamorphic re-equilibration. There is also a growing realization that LA-ICP-MS has potential in biochemical studies, and geochemists have begun to turn their attention in this direction, working closely with biologists. Unlike many geologic processes, the timescales of biologic processes are measured in years to centuries and are frequently amenable to absolute dating. Examples that can be cited where LA-ICP-MS has been applied include annual trace metal variations in tree rings, corals, teeth, bones, bird feathers and various animal vibrissae (sea lion, walrus, wolf). The aim of such studies is

  4. The Sensitivity of Earth's Climate History To Changes In The Rates of Biological And Geological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, D.

    2014-12-01

    The faint young Sun paradox (early Earth had surface liquid water despite solar luminosity 70% of the modern value) implies that our planet's albedo has increased through time and/or greenhouse warming has fallen. The obvious explanation is that negative feedback processes stabilized temperatures. However, the limited temperature data available does not exhibit the expected residual temperature rise and, at least for the Phanerozoic, estimates of climate sensitivity exceed the Planck sensitivity (the zero net-feedback value). The alternate explanation is that biological and geological evolution have tended to cool Earth through time hence countering solar-driven warming. The coincidence that Earth-evolution has roughly cancelled Solar-evolution can then be explained as an emergent property of a complex system (the Gaia hypothesis) or the result of the unavoidable observational bias that Earth's climate history must be compatible with our existence (the anthropic principle). Here, I use a simple climate model to investigate the sensitivity of Earth's climate to changes in the rate of Earth-evolution. Earth-evolution is represented by an effective emissivity which has an intrinsic variation through time (due to continental growth, the evolution of cyanobacteria, orbital fluctuations etc) plus a linear feedback term which enhances emissivity variations. An important feature of this model is a predicted maximum in the radiated-flux versus temperature function. If the increasing solar flux through time had exceeded this value then runaway warming would have occurred. For the best-guess temperature history and climate sensitivity, the Earth has always been within a few percent of this maximum. There is no obvious Gaian explanation for this flux-coincidence but the anthropic principle naturally explains it: If the rate of biological/geological evolution is naturally slow then Earth is a fortunate outlier which evolved just fast enough to avoid solar-induced over

  5. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    PubMed

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones. PMID:27441261

  6. Scientific drilling projects in ancient lakes: Integrating geological and biological histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Thomas; Wagner, Bernd; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Albrecht, Christian; Ariztegui, Daniel; Delicado, Diana; Francke, Alexander; Harzhauser, Mathias; Hauffe, Torsten; Holtvoeth, Jens; Just, Janna; Leng, Melanie J.; Levkov, Zlatko; Penkman, Kirsty; Sadori, Laura; Skinner, Alister; Stelbrink, Björn; Vogel, Hendrik; Wesselingh, Frank; Wonik, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    projects and the analytical approaches that can be applied to empirically and statistically link diverse datasets to create an integrative perspective on geological and biological data. In doing so, we highlight strengths and potential weaknesses of new methods and analyses, and provide recommendations for future interdisciplinary deep-drilling projects.

  7. Gusev Crater Paleolake: Two-Billion Years of Martian Geologic, (and Biologic?) History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Landheim, R.; Greeley, R.; Kuzmin, R.; McKay, C. P.

    1998-01-01

    Ancient Martian lakes are sites where the climatological, chemical, and possibly biological history of the planet has been recorded. Their potential to keep this global information in their sedimentary deposits, potential only shared with the polar layered-deposits, designates them as the most promising targets for the ongoing exploration of Mars in terms of science return and global knowledge about Mars evolution. Many of the science priority objectives of the Surveyor Program can be met by exploring ancient Martian lake beds. Among martian paleolakes, lakes in impact craters represent probably the most favorable sites to explore. Though highly destructive events when they occur, impacts may have provided in time a significant energy source for life, by generating heat, and at the contact of water and/or ice, deep hydrothermal systems, which are considered as favorable environments for life. In addition, impact crater lakes are changing environments, from thermally driven systems at the very first stage of their formation, to cold ice-protected potential oases in the more recent Martian geological times. Thus, they are plausible sites to study the progression of diverse microbiologic communities.

  8. Solar ultraviolet transfer in the Martian atmosphere: biological and geological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, C.; Lara, L. M.; Mancho, A. M.; Márquez, A.; Rodrigo, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Martian environment has an exceedingly strong component of damaging solar far-ultraviolet radiation, including most of the UV-C range (190- 280 nm) because of the lack of an effective ozone shield. Two-stream radiative transfer modelling, including particulate aerosol content and surface albedo, indicates that the present abundance of SO 2 does not provide any surface protection of the UV radiation. However, larger abundances of sulfur dioxide (mixing ratio, q, comprised between 10 -5 and 10 -4) introduced in the present 6 mbar Martian atmosphere can partially protect the surface from the harmful solar UV radiation. Furthermore, Mie backscattering by dust and/or aerosols noticeably reduces the harmful solar UV radiation. Regardless of the ozone concentration, the required dust content for almost blocking this damaging radiation is such that the optical depth at 550 nm is τ=0.8-1.5 (for a given solar zenithal angle (SZA) of 38°), typical of a turbid atmosphere, and τ⩾1.6 more characteristic of dust storms. The required mass of SO 2 (i.e. 10 14- 10 15 gr) and/or ashes could have been easily provided by volcanic activity on Mars several times along the entire geologic history of the planet. In terms of DNA protection, volcanic ashes and SO 2 considerably reduced levels of UV radiation lead to a biological dose comparable to the existing on the present Earth, together with the possibility of a non-deterioration of the environment due to UV photo-oxidation. Therefore, preserving life forms on Mars surface at any past epoch cannot be completely ruled out.

  9. Spectroscopic characterisation of biological vaterite: relations to synthetic and geological vaterites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wehrmeister, U.; Soldati, A. L.; Hofmeister, W.

    2009-04-01

    The pair aragonite and calcite are some of the most intensively studied polymorphous minerals. These CaCO3 polymorphs are most commonly observed in biological minerals produced by marine molluscs, whereas in freshwater molluscs mostly aragonite and vaterite, the third CaCO3 polymorph is identified (e.g. Wehrmeister et al., 2007). Vaterite is the thermodynamically most unstable CaCO3 polymorph and is often discussed as a precursor phase in the mineralization of aragonite or calcite by organisms. Apart from these biological parageneses, vaterite is also known as rare small polycrystalline aggregates from geological occurrences. In laboratory crystallisation experiments, vaterite can be stabilized either kinetically or with the help of organic macromolecules (e.g. Falini et al., 2005). Despite considerable research on vaterite, it is less well known that the crystal structure of vaterite is not unobjectionably determined. Due to the overall small crystal sizes, single crystal XRD analysis of vaterite is very difficult and this could be one of the reasons for the lack of a conclusive determination of the crystal structure. At least four different crystal structure proposals have to be considered: One proposed vaterite to be pseudo hexagonal and to crystallise in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (Meyer 1959). In addition, three crystal structures with hexagonal unit cells are proposed: Kamhi (1963) and Meyer (1969) proposed the same crystal space group: P63/mmc, whereas the site symmetry of the carbonate ion is proposed to be different with 2mm and m, respectively. Lastly, Lippmann (1973) proposed a structure based on the high-temperature modification of YbBO3 with space group 6322. Here, we present new and complete Raman spectra for biological, geological and synthetic vaterite. The spectroscopic results are evaluated in light of all published crystal structures for vaterite and are aimed at gaining more detailed information about the crystallographic features of

  10. Integrated perspectives on geological and biological dynamics in ancient Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Leng, Melanie; Wonik, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Leicher, Niklas; Just, Janna; Lacey, Jack; Baumgarten, Henrike; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Vogel, Hendrik; Sadori, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula is one of the very few lakes in the world that provides a continuous and high-resolution record of environmental change of >1.2 Ma. The outstanding number of endemic taxa (>300 endemic taxa) in Lake Ohrid in combination with its long existence makes Lake Ohrid a unique target to study the drivers of speciation and endemism. For this purpose, a 569 m long sediment sequence was recovered from the central part of the lake in spring 2013 within the scope of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. In January 2016, the lowermost core sections of the 569 m long sediment sequence were opened. Ongoing work comprises core correlation to a composite sequence and various geological and biological analyses on the sediment material. Here, we present the results of analyses of the upper 248 m of this sequence, which covers the last ca. 640 ka according to an age model based on tephrostratigraphy as well as tuning of in situ physical and biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters and supported by paleomagnetic studies. The sedimentological, physical, and geochemical data from the sediment sequence indicate changes in primary productivity, water column stratification, and water depth of the lake, and in weathering and erosion processes in the catchment. These changes can be clearly correlated with orbitally driven environmental change, such as the intensity of glacial and interglacial periods as well as stadials and interstadials. These long-term changes are interspersed by short-term events, such as the deposition of tephra horizons. More than 30 tephra layers were found in the upper 248 m. The comparison of long-term and short-term environmental changes with paleontological and molecular clock analyses indicates that catastrophic extinction events in the endemic species community did not occur over the last 640 ka in Lake

  11. Biology as an integrated component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, Michael R.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to integrate chemical, physical, and biological data to assess the status of and trends in the Nation?s water quality at local, regional, and national levels. The Program consists of 60 study units (major river basins and large parts of aquifers) located throughout the Nation (fig. 1). Data are collected at stream, river, and ground-water sites that represent the Nation?s mix of major natural and human factors that influence water quality. Biological data are collected from streams and rivers, and include (1) fish and other aquatic organisms whose tissues are analyzed for a wide array of chemical contaminants; (2) characterizations of algal, benthic invertebrate, and fish communities; and (3) characterizations of vegetation growing in streams and along streambanks. These biological data are collected in conjunction with physical (streamflow, characterizations of instream, bank, and flood-plain habitats) and chemical data.

  12. From Norm Adoption to Norm Internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Andrighetto, Giulia; Villatoro, Daniel

    In this presentation, advances in modeling the mental dynamics of norms will be presented. In particular, the process from norm-adoption, possibly yielding new normative goals, to different forms of norm compliance will be focused upon, including norm internalization, which is at study in social-behavioral sciences and moral philosophy since long. Of late, the debate was revamped within the rationality approach pointing to the role of norm internalization as a less costly and more reliable enforcement system than social control. So far, poor attention was paid to the mental underpinnings of internalization. In this presentation, a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of internalization is shown. The initial implementation of this model on EMIL-A, a normative agent architecture developed and applied to the.

  13. RNA as an Astrophysical or Geophysical Document?? Correlated issues in nebular and planetary astronomy, geology and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, L. C.

    1999-12-01

    The emergence of the largely silicate earth from a presumably cosmically normal, H-rich solar nebula 4.5 eons ago is an obviously important issue relevant to many disciplines of the physical sciences. The emergence of terrestrial life is an equally important issue for biological sciences. Recent discoveries of isotopically light carbon (i.e. putative chemical fossils) in 3.85+ Ga Issua, Greenland sediments have reopened the issue of whether terrestrial life may have emerged prior to the earliest known rocks so that one might use biological records to deduce early terrestrial environments. In addition, recent advances in molecular genetics have suggested that all known ancestral life forms passed through an early hydrogen-rich environment which is more consistent with the now rejected Urey hypothesis of a early jovian atmosphere than with contemporary geological and planetological paradigms. In this essay, then, we examine possible limitations of contemporary paradigms of planetary science since a prima facie case will be made that life could not emerge in those environments which those paradigms now allow. Of necessity, the discussion will also address some hidden conflicts embedded in various disciplinary methodologies (e.g. astronomy, biology, geology).

  14. Central Colorado Assessment Project - Application of integrated geologic, geochemical, biologic, and mineral resource studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Church, S.E.; Caine, J.S.; Schmidt, T.S.; deWitt, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative studies by USDA Forest Service, National Park Service supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP), and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs (NCGMP) contributed to the mineral-resource assessment and included regional geologic mapping at the scale 1:100,000, collection and geochemical studies of stream sediments, surface water, and bedrock samples, macroinvertebrate and biofilm studies in the riparian environment, remote-sensing studies, and geochronology. Geoscience information available as GIS layers has improved understanding of the distribution of metallic, industrial, and aggregate resources, location of areas that have potential for their discovery or development, helped to understand the relation of tectonics, magmatism, and paleohydrology to the genesis of the metal deposits in the region, and provided insight on the geochemical and environmental effects that historical mining and natural, mineralized rock exposures have on surface water, ground water, and aquatic life.

  15. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  16. Multidisciplinary study of Wyoming test sites. [hydrology, biology, geology, lithology, geothermal, and land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Agard, S. S.; Downing, K. G.; Earle, J. L.; Froman, N. L.; Gordon, R.; Kolm, K. E.; Tomes, B.; Vietti, J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Investigation of a variety of applications of EREP photographic data demonstrated that EREP S-190 data offer a unique combination of synoptic coverage and image detail. The broad coverage is ideal for regional geologic mapping and tectonic analysis while the detail is adequate for mapping of crops, mines, urban areas, and other relatively small features. The investigative team at the University of Wyoming has applied the EREP S-190 data to: (1) analysis of photolinear elements of the Powder River Basin, southern Montana, and the Wind River Mountains; (2) drainage analysis of the Powder River Basin and Beartooth Mountains; (3) lithologic and geologic mapping in the Powder River Basin, Black Hills, Green River Basin, Bighorn Basin and Southern Bighorn Mountains; (4) location of possible mineralization in the Absaroka Range; and (5) land use mapping near Riverton and Gillette. All of these applications were successful to some degree. Image enhancement procedures were useful in some efforts requiring distinction of small objects or subtle contrasts.

