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1

Geochemistry of wall rock alteration at the Golden Cross deposit, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden Cross is a volcanic-hosted, low-sulfidation, epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Hauraki Goldfield. Irrespective of the rock type (andesite versus dacite), hydrothermally altered wall rocks are enriched in K, Rb, As and Sb around Au-Ag mineralised veins of the Empire Vein System and stockwork. Sodium and Sr are strongly depleted around these veins, whereas Mg and Fe are locally depleted.

MP Simpson; JL Mauk

2

Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640 °C) and low-temperature (375 °C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl 3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375 °C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640 °C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375 °C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides (magnetite), sulfates (anhydrite) and halides (halite). The cooling calculations produce: (a) anhydrite, halite, sylvite; (b) Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn sulfides; (c) Mg fluoride at high temperature (> 370 °C); (d) chlorides, fluorides and sulfates of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Al at intermediate temperature (170-370 °C); and (e) hydrated sulfates, liquid sulfur, crystalline sulfur, hydrated sulfuric acid and water at low temperature

Getahun, Aberra; Reed, Mark H.; Symonds, Robert

1996-05-01

3

Comparison of metasomatic reactions between a common CO2-rich vein fluid and diverse wall rocks: intensive variables, mass transfers, and Au mineralization at Alleghany, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The gold deposits at Alleghany, California, are typical of many epigenetic gold-bearing hydrothermal vein systems in metamorphic terranes worldwide. Detailed analyses of alteration halos in serpentinite, mafic amphibolite, and granite wall rocks at Alleghany indicate that widely contrasting deposit types, ranging from fuchsite-carbonate schists to pyrite-albitites, resulted when different wall rocks interacted with the same externally derived CO2-rich hydrothermal vein fluid. Patterns of element redistribution within halos and among lithologic units suggest a complex process involving fluid flow along vein fractures and diffusion (?? infiltration) normal to the veins. Wall rocks locally controlled both the directions and magnitudes of chemical fluxes across vein walls. -from Author

Böhlke, J.K.

1989-01-01

4

Aqueous alteration of VHTR fuels particles under simulated geological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) fuels consist of the bistructural-isotropic (BISO) or tristructural-isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles embedded in a graphite matrix. Management of the spent fuel generated during VHTR operation would most likely be through deep geological disposal. In this framework we investigated the alteration of BISO (with pyrolytic carbon) and TRISO (with SiC) particles under geological conditions simulated by temperatures of 50 and 90 °C and in the presence of synthetic groundwater. Solid state (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) and solution analyses (ICP-MS, ionique chromatography (IC)) showed oxidation of both pyrolytic carbon and SiC at 90 °C. Under air this led to the formation of SiO2 and a clay-like Mg-silicate, while under reducing conditions (H2/N2 atmosphere) SiC and pyrolytic carbon were highly stable after a few months of alteration. At 50 °C, in the presence and absence of air, the alteration of the coatings was minor. In conclusion, due to their high stability in reducing conditions, HTR fuel disposal in reducing deep geological environments may constitute a viable solution for their long-term management.

Ait Chaou, Abdelouahed; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Karakurt, Gökhan; Grambow, Bernd

2014-05-01

5

A mechanism for high wall-rock velocities in rockbursts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Considerable evidence has been reported for wall-rock velocities during rockbursts in deep gold mines that are substantially greater than ground velocities associated with the primary seismic events. Whereas varied evidence suggests that slip across a fault at the source of an event generates nearby particle velocities of, at most, several m/s, numerous observations, in nearby damaged tunnels, for instance, imply wall-rock velocities of the order of 10 m/s and greater. The common observation of slab buckling or breakouts in the sidewalls of damaged excavations suggests that slab flexure may be the mechanism for causing high rock ejection velocities. Following its formation, a sidewall slab buckles, causing the flexure to increase until the stress generated by flexure reaches the limit 5 that can be supported by the sidewall rock. I assume here that S is the uniaxial compressive strength. Once the flexural stress exceeds S, presumably due to the additional load imposed by a nearby seismic event, the slab fractures and unflexes violently. The peak wall-rock velocity v thereby generated is given by v=(3 + 1-??2/2)1 2 S/?????E for rock of density ??, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ??. Typical values of these rock properties for the deep gold mines of South Africa yield v= 26 m/s and for especially strong quartzites encountered in these same mines, v> 50m/s. Even though this slab buckling process leads to remarkably high ejection velocities and violent damage in excavations, the energy released during this failure is only a tiny fraction of that released in the primary seismic event, typically of magnitude 2 or greater.

McGarr, A.

1997-01-01

6

Open-system Behavior during Pluton^Wall-rock Interaction as Constrained from a Study of  

E-print Network

Open-system Behavior during Pluton^Wall-rock Interaction as Constrained from a Study of Endoskarns of a pluton that chemically reacted with carbonate country-rock. Mass transfer between the carbonate country-rock; endoskarn; pluton; assimilation; carbonate; diopside I N T RODUC T ION Assimilation of wall-rock can

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

7

Constraints on magma-wall rock thermal interaction during explosive eruptions from textural analysis of cored bombs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cored bombs, a kind of pyroclast consisting of a lithic core surrounded by a chilled shell of juvenile material, record the thermal interaction of magma with wall rocks. We performed textural analysis of cored bombs, solid-melt heat-transfer theoretical modelling, and high-temperature coating experiments to put temporal and intensity constraints on the thermal interaction of potassic magma feeder systems with carbonate wall rocks during explosive eruptions in the Quaternary, Colli Albani Volcanic District (Roman Province). It appears that the degree of thermal alteration of lithic cores records the duration of magma-core heat transfer, whereas the core/shell size ratio records the initial entrainment temperature of the lithic fragment. Both parameters appear to vary significantly with the eruptive style, magnitude and vent location. Specifically, small-scale (~ 0.1-1 km 3 DRE) hydromagmatic eruptions show magma-core heat-transfer durations of 0.1-10 s and entrainment temperatures in the range of 100-300 °C in the case of a monogenetic maar located in the Colli Albani peripheral area, while entrainment temperature is as high as to 800 °C for a polygenetic maar in a high-enthalpy geothermal system at the margins of the main Colli Albani magma chamber. A large-scale (~ 30 km 3 DRE) caldera-forming explosive event shows magma-core heat-transfer duration in the order of 10 2-10 3 s and temperature of 100-500 °C at the initial magma-wall rock contact. On these grounds, we derived the cooling rate of magmas as a function of the initial temperature, mass and size distribution of lithic clasts entrained. Magma cooling by lithic entrainment may have occurred on the same time-scale as that of eruptive pulses (seconds to hours), implying that lithic entrainment may effect changes in magma physico-chemical properties on a short time-scale and, consequently, affect eruptive conduit dynamics.

Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Palladino, D. M.

2010-04-01

8

Natural geological responses to anthropogenic alterations of the naples bay estuarine system  

E-print Network

NATURAL GEOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO ANTHROPOGENIC ALTERATIONS OF THE NAPLES BAY ESTUARINE SYSTEM A Thesis by BRYAN ROBERT FIELDER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2008 Major Subject: Oceanography NATURAL GEOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO ANTHROPOGENIC ALTERATIONS OF THE NAPLES BAY ESTUARINE SYSTEM A Thesis by BRYAN ROBERT FIELDER Submitted...

Fielder, Bryan Robert

2009-05-15

9

Geology, alteration, age, and origin of iron oxide-apatite deposits in Upper Eocene quartz monzonite, Zanjan district, NW Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxide-apatite deposits are present in Upper Eocene pyroxene-quartz monzonitic rocks of the Zanjan district, northwestern Iran. Mineralization occurred in five stages: (1) deposition of disseminated magnetite and apatite in the host rock; (2) mineralization of massive and banded magnetite ores in veins and stockwork associated with minor brecciation and calcic alteration of host rocks; (3) deposition of sulfide ores together with potassic alteration; (4) formation of quartz and carbonate veins and sericite, chlorite, epidote, silica, carbonate, and tourmaline alteration; and (5) supergene alteration and weathering. U-Pb dating of monazite inclusions in the apatite indicates an age of 39.99 ± 0.24 Ma, which is nearly coeval with the time of emplacement of the host quartz monzonite, supporting the genetic connection. Fluid inclusions in the apatite have homogenization temperatures of about 300 °C and oxygen isotopic compositions of the magnetite support precipitation from magmatic fluids. Late-stage quartz resulted from the introduction of a cooler, less saline, and isotopically depleted fluid. The iron oxide-apatite deposits in the Tarom area of the Zanjan district are typical of a magmatic-hydrothermal origin and are similar to the Kiruna-type deposits with respect to mineral assemblages, fabric and structure of the iron ores, occurrence of the ore bodies, and wall rock alteration.

Nabatian, Ghasem; Ghaderi, Majid; Corfu, Fernando; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Prokofiev, Vsevolod; Honarmand, Maryam

2014-02-01

10

Global geologic context for rock types and surface alteration on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Petrologic interpretations of thermal emission spectra from Mars orbiting spacecraft indicate the widespread occurrence of surfaces having basaltic and either andesitic or partly altered basalt compositions. Global concentration of ice-rich mantle deposits and near-surface ice at middle to high latitudes and their spatial correlation with andesitic or partly altered basalt materials favor the alteration hypothesis. We propose the formation of these units through limited chemical weathering from basalt interactions with icy mantles deposited during periods of high obliquity. Alteration of sediments in the northern lowlands depocenter may have been enhanced by temporary standing bodies of water and ice. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

Wyatt, M.B.; McSween, H.Y., Jr.; Tanaka, K.L.; Head, J. W., III

2004-01-01

11

Large-Scale In-situ Experiments to Determine Geochemical Alterations and Microbial Activities at the Geological Repository  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The countries that have generated nuclear power have facing problems on the disposal of accumulated radioactive wastes. Geological disposal method has been chosen in many countries including Korea. A safety issue after the closure of geological repository has been raised, because microbial activities lead overpressure in the underground facilities through gas production. In particular, biodegradable organic materials derived from low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes play important role on microbial activities in the geological repository. This study performed large scale in-situ experiments using organic wastes and groundwater, and investigated geochemical alteration and microbial activities at early stage (~63 days) as representative of the period, after closure of the geological repository. The geochemical alteration controlled significantly the microorganism types and populations. Database of the biogeochemical alteration facilitates prediction of radionuclides' mobility and establishment of remedial strategy against unpredictable accidents and hazards at early stage right after closure of the geological repository.

Choung, S.; Francis, A. J.; Um, W.; Choi, S.; Kim, S.; Park, J.; Kim, S.

2013-12-01

12

The Geology, Geochemistry and Alteration of the Westwood Au-Zn-Cu Deposit, Abitibi Subprovince, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Westwood Au-Zn-Cu deposit, one of the latest major discoveries made in the Abitibi Subprovince, is hosted by the Bousquet Formation of the Archean Blake River Group, Abitibi Subprovince. The Bousquet Formation forms a south-facing, steeply dipping homoclinal volcanic sequence. Three mineralized corridors from the north to the south have been defined to date: 1) the Zone 2 Extension Corridor, 2) the North Corridor, and 3) the Westwood-Warrenmac Corridor. The Zone 2 Extension consists of auriferous quartz and sulphide veins. The North Corridor mineralization consists of various amounts of auriferous disseminated pyrite and sulphide veins. The Westwood-Warrenmac Corridor comprises semi-massive to massive sulphide lenses on a specific stratigraphic horizon. The Westwood deposit is interpreted, on a preliminary basis, to represent the transition between syngenetic vein systems (Zone 2 Extension) and subseafloor (North Corridor) and seafloor volcanogenic massive sulphide-style gold-rich mineralization (Westwood-Warrenmac). Careful inspection of drill core cross-cutting the mineralized sequence, and detailed geochemical analysis show that deposit-scale geology is dominated by coherent to volcaniclastic mafic to intermediate and tholeiitic to transitional flows towards the north (Bousquet Formation lower member), and by coherent and volcaniclastic intermediate to felsic, and transitional to calc-alkaline flows in the southern portion (Bousquet Formation upper member). The Zone 2 Extension ore zones occur in the lower Bousquet Formation and are hosted by mafic to intermediate units. The North Corridor ore zones are hosted by basalt and andesite. The Westwood-Warrenmac ore zone occurs most often in rhyodacitic to rhyolitic rocks of the upper Bousquet Formation. Depletion in Na, Ca, Mg, and Mn occur approaching peak metal and gold concentration, whereas enrichment in Fe is observed. This correlates to the increased concentration of sulphide minerals associated with the ore zones. There is relatively little change in Si, although an apparent enrichment may be present in some intervals. These major element trends reflect the abundances of alteration minerals such as garnet, biotite, chlorite, and sericite. The Westwood study contributes to better geological and geochemical exploration models for gold-rich VMS systems in Archean greenstone belts.

Wright-Holfeld, A.; Mercier-Langevin, P.; Dubé, B.

2009-05-01

13

Non-Darcian two-phase flow in a transparent replica of a rough-walled rock fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents experimental results for single- and two-phase flows at high flow rates through a replica of an actual rough-walled rock fracture. The results of the single-phase flow are interpreted using non-Darcian laws: the weak inertia cubic law, Forchheimer's law, and the full cubic law. They allow the determination of the fracture's intrinsic properties (absolute permeability and inertial coefficient).

Ali Nowamooz; Giovanni Radilla; Mostafa Fourar

2009-01-01

14

Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the many different kinds of geological exploration. The elements that make up minerals and the different ways minerals are developed, The special characteristics of minerals, like physical properties, is explained. Earths tectonic plates, the reasons they move, and the effects of the shifting are also given. Also featured is fossils and how they are developed and are found, as well as why fossils are useful tools for scientists.

Bergman, Jennifer

2009-08-03

15

The fossil hydrothermal system of Saint Martin, Lesser Antilles: geology and lateral distribution of alterations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fossil geothermal system of Saint Martin, Lesser Antilles, was generated by an intrusion of quartz-diorite of Oligocene age into Eocene volcano-sedimentary host rocks. Adjacent to the pluton, the alteration pattern crops out continuously in the Fort Hill-Kool Bay area over a distance of 4 km. The lithology of the altered host rocks is the following: (1) alternating marls, limestones and minor hyaloclastite (Lower Eocene); (2) hyaloclastite and andesitic lava flows (Middle Eocene); (3) regularly bedded fine-grained hyaloclastite (Upper Eocene). On the basis of alteration petrography, chemistry and fluid-inclusion study, three alteration events have been distinguished: (1) High-temperature event (510 > T > 350°C) accompanied by fluids with salinity higher than 35 wt.% NaCl-eq), mainly represented by tourmaline, quartz, magnetite, orthoclase, apatite and sulfide veins, occurring at the periphery of the pluton and along distal regional faults. (2) Moderate temperature event occurring as veins and pervasive alteration. Veins containing quartz, phengite, pyrite and minor dickite or chlorite ( T = 300°C, very low salinity) are superimposed on the early high-temperature veins. Pervasive alteration affected large concentric zones: the inner zone (3 km width) shows an assemblage of epidote, quartz, actinolite ± magnetite at the periphery of the pluton and epidote, quartz and chlorite farther away. The outer zone (1 km width) shows calcite and mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) with ordering type R3 and chlorite/smectite (C/S). Fluid inclusions indicate that salinity and temperature decrease outward from the intrusion during the moderate-temperature pervasive alteration event (respectively from 320 to 140°C and from 30 to 5 wt.% NaCl-eq). (3) Low-temperature event ( T < 50°C) showing calcite, mixed-layer I/S (RO), chalcedonite or baryte in late disseminated veins. This lateral distribution of alteration is very similar to alteration zoning observed in porphyry ore environment or in active deep geothermal systems as Baca (Valles caldera). It shows contrast between zones of fracture permeability which controlled active flow in the system and large zones where pervasive alteration occurred in an inactive flow regime and can be included with metamorphic process. Phyllic alteration seems a good indicator of the active flow paths in the system of Saint Martin. The alteration pattern in Saint Martin is considered to represent the roots of a deep geothermal system (porphyry ore system?) of Oligocene age, actually eroded.

Beaufort, D.; Westercamp, D.; Legendre, O.; Meunier, A.

1990-04-01

16

Geology, geochemistry and exploration implications of hydrothermal alteration associated with epithermal Au-Ag deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution summarises new knowledge and data, obtained during a three year ARC- AMIRA funded research project, on the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal alteration associated with low sulfidation, gold-silver epithermal deposits. These data are used to develop exploration vectors for use at both deposit and district scales, plus techniques have been established to distinguish ore grade epithermal systems

J. B. Gemmell

17

Forceful emplacement of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek composite pluton into a structural basin in eastern California; internal structure and wall rock deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility parameters have been analyzed at 311 locations in the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton of eastern California. The large amount of data has allowed for the AMS parameters to be contoured using techniques that both reveal map-scale trends and emphasize small-scale differences. The contour maps suggest that magnetic susceptibility is dominantly controlled by composition of the magma but may also be affected by emplacement-related strain as the magma chamber inflated and forced the wall rocks outward. Pluton construction involved two major pulses of different composition magmas that were emplaced sequentially but with overlapping periods of crystallization. The magmas initially intruded as sill-like bodies into a structural basin. The magnetic foliation of the pluton cuts across internal magmatic contacts on the map scale and is parallel to local contacts between the pluton and surrounding metasedimentary wall rocks. The magnetic fabric is similar in orientation and symmetry to intense flattening strains recorded in the aureole rocks. The metasedimentary wall rocks have been shortened between 60 and 70% and this strain magnitude is approximately equal on the west, south, and east margins of the pluton. Strain in the wall rocks is dominantly flattening and concentrated into a narrow (1 km wide) inner aureole. Mapping of bedding/cleavage intersection lineations south of the pluton indicates that the magma made room for itself by translating the wall rocks outward and rotating the already inward dipping wall rocks of the structural basin to sub-vertical. Stretching of the inner aureole around an expanding magma chamber was responsible for the intense shortening. Limited data on the Marble Canyon pluton to the south of the EJB pluton indicates a very similar emplacement process.

Morgan, Sven; Law, Richard; de Saint Blanquat, Michel

2013-11-01

18

Pore-space alteration induced by brine acidification in subsurface geologic formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Lagrangian particle-based method is presented to simulate reactive transport in natural porous media. This technique is based on Modified Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MMPS) and takes as input high-resolution voxel images of natural porous media. The flow field in the medium is computed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Moreover, a multicomponent ion transport model is coupled with a homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions module to handle pore-space alteration (i.e., pore-wall dissolution). The model is first successfully validated against the experimental data available in the literature. Subsequently, X-ray microtomographic images of two naturally occurring porous media are used to investigate the impact of reaction kinetics and pore-space topology on pore-space alteration induced by brine acidification in subsurface conditions. We observed that at the normal rates of reactions no significant change in porosity and permeability takes place in the short term. Whereas, higher reaction rates caused major changes in the macroscopic properties (e.g., porosity and permeability) of the rocks. We also show that these changes are strongly affected by the rocks' pore-scale topologies.

Ovaysi, Saeed; Piri, Mohammad

2014-01-01

19

Two-phase flow visualization and relative permeability measurement in transparent replicas of rough-walled rock fractures  

SciTech Connect

Understanding and quantifying multi-phase flow in fractures is important for mathematical and numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, and petroleum reservoirs. While the cubic law for single-phase flow has been well established for parallel-plate fractures theoretically and experimentally, no reliable measurements of multi-phase flow in fractures have been reported. This work reports the design and fabrication of an apparatus for visualization of two-phase flow and for measurement of gas-liquid relative permeability in realistic rough-walled rock fractures. A transparent replica of a natural rock fracture from a core specimen is fabricated by molding and casting in clear epoxy. Simultaneous flow of gas and liquid with control of capillary pressure at inlet and outlet is achieved with the Hassler sandwich'' design: liquid is injected to the fracture through a porous block, while gas is injected directly to the edge of the fracture through channels in the porous block. A similar arrangement maintains capillary separation of the two phases at the outlet. Pressure drops in each phase across the fracture, and capillary pressures at the inlet and outlet, are controlled by means of pumps and needle valves, and are measured by differential and absolute pressure transducers. The clear epoxy cast of the natural fracture preserves the geometry of the fracture and permits visual observation of phase distributions. The fracture aperture distribution can be estimated by filling the fracture with a dyed liquid, and making pointwise measurements of the intensity of transmitted light.

Persoff, P.; Pruess, K.; Myer, L.

1991-01-01

20

GEOLOGY IN THE VICINITY OF THE HODGES COMPLEX AND THE TYLER LAKE GRANITE, WEST TORRINGTON, CONNECTICUT  

E-print Network

Paleozoic Waramaug and Hartland wall rocks. REGIONAL SETTING The crystalline terrane of western Connecticut tectonostratigraphic terranes compose the geologic framework of western Connecticut (Fig. 2). Cameron's Line delimits and overlying shelf deposits. Included in the western terrane are metamorphosed Cambrian to Ordovician

Merguerian, Charles

21

The Magma Chamber Simulator: Modeling the Impact of Wall Rock Composition on Mafic Magmas during Assimilation-Fractional Crystallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although stoichiometric titration is often used to model the process of concurrent Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization (AFC) within a compositionally evolving magma body, a more complete treatment of the problem involves simultaneous and self-consistent determination of stable phase relationships and separately evolving temperatures of both Magma (M) and Wall Rock (WR) that interact as a composite M-WR system. Here we present results of M-WR systems undergoing AFC forward modeled with the Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS), which uses the phase modeling capabilities of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack 1995) as the thermodynamic basis. Simulations begin with one of a variety of mafic magmas (e.g. HAB, MORB, AOB) intruding a set mass of Wall Rock (e.g. lherzolite, gabbro, diorite, granite, metapelite), and heat is exchanged as the M-WR system proceeds towards thermal equilibrium. Depending on initial conditions, the early part of the evolution can involve closed system FC while the WR heats up. The WR behaves as a closed system until it is heated beyond the solidus to critical limit for melt fraction extraction (fc), ranging between 0.08 and 0.12 depending on WR characteristics including composition and, rheology and stress field. Once fc is exceeded, a portion of the anatectic liquid is assimilated into the Magma. The MCS simultaneously calculates mass and composition of the mineral assemblage (Magma cumulates and WR residue) and melt (anatectic and Magma) at each T along the equilibration trajectory. Sensible and latent heat lost or gained plus mass gained by the Magma are accounted for by the MCS via governing Energy Constrained- Recharge Assimilation Fractional Crystallization (EC-RAFC) equations. In a comparison of two representative MCS results, consider a granitic WR intruded by HAB melt (51 wt. % SiO2) at liquidus T in shallow crust (0.1 GPa) with a WR/M ratio of 1.25, fc of 0.1 and a QFM oxygen buffer. In the first example, the WR begins at a temperature of 100oC while in the second example features a WR beginning at 700oC due to prior regional heating from magmatic activity. In the first example, the Magma only experiences FC as it completely crystallizes before the WR is heated above the solidus. In the second example, identical beyond WR starting temperature, the Magma begins to receive anatectic melt from the granitic WR after ~10% of its original mass has crystallized. Once the Magma in the AFC example has reached an SiO2 content of 60 wt.%, the relative masses of 'initial Magma melt' : 'remaining melt in Magma' : 'cumulates' : 'cumulative anatectic melt added' is 1:1.4:0.1:0.5 as orthopyroxene follows olivine crystallization once assimilation begins. At the equivalent point of 60 wt.% SiO2 in the first FC-only case, these mass ratios sit at 1:0.35:0.65:0, as clinopyroxene and plagioclase follow olivine crystallization. In the second example with AFC, the assimilation dramatically modifies the chemical evolution of the magma as described above until a point where, in the WR, alkali feldspar has been exhausted by partial melting at the plag-kspar-qtz ternary minimum and the WR melt production rate slows for given heat input. Beyond these examples, the influence of WR composition on the chemical trends of an evolving set of mafic magmas undergoing AFC is portrayed.

Creamer, J. B.; Spera, F. J.; Bohrson, W. A.; Ghiorso, M. S.

2012-12-01

22

Two-phase flow visualization and relative permeability measurement in transparent replicas of rough-walled rock fractures  

SciTech Connect

Understanding and quantifying multi-phase flow in fractures is important for mathematical and numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, and petroleum reservoirs. While the cubic law for single-phase flow has been well established for parallel-plate fractures theoretically and experimentally, no reliable measurements of multi-phase flow in fractures have been reported. This work reports the design and fabrication of an apparatus for visualization of two-phase flow and for measurement of gas-liquid relative permeability in realistic rough-walled rock fractures. A transparent replica of a natural rock fracture from a core specimen is fabricated by molding and casting in clear epoxy. Simultaneous flow of gas and liquid with control of capillary pressure at inlet and outlet is achieved with the Hassler ''sandwich'' design: liquid is injected to the fracture through a porous block, while gas is injected directly to the edge of the fracture through channels in the porous block. A similar arrangement maintains capillary separation of the two phases at the outlet. Pressure drops in each phase across the fracture, and capillary pressures at the inlet and outlet, are controlled by means of pumps and needle valves, and are measured by differential and absolute pressure transducers. The clear epoxy cast of the natural fracture preserves the geometry of the fracture and permits visual observation of phase distributions. The fracture aperture distribution can be estimated by filling the fracture with a dyed liquid, and making pointwise measurements of the intensity of transmitted light. A set of two-phase flow experiments has been performed which has proven the viability of the basic experimental design, while also suggesting further improvements in the apparatus. Preliminary measurements are presented for single-phase permeability to liquid, and for relative permeabilities in simultaneous flow of liquid and gas.

Persoff, P.; Pruess, K.; Myer, L.

1991-01-01

23

Wall Rock Assimilation and Magma Migration in the Sierra Nevada Batholith: A Study of the Courtright Intrusive Zone, Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sierra Nevada Batholith is composed of various plutons that interact with each other, and with pre- and syn-batholith metamorphic rocks. In the central part of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, at Courtright Reservoir in California, the younger Mt. Givens Pluton (87-93 Ma; McNulty et al., 2000) intrudes the Dinkey pluton (103 Ma; Bateman et al., 1964), and metasediments (a metamorphic screen) that, in places, separate the two plutons. This Courtright Reservoir Intrusive zone, as termed by Bateman et al. (1964), provides an ideal setting to examine the dynamics of intrusion and assimilation. Whole rock major and trace element compositions of the plutons, their mafic enclaves, and the metasediments, show that all such samples, from both plutons, fall on a single mixing trend. We thus infer that magmas parental to both plutons were roughly similar in composition, and assimilated significant amounts of the same, or very similar metasedimentary wall rocks. We also examined changes in whole rock compositions within the Mt. Givens pluton, as a function of distance from the two rock units with which it is now in contact (the metasediments, and the Dinkey Creek). In the vicinity of the contact between are an abundance of enclaves that are rounded, and appear to have been transported in vertical pipes. Whole rock analysis of the host granitoid material that surrounds these enclaves is clearly more mafic than the granitoid magmas from interior parts of the pluton. These whole rock compositions indicate that the pluton becomes more homogenous moving away from the contact, with a compositional decay occurring over a span of about 50-100 m. There are at least two possible interpretations. The compositional decay may represent a diffusive exchange of mass between an early crystallizing marginal phase of the pluton and the pluton interior. Another (not mutually incompatible) possibility is that the mafic margins represent pipes or tubes (Paterson, 2010), related to some convective instability at the margins of the pluton.

Torrez, G.; Putirka, K. D.

2010-12-01

24

Vesta's Geological Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vesta’s diverse geology exhibits impact basins and craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes.

Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Schenk, P.; De Sanctis, M. C.

2014-02-01

25

Identification of hydrated silicate minerals on Mars using MRO-CRISM: Geologic context near Nili Fossae and implications for aqueous alteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Noachian terrain west of the Isidis basin hosts a diverse collection of alteration minerals in rocks comprising varied geomorphic units within a 100,000 km2 region in and near the Nili Fossae. Prior investigations in this region by the Observatoire pour l'Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on Mars Express revealed large exposures of both mafic minerals and

Bethany L. Ehlmann; John F. Mustard; Gregg A. Swayze; Roger N. Clark; Janice L. Bishop; Francois Poulet; David J. Des Marais; Leah H. Roach; Ralph E. Milliken; James J. Wray; Olivier Barnouin-Jha; Scott L. Murchie

2009-01-01

26

Alteration geochemistry and fluid inclusion characteristics of the greenstone-hosted gold deposit of Hutti, Eastern Dharwar Craton, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold mineralization of the Hutti mine, southern India, is situated in closely spaced laminated quartz veins and associated alteration haloes along steeply dipping shear zones within a sequence of rather uniform amphibolites. Intense shearing has resulted in large-scale mylonitization of the wall rocks. Anastomosing shear zones, with intervening lensoid bodies of unsheared amphibolites, are characteristic features of the deposit. The general pattern of symmetrical alteration comprises a distal zone of chlorite-rich rock, with a proximal biotite-rich zone adjacent to laminated quartz veins. Arsenopyrite thermometry yielded a temperature range of 350-477 °C for the biotite alteration zone, which preceded the formation of the laminated quartz veins. Mass balance calculations on the alteration zones indicate a gradual mass and volume loss during alteration. The alteration is accompanied by intense potash metasomatism and addition of sulfur, which resulted in the formation of arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite. Results of fluid inclusion studies suggest that low salinity (3.9-13.5 wt% NaCl equivalent) H2O-CO2 rich fluids were responsible for gold-rich laminated quartz vein formation in the Hutti deposit. These fluids constituted a later counterpart of the protracted fluid activity that first formed the biotite alteration zone. The estimated P-T values range from 1.0 to 1.7 kbar at 280-320 °C. These data, along with the alteration assemblages and the characteristic gold-sulfide association, both in the altered wall rock and laminated quartz veins, suggest that gold, transported as reduced bisulfide complexes, was deposited in response to sulfidation reactions in the wall rocks. Comparison of P-T conditions of formation of gold-quartz veins at Hutti with two other large gold deposits in the eastern Dharwar Craton, namely Kolar (1.8 kbar/280 °C) and western Ramagiri (1.45-1.7 kbar/240-270 °C), indicates broadly similar lode-gold forming conditions in the Dharwar Craton.

Pal, Nabarun; Mishra, Biswajit

2002-10-01

27

Geology of five small Australian impact craters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Here we present detailed geological maps and cross-sections of Liverpool, Wolfe Creek, Boxhole, Veevers and Dalgaranga craters. Liverpool crater and Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater are classic bowlshaped, Barringer-type craters, Liverpool was likely formed during the Neoproterozoic and was filled and covered with sediments soon thereafter. In the Cenozoic, this cover was exhumed exposing the crater's brecciated wall rocks. Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater displays many striking features, including well-bedded ejecta units, crater-floor faults and sinkholes, a ringed aeromagnetic anomaly, rim-skirting dunes, and numerous iron-rich shale balls. Boxhole Meteorite Crater, Veevers Meteorite Crater and Dalgaranga crater are smaller, Odessa-type craters without fully developed, steep, overturned rims. Boxhole and Dalgaranga craters are developed in highly follated Precambrian basement rocks with a veneer of Holocene colluvium. The pre-existing structure at these two sites complicates structural analyses of the craters, and may have influenced target deformation during impact. Veevers Meteorite Crater is formed in Cenozoic laterites, and is one of the best-preserved impact craters on Earth. The craters discussed herein were formed in different target materials, ranging from crystalline rocks to loosely consolidated sediments, containing evidence that the impactors struck at an array of angles and velocities. This facilitates a comparative study of the influence of these factors on the structural and topographic form of small impact craters. ?? Geological Society of Australia.

