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Sample records for geology wall-rock alteration

  1. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.; Duke, E.F.; Papike, J.J. ); Laul, J.C. )

    1988-07-01

    Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.

  2. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getahun, Aberra; Reed, Mark H.; Symonds, Robert

    1996-05-01

    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640 °C) and low-temperature (375 °C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl 3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375 °C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640 °C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375 °C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides (magnetite), sulfates (anhydrite) and halides (halite). The cooling calculations produce: (a) anhydrite, halite, sylvite; (b) Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn sulfides; (c) Mg fluoride at high temperature (> 370 °C); (d) chlorides, fluorides and sulfates of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Al at intermediate temperature (170-370 °C); and (e) hydrated sulfates, liquid sulfur, crystalline sulfur, hydrated sulfuric acid and water at low temperature

  3. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.

    1996-01-01

    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640??C) and low-temperature (375??C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375??C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640??C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375??C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides (magnetite), sulfates (anhydrite) and halides (halite). The cooling calculations produce: (a) anhydrite, halite, sylvite; (b) Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn sulfides; (c) Mg fluoride at high temperature (> 370??C); (d) chlorides, fluorides and sulfates of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Al at intermediate temperature (170-370??C); and (e) hydrated sulfates, liquid sulfur, crystalline sulfur, hydrated sulfuric acid and water at low temperature ( 0.41 (> 628??C). This is followed by precipitation of sulfates of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Al at lg/a ratios between 0.41 and -0.4 (628-178??C). At a lg/r ratio of < - 0.4 (178??C), anhydrous sulfates are replaced by their hydrated forms and hygroscopic sulfuric acid forms. At these low g/a ratios, hydrated sulfuric acid becomes the dominant phase in the system. Comparison of the thermochemical modeling results with the natural samples suggests that the alteration assemblages include: (1) minerals that precipitate from direct cooling of the volcanic gas; (2) phases that form by volcanic gases mixing with air; and (3) phases that form by volcanic gas-air-rock reaction. A complex interplay of the three processes produces the observed mineral zoning. Another implication of the numerical simulation results is that most of the observed incrustation and sublimate minerals apparently formed below 700??C.

  4. Textures, paragenesis and wall-rock alteration of lode-gold deposits in the Charters Towers district, north Queensland: implications for the conditions of ore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, Oliver P.

    2006-01-01

    Ore deposits of the Charters Towers Goldfield (CTGF) are mainly hosted by fault-fill veins. Extensional (˜8% of all veins) and stockwork-like (˜3%) veins are less common and of little economic significance. Crosscutting relationships and published structural and geochronological data indicate a Late Silurian to Early Devonian timing of gold mineralization, coincident with regional shortening (D4) and I-type magmatism. Paragenetic relationships, which are uniform in veins everywhere within the CTGF, suggest that vein formation commenced with the deposition of large volumes of buck quartz (stage I), followed by buck and comb quartz, and significant pyrite and arsenopyrite precipitation (stage II). Gold was introduced during stage III, after earlier sphalerite and coincident with galena and chalcopyrite. Narrow, discontinuous calcite veins of stage IV mark the waning of gold-related hydrothermal activity or a later unrelated episode. Ore zones within the veins are everywhere composed of comb and/or gray quartz, calcite and/or ankerite and bands or clusters of fractured pyrite that are spatially associated with galena, sphalerite or chalcopyrite. Low-grade or barren vein sections, on the other hand, are mainly composed of milky buck quartz with little evidence for modification, overprinting or interaction with later fluids. Gold-related hydrothermal wall-rock alteration is symmetrically zoned, displaying proximal sericite-ankerite and distal epidote-chlorite-hematite assemblages that may be taken to imply wall-rock interaction with near neutral fluids (pH 5-6). Isocon plots assuming immobile Al, P, Ti, Y and Zr consistently indicate As, K, Pb, S and Zn enrichment and Na, Si and Sr depletion in altered wall-rock specimens relative to the least altered rocks. Alteration assemblages, quartz textures, fault rocks and published fluid inclusion and stable isotope data imply that the veins were formed under conditions of episodic fluid overpressuring (˜0.9-3.8 kbar), at a depth of ˜7 km and a temperature of ˜310°C. The published fluid inclusion data also imply that gold precipitation may have been brought about by fluid mixing. However, physi- and chemisorption of gold complexes onto sulfide surfaces may have been important depositional processes and controls on gold enrichment at the millimeter to centimeter scale, given that most gold particles are attached to the surfaces of pyrite crystals of stage II or to etch-pits and fracture surfaces within the earlier pyrite.

  5. The significance of geological and zircon age data derived from the wall rocks of the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone, NW Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ela?niewicz, Andrzej; Hòa, Tr?n Tr?ng; Larionov, Alexander N.

    2013-09-01

    This paper offers new evidence on whether the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone of NW Vietnam is part of a suture zone between two continental blocks (the IndoChina Block and the South China Block) or whether it is itself of intracontinental origin, developed within the South China margin. To help clarify the role that the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone plays in South China tectonic reconstructions, we gathered new whole-rock geochemistry, structural field data, and zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) ages from granites, rhyodacites, and migmatites that occur within geological units adjacent to both the SW and NE sides of the Red River Fault Zone, a segment of the larger shear zone. The new zircon ages show that both walls of the Red River Fault Zone contain metamorphic and intraplate A-type granitoid rocks of Late Permian-Early Triassic age (263-240 Ma) and are of Indosinian origin. In the SW wall, the Fan Si Pan complex is a Neoproterozoic basement of metagranites and metasediments that was intruded by Late Permian (˜260 Ma), peralkaline, A-type granites and by subalkaline, A-type, biotite granite of Eocene age (˜35 Ma), containing xenoliths of gneissified Permian granitoids. The two intrusive episodes were separated by regional tectonic deformations occurring within a transpressional regime of a NW/W-vergent thrusting with a left-lateral oblique component, that was associated with greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism, presumably also of Eocene age (˜50-35 Ma), and that may have been related to the left-lateral movement on the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. In the NE wall, the Lo Gam complex is a Neoproterozoic basement (˜767 Ma) that was repeatedly subjected to tectonothermal activity throughout the Palaeozoic (at ˜450-420 Ma, ˜350 Ma, ˜265 Ma), ending in the Early Triassic (˜248 Ma). There was no thermal overprint during the Cenozoic. In this wall, a significant part of the Permo-Triassic thermotectonism was ductile shearing that was concentrated along dextral, strike-slip NW-trending zones in the vicinity the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone but that became a type of NE/N-ward extensional/contractional, regional movement further away of it. An early shearing on the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone may date back to the Permo-Triassic and we consider that this probably originated in a continental fault zone initiated in the hinterland of the oblique Indosinian collisional zone.