  17. Central Colorado Assessment Project - Application of Integrated Geologic, Geochemical, Biologic, and Mineral Resource Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Church, S.E.; Caine, J.S.; Schmidt, T.S.; deWitt, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Central Colorado is one of the fastest-growing regions in the Western United States. Population along the Front Range increased more than 30 percent between 1990 and 2000 (http://www.demographia.com/db-metro3newworld.htm) with some counties within the study area, such as Park County, experiencing greater than 100-percent growth (http://www.censusscope.org/us/s8/rank_popl_growth.html). This growth has caused tremendous demand for natural resources and has created challenging land-management issues related to the interface between wilderness and urban expansion. Management of this wilderness/urban interface will benefit from current digital geoscience information collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Central Colorado Assessment Project that began in 2003. Approximately 20,800 square miles (53,800 km2) of land divided almost equally between the public and private sectors were part of the assessment. The study area includes much of the Colorado Mineral Belt, a northeast-trending zone that contains 30 economically significant metal deposits. Historically, the area provided much of Colorado's metal production. The only active gold and molybdenum mines in Colorado lie within the study area. Recently, metal and uranium exploration activity has increased sharply in response to record prices for metals and uranium. This further underscores the need for up-to-date geoscience information presented in compatible GIS databases to facilitate rapid land-management decisions. Cooperative studies by USDA Forest Service, National Park Service supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP), and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs (NCGMP) contributed to the mineral-resource assessment and included regional geologic mapping at the scale 1:100,000, collection and geochemical studies of stream sediments, surface water, and bedrock samples, macroinvertebrate and biofilm studies in the riparian environment, remote-sensing studies, and geochronology. Geoscience

  18. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  19. Using Grand Challenges to Teach Science: A Biology-Geology Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyford, M.; Myers, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    . Global Sustainability: Managing Earth's Resources (GEOL 1600) focuses on the energy-water climate nexus with a similar emphasis on STEM and non-STEM perspectives as LIFE 1002. Each week, there are three one hour lectures and a two hour lab. To set the stage for global and systems thinking, the concept of the Anthropocene and planetary boundaries are introduced early in the semester. Lectures focus on a variety of energy-water-climate topics and provide the content background for the labs. Labs are mini-case studies that address a variety of issues set in different global contexts, e.g. groundwater in Bangladesh, coal in China and petroleum in Saudi Arabia. Often the labs cover two weeks with one part covering science and the other economics. Unlike the other two courses, Energy: A Geological Perspective (GEOL 3650), is enrolled with half geology majors and half non-majors, representing almost every college on campus. Its organizational structure is similar to 1600. Labs focus on case studies, each lasting from 3 to 5 weeks, with each week addressing a different aspect of the same issue and social context, e.g. geology, economics, engineering, regulatory and political/social. Students, working in groups, present oral and written reports. Topics range from nuclear power and weapons in Iran to atmospheric emissions and global climate treaties.

  20. Elucidating geological and biological processes underlying the diversification of Sulawesi tarsiers

    PubMed Central

    Merker, Stefan; Driller, Christine; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Pamungkas, Joko; Zischler, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Because of their exceptionally long independent evolution, a range diminution of their Eocene relatives, and a remarkable subsequent diversification in Southeast Asia, tarsiers are of particular importance to evolutionary primatologists. Little is known, however, on the processes shaping the radiation of these small enigmatic primates—especially on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, their center of endemism. Geological reconstructions and progress in applying DNA sequence information to divergence dating now provide us with the tools and background to comprehend tarsier dispersal. Here, we describe effects of plate-tectonic movements, Pleistocene sea level changes, and hybridization on the divergence of central Sulawesi tarsiers. We analyzed 12 microsatellites, the cytochrome b gene, the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome from 144 specimens captured along a transect crossing a species boundary and a contact zone between 2 microplates. Based on these differentially inherited genetic markers, geographic information, and recordings of vocalizations, we demonstrate that the species boundary coincides with a tectonic suture. We estimate the most recent common ancestor of the 2 taxa to have lived 1.4 Mya, we describe asymmetrical introgressive hybridization, and we give evidence of unbiased dispersal in one species and male-biased dispersal in another species. This study exemplifies that the distribution of tarsier acoustic forms on Sulawesi is consistent with the allocation of genetic variability and that plate-tectonic and glacial events have left traceable marks in the biogeography of this island's unique fauna. PMID:19451646

  1. Using Fossil Shark Teeth to Illustrate Evolution and Introduce Basic Geologic Concepts in a High School Biology Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, J. G.; Nunn, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Shell Foundation sponsors a program at Louisiana State University called Shell Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (SURGE). The purpose of SURGE is to help local high school science teachers incorporate geology into their classrooms by providing resources and training. As part of this program, a workshop for high school biology teachers was held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge on June 3-5, 2007. We had the teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic earth science concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession and provided the teachers with lesson plans and materials. As an example, one of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth make excellent evolutionary subjects because they have a good fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. Our activity follows the learning cycle model. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow students to explore the variations among different shark teeth and explain the causes of those variations. The objectives of this exercise are to have the students: 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships among fossil shark teeth; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed lineage. To do the activity, students are divided into groups of 2-3 and given a shuffled set of 72 shark tooth cards with different images of megatoothed shark teeth. They are instructed to group the shark tooth cards into separate species of sharks. After sorting the cards, students are asked to consider the evolutionary relationships among their species and arrange their species chronologically according to the species first

  2. Earth is speaking: listen her! On-line questionnaire about anomalous geological and biological phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Fedora; Cantucci, Barbara; Mazzarini, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes can be associated with non-seismic phenomena which may manifest many weeks before and after the main shock. These phenomena are characterized by ground fractures and soil liquefactions at surface often coupled with degassing events, chemical alterations of water and soils, changes in temperature and/or waters level in the epicentral area. Further manifestations include radio disturbances and light emissions. On the other hand, anomalous behavior of animals has been reported to occur before environmental changes. The co-occurrence of several phenomena may be considered as a signal of subsurface changes, and their analysis may be used as possible forecast indicators for seismic events, landslides, damages in infrastructure (e.g., dam) and groundwaters contamination. In order to obtain an accurate statistical analysis of these factors, a pre-crisis large database over a prolonged period of time is a pre-requisite. To this end, we elaborated a questionnaire for the population to pick up signs about anomalous phenomena like as: animal behavior, geological manifestations, effect on vegetation, degassing, changes on aquifers, wells and springs. After the January 25, 2013, mainshock (ML 4.8) in the Garfagnana seismic district, the Bagni di Lucca Municipality was selected as pilot site for testing this questionnaire. The complexity, variety and extension of this territory (165 kmq) sound suitable for this project. Bagni di Lucca is located in the southern border of the Garfagnana seismogenic source, characterized by the carbonate Mesozoic sequences and the Tertiary terrigenous sedimentary deposits of the Tuscan Nappe. The questionnaire was published on Bagni di Lucca web site (https://docs.google.com/file/d/0Bzw3vOYX47XoTGltTVJRbkJuajA/edit) in collaboration with Municipal Commitee, Local Civil Protection and Local Red Cross, and sent by ordinary mail to the citizenry. It is possible to answer to the questionnaire, also anonymously, direct on line (https

  3. Hydrological, Geological, and Biological Site Characterization of Breccia Pipe Uranium Deposits in Northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    On July 21, 2009, U.S. Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar proposed a two-year withdrawal of about 1 million acres of Federal land near the Grand Canyon from future mineral entry. These lands are contained in three parcels: two parcels on U.S. Bureau of Land Management land to the north of the Grand Canyon (North and East Segregation Areas) and one on the Kaibab National Forest south of the Grand Canyon (South Segregation Area). The purpose of the two-year withdrawal is to examine the potential effects of restricting these areas from new mine development for the next 20 years. This proposed withdrawal initiated a period of study during which the effects of the withdrawal must be evaluated. At the direction of the Secretary, the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of short-term studies designed to develop additional information about the possible effects of uranium mining on the natural resources of the region. Dissolved uranium and other major, minor, and trace elements occur naturally in groundwater as the result of precipitation infiltrating from the surface to water-bearing zones and, presumably, to underlying regional aquifers. Discharges from these aquifers occur as seeps and springs throughout the region and provide valuable habitat and water sources for plants and animals. Uranium mining within the watershed may increase the amount of radioactive materials and heavy metals in the surface water and groundwater flowing into Grand Canyon National Park and the Colorado River, and deep mining activities may increase mobilization of uranium through the rock strata into the aquifers. In addition, waste rock and ore from mined areas may be transported away from the mines by wind and runoff.

  4. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges? PMID:22047501

  5. Important geological and biological impacts of natural hydrocarbon seeps: Northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, H.H. )

    1993-11-01

    Large volumes of siliciclastic sediments, input especially during periods of lowered sea level, and compensating salt tectonics have produced a continental slope that is arguably the most complex in today's oceans. Faults associated with deformation of salt and shale provide the primary migration routes for hydrocarbon gases, crude oil, brines, and formation fluids to the modern sea floor. Since the mid 1980s, it has become increasingly clearer that this process has an extremely important impact on the geomorphology, sedimentology, and biology of the modern continental slope. Hydrocarbon source, flux rate, and water depth are important determinants of sea-floor response. Under rapid flux conditions mud volcanoes (to 1 km wide and 50 m high) result, and hydrate hills (rich with authigenic carbonates), carbonate lithoherms, and isolated communities of chemosymbiotic organisms with associated hardgrounds represent much slower flux responses. In numerous moderate- to low-flux cases, cold seep products function to support islands of productivity for communities of chemosymbiotic organisms that contribute both directly (shell material) and through chemical byproducts to the production of massive volumes of calcium-magnesium carbonate in the form of hardgrounds, stacked slabs, and discrete moundlike buildups (commonly >20m). Seep-related carbonates of the Gulf of Mexico continental slope, as well those formed through degassing of accretionary prisms along active margins, are now thought to create hardgrounds and discrete buildups that are excellent analogs for many problematic carbonate buildups in ancient deep-water siliciclastic rocks.

  6. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists’ Subscription to Norms of Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

  7. Serotonin and Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.

    2014-01-01

    How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

  8. Integrated Temporal and Spatial Studies of Biological Community Structure, Fluid Geochemistry, and Geological Perturbations on the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.; Govenar, B.; Luther, G.; Lutz, R.; Vetriani, C.; Tolstoy, M.; Moore, T.; Nuzzio, D.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past 19 years, temporal and spatial changes in vent faunal community structure, fluid chemistry, and geological features have been tracked on the East Pacific Rise. Specifically, co-located studies of temporal and spatial changes within the Integrated Study Site region of the EPR have included the: 1) photographic documentation of more than 30 diffuse-flow habitats; 2) characterization of in situ fluid chemistry, temperature, and pH in these habitats; 3) characterization of basalts influenced by venting to enumerate microbial, meiofaunal, and metazoan colonists; 4) characterization of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids for microbial and chemical analyses; and 5) characterization of colonization substrates along with time-lapse camera systems and autonomous chemical and temperature sensors; and 6) characterization of seismic activity spatially targeted at these experimental locations. The goal of this work has been to address first order questions and the existence of correlative patterns among microbial communities, metazoan colonization, and fluid chemical composition- an essential prerequisite for further detailed studies of biological interactions and community dynamics at hydrothermal vents. These co-located activities, which now span a volcanic eruption, have yielded individual and interdependent datasets, which are currently at different stages of analyses and synthesis toward the examination of the interactions of subseafloor perturbations, fluid chemistry and microbes on faunal colonization. Ongoing analytical activities for integration and modeling include: 1) characterizing the composition of microbial colonizers; 2) assigning physiological and functional attributes of microbial colonizers; 3) comparing microbial community composition and physiology with patterns of metazoan colonization; 4) correlating relationships between microbial and metazoan colonization to relationships between fluid chemistry, pH, temperature; 5) relating results of

  9. Regional Norms for English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    The debate continues about regional norms for English usage around the world, although the discussion has become more realistic and less didactic. Educated non-native varieties are increasingly accepted, distinctions are being made between national and international language uses, and localized varieties are no longer considered as necessarily…

  10. Initial Biological, Chemical, and Geological Observations After the 2005-6 Volcanic Eruption on the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.; Govenar, B.; Buckman, K.; Fornari, D. J.; Soule, S. A.; Luther, G. W.; Lutz, R. A.; Vetriani, C.; Tolstoy, M.; Rubin, K. H.; Cowen, J. P.; von Damm, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    The 2006 discovery of a volcanic eruption on the East Pacific Rise provides a critical "time zero" for the initiation of integrated time-series studies of the biological, chemical, and geological processes at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. In April 2006, routine OBS investigations and results from subsequent water column surveys from the R/V Knorr suggested that a recent volcanic eruption had taken place along the mid-ocean ridge crest between 9°48'N-9°51'N. Within two weeks of these findings, a rapid event response cruise on board the R/V New Horizon was on site. Towed camera (TowCam) images (3 to 6 m above the seafloor) confirmed that a seafloor eruption covered over 16 km along axis and up to 1 km off-axis. Digital image documentation of the seafloor along the ridge crest from 9°46'N to 9°57'N revealed: 1) concentrated hydrothermal activity between 9°49'N and 9°51'N, with other active vent areas near 9°47'N and 9°53'N; 2) murky diffuse-flow in deep fissures, collapsed pits, and small cracks in sheet flows and lava remnants; 3) white microbial mats in extensive areas of vigorous diffuse-flow, surrounded by olive-brown "microbial" mats; 4) the apparent absence of either sessile megafauna in newly-venting areas or any intact pre-eruptive community; and 5) markedly small and abundant brachyuran crabs. During a 7-Alvin dive program (RESET06) three weeks later (June 2006), the faunal composition and distribution appeared to be most similar to observations immediately following the 1991 eruption in this region, and the style and type of apparent microbial mat/byproduct appeared most similar to March 1992. In April 1991, many of the microbial mats/byproducts were 10 cm thick and gelatinous. While a single small area (< 2 m2) in the 9°49' area was observed to have this appearance, the spatial extent of discrete vent areas with microbial mats/byproducts covering the seafloor was "in between" that observed in 1991 and 1992. However, in situ observations from Alvin

  11. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in biological and geological samples in the energy range of 7-12keV.