Shoemaker, E.M.; Macdonald, F.A.; Shoemaker, C.S.

2005-01-01

28

Mathematical Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

Jones, Thomas A.

1983-01-01

29

Geological images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Marli Bryant Miller, a professor at the University of Oregon, presents images of geological features from around the world. Photographs of glacial features, igneous and metamorphic rocks and processes, and structural geology are featured.

Miller, Marli B.; Oregon, University O.

30

Structural Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, this site describes the basics of structural geology with text and images. The page includes the discussion of stress, strain, strike and dip, faults, folds, mountain building, erosion, economic geology, and environmental geology. This is a nice introduction to the basic topics in geology. Images from the field help to enhance the topics on the site. Instructors can use this resource to help create or simply enhance their curriculum.

2009-05-21

31

Ad Duwayhi, Saudi Arabia: Geology and geochronology of a neoproterozoic intrusion-related gold system in the Arabian shield  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ad Duwayhi gold deposit, located in the east-central part of the Arabian shield, is the newest gold discovery in Saudi Arabia. Exploration to date has identified a gold resource of greater than 1 million ounces (oz) with significant potential for expansion. Gold mineralization was closely associated, in time and space, with emplacement of a late- to postorogenic, intracrustal, northwest-oriented granite body (659 ?? 7 Ma) and comagmatic square quartz porphyry (646 ?? 11 Ma), a hypabyssal and perhaps younger phase of the granite. Mineralization was largely confined to northeast-striking, southeast-dipping fault zones. Hydrothermal alteration consisted of early biotitic alteration overprinted by sericitic alteration. Sericitic alteration was coincident with gold mineralization and produced a quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite-rutile mineral assemblage, found both as vein fill and wall-rock alteration products. Mineralization styles, in the following general paragenetic sequence, include (1) quartz-molybdenite veins in and near the granite stock, (2) low-grade gold-bearing quartz vein breccia in and along the margins of the granite stock, (3) gold-bearing stockwork and sheeted quartz veins, and (4) massive to banded gold-rich tabular quartz veins. The gold-bearing stockwork, sheeted, and tabular veins are generally spatially associated with square quartz porphyry dikes and more distal to the granite stock. Mineralized zones at Ad Duwayhi are characterized by low sulfide and base metal content and gold/silver ratios of approximately 6/1. Gold shows no significant correlation with other metals, except lead, and moderate correlation with silver. Re-Os dating of molybdenite from a quartz-molybdenite vein and a tabular quartz vein with cogenetic gold produced robust ages of 655.6 ?? 2.7 and 649.9 ?? 2.3 Ma, respectively, documenting that gold mineralization and crystallization of granite and square quartz porphyry were, within uncertainty, coeval events. This age correlation combined with granite textural features, the presence of unidirectional solidification textures in granite and square quartz porphyry, and the nature and time-space distribution of mineralization styles, all indicate that mineralization evolved in and near the interface between a crystallizing magma and the surrounding rocks and, thus, is consistent with an intrusion-related genesis. In light of our findings at Ad Duwayhi, a reassessment of similar intrusion-hosted deposits in the Arabian shield is warranted, and areas of late- to postorogenic plutonism, particularly in the Afif composite terrane, should be considered prospective for intrusion-related gold systems. ??2004 by Economic Geology.

Doebrich, J.L.; Zahony, S.G.; Leavitt, J.D.; Portacio, J.S., Jr.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Fleck, R.J.; Stein, H.J.

2004-01-01

32

Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Why do engineers need to know about geologic time?" That question is answered in this resource from the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. Provided here is a discussion of the concepts of geological time; relative dating methods, such as correlation; and absolute dating methods, such as radiometric methods. Diagrams and charts are included to demonstrate these complex concepts.

2008-04-17

33

Geological SciencesGeological Sciences Geological EngineeringGeological Engineering  

E-print Network

Geological Engineering Applied Science Faculty Geology is the study of the Earth, its rocks, minerals Faculty and the Applied Science (Engineering) Faculty with various career path options. Geological engineers apply earth science principles to find and extract the world's energy and mineral wealth, to help

Ellis, Randy

34

Utah Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utah Geological Survey's Web site, Utah Geology, offers a variety of interesting geological information about the state. Good descriptions, illustrations, and photographs can be accessed on earthquakes and hazards, dinosaurs and fossils, rocks and minerals, oil and energy, and more. For example, the Rocks and Minerals page contains everything from how to stake a mining claim to downloadable summaries of mineral activity in the state. There is quite a bit of information within the site, and anyone interested in geology will find themselves exploring these pages for quite a while.

2001-01-01

35

California Geological Survey: Geologic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This index provides access to a selection of geologic maps of California, as well as an overview of geologic and other mapping activities in the state. The index, which can be accessed by clicking on an interactive map of the state, contains lists of selected geologic maps in California prepared by the Regional Geologic Mapping Project (RGMP). The RGMP staff monitors the literature and collects references that contain geologic mapping that may be useful for future compilations. In addition, the site has information about Caltrans Highway Corridor Mapping, The Mineral Resources and Mineral Hazards Mapping Program, North Coast Watersheds Assessment Program, The Timber Harvesting Plan Enforcement Program, and The Seismic Hazards Mapping Program. A set of links is provided to other sources of geologic maps and map information.

36

Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website provides geological information about the Park. Links include geologic highlights, hydrothermal features, reports by park geologists, and scientists' talks (videos). A wide array of information can be found on these links and the webpage is expanding as more topics are added.

Park, Yellowstone N.

37

Physical geology  

SciTech Connect

The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

1987-01-01

38

No geology without marine geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is offered of the many problems where knowledge of the ocean floors and of marine processes in shallow water is indispensable for the further advancement of geology. The subject of turbidity currents is treated in greater detail, to demonstrate the interrelation of several aspects of marine geology with sedimentologic and paleogeographic investigations. It is obvious that the

P. H Kuenen

2002-01-01

39

Geologic History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concept of relative versus absolute time and how geologists determine the age of geologic events and features. Topics include the laws that determine relative age (superposition, cross-cutting relationships, included fragments, and others), and how to re-construct the geologic history of an area using these relationships. There is also information on geologic correlation and the use of index fossils to determine relative age. The section on absolute time discusses some ways of measurement (tree rings, radioactive dating) and introduces the concepts of natural selection and mass extinctions. A vocabulary and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-03

40

Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

Newman, William L.

1997-01-01

41

Geologic Timeline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dive into the depths of time with this Geologic Timeline. The farther you scroll down, the farther back in time you'll travel. Also, the longer a period is on this page, the longer it lasted in history!

2000-01-01

42

Hydrothermal alteration, ore fluid characteristics, and gold depositional processes along a trondhjemite-komatiite contact at Tarmoola, Western Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tarmoola is a structurally controlled Archean orogenic gold deposit hosted in greenschist facies metamorphosed komatiite and trondhjemite in the Leonora district of the Eastern Goldfields province, Yilgarn craton. High-grade (>1 g/t Au) orebodies are located in komatiite wall rock adjacent to the eastern and northeastern margins of the asymmetrical, north-south-striking, Tarmoola trondhjemite intrusion. Gold-bearing veins post-date trondhjemite emplacement (ca. 2700 Ma), quartz diorite dikes (ca. 2667 Ma), and regional greenschist facies metamorphism. Textures and crosscutting relationships in gold-bearing veins indicate two stages of hydrothermal fluid infiltration associated with a single gold-related hydrothermal event: a volumetrically dominant, but gold-poor, stage I fluid and a gold-rich stage II fluid. Gold-bearing veins contain stage I milky quartz and pyrite that are overprinted by stage II quartz-ankerite-muscovite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-galena-gold-tellurides ?? albite ?? chlorite ?? fuchsite ?? epidote ?? scheelite. Stage I hydrothermal alteration assemblages are different in trondhjemite and komatiite due to contrasting reactions between a common ore fluid and disparate wall-rock chemistry. Stage II fluid-wall rock interaction was minor compared to stage I and is indicated by the overprinting of stage I mineral assemblages by stage II microveins. Wall-rock alteration proximal to veins in trondhjemite is characterized by replacement of igneous plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, and metamorphic chlorite by hydrothermal quartz, muscovite, ankerite, calcite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tellurides, and gold, whereas in proximal alteration in komatiite, metamorphic chlorite and talc are replaced by ankerite, quartz, muscovite, albite, chlorite, fuchsite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tellurides, and gold. The stage II fluid was enriched in H2O, CO2, Si, Ca, K, Na, S, Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, W, Bi, As, Mo, Zn, and Te. Based on fluid inclusion studies and stage II mineral equilibria, gold deposited from a homogeneous, neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 5.1-5.5), reduced, low-salinity (<5.5 wt % NaCl equiv) fluid that had a bulk composition of 78 mole percent H2O and 21 mole percent CO2, and trace amounts of CH4, C2H6, H2, Ar, H2S, and He. Gold deposition occurred at 300?? ?? 50??C and 0.5 to 3.0 kbars. Assuming lithostatic fluid pressures, gold precipitated at a 2- to 10-km depth. Stage II gray quartz ??18Ofluid values range from 5.9 to 7.5 per mil, whereas ??Dfluid values calculated from the dehydration of muscovite grains and measured directly from bulk fluid inclusion analyses of stage II gray quartz have ranges of -9 to -35 and -27 to -28 per mil, respectively. Hydrothermal ore fluids were transported from greater crustal depths to the site of gold deposition during the district-scale D3 event by shallowly W dipping, reverse brittle-ductile shear zones in supracrustal rock and along the steeply east dipping trondhjemite contact. Associated subhorizontal east-west shortening caused the reactivation of the eastern trondhjemite margin and subparallel foliation, which facilitated the transport of hydrothermal fluids and the generation of gold-bearing veins and hydrothermal alteration zones in komatiite. East-west-striking fractures in trondhjemite aided the lateral migration of ore fluids away from trondhjemite margins and the formation of east-west-striking gold-bearing veins and broad alteration zones. Gold was most likely transported in the stage II fluid as bisulfide complexes. The sulfidation of trondhjemite and komatiite wall rock by the stage II fluid caused the destabilization of An bisulfide complexes and gold deposition. Potassium, Ca, and CO2 metasomatism of komatiite wall rock may have enhanced gold deposition via the acidification of the stage II fluid. The physicochemical characteristics of the Tarmoola ore fluid and relative timing of gold mineralization are consistent with the Yilgarn-wide,

Duuring, P.; Hagemann, S.G.; Cassidy, K.F.; Johnson, C.A.

2004-01-01

43

Antarctica Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains information about the continent of Antarctica. There is a classroom practice and instructional module. The students will be able to describe the general geology of the land under the Antarctic ice and to explain from where the rocks may have come.

44

Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 24 questions on the topic of geologic time, which covers dating techniques and unconformities. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

45

Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. (IT Corporation (USA))

1990-12-01

46

Alteration and geochemical zoning in Bodie Bluff, Bodie mining district, eastern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Banded, epithermal quartz-adularia veins have produced about 1.5 million ounces of gold and 7 million ounces of silver from the Bodie mining district, eastern California. The veins cut dacitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and intrusions. Sinter boulders occur in a graben structure at the top of Bodie Bluff and fragments of sinter and mineralized quartz veins occur in hydrothermal breccias nearby. Explosive venting evidently was part of the evolution of the ore-forming geothermal systems which, at one time, must had reached the paleosurface. Previous reconnaissance studies at Bodie Bluff suggested that the geometry of alteration mineral assemblages and distribution of some of the major and trace elements throughout the system correspond to those predicted by models of hot-spring, volcanic rock hosted precious metal deposits (Silberman, 1982; Silberman and Berger, 1985). The current study was undertaken to evaluate these sugestions further. About 500 samples of quartz veins and altered rocks, including sinter, collected over a vertical extent of 200 meters within Bodie Bluff were petrographically examined and chemically analyzed for trace elements by emission spectrographic and atomic absorption methods. Sixty-five samples were analyzed for major elements by X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses showed that, in general, alteration mineral assemblage and vertical geochemical zoning patterns follow those predicted for hot-spring deposits, but that geochemical zoning patterns for sinter and quartz veins (siliceous deposits), and altered wall rocks are not always similar. The predicted depth-concentration patterns for some elements, notably Au, Ag, Hg, and Tl in quartz veins, and Hg, As and Ag in wall rocks were not as expected, or were perturbed by the main ore producing zone. For both quartz veins and altered wall rocks, the main ore zone had elevated metal contents. Increased concentration of many of these elements could indicate proximity to this zone. However, irregularities in the distribution of some key elements, such as Au and Ag, relative to the predictive models suggest that a larger suite of elements be considered for exploration for ore zones within the district. ?? 1993.

Herrera, P. A.; Closs, L. G.; Silberman, M. L.

1993-01-01

47

Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses the characteristics of geologic time, including the law of superposition, fossil preservation, casts and molds, and various events through the history of the Earth. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

48

Illinois State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) homepage provides information on geologic mapping, earthquakes, fossils, groundwater, wetlands, glacial geology, bedrock geology, and Lake Michigan geology. Educational materials include field trip guides, short publications on Illinois geology for students and teachers, online tours, single-page maps, and a geologic column. Other materials include databases and collections of GIS data, well records, drill cores, and mining information; a bibliography of Illinois geology; online maps and data; and information on water and land use, resource development, and geologic hazards.

49

Geologic Technician New Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

Karp, Stanley E.

1970-01-01

50

Geological Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.

51

Geology of Kilauea volcano  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

1993-08-01

52

Geology of Wisconsin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains geologic maps of Wisconsin including relief and topography maps; maps of the bedrock geology and elevation, Pleistocene geology, thickness of unconsolidated deposits, and soils; and atlases of geologic history. There is information on: rock types, Paleozoic formations, and the Pleistocene and Precambrian history of Wisconsin; how to obtain a geologic map of personal property; the Niagara Escarpment; castellated mounds; geologic field localities; and unusual weather events in Wisconsin. There is also a data table on earthquakes in Wisconsin.

Dutch, Steven

1997-09-10

53

Geologic investigations near an underhand cut-and-fill stope, Lucky Friday Mine, Mullan, ID. Report of Investigations/1993  

SciTech Connect

Researchers from the US Bureau of Mines conducted geologic investigations in an area of the Lucky Friday Mine, Mullan, ID, that included the 5300-107 demonstration stope using underhand longwall cut-and-fill mining. Structural analysis of the area suggested that argillite beds form planes of weakness between blocks of brittle quartzite, and energy may be released along these planes and at the junctures of fractures. Mapping argillite beds and fractures in the stope wall rock showed that the planes of these features diverged and that their attitudes corresponded from one wall to the other. Seismic analysis showed that the number and location of events varied as each cut was mined, with about 39 pct of the total number of events occurring above the cut being mined, about 54 pct below, and 7 pct at the same elevation.

Scott, D.F.

1993-02-01

54

Colorado Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) is an agency of state government within the Department of Natural Resources whose mission is to help reduce the impact of geologic hazards on the citizens of Colorado, to promote the responsible economic development of mineral and mineral fuel resources, to provide geologic insight into water resources, and to provide geologic advice and information to a variety of constituencies. This site contains extensive information about Colorado geology such as maps, a geologic time scale for the state, program information, and state field trip information. This site hosts the Avalanche Information Center which contains avalanche forecasting and education center details. Publications report on geologic hazards, land use, environmental geology, mineral resources, oil, gas, coal, geologic mapping and earthquake information for the state. There are online editions of RockTalk, which is a quarterly newsletter published by the Colorado Geological Survey dealing with all aspects of geology throughout the state of Colorado. Links are provided for more resources.

55

Co2 geological sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

Xu, Tianfu

2004-11-18

56

Maryland Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) homepage contains information from MGS programs on hydrogeology, hydrology, coastal and estuarine geology, environmental geology and mineral resources; an online guide to Maryland geology; and information on oyster habitat restoration projects. There are also maps, data, information on MGS publications, MGS news, and online educational resources.

57

Tennessee Division of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Geology Division of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. It provides information on the division's programs, including geologic hazards research, public service, education programs, basic and applied research on geology and mineral resources, publication of geologic information, permitting of oil and gas wells, and regulation of Tennessee's oil and gas industry. Materials include a catalog of publications, maps, geologic bulletins, and the Public Information series of pamphlets; the Geology Division Newsletter; and information on the state's mineral industry. There is also a section on the Gray Fossil Site, an unusual assemblage of fossils and sedimentary geology encountered during road construction near the town of Gray, Tenessee.

58

Vesta: A Geological Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft has collected over 28,000 images and a wealth of spectral data providing nearly complete coverage of Vesta’s surface with multiple views. These data enable analysis of Vesta’s diverse geology including impact craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, a variety of ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration features (1). Two large impact basins, Veneneia (400km) underlying the larger Rheasilvia basin (500km) dominate the south pole (1,2). Rheasilvia exhibits a huge central peak, with total relief of -22km to 19km, and steep scarps with mass wasting features. Vesta’s global tectonic patterns (two distinct sets of large troughs almost parallel to the equator) strongly correlate with the locations of the two south polar impact basins, and were likely created by their formation (1,3). Numerous unusual asymmetric impact craters and ejecta indicate the strong role of topographic slope in cratering processes on Vesta (1). Such very steep topographic slopes are near to the angle of repose; slope failures make resurfacing due to impacts and their associated gravitational slumping and seismic effects an important geologic process on Vesta (1). Outcrops in crater walls indicate reworked crustal material and impact melt in combination with clusters of pits that show thermal surface processes (4). Relatively dark material of still unknown origin is intermixed in the regolith layers and partially excavated by younger impacts yielding dark outcrops, rays and ejecta (1,5). Finally, Vesta’s surface is younger than expected (6). (1) Jaumann, et al., 2012, Science 336, 687-690; (2) Schenk et al., 2012, Science 336, 964-967; (3) Buczkowski, et al., 2012, GRL, submitted; (4) Denevi, et al., 2012, Science, submitted; (5) McCord, et al., 2012, Nature, submitted; (6) Marchi, et al., 2012, Science 336, 690-694.

Ralf, Jaumann; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Schenk, P.; Denevi, B.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Otto, K.; Mest, S. C.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D.; Carsenty, U.; DeSanctis, C. M.; Garry, W.; Hiesinger, H.; Keller, H. U.; Kersten, E.; Marchi, S.; Matz, K. D.; McCord, T. B.; McSween, H. Y.; Mottola, S.; Nathues, A.; Neukum, G.; O'Brien, D. P.; Schmedemann, N.; Scully, J. E. C.; Sykes, M. V.; Zuber, M. T.

2012-10-01

59

The Geology of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft collected over 28,000 images and a wealth of spectral data of Vesta's surface. These data enable analysis of Vesta's diverse geology including impact craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, a variety of ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes [1,2,3]. Two large impact basins, Veneneia underlying the larger Rheasilvia basin dominate the south polar region [1,4]. The depression surrounding Vesta's south pole was formed by two giant impacts about one billion and two billion years ago [4,5]. Vesta's global tectonic patterns (two distinct sets of large troughs orthogonal to the axes of the impacts) strongly correlate with the locations of the two south polar impact basins, and were likely created by their formation [1,6]. Numerous unusual asymmetric impact craters and ejecta indicate the strong influence of topographic slope in cratering on Vesta [1]. One type of gully in crater walls is interpreted to form by dry granular flow, but another type is consistent with transient water flow [7]. Very steep topographic slopes near to the angle of repose are common; slope failures make resurfacing due to impacts and their associated gravitational slumping and seismic effects an important geologic process on Vesta [1]. Clusters of pits in combination with impact melt [8] suggest the presence of volatile materials underlying that melt in some crater floors. Relatively dark material of uncertain origin is intermixed in the regolith layers and partially excavated by younger impacts yielding dark outcrops, rays and ejecta [1,9]. Vesta's surface is reworked by intense impacts and thus much younger than the formation of its crust [2,5].

Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Krohn, K.; Otto, K.; Stephan, K.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D.

2013-09-01

60

Glossary of Geologic Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Iowa State University presents a general glossary of geologic terms. The site would be a good reference for geology coursework. This glossary of geologic terms is based on the glossary in Earth: An Introduction to Geologic Change, by S. Judson and S.M. Richardson (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1995). Where possible, definitions conform generally, and in some cases specifically, to definitions given in Robert L Bates and Julia A Jackson (editors), Glossary of Geology, 3rd ed., American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia, 1987.

2011-07-18

61

Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331  

E-print Network

Horse Evolution Geology 331Geology 331 Paleontology #12;Horses #12;Equus caballus #12;#12;Equus;EquusMerychippusMiohippusHyracotherium Hind feet left, front feet right. #12;Hyracotherium or Eohippus;MerychippusMerychippus from the MioceneMiocene, a plains grazer #12;The modern horseThe modern horse Equus

Kammer, Thomas

62

Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/undergraduate/geology.html  

E-print Network

, including the quality of air, water, and soil. Geology majors have hiked the Appalachian Trail, gone of GEOL at the 1000 level or above. Chemistry requirements CHEM 0110 General Chemistry 1 CHEM 0120 General

Jiang, Huiqiang

63

GSA Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.

1999-01-01

64

Geophysics & Geology Inspected.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

Neale, E. R. W.

1981-01-01

65

REMOTE SENSING GEOLOGICAL SURVEY  

E-print Network

/Enhanced Thematic Mapper) Imagery Collection Examples of sensors used in CPRM geologic projects Geological Survey for ground water in crystalline terrain 3(VIS)4(NIR)5(SWIR) Moji and Pardo Rivers Basin ­ São Paulo State 3 and Reflection Radiometer) Imagery Collection in CPRM Examples of sensors used in the CPRM geologic projects #12

66

Glossary of Geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Glossary has expanded coverage particularly in such active fields as carbonate sedimentology, environmental geology and geophysics, GIS, GPS, hydrology and hydraulics, marine and coastal geology, organic geochemistry, paleoecology, seismology, stratigraphic nomenclature, speleology and karst, and structural geology and tectonics. Many definitions provide a syllabification guide and background information. Thus a reader will learn the difference between look-alike pairs, such

Julia A. Jackson

2005-01-01

67

DNA ALTERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

68

Geology of Kentucky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains geologic maps of Kentucky, with a discussion of geologic time in regards to the rocks, minerals, fossils, and economic deposits found there. There are also sections that describe strata and geologic structures beneath the surface (faults, basins, and arches), the structural processes (folding and faulting) that create stratigraphic units, the geomorphology of the state, geologic information by county, a general description of geologic time, fossil, rocks, and minerals of Kentucky, and a virtual field trip through Natural Bridges State Park. Links are provided for further information.

69

Geological Survey research 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

Geological Survey (U.S.)

1976-01-01

70

Geological Survey research 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

1978-01-01

71

Utah Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Utah Geological Survey. Materials available here include news articles and information on geologic hazards; information on places of geological interest; and popular geology topics such as earthquakes, rocks and minerals, fossils, economic resources, groundwater resources, and others. Educational resources include teaching kits, the 'Teacher's Corner' column in the survey's newsletter, and a series of 'Glad You Asked' articles on state geological topics. There is also an extensive list of free K-12 educational materials, as well as a set of curriculum materials such as activity packets, slide shows, and teachers' handbooks, which are available to order.

72

Kansas Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Kansas Geological Survey, operated by the University of Kansas in connection with its research and service program, is to conduct geological studies and research and to collect, correlate, preserve, and disseminate information leading to a better understanding of the geology of Kansas, with special emphasis on natural resources of economic value, water quality and quantity, and geologic hazards. The website includes information about the High Plains and Ogallala aquifers, the Upper Arkansas corridor, the Dakota aquifer, county and state geologic maps, an online bibliography of Kansas geology, publications, a photo archive, a digital petroleum atlas, a petroleum primer for the state, gravity and magnetic maps, Hugoton project information, and details about the Hutchinson Kansas natural gas fires. The educational resources section contains a mineral information page for the state, and GeoKansas, which provides information on state geology for schools.

73

Louisiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS). The site includes general information about LGS and its various offices, as well as an overview of the Basin Research Energy Section, the oil, gas, and coal research section of LGS. The publications and data page features a catalog and ordering information for documents on mineral resources, fossils, water resources, geological bulletins and maps, and many others, as well as a selection of downloadable maps, including 30 x 60 minute geologic quadrangles, a generalized geologic map of the state with accompanying text, and an online map viewer of the state with selectable layers (geology, water bodies, cultural features, and Landsat imagery). There is also an online listing of well logs, grouped by parish, online listings of core samples, grouped by state, and downloadable public information documents on a variety of geologic topics.

74

Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway))

1989-01-01

75

Structural Geology 'Research' Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this assignment students read and discuss a peer-reviewed journal article and prepare for and attend our class 'research' conference. In the conference they present on an area of current research as discussed in the journal article they read, and they practice formulating questions about other's research. Outcomes: 1. Read and discuss a structural geology peer-reviewed journal article. 2. Prepare a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of a current research topic in structural geology. 3. View and understand several diverse areas within geology and geophysics that use structural geology in research. 4. Ask questions relevant to a research presentation.

Willis, Julie

76

Geological Survey research 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress. (USGS)

1982-01-01

77

Modeling Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students convert major events in Earth history from years before present into scale distances. After a list of events and their scale distances have been formulated, students construct a geologic time scale on 5 meters of adding machine paper, beginning with the formation of the Earth. Students will investigate change through geologic time; design, construct and interpret a model of geologic time; relate major events in Earth history to the geologic time scale; and compare and relate the span of Earth history to events of historical time and of the human lifetime. Some sample events and their approximate relative ages are included.

Firebaugh, James

78

Arizona Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Arizona Geological Survey. Information accessible here includes maps, information on oil, gas, and minerals in the state, back issues of the survey's newsletter, and a list of resources for public education in the state. These resources include information centers for Arizona geology and Earth Science, the survey's geology library and bibliographic database, a repository of rock cuttings and cores, and a contact for earth science education who will assist teacher groups in introducing local geology to their classes.

79

Environmental geology of the Summitville mine, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although altered and mineralized rocks at Summitville mine in Colorado contain minimal amount of sulfide minerals, acid mine problems existed primarily because of the pervasive alteration of the surrounding rocks, through hydrothermal process, to highly siliceous and argillized rocks that are incapable of buffering acidic waters during weathering. The problems are compounded by the continued exposure of altered and mineralized rocks in open pit, heap leach pad and waste piles to oxygenated waters. Inadequate subsurface structural control and underground mine workings also greatly affect water quality and the location of acid mine drainage output. It is expected that with these initial results, geological studies on constrained acid-generation from ore and altered rocks will be pursued.

Gray, John, E.; Coolbaugh, Mark, F.; Plumlee, Geoffrey, S.; Atkinson, William, W.

1994-01-01

80

Layer Cake Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity uses a cake to demonstrate geologic processes and introduce geologic terms. Students will learn how folds and faults occur, recognize the difference in behavior between brittle and ductile rocks, and attempt to predict structures likely to result from application of various forces to layered rocks. They will also attempt to interpret 'core samples' to determine subsurface rock structure.

Wagner, John

81

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

82

Earth Sciences Geology Option  

E-print Network

courses, core Earth Sciences courses, and focused coursework in the option. A graduation checklistEarth Sciences with Geology Option Geological sciences focus on understanding the Earth, from its composition and internal structure to its history and the processes that shape its surface. Our planet

Kurapov, Alexander

83

Structural Geology Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin - Green Bay has created this collection of material and instructions on how to analyze and plot structural geology data. Topics covered includes planes, lines, relations between lines and planes, geologic structures, intersection of structures with topography, stereonet techniques, stress and strain, and analysis of complex structures.

Dutch, Steven

2009-05-21

84

Geologic mapping of Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features

Ronald Greeley; Patricio H. Figueredo; David A. Williams; Frank C. Chuang; James E. Klemaszewski; Steven D. Kadel; Louise M. Prockter; Robert T. Pappalardo; James W. Head; Geoffrey C. Collins; Nicole A. Spaun; Robert J. Sullivan; Jeffrey M. Moore; David A. Senske; B. Randall Tufts; Torrence V. Johnson; Michael J. S. Belton; Kenneth L. Tanaka

2000-01-01

85

Advances in Planetary Geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

Woronow, A. (editor)

1982-01-01

86

Geology in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM somewhat chagrined to find that I appear to you (vol. xi. p. 381) to say that the Geological Survey of Great Britain is especially to blame for the diminution of interest in geology in the country that has done the most for its advancement. My remarks were taken down by a reporter, and I have not seen them

N. S. Shaler

1875-01-01

87

Geology of the Caribbean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

Dillon, William P.; And Others

1988-01-01

88

Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

Pankhurst, R. J.

1980-01-01

89

Forensic geology exhumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term ``forensic'' is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as ``pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and

Joseph Didier Martinez

1991-01-01

90

Geological data bases combine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a move designed to eliminate overlap and increase coverage of scholarly publications, three major institutions have agreed to pool their resources in compiling a common geological bibliographic data base. The American Geological Institute (AGI), the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) will begin producing a joint bibliographic record in

Lee Greathouse

1980-01-01

91

Glossary of geology  

SciTech Connect

This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

1987-01-01

92

External Resource: Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA sponsored webpage, Center for Educational Technologies, teaches students about Geologic Time. The age of Earth is so long compared to all periods of time that we humans are familiar with, it has been given a special name: Geologic time. The age

1900-01-01

93

Geologic time scale bookmark  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

U.S. Geological Survey

2012-01-01

94

People and Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

95

Geologic mapping of tectonic planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological analysis of planets typically begins with the construction of a geologic map of the planets’ surfaces using remote data sets. Geologic maps provide the basis for interpretations of geologic histories, which in turn provide critical relations for understanding the range of processes that contributed to the evolution. Because geologic mapping should ultimately lead to the discovery of the types

Vicki L. Hansen

2000-01-01

96

Field Geology/Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

1996-01-01

97

Wyoming State Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This agency's mission is to study, examine, and seek an understanding of the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State; to prepare, publish, and distribute reports and maps of Wyoming's geology, mineral resources, and physical features; and to provide information, advice, and services related to the geology, mineral resources, and physical features of the State. This site contains details and reports about metals in Wyoming, earthquakes and other hazards, coal, industrial minerals, uranium, oil and gas. The field trip section contains details about various areas to visit with students and gives a general geologic description. There is also a searchable bibliography with publications about Wyoming geology. Links are provided for additional resources.