  6. Comparison of metasomatic reactions between a common CO2-rich vein fluid and diverse wall rocks: intensive variables, mass transfers, and Au mineralization at Alleghany, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The gold deposits at Alleghany, California, are typical of many epigenetic gold-bearing hydrothermal vein systems in metamorphic terranes worldwide. Detailed analyses of alteration halos in serpentinite, mafic amphibolite, and granite wall rocks at Alleghany indicate that widely contrasting deposit types, ranging from fuchsite-carbonate schists to pyrite-albitites, resulted when different wall rocks interacted with the same externally derived CO2-rich hydrothermal vein fluid. Patterns of element redistribution within halos and among lithologic units suggest a complex process involving fluid flow along vein fractures and diffusion (?? infiltration) normal to the veins. Wall rocks locally controlled both the directions and magnitudes of chemical fluxes across vein walls. -from Author

  7. A mechanism for high wall-rock velocities in rockbursts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.

    1997-01-01

    Considerable evidence has been reported for wall-rock velocities during rockbursts in deep gold mines that are substantially greater than ground velocities associated with the primary seismic events. Whereas varied evidence suggests that slip across a fault at the source of an event generates nearby particle velocities of, at most, several m/s, numerous observations, in nearby damaged tunnels, for instance, imply wall-rock velocities of the order of 10 m/s and greater. The common observation of slab buckling or breakouts in the sidewalls of damaged excavations suggests that slab flexure may be the mechanism for causing high rock ejection velocities. Following its formation, a sidewall slab buckles, causing the flexure to increase until the stress generated by flexure reaches the limit 5 that can be supported by the sidewall rock. I assume here that S is the uniaxial compressive strength. Once the flexural stress exceeds S, presumably due to the additional load imposed by a nearby seismic event, the slab fractures and unflexes violently. The peak wall-rock velocity v thereby generated is given by v=(3 + 1-??2/2)1 2 S/?????E for rock of density ??, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ??. Typical values of these rock properties for the deep gold mines of South Africa yield v= 26 m/s and for especially strong quartzites encountered in these same mines, v> 50m/s. Even though this slab buckling process leads to remarkably high ejection velocities and violent damage in excavations, the energy released during this failure is only a tiny fraction of that released in the primary seismic event, typically of magnitude 2 or greater.

  8. Geology, alteration, age, and origin of iron oxide-apatite deposits in Upper Eocene quartz monzonite, Zanjan district, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Ghaderi, Majid; Corfu, Fernando; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Prokofiev, Vsevolod; Honarmand, Maryam

    2014-02-01

    Iron oxide-apatite deposits are present in Upper Eocene pyroxene-quartz monzonitic rocks of the Zanjan district, northwestern Iran. Mineralization occurred in five stages: (1) deposition of disseminated magnetite and apatite in the host rock; (2) mineralization of massive and banded magnetite ores in veins and stockwork associated with minor brecciation and calcic alteration of host rocks; (3) deposition of sulfide ores together with potassic alteration; (4) formation of quartz and carbonate veins and sericite, chlorite, epidote, silica, carbonate, and tourmaline alteration; and (5) supergene alteration and weathering. U-Pb dating of monazite inclusions in the apatite indicates an age of 39.99 ± 0.24 Ma, which is nearly coeval with the time of emplacement of the host quartz monzonite, supporting the genetic connection. Fluid inclusions in the apatite have homogenization temperatures of about 300 °C and oxygen isotopic compositions of the magnetite support precipitation from magmatic fluids. Late-stage quartz resulted from the introduction of a cooler, less saline, and isotopically depleted fluid. The iron oxide-apatite deposits in the Tarom area of the Zanjan district are typical of a magmatic-hydrothermal origin and are similar to the Kiruna-type deposits with respect to mineral assemblages, fabric and structure of the iron ores, occurrence of the ore bodies, and wall rock alteration.

  9. Global geologic context for rock types and surface alteration on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyatt, M.B.; McSween, H.Y., Jr.; Tanaka, K.L.; Head, J. W., III

    2004-01-01

    Petrologic interpretations of thermal emission spectra from Mars orbiting spacecraft indicate the widespread occurrence of surfaces having basaltic and either andesitic or partly altered basalt compositions. Global concentration of ice-rich mantle deposits and near-surface ice at middle to high latitudes and their spatial correlation with andesitic or partly altered basalt materials favor the alteration hypothesis. We propose the formation of these units through limited chemical weathering from basalt interactions with icy mantles deposited during periods of high obliquity. Alteration of sediments in the northern lowlands depocenter may have been enhanced by temporary standing bodies of water and ice. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  10. Origin of saline, neutral-pH, reduced epithermal waters by reaction of acidic magmatic gas condensates with wall rock