    PubMed

    Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir

    2014-10-17

    Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. PMID:25464176

  12. Social Norms: Do We Love Norms Too Much?

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David C.; Cox, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Social norms are often cited as the cause of many social phenomena, especially as an explanation for prosocial family and relationship behaviors. And yet maybe we love the idea of social norms too much, as suggested by our failure to subject them to rigorous test. Compared to the detail in social norms theoretical orientations, there is very little detail in tests of normative theories. To provide guidance to researchers who invoke social norms as explanations, we catalog normative orientations that have been proposed to account for consistent patterns of action. We call on researchers to conduct tests of normative theories and the processes such theories assert. PMID:25937833

  13. Autotrophy of green non-sulphur bacteria in hot spring microbial mats: biological explanations for isotopically heavy organic carbon in the geological record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van der Meer, M. T.; Schouten, S.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Ward, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    Inferences about the evidence of life recorded in organic compounds within the Earth's ancient rocks have depended on 13C contents low enough to be characteristic of biological debris produced by the well-known CO2 fixation pathway, the Calvin cycle. 'Atypically' high values have been attributed to isotopic alteration of sedimentary organic carbon by thermal metamorphism. We examined the possibility that organic carbon characterized by a relatively high 13C content could have arisen biologically from recently discovered autotrophic pathways. We focused on the green non-sulphur bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus that uses the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway for inorganic carbon fixation and is geologically significant as it forms modern mat communities analogous to stromatolites. Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus spp. alone had relatively high 13C contents (-14.9%) and lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus that were also isotopically heavy (-8.9% to -18.5%). Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus in conjunction with cyanobacteria had a more typical Calvin cycle signature (-23.5%). However, lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus were isotopically enriched (-15.1% to -24.1%) relative to lipids typical of cyanobacteria (-33.9% to -36.3%). This suggests that, in mats formed by both cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus, autotrophy must have a greater effect on Chloroflexus carbon metabolism than the photoheterotrophic consumption of cyanobacterial photosynthate. Chloroflexus cell components were also selectively preserved. Hence, Chloroflexus autotrophy and selective preservation of its products constitute one purely biological mechanism by which isotopically heavy organic carbon could have been introduced into important Precambrian geological features.

  14. Autotrophy of green non-sulphur bacteria in hot spring microbial mats: biological explanations for isotopically heavy organic carbon in the geological record.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, M T; Schouten, S; de Leeuw, J W; Ward, D M

    2000-08-01

    Inferences about the evidence of life recorded in organic compounds within the Earth's ancient rocks have depended on 13C contents low enough to be characteristic of biological debris produced by the well-known CO2 fixation pathway, the Calvin cycle. 'Atypically' high values have been attributed to isotopic alteration of sedimentary organic carbon by thermal metamorphism. We examined the possibility that organic carbon characterized by a relatively high 13C content could have arisen biologically from recently discovered autotrophic pathways. We focused on the green non-sulphur bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus that uses the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway for inorganic carbon fixation and is geologically significant as it forms modern mat communities analogous to stromatolites. Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus spp. alone had relatively high 13C contents (-14.9%) and lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus that were also isotopically heavy (-8.9% to -18.5%). Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus in conjunction with cyanobacteria had a more typical Calvin cycle signature (-23.5%). However, lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus were isotopically enriched (-15.1% to -24.1%) relative to lipids typical of cyanobacteria (-33.9% to -36.3%). This suggests that, in mats formed by both cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus, autotrophy must have a greater effect on Chloroflexus carbon metabolism than the photoheterotrophic consumption of cyanobacterial photosynthate. Chloroflexus cell components were also selectively preserved. Hence, Chloroflexus autotrophy and selective preservation of its products constitute one purely biological mechanism by which isotopically heavy organic carbon could have been introduced into important Precambrian geological features. PMID:11234931

  15. How to integrate geology, biology, and modern wireless technologies to assess biotic-abiotic interactions on coastal dune systems: a new multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Bertoni, Duccio; Bini, Monica; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Ribolini, Adriano; Ruocco, Matteo; Pozzebon, Alessandro; Alquini, Fernanda; Giaccari, Riccardo; Tordella, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Coastal dune systems are arguably one of the most dynamic environments because their evolution is controlled by many factors, both natural and human-related. Hence, they are often exposed to processes leading to erosion, which in turn determine serious naturalistic and economic losses. Most recent studies carried out on different dune fields worldwide emphasized the notion that a better definition of this environment needs an approach that systematically involves several disciplines, striving to merge every data collected from any individual analyses. Therefore, a new multidisciplinary method to study coastal dune systems has been conceived in order to integrate geology, biology, and modern wireless technologies. The aim of the work is threefold: i) to check the reliability of this new approach; ii) to provide a dataset as complete as ever about the factors affecting the evolution of coastal dunes; and iii) to evaluate the influence of any biotic and abiotic factors on plant communities. The experimentation site is located along the Pisa coast within the Migliarino - S. Rossore - Massaciuccoli Regional Park, a protected area where human influence is low (Tuscany, Italy). A rectangle of 100 x 200 m containing 50 grids of 20 x 20 m was established along the coastal dune systems from the coastline to the pinewood at the landward end of the backdune area. Sampling from each grid determined grain-size analysis carried out on surface sediment samples such as geologic aspects; topographic surveys performed by means of DGPS-RTK instruments; geophysical surveys conducted with a GPR equipment, which will be matched with core drilling activities; digital image analysis of high definition pictures taken by means of a remote controlled aircraft drone flying over the study area; biological data obtained by percent cover of each vascular plant species recorded in the sampling unit. Along with geologic and biologic methodologies, this research implemented the use of informatics

  16. A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT TO COLLECT BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND GEOLOGICAL DATA TO QUANTIFY THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS WHICH INFLUENCE STREAM IMPAIRMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of the current condition is critical to the management of streams impaired by sediment and other non-point source stressors, which adversely affect both physical habitat and water quality. Impairment is generally assigned based on biological criteria, which are der...

  17. The Haskell norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

  18. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  19. Distinguishing geology from biology in the Ediacaran Doushantuo biota relaxes constraints on the timing of the origin of bilaterians.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John A; Thomas, Ceri-Wyn; Bengtson, Stefan; Kearns, Stuart L; Xiao, Shuhai; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2012-06-22

    The Ediacaran Doushantuo biota has yielded fossils that include the oldest widely accepted record of the animal evolutionary lineage, as well as specimens with alleged bilaterian affinity. However, these systematic interpretations are contingent on the presence of key biological structures that have been reinterpreted by some workers as artefacts of diagenetic mineralization. On the basis of chemistry and crystallographic fabric, we characterize and discriminate phases of mineralization that reflect: (i) replication of original biological structure, and (ii) void-filling diagenetic mineralization. The results indicate that all fossils from the Doushantuo assemblage preserve a complex mélange of mineral phases, even where subcellular anatomy appears to be preserved. The findings allow these phases to be distinguished in more controversial fossils, facilitating a critical re-evaluation of the Doushantuo fossil assemblage and its implications as an archive of Ediacaran animal diversity. We find that putative subcellular structures exhibit fabrics consistent with preservation of original morphology. Cells in later developmental stages are not in original configuration and are therefore uninformative concerning gastrulation. Key structures used to identify Doushantuo bilaterians can be dismissed as late diagenetic artefacts. Therefore, when diagenetic mineralization is considered, there is no convincing evidence for bilaterians in the Doushantuo assemblage. PMID:22319125

  20. Distinguishing geology from biology in the Ediacaran Doushantuo biota relaxes constraints on the timing of the origin of bilaterians

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, John A.; Thomas, Ceri-Wyn; Bengtson, Stefan; Kearns, Stuart L.; Xiao, Shuhai; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Ediacaran Doushantuo biota has yielded fossils that include the oldest widely accepted record of the animal evolutionary lineage, as well as specimens with alleged bilaterian affinity. However, these systematic interpretations are contingent on the presence of key biological structures that have been reinterpreted by some workers as artefacts of diagenetic mineralization. On the basis of chemistry and crystallographic fabric, we characterize and discriminate phases of mineralization that reflect: (i) replication of original biological structure, and (ii) void-filling diagenetic mineralization. The results indicate that all fossils from the Doushantuo assemblage preserve a complex mélange of mineral phases, even where subcellular anatomy appears to be preserved. The findings allow these phases to be distinguished in more controversial fossils, facilitating a critical re-evaluation of the Doushantuo fossil assemblage and its implications as an archive of Ediacaran animal diversity. We find that putative subcellular structures exhibit fabrics consistent with preservation of original morphology. Cells in later developmental stages are not in original configuration and are therefore uninformative concerning gastrulation. Key structures used to identify Doushantuo bilaterians can be dismissed as late diagenetic artefacts. Therefore, when diagenetic mineralization is considered, there is no convincing evidence for bilaterians in the Doushantuo assemblage. PMID:22319125

  1. A supplement to "Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples" (U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 5, Chapter A4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1979-01-01

    The manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. It supplements ' Methods for Collection and Analysis of Aquatic Biological and Microbiological Samples ' (TWRI, Book 5, Chapter A4, 1977, edited by P. E. Greeson, T. A. Ehlke, G. A. Irwin, B. W. Lium, and K. V. Slack). Included are 5 new methods, a new section of selected taxonomic references for Ostracoda, and 6 revised methods.

  2. Professional Norms Guiding School Principals' Pedagogical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the professional norms surrounding school development, with a special emphasis on school principals' pedagogical leadership. Design/methodology/approach: A norm perspective is used to identify possible links between legal norms, professional norms, and actions. The findings are based on…

  3. Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis'.

    PubMed

    Ball, Philip

    2015-04-19

    Alan Turing was neither a biologist nor a chemist, and yet the paper he published in 1952, 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis', on the spontaneous formation of patterns in systems undergoing reaction and diffusion of their ingredients has had a substantial impact on both fields, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Motivated by the question of how a spherical embryo becomes a decidedly non-spherical organism such as a human being, Turing devised a mathematical model that explained how random fluctuations can drive the emergence of pattern and structure from initial uniformity. The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system far away from its equilibrium state occurs in many types of natural process, and in some artificial ones too. It is often driven by very general mechanisms, of which Turing's model supplies one of the most versatile. For that reason, these patterns show striking similarities in systems that seem superficially to share nothing in common, such as the stripes of sand ripples and of pigmentation on a zebra skin. New examples of 'Turing patterns' in biology and beyond are still being discovered today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750229

  4. Is Co-norming Required?

    PubMed

    Rohling, Martin L; Miller, Ronald M; Axelrod, Bradley N; Wall, Jacqueline R; Lee, Amy J H; Kinikini, Daniel T

    2015-11-01

    Researchers who have been responsible for developing test batteries have argued that competent practice requires the use of a "fixed battery" that is co-normed. We tested this assumption with three normative systems: co-normed, meta-regressed norms and a system of these two methods. We analyzed two samples: 330 referred patients and 99 undergraduate volunteers. The T scores generated for referred patients using the three systems were highly associated with one another and quite similar in magnitude, with an Overall Test Battery Means (OTBMs) using the co-normed, hybrid, and meta-regressed scores equaled 43.8, 45.0, and 43.9, respectively. For volunteers, the OTBMs equaled 47.4, 47.5, and 47.1, respectively. The correlations amongst these OTBMs across systems were all above .90. Differences among OTBMs across normative systems were small and not clinically meaningful. We conclude that co-norming for competent clinical practice is not necessary. PMID:26152291

  5. Liberal Norms and Their Discontents.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Deborah A

    2012-09-01

    Recent analyses of the predominance of liberals in personality and social psychology have raised the possibility that this ideological imbalance is driven in part by active discrimination against conservatives. In this article, I review empirical evidence relevant to this possibility and find little support for it. The evidence points instead to a predominance of liberal views in academia more generally, driven by multiple factors including the consonance of academic work with the goals and values of liberals. Within the field of personality and social psychology, this concentration of liberal views has fostered strong liberal norms, which both intensify and exaggerate the field's ideological homogeneity. These liberal norms have unfortunate narrowing effects on research in personality and social psychology; remedies for these effects should focus on weakening the norms. PMID:26168510

  6. Changing Norms to Change Behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dale T; Prentice, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Providing people with information about the behavior and attitudes of their peers is a strategy commonly employed by those seeking to reduce behavior deemed harmful either to individuals (e.g., high alcohol consumption) or the collective (e.g., high energy consumption). We review norm-based interventions, detailing the logic behind them and the various forms they can take. We give special attention to interventions designed to decrease college students' drinking and increase environment-friendly behaviors. We identify the conditions under which norm information has the highest likelihood of changing the targeted behavior and discuss why this is the case. PMID:26253542

  7. Norm-establishing and norm-following in autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Egbert, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Living agency is subject to a normative dimension (good-bad, adaptive-maladaptive) that is absent from other types of interaction. We review current and historical attempts to naturalize normativity from an organism-centered perspective, identifying two central problems and their solution: (1) How to define the topology of the viability space so as to include a sense of gradation that permits reversible failure, and (2) how to relate both the processes that establish norms and those that result in norm-following behavior. We present a minimal metabolic system that is coupled to a gradient-climbing chemotactic mechanism. Studying the relationship between metabolic dynamics and environmental resource conditions, we identify an emergent viable region and a precarious region where the system tends to die unless environmental conditions change. We introduce the concept of normative field as the change of environmental conditions required to bring the system back to its viable region. Norm-following, or normative action, is defined as the course of behavior whose effect is positively correlated with the normative field. We close with a discussion of the limitations and extensions of our model and some final reflections on the nature of norms and teleology in agency. PMID:23373978

  8. Determination of halogens, with special reference to iodine, in geological and biological samples using pyrohydrolysis for preparation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography for measurement.