98

Structural geology report: Spent Fuel Test - Climax Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

We performed underground mapping and core logging in the Climax Stock, a granitic intrusive at the Nevada Test Site, as part of a major field test to determine the feasibility of using granitic or crystalline rock for the underground storage of spent fuel from a nuclear reactor. This mapping and logging identified more than 2500 fractures, over 1500 of which were described in enough detail to allow statistical analyses and orientation studies to be performed. We identified eight joint sets, three major shear sets, and a fault zone within the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) portion of the Stock. Joint sets identified within the SFT-C and elsewhere in the Stock correlated well. The orientations of joint sets identified by other investigators were consistent with our findings, indicating that the joint sets are persistent and have a relatively uniform orientation throughout a major portion of the Stock. The one joint set not seen elsewhere in the Stock is healed and the wall rock is altered, implying that healed joints were not included in the mapping criteria used by other investigators. The shear sets were distinguished from the joint sets by virtue of crushed minerals, continuous clay infilling, and other evidences of shearing, and from faults by the lack of offsetting. Previous investigators working mainly in the Pile Driver Drifts identified two of the shear sets. The third set, being nearly parallel to these Drifts had not been identified previously. The fault zone identified at the far (Receiving Room) end of the project is oriented approximately N45{sup 0}E-75{sup 0}SE, similar to both the Boundary and Shaft Station Faults. We have, therefore, concluded that the Receiving Room Fault is one of a series of normal faults that occur within the Climax Stock and that are possibly related, in both age and genesis, to the Boundary Fault. 52 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

1984-10-01

99

Geology and geochemistry of the Mendejin plutonicrocks, Mianeh, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mendejin pluton is located in the Mianeh area, NW Iran, 550 km from Tehran. This pluton is probably of Oligo-Miocene age and is the result of extensive magmatism which occurred during and after the Alpine Orogeny. Similar plutons are common in the Alborz-Azarbaijan structural zone of Iran, and it is likely that there are concealed plutons related to this extensive Cenozoic magmatism, but due to their youth and low rates of erosion they have not yet been exposed. The Mendejin pluton is a composite body made up of four types of plutonic rocks: pink tonalite, grey tonalite, diorite and aplite. The pink tonalite is porphyritic and contains phenocrysts of plagioclase, K-feldspar and hornblende in a groundmass consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, hornblende, zircon, monazite, leucoxene, apatite and hematite. The grey porphyritic tonalite has more biotite, pyroxene and pyrite and less accessory phases compared with the pink tonalite. The diorite has a microporphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase, hornblende and augite. This rock also occurs as xenoliths in the Mendejin pluton. The aplitic dykes are the youngest magmatic products at Mendejin. The Mendejin tonalite contains more Cl, As, S, Cu, Ni and Zn than the global granite. These rocks are of I-type, peraluminous and calc-alkaline, with medium to high potassium, and were formed as part of a volcanic arc. The Mendejin pluton contains up to 8 ppb gold and could potentially have been the source of an economic gold deposit by leaching of Au from wall rocks and deposition in extensive hydrothermally altered marginal zones.

Somarin, A. Karimzadeh

2006-10-01

100

Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system  

SciTech Connect

A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

Gehring, A.U. [ETH Zurich, Schlieren (Switzerland). Inst. for Terrestrial Ecology] [ETH Zurich, Schlieren (Switzerland). Inst. for Terrestrial Ecology; [ETH Zentrum, Zurich (Switzerland). Office of Planning; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G. [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Physical Chemistry] [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Physical Chemistry

1999-07-01

101

Contrasting D/H ratios in hydrothermally altered thrust and strike-slip faults, western Chugach Mountains, AK  

SciTech Connect

In the western Chugach Mountains of southern Alaska, the Cretaceous Knik River Terrane, a complex of regionally metamorphosed amphibolites and schists, tonalite and trondhjemites intrusives and ultramafic rocks, is thrust over the Jurassic-Cretaceous Flysch of the Chugach terrane by the Border Ranges Fault System (BRFS). Parts of the BRFS were reactivated in the Tertiary by brittle strike-slip faulting along the dextral Carpenter Creek Fault (CCF) and related faults. Lithologies in the Knik River Terrane commonly show strong hydrothermal alteration along the Carpenter Creek Fault. In order to determine the origin and circulation patterns of hydrothermal fluids responsible for the alteration of samples in the BRFS and CCF, the authors have analyzed D/H ratios of minerals, whole rocks and veins from unfaulted metamorphic and intrusive rocks and from within and adjacent to hydrothermally altered cretaceous thrust faults and Tertiary strike-slip faults. The fluids responsible for hydrothermal alteration in the BRFS were apparently in D/H exchange equilibrium with the unfaulted lithologies presently exposed in the Western Chugach. These fluids may have been derived from devolatilization of the footwall during prograde metamorphism contemporaneous with thrust faulting. The fluids responsible for hydrothermal alteration of the CCF were apparently local meteoric waters confined in a channelized fracture flow system where isotopic equilibration with the wall rocks was strongly inhibited.

Barnett, D.E.; Bowman, J.R. (Univ. of Utah, UT (United States). Geology and Geophysics); Pavlis, T. (Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)); Rubenstone, J. (LDGO, Palisades, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

102

Virtual Tour of Maine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.

103

New marine geology center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine geologists at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, have created a new Center for Marine Geology. The formation of the center is part of a university-wide effort to extend interests in marine research in all directions, Director James M. Hall said. The center, formed in April, will be a focus for the expansion of research in marine geology, for the development of marine instrumentation, for the expansion of advanced training of Third World geologists in marine geology, and for the university's interaction with the petroleum industry involved in a major play in the areas off the eastern Canadian shore, Hall said.

104

Journal of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of Chicago Press's Journals Division, the Journal of Geology is currently available online free of charge (note: subscription fees may soon apply, but no initiation date is provided). This first-rate technical journal, which publishes "research and theory in geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology, geomorphology, petrology, plate tectonics, volcanology, structural geology, mineralogy, and planetary sciences" has been in print form since 1893. All of the 1999 issues of the Journal of Geology electronic edition are available here. Internet users can access full-text articles with internal links to references and figures (html, .pdf. .ps).

105

Indiana Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS). Site materials include information on Earth science issues such as groundwater, mapping, coal and mineral resources, oil and gas, and seismic hazards. There is also information on the geologic time scale and stratigraphic record, rocks and minerals, fossils (including nautiloids of the Ordovician period in Indiana), caves and karst topography in Indiana, and glacial geology. The Geographic Information Ssytems (GIS) and mapping section includes a GIS atlas for the state, an online map viewer, links to the Indiana coal mine information system, petroleum database management system, and a download page where users can access GIS datasets for the state.

106

Geology of caves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Morgan, I. M., Davies, W. E.

1991-01-01

107

What is Geologic Time?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.

108

Mass Extinctions Geology 331  

E-print Network

;Stromatoporoids and Corals sarv.gi.ee/geology/photos.html #12;Rugose Corals #12;Victims · Permian ­ about 50 brachiopods ­ All rugose and tabulate corals ­ All remaining trilobites ­ Nearly all crinoids ­ Nearly all

Kammer, Thomas

109

Photos of structural geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains four categories of structural geology photos: brittle structures, ductile structures, active tectonics, and unconformities. All photos are freely downloadable and are at resolutions sufficient for power point.

Miller, Marli

110

North Dakota Geological Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the North Dakota Geological Survey. Site materials include information on the state's oil, gas and coal resources, maps, publications, and regulations. The paleontology page features educational articles, information on fossil collecting, articles about fossil exhibits, and information on the state fossil collection. The state GIS hub creates and distributes digital spatial data that conforms to national mapping standards. The teaching tools page includes illustrations and descriptions of rocks and minerals found in the state, as well as information on meteorites and newsletter articles about teaching North Dakota geology. There are also links to landslide maps, surficial geology maps, and links to other survey publications such as reports, bulletins, field studies, other geological and topographic maps, and information on groundwater resources.

111

Interactive Geologic Timeline Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this learning activity, students use a web-based geologic timeline to examine temperature, CO2 concentration, and ice cover data to investigate how climate has changed during the last 715 million years.

University, Environmental L.

112

Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

Geotimes, 1972

1972-01-01

113

Devil's Tower Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the National Park Service briefly addresses the geology of Devil's Tower. The evolution of various theories on the formation of the tower are discussed. A slide show of the emplacement of the tower is also available.

National Park Service (NPS)

114

Reconstructing the Geologic Timeline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the use of a non-traditional approach to constructing a geological timeline that allows students to manipulate data, explore their understanding, and confront misconceptions. Lists possible steps to use in engaging students in this constructivist activity. (DDR)

Hemler, Deb; Repine, Tom

2002-01-01

115

Geological Development of Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Panama that geologists see today is a young landscape that in form comprises a reclined S-shaped, generally E-W oriented\\u000a isthmus produced through complex geotectonic processes that created and assembled a diverse suite of geological units since\\u000a late Cretaceous\\/early Tertiary time. The geological development of Panama is a consequence of the relative motions of the\\u000a North and South American continental

Russell S. Harmon

116

Johnston Geology Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Johnston Geology Museum is part of the Emporia State University Earth Science Department. There is an online virtual tour of the collection which includes a Cretaceous mosasaur, a giant ground sloth, mastodon bones and tusk, brachiopods, Paleozoic corals, sedimentary structures, minerals and crystals. The Museum contains geological specimens predominantly from Kansas, and include the world famous Hamilton Quarry Fossil Assemblage, the Tri-State Mining Display, petrified tree stumps, and the Hawkins and the Calkins Indian Artifact Collections.

2011-07-07

117

Oahu Geology Field Exercises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three field guides are available to sites of geologic interest on Oahu. One is a visit to a landslide occurring in a neighborhood; another focuses on developing observational skills and determining the sequence of geologic events evident in a stratigraphic section; a third examines features associated with formation of a volcanic tuff ring. The worksheets are designed for teachers to implement as-is or modify for their classes.

118

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Morris, Paul

119

Geology and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a variety of educational and supporting materials for faculty teaching in the emerging field of geology and human health. You will find links to internet resources, books, teaching activities, and a group email list, as well as posters, presentations and discussions from the spring 2004 workshop on Geology and Human Health. These resources reflect the contributions of faculty members from across the country and the collections will continue to grow as materials are developed.

120

Hydrothermal alterations in the Echassières granitic cupola (Massif central, france)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed petrographic and mineralogic investigations of an albite-lepidolite granite at Echassières (Massif Central, France; scientific deep drill program) shows the existence of hydrothermal stages which are closely related to the magmatic and structural history. According to fluid inclusion data, K-Ar datations and 18O/16O-D/H compositions of secondary minerals, two successive hydrothermal periods have been recognized. The early one (273 268 million years) produced a series of aluminous phyllosilicates: muscovite, pyrophyllite, donbassite, tosudite, kaolinite which are observed as vein deposits (<10 mm wide) and alteration products of primary minerals in wall-rocks. The vein system was sealed by monomineralic assemblages during a cooling period (400 150°C). This early hydrothermal alteration stage was controlled by interactions of rock with low salinity (1 10 wt% NaCl equivalent) fluids expelled from the granitic body during the cooling processes. The chemical properties of these fluids were the following: low pH, very low Mg and Fe and high Li, Na and K contents. Thermodynamic calculations show that the sequence pyrophyllite, Li-bearing donbassite, tosudite is mostly temperature dependent. From the chemical composition of secondary minerals and isotopic data it can be deduced that these fluids, which have a meteoric origin, have been expelled from the granite body during its cooling period and after interaction with it at high temperature. The late hydrothermal stage corresponds to deposits of fluorite and Fe-Mg rich illite (151 million years) in subvertical fractures. Temperature conditions did not exceed 250° C and fluids came through the surrounding metamorphic rocks into the granitic body. IIlite/smectite mixed-layer minerals have been identified in subvertical fractures which were opened during Tertiary periods. In the host micaschists, successive hydrothermal alterations took place during the cooling of the Beauvoir granite. Early magmatic fluids interacted with these micaschists. Locally, the metamorphic assemblage is replaced by a metasomatic one. Secondary topaz and (F, Li)-rich mica crystals were formed over a range of 450 of 150°C. Later hydrothermal fluids reacted with the country rocks to form phengite-biotite, chlorite-illite and kaolinite over a range of 300 to 150°C. Illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals crystallized in the roof micaschists and within the Beauvoir granite during the Tertiary alteration period. Meteoric water invaded open fractures producing supergene alteration mineral assemblages.

Merceron, Thierry; Vieillard, Philippe; Fouillac, Anne-Marie; Meunier, Alain

1992-11-01

121

USGS: Geology in the Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Geology in the Parks Web site is a cooperative project of the USGS Western Earth Surface Processes Team and the National Park Service. This extensive site covers geologic maps, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, US geologic provinces, park geology of the Mojave, Sunset Crater, Lake Mead, North Cascades, Death Valley, Yosemite National Park, and much more. Descriptions, graphics, photographs, and animations all contribute to this informative and interesting Web site making it a one stop, all encompassing, resource for everything geology and US national park related.

122

Geology By Lightplane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1966, Professor Louis J. Maher of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Department of Geology and Geophysics piloted a department-owned Cessna over the continental US taking photos for use in his geology courses. As Maher flew, his trusty co-pilot and graduate assistant, Charles Mansfield, snapped the photos. The resulting collection is an assortment of breathtaking images of classic geological features, now available online for noncommercial use by educators (download via FTP). Maher gives us birds-eye views of structural features in Wyoming's Wind River Range, sedimentary strata in Arches National Park and the Grand Canyon, glacial landscapes in Northern Minnesota, and ancient lava flows in Arizona, to name just a few.

Maher, Louis J.

2001-01-01

123

Sedimentology and petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

Bjorlykke, K.

1989-01-01

124

Global sedimentary geology program  

SciTech Connect

The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.

1986-07-01

125

Structural Geology Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cutting Edge group at Carleton College has created a number of fine teaching resources for college-level instructors working across the geological sciences, and this website is no exception. This particular area of their larger site is primarily intended for educators who teach structural geology. As visitors scroll through the site, they will find thematic areas that include links to computer applications, geologic maps that can be used for instructional purposes, and specific classroom activities. Some of these activities include "Using Field Lab Write-ups to Develop Observational and Critical Thinking Skills" and "Analysis of Sidewalk Fractures". Additionally, visitors can sign up for their listserv discussions and view presentations from different workshops they have conducted in the past.

126

Project Primary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project Primary is a collaboration of professors from the departments of Botany-Microbiology, Chemistry, Education, Geology, Physics, and Zoology at Ohio Wesleyan University and K-3 teachers from Ohio's Delaware, Marion, and Union Counties to produce hands-on activities for the teaching of science. The geology activities are appropriate for children in grades K-12. Collectively, the goals for these activities are to demonstrate the inter-relatedness of life and the physical planet, the importance of understanding scientific phenomena for all people, not just future scientists, to impart knowledge which leads through student curiosity to continued inquiry, and to spur creativity. Topics covered include earthquakes, behavior of Earth materials, plate tectonics, the surface of the Earth, volcanoes, and geologic time and the evolution of the Earth.

Fryer, Karen

127

Alaskan North Slope Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery well for the Prudhoe Bay field, the largest oil accumulatn yet found in the United States, was drilled on the Arctic coast of Alaska by ARCO and Exxon in 1968. A decade of exploratory geology and increasingly detailed geophysical surveys, mostly by Sinclair and British Petroleum in the early years, but then by a number of companies, preceded the discovery. Systematic U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance of the Brooks Range—the great mountain system of northern Alaska—had begun in the 1940s and was accelerated after the discovery, as was industry work. In the last decade, scientists from the Alaska Division of Geology and Geophysics and from various universities have become increasingly involved. This modestly priced two-volume work presents hitherto unavailable summaries of much of this modern work.

Hamilton, Warren

128

Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

129

Understanding Geological Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, middle school students gain an understanding of geologic time. The activity opens with background information for teachers about carbon and radiometric dating. In a classroom discussion, students share what they know about geologic time. Then, working in small groups responsible for different eras, students create a timeline for their assigned era by conducting library and Internet research. The activity concludes by having students review all the timelines to compare how long humans have been on the Earth to the length of time dinosaurs inhabited the planet.

130

Principles of isotope geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of methods of isotope dating using Rb-Sr, K-Ar, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar, Re-Os, Lu-Hf, K-Ca, U, Tb-Pb, ¹⁴C, common lead, S,O,H, fission track, and U-series disequilibrium are included in respective chapters. Introductory chapters discussing the basics of isotope geology, atomic structure, decay mechanisms and mass spectrometry are included along with two appendices; the geological time scale for the Phanerzoic and a fitting

G Faure

1977-01-01

131

Geological and Inorganic Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

Jackson, L. L.; And Others

1989-01-01

132

Advances in planetary geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

1984-01-01

133

Geology of Jewel Cave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site provides an introduction to the Black Hill's Jewel Cave. The site describes the unique geologic history of the Black Hills, the formation of speleothems as well as unusual crystal growth in the cave. Photographs illustrate the descriptions.

National Park Services (NPS)

134

Geological Time Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This University of California site provides an interactive geologic time scale to explore the history of the Earth. Beginning in the Precambrian Eon (4.6 million years ago) and ending today (Holocene Epoch), each Epoch, Period, Era, and Eon are covered. Information provided includes ancient life, dates, descriptions of major events, localities, tectonics, and stratigraphy. Links to additional resources are also available.

Collins, Allen

135

Geology 12. Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, developed by the Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, Canada, is a teaching guide for the Geology 12 course. The course is intended to provide secondary school students with the background and desire to investigate their earth, its materials and its processes. The guide consists of the following four sections: (1)…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

136

Life on Guam: Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

Elkins, Gail

137

Geologic Structures Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the variables governing the brittle and ductile behavior of rocks, the simple geological structures associated with differential stress, and look at and apply real data to evaluate the depth to the brittle-ductile transition in the crust and how that depth can change temporarily due to sudden changes in stress introduced by large earthquakes.

Leland, John

138

IU GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES graduatehandbookappendices  

E-print Network

425 edmonsd Geol Sci Professor Michael Hamburger Geophysics, Seismology and Tectonics 5-2934 G419 jknjau Geol Sci Assoc. Professor Greg Olyphant Hydrogeology, Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology 5-1351 S301B olyphant Geol Sci Professor Gary Pavlis Geophysics, Seismology and Tectonics 5-5141 G401

Polly, David

139

Soviet geology, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological history of the Jurassic period shows that the most abrupt change in physiogeographical, and particularly in climatic, conditions occured not at its lower or upper limit but at the boundary between the middle and late epochs. This is shown especially clearly by a study of the lacustral and continental sediments which form such a significant feature of the

V. A. Vakhrameyev

1976-01-01

140

Briefing on geological sequestration  

EPA Science Inventory

Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media ? primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

141

Marine Environmental Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is an introduction to the aspects of marine geology and oceanography that affect the environment and marine resources. Service-learning is an essential component of how students learn about the earth. We deliver part of the content of this course by arranging for students to solve a problem with a local community partner.

Course taught by Prof. Ed Laine, Bowdoin College (edlaine@bowdoin.edu) and Cathryn Field, Lab Instructor (cfield@bowdoin.edu). Example compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center (ssavanic@carleton.edu).

142

Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a

Miquel Vilà; Roser Pi; Jordi Cirés; Ana de Paz; Xavier Berástegui

2010-01-01

143

A geological explanation for intraplate earthquake clustering complexity: The zeolite-bearing fault/fracture networks in the Adamello Massif (Southern Italian Alps)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interconnected networks of faults and veins filled with hydrothermal minerals such as zeolite are widespread in many orogenic terrains. These fractures commonly form at relatively low temperatures (e.g. <200 °C) late in the tectonic history and represent significant phases of fluid flow and mineralisation during exhumation. Zeolite-bearing fractures spatially associated with the Gole Larghe Fault Zone in the Southern Italian Alps are preserved along an interconnected network of variably orientated pre-existing structures. They show evidence of repeated episodes of hydraulic tensile fracturing and small magnitude (total offsets <5 m) shear displacements. We use geological observations and Coulomb stress modelling to propose that repeated seismogenic rupturing of larger offset faults led to local stress transfer and reactivation of widely distributed smaller pre-existing structures in the wall rocks. The differing orientations of the pre-existing features within what is assumed to have been a single regional stress field led to the simultaneous development of reverse, strike-slip and extensional faults. The kinematic diversity and cyclic nature of the hydraulically-assisted deformation suggest that the mineralised fracture systems represent a geological manifestation of intraplate micro-earthquake clusters associated with fluid migration episodes in the upper crust. Our observations highlight the role of crustal fluids and structural reactivation during earthquakes.

Dempsey, E. D.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Imber, J.; Bistacchi, A.; Di Toro, G.

2014-09-01

144

Geology and Radiometry of Chalkidiki.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief geological description of Chalkidiki (Greece) is given followed by car-borne-scintillometer (CBS) survey results showing that granitic rocks in Central and Eastern Chalkidiki constitute the most promising geological formations for uranium minerali...

D. G. Minatidis

1980-01-01

145

Using Snow to Teach Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

Roth, Charles

1991-01-01

146

Geology of the National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about United States Geological Survey (USGS) resources and activities associated with National Parks. Users can choose from a selection of links that access items on park geology, virtual trips, research projects, and general topics such as plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, shorelines, glaciers, and many more. Links to geologic information for individual parks are arranged by alphabet, by state, or by geologic province.

147

Ordering Geologic Events and Interpreting Geologic History: The Grand Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to help students recognize the connections among things like rock identification and map reading with the "story" that these things can tell us in terms of geologic history. Students have already learned about using observation to identify rocks and the principles of interpreting geologic cross-sections. The activity gives students practice in rock ID, topo map reading, geologic map reading and the aspects of geologic time. Students work with rock samples and a geologic map of the Grand Canyon to interpret a history for the area.

Wenner, Jennifer

148

HIGHWAY GEOLOGY SYMPOSIUM BRECKENRIDGE, COLORADO  

E-print Network

57th ANNUAL HIGHWAY GEOLOGY SYMPOSIUM BRECKENRIDGE, COLORADO SEPTEMBER 26-29, 2006 PROCEEDINGS, and Findley! ! ! 57 th Highway Geology Symposium -146- Breckenridge, Colorado September 26-29, 2006 Digital! ! ! 57 th Highway Geology Symposium -147- Breckenridge, Colorado September 26-29, 2006 *'!+8&+8'P#,%!(%*4

Haneberg, William C.

149

Geologic Map of North America  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Geologic Map of North America is a product of GSA's Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) project. At a scale of 1:5,000,000, this map covers ~15% of Earth's surface and differs from previous maps in several important respects: it is the first such map to depict the geology of the seafloor, th...

2010-06-25

150

Geologic Maps and Geologic Structures: A Texas Example  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Historical Geology lab exercise is an accompaniment to lab class instruction about geologic structures (folding and faulting) and geologic maps. It also serves as an excellent introduction to the Geology of the state of Texas. "Coloring" geologic maps, an important part of the exercise, may seem like a very elementary learning technique. But this lab engages students actively, and since the subject is often already somewhat familiar to them, emphasizing both the geology and geography of Texas, students receive it enthusiastically. This activity could be adapted to other regions, since most states have color 8 1/2 by 11 geologic maps available. A color map could be scanned and modified in Photoshop to create a simplified black and white version as was done in the assignment handout.

Steinberg, Roger

151

Geology Training Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners review the basic requirements for human survival. Learners will use an online, multimedia module, to which they make changes to Earth's layers and draw conclusions about the geologic conditions that are necessary for human survival. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson one in the Astro-Venture Geology Training Unit that were developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

152

Geological Survey research, 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

'Geological Survey Research 1975 ' is the 16th annual synopsis of the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations. These studies are largely directed toward the development of knowledge that will assist the Nation to use and conserve the land and its physical resources wisely. They are wide ranging in scope and deal with almost every facet of solid-earth science and fact finding. Many of the studies are continuations of investigations that have been in progress for several years. But others reflect the increased attention being given to problems that have assumed greater importance in recent years--problems relating to mineral fuels and mineral resources, water quality, environmental impact of mineral resources, land-use analysis, earthquake hazards reduction, subsidence, and the applications of LANDSAT data, to cite a few examples. (Woodard-USGS)

1975-01-01

153

Geology of Britain Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever wanted to wander from John O'Groats to the Cotswolds without leaving your desk, this most wonderful website is for you. Created by the British Geological Survey, the Geology of Britain viewer helps interested parties learn more about the landforms in their backyards. After opening the viewer, visitors can click on an area of interest to look at everything from possible earthquake threats to rock layers to soil composition and more. Visitors should note that they can zoom in on the map and also use place names to refine their searches via the Go to Location button. Additionally, the basemap can be modified to show satellite photographs or various street maps as overlays. Finally, the site contains walking guides for several regions of Britain that might be helpful for those with a penchant for perambulation.

154

Algebra, Geology and Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges (AMATYC) has compiled a collection of mathematics resources related to various subjects and disciplines. âÂÂMath Across the Community College Curriculumâ is the title of the collection, which includes great math resources and applications for educators and students alike. In this particular resource, concepts from algebra, geology and economics are intertwined to create two dynamic activities for students. The projects, created by Mary Dowse, Tom Gruszka, and George Muncrief of Western New Mexico University, include both general learning objectives and subject specific objectives for what students will learn through the completion of the activities. The first activity focuses on the mathematics of economics, and the second activity focuses on geology and graphing. These activities can be easily adapted for use in the classroom, and are also useful for students who are looking for extra practice with these concepts.

Dowse, Mary; Gruszka, Tom; Muncrief, George

2008-04-22

155

AGI: American Geological Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Geological Institute (AGI) created this website to promote its work dedicated to geoscientific services and outreach. The Information Services provides users with information on data repository systems and the GEoRef database. Students and educators can learn about professional development, conferences, scholarships, and more. The website provides action alerts, discussing key issues affecting geosciences in the federal government. Scientists can find a helpful human resources guide discussing geoscience careers and educational departments.

156

Medical Geology in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A large body of evidence points to significant health effects resulting from our interactions with the physical environment\\u000a and we continue to recognise connections between geological materials and processes and human and animal disease. In Africa,\\u000a these relationships have been observed for many years, but only recently have any real attempts been made to formalise their\\u000a study. Africa is a

T. C. Davies

157

Geologic Cross Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this project, students must select a several hundred kilometer long section of Earth's surface, ideally crossing one or more major plate boundaries and research all major tectonic events to construct a cross section. Students should also take into account other factors like age of the ocean floor, average elevation and gravity anomalies across their area. The purpose is to demonstrate the geologic/tectonic history of their cross section and present it in a clear, concise summary.

Browning, Sharon

158

Principles of nuclear geology  

SciTech Connect

This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

Aswathanarayana, U.

1985-01-01

159

Oceanography - Marine Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.

Mcduff, Russell

160

Comprehending Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can use this calculator to create your own metaphor for geologic time. The history of the could be the the distance from your home to school - you can figure out where dinosaurs would be on the trip. Or the history of time could be the length of a class - and you could figure how much of the class you have to sit through before intelligence appears.

2008-02-07

161

Geology: Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is based on work by researcher Christopher Scotese of the University of Texas, Arlington. It is from the University of California, Berkeley, and it provides black-and-white animations based on Scotese's paleogeographic maps; these animations are organized by time period and offer the viewer insights into the shifting of the continents through different time periods. Both sites provide a fascinating geologic historical perspective and will be of great interest to researchers and educators, alike.

162

Coastal Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-02-03

163

Coastal Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coastlines are places of continuous, often dramatic geological activity. They change daily and seasonally, but especially over long time periods. This interactive feature discusses the forces that help shape coastal landforms like cliffs and beaches. Topics include waves, tides, and currents; weathering, erosion, and deposition; and other factors, such as the activity of organisms and human modifications. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

164

Pattern Alteration: Special Alterations for Pants  

E-print Network

circumference alterations. Make all crotch depth alterations on front and back pattern pieces. To shorten: 1. Fold the pattern by the amount you need along the lengthening and shortening line designated on the pattern at the hip line. 2. Tape the pattern... the pattern apart at the hip lengthening and shorten- ing line. Figure 1. 2 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3...

2006-08-04

165

Geologic Photo Field Trips to View Rocks, Geologic Structures, and Landforms in Introductory Physical Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Field photographs are used to enhance the instruction in teaching rocks, geologic structures, and landforms in Introductory Physical Geology lecture at East Carolina University. The field photographs are used to enhance the visual component of Physical Geology and are focused on rock outcrops (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic), geologic structures (faults and folds), and landforms (volcanic, weathering-erosion, mass wasting, fluvial, wind-desert, coastal, and karst).

Harper, Stephen B.

166

A Formative Assessment of Geologic Time for High School Earth Science Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science courses typically include the concept of geological time. The authors of this study attempt to move past traditional assessment practices and develop a formative assessment of students' understanding of the construction of the geologic time scale and how it is interpreted. Through this approach students are challenged to conceptualize the geologic time scale by comparing it to a student-produced time scale for an older adult's life. This formative assessment allows the teacher to alter instruction based on students' feedback in order to maximize student understanding of geologic time.

2004-05-01

167

Pattern Alteration: Shoulder Slope  

E-print Network

Determining the amount of alteration needed for square or sloping shoulders depends on observation and past experience in fitting home-sewn and purchased garments. This publication gives alteration instructions for basic bodices and kimono style...

2006-05-05

168

Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the length of the island and to American troop movement. This unique topography forced innovative tactics ranging from reverse slope defense to "blowtorch and corkscrew" offense in response. During this exercise, students apply their map-reading and interpretation skills, as well as their critical analysis abilities; the historical context, in turn, provides motivation to refine those skills. Sun Tzu wrote that all warfare is based on deception. What we hope to communicate to students with this activity is that much of warfare, and, more broadly, the way humans interact with the world, is inherently and undeniably based on geology.

Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

2005-12-01

169

Structural Geology and Geomechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The teaching and research program, Structural Geology and Geomechanics at Stanford University, concentrates on brittle deformation in the earth's crust as well as fracturing and faulting of rocks under ductile conditions. Researchers can learn about the group's research which effectively unites field observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical modeling. Scientists can learn about the program's software such as the Poly3Dinv which uses triangular dislocations to solve linear inverse problems. The site also publicizes the Stanford Rock Fracture Project, which researches rock fractures, crustal deformation, and fluid flow.

170

Geologic mapping of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

2014-11-01

171

Geology in North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Geosciences at North Dakota State University educates visitors about the geologic features and landforms of North Dakota through clear text and astonishing images at this website. In the Glacial Features of North Dakota link, visitors can learn about end moraines, eskers, kettle lakes, and kames. Educators can find amazing photographs of mass wasting including creep, slope failure, and slumps. Users can also find materials on stream features and satellite imagery of North Dakota. While the website concentrates on North Dakota, the materials can be a great addition to any earth science or geomorphology class.

172

The Geologic Time Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a large, easy to read, detailed geologic time scale for the Phanerozoic Eon (544 million years ago - Present). This is the period of time, also known as an eon, between the end of the Precambrian and today. The Phanerozoic begins with the start of the Cambrian period, 544 million years ago. It encompasses the period of abundant, complex life on Earth. The chart includes the Era, Period or System, and the Epoch or Series and features a brief description of each.