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz and sphalerite of epithermal veins containing galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite with silver sulfides and electrum commonly have salinities of 2 to 10 weight percent NaCl equivalent. Examples include Bohemia, OR, Comstock, NV, and Creede, CO. Salinities in such base metal-rich systems are apparently greater than those in gold-adularia, base metal-poor systems such as Sleeper, NV, Republic, WA, and Hishikare, Kyushu. Saline epithermal fluids are commonly assumed to have been derived from saline magmatic brines, from local host formations, as has been suggested for Creede, or from evaporative concentration (boiling) of more dilute meteoric ground water. Another possibility, which may be the most common origin, is reaction of wall rocks with magmatic gas condensates rich in HCl and sulfuric acid. A mixture of one part Augustine Volcanic gas condensate in 10 parts cold ground water has a pH of 0.7 and the dominant cation is H[sup +] by a factor of 10[sup 4]. Calculated reaction of this condensate mixture with andesite at 300 C to a water/rock ratio (w/r) of 4.6 yields an NaCl-dominated fluid with a total salinity of 2.1 wt %. and pH 3.7. Further reaction, to w/r 0.14 yields a fluid salinity of 2.6 wt % and pH of 5.7; this fluid is in equilibrium with a propylitic alteration assemblage. Aqueous sulfide accumulates during the rock reaction as sulfate is reduced to sulfide when ferrous iron is oxidized to ferric iron. Sulfide concentration in the latter fluid is 32 ppm, far exceeding sulfate concentration. In the overall reaction, hydrogen ion is exchanged for base cations (including base metals) and sulfate is reduced to sulfide.

  11. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of igneous rocks is progressively more alkaline and silicic from basalt to granodiorite. Early (Stage I) chalcopyrite-bornite (-molybdenite) mineralization and genetically related K-silicate alteration are centered on the Christmas stock. K-silicate alteration is manifested by pervasive hornblende-destructive biotitization in the stock, biotitization of basaltic volcanic wall rocks, and a continuous stockwork of K-feldspar veinlets and quartz-K-feldspar veins in the stock and quartz-sulfide veins in volcanic rocks. Younger (Stage II) pyrite-chalcopyrite mineralization and quartz-sericite-chlorite alteration occur in a zone overlapping with but largely peripheral to the zone of Stage I stockwork veins. Within the Christmas intrusive complex, K-silicate-altered rocks in the central stock are flanked east and west by zones of fracture-controlled quartz-sericite alteration and strong pyritization. In volcanic rocks quartz-chlorite-pyrite-chalcopyrite veins are superimposed on earlier biotitization and crosscut Stage I quartz-sulfide veins. Beyond the zones of quartz-sericite alteration, biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes contain the propylitic alteration assemblage epidote-chlorite-albite-sphene. Chemical analyses indicate the following changes during pervasive alteration of igneous rocks: (1) addition of Si, K, H, S, and Cu, and loss of Fe 3+ and Ca during intense biotitization of basalt; (2) loss of Na and Ca, increase of Fe3+/Fe2+, and strong H-metasomatism during sericitization of quartz diorite; and (3) increase in Ca, Na, and Fe3+/Fe2+, and loss of K during intense propylitization of biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes. Thorough biotitization of biotite granodiorite porphyry in the Christmas stock was largely an isochemical process. Fluid-inclusion petrography reveals that Stage I veins are characterized by low to moderate populations of moderate-salinity and gas-rich inclusions, and sparse but ubiquitous halite-bearing inclusions. Moderate-salinity an

  12. Magma dynamics and wall-rock composition control the environmental impact of magmatic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, N.; Ganino, C.; Pêcher, A.; Chauvel, C.; Zhou, M.; Tornos, F.

    2010-12-01

    A key control on the destructive consequences of the emplacement of large igneous provinces such as Siberia and Deccan is the type of sedimentary rock in basins beneath the flood basalts. Contact metamorphism around intrusions in carbonates (dolostones or limestones), sulphates (evaporites), coal or organic-rich shale generates large quantities of greenhouse and toxic gases (CO2, CH4, SO2) which subsequently vent to the atmosphere and cause global warming and mass extinctions. Recently we demonstrated that the release of sediment-derived gases had a far greater impact on the environment than the emission of magmatic gases. Here we compare the effects of contact metamorphism of different types of carbonated sediments. We estimate that about 220 kg of CO2 were released per ton of metamorphosed dolomite in Sichuan basin around the plumbing system of Emeishan large igneous province in China. New structural studies show that during emplacement of the main intrusion, multiple generations of mafic dykes invaded the marbles of the lower metamorphic aureole. These dykes reacted extensively with the marble, and the magma actively assimilated wall-rock dolostone, a process that potentially released the entire CO2 budget of the assimilated carbonate, or 477 kg/ton. We compare this result with a second case, the Aguablanca intrusion in Spain, where mafic magma intruded limestones and shales. Contact metamorphism of pure limestone produced very little CO2 (less than 50 kg of CO2 per ton of pure limestone) whereas, in impure dolostones, the presence of silica or clay allowed the formation of calc-silicate minerals and strongly increased the CO2 yield, to140 kg CO2 per ton. In contrast, studies by Svensen and coworkers of sills in the Karoo province reveal lower rates of emission, mainly from decomposition of hydrocarbons around passively emplaced intrusions. Therefore, to understand the full impact on environment of the release of thermogenic gases during a major magmatic event, we need to take into account both the types of wall rock and dynamics of magma emplacement.

  13. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  14. The stable isotope geochemistry of acid sulfate alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, R.O.; Bethke, P.M.; Wasserman, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Acid sulfate wall-rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz ?? pyrite, results from base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4. Requisite amounts of H2SO4 can be generated by different mechanisms in three principal geologic environments: 1) by atmospheric oxidation of sulfides in the supergene environment, 2) by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in the steam-heated environment of H2S released by deeper, boiling fluids, and 3) by the disproportionation of magmatic SO2 to H2S and H2SO4 during condensation of a magmatic vapor plume at intermediate depths in magmatic hydrothermal environments in silicic and andesitic volcanic terranes. In addition, coarse vein alunite may form in a magmatic steam environment. -from Authors

  15. Microbially Mediated Glass Alteration in the Geological Record: Textural clues for Microbial Functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.