    PubMed

    Schnetger, B; Muramatsu, Y

    1996-11-01

    A method for determining iodine, bromine, chlorine and fluorine in geological and biological materials is described. In a quartz tube, solid material was heated to 1100 degrees C under a wet oxygen flow (pyrohydrolysis). By this process the halogens (I, Br, Cl, F) were separated from the matrix and then collected in a receiver solution. The chemical yield of iodine was determined by a radioactive tracer. ICP-MS and ion chromatographic measurements were used for the determination of the halogens. The method was optimized by investigating different experimental conditions. All four halogens can be trapped in the receiver solution from one combustion procedure. Precision and accuracy were evaluated by the analysis of environmental standard reference materials (rock, soil, milk, leaves, marine tissue). The concentrations in the materials analysed were in the ranges 0.006-50 mg kg-1 for I, 0.06-1300 mg kg-1 for Br, 50-1100 mg kg-1 for F and 400-11000 mg kg-1 for Cl. The lower values represent the practical detection limit of this method. The results obtained by the proposed method and the certified values are in good agreement. PMID:8952450

  9. A P-Norm Robust Feature Extraction Method for Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Liu, Jin-Xing; Gao, Ying-Lian; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Xue-Song; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    In current molecular biology, it becomes more and more important to identify differentially expressed genes closely correlated with a key biological process from gene expression data. In this paper, based on the Schatten p-norm and Lp-norm, a novel p-norm robust feature extraction method is proposed to identify the differentially expressed genes. In our method, the Schatten p-norm is used as the regularization function to obtain a low-rank matrix and the Lp-norm is taken as the error function to improve the robustness to outliers in the gene expression data. The results on simulation data show that our method can obtain higher identification accuracies than the competitive methods. Numerous experiments on real gene expression data sets demonstrate that our method can identify more differentially expressed genes than the others. Moreover, we confirmed that the identified genes are closely correlated with the corresponding gene expression data. PMID:26201006

  10. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M., Davies,W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  11. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    ScienceCinema

    Norm Pattiz

    2010-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Pattiz

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  14. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  15. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  16. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passero, Richard N.

    1978-01-01

    1977 was a year of continued and expanding efforts in the application of the geosciences to land-use planning, especially as they relate to geologic hazards, and elucidating the role of geology in public policy. The work of environmental geological programs is reviewed. (Author/MA)

  17. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  18. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    PubMed

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink. PMID:11414374

  19. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  20. Separating subjective norms, university descriptive and injunctive norms, and U.S. descriptive and injunctive norms for drinking behavior intentions.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Sun; Klein, Katherine A; Smith, Sandi; Martell, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The theory of planned behavior and the social norms approach both stress the important influence that normative perceptions have on behavioral intentions and behavior. These 2 approaches were used to examine the behavioral intention to limit drinking to 0 to 4 drinks. Further, this study examined whether perception of subjective norms, university- and U.S.-level descriptive norms, and university- and U.S.-level injunctive norms represented separate dimensions for this behavioral intention. A representative sample of 1,100 undergraduate students completed a Web-based survey. The results confirmed that the 5 types of norms were all unique constructs and showed that individuals' intentions to limit their alcohol consumption to 0 to 4 drinks were predicted by positive attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, U.S. descriptive norms, and U.S. injunctive norms. Subjective norms also moderated the relationship between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention. University descriptive norms served as a moderator between attitudes and behavioral intentions and between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intentions. This study has important implications for norms-based theories and campaigns. PMID:20183383

  1. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  2. Functional mapping of reaction norms to multiple environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiasheng; Zeng, Yanru; Huang, Jianqing; Hou, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Rongling

    2007-02-01

    Whether there are different genes involved in response to different environmental signals and how these genes interact to determine the final expression of the trait are of fundamental importance in agricultural and biological research. We present a statistical framework for mapping environment-induced genes (or quantitative trait loci, QTLs) of major effects on the expression of a trait that respond to changing environments. This framework is constructed with a maximum-likelihood-based mixture model, in which the mean and covariance structure of environment-induced responses is modelled. The means for responses to continuous environmental states, referred to as reaction norms, are approximated for different QTL genotypes by mathematical equations that were derived from fundamental biological principles or based on statistical goodness-of-fit to observational data. The residual covariance between different environmental states was modelled by autoregressive processes. Such an approach to studying the genetic control of reaction norms can be expected to be advantageous over traditional mapping approaches in which no biological principles and statistical structures are considered. We demonstrate the analytical procedure and power of this approach by modelling the photosynthetic rate process as a function of temperature and light irradiance. Our approach allows for testing how a QTL affects the reaction norm of photosynthetic rate to a specific environment and whether there exist different QTLs to mediate photosynthetic responses to temperature and light irradiance, respectively. PMID:17517157

  3. A Simple and Selective Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Trace Gold in Real, Environmental, Biological, Geological and Soil Samples Using Bis (Salicylaldehyde) Orthophenylenediamine

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Rubina; Ahmed, M. Jamaluddin; Memon, Najma; Khan, Humaira

    2008-01-01

    A simple high sensitive, selective, and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace gold based on the rapid reaction of gold(III) with bis(salicylaldehyde)orthophenylenediamine (BSOPD) in aqueous and micellar media has been developed. BSOPD reacts with gold(III) in slightly acidic solution to form a 1:1 brownish-yellow complex, which has an maximum absorption peak at 490 nm in both aqueous and micellar media. The most remarkable point of this method is that the molar absorptivities of the gold-BSOPD complex form in the presence of the nonionic TritonX-100 surfactant are almost a 10 times higher than the value observed in the aqueous solution, resulting in an increase in the sensitivity and selectivity of the method. The apparent molar absorptivities were found to be 2.3 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1 and 2.5 × 105 L mol−1 cm−1 in aqueous and micellar media, respectively. The reaction is instantaneous and the maximum absorbance was obtained after 10 min at 490 nm and remains constant for over 24 h at room temperature. The linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.1–30 mg L−1 and 0.01–30 mg L−1 of gold(III) in aqueous and surfactant media, respectively. The interference from over 50 cations, anions and complexing agents has been studied at 1 mg L−1 of Au(III); most metal ions can be tolerated in considerable amounts in aqueous micellar solutions. The Sandell’s sensitivity, the limit of detection and relative standard deviation (n = 9) were found to be 5 ng cm−2, 1 ng mL−1 and 2%, respectively in aqueous micellar solutions. Its sensitivity and selectivity are remarkably higher than that of other reagents in the literature. The proposed method was successfully used in the determination of gold in several standard reference materials (alloys and steels), environmental water samples (potable and polluted), and biological samples (blood and urine), geological, soil and complex synthetic mixtures. The results obtained agree well with

  4. [Cleanliness Norms 1964-1975].

    PubMed

    Noelle-Neumann, E

    1976-01-01

    In 1964 the Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach made a first survey taking stock of norms concerning cleanliness in the Federal Republic of Germany. At that time, 78% of respondents thought that the vogue among young people of cultivating an unkempt look was past or on the wane (Table 1.). Today we know that this fashion was an indicator of more serious desires for change in many different areas like politics, sexual morality, education and that its high point was still to come. In the fall of 1975 a second survey, modelled on the one of 1964, was conducted. Again, it concentrated on norms, not on behavior. As expected, norms have changed over this period but not in a one-directional or simple manner. In general, people are much more large-minded about children's looks: neat, clean school-dress, properly combed hair, clean shoes, all this and also holding their things in order has become less important in 1975 (Table 2). To carry a clean handkerchief is becoming oldfashioned (Table 3). On the other hand, principles of bringing-up children have not loosened concerning personal hygiene - brushing ones teeth, washing hands, feet, and neck, clean fingernails (Table 4). On one item related to protection of the environment, namely throwing around waste paper, standards have even become more strict (Table 5). With regard to school-leavers, norms of personal hygiene have generally become more strict (Table 6). As living standards have gone up and the number of full bathrooms has risen from 42% to 75% of households, norms of personal hygiene have also increased: one warm bath a week seemed enough to 56% of adults in 1964, but to only 32% in 1975 (Table 7). Also standards for changing underwear have changed a lot: in 1964 only 12% of respondents said "every day", in 1975 48% said so (Table 8). Even more stringent norms are applied to young women (Tables 9/10). For comparison: 1964 there were automatic washing machines in 16%, 1975 in 79% of households. Answers to questions

  5. The false enforcement of unpopular norms.

    PubMed

    Willer, Robb; Kuwabara, Ko; Macy, Michael W

    2009-09-01

    Prevailing theory assumes that people enforce norms in order to pressure others to act in ways that they approve. Yet there are numerous examples of "unpopular norms" in which people compel each other to do things that they privately disapprove. While peer sanctioning suggests a ready explanation for why people conform to unpopular norms, it is harder to understand why they would enforce a norm they privately oppose. The authors argue that people enforce unpopular norms to show that they have complied out of genuine conviction and not because of social pressure. They use laboratory experiments to demonstrate this "false enforcement" in the context of a wine tasting and an academic text evaluation. Both studies find that participants who conformed to a norm due to social pressure then falsely enforced the norm by publicly criticizing a lone deviant. A third study shows that enforcement of a norm effectively signals the enforcer's genuine support for the norm. These results demonstrate the potential for a vicious cycle in which perceived pressures to conform to and falsely enforce an unpopular norm reinforce one another. PMID:20614762

  6. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  7. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  8. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mirro, G.A.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  9. The neural signature of social norm compliance.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Manfred; Fischbacher, Urs; Herrnberger, Bärbel; Grön, Georg; Fehr, Ernst

    2007-10-01

    All known human societies establish social order by punishing violators of social norms. However, little is known about how the brain processes the punishment threat associated with norm violations. We use fMRI to study the neural circuitry behind social norm compliance by comparing a treatment in which norm violations can be punished with a control treatment in which punishment is impossible. Individuals' increase in norm compliance when punishment is possible exhibits a strong positive correlation with activations in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, lateral orbitofrontal cortex activity is strongly correlated with Machiavellian personality characteristics. These findings indicate a neural network involved in social norm compliance that might constitute an important basis for human sociality. Different activations of this network reveal individual differences in the behavioral response to the punishment threat and might thus provide a deeper understanding of the neurobiological sources of pathologies such as antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17920024

  10. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  11. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  12. The Deanship and Its Faculty Interpreters: Do Mertonian Norms of Science Translate into Norms for Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents research comparing faculty-held norms for academic deans' behavior to Mertonian norms of science. Findings indicate that while some elements of Mertonian norms hold true, it is not the best pattern of grouping faculty expectations for deans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

  13. Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

  14. Social norms theory and concussion education.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R; Baugh, Christine M; Calzo, Jerel P

    2015-12-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To-date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed at increasing concussion reporting. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether perceived team concussion reporting norms would be less supportive of an individual's safe concussion symptom reporting behavior than objective team norms. Participants were 328 male and female US collegiate athletes. Written surveys were completed in person during the spring of 2014. Among both male and female athletes, team concussion reporting norms were significantly misperceived, with athletes tending to think that they themselves have safer attitudes about concussion reporting than their teammates. Perceived norms were associated with symptom reporting intention, independent of the team's objective reporting norm. A social norms approach to concussion education, in which misperceived group norms are corrected and shifted in the direction of safety, is an important avenue for program development and evaluation research aimed at the secondary prevention of harm from concussion. Implications for the design of this type of educational programming are discussed. PMID:26471918

  15. Revised and extended norms for a picture naming test sensitive to category dissociations.

    PubMed

    Laiacona, Marcella; Barbarotto, Riccardo; Baratelli, Elena; Capitani, Erminio

    2016-09-01

    This study presents revised and extended norms for a picture naming test [Laiacona et al. (Arch Neurol Psicol Psichiatr 54:209-248, 1993)], based on 80 Snodgrass and Vanderwart (J Exp Psychol Human Learn Mem 6:174-215, 1980) pictures, devised to detect a categorical dissociation in the naming of items between biological and man-made categories. This survey is based on data from 215 healthy Italian participants. Since males are more frequently reported to have a disproportionate impairment of biological categories, norms have also been separately calculated for males and females and for the two categories of man-made objects and biological entities. Besides providing new normative values based on the Equivalent Scores approach, this study reappraises the interaction between categorical dissociations and sex in the normal population, and discusses some methodological aspects concerning the use of statistical norms. PMID:27215621

  16. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  17. Disturbance energy norms: A critical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, K. Joseph; Sujith, R. I.

    2012-03-01

    The question of which norm should be used to characterize the fluctuating disturbance energy in studies on thermoacoustic instabilities remains a topic of continued debate. In this paper we formulate a strategy for developing mathematically consistent norms that do not support spurious growth of disturbance energy in the absence of 'physical' sources of energy. A critical analysis of various disturbance energy norms existing in literature is conducted and important conclusions regarding positive definitiveness and susceptibility to exhibiting unphysical growth are drawn. It is shown that the energy norm proposed by Cantrell and Hart [Interaction between sound and flow in acoustic cavities: mass, momentum and energy considerations, Journal of Acoustical Society of America 36 (1964) 697-706] and Myers' first order disturbance energy norm [Transport of energy by disturbances in arbitrary steady flow, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 226 (1991) 383-400] are positive definite if M0<1 and M0<1/√{γ}, respectively, where M0 is the magnitude of the local mean flow Mach number, γ is the ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and volume and the stipulated conditions should be met at every point in the flow domain. Our analysis shows that the disturbance energy norm proposed by Chu [On the energy transfer to small disturbances in fluid flow (part I), Acta Mechanica 1 (1965) 215-234] does not exhibit unphysical growth. It is also shown that this property is not unique to Chu's disturbance energy norm and there exists a family of norms which satisfy this requirement. The analysis also leads to an interesting interpretation of the acoustic energy conservation principle of Cantrell and Hart. The potential held by various disturbance energy norms for exhibiting fictitious growth is quantified using tools from nonmodal stability theory. It is concluded that if the mean flow Mach number is small, Myers' norm is a suitable measure of the disturbance energy.

  18. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  19. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C., III; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  20. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  1. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  2. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  3. "Be Nice": Wikipedia norms for supportive communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagle, Joseph M.

    2010-04-01

    Wikipedia is acknowledged to have been home to "some bitter disputes." Indeed, conflict at Wikipedia is said to be "as addictive as cocaine." Yet, such observations are not cynical commentary but motivation for a collection of social norms. These norms speak to the intentional stance and communicative behaviors Wikipedians should adopt when interacting with one another. In the following pages, I provide a survey of these norms on the English Wikipedia and argue that they can be characterized as supportive based on Jack Gibb's classic communication article "Defensive Communication."