173

Geology Online Laboratory Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 16 labs in this manual cover specific subjects from a range of topics including mineralogy, sedimentology, litho- and biostratigraphy, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, relative dating, and geologic map interpretation. Labs contain reference text, photos, illustrations, diagrams, and classification charts which prepare students for the accompanying exercises. Answers are not provided and labs are not designed for online interaction, but hard copies of the lab manual are available for purchase from the Georgia Perimeter College Online Bookstore. A link from the site provides ordering information and instructions.

Gore, P.; College, Georgia P.

174

geology.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse features an extensive selection of maps, imagery, news articles, and other Earth science resources. Highlights include an interactive map of meteor impact structures, an interactive map showing the highest points in the 50 states, and a state-by-state directory of imagery, maps, and links to geological information. There are also listings for imagery for U.S. cities and the continents, a map of the most dangerous volcanoes in the U.S., a mineral identification chart, and information on stream discharge monitoring.

2006-01-01

175

Geologic Mapping and Geologic History: Sheep Mountain, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Half way through the second semester of our year-long integrated Sed/Strat and Structure course we travel to Sheep Mountain, Wyoming where the students spend 5 days describing and measuring section and the constructing geologic and structural maps. The field data gathered then form the basis for a paper titled: "Geologic History of the Sheep Mountain Region". In addition to simply making geologic maps, stratigraphic sections and structural cross-sections, the students have to put the local geology into the broader contexts of the Big Horn Basin and sequences of western orogenies.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

176

Geologic Mapping of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

Price, Katherine H.

1998-05-01

177

Geology 450: Introduction to Field Geology Spring 2014  

E-print Network

and no final exam. You will be graded on the exercises, field notes and geologic maps produced throughout the semester Grades Grades will be based on: 1) note books 20%, 2) geologic maps 60%, 3) exercises 20% 90 14 4/18 Hicks Dome 15 4/25 Dog Town Hollow Pere Marquette SP (Camp) 5/2 DTH

Nickrent, Daniel L.

178

Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the geologic framework model (200 feet [61 meters]), discussed in Section 6.4.2, limits the size of features that can be resolved by the model but is appropriate for the distribution of data available and its intended use. Uncertainty and limitations are discussed in Section 6.6 and model validation is discussed in Section 7.

T. Vogt

2004-08-26

179

Geology of Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

2004-01-01

180

Essentials of Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From subduction to the world of hot spot volcanoes, this online resource for students and teachers of geology will please users with its fun and useful animations, crossword puzzles, and well-written articles. The site was designed to complement a textbook created by W.W. Norton, but many of the materials can be used as stand-alone exercises. Visitors will want to begin by looking through the visually enticing animations, which cover the Earth's magnetic field, the spread of the sea floor, and the formation of ocean crust. All told, there are over sixty animations, and teachers may wish to recommend them to students. Additionally, visitors should note that they can also browse through the materials offered on the site by clicking on the chapter listings located near the top of the screen. It's hard to pass up a crossword puzzle, and visitors may find themselves spending more time there than at any other part of the site.

Marshak, Stephen

2008-02-18

181

Geology orbiter comparison study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

1977-01-01

182

Geologic mapping of Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central, rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P. H.; Williams, D. A.; Chuang, F. C.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Kadel, S. D.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Head, III, J. W.; Collins, G. C.; Spaun, N. A.; Sullivan, R. J.; Moore, J. M.; Senske, D. A.; Tufts, B. R.; Johnson, T. V.; Belton, M. J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.

2000-01-01

183

Viruses as new agents of organomineralization in the geological record.  

PubMed

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities throughout marine and terrestrial ecosystems, but little is known about virus-mineral interactions or the potential for virus preservation in the geological record. Here we use contextual metagenomic data and microscopic analyses to show that viruses occur in high diversity within a modern lacustrine microbial mat, and vastly outnumber prokaryotes and other components of the microbial mat. Experimental data reveal that mineral precipitation takes place directly on free viruses and, as a result of viral infections, on cell debris resulting from cell lysis. Viruses are initially permineralized by amorphous magnesium silicates, which then alter to magnesium carbonate nanospheres of ~80-200?nm in diameter during diagenesis. Our findings open up the possibility to investigate the evolution and geological history of viruses and their role in organomineralization, as well as providing an alternative explanation for enigmatic carbonate nanospheres previously observed in the geological record. PMID:24989676

Pacton, Muriel; Wacey, David; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Kilburn, Matt R; Gorin, Georges E; Danovaro, Roberto; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

2014-01-01

184

Proceedings of the international symposium on remote sensing of environment. Third thematic conference:Remote sensing for exploration geology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the remote sensing of petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered at the conference included Landsat imagery, tectonics, a geologic database for petroleum exploration, lithology, hydrothermal alteration mapping, artificial intelligence, geothermal exploration, petroleum geology, geobotany, infrared spectral studies, carbonate rocks, radar, microcomputer-based digital image processing, and terrain mapping for exploration surveys.

Not Available

1984-01-01

185

Geology of the Black Hills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presents a virtual geology field trip of the Black Hills. The topics that are covered include the general geology of the area, engineering and environmental issues, economic uses such as gold mining and bentonite recovery, and fossils. This site also features a clickable map that displays the location, information, and photographs of interesting stops in the Black Hills.

University, South D.

186

Photomicrography in the Geological Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the conversion of a standard biological brightfield microscope for examination of thin sections and characterize, in detail, the use of both black and white and color photomicrography in the geological sciences. Several illustrative examples on the use of transmitted and reflected polarized-light microscopy to solve geological problems…

Davidson, Michael W.

1991-01-01

187

Geology of the BK9 kimberlite (Damtshaa, Botswana): implications for the formation of dark volcaniclastic kimberlite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BK9 kimberlite consists of three overlapping pipes. It contains two dark varieties of massive volcaniclastic kimberlite, informally termed dark volcaniclastic kimberlite (DVK). DVK(ns) is present in the north and south pipes and is interbedded with lenses of basalt breccia at the margins of the pipes. DVK(c) is present within the central pipe where it is overlain by a sequence of basalt breccias with interbedded volcanogenic sediments. The features observed within the DVK units of the BK9 kimberlite provide strong evidence for gas fluidisation of the accumulating pyroclastic material. These include the massive interior of the pipes, marginal epiclastic units, well-dispersed country-rock xenoliths and small-scale heterogeneities in lithic clast abundance. The upper portions of the central pipe provide a record of the transition from pyroclastic eruption and infill to passive epiclastic infilling of the crater, after the eruption has ceased. The wall-rock of the BK9 kimberlite dips inwards and is interpreted as post pipe-fill subsidence of the adjacent country rock. The two DVK units contain interstitial, silt-sized pyroclasts. The DVK(ns) has a higher fraction of former melt and displays evidence of incipient welding, as a result of differences in eruption dynamics. These units demonstrate that whilst DVK is comparable in many respects to MVK and forms part of a spectrum of volcaniclastic rocks formed by fluidisation, it differs in frequently containing silt-sized particles and including agglutinated and welded varieties with a high melt fraction. The DVK varieties, studied here, also have a distinctive hydrothermal assemblage, resulting from the abundance of low-silica accidental lithic clasts. Both the hydrothermal alteration and the abundance of silt-sized particles contribute to the DVKs distinctive dark colour.

Buse, B.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Field, M.; Schumacher, J. C.; Chisi, K.; Tlhaodi, T.

2011-10-01

188

The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and therefore strengthened the greenhouse effect by pressure broadening the absorption of greenhouse gases. In addition,the behaviour of N is dependent on redox conditions in the ocean, which have not been constant over time.

Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

2013-12-01

189

Geology of Earth's Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

190

Geology of Brunei deltas, exploration status updated  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes the petroleum geology of Negara Brunei Darussalam, the smallest but oil and gas richest country in Northwest Borneo. The paper describes the exploration history, Brunei geology, structural geology, main hydrocarbon reservoirs, seals, formation pressures, and current exploration.

Schreurs, J. [Brunei Shell Petroleum Co.Sdn. Bhd., Seria (Brunei Darussalam)

1997-08-04

191

The Essence of Urban Environmental Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides 60 quotations relating to urban geology, geologic hazards, engineering aspects of land use, urban resources, and geology and regional planning which have proven useful in developing central themes for lecture topics and student projects. (SL)

McKenzie, Garry D.; And Others

1978-01-01

192

Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter B  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This collection of 43 short papers is the first published chapter of 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Conservation, Geologic, Topographic, and Water Resources Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done during fiscal year 1966, together with lists of investigations in progress, reports published, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices. 'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh volume of the annual series Geological Survey Research. The six volumes already published are listed below, with their series designations. Geological Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Geological Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Geological Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Geological Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Geological Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Geological Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525

1966-01-01

193

Geological Sciences Jeffrey D. Keith, Chair  

E-print Network

, plate tectonics, geochemistry, geophysics, paleontology, environmental geology, petroleum geology, hydrogeology, paleoclimatology, and planetary geology. Career Opportunities Graduates have the opportunity. Tectonism and plutonism in the northeast Appalachians. Trips to more distant localities (e.g., Italy, Great

Hart, Gus

194

Mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic ERTS imagery has been used to pinpoint surface conditions associated with known mining districts. These include enhancements which depict hitherto unrecognized surface alteration and allow analysis of ore-controlling fractures distribution in a regional context. ERTS has likewise provided observational data containing previously unrecognized surface anomalies in large oil-producing basins which correlate closely with known oil fields. These observational data offer promise of providing new and powerful techniques for oil exploration, especially if further work using more sophisticated enhancement-processing proves capable of emphasizing the anomalies. ERTS is showing a better-than-anticipated potential for producing accurate small-scale (large-area) geologic maps, often containing details that were previously not recorded on similar regional maps. The maps produced from ERTS imagery can be prepared more effectively than previously possible, mainly because of the synoptic, multispectral, and repetitive character of ERTS data. ERTS has also provided extensive information on possible geologic hazards. Many new fractures have been identified in several regions of the Pacific Coast seismic belt that have histories of recent earthquakes. This has obvious implications for engineering projects such as dams, aqueducts, and transportation routes. In the mid-continent area, ERTS data have been used to predict zones of rooffall danger in a working coal mine from newly discovered lineations (probably fractures) used as indicators of hazards.

Short, N. M.

1974-01-01

195

Uranium geology of Bulgaria  

SciTech Connect

Three major uranium districts containing several deposits, plus 32 additional deposits, have been identified in Bulgaria, all of which are detailed geologically in this article. Most of the deposits are located in the West Balkan mountains, the western Rhodope mountains, and the Thracian Basin. A few deposits occur in the East Balkan, eastern Rhodope and Sredna Gora mountains. The types of deposits are sandstone, vein, volcanic, and surficial. Sandstone deposits are hosted in Permian and Tertiary sediments. In early 1992, fifteen deposits were being exploited, of which roughly 70 percent of the uranium produced was being recovered using in-situ leaching (ISL) methods. The remainder was being recovered by conventional underground mining, except for one small deposit that utilized open-pit methods. Fifteen other Bulgarian deposits had been exhausted, while five deposits were still in the exploration stage. Uranium production began in Bulgaria in 1946, and cumulative production through 1991 exceeded 100 million pounds equivalent U3O8. Current annual production is on the order of one million pounds equivalent U3O8, about 750 thousand pounds of which are recovered by ISL operations.

Not Available

1993-02-01

196

Amazing Altered Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

Kieling, Linda W.

2006-01-01

197

Why Alter Milk Composition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are multiple reasons to alter milk composition. This paper delineates and discusses the processing, economic, regulatory, marketing, dietary, and future trends affecting alteration of milk compo- sition. The ability to divide milk into various components creates a multitude of products that can be used as ingredi- ents in both food and nonfood manufac- turing. In almost every use, there

David H. Hettinga

1989-01-01

198

Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2009  

E-print Network

Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2009 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range.5 - 55.8 Mesozoic Cretaceous 145.5 - 65.5 Jurassic 199.6 - 145.5 Triassic 251.0 - 199.6 Paleozoic Permian 299.0 - 251.0 Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Sub-period 318.1 - 299.0 Mississippian Sub-period 359

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

199

Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2011  

E-print Network

Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2011 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range 65.5 - 55.8 Mesozoic Cretaceous 145.5 - 65.5 Jurassic 201.5 - 145.5 Triassic 252.3 - 201.5 Paleozoic Permian 299.0 - 252.3 Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Sub-period 318.1 - 299.0 Mississippian Sub-period 359

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

200

Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2012  

E-print Network

Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2012 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range.332 Oligocene 33.9 - 23.03 Eocene 56.0 - 33.9 Paleocene 66.0 - 56.0 Cretaceous 145.0 - 66.0 Jurassic 201.3 - 145.0 Triassic 252.2 - 201.3 Permian 298.9 - 252.2 Pennsylvanian Sub-period 323.2 - 298.9 Mississippian Sub-period

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

201

Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is harmonised and stored it in a database. The analysis of the database allows to compile and print the 1:5000 scale urban geological map according to the 1:5000 topographic grid of Catalonia. The map is composed by a principal map, geologic cross sections and several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also includes the main artificial deposits (such as infilled river valleys and road embankments), very recent or current superficial deposits, contours of outcropping areas, structural data and other relevant information gathered in stations, sampling points, boreholes indicating the thickness of artificial deposits and the depth of the pre-quaternary basement, contour lines of the top of the pre-quaternary basement surface and, water level data. The complementary maps and charts may change depending on the gathered data, the geological features of the area and the urban typology. However, the most representative complementary maps that includes the printed urban map are the quaternary subsurface bedrock map and the isopach map of thickness of quaternary and anthropogenic deposits. The map also includes charts and tables of relevant physical and chemical parameters of the geological materials, harmonised downhole lithological columns from selected boreholes, and, photographs and figures illustrating the geology of the mapped area and how urbanisation has changed the natural environment. The object of this systematic urban mapping survey is to provide a robust database to be used in targeted studies related to urban planning, geoengineering works, soil pollution and other important environmental issues that society should deal in the future.

Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

2010-05-01

202

Perspectives in geology. Circular 525  

SciTech Connect

The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

Not Available

1982-01-01

203

Internet Community for Geological Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A site containing multiple resources for geological engineers. Contains current news headlines in oil, energy, and mining; information on borehole breakouts, hydraulic fracturing, core discing, pressurized slot testing, nuclear high level waste disposal, and water infrastructure security.

2008-10-06

204

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS UNDERGRADUATE  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS UNDERGRADUATE SURVIVAL MANUAL 2013-2014 SCHOOL OF OCEAN & EARTH at Manoa requirements 3 School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology requirements 4 Departmental Student, stimulating opportunities for multidisciplinary discoveries of great intellectual and practical importance

205

Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will briefly discuss carbon capture and storage options, mechanisms and costs. Risks from geologic storage risks will be addressed and the need for monitoring. Some current field studies will be described.

Myer, Larry R.

2008-09-01

206

JiTT - Geologic Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) How are zircons formed? 2) Which of the following statements describes relative geologic dating? a) the Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus rex went extinct at the same time b) dinosaurs came later than horseshoe ...

Guertin, Laura

207

Geological mapping of the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compilation and labelling of geological and morphological charts on a scale of 1:1,000,000 are discussed with emphasis on the regions of Maria Tranquilitatis, Crisium, Fecunditatis, Humorum and Nukium as well as certain prominent craters.

Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.; Trifonov, V. G.; Florenskiy, P. V.; Shkerin, L. M.

1974-01-01

208

Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

Schrader, Christian

2009-01-01

209

Physical Geology on the Fringe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Robert C. Thomas, The University of Montana Western Summary This 3-week field trip includes a 5-day field excursion that explores the geology and cultural history of the Khumbu region of Nepal, the famous ...

210

Central American geologic map project  

SciTech Connect

During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

Dengo, G.

1986-07-01

211

Bedrock geologic map of Vermont  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L., Jr.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

2011-01-01

212

The Bureau of Economic Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The homepage of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology provides links to information on the Bureau's research and industrial associates programs, its publications, news and events, and presentations by Bureau staff. A section for teachers and students includes on-line learning modules, which investigate earth science topics including soils, meteorites, floods and oil wells, as well as a coastal monitoring program for high school students and publications of general interest on Texas geology.

213

Central American geologic map project  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology,

Dengo

1986-01-01

214

Quaternary geologic map of Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Quaternary Geologic Map of Minnesota is a compilation based both on the unique characteristics of satellite imagery and on the results of previous field investigations, both published and unpublished. The use of satellite imagery has made possible the timely and economical construction of this map. LANDSAT imagery interpretation proved more useful than expected. Most of the geologic units could be identified by extrapolating from specific sites where the geology had been investigated into areas where little was known. The excellent geographic registry coupled with the multi-spectral record of these images served to identify places where the geologic materials responded to their ecological environment and where the ecology responded to the geologic materials. Units were well located on the map at the scale selected for the study. Contacts between till units could be placed with reasonable accuracy. The reference points that were used to project delineations between units (rivers, lakes, hills, roads and other features), which had not been accurately located on early maps, could be accurately located with the help of the imagery. The tonal and color contrasts, the patterns reflecting geologic change and the resolution of the images permitted focusing attention on features which could be represented at the final scale of the map without distraction by other interesting but site-specific details.

Goebel, J. E.

1977-01-01

215

Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

Finkelman, R.B.

2006-01-01

216

Geological myths and reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ost?ihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní H?rka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating body exposed to strong tidal action of Moon and Sun. Ostrihansky, L.: The structure of the earth's crust and the heat-flow--heat-generation relationship in the Bohemian Massif. Tectonophysics, 68(3-4), 325-337, doi:10.1016/0040-1951(80)90182-1 1980.

Ostrihansky, Lubor

2014-05-01

217

Metabolic alteration in tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Altered metabolism in cancer was first discovered by Otto Warburg early last century. Although the Warburg Effect has been widely used in tumor detection, relatively little progress had been made in mechanistic understanding of cancer metabolism in the subsequent eight decades. Genetic studies have recently identified mutations in human cancer targeting multiple enzymes involved in intermediate metabolism. One emerging mechanism common to these mutant enzymes is the accumulation of a metabolite that alters the epigenetic control. PMID:24114443

Yang, Hui; Xiong, Yue; Guan, KunLiang

2013-12-01

218

Geological Society of America Bulletin doi: 10.1130/B25738.1  

E-print Network

it into plutons. Second, piles of rock fragments have sufficiently high porosities (~50%) that a significant liquids derived from wall rocks and xenoliths is common, geo- chemical data from many plutons clearly rule of America Bulletin Allen F. Glazner and John M. Bartley Is stoping a volumetrically significant pluton

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

219

Geological Education Since GEO-Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GEO-Study, an NSF-sponsored study, conducted by the American Geological Institute (1962-64) to examine the educational environment of 44 geology departments, initiating a change in United States geological education. Discusses the early years of development and study (emphasizing undergraduate geological education) and the last 10 years during…

Coash, John R.

1982-01-01

220

Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology is the principal source of earth science information for the citizens of Montana. The bureau provides extensive advisory, technical, and informational services on geologic, mineral, energy, and water resources in the state of Montana. This includes earthquake studies, environmental assessment, Geographic Information Services (GIS), geology and minerals, groundwater, mines information, coal, state mapping, and more. The publications database contains all Bureau publications as well as U.S. Geological Survey publications related to Montana geology.

221

OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For

Kristine Asch; Agnes Tellez-Arenas

2010-01-01

222

Conversion of geologic quadrangle maps to geologic coverages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three hundred sixty-eight geologic map$ of 7-1/2 minute quadrangles in Tennessee were coverted to geographic information system (GIS) coverages. The procedure used was documented and a list was made of the quadrangles included in the coverages. Maps were converted to GIS coverages by making film copies of scribecoats of the maps. The film copies were scanned, vectorized, and written into a generate format. Coverage polygons were tagged with symbels to identify geologic units, and coverage lines were tagged with line types to designate stratigraphic contacts.

Connell, Joseph F.; Barron, William R.; Mitchell, Reavis L.

1994-01-01

223

Recent geologic activity on Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the MESSENGER spacecraft was inserted into orbit about Mercury in March 2011, global and targeted high-resolution image data sets have been acquired. These images support the conclusion that internal geological activity on Mercury did not end early in planetary history, as had generally been previously thought, but continued to geologically recent times. Three lines of evidence point to recent geological activity on Mercury. (1) There are smooth plains with surface areas up to 1.5×105 km2 that postdate young (morphological class 1) craters, indicating probable Kuiperian-aged volcanism. No volcanic vents, fissures, or flow fronts have been identified on these plains, suggesting that they are products of low-viscosity lavas, consistent with komatiite-like compositions of large areas on Mercury indicated by MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer observations. (2) Young lobate scarps transect class 1 craters as large as 30 km in diameter, indicating comparably recent crustal contraction. (3) A number of fresh-appearing, high-reflectance, irregularly shaped and rimless shallow depressions interpreted as pyroclastic vents have few superposed craters, suggesting that they have been recently active. Growing evidence from geological and geochemical observations indicates that Mercury's interior contains a higher abundance of volatile materials than was previously appreciated. Together these findings support the inference that Mercury experienced relatively recent volcanism and tectonic deformation, and the possibility that the planet is geologically active today cannot be discounted.

Xiao, Z.; Strom, R. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Chabot, N. L.; Banks, M. E.; Chapman, C. R.

2011-12-01

224

Physical Geology: Idaho Field Trip  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This optional field trip is designed to augment the in-class learning experience in introductory physical geology by providing students the opportunity to see firsthand local geological features and understand their context in the long-term tectonic evolution of the western United States. The university is conveniently located in a portion of the American west where a plethora of geological features are readily accessible over a total field trip duration of 6 hours. Over a total of 6 field stops, students are presented with an opportunity to observe features relevant to topics learned in class involving rock types, volcanic features (lava flows and ash fall deposits), faults and folds, mass wasting features, catastrophic flood deposits (Bonneville and Missoula floods), and loess deposits.

Kattenhorn, Simon

225

Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM) "is dedicated to the dissemination of scientific information on sedimentology, stratigraphy, paleontology, environmental sciences, marine geology, hydrogeology, and many additional related specialties." The website presents the latest and upcoming meetings, workshops, and other events. Individuals can find newsletters of the many SEPM sections and information on publications. Users can learn about the scientific achievements of many geologists in the Awards & Metals link. Students and researchers can discover the benefits of a SEPM membership including short courses and field trip opportunities.

226

Geology on a Sand Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.

Kane, Jacqueline

2004-09-01

227

Geology of the American Southwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scott Baldridge presents a concise guide to the geology of the Southwestern U.S. Two billion years of Earth history are represented in the rocks and landscape of the Southwest U.S., creating natural wonders such as the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley, and Death Valley. This region is considered a geologist's "dream", attracting a large number of undergraduate field classes and amateur geologists. The volume will prove invaluable to students and will also appeal to anyone interested in the geology and landscape of the region's National Parks.

Baldridge, W. Scott

2004-06-01

228

Geology 106 Environmental Geology Schedule Spring 2009 MWF  

E-print Network

12 Geology and Stream Chemistry MF Apr 1317 Alternative Energy Water Pollution 13 Water/Wastewater Treatment, Text p. 388392 MF Apr 2024 Test Monday through Alt Energy Water Pollution Air Pollution Movement Waste Disposal p. 372389 7 Landfill MF Mar 26 Test Monday through Mass Movement Water

Kirby, Carl S.

229

Environmental Geology Major www.geology.pitt.edu/uprogs.html  

E-print Network

, including the quality of air, water, and soil. Geology majors have hiked the Appalachian Trail, gone BIOSC 0150 Foundations of Biology 1 Chemistry requirements CHEM 0110 General Chemistry 1 CHEM 0120 three credits of a non-introductory course in one of these disciplines: BIOSC, CEE, CHEM, CS, MATH

Jiang, Huiqiang

230

77 FR 38318 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs. The...National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program. DATES...National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program Advisory Committee are open to the Public. Dated:...

2012-06-27

231

76 FR 19783 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Geological Survey on planning and implementation of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs. The Committee will hear updates on progress of the NCGMP toward fulfilling the purposes of the National Geological Mapping Act of 1992; the...

2011-04-08

232

78 FR 57877 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Geological Survey on planning and implementation of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs. The Committee will hear updates on progress of the NCGMP toward fulfilling the purposes of the National Geological Mapping Act of 1992, as well as...

2013-09-20

233

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND PLANETARY SCIENCE  

E-print Network

years, Spring, TBA] ____ GEOL 1313 W - Scientific Communication for Environmental Professionals (3BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND PLANETARY SCIENCE WWW" for a complete range of advising information plus the latest Environmental Geology requirements. CORE COURSES

Jiang, Huiqiang

234

Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna

2012-09-01

235

Action Alters Shape Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments show that action alters the shape categories formed by 2-year-olds. Experiment 1 shows that moving an object horizontally (or vertically) defines the horizontal (or vertical) axis as the main axis of elongation and systematically changes the range of shapes seen as similar. Experiment 2 shows that moving an object symmetrically (or…

Smith, Linda B.

2005-01-01

236

Pattern Alteration: Shoulder Length  

E-print Network

Wide or broad shoulders will cause the armhole seam line at the shoulder to pull inward and the cap of set-in sleeves to pull and ride up. Sleeves will appear too short and not hang properly. This publication gives instructions for altering a basic...

2006-08-04

237

Coordinated CRISM and Opportunity Observations to Characterize the Mineralogy and Geologic History of Meridiani Planum Outcrops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover has traversed over 30 km across Meridiani Planum since January 2004, acquiring numerous remote sensing and in-situ measurements of rocks and soils at dozens of locations. Over the past year Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM (0.362 to 3.92 micrometer imaging spectrometer) observations have been used to directly support planning of Opportunity traverses and locations for detailed remote sensing and in-situ measurements. As part of these coordinated observations CRISM's gimbaled optics have been used to spatially oversample acquisition of image data in the along-track direction (ATO or along track oversampled observations). This new acquisition mode allows sharpening the spatial detail from the normal ~18 m/pixel observations to values as small as ~6 m/pixel, with due formal consideration of the decrease in S/N with decreasing pixel sizes for retrieval of the 544 band spectra for each pixel. CRISM ATO observations show that mono-hydrated sulfates, most likely kieserite, outcrop on the walls of Victoria crater and the southeastern rim of Santa Maria crater. Unfortunately, the Victoria identifications are on the opposite side of the crater relative to where Opportunity made measurements of Victoria wall rocks. On the other hand, Opportunity was directed to Santa Maria's southeastern rim based on CRISM spectral reflectance data, spending the last solar conjunction period acquiring long-duration in-situ measurements of outcrop that likely carries the mono-hydrated sulfate signature. Additional ATO data collected over the relatively fresh, 2.3 km wide Ada crater located in southeastern Meridiani Planum show a similar mono-hydrated sulfate signature, implying that these deposits are widespread. Further, ATO observations allow detailed mapping of extensive hydrated sulfates in Botany Bay immediately to the south of Cape York, a rim segment of the largely buried, Noachian age Endeavour crater. Opportunity will cross these hydrated bedrock exposures on the way to Cape York outcrops. We will report on results from Opportunity's measurements on Victoria, Santa Maria, and Ada craters, together with measurements within Botany Bay, focusing on the synergistic use of Opportunity and CRISM observations to understand the mineralogy and geologic history of Meridiani Planum.

Arvidson, R. E.

2011-12-01

238

Application of plurigaussian simulation to delineate the layout of alteration domains in Sungun copper deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate estimation of mineral grades in ore deposits with heterogeneous spatial variations requires defining geological domains that differentiate the types of mineralogy, alteration and lithology. Deterministic models define the layout of the domains based on the interpretation of the drill holes and do not take into account the uncertainty in areas with fewer data. Plurigaussian simulation (PGS) can be an alternative to generate multiple numerical models of the ore body, with the aim of assessing the uncertainty in the domain boundaries and improving the geological controls in the characterization of quantitative attributes. This study addresses the application of PGS to Sungun porphyry copper deposit (Iran), in order to simulate the layout of four hypogene alteration zones: potassic, phyllic, propylitic and argillic. The aim of this study is to construct numerical models in which the alteration structures reflect the evolution observed in the geology.

Talebi, Hassan; Asghari, Omid; Emery, Xavier

2013-12-01

239

Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) is a research unit of the Mackay School of Mines at the University of Nevada, Reno and is the state geological survey. Scientists at NBMG conduct research and publish reports on mineral resources and various aspects of general, environmental, and engineering geology for the state of Nevada. There are on-line publications available to download, geologic maps, K-12 educational resources for teaching about Nevada geology, and a photo and image archive of the state. Links are provided for further information about the state and general geology resources.

240

GEOLOGY, January 2010 59 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

). Many papers have described some asym- metric spreading, differences in geometry and subsidence between of the Earth's lithosphere-asthenosphere system (Shapiro and Ritzwoller, 2002). The sections are per: 10.1130/G30570.1; 4 figures; Data Repository item 2010010. © 2010 Geological Society of America

Doglioni, Carlo

241

Dr. Bob's Geologic Time Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of mnemonic devices to aid in learning the various periods and epochs of the geologic time scale which the author has assembled from a variety of contributors. Contributor email addresses are included. There are also mnemonic devices for Moh's hardness scale and for stratigraphic sequences from the Canyonlands-San Juan River area and the Grand Canyon.

Jorstad, Bob

2001-05-14

242

Infrared Analysis of Geological Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the infrared analysis of geological specimens which can form the basis of a laboratory exercise, allowing some minerals to be identified by "fingerprint" technique. Students can gain insight into the concept of symmetry and environment around an atom. (Author/SA)

Brown, Alan; Clark, E. Roy

1980-01-01

243

Introductory Geology: Aspects and Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are essays presenting diversified views on questions related to problems, procedures and the impact of the Introductory Course Program (ICP) in geology. The papers of this issue deal with such factors as the financial survival in curricular design and introductory course options, the problems of transfer of majors which may place…

Bowen, John E.; And Others

244

Geology in the Junior School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggested is that geology can contribute significantly to the general education of our students from the point of view of relevance and increasing understanding of the planet we inhabit which should be learned as a series of interacting processes involving a time dimension. Several curriculum projects are outlined. (Author/DS)

McIntyre, Norm

1979-01-01

245

Ore Geology and Mineral Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of research work on Ore geology and mineral resources, during the report period (2004-2008) reveals equitable outputs for the precious metals (Au, Ag, PGE), atomic minerals (U), and base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn), modest efforts made for Cr, Sn, W and some rare metals, with less emphasis on Fe and Mn. Again, like the previous reports, the non metals

BISWAJIT MISHRA; MIHIR DEB

246

Evolution of Birds Geology 331  

E-print Network

feathered theropod #12;Cladogram showing evolution of improved flight capabilities in birds #12Evolution of Birds Geology 331 Paleontology #12;Archaeopteryx, the first bird. Its skeleton ancestry of birds · Morphologic similarities · Cladistic analysis · Feathered Fossils from China · Dino

Kammer, Thomas

247

GEOLOGY, September 2010 823 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

numerical models constrained by global positioning system (GPS) observations and Geology, September 2010; v of dynamic modeling of the western Mediterranean that accounts for observed global positioning system (GPS External zone AH eq NUBIAN Rif Major thrust faults 4 5 6 Spain Med. sea Mo Figure 1. Global positioning

Demouchy, Sylvie

248

Weird Geology: The Devil's Tower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a brief introduction to the several theories about the geological processes that formed Devil's Tower, which rises 1,267 feet above the nearby Belle Fourche River and is still considered a sacred place by some Native American Tribes. Information on climbing the tower as well as images and a cross section are provided.