    2007-12-01

    Fe and Mn oxidizing microbes interact with their environment through the microbially mediated formation of Fe/Mn oxides and through the corrosion textures they may leave behind in the solids they colonize and from which they extract nutrients. Understanding the geo-biology of Fe and Mn oxidation may focus on the study of the microbes themselves, the mineral products, its biocorrosion features and the relationships between these types of observations. We have reviewed our own data on glass bio-corrosion and in particular the wider literature on microbial mineral tunneling to develop a two stage biocorrosion model for volcanic glass that offers feedback for our understanding of the mechanisms and the dynamics of microbial dissolution. Traces of microbially mediated dissolution of volcanic glass are commonly observed in volcanic glass found in submarine volcanoes on the seafloor, and in uplifted submarine volcanoes of almost any geological age back to the origin of life. Two main bioalteration textures care observed, granular and tubular. Based on a comparison of these features in particular with tunneling by ectomycorrhizal fungi, we propose two distinct types of biocorrosion that affects glass: (1) Granular alteration textures, made up of colonies of microbe-sized, near spherical mineral - filled cavities that form irregular clusters ranging to a tens of micron thick bands at the glas surfaces. These granular textures are interpreted as the result of microbial colonization. accompanied by dissolution of the glass in their contact surface, deposition of authigenic minerals and the formation of a biofilm, that eventually seals the glass from easy access by seawater for hydration, or from microbes accessing Fe (II) in the glass. (2) The most spectacular bioalteration feature, repesented by the formation of tubes cannot be easily formed by the former mechanism because near spherical, individual microbes are likely not to produce the directionality that is required to produce the near linear or sometimes coiled tubes. Instead, we envision the activity of hyphae-like organelles or filaments, that may radiate out from a host body located in direct contact with circulating water, possibly penetrating a biofilm and entering/drilling into the fresh glass. Such microdrilling is well described in soils, where hyphae can slowly drill into silicates, in a process that takes about 1000 years to become visible as tunnels.

  16. Natural geological responses to anthropogenic alterations of the naples bay estuarine system 

    E-print Network

    Fielder, Bryan Robert

    2009-05-15

    The Naples Bay Estuarine System, situated in southwest Florida, has undergone extensive modifications caused directly and indirectly by anthropogenic influences. These alterations include the substitution of mangrove-forested ...

  17. Opportunity In Situ Geologic Context of Aqueous Alteration Along Offsets in the Rim of Endeavour Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Farrand, W. H.; Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Parker, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed 7.9 km and 27 degrees of arc along the rim of the 22 km-diameter Noachian "Endeavour" impact crater since its arrival 1200 sols ago. Areas of aqueous and low-grade thermal alteration, and changes in structure, attitude, and macroscopic texture of outcrops are notable across several discontinuities between segments of the crater rim. The discontinuities and other post-impact joints and fractures coincide with sites of apparent deep fluid circulation processes responsible for thermal and chemical alteration of local outcrops.

  18. Alteration and fluid flow around a sulfide-carbonate-quartz vein, Lucky Friday mine, Northern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Gitlin, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    Wall rocks at the Lucky Friday mine, Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho, contain a >500m wide zone about a steeply dipping Pb-Zn-Ag vein. This zone has experienced local conditions distinct from the regional metamorphism of the quartzite + argillite host rock. Within the district, the host rock (Precambrian Revett Formation) has undergone low grade metamorphism and contains varying proportions of quartz, phengitic muscovite, detrital alkali feldspar, magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, rutile, zircon, tourmaline, +/- calcite, +/- ankeritic dolomite. In contrast, the Lucky Friday wall rocks lack feldspar and Fe-bearing oxides, and contain Fe-poor muscovite and up to 40% carbonate: siderite, ankerite, and/or calcite. A comparison of district-wide Revett rocks with Lucky Friday wall rocks suggests that the wall rocks have undergone localized dephengitization with concomitant Fe-enrichment in the carbonates and Fe-depletion of the oxides. Pertinent metamorphic reactions consume CO/sub 2/ and liberate H/sub 2/O. Fluid inclusions from the vein and wall rock stringers have homogenization temperatures from approx. =200/sup 0/ to <375/sup 0/C, but they define no temperature gradient. With few exceptions, compositions of the carbonates are identical throughout the altered wall rock. These observations suggest that the carbonate subzone contacts are not isograds but isofluxes: the loci of equivalent fluid/reactant mineral ratio. The disposition of isofluxes around a dominant fluid channelway, i.e. the vein, affords an opportunity to interpret fluid flow pathways during low temperatures metamorphism.

  19. Tail shortening with developing eddies in a rough-walled rock fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Yeo, In Wook; Lee, Kang-Kun; Detwiler, Russell L.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding fluid flow and solute transport in rough-walled fractures is important in many problems such as geological storage of CO2 and siting of radioactive waste repositories. The first microscopic observation of fluid flow and solute transport through a rough-walled fracture was made to assess the evolution of eddies and their effect on non-Fickian tailing. A noteworthy phenomenon was observed that as the eddy grew, the particles were initially caught in and swirled around within eddies, and then cast back into main flow channel, which reduced tailing. This differs from the conventional conceptual model, which presumes a distinct separation between mobile and immobile zones. Fluid flow and solute transport modeling within the 3-D fracture confirmed tail shortening due to mass transfer by advective paths between the eddies and the main flow channel, as opposed to previous 2-D numerical studies that showed increased tailing with growing eddies.

  20. Wall-rock metasomatism of carbonaceous terrigenous rocks in the Lena gold district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinov, V. L.; Rusinova, O. V.; Kryazhev, S. G.; Shchegol'Kov, Yu. V.; Alysheva, E. I.; Borisovsky, S. E.