  4. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  5. Developmental Norms for the Sentence Repetition Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, John A.; MacDonald, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Obtained developmental norms for the Sentence Repetition Test from children (N=1,081) ranging in age from three to 13 years. Utilized a substanially larger number of children in each age group than previous reports. (Author/LLL)

  6. NORM -- The new kid on the block

    SciTech Connect

    Estey, H.P.

    1991-12-31

    The existence of radioactive materials in accumulations of scale and sludge in oil and gas production equipment is a relatively new issue. This developing issue first gained international attention in 1981 when significant radiation levels were detected on oil and gas production platforms in the North Sea; it didn`t become a domestic issue until 1986 when a similar situation was detected in a Mississippi pipe yard. Most published papers on the occurrence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas production equipment have been based on studies of NORM-related activities in the United Kingdom (North Sea NORM). This paper addresses the occurrences and regulation of NORM in the US oil and gas production industry as experienced, witnessed and/or observed by the author over the past four years.

  7. Social norms for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Witte, Tricia H; Mulla, Mazheruddin M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students. Male and female college students were asked to estimate the prevalence of IPV for same-sex "typical students" on their campus. Perpetrators of IPV made higher estimates than nonperpetrators. Both perpetrators and nonperpetrators overestimated the prevalence of IPV when compared to actual prevalence rates. Findings lend support for using social-norms-based prevention programs on college campuses. PMID:24547674

  8. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  9. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; preparation procedure for aquatic biological material determined for trace metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the chemical preparation of tissue samples that are subsequently analyzed for 22 trace metals is described. The tissue-preparation procedure was tested with three National Institute of Standards and Technology biological standard reference materials and two National Water Quality Laboratory homogenized biological materials. A low-temperature (85 degrees Celsius) nitric acid digestion followed by the careful addition of hydrogen peroxide (30-percent solution) is used to decompose the biological material. The solutions are evaporated to incipient dryness, reconstituted with 5 percent nitric acid, and filtered. After filtration the solutions were diluted to a known volume and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS). Many of the metals were determined by both ICP-MS and ICP-AES. This report does not provide a detailed description of the instrumental procedures and conditions used with the three types of instrumentation for the quantitation of trace metals determined in this study. Statistical data regarding recovery, accuracy, and precision for individual trace metals determined in the biological material tested are summarized.

  10. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  11. Sex in an Evolutionary Perspective: Just Another Reaction Norm

    PubMed Central

    Nylin, Sören

    2010-01-01

    It is common to refer to all sorts of clear-cut differences between the sexes as something that is biologically almost inevitable. Although this does not reflect the status of evolutionary theory on sex determination and sexual dimorphism, it is probably a common view among evolutionary biologists as well, because of the impact of sexual selection theory. To get away from thinking about biological sex and traits associated with a particular sex as something static, it should be recognized that in an evolutionary perspective sex can be viewed as a reaction norm, with sex attributes being phenotypically plastic. Sex determination itself is fundamentally plastic, even when it is termed “genetic”. The phenotypic expression of traits that are statistically associated with a particular sex always has a plastic component. This plasticity allows for much more variation in the expression of traits according to sex and more overlap between the sexes than is typically acknowledged. Here we review the variation and frequency of evolutionary changes in sex, sex determination and sex roles and conclude that sex in an evolutionary time-frame is extremely variable. We draw on recent findings in sex determination mechanisms, empirical findings of morphology and behaviour as well as genetic and developmental models to explore the concept of sex as a reaction norm. From this point of view, sexual differences are not expected to generally fall into neat, discrete, pre-determined classes. It is important to acknowledge this variability in order to increase objectivity in evolutionary research. PMID:21170116

  12. How Professionalized Is College Teaching? Norms and the Ideal of Service. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.; Bayer, Alan E.

    This study examined the behavioral expectations and norms for college and university faculty particularly whether they varied with respect to the level of commitment to teaching at different institutions and in different disciplines. A cluster sampling design was used to select a random sample of the population of faculty in biology, history,…

  13. [Personal and social norms that determine children's waste reduction behavior].

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Kayo

    2011-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the environmentally conscious behavior of parents and caregivers acts as a social influence that produces environmentally conscious behavior in their children, and also has an effect on their children's cost-benefit evaluations and social norm evaluations. The present study examined the personal norms for producing continuous environmentally conscious behavior, and two social norms that form the personal norms, which are categorized as descriptive and subjective norms. The results of this study suggest that the subjective norm formed the personal norm. Furthermore, the parents' normative social influences affected the personal norm through the subjective norm, and the parents' behavior affected their children's environmentally conscious behavior through the descriptive norm. PMID:21919301

  14. Learning the Norm of Internality: NetNorm, a Connectionist Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Bollon; Adeline, Paignon; Pascal, Pansu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to show that connectionist simulations can be used to model some of the socio-cognitive processes underlying the learning of the norm of internality. For our simulations, we developed a connectionist model which we called NetNorm (based on Dual-Network formalism). This model is capable of simulating the…

  15. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  16. Geological rhythms and cometary impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Strothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Time series analysis reveals two dominant, long-term periodicities approximately equal to 32 and 260 million years in the known series of geological and biological upheavals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The cycles of these episodes agree in period and phase with the cycles of impact cratering on Earth, suggesting that periodic comet impacts strongly influence Earth processes.

  17. Review: geological and experimental evidence for secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca (calcite-aragonite seas) and its effects on marine biological calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.

    2010-09-01

    Synchronized transitions in the polymorph mineralogy of the major reef-building and sediment-producing calcareous marine organisms and abiotic CaCO3 precipitates (ooids, marine cements) throughout Phanerozoic time are believed to have been caused by tectonically induced variations in the Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (molar Mg/Ca>2="aragonite seas", <2="calcite seas"). Here, I assess the geological evidence in support of secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca and its effects on marine calcifiers, and review a series of recent experiments that investigate the effects of seawater Mg/Ca (1.0-5.2) on extant representatives of calcifying taxa that have experienced variations in this ionic ratio of seawater throughout the geologic past. Secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca is supported by synchronized secular variations in (1) the ionic composition of fluid inclusions in primary marine halite, (2) the mineralogies of late stage marine evaporites, abiogenic carbonates, and reef- and sediment-forming marine calcifiers, (3) the Mg/Ca ratios of fossil echinoderms, molluscs, rugose corals, and abiogenic carbonates, (4) global rates of tectonism that drive the exchange of Mg2+ and Ca2+ along zones of ocean crust production, and (5) additional proxies of seawater Mg/Ca including Sr/Mg ratios of abiogenic carbonates, Sr/Ca ratios of biogenic carbonates, and Br concentrations in marine halite. Laboratory experiments have revealed that aragonite-secreting bryopsidalean algae and scleractinian corals and calcite-secreting coccolithophores exhibit higher rates of calcification and growth in experimental seawaters formulated with seawater Mg/Ca ratios that favor their skeletal mineral. These results support the assertion that seawater Mg/Ca played an important role in determining which hypercalcifying marine organisms were the major reef-builders and sediment-producers throughout Earth history. The observation that primary production increased along with calcification within the bryopsidalean

  18. Male Scientists’ Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession

    PubMed Central

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E.; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-01-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms. PMID:25419040

  19. Male Scientists' Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession.

    PubMed

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-11-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms. PMID:25419040

  20. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam; Gygax, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality. PMID:26257681

  1. Mixed Norm Regularized Discrimination for Image Steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoming; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Dong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of image steganalysis is to detect the presence of hidden messages in cover images. Steganalysis can be considered as a pattern recognition process to decide which class a test image belongs to: the innocent photographic image or the stego-image. This paper presents a definition of mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm as an extension of L_{2,1} matrix norm. We incorporate discriminative mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm analysis to select the features which best preserve the data distribution, e.g., manifold structure, of the whole feature sets. Experiments on different data sets verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the selected features are more discriminate.

  2. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  3. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  4. Geology of the Apollo 17 site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlberger, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 landing site was unique in several aspects: (1) it was the only site that was not selected from telescopic-based geologic interpretation--interest in the site was generated by the visual observations of Al Worden, Apollo 15 Command Module pilot, who interpreted dark-haloed craters as possible cinder cones; (2) instead of 20-m-resolution photographs, as was the norm for all earlier missions, this site had Apollo 15 panoramic camera photography coverage that had 2-m resolution; and (3) it had a geologist-astronaut aboard who was intimately involved in all stages of planning and mission operation, and was also instrumental in the design of a long-handled sample bag holder that eliminated the need for crew to dismount before collecting a sample, which then permitted sampling between major stations. Details of site geology, sample description, and geologic synthesis of the site as viewed from studies through 1976 are summarized.

  5. Energizing and de-motivating effects of norm-conflict.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rachel I; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2013-01-01

    Norms have a pervasive influence on behavior, yet previous research has not addressed that people often face conflicting norms from multiple ingroups. The current research addresses this gap in the context of proenvironmental behavior and demonstrates two effects predicted by the novel theoretical position we offer: People can be de-motivated by norm-conflict, or conversely, norm-conflict can encourage people to take action. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that norm-conflict is associated with increased perceived effectiveness for those with positive attitudes to the issue and reduced perceived effectiveness for those with moderate attitudes, and effectiveness perceptions mediated an indirect effect on behavioral intentions. Study 3 found that perceived effectiveness also moderates the effects of norm-conflict such that norm-conflict only influences intentions when perceived effectiveness is high. Norm-conflict is both positively and negatively related to behavioral decision making, suggesting additional considerations in the design of social norms-based interventions. PMID:23100542

  6. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy. PMID:26074628

  7. Precise determination of δ88Sr in rocks, minerals, and waters by double-spike TIMS: A powerful tool in the study of chemical, geologic, hydrologic and biologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Premo, Wayne R.; Mel'nikov, Nikolay N.; Emsbo, Poul

    2014-01-01

    We present strontium isotopic (88Sr/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr) results obtained by 87Sr–84Sr double spike thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (DS-TIMS) for several standards as well as natural water samples and mineral samples of abiogenic and biogenic origin. The detailed data reduction algorithm and a user-friendly Sr-specific stand-alone computer program used for the spike calibration and the data reduction are also presented. Accuracy and precision of our δ88Sr measurements, calculated as permil (‰) deviations from the NIST SRM-987 standard, were evaluated by analyzing the NASS-6 seawater standard, which yielded δ88Sr = 0.378 ± 0.009‰. The first DS-TIMS data for the NIST SRM-607 potassium feldspar standard and for several US Geological Survey carbonate, phosphate, and silicate standards (EN-1, MAPS-4, MAPS-5, G-3, BCR-2, and BHVO-2) are also reported. Data obtained during this work for Sr-bearing solids and natural waters show a range of δ88Sr values of about 2.4‰, the widest observed so far in terrestrial materials. This range is easily resolvable analytically because the demonstrated external error (±SD, standard deviation) for measured δ88Sr values is typically ≤0.02‰. It is shown that the “true” 87Sr/86Sr value obtained by the DS-TIMS or any other external normalization method combines radiogenic and mass-dependent mass-fractionation effects, which cannot be separated. Therefore, the “true” 87Sr/86Sr and the δ87Sr parameter derived from it are not useful isotope tracers. Data presented in this paper for a wide range of naturally occurring sample types demonstrate the potential of the δ88Sr isotope tracer in combination with the traditional radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr tracer for studying a variety of biological, hydrological, and geological processes.

  8. Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) ‘The chemical basis of morphogenesis’

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Alan Turing was neither a biologist nor a chemist, and yet the paper he published in 1952, ‘The chemical basis of morphogenesis’, on the spontaneous formation of patterns in systems undergoing reaction and diffusion of their ingredients has had a substantial impact on both fields, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Motivated by the question of how a spherical embryo becomes a decidedly non-spherical organism such as a human being, Turing devised a mathematical model that explained how random fluctuations can drive the emergence of pattern and structure from initial uniformity. The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system far away from its equilibrium state occurs in many types of natural process, and in some artificial ones too. It is often driven by very general mechanisms, of which Turing's model supplies one of the most versatile. For that reason, these patterns show striking similarities in systems that seem superficially to share nothing in common, such as the stripes of sand ripples and of pigmentation on a zebra skin. New examples of ‘Turing patterns' in biology and beyond are still being discovered today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750229

  9. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province

    PubMed Central

    Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Hermida, Nuria; Amblas, David; Arrese, Beatriz; Martín-Sosa, Pablo; Acosta, Juan

    2016-01-01

    waves and cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the bank summit plateau are the youngest features contributing to its final shaping, and may be indicative of internal wave effects. Numerous submarine canyons generally less than 10 km in length are incised on the bank’s flanks. The most developed, hierarchized canyon system runs southwest of the bank, where it merges with other canyons coming from the southern bulges attached to some sections of the seamount flanks. These bulges are postulated as having an intrusive origin, as no major headwall landslide scars have been detected and their role as deposition areas for the submarine canyons seems to be minor. The results presented document how geological processes in the past and recent to subrecent oceanographic conditions and associated active processes determined the current physiography, morphology and sedimentary patterns of Concepcion Bank, including the development and decline of CWC mounds The setting of the seamount in the regional crustal structure is also discussed. PMID:27243626

  10. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jesus; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Hermida, Nuria; Amblas, David; Arrese, Beatriz; Martín-Sosa, Pablo; Acosta, Juan

    2016-01-01

    and cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the bank summit plateau are the youngest features contributing to its final shaping, and may be indicative of internal wave effects. Numerous submarine canyons generally less than 10 km in length are incised on the bank's flanks. The most developed, hierarchized canyon system runs southwest of the bank, where it merges with other canyons coming from the southern bulges attached to some sections of the seamount flanks. These bulges are postulated as having an intrusive origin, as no major headwall landslide scars have been detected and their role as deposition areas for the submarine canyons seems to be minor. The results presented document how geological processes in the past and recent to subrecent oceanographic conditions and associated active processes determined the current physiography, morphology and sedimentary patterns of Concepcion Bank, including the development and decline of CWC mounds The setting of the seamount in the regional crustal structure is also discussed. PMID:27243626