Krystek, Lee; Mystery, The M.

249

The Lapworth Museum of Geology  

E-print Network

subjects aimed at students, amateur enthusiasts, and the general public. Please see the website or contact) Nearby attractions Barber Institute of Fine Arts (see map) University of Birmingham Botanic Garden take place on evenings during University term time. These lectures are on a wide range of geological

Birmingham, University of

250

Geological storage of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is the main compound identified as affecting the stability of the Earth's climate. A significant reduction in the volume of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere is a key mechanism for mitigating against climate change. Geological storage of CO 2, or the injection and stabilization of large volumes of CO 2 in the subsurface in saline aquifers, existing

S. J. Baines; RICHARD H. WORDEN

2004-01-01

251

GEOLOGY, April 2008 275 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

coastal Alaska (Brocher et al., 1994). In the Cascadia subduction zone (Fig. 1B), the Juan de Fuca plateGEOLOGY, April 2008 275 INTRODUCTION Subduction zones transport water into Earth's interior of the downgoing plate, none of which is well known. Recent seismic observations of subduction zones show

van Keken, Peter

252

Historical Geology Online Laboratory Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The laboratories in this manual cover the following topics: rocks and minerals, weathering of rocks and the formation of sediment, sedimentary rocks and structures, depositional sedimentary environments, sand sieve analysis, relative dating, stratigraphy and lithologic correlation, fossils on the Internet, invertebrate macrofossils, microfossils, preservation, biostratigraphy, evolution, vertebrate paleontology, and interpreting geologic history from maps.

Gore, Pamela

1982-01-01

253

Structural Geology: Deformation of Rocks  

E-print Network

Geology Field Camp #12;Overturned folds: anticline-syncline pair in the core of an ancient mountain system;Complex Folds · Formed by intense deformation in mountain ranges. · Usually the result of multiple folds in meta-sediments, Scotland #12;Complex folding in 1.2 Ga meta-sediments, Adirondack Mtns. of New

Kammer, Thomas

254

GEOLOGY, November 2010 975 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

GEOLOGY, November 2010 975 INTRODUCTION Recent interest has focused on the Himalaya and Tibet and the monsoon climate of south and southeast Tibet in transporting sus- pended sediment. Following- mate of the region and that in this environment large floods control channel form. A detailed analysis

Montgomery, David R.

255

Briefing on geological sequestration (Tulsa)  

EPA Science Inventory

Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media ? primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

256

GEOLOGY, January 2008 35 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

GEOLOGY, January 2008 35 INTRODUCTION An important component of soil formation is the chemical a variety of methods in noneroding landscapes where the soil age is the time elapsed since the stabilization weathering of primary minerals. In quantifying mineral chemical weathering rates, one approach has been

257

Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities  

SciTech Connect

Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

Rempe, N.T.

1995-12-31

258

U.S. Geological Survey: Coastal and Marine Geology Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologists, meteorologists, disaster specialists and others will find much to engage their attention on this website. Created by the United States Geological Survey, this site provides succinct overviews of a range of topics from the National Coastal Program Plan to El Nino, erosion, and sea-level change. Teachers should click on the drop down Content Type menu to access the Educational Materials area. Here they will find over 100 resources that highlight ocean mapping projects, core geology work, and ocean acidification. Visitors may also browse through these resources looking for movies, maps, data sets, photographs, and more. Additionally, visitors can learn about the program's field centers, located in St. Petersburg, Woods Hole, and Menlo Park.

2012-02-28

259

The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

Carr, M. H. (editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

1984-01-01

260

Geology, Environmental Science, Geography, Environmental Management  

E-print Network

2011 Geology, Environmental Science, Geography, Environmental Management Postgraduate Handbook #12 Environmental Management 14 Environmental Science 18 Geography 22 Geographic Information Science 26 Geology, Environmental Science, Geography, Environmental Management Postgraduate Handbook Editors David Hayward, Ilse

Goodman, James R.

261

Park Geology: Tour of National Parks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great site from the National Park Service, Geologic Resources Division provides information on geologic features of our national parks. The site is aimed at a young audience (K-8), but is a pleasure to browse for anyone. Organizing the site by geologic features (e.g., Hot Springs, Oldest Rocks, and Volcanoes) allows readers to compare the geology of various national parks and explore maps, photos and other related links.

262

Planetary geology in the 1980s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic aspects of solar system studies are defined and the goals of planetary geology are discussed. Planetary geology is the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of matter condensed in the form of planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. It is a multidisciplinary effort involving investigators with backgrounds in geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geodesy, cartography, and other disciplines concerned with the solid planets. The report is primarily restricted to the kinds of experiments and observations made through unmanned missions.

Veverka, J.

1984-01-01

263

Extreme Events in the Geological Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Xevents in the geological past exceeded the strengths and intensities observed for modern-day natural events. The number\\u000a of extraordinary events that occurred in the geological past is of course much larger than the number we witness today because\\u000a the geological timescale covers millions of years. This contribution focuses on these Xevents from earth’s geological history,\\u000a including selected examples from

Jürgen Herget

264

Geology Fieldnotes: Timpanogos National Monument, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Timpanogos Cave National Monument, in the Wasatch Mountains, features spectacularly decorated caverns, each of which has unique colors and formations. Features of the site include park geology information, maps, photographs of cave formations, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the caves' geologic history, structural geology, and details the discovery of the Hansen and Middle Caves (by Martin, George, and Wayne Hansen) and the Timpanogos Cave (by Veral Manwill).

265

Field Trip Guide to Serpentinite, Silica-Carbonate Alteration, and Related Hydrothermal Activity in the Clear Lake Region, California  

SciTech Connect

This guide is designed to familiarize scientists with the geology, structure, alteration, and fluids typical of California serpentinites for purposes of carbon dioxide sequestration (Lackner et al., 1995). Goff et al. (1997) and Goff and Lackner (1998) describe the geology and geochemistry of some of the serpentinites from this area. Mechanisms of silica-carbonate alteration were outlined by Barnes et al. (1973). Donnelly-Nolan et al. (1993) most recently reviewed relations between regional hydrothermal alteration and Quarternary volcanic activity. Stanley et al. (1998) summarized geophysical characteristics of the region.

Fraser Goff; George Guthrie

1999-06-01

266

Geological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place  

E-print Network

meteorite impacts III: Geological Society of America Special Paper 384, p. 1­24. For permission to copyGeological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place P.O. Box 9140 Boulder, CO 80301 (303) 447 and restrictions: Copyright © 2005, The Geological Society of America, Inc. (GSA). All rights reserved. Copyright

Collins, Gareth

267

Geological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place  

E-print Network

, in Kenkmann, T., Hörz, F., and Deutsch, A., eds., Large meteorite impacts III: Geological Society of America Society of America. Geological Society of America Special Paper 384 2005 Chicxulub impact ejecta depositsGeological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place P.O. Box 9140 Boulder, CO 80301 (303) 447

Kletetschka, Gunther

268

Geology Fieldnotes: Great Basin National Park, Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Great Basin National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, visitor information, and teacher features (educational resources and links for teaching geology using National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the region's biogeography, glacial history, and the Lehman Caves. A park map and a features/relief map of the Great Basin National Park are included.

269

Measuring Student Understanding of Geological Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been few discoveries in geology more important than "deep time"--the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and…

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

2003-01-01

270

Geology Fieldnotes: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore site contains park geology information, park maps, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the park's geologic history, dunes, moraines, and vegetation. The park maps section contains links to a park features map and a map of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.

271

Tour of Park Geology: Human Use Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides links to geolgy field notes about National Parks, National Monuments, and National Recreation Areas having to do with geology and human use (such as mining). Information includes geology, photographs, multimedia tools, park maps, visitor information, geologic research, and additional links. Parks covered include Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park, Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument, and more.

272

The Geologic Story of the Ocoee River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) highlights the geology of the Ocoee River, in the scenic Cherokee National Forest of southeastern Tennessee. This report covers the geologic history of the area, from 750 million years ago (Precambrian) to the present. Uses of the river, from dams to mining, are also discussed.

273

Geological carbon sequestration: critical legal issues  

E-print Network

Geological carbon sequestration: critical legal issues Ray Purdy and Richard Macrory January 2004 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 45 #12;1 Geological carbon sequestration an integrated assessment of geological carbon sequestration (Project ID code T2.21). #12;2 1 Introduction

Watson, Andrew

274

Geological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place  

E-print Network

.J., Ewert, J.W., Patino, L.C., and Vallance, J.W., Volcanic hazards in Central America: Geological SocietyGeological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place P.O. Box 9140 Boulder, CO 80301 (303) 447 and restrictions: Copyright © 2006, The Geological Society of America, Inc. (GSA). All rights reserved. Copyright

Rose, William I.

275

Computer image processing: Geologic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

Abrams, M. J.

1978-01-01

276

Fractals in geology and geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

Turcotte, Donald L.

1989-01-01

277

Geology of Badlands National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is an introduction to the 75 million years of accumulation and intermittent periods of erosion that has resulted in the Badlands National Park. The history of the Oglicene beds of the Park, one of the world's richest vertebrate fossil sites, is also described. A downloadable PDF that describes the erosion that is responsible for the geology of the Park in more detail is linked to the site.

National Park Service (NPS)

278

U.S. Geological Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) at Stennis Space Center is a unique high-tech facility that provides hydrologic instrumentation support to the U. S. Geological Survey and other federal agencies worldwide. The HIF has the responsibility for warehousing, testing, evaluating, designing, repairing, and calibrating numerous pieces of hydrologic instrumentation, which is used in studying water on the surface, in the soil, and in the atmosphere of the Earth.

1996-01-01

279

Geological causes of dam incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This General Report presents synoptic case histories of several dam failures or accidents where the mechanism for the incident\\u000a was related to the geology. The failures of Teton Dam, Baldwin Hills Reservoir, and Malpasset Dam are attributed, respectively,\\u000a to pervious rock, subsidence or pressurization of a fault, and reservoir induced pressure of abutment rock. The near catastrophe\\u000a of San Fernando

Ch. G. Flagg

1979-01-01

280

Geological Time Capsule Part I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief review of Earth history starts with the Archeozoic Period and goes through the Devonian Period. It explains time divisions and that the basic unit of geologic time is the period, which comprises two or more epochs, and that an era consists of two or more periods. The site goes on to explain what was happening in regard to plate tectonics and organic evolution in each of the periods through the Devonian Period.

Oberrecht, Kenn

2007-04-08

281

Geological Time Capsule Part I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief review of Earth history starts with the Archeozoic Period and goes through the Devonian Period. It explains time divisions and that the basic unit of geologic time is the period, which comprises two or more epochs, and that an era consists of two or more periods. The site goes on to explain what was happening in regard to plate tectonics and organic evolution in each of the periods through the Devonian Period.

282

Dione's spectral and geological properties  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a detailed analysis of the variations in spectral properties across the surface of Saturn's satellite Dione using Cassini/VIMS data and their relationships to geological and/or morphological characteristics as seen in the Cassini/ISS images. This analysis focuses on a local region on Dione's anti-saturnian hemisphere that was observed by VIMS with high spatial resolution during orbit 16 in October 2005. The results are incorporated into a global context provided by VIMS data acquired within Cassini's first 50 orbits. Our results show that Dione's surface is dominated by at least one global process. Bombardment by magnetospheric particles is consistent with the concentration of dark material and enhanced CO2 absorption on the trailing hemisphere of Dione independent of the geology. Local regions within this terrain indicate a special kind of resurfacing that probably is related to large-scale impact process. In contrast, the enhanced ice signature on the leading side is associated with the extended ejecta of the fresh impact crater Creusa (???49??N/76??W). Although no geologically active regions could be identified, Dione's tectonized regions observed with high spatial resolution partly show some clean H2O ice implying that tectonic processes could have continued into more recent times. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Wagner, R.; Clark, R.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Roatsch, T.; Hoffmann, H.; Brown, R.H.; Filiacchione, G.; Buratti, B.J.; Hansen, G.B.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Baines, K.H.

2010-01-01

283

Geologic mapping using thermal images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal radiance data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite has been used to measure surface reflectance data and to provide additional material composition information through remote sensing. The primary goal was to investigate the utility of HCMM data for geologic applications. Three techniques were used for displaying and combining thermal and visible near infrared (VNIR) data for two desert areas in southern California (Trona and Pisgah): color additive composites (CAC) for day and night IR and day VNIR, principal components, and calculation of thermal inertia images. The HCMM thermal data were more effective than Landsat data in producing separation of compositionally different areas including volcanic and intrusive rocks. The satellite CAC data produced an image for a 1 x 2 degree area, and the color picture was enlarged to a scale of 1:250,000. Playa composition, moisture content, presence of standing water, and vegetation cover were displayed in a variety of colors according to physical characteristics. Areas such as sand dunes were not distinguishable because of the coarse 500-mm HCMM resolution. HCMM thermal data have shown a new dimension to geologic remote sensing, and future satellite missions should allow the continued development of the thermal infrared data for geology.

Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Schieldge, J. P.

1984-01-01

284

Geologic Map of Loudoun County, Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The geology of Loudoun County, Va., was mapped from 1988 through 1991 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Loudoun County Office of Mapping and Geographic Information. This geologic map was compiled in 1993 from a series of detailed published and unpublished field investigations at scales of 1:12,000 and 1:24,000. Some of these same data were compiled as a digital geologic map at 1:100,000 scale (Burton and others, 1992a) and were the basis for a cost-benefit analysis of the societal value of geologic maps (Bernknopf and others, 1993).

Southworth, Scott; Burton, William C.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Froelich, Albert J.

2006-01-01

285

Genetically Altered Plant Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

2003-01-01

286

Val Verde basin study integrates gravity, magnetic, geologic data  

SciTech Connect

In early 1990, a study integrating gravity, magnetic, surface geology and subsurface geology was completed of a 1,250 mile sector of the Val Verde basin. The study's objective was to develop a perspective of the region's structural framework and priority prospect leads for site-specific evaluation by the more definitive yet much more expensive geochemical and seismic methods. To achieve these objectives, two main principles were applied: (1) that the structural disturbance of near-surface sedimentary formations and/or the geochemical alteration products caused by the microseepage of hydrocarbons give rise to geophysically measurable lateral changes in formation density, magnetization, conductivity, and so forth; (2) that certain survey methods are suited for reconnaissance while others are best utilized in the detailed definition phase of an exploration program and that the most cost-effective program is one in which several methods appropriate to the geologic setting are systematically applied in their ascending order of cost and definition. In 1993, a significant wildcat discovery, the Tom Brown-Conoco 1 ACU Strawn Field, in Terrell County, Tex., was drilled within the boundary of one of the study's prospect leads. This article presents the information potential of each of the methods applied and the benefits of weighing the information from each type of data against that of the others to better define the configuration and priority of each prospect lead.

Land, J.P. (J.P. Land Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-10-24

287

Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM).

Larry Myer

2005-09-29

288

References on Ball Clay U.S. Geological Survey  

E-print Network

: Robert L. Virta James R. Herring U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Geological Survey 983 National Center BoxReferences on Ball Clay U.S. Geological Survey: Clay and Shale. U.S. Geological Survey (U.S. Bureau Quadrangle, Graves County, Kentucky: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle GQ-0457, Scale 1

289

GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred orientation (e.g. 'miarolitic cavities'). The Earth material package allows for the description of both individual components, such as minerals, and compound materials, such as rocks or unconsolidated materials. Provision is made for alteration, weathering, metamorphism, particle geometry, fabric, and petrophysical descriptions. Mapped features describe the shape of the geological features using standard GML geometries, such as polygons, lines, points or 3D volumes. Geological events provide the age, process and environment of formation of geological features. The Earth Resource section includes features to represent mineral occurrences and mines and associated human activities independently. This addition allows description of resources and reserves that can comply with national and internationally accepted reporting codes. GeoSciML v3 is under consideration as the data model for INSPIRE annex 2 geologic reporting in Europe.

International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

2011-12-01

290

Efficient Geological Modelling of Large AEM Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining geological expert knowledge with geophysical observations into a final 3D geological model is, in most cases, not a straight forward process. It typically involves many types of data and requires both an understanding of the data and the geological target. When dealing with very large areas, such as modelling of large AEM surveys, the manual task for the geologist to correctly evaluate and properly utilise all the data available in the survey area, becomes overwhelming. In the ERGO project (Efficient High-Resolution Geological Modelling) we address these issues and propose a new modelling methodology enabling fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. The vision of the project is to build a user friendly expert system that enables the combination of very large amounts of geological and geophysical data with geological expert knowledge. This is done in an "auto-pilot" type functionality, named Smart Interpretation, designed to aid the geologist in the interpretation process. The core of the expert system is a statistical model that describes the relation between data and geological interpretation made by a geological expert. This facilitates fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. It will enable the construction of models with high resolution as the system will "learn" the geology of an area directly from interpretations made by a geological expert, and instantly apply it to all hard data in the survey area, ensuring the utilisation of all the data available in the geological model. Another feature is that the statistical model the system creates for one area can be used in another area with similar data and geology. This feature can be useful as an aid to an untrained geologist to build a geological model, guided by the experienced geologist way of interpretation, as quantified by the expert system in the core statistical model. In this project presentation we provide some examples of the problems we are aiming to address in the project, and show some preliminary results.

Bach, Torben; Martlev Pallesen, Tom; Jørgensen, Flemming; Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas

2014-05-01

291

Observations and Measurements in Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows students to see several key geologic concepts that they will learn in greater detail later in the semester. They compare densities of two different blocks, which serve as proxies for the differences between oceanic and continental crust, and this provides an example of isostasy. They determine sedimentation rates and deduce what type of changes in environment can affect these rates. They determine the relative ages of two different Martian surfaces. Students also get to see hand samples of rock and mineral specimens, and compare hardness and relative sorting. These topics allow students exposure to several different concepts that they will develop a greater appreciation of throughout their courses.

Cochiara, Stacey

292

Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the benefits of CCS? Importantly, there do not appear to be unresolvable open technical issues underlying these questions. Of equal importance, the hurdles to answering these technical questions well appear manageable and surmountable. As such, it appears that geological carbon sequestration is likely to be safe, effective, and competitive with many other options on an economic basis. This chapter explains the technical basis for these statements, and makes recommendations about ways of achieving early resolution of these broad concerns.

Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

2006-06-14

293

Mitochondrial alterations in apoptosis.  

PubMed

Besides their conventional role as energy suppliers for the cell, mitochondria in vertebrates are active regulators of apoptosis. They release apoptotic factors from the intermembrane space into the cytosol through a mechanism that involves the Bcl-2 protein family, mediating permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Associated with this event, a number of additional changes affect mitochondria during apoptosis. They include loss of important mitochondrial functions, such as the ability to maintain calcium homeostasis and to generate ATP, as well as mitochondrial fragmentation and cristae remodeling. Moreover, the lipidic component of mitochondrial membranes undergoes important alterations in composition and distribution, which have turned out to be relevant regulatory events for the proteins involved in apoptotic mitochondrial damage. PMID:24732580

Cosentino, Katia; García-Sáez, Ana J

2014-07-01

294

Medical Geology - Special Initiative of the International Union of Geological Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official home page of the International Working Group on Medical Geology, a special initiative of the International Union of Geological Sciences. The group was organized to improve communication among the various disciplines concerned with diseases caused by geological factors, as well as promote the development of educational materials, literature, and further research and programs that address the issue of medical geology. This site provides links to information about current research, meetings, and other activities of the International Medical Geology Association; books, reports, brochures and other literature for sale or download; membership opportunities and discussion groups; outreach and education; a glossary of medical, geological, chemical, and biological terms, and much more.

Geology, International W.

295

Teaching Resources in Structural Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To some, the terms folds, faults, and shear zones might suggest a type of elaborate and cutting-edge style of origami. Those in the know will think immediately of the field of structural geology, and this site is a fine resource for information within that area of geology. Rob Butler, Martin Casey, Geoff Lloyd, and Andrew McCaig, all of whom work in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Leeds, created these teaching resources. Visitors can start their journey through the site by clicking on the "Basic Principles" section, which contains a nice overview of the patterns of rock organization and how geologists understand the history of rock patterns. The other sections of the site provide basic overviews of shear zones, fault patterns, minor structures, and strain. The site is rounded out by a few virtual field trips, which will be quite helpful for those who can't make it to the Himalayas or the fabled Western Gneiss region of Norway.

Butler, Rob; Casey, Martin; Lloyd, Geoff; Mccaig, Andrew

296

Brazil-Africa geological links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

1981-04-01

297

Geologic Provinces of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides all information, instructions, downloadable materials, and links to online materials for an exercise developed for use in a Geology of the National Parks course. Using the provided maps, groups of 3 to 6 students are asked to identify between 8 and 12 geologic provinces based on topography, the age of rocks, and the rock types. As a result of this exercise, students will become familiar and comfortable with reading maps and legends, learn basic rock types and how geologic time is divided, define geologic provinces that will form an outline for learning the geology of the U.S., and be able to discuss the maps they create based on what they've learned. This exercise is intended for one of the first class meetings of the quarter or semester and ideally students will approach this exercise without much or any prior knowledge of the geology of the United States.

Leech, Mary

298

Simulation of geological models using multipoint histogram  

SciTech Connect

Simulated annealing optimization technique was used to simulate geological models. After comparing one-point perturbation scheme with two-point swapping scheme, and the Metropolis algorithm with the greedy algorithm, an optimized combination of simulated annealing schedule is presented. The two-dimensional correlation coefficient matrix is introduced to determine a unit configuration which can represent essential features of a geological model. The proposed simulated annealing technique can be used to reproduce the characteristics of a geological model based on multipoint histogram which can be obtained by using a unit configuration. Various geological vertical cross sections and horizontal slices based on field data are used to validate this new technique. Simulated results confirm that one-point perturbation scheme with the Metropolis algorithm provides the best combination to capture the essential features of a geological model. Further, the two-dimensional correlation coefficient matrix provides a technique to choose a priori unit configuration for multipoint histogram, which captures the geological characteristics adequately.

Qiu, W.Y.; Kelkar, M.G. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States); [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-12-31

299

The National Park Service: Park Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A National Park Service (NPS) site primarily composed of three main sections corresponding to the following program areas within the Geologic Resources Division (GRD): Disturbed Lands Restoration and Abandoned Mineral Lands (AML), Mineral Management Programs, and Geology and Soils Programs. Of these, the first two consist principally of textual resources pertaining to Park System procedures, policies, and regulations - as well as reports on example restoration projects with a focus on stream corridor restoration, bioengineering, riparian management, and revegetation. Perhaps of most interest to educators will be the third main program area, the Geology and Soils Programs section. Here are included textual resources pertaining to NPS-GRD programs on cave and karst formations, coastal and shoreline geology, paleontology, soils (e.g., soil biology and soil surveying), geological indicators (geoindicators), and stratigraphy. Lastly, a searchable photographic collection and geologic glossary are available.

300

Introduction: The geologic mapping of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Geologic Mapping of Vesta Special Issue/Section of Icarus, which includes several papers containing geologic maps of the surface of Vesta made to support data analysis conducted by the Dawn Science Team during the Vesta Encounter (July 2011-September 2012). In this paper we briefly discuss pre-Dawn knowledge of Vesta, provide the goals of our geologic mapping campaign, discuss the methodologies and materials used for geologic mapping, review the global geologic context of Vesta, discuss the challenges of mapping the geology of Vesta as a small airless body, and describe the content of the papers in this Special Issue/Section. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned from our quadrangle-based mapping effort and provide recommendations for conducting mapping campaigns as part of planetary spacecraft nominal missions.

Williams, David A.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Garry, W. Brent

2014-12-01

301

Objective Subsurface Geological Modeling using Geological Columns - A case study for the Kisarazu Distinct, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological models of subsurface structure play an important role in disaster assessment, environmental preservation, and underground utilization. These models are often constructed subjectively based on geological data obtained from field survey. However, reliability of subjective model depends on modeler's knowledge and experience as well as on quality of basic data. In order to ensure a more stable reliability of the model, objective approach is necessary. The purpose of this study is to establish an objective geological modeling method. For the purpose of this study, we constructed a subsurface geological model focusing on mathematical treatment of stratigraphy. Study area is the Kisarazu distinct, in the middle part of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Basic data for modeling are 44 geological columns. In the modeling, firstly, we constructed a Logical Model of Geological Structure (LMGS) that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The LMGS is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. Secondly, we generated Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of geological boundary surfaces using geological columns. Thirdly, we constructed an objective geological model using the LMGS and the DEMs. Finally, we visualized the model in 2D and 3D using GRASS GIS. As a result, in the areas with high number of geological columns, geological map and geological cross-sections derived from objective model were in good agreement with the ones derived from subjective model reported in other studies. In the areas with low number of geological columns, the objective map and cross-sections were somewhat different from subjective ones. In conclusion, the results indicate that objective model may give new findings about subsurface structure. In addition, the objective model gives a more stable reliability than the subjective model because the former ensures traceability of modeling procedures. The LMGS is unfit for complicated geological structures like lens. For the solution of this problem, we need to improve theoretical base of the LMGS.

Nonogaki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

2013-12-01

302

Digital geologic map of Beaver County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set consists of digital data and accompanying documentation for the surficial geology of Beaver County, Oklahoma. The original data are from the Hydrogeologic Map, sheet 1 of 3, included in the U.S. Geological Survey publication, Reconnaissance of the Water Resources of Beaver County, Oklahoma, Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-450, Morton and Goemaat, 1973. The geology was compiled by S.L. Schoff, 1953.

Cederstrand, J.R.

1997-01-01

303

The Geologic History of Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologists are interested in Cape Cod, Massachusetts because it formed by glaciers very recently in terms of geologic time, and because of the ever-changing shore as the Cape adjusts to the rising sea. This United States Geological Survey (USGS) report covers the geologic history of the Cape, which includes glacial retreat, fossils, erosion, and the future of this area. Selected readings are given for further reference.

Oldale, Robert

304

County digital geologic mapping. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included.

Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.

1995-12-31

305

Geology of Lake Mead National Recreation Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geologic history of Lake Mead National Recreation Area in Nevada and Arizona. From the Precambrian (1.8 billion years ago) until the present, the Lake Mead region has been shaped by collisions, uplift, erosion, volcanic activity, submergence, extension, and sedimentation. This site covers these major events and when they occurred in the Lake Mead area. There are links to information about geologic maps, geologic time, rocks and minerals, plate tectonics, and other Lake Mead information sources.

306

Geologic review. Better regulation through interagency cooperation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geologic Review procedure was developed by the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS) in 1982 for the Louisiana Coastal Management Division. It consists of a thorough review of oil and gas well applications involving impact to environmentally sensitive areas such as wetlands. The applicant attends a meeting with a geologist and a petroleum engineer from the LGS who review the relevant geologic, engineering and economic data and make a recommendation as to the technical and economic feasibility of reducing or avoiding environmental impact by either moving the well to a geologically equivalent location, directionally drilling the well, or accessing the proposed location by a different access route or methodology than that proposed.

Johnston, John, E.; Rives, James, D.; Soileau, David, M.

1989-01-01

307

Geology Fieldnotes: Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Badlands National Park, located in southwestern South Dakota, consists of 244,000 acres of sharply eroded buttes, pinnacles and spires blended with the largest, protected mixed grass prairie in the United States. Features include information on park geology, maps, photographs, visitor information, links to related publications, and lesson plans for teaching geology with National Park examples. The park geology section discusses the Park's geologic history during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs and the rich fossil deposits found there. Maps of the park and the surrounding area are included.

308

GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY Effective Fall 2012 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)  

E-print Network

courses focusing on a range of geoscience topics such as environmental geology/hydrogeology, sedimentology/stratigraphy/paleontology, coastal geology/oceanography, geochemistry/petrology, or geophysics/tectonics. Supporting elective courses

Rhode Island, University of

309

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN GEOLOGY -ENGINEERING GEOLOGY OPTION CATALOG 131 (UNOFFICIAL)  

E-print Network

Sedimentology and Stratigraphy (3-3) 4 GEOL 305 Paleobiology (2-3) 3 GEOL 312 Structural Geology and Tectonics Credit 6 Senior Year GEOL 410 Hydrogeology (3-0) 3 Technical elective 2 5 GEOL 440 Engineering Geology (2

310

Investigating SE MN Geology including rock layers, fossils, and Karst geology through Quarry Hill Nature Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students will increase their knowledge of SE MN geology including rock layers, fossils, and Karst topography. They will also learn how Karst Geology impacts our water quality.

311

Pattern Alteration: Personal Measurement Chart  

E-print Network

waist 2 inches (5.1 cm) *1 inch (2.5 cm) 17. Side length ? Waist to desired length 0 inches *Ease needed for stretchy knits The Pattern Alteration series includes the following leafl ets: E?372, Principles of Pattern Alteration E?373, Personal... waist 2 inches (5.1 cm) *1 inch (2.5 cm) 17. Side length ? Waist to desired length 0 inches *Ease needed for stretchy knits The Pattern Alteration series includes the following leafl ets: E?372, Principles of Pattern Alteration E?373, Personal...

2006-02-09

312

Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1  

E-print Network

Geol G308 Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1 fossil sites to produce classification of the taxa at the level covered in our labs. This classification Ordovician, Harding Sandstone #12;Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 7 Chondricthyes (Sharks

Polly, David

313

Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1  

E-print Network

Geol G308 Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1. Fossil Invertebrates. Blackwell Scientific: Palo Alto). #12;Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 2 Classification Class Anthozoa (Precambrian to recent) Order Rugosa (Middle Ordovician through

Polly, David

314

Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1  

E-print Network

for this course, but for anyone who is interested in Indiana's "deep history". Description G308 PaleontologyGeol G308 Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1 hosts information about paleontology and geology in Indiana, copies of lecture slides and handouts

Polly, David

315

CASP: Geological exploration and research  

SciTech Connect

The Cambridge Arctic Shelf Programme (CASP) is an independent, non-profit-making geological research organization based in the University of Cambridge. It originated in 1948 as Cambridge Spitsbergen Expeditions, and was incorporated as CASP in 1975. Initially, support came from companies with an interest in Svalbard and the Barents Shelf. Since then, CASP has greatly increased its scope, diversifying to new areas of research outside the Arctic and to new methods of data presentation. CASP now offers a unique programme of research, specialising in field- and literature-based studies of remote areas. Projects are currently being undertaken in the Arctic, Russia, China, East Greenland and Eastern Europe; all projects involve fieldwork and ail involve collaboration with research groups in other institutions. Most projects are oriented towards sedimentology, stratigraphy, tectonics, basin analysis and regional geology. CASP has a unique status: it shares elements in common with universities (undertaking long-term research programmes for eventual publication), consultancies (carrying out applied projects oriented towards hydrocarbon exploration and production) and national surveys (compiling and managing large datasets). Individual projects are funded by annual subscription from interested companies, with research material being supplied on a non-exclusive basis. Input and feedback from subscribers is welcomed, and an annual consortium meeting is organised for each project. As a non-profit-making Organization with low overheads, all additional income raised for a project is used to develop the research programme. CASP projects are supported by an outstanding library/information centre and linguistic expertise (Russian and Chinese), and these facilities are available to subscribing companies.