    2008-02-01

    The Lena gold district is situated in the fold-and-shear belt of the southern framework of the Siberian Platform. The gold deposits are hosted in the Riphean-Vendian Khomolkho and Aunakit formations, revealing the strict control of ore mineralization by folding and shearing. The microstructure of metasomatically altered ore-bearing carbonaceous sedimentary rocks at the Sukhoi Log, Golets Vysochaishy, and Verninsky deposits (the latter includes the Pervenets vein zone) testifies to parallelism in the development of shearing, foliation, and ore-forming metasomatism. The local pressure gradients are marked by removal of silica from pressured zones into opened cleavage fractures and pockets. Two metasomatic stages are recognized: (1) early sodic metasomatism, which is characterized by the assemblage of magnesian siderite and paragonite, and (2) late potassic metasomatism, with formation of muscovite in association with sideroplesite and ankerite. The rocks altered at the early stage are distinguished by elevated Ni, Cr, and probably PGE contents. The second stage, close in age to the emplacement of Hercynian granitic plutons, was accompanied by the gain of chalcophile metals and deposition of the bulk of gold. In mineral composition, the metasomatic rocks are close to beresites, but the alteration differed in somewhat elevated alkalinity, so that microveinlets of albite and potassium feldspar occur in the ore zone together with muscovite. The ratio of modal muscovite to paragonite contents in orebodies is substantially higher than in the surrounding metasomatized rocks. This ratio directly depends on the degree of rock permeability and the intensity of the flow of ore-forming solutions. Carbonaceous matter (CM) in the ore zone underwent reworking and redeposition. CM is graphitized to a lesser extent than in the rocks affected by regional metamorphism. The spatial distribution of CM containing nitro and amino groups indicates more oxidizing conditions in the zone of ore deposition than at a distance from this zone. The temperature of metasomatic processes estimated from the muscovite, muscovite-paragonite, and chlorite mineral thermometers and fluid inclusions in quartz was 300-350°C at a pressure of about 1 kbar. The S, O, and C isotopic compositions of ore-forming fluids that pertain to the second stage of metasomatism (?34S= +8.5‰, ?18O = +10‰, and ?13C= -11 to -18‰) indicate their crustal origin. The generally similar conditions and products of the ore-forming metasomatic process at the giant Sukhoi Log deposit and at the small Golets Vysochaishy deposit are combined with some differences. The formation of the described deposits was related to the deep convection of fluids along shear zones followed by more local flows of postmagmatic solutions derived from the emplaced granitic magma.

  1. Geology and hydrothermal alteration at the Madh adh Dhahab epithermal precious-metal deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, J.L.; LeAnderson, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Vein-related alteration consisting of quartz-sericite-pyrite, chloritic, argillic, and silicic halos was superimposed on broad zones of pervasive silicic, potassic, and argillic alteration that surrounds the rhyolite intrusive body. Quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration associated with the earliest stage of mineralization was followed by broad, pervasive, stratigraphically controlled potassic alteration. Subsequent mineralization was accompanied by quartz-sericitepyrite alteration and was followed by the main stage of mineralization that formed strong chloritic alteration halos. Development of broad zones and halos of argillic alteration also may have been related to the main stage of mineralization. Development of silicic halos was characteristic of the late stages of mineralization. Broad, pervasive propylitic alteration was then superimposed on all alteration types and represents cooling and inward encroachment of the hydrothermal system. All alteration, except the early silicic alteration is interpreted to have been related to circulating meteoric fluids heated by the rhyolite.

  2. Desilicification and iron activation-reprecipitation in the high-grade magnetite ores in BIFs of the Anshan-Benxi area, China: Evidence from geology, geochemistry and stable isotopic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hou-Min; Yang, Xiu-Qing; Li, Li-Xing; Zhang, Zhao-Chong; Liu, Ming-Jun; Yao, Tong; Chen, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The high-grade magnetite ores related to banded iron formations (BIFs) in the Anshan-Benxi area, Liaoning Province in China, have been widely interpreted as the product of replacement of protore by epigenetic hydrothermal fluids. The high-grade iron ore reserves in the mining area II (164 million tons) in the Gongchangling (G2) and Qidashan-Wangjiabuzi (QW) iron deposits (11.45 million tons) are the largest deposits in the Anshan-Benxi area. We present a detailed comparison of the geology, geochemical and stable isotopic compositions of the iron ores in the G2 with those in the QW to constrain the role of desilicification and iron activation-reprecipitation in converting the BIFs to high-grade magnetite ores. These two deposits show marked difference in wall-rock alteration, geochemical features, and oxygen and sulfur isotopic compositions. Wall-rock alteration in the G2 is characterized by garnetization, actinolitization, and chloritization, whereas the QW shows chloritization, biotitization and sericitization. The geochemistry of altered rocks in the G2 is characterized by slight REE fractionation, positive Eu and no significant Ce anomalies, whereas the QW is characterized by high ?REE contents, strong REE fractionation, and the absence of significant Eu and Ce anomalies. High-grade iron ores in the G2 show similar ?18OV-SMOW values for magnetite, lower ?18OV-SMOW values for quartz and higher ?34SV-CDT values for pyrite when compared to the BIFs, whereas the QW shows lower ?18OV-SMOW values for magnetite, similar ?18OV-SMOW values for quartz and similar ?34SV-CDT values for pyrite. These features indicate that desilicification process by hypogene alkaline-rich hydrothermal fluids were possibly responsible for the formation of high-grade iron ores in the G2 whereas iron activation-reprecipitation process by migmatitic-hydrothermal fluids generated the high-grade iron orebodies in QW.