  11. Changing Conditions In The Yukon River Basin, Alaska: Biological, Geographical, And Hydrological Research Of The U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabets, T. P.; Frenzel, S. A.; Markon, C.; Degange, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    To address the need for understanding past, present, and future conditions in the northern latitudes, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Alaska Science Center conducts extensive research in the Yukon River Basin. The basin originates in Canada and spans Alaska from east to west encompassing diverse landscapes in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Within this large watershed, USGS research is focused on understanding the rapidly changing conditions in the land cover and fires, fish and wildlife populations, and the hydrologic cycle. Some of Alaska largest and most extensive fires occur in the Yukon River Basin. Research suggests that recent fire frequency outpaces the forest replenishment. To provide a more thorough assessment of current fires, and prediction of future fire threats, Landsat imagery with its 30-m spatial resolution and 30-year history allow for unprecedented analysis of historical and existing landscape cover, the effects of fire and climate change on lake drying, and updating of fire burn boundaries. Additionally, caribou have been shown to avoid burned areas for at least 60 years because forage lichens were eliminated and preferred forage may require over 100 years to reach pre-fire abundance. Glaciers in Alaska and in Canada feed the Tanana River, a major tributary to the Yukon River. Gulkana Glacier is one such glacier where the USGS has measured the mass balance continuously since 1966. There has been a cumulative mass loss of more than 15 meters water equivalent since 1966, with two-thirds of that loss occurring since 1990. Streamflow statistics from long-term gaging stations show a tendency for earlier ice break up in the spring and earlier snowmelt peak flows. Glacier-fed streams show higher summer flows as warmer temperatures increased glacier melt. To provide a better understanding of the factors that regulate salmon production, USGS has examined the characteristics of chum salmon spawning habitats and survival of juvenile salmon at two

  12. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  13. Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F.; Hays, Ron D.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J.; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J.; Gershon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. Methods: A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3–85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25–100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Results: Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. Conclusions: As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health. PMID:23479550

  14. Non-Euclidean-normed Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-03-01

    This analysis introduces a possible generalization of Statistical Mechanics within the framework of non-Euclidean metrics induced by the Lp norms. The internal energy is interpreted by the non-Euclidean Lp-normed expectation value of a given energy spectrum. The presented non-Euclidean adaptation of Statistical Mechanics involves finding the stationary probability distribution in the Canonical Ensemble by maximizing the Boltzmann-Gibbs and Tsallis entropy under the constraint of internal energy. The derived non-Euclidean Canonical probability distributions are respectively given by an exponential, and by a q-deformed exponential, of a power-law dependence on energy states. The case of the continuous energy spectrum is thoroughly examined. The Canonical probability distribution is analytically calculated for a power-law density of energy. The relevant non-Euclidean-normed kappa distribution is also derived. This analysis exposes the possible values of the q- or κ-indices, which are strictly limited to certain ranges, depending on the given Lp-norm. The equipartition of energy in each degree of freedom and the extensivity of the internal energy, are also shown. Surprisingly, the physical temperature coincides with the kinetically defined temperature, similar to the Euclidean case. Finally, the connection with thermodynamics arises through the well-known standard classical formalisms.

  15. Criterion vs. Norm-referenced Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimsleur, Paul

    1975-01-01

    A norm-referenced evaluation system, which evaluates the student in comparison to his peers, is rejected in favor of a criterion-referenced system. The latter, which rates the performance of a student on an absolute standard, makes for an individualized approach. Two kinds of tests are distinguished, the formative, administered during the course…

  16. Toleration and the Design of Norms.

    PubMed

    Floridi, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that can take full advantage of the socio-economic and political progress made so far, while dealing successfully with the new global challenges that are undermining the best legacy of that very progress. This is the topic of the article. In it, I argue that (i) in order to design the right kind of MAS, we need to design the right kind of norms that constitute them; (ii) in order to design the right kind of constitutive norms, we need to identify and adopt the right kind of principles of normative design; (iii) toleration is one of those principles; (iv) unfortunately, its role as a foundation for the design of norms has been undermined by the "paradox of toleration"; (v) however, the paradox can be solved; (vi) so toleration can be re-instated as the right kind of foundational principle for the design of the right kind of norms that can constitute the right kind of MAS that can operate across cultures, societies and states, to help us to tackle the new global challenges facing us. PMID:25287376

  17. Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robert S.

    Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

  18. Academic Dishonesty, Ethical Norms and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colnerud, Gunnel; Rosander, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to deduce which ethical norms and considerations are implicitly present in the students' answers when they are asked to define to what degree the presented actions in a questionnaire are acts of cheating. Data are analysed by factor analysis as well as qualitative analysis. The questions asked are: What characterises the items…

  19. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  20. Social Norms Theory and Concussion Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R.; Baugh, Christine M.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed…

  1. Linking social norms to efficient conservation investment in payments for ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaodong; Lupi, Frank; He, Guangming; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    An increasing amount of investment has been devoted to protecting and restoring ecosystem services worldwide. The efficiency of conservation investments, including payments for ecosystem services (PES), has been found to be affected by biological, political, economic, demographic, and social factors, but little is known about the effects of social norms at the neighborhood level. As a first attempt to quantify the effects of social norms, we studied the effects of a series of possible factors on people's intentions of maintaining forest on their Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) land plots if the program ends. GTGP is one of the world's largest PES programs and plays an important role in global conservation efforts. Our study was conducted in China's Wolong Nature Reserve, home to the world-famous endangered giant pandas and >4,500 farmers. We found that, in addition to conservation payment amounts and program duration, social norms at the neighborhood level had significant impacts on program re-enrollment, suggesting that social norms can be used to leverage participation to enhance the sustainability of conservation benefits from PES programs. Moreover, our results demonstrate that economic and demographic trends also have profound implications for sustainable conservation. Thus, social norms should be incorporated with economic and demographic trends for efficient conservation investments. PMID:19564610

  2. Normes linguistiques: Determination, description, contenu, utilite (Linguistic Norms: Determination, Description, Content, Usefulness)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Roger

    1977-01-01

    Discusses different approaches for determining second language proficiency norms to be set by employers for personnel, all involving varying degrees of emphasis on linguistic proficiency on the one hand, and communicative competence on the other. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  3. Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.

    PubMed

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing. PMID:21261135

  4. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  5. Norms Regulating Self-Disclosure Among Polish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlega, Valerian J.; Stepien, Ewa Gurnik

    1977-01-01

    In the first study reported most American norms governing reactions to self-disclosure to friends and strangers were replicated. In the second study American norms governing self-disclosure to males and females were not replicated. (Author/AM)

  6. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  7. The Norm Implementation Problem in Normative Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.

    The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choice between regimentation and enforcement, or the punishment associated with a norm violation. In this paper we discuss how various ways to implement norms in a multi-agent system can be distinguished in a formal game-theoretic framework. In particular, we show how different types of norm implementation can all be uniformly specified and verified as types of transformations of extensive games. We introduce the notion of retarded preconditions to implement norms, and we illustrate the framework and the various ways to implement norms in the blocks world environment.

  8. A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

    2000-01-01

    CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

  9. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  10. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  11. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  12. Content and Construct Validity of Norm-Referenced Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Yen, Wendy M.

    Basic skills tests in which measurement of growth is defined in the context of national norms are discussed. An integral part of the construction of norms is the production of a trait or ability score which is normed. Test publishers define a multidimensional trait by including items which measure it. The trait as a construct is a distinct…

  13. Norm-based measurement of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchun; Guo Guangcan

    2011-06-15

    In this paper we derived a necessary and sufficient condition for classical correlated states and proposed a norm-based measurement Q of quantum correlation. Using the max norm of operators, we gave the expression of the quantum correlation measurement Q and investigated the dynamics of Q in Markovian and non-Markovian cases, respectively. Q decays exponentially and vanishes only asymptotically in the Markovian case and causes periodical death and rebirth in the non-Markovian case. In the pure state, the quantum correlation Q is always larger than the entanglement, which was different from other known measurements. In addition, we showed that locally broadcastable and broadcastable are equivalent and reproved the density of quantum correlated states.

  14. SCHWARZ'S LEMMA IN NORMED LINEAR SPACES*

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lawrence A.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we show that any Fréchet holomorphic function mapping the open unit ball of one normed linear space into the closed unit ball of another must be a linear mapping if the Fréchet derivative of the function at zero is a surjective isometry. From this fact we deduce a Banach-Stone theorem for operator algebras which generalizes that of R. V. Kadison. PMID:16591741

  15. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jason M.; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L.; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C. Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:27065913

  16. Establishing a NORM based radiation calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J

    2016-05-01

    An environmental radiation calibration facility has been constructed by the Radiation and Nuclear Sciences unit of Queensland Health at the Forensic and Scientific Services Coopers Plains campus in Brisbane. This facility consists of five low density concrete pads, spiked with a NORM source, to simulate soil and effectively provide a number of semi-infinite uniformly distributed sources for improved energy response calibrations of radiation equipment used in NORM measurements. The pads have been sealed with an environmental epoxy compound to restrict radon loss and so enhance the quality of secular equilibrium achieved. Monte Carlo models (MCNP),used to establish suitable design parameters and identify appropriate geometric correction factors linking the air kerma measured above these calibration pads to that predicted for an infinite plane using adjusted ICRU53 data, are discussed. Use of these correction factors as well as adjustments for cosmic radiation and the impact of surrounding low levels of NORM in the soil, allows for good agreement between the radiation fields predicted and measured above the pads at both 0.15 m and 1 m. PMID:26921707

  17. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  18. Simultaneous geologic scenario identification and flow model calibration with group-sparsity formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golmohammadi, Azarang; Jafarpour, Behnam

    2016-06-01

    Adopting representative geologic connectivity scenarios is critical for reliable modeling and prediction of flow and transport processes in subsurface environments. Geologic scenarios are often developed by integrating several sources of information, including knowledge of the depositional environment, qualitative and quantitative data such as outcrop and well logs, and process-based geologic modeling. In general, flow and transport response data are usually not included in constructing geologic scenarios for a basin. Instead, these data are typically matched using a given prior geologic scenario as constraint. Since data limitations, modeling assumptions and subjective interpretations can lead to significant uncertainty in the adopted geologic scenarios, flow and transport data may also be useful for constraining the uncertainty in proposed geologic scenarios. Constraining geologic scenarios with flow-related data opens an interesting and challenging research area, which goes beyond the traditional model calibration formulations where the geologic scenario is assumed given. In this paper, a novel concept, known as group-sparsity regularization, is proposed as an effective formulation to constrain the uncertainty in the prior geologic scenario during subsurface flow model calibration. Given a collection of model realizations from several plausible geologic scenarios, the proposed method first applies the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) to compactly represent the models from each geologic scenario. The TSVD basis for representing each scenario forms a distinct group. The proposed approach searches over these groups (i.e., geologic scenarios) to eliminate inconsistent groups that are not supported by the observed flow/pressure data. The group-sparsity regularization minimizes a l1/l2mixed norm, where the l2-norm quantifies the contribution of each group and operates on the coefficients within the groups while the l1-norm, having a selection property, is

  19. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  20. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms

    PubMed Central

    Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

  1. Measuring student understanding of geological time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-09-01

    There have been few discoveries in geology more important than deep time - the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and evolutionary biology. Thus, any student that wants to master these subjects must have a good understanding of geological time. Despite its critical importance, there has been very little attention given to geological time by science education researchers. Of the work that has been done, much of it ignores the cognitive basis for students' understanding of geological time. This work addresses this gap by presenting a validation study for a new instrument - the GeoTAT (Geological Time Aptitude Test). Consisting of a series of open puzzles, the GeoTAT tested the subjects' ability to reconstruct and represent the transformation in time of a series of geological structures. Montagnero (1992, 1996) terms this ability diachronic thinking. This instrument was distributed to a population of 285 junior and senior high school students with no background in geology, as well as 58 high school students majoring in geology. A comparison of the high school (grades 11-12) geology and non-geology majors indicated that the former group held a significant advantage over the latter in solving problems involving diachronic thinking. This relationship was especially strengthened by the second year of geological study (grade 12), with the key factor in this improvement being exposure to fieldwork. Fieldwork both improved the subjects' ability in understanding the 3-D factors influencing temporal organization, as well as providing them with experience in learning about the types of evidence that are critical in reconstructing a transformational sequence.

  2. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. PMID:25387911

  3. Geology and biology of Oceanographer submarine canyon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Uzmann, J.R.; Cooper, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Santonian beds more than 100 m thick are the oldest rocks collected from the canyon. Quaternary silty clay veneers the canyon walls in many places and is commonly burrowed by benthic organisms that cause extensive erosion of the canyon walls, especially in the depth zone (100-1300 m) inhabited by the crabs Geryon and Cancer. Bioerosion is minimal on high, near-vertical cliffs of sedimentary rock, in areas of continual sediment movement, and where the sea floor is paved by gravel. A thin layer of rippled, unconsolidated silt and sand is commonly present on the canyon walls and in the axis. Shelf sediments are transported from Georges Bank over the E rim and in the Canyon by the SW drift and storm currents; tidal currents and internal waves move the sediment downcanyon along the walls and axis.- from Authors

  4. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms assessed from mark–recaptures of wild fish in their natural habitat

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Esben M; Serbezov, Dimitar; Vøllestad, Leif A

    2014-01-01

    Reaction norms are a valuable tool in evolutionary biology. Lately, the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach, describing probabilities of maturing at combinations of age and body size, has been much applied for testing whether phenotypic changes in exploited populations of fish are mainly plastic or involving an evolutionary component. However, due to typical field data limitations, with imperfect knowledge about individual life histories, this demographic method still needs to be assessed. Using 13 years of direct mark–recapture observations on individual growth and maturation in an intensively sampled population of brown trout (Salmo trutta), we show that the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach may perform well even if the assumption of equal survival of juvenile and maturing fish does not hold. Earlier studies have pointed out that growth effects may confound the interpretation of shifts in maturation reaction norms, because this method in its basic form deals with body size rather than growth. In our case, however, we found that juvenile body size, rather than annual growth, was more strongly associated with maturation. Viewed against earlier studies, our results also underscore the challenges of generalizing life-history patterns among species and populations. PMID:24967078

  5. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms assessed from mark-recaptures of wild fish in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Esben M; Serbezov, Dimitar; Vøllestad, Leif A

    2014-05-01

    Reaction norms are a valuable tool in evolutionary biology. Lately, the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach, describing probabilities of maturing at combinations of age and body size, has been much applied for testing whether phenotypic changes in exploited populations of fish are mainly plastic or involving an evolutionary component. However, due to typical field data limitations, with imperfect knowledge about individual life histories, this demographic method still needs to be assessed. Using 13 years of direct mark-recapture observations on individual growth and maturation in an intensively sampled population of brown trout (Salmo trutta), we show that the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach may perform well even if the assumption of equal survival of juvenile and maturing fish does not hold. Earlier studies have pointed out that growth effects may confound the interpretation of shifts in maturation reaction norms, because this method in its basic form deals with body size rather than growth. In our case, however, we found that juvenile body size, rather than annual growth, was more strongly associated with maturation. Viewed against earlier studies, our results also underscore the challenges of generalizing life-history patterns among species and populations. PMID:24967078

  6. CORPEX{reg_sign} NORM decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Azrak, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a commecial process which has been developed for application to the remediation of NORM deposits on metal parts or embedded in scales on such parts. The process employs a registered chemical process, involving non-RCRA regulated chemicals, which can remove fixed {sup 226,228}Radium, {sup 210}Lead, and {sup 210}Polonium. The author describes the capabilities of the chemical process which has been developed, the way it is offered to potential customers as a practical process, and numerous examples of its application in the field.