Macdonald, D.I.M.; Scott, R.A. [Cambridge Arctic Shelf Programme (United Kingdom)

1995-08-01

316

Quantitative bedrock geology of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantitatively analyze the area-age distribution of sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic, and ultramafic bedrock on the basis of data from the digital geologic map of Brazil, published as a GIS map by the Brazilian Geological Survey. Bedrock units exclusively encompassing sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks, or metamorphic rocks cover 40.4%, 31.5%, and 17.7%, respectively, of the total bedrock area. These numbers have to be considered minimum estimates of the areal abundance of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic bedrock because polygons defined by mixed lithologies cover ˜8.5-9.5% of the total bedrock area. These mixed units are sedimentary rocks with igneous and/or metamorphic contributions (1.4%), metamorphic rocks with sedimentary contributions (1.2%), metamorphic rocks with igneous contributions (1.5%), igneous rocks with sedimentary and/or metamorphic contributions (4.4%), and ultramafic units with sedimentary, igneous, and/or metamorphic contributions (˜1-2%). The average ages of major lithologic units, weighted according to bedrock area, are as follows: sedimentary rocks (average stratigraphic age of 248 ± 5 [1?] Myr; median stratigraphic age of 87.5 Myr), igneous rocks (1153 ± 13 [1?] Myr), metamorphic rocks (1678 ± 30 [1?] Myr), and ultramafic rocks (˜1227 ± 25 [1?] Myr). The average bedrock age of Brazil is 946 ± 7 [1?] Myr. The range in lithologic composition and age structure of the various bedrock units reflects the complex tectonic makeup of Brazil that ranges from Neogene sedimentary cover in the Amazon Basin to Precambrian cratons (Guyana and Brazilian shields) and Transamazonian greenstone belts. The average spatial resolution of the data is 232 km2 polygon-1 and is sufficient to perform area-age analyses of individual river drainage basins larger than ˜5,000 km2.

Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.

2007-05-01

317

Report on geologic exploration activities  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the geological exploration activities being carried out as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, which has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the technology and provide the facilities for the safe, environmentally acceptable isolation of civilian high-level and transuranic nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements, for which the Federal government is reponsible. The principal programmatic emphasis is on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Explorations are being conducted or planned in various parts of the country to identify potential sites for such repositories. The work is being undertaken by three separate but coordinated NWTS project elements. Under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), basalt formations underlying DOE's Hanford Reservation are being investigated. Granite, tuff, and shale formations at the DOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) are being similarly studied in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is investigating domed salt formations in several Gulf Coast states and bedded salt formations in Utah and Texas. Th ONWI siting studies are being expanded to include areas overlying crystalline rocks, shales, and other geohydrologic systems. The current status of these NWTS efforts, including the projected budgets for FY 1981, is summarized, and the criteria and methodology being employed in the explorations are described. The consistency of the overall effort with the recommendations presented in the Report to the President by the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG), as well as with documents representing the national technical consensus, is discussed.

None

1980-01-01

318

Report on geologic exploration activities  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the geological exploration activities being carried out as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, which has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the technology and provide the facilities for the safe, environmentally acceptable isolation of civilian high-level and transuranic nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements, for which the Federal government is responsible. The principal programmatic emphasis is on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Explorations are being conducted or planned in various parts of the country to identify potential sites for such repositories. The work is being undertaken by three separate but coordinated NWTS project elements. Under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), basalt formations underlying DOE's Hanford Reservation are being investigated. Granite, tuff, and shale formations at the DOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) are being similarly studied in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is investigating domed salt formations in several Gulf Coast states and bedded salt formations in Utah and Texas. The ONWI siting studies are being expanded to include areas overlying crystalline rocks, shales, and other geohydrologic systems. The current status of these NWTS efforts, including the projected budgets for FY 1981, is summarized, and the criteria and methodology being employed in the explorations are described. The consistency of the overall effort with the recommendations presented in the Report to the President by the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG), as well as with documents representing the national technical consensus, is discussed.

Breslin, J.; Laughon, R. B.; Hall, R. J.; Voss, J. W. [comps.

1980-01-01

319

Geological perspective on climate change  

SciTech Connect

Current estimates of fossil fuel reserves approach 6x the current atmospheric CO[sub 2] content; model calculations have shown that much of this carbon will remain in the atmosphere for several millennia. The potential increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] over the next few centuries dwarfs natural fluctuations on Milankovitch time scales. Indeed, one must turn far into the geological past to find an analogy for the climate system under such remarkably different atmospheric and climatic states. As a result, perhaps, of the growing need to understand future climates, paleoclimate research activity has intensified. The focus of much of this research has been on the unusually warm periods of the Eocene and Cretaceous. Atmospheric general circulation models have been used to study the adjustment of the climate system to changes in the geographical distribution of the continents. Such efforts generally show that the achievement of significantly enhanced global temperatures requires increases in the atmospheric content of greenhouse gases. The question then arises as to whether these modifications of atmospheric composition are consistent with the geologic record and its interpretation based on global geochemical cycles. Several approaches have been advanced to address this question. The dependence upon CO[sub 2] concentration of the isotope discrimination during photosynthesis means that the carbon isotopic composition of organic and carbonate carbon, as it is preserved in coeval sedimentary rocks, is a potential CO[sub 2] paleobarometer. Similarly, the isotopic composition of paleosols can be used to infer ancient atmospheric carbon contents. Finally, models of the global carbon cycle, especially when coupled with climate models, demonstrate that long-term climate change is intimately interwoven with the factors that affect the carbon cycle, including the geographical distribution of weathering lithologies, and intensity of tectonism.

Kump, L.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept of Geosciences)

1992-01-01

320

Petroleum geology of western Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Antarctica's geology is mostly obscured by thick, moving ice that covers 95% of the land and continental shelf. Reconnaissance investigations of outcrops, shallow boreholes, and geophysical surveys are limited and peripheral owing to ice coverage. However, it is possible to outline substantial elements of the regional geology. Further insight is gained by comparison to analogous sedimentary provinces, especially provinces once adjoined within the framework of the Gondwana supercontinent until middle Cretaceous. The petroleum potential of Antarctica, as in the case of the other related high-standing Gondwana continental fragments, is in Early Cretaceous rifts associated with the Gondwana breakup and with the Pacific convergence in the west Antarctica back arc. The Pacific-facing western Antarctica includes two structural provinces: (1) the Cretaceous and younger interior rift system on the east side of the Weddell and Ross Sea embayment, which contain aulacogens that form the boundary with East Antarctica and (2) the back-arc and fore-arc basins adjoining the Antarctica Peninsula and extending into Marie Byrd Land and the Bellingshausen Sea which are associated with the eastward convergence of the Pacific plate. The petroleum potential of the rifts may be assessed by analogies with related rifts of Australia, India, and South Africa; assessment of the convergent basins of western Antarctica depends upon analogy with similar basins of South America, New Zealand, and Indonesia. An estimate of the petroleum potential of western Antarctica generally is comparable with oil and gas occurrences (both in overall quantity and in field sizes) in the other Gondwana continental fragments. However, in view of the thict moving ice cover, the remote locale, and severe climate, petroleum production is largely beyond technology at this time and probably is economically unfeasible.

Kingston, J. (Geological Survey, Santa Barbara, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

321

Bedrock geologic map of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and accompanying conodont data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 1:500,000-scale geologic map depicts the bedrock geology of Seward Peninsula, western Alaska, on the North American side of the Bering Strait. The map encompasses all of the Teller, Nome, Solomon, and Bendeleben 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, and parts of the Shishmaref, Kotzebue, Candle, and Norton Bay 1:250,000-scale quadrangles (sh. 1; sh. 2). The geologic map is presented on Sheet 1. The pamphlet includes an introductory text, detailed unit descriptions, tables of geochronologic data, and an appendix containing conodont (microfossil) data and a text explaining those data. Sheet 2 shows metamorphic and tectonic units, conodont color alteration indices, key metamorphic minerals, and locations of geochronology samples listed in the pamphlet. The map area covers 74,000 km2, an area slightly larger than West Virginia or Ireland.

Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Werdon, Melanie B.; Bleick, Heather A.

2011-01-01

322

Preliminary bedrock geologic map of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and accompanying conodont data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 1:500,000-scale geologic map depicts the bedrock geology of Seward Peninsula, western Alaska, on the North American side of the Bering Strait. The map encompasses all of the Teller, Nome, Solomon, and Bendeleben 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, and parts of the Shishmaref, Kotzebue, Candle, and Norton Bay 1:250,000-scale quadrangles (sheet 1; sheet 2). The geologic map is presented on Sheet 1. The pamphlet includes an introductory text, unit descriptions, tables of geochronologic data, and an appendix containing conodont (microfossil) data and a text about those data. Sheet 2 shows metamorphic and tectonic units, conodont color alteration indices, key metamorphic minerals, and locations of geochronology samples listed in the pamphlet.

Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Werdon, Melanie B.; Bleick, Heather A.

2010-01-01

323

Aqueous Alteration of Basalts: Earth, Moon, and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic processes responsible for aqueous alteration of basaltic materials on Mars are modeled beginning with our knowledge of analog processes on Earth, i.e., characterization of elemental and mineralogical compositions of terrestrial environments where the alteration and weathering pathways related to aqueous activity are better understood. A key ingredient to successful modeling of aqueous processes on Mars is identification of phases that have formed by those processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe what is known about the elemental and mineralogical composition of aqueous alteration products of basaltic materials on Mars and their implications for specific aqueous environments based upon our knowledge of terrestrial systems. Although aqueous alteration has not occurred on the Moon, it is crucial to understand the behaviors of basaltic materials exposed to aqueous environments in support of human exploration to the Moon over the next two decades. Several methods or indices have been used to evaluate the extent of basalt alteration/weathering based upon measurements made at Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Moessbauer and Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometers. The Mineralogical Alteration Index (MAI) is based upon the percentage of total Fe (Fe(sub T)) present as Fe(3+) in alteration products (Morris et al., 2006). A second method is the evaluation of compositional trends to determine the extent to which elements have been removed from the host rock and the likely formation of secondary phases (Nesbitt and Young, 1992; Ming et al., 2007). Most of the basalts that have been altered by aqueous processes at the two MER landing sites in Gusev crater and on Meridiani Planum have not undergone extensive leaching in an open hydrolytic system with the exception of an outcrop in the Columbia Hills. The extent of aqueous alteration however ranges from relatively unaltered to pervasively altered materials. Several experimental studies have focused upon the aqueous alteration of lunar materials and simulants (e.g., Keller and Huang, 1971; Eick et al., 1996). Lunar basalts are void of water and highly reduced, hence, these materials are initially very reactive when exposed to water under oxidizing conditions.

Ming, Douglas W.

2007-01-01

324

Geological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place  

E-print Network

Earth--Hothouse, Icehouse, and Impacts: Geologi- cal Society ofAmerica Special Paper 452, p. 169Geological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place P.O. Box 9140 Boulder, CO 80301 (303) 447.V. Browning, B.S. Cramer, and Y. Rosenthal) in SPE452: The Late Eocene Earth--Hothouse, Icehouse, and Impacts

325

Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work conducted in the Planetary Geology program is summarized. The following categories are presented: outer solar system satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; cratering processes and landform development; volcanic processes and landforms; aolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes and landform development; periglacial and permafrost processes; structure, tectonics and stratigraphy; remote sensing and regolith studies; geologic mapping, cartography and geodesy.

Holt, H. E. (compiler)

1982-01-01

326

Abstracts for the Planetary Geology Field Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference was to foster a better understanding of the volcanic history of the planets through the presentation of papers and through field trips to areas on the basalt plains of Idaho that appear to be analogous to some planetary surfaces. Papers include discussions of the volcanic geology of the Snake River Plain, general volcanic geology, and aspects of volcanism on the terrestrial planets.

Greeley, R. (editor); Black, D.

1977-01-01

327

Cave beetle genetics: geology and gene flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of four species of obligate cave-dwelling carabid beetles, occurring in two plateau karsts, was examined using gel electrophoresis of proteins. Geological features, in particular streams and rivers, appear to be strong barriers to gene flow in both karst regions. Additional genetic differentiation among populations, which is not obviously related to geological features, occurs in both plateaus. As

Thomas C Kane; Thomas C Barr; William J Badaracca

1992-01-01

328

Advances in planetary geology, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

1986-01-01

329

Int. Assoc. for Mathematical Geology International Congress  

E-print Network

Int. Assoc. for Mathematical Geology XIth International Congress Universit� de Li�ge - Belgium Corresponding author: leonardo.david.donado@upc.edu ABSTRACT: The spatial variations of hydraulic parameters - 8th 2006 S11-13 #12;Int. Assoc. for Mathematical Geology XIth International Congress Universit� de

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

330

Geology Fieldnotes: Isle Royale National Park, Michigan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website examines the geology of Isle Royale National Park in Michigan. It looks at the geologic history of this archipelago, beginning 1.2 billion years ago and progressing through volcanics, rock formations and copper deposits, to the Ice Age. There are links to park maps, visitor information, and additional resources.

331

Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary: Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference describes the general geologic setting of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Topics include the physiography, geology and tectonics (structure, stratigraphy, mass wasting, and earthquake activity) of the Bay. There is also information on ground water, cold seeps, coastal erosion, and economic resources (petroleum, mineral resources, and building materials).

332

Geology of the Fargo-Moorehead Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a website created by University of North Dakota - Fargo faculty member Dr. Donald Schwert detailing the urban geology of the region surrounding Fargo, ND and Moorhead, MN. There is a good deal of information about the soils in the area, the Red River which flows North through the area, and the geologic history of why things are the way they are.

Schwert, Donald P.; University, North D.

333

Geologic History Field Investigation - Minnehaha Falls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an inquiry-based field investigation of the geologic history of the Minnehaha Falls and St. Anthony Falls areas of Minneapolis. Students will be introduced to rocks and the stories rocks tell in a genuine geologic context, rather than as samples in the classroom.

Kevin Swanson and Justin Larson, Chippewa Middle School, North Oaks, MN

334

Geologic Mapping of the Moon - Copernicus Crater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the Moon's Copernicus Crater. Learners will use observation to make their own geologic map of the Crater. They then identify crater features in a photogeologic image and use those observations to color their map with the appropriate geologic units.

335

Geological Evolution of Early Mars: Astrobiological Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model for the early geological evolution of Mars better accords with various anomalous geological and geophysical data than do previous models. The new model infers an early phase of plate tectonism associated with an extensive planetary ocean during the heavy bombardment period, prior to about 4.0 Ga. Early life may have de- veloped during this period in much

V. R. Baker; S. Maruyama; J. M. Dohm

2002-01-01

336

Simulation of penetration into porous geologic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a computational study on the penetration of steel projectiles into porous geologic materials. The purpose of the study is to extend the range of applicability of a recently developed constitutive model to simulations involving projectile penetration into geologic media. The constitutive model is non-linear, thermodynamically consistent, and properly invariant under superposed rigid body motions. The equations are valid

O Y Vorobiev; B T Liu; I N Lomov; T Antoun

2005-01-01

337

Simulation of penetration into porous geologic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a computational study on the penetration of steel projectiles into porous geologic materials. The purpose of the study is to extend the range of applicability of a recently developed constitutive model to simulations involving projectile penetration into geologic media. The constitutive model is nonlinear, thermodynamically consistent, and properly invariant under superposed rigid body motions. The equations are valid

O. Yu. Vorobiev; B. T. Liu; I. N. Lomov; T. H. Antoun

2007-01-01

338

The Earth's Gravity and Its Geological Significance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the earth's gravity and its geological significance. Variations of gravity around the earth can be produced by a great variety of possible distributions of density within the earth. Topics discussed include isostasy, local structures, geological exploration, change of gravity in time, and gravity on the moon and planets. (DS)

Cook, A. H.

1980-01-01

339

Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

Persits, Feliks M., (compiler); Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

1997-01-01

340

EAS 4200/6320: STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY  

E-print Network

of Earthquakes and Faulting by C.H. Scholz Global Tectonics by P. Keary, K.A. Klepeis, and F.J. Vine Tectonic geologic structures, produce geologic maps, learn structural data collection and analysis techniques: plate tectonics; earthquake occurrence and other natural hazards; geomorphology and landscape

Black, Robert X.

341

Petroleum Geology Conference series doi: 10.1144/0070921  

E-print Network

Petroleum Geology Conference series doi: 10.1144/0070921 2010; v. 7; p. 921-936Petroleum Geology Collection to subscribe to Geological Society, London, Petroleum Geologyhereclick Notes on January 5, 2011Downloaded by by the Geological Society, London © Petroleum Geology Conferences Ltd. Published #12;An

Demouchy, Sylvie

342

References on Kaolin U.S. Geological Survey  

E-print Network

: Robert L. Virta James R. Herring U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Geological Survey 983 National Center BoxReferences on Kaolin U.S. Geological Survey: Clay and Shale. U.S. Geological Survey (U.S. Bureau: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 79-526, 41 p. Cofer, H. E., Jr., Wright, N. A., Carey, M. A

343

Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, 8th, Denver, CO, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings contain papers discussing the state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing, along with the research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The following topics are addressed: spectral geology, U.S. and international hydrocarbon exporation, radar and thermal infrared remote sensing, engineering geology and hydrogeology, mineral exploration, remote sensing for marine and environmental applications, image processing and analysis, geobotanical remote sensing, and data integration and geographic information systems. Particular attention is given to spectral alteration mapping with imaging spectrometers, mapping the coastal plain of the Congo with airborne digital radar, applications of remote sensing techniques to the assessment of dam safety, remote sensing of ferric iron minerals as guides for gold exploration, principal component analysis for alteration mappping, and the application of remote sensing techniques for gold prospecting in the north Fujian province.

1991-01-01

344

Geologic Provinces of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A look into the forces of plate tectonics, weathering and erosion. A clickable, digital shaded relief map of the United States divides the continental states into 10 regions: Pacific Mountain System, Columbia Plateau, Basin and Range, Colorado Plateau, Rocky Mountain System, Laurentian Upland, Interior Plains, Interior Highlands, Appalachian Highlands, and Atlantic Plain. Each link takes the viewer to a descriptive page that tells of the geologic history of the region and the forces that produced the current landscape. The site is currently under construction; each specific region will soon have links to Sub provinces, Maps and Illustrations (enabled), and an Image Gallery. Links to two other United States Geological Survey (USGS) learning web sites are available: Geologic time and Plate tectonics. Other links are also provided to a list of parks by province or plate tectonic setting, USGS Geology in the Parks home, and National Park Service Park Geology Tour home.

345

Detecting Altered Fingerprints Jianjiang Feng  

E-print Network

Detecting Altered Fingerprints Jianjiang Feng Dept.of Automation Tsinghua University Beijing, China.ross@mail.wvu.edu Abstract--The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law en identification by purposely altering their fingerprints. Available fingerprint quality assessment software cannot

Ross, Arun Abraham

346

Geological and geothermal investigations for HCMM-derived data. [hydrothermally altered areas in Yerington, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to match HCMM- and U2HCMR-derived temperature data over two test sites of very local size to similar data collected in the field at nearly the same times. Results indicate that HCMM investigations using resolutions cells of 500 m or so are best conducted with areally-extensive sites, rather than point observations. The excellent quality day-VIS imagery is particularly useful for lineament studies, as is the DELTA-T imagery. Attempts to register the ground observed temperatures (even for 0.5 sq mile targets) were unsuccessful due to excessive pixel-to-pixel noise on the HCMM data. Several computer models were explored and related to thermal parameter value changes with observed data. Unless quite complex models, with many parameters which can be observed (perhaps not even measured (perhaps not even measured) only under remote sensing conditions (e.g., roughness, wind shear, etc) are used, the model outputs do not match the observed data. Empirical relationship may be most readily studied.

Lyon, R. J. P.; Prelat, A. E.; Kirk, R. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

347

Mapping Vesta: A Geological Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the Dawn (Russell et al., 2007) spacecraft enabled deriva-tion of 4Vesta's shape, facilitated mapping of the surface geology and pro-vided the first evidence for Vesta's geological evolution. The Dawn mission is equipped with a framing camera (FC), a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) and a gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRaND). So far science data are collected during the approach to the asteroid and protoplanet Vesta, a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera resolution and a lower orbit, at 700 km altitude with a camera resolu-tion of ~ 65 m/pixel. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, regolith and prob-able volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting possible buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest candi-date crater, a ~460 km depression at the south pole, has been shown to con-tain an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp, and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns. Although asymmetric in general form, these characteristics do not contradict an impact origin but may also allow endogenic processes like convective downwelling or hybrid modification of an impact. Rapid rotation of Vesta during impact may explain some anomalous features (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2010). A set of large equatorial troughs may be related to the formation process of the south polar structure or due to stress caused by changes of the rotational axis. The crater size frequency and the chronology function is derived from the lunar chronology, scaled to impact frequencies modeled for Vesta according to (Bottke et al., 1994) and (O'Brien and Sykes, 2011). The northern hemi-sphere is heavily cratered by a large variety of ancient degraded and fresh sharp craters. Preliminary crater counts indicate only small differences in absolute surface model ages between the northern region and the south polar structure.

Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Schenk, P.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Buczkowski, D.; O'Brien, D. P.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; De sanctis, M.; McSween, H. Y.; Keller, H. U.; Marchi, S.

2011-12-01

348

Perlite and Vermiculite (Geology, Exploration and Production Technology).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Present state of geological study of perlite and vermiculite resources and problems of further geological prospecting; Perlite, its nature of distribution in the USSR; Transcarpathian perlites; Perlites of Armenia; Results of geological prospect...

V. P. Petrov

1973-01-01

349

Online Courses: Mississippi State University: Geology I: Processes and Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Does your curriculum include concepts in geology? Do you need to continue your education in earth science? Geology I from the Teachers in Geosciences covers the foundational material in physical geology that you need to understand to successfully teach

1900-01-01

350

Panel Organization 1. Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering  

E-print Network

Appendix A Panel Organization 1. Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering Chair: Dr. Clarence R Technical Exchange (open) Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering Denver, Colorado Topic: DOE & Performance Analysis and the Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering Denver, Colorado Topic: Repository

351

Panel Organization 1. Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering  

E-print Network

Appendix A Panel Organization 1. Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering Chair: Dr. Clarence R) Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering Denver, Colorado Topic: DOE presentation on the exploratory and the Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering Denver, Colorado Topic: Repository system design

352

40 CFR 98.443 - Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration. 98.443 Section 98.443...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.443 Calculating CO2 geologic sequestration. You must calculate the...

2012-07-01

353

Hydrothermal alteration of a rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza Island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza island, Italy, has been hydrothermally altered producing four distinct alteration zones based on XRD and field textures: (1) non-pervasive argillic zone; (2) propylitic zone; (3) silicic zone; and (4) sericitic zone. The unaltered hyaloclastite is a volcanic breccia with clasts of vesiculated obsidian in a matrix of predominantly pumice lapilli. Incomplete alteration of the hyaloclastite resulted in the non pervasive argillic zone, characterized by smectite and disordered opal-CT. Obsidian clasts, some pumice lapilli, and pyrogenic plagioclase and biotite are unaltered. Smectite has an irregular flakey morphology, although euhedral particles are occasionally observed. The propylitic zone is characterized by mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) with 10 to 85% illite (I), mordenite, opal-C and authigenic K-feldspar (akspar). The matrix of the hyaloclastite is completely altered and obsidian clasts are silicified; however, plagioclase and biotite phenocrysts remain unaltered. Flakey I/S replaces pumice, and mordenite, akspar and silica line and fill pores. I/S particles are composed predominantly of subequant plates and euhedral laths. The silicic zone is characterized by highly illitic I/S with ? 90% I, quartz, akspar and occasional albite. In this zone the matrix and clasts are completely altered, and pyrogenic plagioclase shows significant alteration. Illitic I/S has a euhedral lath-like morphology. In the sericitic zone the hyaloclastite altered primarily to illitic I/S with ? 66% I, quartz, and minor akspar and pyrite. Clay minerals completely replace pyrogenic feldspars and little evidence remains of the original hyaloclastite texture. Unlike other zones, illitic I/S is fibrous and pure illite samples are composed of euhedral laths and hexagonal plates. The temperatures of hydrothermal alteration likely ranged from 30 to 90 °C for the argillic zone, from 110 to 160 °C for the propylitic zone, from 160 to 270 °C for the silicic zone, and were possibly as high as 300 °C for the sericitic zone. The four zones occur as linear bands that increase in intensity north of the bentonite mine at Cala dell'Acqua. The alteration zones have two orientations and may be structurally controlled by E-W- and NE-SW-trending faulting which is consistent with the dominant structural trends of the Pontine archipelago. Finally, hydrothermal alteration most likely involved seawater based on the geologic evolution of Ponza.

Ylagan, Robert F.; Altaner, Stephen P.; Pozzuoli, Antonio

1996-12-01

354

Petroleum geology of formation waters  

SciTech Connect

Some researchers have argued that most petroleum traps are hydrostatic and the potentiometric surface is a level plane, whereas others have emphasized the importance of hydrodynamic traps and that the potentiometric surface slopes. The Salt Creek oil field, Wyoming is a prime example of the large, anticlinal traps that has produced over 500 million barrels of oil, and was located by a large oil seep over the trap. The structure has five producing zones, all sandstones in the Cretaceous and the Sundance sand (Jurassic). Each has a separate oil-water contact and a transition zone, indicating a lack of permeable interconnection. The multiple oil-water contacts dip northward in pact with the hydraulic gradient of the region. The slope of the potentiometric surface determines whether the water is in a state of static or dynamic equilibrium. A hydrodynamic condition is usually dependent on the topography of the surface and/or the geology of the region. Knowledge of subsurface waters can help in the discovery and seismic mapping of hydrocarbon reservoirs through valuation of possible changes imposed on the waters in the presence of hydrocarbons; by recognition of changes related to conducive development of traps; and eventually by defining condition of origin and migration of oil and gas.

Billo, S.M. [King Saud Univ. (Saudi Arabia)

1996-06-01

355

Global Warming in Geologic Time  

SciTech Connect

The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

Archer, David (University of Chicago) [University of Chicago

2008-02-27

356

Global Warming in Geologic Time  

ScienceCinema

The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

David Archer

2010-01-08

357

Antarctica: geology and hydrocarbon potential  

SciTech Connect

The first impression of the hydrocarbon potential of Antarctica is generally negative. The environment is hostile and only 2% of the continent is seen through the ice. Careful study of the surprisingly ample volume of published data available on the geology and geophysics and Antarctica, coupled with the application of the principles and mechanics of plate tectonics relative to the oceans and adjacent land masses, gives a different and very positive attitude toward the hydrocarbon potential of this vast unexplored frontier area. On the basis of limited data, 21 sedimentary basins are identified for Antarctica and immediately adjacent areas. These include six onshore subglacial basins and 15 offshore basins. Excluding 11 basins considered to have little or no potential, the other 10 basins contain an estimated 16.9 million km/sup 3/ (4.05 million mi/sup 3/) of sediment having a potential hydrocarbon yield of 203 billion bbl oil equivalent. The problems associated with hydrocarbon exploration in Antarctica are formidable. Technology is adequate for seismic surveys and exploratory drilling of the Antarctic continental shelf, as concluded from current operations in the Arctic and from operating requirements of drilling rigs under construction. However, a working relationship among involved nations must first be evolved and production, storage, and transportation problems solved.

St. John, B.

1984-09-01

358

Global Warming in Geologic Time  

SciTech Connect

The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

David Archer

2008-02-27

359

Mars exploration rover geologic traverse by the spirit rover in the plains of Gusev crater, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Spirit rover completed a 2.5 km traverse across gently sloping plains on the floor of Gusev crater from its location on the outer rim of Bonneville crater to the lower slopes of the Columbia Hills, Mars. Using the Athena suite of instruments in a transect approach, a systematic series of overlapping panoramic mosaics, remote sensing observations, surface analyses, and trenching operations documented the lateral variations in landforms, geologic materials, and chemistry of the surface throughout the traverse, demonstrating the ability to apply the techniques of field geology by remote rover operations. Textures and shapes of rocks within the plains are consistent with derivation from impact excavation and mixing of the upper few meters of basaltic lavas. The contact between surrounding plains and crater ejecta is generally abrupt and marked by increases in clast abundance and decimeter-scale steps in relief. Basaltic materials of the plains overlie less indurated and more altered rock types at a time-stratigraphic contact between the plains and Columbia Hills that occurs over a distance of one to two meters. This implies that regional geologic contacts are well preserved and that Earth-like field geologic mapping will be possible on Mars despite eons of overturn by small impacts. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

Crumpler, L.S.; Squyres, S.W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; DesMarais, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Fergason, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, F.D.; Grant, J.A.; Greeley, R.; Hahn, B.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Knudson, A.T.; Landis, G.A.; Li, R.; Maki, J.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D.W.; Moersch, J.E.; Payne, M.C.; Rice, J.W.; Richter, L.; Ruff, S.W.; Sims, M.; Thompson, S.D.; Tosca, N.; Wang, A.; Whelley, P.; Wright, S.P.; Wyatt, M.B.

2005-01-01

360

Geologic and structural map of eastern Asia  

SciTech Connect

A synthesis of the onshore and offshore geologic data of eastern Asia, prepared by the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), has allowed the construction of geologic and structural maps for this region. These maps include three color sheets (scale = 1:2.5 million) and three plates of geologic and structural cross sections. Located between lat. 4/sup 0/ and 35/sup 0/N, and long. 106/sup 0/ and 132/sup 0/E, the maps cover the following geographic areas: East and South China Sea, Sulu Sea, West Philippine basin and onshore neighboring terrains, Kyushu and Ryukyu Islands, the China margin, Taiwan Island, Vietnam, North West Borneo, and the Philippines. The maps synthesize seismic interpretations, oil well data, geologic work in south Japan, Taiwan, Borneo, and the Philippines, and recent data published between 1976 and 1985. Twenty-four geologic cross sections (scale = 1:1.25 million, vertical exaggeration x 6) intersect ocean margins, important basins, and the different structural domains. They are based on seismic profiles, well data, and available onshore and offshore geologic data. These cross sections show basement composition and structures, different tectonic and sedimentary domains, and the structure and thickness of different sedimentary deposits (such as age, unconformities, and geologic structures). Maps and cross sections will be published in early 1987.

Letouzey, J.; Sage, L.