  3. Identification of hydrated silicate minerals on Mars using MRO-CRISM: Geologic context near Nili Fossae and implications for aqueous alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehlmann, B.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Bishop, J.L.; Poulet, F.; Des Marais, D.J.; Roach, L.H.; Milliken, R.E.; Wray, J.J.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Murchie, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Noachian terrain west of the Isidis basin hosts a diverse collection of alteration minerals in rocks comprising varied geomorphic units within a 100,000 km2 region in and near the Nili Fossae. Prior investigations in this region by the Observatoire pour l'Min??ralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activit?? (OMEGA) instrument on Mars Express revealed large exposures of both mafic minerals and iron magnesium phyllosilicates in stratigraphic context. Expanding on the discoveries of OMEGA, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has found more spatially widespread and mineralogically diverse alteration minerals than previously realized, which represent multiple aqueous environments. Using CRISM near-infrared spectral data, we detail the basis for identification of iron and magnesium smectites (including both nontronite and more Mg-rich varieties), chlorite, prehnite, serpentine, kaolinite, potassium mica (illite or muscovite), hydrated (opaline) silica, the sodium zeolite analcime, and magnesium carbonate. The detection of serpentine and analcime on Mars is reported here for the first time. We detail the geomorphic context of these minerals using data from high-resolution imagers onboard MRO in conjunction with CRISM. We find that the distribution of alteration minerals is not homogeneous; rather, they occur in provinces with distinctive assemblages of alteration minerals. Key findings are (1) a distinctive stratigraphy, in and around the Nili Fossae, of kaolinite and magnesium carbonate in bedrock units always overlying Fe/Mg smectites and (2) evidence for mineral phases and assemblages indicative of low-grade metamorphic or hydrothermal aqueous alteration in cratered terrains. The alteration minerals around the Nili Fossae are more typical of those resulting from neutral to alkaline conditions rather than acidic conditions, which appear to have dominated much of Mars. Moreover, the mineralogic diversity and geologic context of alteration minerals found in the region around the Nili Fossae indicates several episodes of aqueous activity in multiple distinct environments. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Geology, alteration, and magmatic-hydrothermal history of The Geysers felsite -- potential applications for exploration and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L. )

    1993-01-01

    The [open quotes]felsite[close quotes] is a shallow, young, granitic intrusive body centrally located within and beneath. The Geysers steam field. The field and the felsite are coaxial, and hydrothermal alteration effected by hot-water dominated geothermal systems antedating the modern steam reservoir shows systematic vertical zonation with respect to the pluton. The research summarized in this communication was undertaken both to clarify the role of the pluton in reservoir evolution, and to characterize critical felsite-specific controls on the fields's deep porosity and permeability. The felsite comprises at least three major intrusive phases. Two are high-silica granites probably older than 1.3 Ma. The third is granodiorite (1 Ma), temporally and chemically equivalent to overlying extrusive dacites of the Clear Lake volcanic field. All three intrusive phases are too old to be heat sources for the modern steam field, but probably were the heat engines for the prior liquid-dominant systems. Younger, deeper magmatic heat sources are strongly implied for the current vapor-dominated regime. Porosity in the felsite is provided by: (1) Extensively mineralized fractures and breccias, probably of both tectonic and high-temperature hydrothermal origin; and (2) miarolitic cavities in the upper levels of the pluton. The latter could be analogous to calcite-dissolution cavities in overlying metagraywacke -- they could serve as storage sites for the fields's liquid water reserves. Porosity in these fractures, breccias, and vugs in partially occluded by hydrothermal vein minerals deposited in prior hotwater-dominated systems --tourmaline, ferroaxinite, quartz, potassium feldspar, epidote, actinolite, prehnite, and many others. Such secondary mineralization conceptually could serve as an excellent exploration guide to potentially productive portions of the felsite beyond the field's present boundaries.

  5. Dynamics of changes in the physical characteristics of a hydrothermally altered geological section according to nonisothermal physicochemical simulation (the Mutnovsky Volcano)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessonova, E. P.; Gora, M. P.; Shevko, A. Ya.; Chudnenko, K. V.; Cherepanova, V. K.

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical simulation of a subaerial volcanic hydrothermal system. The model is based on the factual data on the rock composition and the geological structure of the Mutnovsky Volcano. We develop a new approach to construct the numerical model of a volcanic hydrothermal system. According to this approach, at each step of the calculation, for each point of the spatiotemporal domain, the thermophysical properties are determined; further, these properties are used in the calculation of the equilibrium state of the system. This procedure allows us to take into account the dynamic changes in the T-P conditions in the cross section and the migration of the phase boundaries. As well, using this approach, we can pass from "conditional" time in the description of the evolution of the magmagenic fluid system to the "virtually dimensional time" of the development of the simulated ore-magmatic system, from the onset of melt crystallization in the intrusive chamber up to the termination of the retrograde boiling of the melt. The simulation shows that, depending on the structure of the lower part of the section, contrasting hydrothermal systems can develop in the originally homogeneous medium. The relation between the temperature, and, therefore, phase composition of the fluid and the features of the hydrothermal alteration in volcanic rocks is demonstrated. Among other questions, in the present paper we discuss the changes in the density and magnetic properties of the volcanogenic section.

  6. Host rocks and their alterations as related to uranium-bearing veins in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.

    1956-01-01

    This paper, dealing with the different kinds of host rocks and their alterations associated with uranium-bearing veins in the United States, is a chapter of a comprehensive report entitled , "Geology of uranium-bearing vein deposits in the United States," in preparation by George W. Walker, Frank W. Osterwald, and others. The comprehensive report will include detailed information on tectonic and structural setting, kinds of host rocks, wall-rock alteration, mineralogy, physical characteristics, processes of deposition, and concepts of origin of uraniferous veins; but, because it will not be completed until sometime in the future, some chapters of the report are being transmitted as they are finished. Part of an introductory chapter to the comprehensive report entitled, "Classification and distribution of uranium-bearing veins in the United States" (Walker and Osterwald, 1956) has already been transmitted; several of the terms used herein are defined in the introductory chapter. Data included in this chapter demonstrate that uranium-bearing veins are: 1) in rocks of nearly all textural, chemical, and mineralogic types; 2) most abundant in holocrystalline, commonly equigranular, igeneous and metamorphic rocks characterized by a moderate to high silica content and and by similar physical properties. Although some of the physiochemical properties of the host rocks are discussed in terms of favorability or nonfavoribility for uranium deposition, the principal purpose of this chapter is to establish the petroloic environment in which uranium-bearing veins have been found. Because favorability or nonfavorability of host rocks is related complexly to the chemistry of ore solutions and to methods or uranium transport and deposition, several hypothetical processes of transport and deposition have been referred to briefly; these and other hypotheses will be outlines and discussed in greater detail in a subsequent chapter. The compilation of data leading to this report and its preparation by a member of the Uranium Research and Resource Section, U.S. Geological Survey, was done on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The report is based on both published and unpublished information collected principally by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission or its predecessor organization, the Manhattan Engineer District, and to a lesser extent by staff members of other Federal or State agencies and by geologists in private industry. Information concerning foreign uranium-bearing vein deposits has been extracted almost exclusively from published reports; references to these and other data are included at appropriate places.