  7. Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2004-01-01

    The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

  8. Injunctive Social Norms Primacy over Descriptive Social Norms in Retirement Savings Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The…

  9. Time-Series Exploration and Biological, Geological, and Geochemical Characterization of the Rosebud and Calyfield Hydrothermal Vent Fields at 86°W and 89.5°W on the Galapagos Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.; Hammond, S.; Fornari, D.; Waller, R.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W.; Butterfield, D.; Lilley, M. D.; Perfit, M.

    2002-12-01

    In May-June 2002, the Galapagos Rift axis was explored during a NOAA Ocean Exploration Program expedition that investigated three sites along the Rift between 86°W and 89.5°W. Two major vent fields with markedly different community structures were discovered near 86° 13'W (Rosebud) and 89° 37'W (Calyfield) and were biologically, geologically and geochemically characterized. Alvin dives were initially conducted to extend the long-running biological and geochemical time-series at some of the earliest discovered vent sites (e.g., Rose Garden, 1979; Musselbed, 1977). Alvin dives to the Rose Garden (RG) area (86°W) revealed: 1) a notable absence of the 14 seafloor markers and ~7 stacks of Alvin dive weights that were observed during the last visit to RG in 1990; 2) relatively recent lava flows (as indicated by a 0.6 wt. percent increase in evolved N-MORB MgO in RG [1985] and Rosebud lava flows); and 3) relatively young (small/juvenile) species assemblages. Thus, the well-developed vent faunal communities documented 12 years earlier at RG were apparently buried by eruptive lava flows. Within 200 meters of RG, a new site, Rosebud (2470m), has emerged to support communities presently in the early stages of their development in fluids exhibiting the highest temperatures (23°C) and H2S concentrations (>0.55 mmol per L) observed on the Galapagos Rift. Photomosaics of the Rosebud vent field (70 x 50 m) reveal this site to consist of 4 major venting areas containing vestimentiferan tubeworms (majority less than 6cm in length), linear rows of bathymodiolid mussels (average ~1cm in length), and adjacent carpets of amphianthid anemones (ca. 50 per square meter). A single assemblage of larger mussels (>10cm) was observed on the margin of the field. Vesicomyid clams (ca. 10 individuals), all less than 3 cm, were observed along cracks in the central sheet flow. Based on extensive time-series analysis of biological community structure on the East Pacific Rise, the age of the

  10. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement. PMID:26825438

  11. Social-norms interventions for light and nondrinking students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Jensen, Megan; Tidwell, Judy; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lewis, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Social-norms approaches to alcohol prevention are based on consistent findings that most students overestimate the prevalence of drinking among their peers. Most interventions have been developed for heavy-drinking students, and the applicability of social-norms approaches among abstaining or light-drinking students has yet to be evaluated. The present research aimed to evaluate the impact of two types of online social-norms interventions developed for abstaining or light-drinking students. Identification with other students was evaluated as a moderator. Participants included 423 freshmen and sophomore college students who reported never or rarely drinking at screening. Students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) personalized-norms feedback, (b) social-norms marketing ads, or (c) attention control. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Results provided some support for both interventions but were stronger for social-norms marketing ads, particularly among participants who identified more closely with other students.

  12. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials. PMID:26122979

  13. Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.; Hales, Derek; Chung, Hyuk; Oh, Suhak; Wood, Heather M.

    2004-01-01

    A revised push-up test for college students was presented in 2002. The purpose of this study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test when it is used with college students. Revised push-up scores collected on 177 male and 274 female college students were used to develop percentile norms. The norms for the men have a different…

  14. Geology for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Describes environmental geology as including planning to avoid natural hazards, acquire natural resources, and use land wisely. Describes philosophy and strategies for developing interdisciplinary, environmental geology education at the high school, college, professional graduate, and doctoral research levels. (PR)

  15. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  16. Geologic spatial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  17. Using multiscale norms to quantify mixing and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2012-02-01

    Mixing is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, oceanography, atmospheric sciences and civil engineering. In all these situations one goal is to quantify and often then to improve the degree of homogenization of a substance being stirred, referred to as a passive scalar or tracer. A classical measure of mixing is the variance of the concentration of the scalar, which is the L2 norm of a mean-zero concentration field. Recently, other norms have been used to quantify mixing, in particular the mix-norm as well as negative Sobolev norms. These norms have the advantage that unlike variance they decay even in the absence of diffusion, and their decay corresponds to the flow being mixing in the sense of ergodic theory. General Sobolev norms weigh scalar gradients differently, and are known as multiscale norms for mixing. We review the applications of such norms to mixing and transport, and show how they can be used to optimize the stirring and mixing of a decaying passive scalar. We then review recent work on the less-studied case of a continuously replenished scalar field—the source-sink problem. In that case the flows that optimally reduce the norms are associated with transport rather than mixing: they push sources onto sinks, and vice versa.

  18. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jenčová, A.

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  19. The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

    2000-11-08

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

  20. Land Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1984-01-01

    The advancing technology of our civilization on Earth affects our environment on a local, regional and global scale. Local effects can feed into larger scale effects because of positive feedbacks in our system. The ability to understand, quantify and predict the large scale and long-term effects of technology is truly mind boggling. The understanding of these effects, which is paramount to the quality of life on Earth, will depend upon the ability to interact with scientists from the biological, atmospheric, oceanographic and geological sciences and develop a common communication system and unified objectives.

  1. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  2. Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Results Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Conclusion Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions. PMID:25180772

  3. Wavefield imaging using the energy norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Daniel Carvalho, Junior

    For various wavefield types, one can formulate a measurement of the mechanical energy that satisfies conservation laws. Based on this formulation, one can derive an energy norm that is applicable to wavefield imaging. Extending the concept of the norm to an inner product, one can compare two related wavefields. Therefore, an imaging condition can be defined as the inner product between the source and receiver wavefields at every spatial location. In this regard, the imaging condition based on the energy inner product accounts for wavefield directionality in space and time, overcoming some problems present in the conventional imaging condition. I exploit the wavefield directionality information from the energy imaging condition to attenuate unwanted events in reverse time migrated (RTM) images. For acoustic wavefields, these unwanted events are characterized by the collinearity of the source and receiver raypaths, and they are described as RTM backscattering artifacts. For elastic wavefields, these events are characterized by the fact that source and receiver displacement fields have the same polarization and wave propagation directions. In both acoustic and elastic cases, one can to attenuate these artifacts and produce high quality images. Another application that uses the wavefield directionality is to enhance the full waveform inversion (FWI) gradient for acoustic wavefields. By enhancing wave events that are collinear and suppressing all other wave events, I am able to compute gradients that are more suitable for the inversion process. Numerical experiments show the efficacy of these applications for synthetic models that emulate the complexity of subsurface structures found in exploration seismology, such as salt bodies, diffractors, dipping layers and faults.

  4. The early evolution of eukaryotes - A geological perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, Andrew H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the goodness of fit between patterns of biological and environmental history implied by molecular phylogenies of eukaryotic organisms and the geological records of early eukaryote evolution. It was found that Precambrian geological records show evidence that episodic increases in biological diversity roughly coincided with episodic environmental changes and by sharp increases in atmospheric oxygen concentrations which significantly changed the earth surface environments. Although the goodness of fit among physical and biological changes is gratifyingly high, the records of these changes do not always coincide in time. The additional information in these fields that is needed for complete integration of geological and phylogenic records is suggested.

  5. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  6. Building a drug ontology based on RxNorm and other sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We built the Drug Ontology (DrOn) because we required correct and consistent drug information in a format for use in semantic web applications, and no existing resource met this requirement or could be altered to meet it. One of the obstacles we faced when creating DrOn was the difficulty in reusing drug information from existing sources. The primary external source we have used at this stage in DrOn’s development is RxNorm, a standard drug terminology curated by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). To build DrOn, we (1) mined data from historical releases of RxNorm and (2) mapped many RxNorm entities to Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) classes, pulling relevant information from ChEBI while doing so. Results We built DrOn in a modular fashion to facilitate simpler extension and development of the ontology and to allow reasoning and construction to scale. Classes derived from each source are serialized in separate modules. For example, the classes in DrOn that are programmatically derived from RxNorm are stored in a separate module and subsumed by classes in a manually-curated, realist, upper-level module of DrOn with terms such as 'clinical drug role’, 'tablet’, 'capsule’, etc. Conclusions DrOn is a modular, extensible ontology of drug products, their ingredients, and their biological activity that avoids many of the fundamental flaws found in other, similar artifacts and meets the requirements of our comparative-effectiveness research use-case. PMID:24345026

  7. Parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Dhanesh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we define parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function and discuss their special cases and prove some properties similar to Kullback-Leibler information measure. From R-norm divergence measure new information measures have also been derived and their relations with different measures of entropy have been obtained and give its application in industrial engineering.

  8. The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; And Others

    This publication presents national norms for 237,777 college freshmen in fall 1994 based on the 29th annual survey of incoming students at 461 two-year and four-year colleges and universities. Three major tables present the norms for type of institutional control for all freshmen and by sex; for universities by selectivity level and by sex; and…

  9. Family Norms in a Rapidly Industrializing Society: Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, David; Chaney, David

    1974-01-01

    A sample of 1123 young people in Hong Kong responded to a number of statements concerning family norms. Data suggest that with regard to relationships between husband and wife, and parents and children, views are more consonant with the norms of the Western conjugal family than the traditional Chinese family. (Author)

  10. The Maturation of Norms for Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the communication norms of the major forms of computer-mediated communication, including electronic mail, mailing lists, Usenet and other bulletin board systems, interactive messaging, multiuser domains (MUDs), and mass-broadcast media. New uses and the development of standards, or norms, are discussed. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  11. Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

    2008-01-01

    Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

  12. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  13. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…

  14. Professional Development of PMRI Teachers for Introducing Social Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Dolk, Maarten; Zulkardi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports implementation results of designing a workshop for mathematics teachers in introducing classroom social norms. The participants are eight mathematics teachers in primary and junior secondary level. Teachers learned and did some activities about social norms during the workshop. First, they watched an example of learning videos…

  15. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  16. Norms and Varieties of English and TESOL Teacher Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Zhu, Lingyan; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The growing recognition of the plurality of English underlying the World Englishes (WE) paradigm has problematised the conventional second language acquisition (SLA) views of errors. If English use in emerging English-speaking contexts is to be judged by local norms, as argued by WE scholars, applying exocentric norms in these contexts can be…

  17. Time Lag and Communication in Changing Unpopular Norms

    PubMed Central

    Gërxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm. PMID:25880200

  18. CLEX: A Cross-Linguistic Lexical Norms Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Rune Norgaard; Dale, Philip S.; Bleses, Dorthe; Fenson, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words in production and comprehension and also early…

  19. Epistemological Norms and Companion Meanings in Science Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Ostman, Leif

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two central epistemological norms related to the importance of making investigations and to scientific language and its logic. These norms have been identified in empirical material consisting of 200 video-recorded lessons in three different science classes. With regard to the learning of science and socialization, we…

  20. Teaching the Sociocultural Norms of an Undergraduate Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Graeme; Denny, Heather; Watkins, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching second language learners the pragmatic norms of relevant communities of practice is widely recognised. Familiarisation with these norms is also an important aspect of socialisation for native speakers entering a new community of practice. This study focuses on pragmatic instruction of English as an additional language…

  1. The Quest for Quality--Towards Joint European Quality Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomeus, Yvonne, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following papers about considerations in developing joint European quality norms for vocational guidance: "Joint Quality Norms in Guidance"; "Careers Guidance in the Information Society" (Frans Meijers); "The Changing Nature of Guidance" (J. Chamberlain); "Quality with Policy: Beyond Calimero?" (Saskia den Broeder); "Ethical…

  2. Minnesota Test-Norms and Expectancy Tables. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joselyn, Edwin Gary, Comp.; Perry, Dallis K.

    The volume of test-norms and expectancy tables is intended as a tool for counselors in counseling individuals. The work contains a chapter on test interpretation to assist the counselor in relating individual test scores to other information about the individual. In the Minnesota Norms section of the tables, there are no data at the elementary…

  3. Utility of Inferential Norming with Smaller Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2011-01-01

    We examined the utility of inferential norming using small samples drawn from the larger "Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition" (WISC-IV) standardization data set. The quality of the norms was estimated with multiple indexes such as polynomial curve fit, percentage of cases receiving the same score, average absolute score…

  4. Linguistic Norms and Adult Roles in Play and Serious Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Janus Spindler; Jorgensen, Jens Normann

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the ways in which minority students in the Danish public school system bring mono-lingually based norms into their poly-lingual peer group interaction. In sequential micro-analyses of interaction we show how the students use the voice of an authority in their reproduction and negotiation of linguistic norms. We base our…

  5. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development. PMID:19851937

  6. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

  7. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  8. Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Conformity to the Norms of Science: Are Norms Compensatory Integrating Mechanisms for Professional Fragmentation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coopersmith, Georgia A.; Braxton, John M.