1986-07-01

361

Altered energy metabolism in cancer  

PubMed Central

The early observations by Dr Otto Warburg revealed that fundamentally metabolic differences exist between malignant tumor cells and adjacent normal cells. Many studies have further reported the relationship between altered cellular metabolism and therapeutic outcomes. These observations suggest that targeting the peculiar metabolic pathways in cancer might be an effective strategy for cancer therapy. In recent years, investigations have accelerated into how altered cellular metabolism promotes tumor survival and growth. This review highlights the current concepts of altered metabolism in cancer and the molecular targets involved in glycolysis, mitochondria and glutamine metabolism and discusses future perspective of cellular metabolism-based cancer treatment. PMID:23192270

Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jin-Ming

2013-01-01

362

Geology of Death Valley National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site of the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geologic history of Death Valley National Park in Nevada and California. The story begins 1.8 billion years ago with the formation of rocks and continues through uplift, faulting, volcanism, early animals of the area, glaciers, and the making of deserts and dunes. A geologic timescale connects to specific events in the history of Death Valley. There are topographic maps of the area, a field trip of the park, an image gallery, and technical papers available to download.

363

Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In preparing the present treatise and the accompanying geologic map of Massachusetts and Rhode Island (PI. X, in pocket) I have endeavored to use all the material available. The matter has been greatly condensed, for the detailed geology of a considerable part of the area will be described in a number of forthcoming folios of the Geologic Atlas of the United States. The Holyoke folio, published in 1898, covered the major part of the Triassic rocks in Massachusetts, but as those rocks have since been more thoroughly studied they are here treated in greater detail to bring their discussion up to date.

Emerson, Benjamin Kendall

1917-01-01

364

The Geologic Story of Yosemite Valley  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) discusses the geology of Yosemite Valley in California, beginning 100 million years ago with the formation of the granite rocks found in this park and continuing with jointing, exfoliation, and erosion through ice and water. Bedrock Geology includes details about the formation, classification, and descriptions of the plutonic bedrock. It also discusses the relationship of landforms to rock composition and structure and their role in shaping the Yosemite valley.

Huber, N.

365

Geologic map + fault mechanics problem set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise requires students to answer some questions about stress and fault mechanics that relate to geologic maps. In part A) students must draw a cross section and Mohr circles and make some calculations to explain the slip history and mechanics of two generations of normal faults. In part B) students interpret the faulting history and fault mechanics of the Yerington District, Nevada, based on a classic geologic map and cross section by John Proffett. keywords: geologic map, cross section, normal faults, Mohr circle, Coulomb failure, Andersonian theory, frictional sliding, Byerlee's law

Singleton, John

366

MSc STUDY PROGRAMME IN THE FACULTY OF GEOLOGY AND GEOENVIRONMENT, UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS 201314 Geology and Geoenvironment  

E-print Network

, Stratigraphy Paleontology, Geography and Environment, Dynamic Geology and Tectonics/ Hydrogeology, Geophysics · Stratigraphy Palaeontology · Geography and Environment · Dynamic Geology and Tectonics/ Hydrogeology in Geography and the Environment 8 5. Specialization in Dynamic, Tectonic and Applied Geology 11 6

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

367

Boullier The fault zone geology 1 Fault zone geology: lessons from drilling through the Nojima and 1  

E-print Network

Boullier The fault zone geology 1 Fault zone geology: lessons from drilling through the Nojima and 1 Chelungpu faults 2 3 Anne-Marie Boullier 4 active faults with the aim of 11 learning about the geology of the fault

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Geology and Geophysics College of Science code-BS  

E-print Network

Geology and Geophysics College of Science code-BS Code-GEOP 120 Credits "C-"or better required ******************************************************************************************************************************** (effective Fall 2013) #12;Geology and Geophysics http

Kihara, Daisuke

369

Pattern Alteration: Protruding Hip Bone  

E-print Network

People with very thin figures typically have to alter their clothing for protruding hip bones. This is because diagonal wrinkles radiate from the hip bones. This well-illustrated publication shows how to correct this problem in pants and skirts....

2006-08-04

370

Thermally Altered Clays on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing data of Mars, combined with detailed lab studies of thermally altered clays lead us to propose a scenario that preexisting clay sediments were excavated through impact processes, and subsequently modified by high temperatures.

Che, C.; Glotch, T. D.

2014-07-01

371

OneGeology: Making the World’s Geological Map Data Accessible Online  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OneGeology (http://onegeology.org) is a successful international initiative of the geological surveys of the world and the flagship project of the ‘International Year of Planet Earth’. Its aim is to provide dynamic web access to geological map data covering the world, creating a focus for accessing geological information for everyone. Thanks to the enthusiasm and support of participating nations the initiative has progressed rapidly and geological surveys and the many users of their data are excited about this ground-breaking project. Currently 10 international geoscience organizations have endorsed the initiative and more than 109 countries have agreed to participate. OneGeology works with whatever digital format is available in each country. The target scale is 1:1 million, but the project is pragmatic and accepts a range of scales and the best available data. The initiative recognizes that different nations have differing abilities to participate and transfer of know-how to those who need it is a key aspect of the approach. A key contributor to the success of OneGeology has been its utilization of the latest new web technology and an emerging data exchange standard for geological map data called GeoSciML. GeoSciML (GeoScience Markup Language) is a schema written in GML (Geography Markup Language) for geological data. GeoSciML has the ability to represent both the geography (geometries e.g. polygons, lines and points) and geological attribution in a clear and structured format. OneGeology was launched March 2007 at the inaugural workshop in Brighton England. At that workshop the 43 participating nations developed a declaration of a common objective and principles called the “Brighton Accord” (http://onegeology.org/what_is/accord.html) . Work was initiated immediately and the resulting OneGeology Portal was launched at the International Geological Congress in Oslo in August 2008 by Simon Winchester, author of “The Map that Changed the World”. Since the successful launch, OneGeology participants have continued working both to increase national participation and content, and to put in place a more formal governance structure to oversee the long term evolution of the initiative. OneGeology is an example of collaboration in action and is both multilateral and multinational. In 2007, a group of motivated geoscientists and data managers identified an opportunity and took the initiative to engage their peers to work in concert to achieve a shared objective. OneGeology has facilitated collaborative development of an Internet site that provides unprecedented online access to global geological map data.

Broome, H.; Jackson, I.; Robida, F.; Thorleifson, H.

2009-12-01

372

Page 1 | B.S. in Geology | Academic Plan of Study Updated April 2014 B.S. in Geology  

E-print Network

in topics like sedimentology, structural geology and mineralogy. Extracurricular experiences are important in the subjects of geomorphology, sedimentology, and structural geology. In addition, students at UNC Charlotte

Raja, Anita

373

A new algorithm for coding geological terminology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Survey of The Netherlands has developed an algorithm to convert the plain geological language of lithologic well logs into codes suitable for computer processing and link these to existing plotting programs. The algorithm is based on the "direct method" and operates in three steps: (1) searching for defined word combinations and assigning codes; (2) deleting duplicated codes; (3) correcting incorrect code combinations. Two simple auxiliary files are used. A simple PC demonstration program is included to enable readers to experiment with this algorithm. The Department of Quarternary Geology of the Geological Survey of The Netherlands possesses a large database of shallow lithologic well logs in plain language and has been using a program based on this algorithm for about 3 yr. Erroneous codes resulting from using this algorithm are less than 2%.

Apon, W.

374

Reports of planetary geology program, 1980. [Bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a compilation of abstracts of reports which summarize work conducted in the Planetary Geology Program. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

Holt, H. E. (compiler); Kosters, E. C. (compiler)

1980-01-01

375

Fracture analysis for engineering geological utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of geological hazards (earthquakes) and water or thermal resources urges us to understand the regional tectonic setting or recent tectonics. The Uisong Subbasin is located in one of the seismicity zones in Korea. Because the reactivity of the ...

H. I. Choi, P. Y. Choi, S. H. Hong, K. H. Chi, J. Y. Kim

1997-01-01

376

Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys is "to determine the potential of Alaskan land for production of metals, minerals, fuels, and geothermal resources." The homepage features a "Headlines" area that includes mining reports, links to press releases, and a fascinating interactive map of quaternary faults and folds that will be of great interest to geologists. Moving on, the Sections area contains links to specific department projects, including work on engineering geology, energy resources, and volcanology. Visitors won't want to miss the Geologic Materials Center area. Here they can learn about the Division's work cataloging, storing, and studying key metrics that tell the story of Alaska's geological resources. Finally, the Publications area contains links to all of the organization's written works, including those from the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks and a number of crucial reports from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. [KMG

377

Geologic selection methodology for transportation corridor routing  

E-print Network

in Texas on a shallow cut and cover-tunneling corridor for a high-speed freight transportation system. Different surface (landform, geology, soils) and subsurface (hydrogeology, soil and rock properties) properties, as well as waste disposal and similar...

Shultz, Karin Wilson

2012-06-07

378

Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, part of the Mackay School of Earth Sciences and Engineering at the University of Nevada, Reno, is an active and interesting source for studying mining and geology in the Southwestern United States. The Bureau's website includes quite a bit of information that would be of interest to students, researchers, and laypeople alike. Users will find information about current research projects on a variety of topics, an archive of presentations, and many different geologic maps of Nevada. Under the site's Data/Imagery/Indexes section, visitors will find interactive maps with data on geothermal resources, mineral resources, quaternary faults, and more. Most of the information provided pertains to the state of Nevada, but would also prove useful for instructors who could use the state's rich mining and geologic history and resources as teaching examples.

379

Mineral Resources, Geological Structure and Landform Surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant results are presented of ERTS-1 investigations of landform surveys, mineral resources, and geological structures. The report covers four areas: (1) mapping investigations; (2) dynamic surface processes and landforms; (3) structural elements; and (4) mineral deposits.

Short, M. N.

1973-01-01

380

Acadia National Park Geologic Resources Inventory Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arguably one of the most geologically remarkable sites along the Atlantic Coast, Acadia National Park represents the only National Park along the eastern seaboard with a coastline carved by Pleistocene continental glaciers. The parks landscape captures th...

2010-01-01

381

145Department of Geology Graduate Catalogue 201314  

E-print Network

and energy use, including a detailed treatment of non-fossil fuel energy options including nuclear, biomass with the study and application of different statistical techniques of interest to the geological sciences. Topics

Shihadeh, Alan

382

The geology and geophysics of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

Saunders, R. S.

1976-01-01

383

Geology Fieldnotes: Canyonlands National Park, Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains park maps, visitor information, details about park geology, and a teacher feature (lessons for teaching science using National Park examples) for Canyonlands National Park in Utah. It discusses the creation of the canyons by the Green and Colorado rivers, as well as the geologic and human histories of the park. Also covered is information about the surrounding mountains (La Sals, Abajos, and Henry Mountains), the famous Upheaval Dome, The Maze, The Needles, and arches found within the park.

384

Volcanic geology of Tyrrhena Patera, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to the geology of Tyrrhena Patera, a large low-relief volcano in the southern cratered highlands of Mars. The general geology of Tyrrhena Patera is outlined and models for the formation of the volcano are described. Models derived from studies of terrestrial pyroclastic flows are applied to deposits at Tyrrhena Patera, showing that the characteristics of the deposits are consistent with an origin by the emplacement of gravity-driven ash flows generated by hydromagmatic or magmatic explosive eruptions.

Greeley, R.; Crown, D. A.

1990-05-01

385

Editor's Note: Geology Is Fundamental (December 2006)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geology is fundamental. The usual triad of sciences (chemistry, physics, and biology) is also clearly important. Not much can be explained without physics, for example. But geology, the history of Earth, is an application of these sciences that deserves more attention. It can be immediately seen around us whether we live in Arizona or Iowa. This issue presents lessons that will introduce Earth science concepts to your students and make them applicable in your classroom.

Ohana, Chris

2006-12-01

386

Impact cratering at geologic stage boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The largest known Cenozoic impact craters with the most accurately measured ages are found to correlate very closely with geologic stage boundaries. The level of confidence in this result is 98-99 percent even under the most pessimistic assumptions concerning dating errors. One or more large impacts may have led, in at least some cases, to the extinctions and first appearances of biotic species that mark many of the geologic stage boundaries.

Stothers, Richard B.

1993-01-01

387

Geologic Remote Sensing in the Thermal Infrared  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of emitted radiance form the Earth's surface in the thermal infrared region (8 to13??is useful for geologic studies including lithology and soil and mineral mapping. Since 1982, new airborne, field portable and spaceborne instruments have been demonstrating the advantages of multispectral measurements in this region for geologic applications. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), presently being built in Japan is the newest of the spaceborne multispectral instruments.

Kahle, Anne B.; Morrison, Andrew D.; Tsu, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.

1996-01-01

388

The Human side of geologic hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to respond in a way they choose (as a class) to a geologic or weather related hazard. They begin with a study of the event, its causes and local effects. They then research the needs of the people affected. They research charities that serve the population affected. They choose a response (again, as a class). They educate the campus community about the geology/geography of the event, the needs and solicit donations.

Faatz, Renee

389

Islands geologi frn Tertir till recent  

E-print Network

1 Islands geologi från Tertiär till recent #12;2 Islands geologi från Tertiär till recent Erik Sturkell Framsidan: Riftzonen på norra Island. En graben som går igenom Dalfjall som ligger inom Kraflas vulkansystem. Bilden är tagen från riksväg 1 norrut. © Erik Sturkell #12;3 Innehållsförteckning Island i

Ingólfsson, �lafur

390

Geologic features from curvelet based seismic attributes  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Method for identifying geologic features, such as hydrocarbon indicators, from geophysical data, such as seismic data, by taking a curvelet transform of the data. After the curvelet representation of the data is computed (350), selected geophysical data attributes and their interdependencies are extracted (355), from which geological features may be identified (360), either from attribute data volumes that are created or directly from the curvelet representation.

2013-09-17

391

Comparison Charts of Geological Processes: Terrestrial Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chart presents information on the geological processes (volcanism, impact cratering, tectonics, and gradation) that have affected the Earth, Moon, and the terrestrial planets. Students compare the effects these processes have had on the Moon and planets. There is also a blank chart and a sheet of notes on the geological processes that may be used in conjunction with this chart. This chart is one of the activities for the Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Introduction to the Solar System.

392

Optimization geological sequestration of CO2 by capillary trapping mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological carbon sequestration, as a method of atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, is at the technological forefront of the climate change movement. Sequestration is achieved by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas effluent from coal fired power plants and injecting it into saline aquifers. In an effort to fully understand and optimize CO2 trapping efficiency, the capillary trapping mechanisms that immobilize subsurface CO2 were analyzed at the pore scale. Pairs of analogous fluids representing the range of in situ supercritical CO2 and brine conditions were used during experimentation. The two fluids (identified as wetting and non wetting) were imbibed and drained from a flow cell apparatus containing a sintered glass bead column. Experimental and fluid parameters, such as interfacial tension, non-wetting fluid viscosity, and flow rate, were altered to characterize their impact on capillary trapping. Through the use of computed x-ray microtomography (CMT), we were able to quantify distinct differences between initial (post NW phase imbibition) and residual (post wetting fluid flood) non-wetting phase saturations. Alterations to the viscosity of the non-wetting and wetting fluid phases were made during experimentation; results indicate that the viscosity of the non-wetting fluid is the parameter of interest as residual saturations increased with increasing viscosity. These observed trends will be used to identify optimal conditions for trapping CO2 during subsurface sequestration.

Wildenschild, D.; Harper, E.; Herring, A. L.; Armstrong, R. T.

2012-12-01

393

Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This circular contains short reports about many of the geologic studies carried out in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies in 1985. The topics cover a wide range in scientific and economic interest. Separate bibliographic listings of published reports are included. These listings are: (1) data releases and folio components derived from the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program, (2) reports on Alaska released in U.S. Geological Survey publications in 1985, and (3) reports about Alaska by U.S. Geological Survey authors in various scientific journals in 1985.

Bartsch-Winkler, S., (Edited By); Reed, K.M.

1986-01-01

394

OneGeology-Europe: architecture, portal and web services to provide a European geological map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OneGeology-Europe is a large ambitious project to make geological spatial data further known and accessible. The OneGeology-Europe project develops an integrated system of data to create and make accessible for the first time through the internet the geological map of the whole of Europe. The architecture implemented by the project is web services oriented, based on the OGC standards: the geological map is not a centralized database but is composed by several web services, each of them hosted by a European country involved in the project. Since geological data are elaborated differently from country to country, they are difficult to share. OneGeology-Europe, while providing more detailed and complete information, will foster even beyond the geological community an easier exchange of data within Europe and globally. This implies an important work regarding the harmonization of the data, both model and the content. OneGeology-Europe is characterised by the high technological capacity of the EU Member States, and has the final goal to achieve the harmonisation of European geological survey data according to common standards. As a direct consequence Europe will make a further step in terms of innovation and information dissemination, continuing to play a world leading role in the development of geosciences information. The scope of the common harmonized data model was defined primarily by the requirements of the geological map of Europe, but in addition users were consulted and the requirements of both INSPIRE and ‘high-resolution' geological maps were considered. The data model is based on GeoSciML, developed since 2006 by a group of Geological Surveys. The data providers involved in the project implemented a new component that allows the web services to deliver the geological map expressed into GeoSciML. In order to capture the information describing the geological units of the map of Europe the scope of the data model needs to include lithology; age; genesis and metamorphic character. For high resolution maps physical properties, bedding characteristics and weathering also need to be added. Furthermore, Geological data held by national geological surveys is generally described in national language of the country. The project has to deal with the multilingual issue, an important requirement of the INSPIRE directive. The project provides a list of harmonized vocabularies, a set of web services to deal with them, and a web site for helping the geoscientists while mapping the terms used into the national datasets into these vocabularies. The web services provided by each data provider, with the particular component that allows them to deliver the harmonised data model and to handle the multilingualism, are the first part of the architecture. The project also implements a web portal that provides several functionalities. Thanks to the common data model implemented by each web service delivering a part of the geological map, and using OGC SLD standards, the client offers the following option. A user can request for a sub-selection of the map, for instance searching on a particular attribute such as "age is quaternary", and display only the parts of the map according to the filter. Using the web services on the common vocabularies, the data displayed are translated. The project started September 2008 for two years, with 29 partners from 20 countries (20 partners are Geological Surveys). The budget is 3.25 M€, with a European Commission contribution of 2.6 M€. The paper will describe the technical solutions to implement OneGeology-Europe components: the profile of the common data model to exchange geological data, the web services to view and access geological data; and a geoportal to provide the user with a user-friendly way to discover, view and access geological data.

Tellez-Arenas, Agnès.; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Tertre, François; Laxton, John

2010-05-01

395

OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

2014-05-01

396

Long-term modeling of alteration-transport coupling: Application to a fractured Roman glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve confidence in glass alteration models, as used in nuclear and natural applications, their long-term predictive capacity has to be validated. For this purpose, we develop a new model that couples geochemical reactions with transport and use a fractured archaeological glass block that has been altered for 1800 years under well-constrained conditions in order to test the capacity of the model. The chemical model considers three steps in the alteration process: (1) formation of a hydrated glass by interdiffusion, whose kinetics are controlled by a pH and temperature dependent diffusion coefficient; (2) the dissolution of the hydrated glass, whose kinetics are based on an affinity law; (3) the precipitation of secondary phases if thermodynamic saturation is reached. All kinetic parameters were determined from experiments. The model was initially tested on alteration experiments in different solutions (pure water, Tris, seawater). It was then coupled with diffusive transport in solution to simulate alteration in cracks within the glass. Results of the simulations run over 1800 years are in good agreement with archaeological glass block observations concerning the nature of alteration products (hydrated glass, smectites, and carbonates) and crack alteration thicknesses. External cracks in direct contact with renewed seawater were altered at the forward dissolution rate and are filled with smectites (400-500 ?m). Internal cracks are less altered (by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude) because of the strong coupling between alteration chemistry and transport. The initial crack aperture, the distance to the surface, and sealing by secondary phases account for these low alteration thicknesses. The agreement between simulations and observations thus validates the predictive capacity of this coupled geochemical model and increases more generally the robustness and confidence in glass alteration models to predict long-term behavior of nuclear waste in geological disposal or natural glass in the environment.

Verney-Carron, Aurélie; Gin, Stéphane; Frugier, Pierre; Libourel, Guy

2010-04-01

397

28 CFR 36.402 - Alterations.  

...AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES New Construction and Alterations...rearrangement in structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement...facility. (2) If existing elements, spaces, or common areas...altered, then each such altered element, space, or area shall...

2014-07-01

398

Geology Fieldnotes: Death Valley National Park, California/Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Death Valley National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology using National Park examples). The Park Geology section contains an exaggerated cross-section showing the vertical rise within Death Valley. A link is provided to Death Valley's expanded geology page.

399

Estimation of flow parameters applying hydro- geological area information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past years many researchers have stressed the important role of geology on river flows and have pointed out in particular the problem of developing a numerical index of geology. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to developing a geological index. The method is based on a classification scheme including both basin geology and hydrogeological

S. DEMUTH; I. HAGEMANN

400

GeoKansas: A Place to Learn About Kansas Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, part of the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), contains educational information about Kansas geology, including images of geology from around the state, details about field trips, and a glossary with hundreds of geologic terms and various geologic places of interest sorted by region. Kansas Rocks describes various rocks by name and where they are found and Kansas Fossils describes fossil types and locations. Geo Topics describes various issues and subjects relating to state geology such as the age of the Earth, geologic time, rock nomenclature, an ID table for Kansas minerals with Mohs hardness scale, and coal, lead and zinc mining within the state.

Brosius, Liz

401

MULTIPLE EPISODES OF IGNEOUS ACTIVITY, MINERALIZATION, AND ALTERATION IN THE WESTERN TUSHAR MOUNTAINS, UTAH.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The report outlines the complex history of igneous activity and associated alteration and mineralization in the western Tushar Mountains, Utah and pointss out implciations for minerals exploration. The area has been subjected to recurrent episodes of igneous intrusion, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization, and the mineral-resource potential of the different mineralized areas is directly related to local geologic history. The mineral commodities to be expected vary from one hydrothermal system to another, and from one depth to another within any given system. Uranium and molybdenum seem likely to have the greatest economic potential, although significant concentrations of gold may also exist.

Cunningham, Charles G.; Steven, Thomas A.; Campbell, David L.; Naeser, Charles W.; Pitkin, James A.; Duval, Joseph S.

1984-01-01

402

Multistage hydrothermal silicification and Fe-Tl-As-Sb-Ge-REE enrichment in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district, northern Alaska: Geochemistry, origin, and exploration applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical analyses of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE) in more than 200 samples of variably silicified and altered wall rocks, massive and banded sulfide, silica rock, and sulfide-rich and unmineralized barite were obtained from the Main, Aqqaluk, and Anarraaq deposits in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district of northern Alaska. Detailed lithogeochemical profiles for two drill cores at Aqqaluk display an antithetic relationship between SiO2/Al2O3 and TiO2/Zr which, together with textural information, suggest preferential silicification of carbonate-bearing sediments. Data for both drill cores also show generally high Tl, Sb, As, and Ge and uniformly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* > 1.0). Similar high Tl, Sb, As, Ge, and Eu/Eu* values are present in the footwall and shallow hanging wall of Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide intervals at Anarraaq but are not as widely dispersed. Net chemical changes for altered wall rocks in the district, on the basis of average Al-normalized data relative to unaltered black shales of the host Kuna Formation, include large enrichments (>50%) of Fe, Ba, Eu, V, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb, and Ge at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, Si at Red Dog, and Sr, U, and Se at Anarraaq. Large depletions (>50%) are evident for Ca at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, for Mg, P, and Y at Red Dog, and for Na at Anarraaq. At both Red Dog and Anarraaq, wall-rock alteration removed calcite and minor dolomite during hydrothermal decarbonation reactions and introduced Si, Eu, and Ge during silicification. Sulfidation reactions deposited Fe, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, and Sb; barite mineralization introduced Ba, S, and Sr. Light REE and U were mobilized locally. This alteration and mineralization occurred during Mississippi an hydrothermal events that predated the Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous Brookian orogeny. Early hydrothermal silicification at Red Dog took place prior to or during massive sulfide mineralization, on the basis of the dominantly planar nature of Zn-Pb veins, which suggests filling of fractures that developed in previously lithified rock. Uniformly low Ca and Mg and uniformly negative Ce anomalies in highly siliceous Red Dog wall rocks reflect hydrothermal decarbonation reactions and pervasive silicification owing to conductive cooling of oxidized metalliferous fluids. Similar Ca and Mg depletions are evident at Anarraaq but generally lack associated silicification, possibly because temperatures of the hydrothermal fluids were too low (<180??C) or because the thermal contrast between the fluids and wall rocks was smaller owing to the greater depth of alteration and mineralization there, compared with Red Dog. Chalcophile element anomalies (Fe, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb) in wall rocks at both Red Dog and Anarraq are attributed to sulfidation reactions, coeval with subsurface Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization, during the mixing of oxidized metalliferous fluids with H2S-rich fluids derived locally within the Kuna Formation. Sedimentary wall rocks in the Red Dog district are characterized by a distinctive suite of geochemical anomalies, especially for Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb, Ge, and Eu/Eu*. At the Aqqaluk deposit, wall rocks without visible sphalerite or galena (<300 ppm Zn + Pb) have anomalous Eu/Eu*, Tl, Sb, and As for up to ???100 m stratigraphically below Zn-rich silica rock. At Anarraaq, the Tl anomaly is most extensively developed, and enrichment relative to unaltered black shale of the Kuna Formation is present up to 62 m above the highest Zn-Pb sulfide zones. The magnitude of the enrichment and systematic behavior of Tl in the district make Tl a promising geochemical exploration guide for Red Dog-type Zn-Pb-Ag deposits elsewhere. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

Slack, J.F.; Kelley, K.D.; Anderson, V.M.; Clark, J.L.; Ayuso, R.A.

2004-01-01

403

Pattern Alteration: Back Hip Fullness  

E-print Network

these amounts for alterations (Fig. 3). Slash and spread the garment for full buttocks, adding fabric to remove wrinkles and pulls. Note the length and width amounts you need (Fig. 4). Pants Altering the pant back pattern piece only 1. Draw a horizontal line... arrow if needed (Fig. 6). Increasing for full buttocks 1. With tissue paper under the pattern, spread the hori- zontal and vertical slashes by how much width and length you need. Tape the pattern in place (Fig. 7). 2. Add tissue paper under...

2006-08-04

404

Investigating the Geologic Time Scale: Creating posters to Display Trends in Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This observational inquiry activity involving careful descriptions of rocks and fossil including age will be used to create a scalar accurate geologic time scale. Students will observe and learn that the geologic time scale was created based on changes in fossil, rock, and atmospheric changes.

Atkins, Kim

405

GEOL 4501 - Geology Seminar The Geologic Record of Climate Change Spring 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

DESCRIPTION: In this seminar course, we will explore the geologic record of pre- Holocene climate change. The geologic record preserves numerous lines of evidence for ancient climate change that record, with varying degrees of fidelity, the numerous climatic changes experienced by the Earth during its 4.5 billion year history. We will examine several important intervals of climate change in ?deep

Julie Bartley

406

Geological Storage of CO2 from Power Niels Peter Christensen, Geological Survey of Denmark and  

E-print Network

. There is also mounting evidence that as atmospheric CO2 levels rise, our oceans will acidify in responseGeological Storage of CO2 from Power Generation Niels Peter Christensen, Geological Survey significant CO2 emission reduction in the near to medium term. When fully deployed, CCS in Europe alone

407

Powering Triton's recent geological activity by obliquity tides: Implications for Pluto geology  

E-print Network

Powering Triton's recent geological activity by obliquity tides: Implications for Pluto geology F, dynamics Tides, solid body Pluto Triton a b s t r a c t We investigate the origins of Triton's deformed by obliquity tides, which arise because of its inclination. In contrast, Pluto is unlikely to be experiencing

Nimmo, Francis

408

Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1  

E-print Network

Geol G308 Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1 The objective of this lab is to classify all of the fossils from your site to phylum (or to plant group skeletons and are uncommon in the fossil record. The majority of Paleozoic fossils fall into the following

Polly, David

409

Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1  

E-print Network

Geol G308 Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1 mound-like echinoderms (Cambrian) Class Echinoidea ­ sea urchins (Ordovician to Recent) Class Asteroidea ­ starfish (Ordovician to Recent) Class Ophiuroidea ­ brittle stars (Ordovician to Recent) Subphylum

Polly, David

410

GDA (Geologic Data Assistant), an ArcPad extension for geologic mapping: code, prerequisites, and instructions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

GDA (Geologic Data Assistant) is an extension to ArcPad, a mobile mapping software program by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) designed to run on personal digital assistant (PDA) computers. GDA and ArcPad allow a PDA to replace the paper notebook and field map traditionally used for geologic mapping. GDA allows easy collection of field data.

2006-01-01

411

New approach to geologic estimates of oil and gas resources by U. S. Geological Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic interpretation and evaluation of potentially petroliferous areas provide the basis for oil and gas resource assessment. Geologic factors considered to be critical to the oil and gas resource appraisal methods used in this study include area, thickness, and age range of potential strata; character, volume, and age of producing and prospective reservoir beds; source beds, seals, and organic maturity;

G. L. Dolton; R. B. Powers; E. G. Sable

1976-01-01

412

Geological maps of the European seas - the EMODNET-Geology project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support its objectives to achieve Good Environmental Status in Europe's seas by 2020, the European Commission established the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNET) to assemble existing but fragmented and inaccessible marine data and to create interoperable, contiguous and publicly available information layers which encompass whole marine basins. EMODNET is a network of existing and developing European observation systems linked by a data management structure covering all European coastal waters, shelf seas and surrounding ocean basins. The marine departments of the European Geological Surveys form the basis of a partnership that implements the EMODNET-Geology project, part of a suite of EMODNET studies that also cover bathymetry, marine chemistry, marine biology, seabed habitats, physics and human activities in the marine environment. The EMODnet-Geology project will deliver integrated geological map products through the One Geology-Europe portal. EMODNET-Geology will have a distributed map service with each of the work packages delivering a specified layer that include seafloor geology, seabed sediments, mineral resources and geological events such as submarine slides and earthquakes. Further information about the EMODNET project can be found at: http://www.emodnet.eu/

Stevenson, Alan

2014-05-01

413

Geology and our future: summary of a workshop report  

SciTech Connect

The report highlights the significance of the geological sciences to the nation and to society. The perspective is long, extending over several decades. Research areas discussed include: (1) study of the continental crust; (2) application of plate tectonics to resource exploration; (3) improvement of the National Geological Data Base; (4) expanded scope and better understanding of environmental geology; (5) marine geology; and (6) enhanced participation in international geology. (ACR)

Not Available

1983-01-01

414

Geology Fieldnotes: Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah and Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Glen Canyon National Recreation Area site contains park geology information, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section briefly discusses the Park's geologic history, structural geology, Navajo sandstone, and fossil beds. The park maps section contains a link to a features/relief map of Glen Canyon and the surrounding area, from the University of Texas at Austin Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection.