  7. Geologic map of the Sulphur Springs Area, Valles Caldera Geothermal System, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.; Gardner, J.N.

    1980-12-01

    The geologic and tectonic setting and geology of Sulphur Springs Area are described. Geologic faults, sheared or brecciated rock, volcanic vents, geothermal wells, hydrothermal alteration, springs, thermal springs, fumaroles, and geologic deposits are indicated on the map. (MHR)

  8. Geology of five small Australian impact craters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Macdonald, F.A.; Shoemaker, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Here we present detailed geological maps and cross-sections of Liverpool, Wolfe Creek, Boxhole, Veevers and Dalgaranga craters. Liverpool crater and Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater are classic bowlshaped, Barringer-type craters, Liverpool was likely formed during the Neoproterozoic and was filled and covered with sediments soon thereafter. In the Cenozoic, this cover was exhumed exposing the crater's brecciated wall rocks. Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater displays many striking features, including well-bedded ejecta units, crater-floor faults and sinkholes, a ringed aeromagnetic anomaly, rim-skirting dunes, and numerous iron-rich shale balls. Boxhole Meteorite Crater, Veevers Meteorite Crater and Dalgaranga crater are smaller, Odessa-type craters without fully developed, steep, overturned rims. Boxhole and Dalgaranga craters are developed in highly follated Precambrian basement rocks with a veneer of Holocene colluvium. The pre-existing structure at these two sites complicates structural analyses of the craters, and may have influenced target deformation during impact. Veevers Meteorite Crater is formed in Cenozoic laterites, and is one of the best-preserved impact craters on Earth. The craters discussed herein were formed in different target materials, ranging from crystalline rocks to loosely consolidated sediments, containing evidence that the impactors struck at an array of angles and velocities. This facilitates a comparative study of the influence of these factors on the structural and topographic form of small impact craters. ?? Geological Society of Australia.

  9. Alteration of ocean crust provides a strong temperature dependent feedback on the geological carbon cycle and is a primary driver of the Sr-isotopic composition of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, Laurence A.; Dosso, Stan E.

    2015-04-01

    On geological timescales there is a temperature dependent feedback that means that increased degassing of CO2 into the atmosphere leads to increased CO2 drawdown into rocks stabilizing Earth's climate. It is widely considered that this thermostat largely comes from continental chemical weathering. An alternative, or additional, feedback comes from dissolution of seafloor basalt in low-temperature (tens of °C), off-axis, hydrothermal systems. Carbonate minerals precipitated in these systems provide strong evidence that increased bottom water temperature (traced by their O-isotopic compositions) leads to increased basalt dissolution (traced by their Sr-isotopic compositions). Inversion of a simple probabilistic model of fluid-rock interaction allows us to determine the apparent activation energy of rock dissolution in these systems. The high value we find (92 ± 7 kJmol-1) indicates a strong temperature dependence of rock dissolution. Because deep-ocean temperature is sensitive to global climate, and the fluid temperature in the upper oceanic crust is strongly influenced by bottom water temperature, increased global temperature must lead to increased basalt dissolution. In turn, through the generation of alkalinity by rock dissolution, this leads to a negative feedback on planetary warming; i.e. off-axis, hydrothermal systems play an important role in the planetary thermostat. Changes in the extent of rock dissolution, due to changes in bottom water temperature, also lead to changes in the flux of unradiogenic Sr into the ocean. The decreased flux of unradiogenic Sr into the ocean due to the cooling of ocean bottom water over the last 35 Myr is sufficient to explain most of the increase in seawater 87Sr/86Sr over this time.

  10. Hydrothermal alteration, ore fluid characteristics, and gold depositional processes along a trondhjemite-komatiite contact at Tarmoola, Western Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duuring, P.; Hagemann, S.G.; Cassidy, K.F.; Johnson, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Tarmoola is a structurally controlled Archean orogenic gold deposit hosted in greenschist facies metamorphosed komatiite and trondhjemite in the Leonora district of the Eastern Goldfields province, Yilgarn craton. High-grade (>1 g/t Au) orebodies are located in komatiite wall rock adjacent to the eastern and northeastern margins of the asymmetrical, north-south-striking, Tarmoola trondhjemite intrusion. Gold-bearing veins post-date trondhjemite emplacement (ca. 2700 Ma), quartz diorite dikes (ca. 2667 Ma), and regional greenschist facies metamorphism. Textures and crosscutting relationships in gold-bearing veins indicate two stages of hydrothermal fluid infiltration associated with a single gold-related hydrothermal event: a volumetrically dominant, but gold-poor, stage I fluid and a gold-rich stage II fluid. Gold-bearing veins contain stage I milky quartz and pyrite that are overprinted by stage II quartz-ankerite-muscovite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-galena-gold-tellurides ?? albite ?? chlorite ?? fuchsite ?? epidote ?? scheelite. Stage I hydrothermal alteration assemblages are different in trondhjemite and komatiite due to contrasting reactions between a common ore fluid and disparate wall-rock chemistry. Stage II fluid-wall rock interaction was minor compared to stage I and is indicated by the overprinting of stage I mineral assemblages by stage II microveins. Wall-rock alteration proximal to veins in trondhjemite is characterized by replacement of igneous plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, and metamorphic chlorite by hydrothermal quartz, muscovite, ankerite, calcite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tellurides, and gold, whereas in proximal alteration in komatiite, metamorphic chlorite and talc are replaced by ankerite, quartz, muscovite, albite, chlorite, fuchsite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tellurides, and gold. The stage II fluid was enriched in H2O, CO2, Si, Ca, K, Na, S, Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, W, Bi, As, Mo, Zn, and Te. Based on fluid inclusion studies and stage II mineral equilibria, gold deposited from a homogeneous, neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 5.1-5.5), reduced, low-salinity (<5.5 wt % NaCl equiv) fluid that had a bulk composition of 78 mole percent H2O and 21 mole percent CO2, and trace amounts of CH4, C2H6, H2, Ar, H2S, and He. Gold deposition occurred at 300?? ?? 50??C and 0.5 to 3.0 kbars. Assuming lithostatic fluid pressures, gold precipitated at a 2- to 10-km depth. Stage II gray quartz ??18Ofluid values range from 5.9 to 7.5 per mil, whereas ??Dfluid values calculated from the dehydration of muscovite grains and measured directly from bulk fluid inclusion analyses of stage II gray quartz have ranges of -9 to -35 and -27 to -28 per mil, respectively. Hydrothermal ore fluids were transported from greater crustal depths to the site of gold deposition during the district-scale D3 event by shallowly W dipping, reverse brittle-ductile shear zones in supracrustal rock and along the steeply east dipping trondhjemite contact. Associated subhorizontal east-west shortening caused the reactivation of the eastern trondhjemite margin and subparallel foliation, which facilitated the transport of hydrothermal fluids and the generation of gold-bearing veins and hydrothermal alteration zones in komatiite. East-west-striking fractures in trondhjemite aided the lateral migration of ore fluids away from trondhjemite margins and the formation of east-west-striking gold-bearing veins and broad alteration zones. Gold was most likely transported in the stage II fluid as bisulfide complexes. The sulfidation of trondhjemite and komatiite wall rock by the stage II fluid caused the destabilization of An bisulfide complexes and gold deposition. Potassium, Ca, and CO2 metasomatism of komatiite wall rock may have enhanced gold deposition via the acidification of the stage II fluid. The physicochemical characteristics of the Tarmoola ore fluid and relative timing of gold mineralization are consistent with the Yilgarn-wide,