    The norms of science define appropriate and inappropriate scholarly or research role performance. The four norms described in this study are (1) universalism: research is assessed on its merit, not particularistic criteria; (2) commonality: research must be made public and shared with the research community; (3) disinterestedness: research is…

  9. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  10. Sverdrup's Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, J.

    2002-12-01

    Sverdrup's contribution to Biological Oceanography were more than merely substantial, they were of fundamental importance. His plan for the training of graduate students at Scripps did not recognize the traditional division of the basic disciplines into separate categories of physics, chemistry, biology and geology. He insisted that Oceanography was a multi-disciplinary subject and that all entering students should study all four subjects. Today this is not very unusual but it was in the early 50s when I took those courses. We biologists carried away from those courses an appreciation of the importance of both spatial and temporal scale. It was of clear relevance to problems of oceanic population and community biology. But there was still more to his biology. He is responsible for a very simple, but very elegant model of the regulation of oceanic primary productivity. The elements of this model are found today in the ten or so highly derivative models. He also published a map predicting global ocean productivity based on the ideas in the model plus some wonderfully intuitive thinking. This map does not differ strongly from those glorious false color ones being published today.

  11. Identifying Martian Hydrothermal Sites: Geological Investigation Utilizing Multiple Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Scott, D. H.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Comprehensive geological investigations of martian landscapes that may have been modified by magmatic-driven hydrothermal activity, utilizing multiple datasets, will yield prime target sites for future hydrological, mineralogical, and biological investigations.

  12. Hazard of NORM from phosphorite of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabiha-Javied; Tufail, M; Asghar, M

    2010-04-15

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in phosphorite deposits of Pakistan, 26 samples of phosphorite were collected from the phosphorite mines near Abbottabad, and 20 samples of single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer were obtained from the warehouses in Pakistan. Activity concentration in all the samples was assayed using HPGe detection system. Specific activity values of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in the samples of phosphorite were 550+/-156 (329-845), 206+/-72 (93-362), 511+/-189 (316-830) and 52+/-17 (23-81) Bq kg(-1), respectively; and those in SSP fertilizer due to these radionuclides were 637+/-44 (596-687), 164+/-24 (113-215), 589+/-44 (521-671) and 29+/-6 (16-45) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with that of worldwide soil. Outdoor external dose rate due to gamma rays from phosphorite was calculated to be 276+/-94 (177-441) nGy h(-1) and external dose rate in a room made of phosphorite containing material was estimated to be 706+/-243 (455-1129) nGy h(-1). The concentration of radon was measured in phosphorite mines and in the warehouses for SSP fertilizer by an active method. Protective measures have been proposed to control the pollution in the phosphorite mining and processing, and fertilizer storage areas. PMID:19963319

  13. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  14. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  15. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  16. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  17. [The new International Standardization Organization 9000 norms: 2000].

    PubMed

    Arnold, J

    1999-07-01

    The reviewing of ISO 9000 norms has been planned to be published within the last quarter of the year 2000. It aims at overcoming the limits and difficulties of use evidenced by the implementation of the 1994 ISO norms, and at providing an analysis aid for improving quality, which would be adapted to the needs of each company or user. What is at stake with these new norms is the implementation of a quality management system, and its evolution towards a total-quality management. PMID:10472689

  18. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  19. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  20. Women in Early Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Eleanor S.

    1982-01-01

    Biographical sketches are given for several women who made early contributions to the science of geology. A short biography of Inge Lehmann is also included as a more recent example of a woman who has made a notable contribution to the geological field. (Author)

  1. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  2. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  3. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  4. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  5. Geologic time scale bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  6. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  7. Analysis of Geological Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Neville J.; Cosgrove, John W.

    1990-08-01

    A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises mechanical principles and the way in which they can be used to understand how and why a wide range of geological structures develop. Structures on all scales are considered but the emphasis of the book is on those that can be seen on the scale of hand specimen or outcrop. Drawing on their considerable teaching experience the authors present a coherent and lucid analysis of geological structures which will be welcomed by a wide variety of earth scientists.

  8. An H-infinity norm minimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muse, Jonathan A.

    This dissertation seeks to merge the ideas from robust control theory such as Hinfinity control design and the Small Gain Theorem, L stability theory and Lyapunov stability from nonlinear control, and recent theoretical achievements in adaptive control. The fusion of frequency domain and linear time domain ideas allows the derivation of an H infinity Norm Minimization Approach (H infinity-NMA) for adaptive control architecture that permits a control designer to simplify the adaptive tuning process and tune the uncertainty compensation characteristics via linear control design techniques, band limit the adaptive control signal, efficiently handle redundant actuators, and handle unmatched uncertainty and matched uncertainty in a single design framework. The two stage design framework is similar to that used in robust control, but without sacrificing performance. The first stage of the design considers an ideal system with the system uncertainty completely known. For this system, a control law is designed using linear Hinfinity theory. Then in the second stage, an adaptive process is implemented that emulates the behavior of the ideal system. If the linear Hinfinity design is applied to control the emulated system, it then guarantees closed loop system stability of the actual system. All of this is accomplished while providing notions of transient performance bounds between the ideal system and the true system. Extensions to the theory include architectures for a class of output feedback systems, limiting the authority of an adaptive control system, and a method for improving the performance of an adaptive system with slow dynamics without any modification terms. Applications focus on using aerodynamic flow control for aircraft flight control and the Crew Launch Vehicle.

  9. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Social Norms, and Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Murphy, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010–3/2011. We used SEM to test models where protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and social norms were predictors of both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, after controlling for the effects of gender. Both PBS and descriptive norms had relationships with alcohol use. PBS also had a relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, the findings suggest that PBS and social norms have unique associations with distinct alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25419202

  10. Singular Spectrum Analysis Based on L1-Norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Mahdi; Yarmohammadi, Masoud; Hassani, Hossein

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the singular spectrum analysis (SSA) technique has been further developed and increasingly applied to solve many practical problems. The aim of this research is to introduce a new version of SSA based on L1-norm. The performance of the proposed approach is assessed by applying it to various real and simulated time series, especially with outliers. The results are compared with those obtained using the basic version of SSA which is based on the Frobenius norm or L2-norm. Different criteria are also examined including reconstruction errors and forecasting performances. The theoretical and empirical results confirm that SSA based on L1-norm can provide better reconstruction and forecasts in comparison to basic SSA when faced with time series which are polluted by outliers.

  11. Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images

    SciTech Connect

    Sandine, Gary; Morgan, Simon P; Vixie, Kevin R; Clawson, Keth; Asaki, Thomas J; Price, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

  12. Computer-Delivered Social Norm Message Increases Pain Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pulvers, Kim; Schroeder, Jacquelyn; Limas, Eleuterio F.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Few experimental studies have been conducted on social determinants of pain tolerance. Purpose This study tests a brief, computer-delivered social norm message for increasing pain tolerance. Methods Healthy young adults (N=260; 44 % Caucasian; 27 % Hispanic) were randomly assigned into a 2 (social norm)×2 (challenge) cold pressor study, stratified by gender. They received standard instructions or standard instructions plus a message that contained artifically elevated information about typical performance of others. Results Those receiving a social norm message displayed significantly higher pain tolerance, F(1, 255)=26.95, p<.001, ηp2=.10 and pain threshold F(1, 244)=9.81, p=.002, ηp2=.04, but comparable pain intensity, p>.05. There were no interactions between condition and gender on any outcome variables, p>.05. Conclusions Social norms can significantly increase pain tolerance, even with a brief verbal message delivered by a video. PMID:24146086

  13. Prosocial norms and degree heterogeneity in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovářík, Jaromír; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Cobo-Reyes, Ramón; Espinosa, María Paz; Jiménez, Natalia; Ponti, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    We provide empirical evidence to support the claims that social diversity promotes prosocial behavior. We elicit a real-life social network and its members' adherence to a social norm, namely inequity aversion. The data reveal a positive relationship between subjects' prosociality and several measures of centrality. This result is in line with the theoretical literature that relates the evolution of social norms to the structure of social interactions and argues that central individuals are crucial for the emergence of prosocial behavior.

  14. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens’ sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  15. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920

  16. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

  17. Geometry and dynamics of one-norm geometric quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of one-norm geometric quantum discord and present a geometric interpretation of one-norm geometric quantum discord for a class of two-qubit states. It is found that one-norm geometric quantum discord has geometric behavior different from that described in Lang and Caves (Phys Rev Lett 105:150501, 2010), Li et al. (Phys Rev A 83:022321, 2011) and Yao et al. (Phys Lett A 376:358-364, 2012). We also compare the dynamics of the one-norm geometric quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlations under correlated noise. It is shown that different decoherent channels bring different influences to quantum correlations measured by concurrence, entropic quantum discord and geometric quantum discord, which depend on the memory parameter and decoherence parameter. We lay emphasis on the behaviors such as entanglement sudden death and sudden transition of quantum discord. Finally, we study the dynamical behavior of one-norm geometric quantum discord in one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model by utilizing the quantum renormalization group method. It is shown that the one-norm geometric quantum discord demonstrates quantum phase transition through renormalization group approach.

  18. Civility norms, safety climate, and safety outcomes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Walsh, Benjamin M; Kath, Lisa M; Morrow, Stephanie L

    2014-10-01

    Working environments that are both civil and safe are good for business and employee well-being. Civility has been empirically linked to such important outcomes as organizational performance and individuals' positive work-related attitudes, yet research relating civility to safety is lacking. In this study, we link perceptions of civility norms to perceptions of safety climate and safety outcomes. Drawing on social exchange theory, we proposed and tested a model in 2 samples wherein civility norms indirectly relate to safety outcomes through associations with various safety climate facets. Our results supported direct relationships between civility and management safety climate and coworker safety climate. Additionally, indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors and injuries were observed. Indirect effects of civility norms on unsafe behaviors were observed through coworker safety climate and work-safety tension. Indirect effects of civility norms on injuries were observed through management safety climate and work-safety tension for full-time employees, although these effects did not hold for part-time employees. This study provides initial evidence that researchers and practitioners may want to look beyond safety climate to civility norms to more comprehensively understand the origins of unsafe behaviors and injuries and to develop appropriate preventive interventions. PMID:24933595

  19. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernando P.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection. PMID:26808261

  20. Improving ensemble forecasting with q-norm bred vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazo, Diego; Lopez, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-01

    Error breeding is a popular and simple method to generate initial perturbations for use in ensemble forecasting that is used for operational purposes in many weather/climate centres worldwide. There is a widespread belief among practitioners that the type of norm used in the periodic normalizations of BVs does not have an effect on the performance of ensemble forecasting systems. However, we have recently reported that BVs constructed with different norms have indeed very different dynamical and spatial properties. In particular, BVs constructed with the 0-norm or geometric norm has nice properties (e.g. enhancement of the ensemble diversity), which in principle render it more adequate to construct ensembles than other norm types like the Euclidean one. These advantages are clearly demonstrated here in a simple experiment of ensemble forecasting for the Lorenz-96 model with ensembles of BVs. Our simple numerical assimilation experiment shows how the increased statistical diversity of geometric BVs leads to improved scores regarding forecasting capabilities as compared with BVs constructed with the standard Euclidean norm.

  1. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  2. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  3. Catastrophism in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallam, A.

    An historical survey is presented of ideas relating to the concept of 'catastrophism' in geological studies during the last two centuries. It is noted in particular that the opposing concept of 'uniformitarianism', in which there is assumed to have been an overall constancy of geological processes through time so that there is no need to invoke catastrophic change, is now considered rather extreme. During the nineteen sixties and seventies, a neocatastrophist viewpoint has increasingly emerged in various branches of geology. Mass extinctions and their possible causes - bolide impact, climate, volcanism and sea-level change for example - are each considered in the context of this developing framework.

  4. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  5. An abbreviated tool for assessing feminine norm conformity: psychometric properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45.

    PubMed

    Parent, Mike C; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-12-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and validity of the CFNI-45 with data from 520 college women (55% White). Confirmatory factor analyses with data from this sample suggested acceptable fit for the posited 9-factor structure. Furthermore, analyses of measurement invariance indicated similar structural properties with members of socioculturally dominant (i.e., White) and nondominant (i.e., women of color) racial/ethnic status groups. Also, subscales of the CFNI-45 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability coefficients, and correlations with convergent and discriminant validity indicators supported the validity of subscales scores. Overall, results offered support for the CFNI-45 as a multidimensional measure of women's conformity to feminine norms. The CFNI-45 can be used in research to facilitate evaluation of the theorized roles of conformity to feminine norms in women's mental health, vocational behavior, interpersonal relationships, and other domains. The CFNI-45 can be used in clinical practice to assess and attend to clients' conformity to feminine norms as is called for in the American Psychological Association's (2007) Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women. PMID:21707186

  6. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  7. Reconstructing the Geologic Timeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemler, Deb; Repine, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the use of a non-traditional approach to constructing a geological timeline that allows students to manipulate data, explore their understanding, and confront misconceptions. Lists possible steps to use in engaging students in this constructivist activity. (DDR)

  8. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  9. Geological science needs studied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geological Sciences Board of the National Academy of Science is conducting a study of the trends, needs, and priorities of the geological sciences for the 1980s. Many organizations and individuals already have been contacted regarding this task; however, in order to ensure that the forthcoming report is based broadly on ideas from the scientific community, the Geological Sciences Board solicits the thoughts of AGU members about the substance of the study. Please send your questions and comments by early this fall to William Dickinson, chairman of the Geological Sciences Board, National Academy of Sciences, Room 69, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. A draft report is expected in January 1983.

  10. Advances in planetary geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.