415

Geology Before Pluto: Pre-encounter Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jeffrey M. Moore (NASA Ames) and the New Horizons Science Team Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four small known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique, lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been significant to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, these putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observation. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by the New Horizons cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate on the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e. those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration), and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of the prospects for endogenic activity in the form of tectonics and cryo-volcanism.

Moore, Jeffrey

2014-05-01

416

Impact, and its implications for geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

Marvin, Ursula B.

417

Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

1991-12-01

418

Geological assessment of the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.

Crowley, T.J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1993-12-01

419

Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media  

SciTech Connect

Predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in a jointed geologic media remain a modern day scientific frontier. In part this is due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the complex physical processes associated with the transient response of geologic material, and in part it is due to numerical challenges that prohibit accurate representation of the heterogeneities that influence the material response. Constitutive models whose properties are determined from laboratory experiments on intact samples have been shown to over-predict the free field environment in large scale field experiments. Current methodologies for deriving in situ properties from laboratory measured properties are based on empirical equations derived for static geomechanical applications involving loads of lower intensity and much longer durations than those encountered in applications of interest involving wave propagation. These methodologies are not validated for dynamic applications, and they do not account for anisotropic behavior stemming from direcitonal effects associated with the orientation of joint sets in realistic geologies. Recent advances in modeling capabilities coupled with modern high performance computing platforms enable physics-based simulations of jointed geologic media with unprecedented details, offering a prospect for significant advances in the state of the art. This report provides a brief overview of these modern computational approaches, discusses their advantages and limitations, and attempts to formulate an integrated framework leading to the development of predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in jointed and fractured geologic materials.

Antoun, T

2009-12-17

420

Impact, and its implications for geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

Marvin, Ursula B.

1988-01-01

421

Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet s surface, and it is the first order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics or remote sensing. These allied sciences, as important as they are, derive the basis of their understanding from the knowledge of the geology of a given location. When we go back to the Moon, and on to Mars, the surface systems we deploy will need to support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture will consider what field geology is about - why it s important, how we do it, how the conduct of field geology informs many other sciences, and how it will affect the design of surface systems and implementation of operations in the future.

Eppler, Dean B.

2010-01-01

422

Elemental distribution in zircon: Alteration and radiation-damage effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic analyses of U, Pb and REE in 144 zircon grains from the Bidoudouma stream, the Republic of Gabon, were performed to study correlation of elemental distribution with geological alteration effects. The U-Pb isotopic results reveal that the zircons formed around 2.8-2.1 Ga ago and altered around 500 Ma ago by igneous activity in association with dolerite dyke intrusion. The REE abundance patterns of the U-Pb discordant zircons are characterized by high contents of REE (977-98,154 ppm), small LREE-HREE fractionations and distinctly positive Eu anomalies. The discordant zircons also contain significant amounts of non-formula elements such as Ca, Mn, Al and Fe; whereas, their contents of Zr and Si are 1-15% lower than those of concordant zircon. Non-formula elements and REE, especially LREE, were incorporated into metamict zircon in association with Pb-loss, which indicates that the non-formula elements and REE substituted for Zr and Si. Judging from this correlation among the contents of non-formula elements, when zircon was initially altered, Fe substituted for major elements of zircon. After the saturation of Fe, Ca and Mn were incorporated into zircon together with REE and Al followed by Ca. The metamict zircons contain large amount of U (?8215 ppm), which indicates that U had not migrated from zircon grain in association with the Pb-loss.

Horie, Kenji; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

423

Human alteration of natural light cycles: causes and ecological consequences.  

PubMed

Artificial light at night is profoundly altering natural light cycles, particularly as perceived by many organisms, over extensive areas of the globe. This alteration comprises the introduction of light at night at places and times at which it has not previously occurred, and with different spectral signatures. Given the long geological periods for which light cycles have previously been consistent, this constitutes a novel environmental pressure, and one for which there is evidence for biological effects that span from molecular to community level. Here we provide a synthesis of understanding of the form and extent of this alteration, some of the key consequences for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, interactions and synergies with other anthropogenic pressures on the environment, major uncertainties, and future prospects and management options. This constitutes a compelling example of the need for a thoroughly interdisciplinary approach to understanding and managing the impact of one particular anthropogenic pressure. The former requires insights that span molecular biology to ecosystem ecology, and the latter contributions of biologists, policy makers and engineers. PMID:25239105

Gaston, Kevin J; Duffy, James P; Gaston, Sian; Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W

2014-12-01

424

Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and\\/or

Carlos Antonio Negrato; Olinda Tarzia

2010-01-01

425

Art as Alterity in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

Zhao, Guoping

2014-01-01

426

Altered Vision Near the Hands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

2008-01-01

427

Altering the Trajectory to Delinquency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A former client of the juvenile justice system argues that neither punitive attack nor passive inaction will cause delinquency to go away. Research suggests the use of early delinquency as an opportunity to alter the trajectory of a life headed toward crime. Rather than focusing on recidivism, researchers should focus on successful rehabilitation.…

Brown, Waln K.

1995-01-01

428

Origins of Niagara: A Geological History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the geologic history and current hydrologic and cultural concerns associated with the natural resources of the Niagara region. Many topics are discussed, including the birth of Niagara Falls, the Wisconsin Glacier, rocks and sedimentary deposits, and the future of the falls. Hyperlinks connect one to related histories and facts concerning the Niagara Glen, Devil's Hole, the Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty, and two geologic tables: the Rock of Ages Chart and the Silurian Era Rock Chart. There are thumbnail photos dispersed throughout this document, which display geologic features such as a knick point, a gorge, and strata. A link connects to Thunder Alley, a comprehensive web site about Niagara Falls, of which this site is a part.

Berketa, Rick

429

Geology Fieldnotes: Mojave National Preserve, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access information on the geology of the Mojave National Preserve in California. Features include a field trip describing areas of interest at the preserve, as well as a geologic time scale describing the history and development of the area. There are discussions of the formation and history of the present day playa lakes, the underlying Paleozoic limestone and dolomite, and the formation of Mitchell Caverns. Other topics include eolian activity and resulting features in the Kelso Dunes National Natural Landmark and the Devil's Playground, and the role of granitic and metamorphic rock in the formation of pediments. There is also a geologic map of the area and links to maps and technical papers.

430

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01

431

The Evolution of Dinosaurs Over Geologic Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks high school students to combine their knowledge of evolution, geologic time, and dinosaurs into a discussion of how these three topics overlap with regard to dinosaur evolution in the Cretaceous period. Students will read about the work of paleontologist Paul Sereno and list the dinosaurs he has discovered as well as the locations in which they were found and the time periods in which they lived; review the periods of geologic time; review the theory of evolution and write a paragraph explaining how geographic isolation would contribute to the evolutionary process; write paragraphs describing the changes to the continental layout of the Earth during the Cretaceous period; write paragraphs relating geological changes to dinosaur evolution during the Cretaceous period; and create posters or computer presentations illustrating the Earth during the Cretaceous period and the evolution processes of dinosaur species during this time.

432

Geology Fieldnotes: Ice Age National Scientific Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site gives information on the Ice Age National Scientific Preserve in Wisconsin, including geology, park maps, a photo album, and other media (books, videos, CDs). There is also a selection of links to other geologic and conservation organizations, and to information for visitors. This preserve contains a wealth of glacial features associated with the most recent Pleistocene continental glaciation including drumlins, kames, kettles, moraines, erratics, and eskers. It also contains a segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, a 1000-plus mile hiking and backpacking trail that passes through this unique glacial landscape.

433

Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts of 205 reports from Principal investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology Program succinctly summarize work conducted and reflect the significant accomplishments. The entries are arranged under the following topics: (1) Saturnian satellites; (2) asteroids, comets and Galilean satellites; (3) cratering processes and landform development; (4) volcanic processes and landforms; (5) Aerolian processes and landforms; (6) fluvial, preglacial, and other processes of landform development; (7) Mars polar deposits, volatiles, and climate; (8) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (9) remote sensing and regolith chemistry; (10) cartography and geologic mapping; and (11) special programs.

Holt, H. E. (compiler)

1981-01-01

434

Western Regional Coastal and Marine Geology - Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Until now, studies that involve the ocean floor have been at a disadvantage due to an almost complete lack of accurate marine base maps. Materials presented here serve to introduce the Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project, an endeavour by the United States Geological Survey to produce high-resolution base maps of the sea floor. These maps are intended for use in identifying areas of erosion and deposition on the continental shelf, locating areas of geologic hazards, and locating pathways for movement of sediment and pollutants.

435

Method of fracturing a geological formation  

DOEpatents

An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1990-01-01

436

Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter A  

USGS Publications Warehouse

'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh annual review of the econamic and scientific work of the U.S. Geological Survey. As in previous years the purpose of the volume is to make available promptly to the public the highlights of Survey investigations. This year the volume consists of 4 chapters (A through D) of Professional Paper 550. Chapter A contains a summary of significant results, and the remaining chapters are made up of collections of short technical papers. Many of the results summarized in chapter A are discussed in greater detail in the short papers or in reports listed in 'Publications in Fiscal Year 1966,' beginning on page A265. The tables of contents for chapters B through D are listed on pages A259-A264. Numerous Federal, State, county, and municipal agencies listed on pages A211-A215 cooperated financially with the Geological Survey during fiscal 1966 and have contributed significantly to the results reported here. They are identified where appropriate in the short technical papers that have appeared in Geological Survey Research and in papers published cooperatively, but generally are not identified in the brief statements in chapter A. Many individuals on the staff of the Geological Survey have contributed to 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' Reference is made to only a few. Frank W. Trainer, Water Resources Division, was responsible for organizing and assembling chapter A and for critical review of papers in chapters B-D, assisted by Louis Pavlides, Geologic Division. Marston S. Chase, Publications Division, was in charge of production aspects of the series, assisted by Jesse R. Upperco in technical editing, and William H. Elliott and James R. Hamilton in planning and preparing illustrations. The volume for next year, 'Geological Survey Research 1967,' will be published as chapters af Professional Paper 5715. Previous volumes are listed below, with their series designations. Gealagical Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Gealagical Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Gealagical Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Gealagical Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Gealagical Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Gealagical Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525

1966-01-01

437

Geological Data Preservation Program Receives Bipartisan Support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 22 million vertical feet of geologic cores and cuttings fill the Kentucky Geological Survey's Well Sample and Core Library in Lexington. The materials are from at least 22,000 sites within Kentucky—including collections from oil and gas exploration operations, coal and other mining companies, highway construction projects, environmental studies, and federal facilities such as Fort Knox—and they are straining the 15-year-old facility to the point where there is no room to keep everything, according to geologist Patrick Gooding, the library manager.

Showstack, Randy

2014-09-01

438

Geological applications and training in remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the experiences, methods, and opinions developed during 15 years of teaching an introductory course in remote sensing at several universities in the Southern California area are related. Although the course is offered in Geology departments, every class includes significant numbers of students from other disciplines including geography, computer science, biology, and environmental science. The instructor or teaching assistant provides a few hours of tutorial lectures (outside of regular class time) on basic geology for these nongeologists. This approach is successful because the grade distribution for nongeologists is similar to that for geologists. The schedule for a typical one-semester course is given.

Sabins, F. F., Jr.

1981-01-01

439

A generalized geologic map of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized geologic map of Mars has been constructed largely on the basis of differences in the topography of the surface. A number of topographic features on Mars whose form is highly diagnostic of their origin are shown. Of particular note are the shield volcanoes and lava plains. In some areas, the original features have been considerably modified by subsequent erosional and tectonic processes. These have not, however, resulted in homogenization of the planet's surface, but rather have emphasized its variegated character by leaving a characteristic imprint in specific areas. The topography of the planet, therefore, lends itself well to remote geologic interpretation.

Carr, M. H.; Masursky, H.; Saunders, R. S.

1973-01-01

440

Geologic Time : the History of Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tutorial provides students with an overview of Earths history and its relation to geologic time. Topics include the age of the Earth, the use of timelines, and the concepts of relative and actual age. Once these topics have been covered, their applications to rocks and fossils are explained through the concepts of superposition (oldest rocks on the bottom), the use of fossils to determine relative age, and the use of radiometric dating to determine absolute age. There is also an interactive geologic time scale where students can find descriptions of what the Earth was like by clicking on the various eons, eras, or periods.

2007-12-12

441

Geology Fieldnotes: Colorado National Monument, Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This monument lies in a region once known as the Uncompahgre Highland (igneous and metamorphic), but has been eroded away to the canyons and domes seen today. Mostly sandstone rocks are found today, dating back between 225-65 million years (Mesozoic), embedded with fossils dating back 100 million years. Uplift, faulting, and erosion are all processes that have shaped this area. The site covers geology as well as human history, and contains photos, links, visitor information, and a teacher feature (tools for teaching geology with National Park examples).

Foos, Annabelle

442

Application of remote sensing to California's geology  

SciTech Connect

Recent improvements in remote sensing from spacecraft and aircraft are providing unique opportunities for scientists to study the earth. Observations and measurements can be made with greater accuracy, precision, and resolution than ever before. The following article discusses how current remote sensing data can be used to further the understanding of California's diverse and complex geology. Topics which are discussed include: wavelength intervals used in remote sensing; systems used; interpretation of images; digital processing of images; geological applications in California; and future improvements in remote sensing. 28 references.

Higgins, C.T.; Streitz, R.

1988-06-01

443

Geoscape Vancouver: Living with our Geological Landscape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is about the geology and dynamic landscape of the Vancouver, British Columbia area. The people of Vancouver live where the Fraser River breaches the coastal mountains to reach the inland sea of the Strait of Georgia. This landscape is underlain by a variety of earth materials and is continually shaped by earth processes - a geological landscape or geoscape. The processes include colliding crustal plates and mountain-building, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and the work of water, and past glaciers. References are given to printed and web resources for additional information.

444

Impact process: an important geological phenomenon.  

PubMed

The impact process was for a long period of time, even after a wider acceptance among the geological community, considered to be a marginal phenomenon in the Earth sciences. The first decade or two have showed an importance of the process itself and consequent events only too clearly. The present paper is a review describing the history and development of the impact hypothesis, structure and origin of impact craters, influence of huge impacts on the living environment and other aspects of the impact process from the point of view of geology s.l. PMID:11541230

Skala, R

1996-01-01

445

Devils Postpile National Park Geologic Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geology of Devils Postpile National Monument in California. Beginning with the origin of the Sierra Nevada Mountains 150 million years ago, the story continues on to the rocks of Devils Postpile, which formed 100,000 years ago from basaltic lava. There is a description of the cracking and columnar jointing that formed the 'posts', and why some of them are not straight but curved. Information also includes other volcanic rocks in and near the monument, recent earthquakes, weathering, and a summary of the volcanic and glacial history of the area.

446

Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: Results from MER Spirit and MRO HiRISE Observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity.

Crumpler, L. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Bell, J. F., III; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N. A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Wang, A. E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, R.; Guinness, E. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

2011-01-01

447

Using Geologic Maps, Cross Sections and Stratigraphic Columns Geological maps are topographic maps on which different rock types and geologic  

E-print Network

or agglomerations of intrusive bodies (esp. plutons) that have no visible bottom. Extrusive Igneous Rock Bodies maps on which different rock types and geologic features are represented. Types of rock bodies: Intrusive Igneous Rock Bodies Sills are sheet-like intrusions that force their way between and are parallel

Li, X. Rong

448

A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interoperability of online geological maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale (GTS) to alleviate linguistic barriers of GTS records among online geological maps. We extended the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model to represent the ordinal hierarchical structure of GTS terms. We collected GTS terms in seven languages and encoded them into a thesaurus by using the extended SKOS model. We implemented methods of characteristic-oriented term retrieval in JavaScript programs for accessing Web Map Services (WMS), recognizing GTS terms, and making translations. With the developed thesaurus and programs, we set up a pilot system to test recognitions and translations of GTS terms in online geological maps. Results of this pilot system proved the accuracy of the developed thesaurus and the functionality of the developed programs. Therefore, with proper deployments, SKOS-based multilingual geoscience thesauri can be functional for alleviating linguistic barriers among online geological maps and, thus, improving their interoperability.

Ma, Xiaogang; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Wu, Chonglong; van der Meer, Freek D.; Liu, Gang

2011-10-01

449

The Geologic History of Mars: An Astrobiology Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourteen SNC meteorites contain information which must be incorporated with recent spaceflight data for developing Mars' geologic history. SNCs have crystallization ages of 4500 to 160 m.y. Tle oldest meteorite ALH84001 contains information on the Noachian period of Mars' history. There are no meteorites from the Hesperian period and the remaining 13 meteorites fall into two age groups within the Amazonian: The nakhlites around 1300 m.y. and the shergottites between 800-160 m.y. Oxygen isotopic analysis of Martian samples shows two distinct O2 reservoirs throughout Martian history indicating late additions of volatiles and a lack of plate tectonics prior to 3.9 Gy. Evidence for percolation of aqueous brines through impact-produced fractures in the rocky surface is contained in the 3.9 Gy-old ALH84001 carbonate deposits. These carbonates precipitated at approx. 100 C. At this time life had already evolved on Earth. Early Mars could have hosted life similar to the bacteria that inhabited early Earth. Potential microorganisms could have been transported into fractures by carbonate-bearing waters and their remains could have become incorporated into the precipitated carbonate. Since Mars had a weak magnetic field at this time, it can be hypothesized that some of the Martian microorganisms may have been similar to terrestrial magnetotactic bacteria. Over geologic time episodic cratering, and tectonic events have occurred on Mars along with the periodic release of subsurface waters which may have produced clays within SNC meteorites. The geochemical data contained within SNC meteorites complements previous observational data and the recent Mars Global Surveyor data to provide a geological and environmental history which spans almost the entire lifespan on Mars. One of the outstanding features of this model is the possible creation of an early (about 4 Gy) volatile reservoir distinct from the outgassed Mars volatiles, and the persistence of this reservoir throughout most, if not all of subsequent Mars' history. Within the framework of this history a potential scenario for a possible record of living organisms is provided by suggestive structures and organic signatures trapped within secondary mineral deposits and alteration features of some SNC meteorites. Tracing the differences in oxygen isotopic compositions within Martian components allows us to gain insight in the history of Mars.

Gibson, Everett K.; Westall, Frances; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Socki, Richard A.

2000-01-01

450

Analysis of the U.S. geological survey streamgaging network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3,493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The weighted standard error for all stations, with current operating procedures, was 19.9 percent. By altering field activities, as determined by the analyses, this could be reduced to 17.8 percent. The existing streamgaging networks in four Districts were further analyzed to determine the impacts that satellite telemetry would have on the cost effectiveness. Satellite telemetry was not found to be cost effective on the basis of hydrologic data collection alone, given present cost of equipment and operation.This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U. S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3, 493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The weighted standard error for all stations, with current operating procedures, was 19. 9 percent. By altering field activities, as determined by the analyses, this could be reduced to 17. 8 percent. Additional study results are discussed.

Scott, A.G.

1987-01-01

451

Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

Head, J. W. (editor)

1978-01-01

452

Digital Geologic Mapping and Integration with the Geoweb: The Death Knell for Exclusively Paper Geologic Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of traditional methods of geologic mapping with rapidly developing web-based geospatial applications ('the geoweb') and the various collaborative opportunities of web 2.0 have the potential to change the nature, value, and relevance of geologic maps and related field studies. Parallel advances in basic GPS technology, digital photography, and related integrative applications provide practicing geologic mappers with greatly enhanced methods for collecting, visualizing, interpreting, and disseminating geologic information. Even a cursory application of available tools can make field and office work more enriching and efficient; whereas more advanced and systematic applications provide new avenues for collaboration, outreach, and public education. Moreover, they ensure a much broader audience among an immense number of internet savvy end-users with very specific expectations for geospatial data availability. Perplexingly, the geologic community as a whole is not fully exploring this opportunity despite the inevitable revolution in portends. The slow acceptance follows a broad generational trend wherein seasoned professionals are lagging behind geology students and recent graduates in their grasp of and interest in the capabilities of the geoweb and web 2.0 types of applications. Possible explanations for this include: fear of the unknown, fear of learning curve, lack of interest, lack of academic/professional incentive, and (hopefully not) reluctance toward open collaboration. Although some aspects of the expanding geoweb are cloaked in arcane computer code, others are extremely simple to understand and use. A particularly obvious and simple application to enhance any field study is photo geotagging, the digital documentation of the locations of key outcrops, illustrative vistas, and particularly complicated geologic field relations. Viewing geotagged photos in their appropriate context on a virtual globe with high-resolution imagery can be an extremely useful accompaniment to compilation of field mapping efforts. It can also complement published geologic maps by vastly improving their comprehensibility when field photos, and specific notes can be viewed interactively with them. Other useful applications include GPS tracking/documentation of field traverses; invoking multiple geologic layers; 3-D visualizations of terrain and structure; and online collaboration with colleagues via blogs or wikis. Additional steps towards collaborative geologic mapping on the web may also enhance efficient and open sharing of data and ideas. Geologists are well aware that paper geologic maps can convey tremendous amounts of information. Digital geologic maps linked via a virtual globe with field data, diverse imagery, historical photographs, explanatory diagrams, and 3-D models convey a much greater amount of information and can provide a much richer context for comprehension and interpretation. They can also serve as an efficient, entertaining, and potentially compelling mechanism for fostering inspiration in the minds of budding (and aging) geologists.

House, P. K.

2008-12-01

453

Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies  

SciTech Connect

Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems.

Bartoshuk, L.M. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-01-01

454

4th Grade Geology Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has a lesson plan for a class activity on mountain building and graben and horst formation. This particular lesson is number 14, at the top of the page. There are a few other geology lesson plans also listed on this site.

455

Public Acceptance for Geological CO2Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and

F. Schilling; F. Ossing; H. Würdemann

2009-01-01

456

Charles Lyell and scientific thinking in geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charles Lyell (1797–1875) was born at Kinnordy, Scotland. His father, an amateur botanist, and his grandfather, a navigator, gave him very soon a taste for the observation of the Nature. He went to the Oxford University to study classical literature, but he also followed the geological course of William Buckland. After having been employed as jurist for some years, in

Carmina Virgili

2007-01-01

457

Exploring Geology on the Isle of Arran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Isle of Arran in the Firth of Clyde is a classic location to introduce beginners to field geology. The richness and variety of over 600 million years of history are packed into the tiny area. This book breaks the mold of \\

C. J. Nicholas

2000-01-01

458

Impact, and its implications for geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of

Ursula B. Marvin

1988-01-01

459

Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of

M. G. Foley; P. G. Heasler; K. A. Hoover; N. J. Rynes; R. L. Thiessen; J. L. Alfaro

1991-01-01

460

Geological Carbon Storage: The Roles of Government  

E-print Network

to enjoy the benefits of fossil fuel use, while reducing its impact on the global climate. Carbon dioxide c a rd Carbon dioxide capture and storage (ccs) offers the promise that humanity can continueGeological Carbon Storage: The Roles of Government and Industry in Risk Management ROSE MURPHY

461

Geological Society of America Special Paper 307  

E-print Network

Geological Society of America Special Paper 307 1996 A model ofthe Chicxulub impact basin based terrestrial craters. This assemblage comprises suevite breccias, ejecta deposit breccias (Bunte Breccia, feldspar, and zircons; diaplectic glasses of quartz and feldspar; and fused mineral melts and whole

Spudis, Paul D.

462

Geology Fieldnotes: Buffalo National River, Arkansas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains information on the Buffalo National River in Arkansas, including geology, park maps, and visitor information. It discusses landscape formations, the course of the river, and prehistoric sites along the river, which is situated in the Ozarks of Arkansas.

463

Calibrated Peer Review: Introduction - Why Study Geology?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sarah Andrews is a geologist who has also written a series of successful mystery novels featuring (naturally) a geologist who solves crimes in her spare time. Students read her article, "Why Study Geology?", then write and essay addressing points listed in the Writing Prompt. After this, students are introduced to the process of Calibrated Peer Review and evaluate their papers.

Heise, Elizabeth

464

The Geology of Delaware Coastal Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teachers' manual provides model classroom lessons in earth science. It is specially designed to be used with John C. Kraft's A GUIDE TO THE GEOLOGY OF DELAWARE'S COASTAL ENVIRONMENT. The lessons suggest an approach for using the guide in the science classroom and in field studies. The manual can be used as a complete unit, or individual…

Lewis, Robert E.

465

Planetary Geology, Astrobiology, and Dusty Plasmas  

E-print Network

of supporting life on other planetary bodies · Laboratory simulations of geologic environments that can supply history of Mars and other planets · Dr. Mihály Horányi is characterizing lunar dust for upcoming human exploration Many others at CU contribute to detailing the evolution of the terrestrial planets and in some

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

466

Kentucky Geological Survey: Earth Science Education Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains educational resources for K-12 classrooms provided by the Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS). The purpose of this site is to provide educational Earth Science resources from around the globe using the internet. Earth science links, classroom activities, demonstrations, and a listserv for teachers are provided.

467

Time series analysis of geological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time series analysis is being applied to the following geological data: tree rings, Sr isotope data for Phanerozoic seawater, and the El Niño phenomenon. First the data are treated by ARIMA models that enable, for stationary time series, to construct a stochastic model that can be utilized to forecast future values of the series. The subsequent R\\/S analysis allows detection

G. Cimino; G. Del Duce; L. K. Kadonaga; G. Rotundo; A. Sisani; G. Stabile; B. Tirozzi; M. Whiticar

1999-01-01

468

Geologic controls on radon occurrence in Georgia  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom holds that high radon concentrations occur mostly in areas of thin and/or sandy soils underlain by granitic bedrock, that other soil conditions and bedrock lithologies are less prone to high radon concentrations, and that high radon levels in groundwater represent an isolated phenomenon. Through a combination of geologic models and field measurements, each of the four geologic provinces of Georgia can be characterized for radon concentration. The results to date indicate that no area or geologic province should be exempted per se and that a careful study of site/area geology along with field measurement will yield dividends in understanding the occurrence of radon in soil and groundwater. The combinations of bedrock lithology and soil characteristics most likely to exhibit higher radon concentrations in Georgia, and throughout the southeast, are (a) granites, granodiorites, granite gneisses, pegmatites, mylonites, carbonaceous shales, phosphates, and monazite/heavy mineral placers, coupled with (b) high to medium permeability soils such as gravels, sands, and uniformly-graded silts and sandy silts. Saprolite and surficial soil may act as either a conduit or an impediment to radon migration, as may hydrogeologic characteristics and rock structures such as faults and joints/fractures.

Gregg, L.T. (Atlanta Testing and Engineering, Inc., Duluth, GA (USA)); Coker, G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-01-01

469

The Evolution of Whales Geology 230  

E-print Network

Whale, Sperm Whale, and Killer Whale #12;Whale Evolution Video with Phil Gingerich: httpThe Evolution of Whales Geology 230 #12;http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/l_034_05.html #12;#12;Whales #12;Evolution of Whales 1990s #12;Evolution of Whales 2000s Prothero, 2007 #12

Kammer, Thomas

470

The Evolution of Whales Geology 331  

E-print Network

, Sperm Whale, and Killer Whale #12;Whale baleen #12;Tertiary Outcrops Yielding Fossil Whales in Asia #12The Evolution of Whales Geology 331 #12;http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/l_034_05.html #12;#12;Whales #12;Evolution of Whales 1990s #12;Evolution of Whales 2000s Prothero, 2007 #12

Kammer, Thomas

471

Geology of New Mexico uranium deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the geology of the uranium deposits of New Mexico was presented. Uranium has been found in all four of the physiographic provinces in New Mexico--the Colorado Plateau, the Southern Rocky Mountains, the Basin and Range, and the Great Plains. The vast majority of uranium is mined in the San Juan Basin of the Colorado Plateau in the

Hatchell

1981-01-01

472

Monitored Geologic Repository Test Evaluation Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Monitored Geologic Repository test & evaluation program will specify tests, demonstrations, examinations, and analyses, and describe procedures to conduct and document testing necessary to verify meeting Monitored Geologic Repository requirements for a safe and effective geologic repository for radioactive waste. This test program will provide assurance that the repository is performing as designed, and that the barriers perform as expected; it will also develop supporting documentation to support the licensing process and to demonstrate compliance with codes, standards, and regulations. This comprehensive program addresses all aspects of verification from the development of test requirements to the performance of tests and reporting of the test results. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test & Evaluation Plan'' provides a detailed description of the test program approach necessary to achieve the above test program objectives. This test plan incorporates a set of test phases focused on ensuring repository safety and operational readiness and implements a project-wide integrated product management team approach to facilitate test program planning, analysis, and implementation. The following sections provide a description of the individual test phases, the methodology for test program planning and analyses, and the management approach for implementing these activities.

M.B. Skorska

2002-01-02

473

Iapetus: Tectonic structure and geologic history  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many papers have been written about the surface of Iapetus, but most of these have discussed either the nature of the strongly contrasting light and dark materials or the cratering record. Little has been said about other geologic features on Iapetus, such as tectonic structures, which would provide constraints on Iapetus' thermal history. Most references have suggested that there is no conclusive evidence for any tectonic activity, even when thermal history studies indicate that there should be. However, a new study of Iapetus' surface involving the use of stereo pairs, an extensive tectonic network has been recognized. A few new observations concerning the craters and dark material were also made. Thus the geology and geologic history of Iapetus can be more fully outlined than before. The tectonic network is shown along with prominent craters and part of the dark material in the geologic/tectonic sketch map. The topology of crater rims and scarps are quite apparent and recognizable in the different image pairs. The heights and slopes of various features given are based on comparison with the depths of craters 50 to 100 km in diameter, which are assumed to have the same depths as craters of similar diameter on Rhea and Titania.

Croft, Steven K.

1991-01-01

474

Life on Guam: Geology. 1977 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an updated series of activity oriented educational materials dealing with aspects of the Guam environment, this publication focuses on the physical environment of Guam through an introduction to the geology of Guam. Contents include the formation of Guam, weathering and erosion, earthquakes, soil, and water. Activities investigate…

Elkins, Gail; And Others

475

Geology Fieldnotes: Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geology of Cumberland Island National Seashore in Georgia. This area is a mosiac of ecosystems: beach, maritime forests, and saltwater marshes. The site discusses these ecosystems and the flora and fauna that inhabit them, and includes links to maps, visitor information, and additional resources.

476

Geological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place  

E-print Network

Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada Donald A. McFarlane W.M. Keck Science Center, 925. Speleogenesis is polygenetic and strongly related to lithology. Geological units are, from the top down, ~2 m, corrosion, pressure release, efflorescence flaking, and biogeochemical activity from huge bat colonies

McFarlane, Donald A.

477

Geology Fieldnotes: Point Reyes National Seashore, California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) website highlights the geology of Point Reyes National Seashore in California. It discusses the San Andreas Fault Zone, which runs along this seashore, and the plate tectonics that have shaped the area. There are park maps and photos, as well as links to visitor information and additional resources.