  11. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses ways that geologic techniques can be used to help evaluate our environment, make economic realities and environmental requirements more compatible, and expand the use of geology in environmental analyses. (MLH)

  12. Geology and origin of Ag-Pb-Zn deposits occurring in the Ulaan-Jiawula metallogenic province, northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Feng-jun; Li, Qiang-feng; Liu, Chun-hua; Ding, Cheng-wu

    2015-01-01

    Located at the conjunction area of China, Mongolia and Russia in NE Asia, the Ulaan-Jiawula (also referred as UJ) region, with an area of 400,000 km2, is one of the most important Ag-Pb-Zn, U, Sn, W, Nb-Ta, and Au metallogenic provinces in Asia. At present, 2126 deposits and showings including 500 Ag-Pb-Zn deposits have been discovered, explored and mined since the late 1960s. These Ag-Pb-Zn occurrences can be subdivided into three types according to their geological setting, texture, alteration and mineral assemblages: (1) low sulfidation epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn deposits; (2) intermediate sulfidation epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn deposits; (3) mixed-type Ag-Pb-Zn deposit consisting of vein-like and tabular ore bodies. The Eren Tologoi and Tsagenbulagen deposits are representative of low-sulphidation type Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization in the UJ region, and are associated with intensive adularization and sericitization. Ore occurs as mineralized quartz veins, veinlet groups and altered-fracture zones within Mesozoic alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, Ore mineralogy includes native silver, electrum, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, pyrargyrite and chalcopyrite. The Tsav and Jiawula deposits are typical of intermediate sulfidation Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization. The ?34S value of sulfide (pyrite and galena) separates from groups 1 and 2 varies from 1.5‰ to 3.5‰ and 2.0‰ to 4.5‰, respectively. The ?34S values of the Mesozoic volcanic host rocks for groups 1 and 2 deposits also show the positive ?34S values of 1.5-4.8‰, while the ?34S value of pyrite separate from the pre-Jurassic schist range from -6‰ to -8‰ which are much lower than Mesozoic volcanic host rocks and their associated ore deposits. There is no difference between the ?34S value of sulfide (pyrite and galena) separates from vein-like ore bodies of the group 3 deposits and their wall rocks, having ?34S value of 1.0-5.0‰ and 1.2-4.5‰ which are similar to that of groups 1 and 2 deposits. For the Mesozoic monzogranite porphyry dykes and their associated tabular skarn ore bodies, the pyrite separates show ?34S values of 2-5‰ and 1.8-3‰. All of these deposits show relatively radiogenic lead isotopic compositions compared to mantle or lower crust curves. Most lead isotope data of sulfides from the Ag-Pb-Zn ores plot between the Mesozoic volcano-hypabyssal rocks and pre-Jurassic metamorphic rocks. Monzogranite dykes at Ulaan and Noyon Tologoi have ?Nd (T) values ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 that are similar to most of the Mesozoic granite with positive ?Nd (T) values in the Great Hinggan Mountains-Mongolia orogenic belt. Data are interpreted as indicative of a mixing of ore-forming materials from mantle-derived alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline magma with these from pre-Jurassic metamorphic wall rocks. Isotopic age data, geological and geochemical evidence suggest that the ore fluids for the Ag-Pb-Zn deposits were generated during eruption or emplacement of the Mesozoic alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline magma. The Mesozoic magmas may provide heat, volatiles and metals for the group 1 and 2 deposits. Evolved metamorphic fluids produced by devolatilization, circulated the wall rocks, were also progressively involved in the magmatic hydrothermal system, and may have dominated the ore fluids during late stage ore-forming processes. Most of the Ag-Pb-Zn bodies that occur along the contact of the pre-Jurassic marble and Cretaceous monzogranite porphyry dykes at Ulaan and Noyon Tologoi are closely associated with skarn. The ore fluid of these group 3 deposit may have resulted from the mixing of Mesozoic magmatic water and evolved metamorphic fluids. Ore deposition in this instance would be the product of the interaction of the Mesozoic intrusions and pre-Jurassic carbonate rocks.

  13. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passero, Richard N.

    1978-01-01

    1977 was a year of continued and expanding efforts in the application of the geosciences to land-use planning, especially as they relate to geologic hazards, and elucidating the role of geology in public policy. The work of environmental geological programs is reviewed. (Author/MA)

  14. Infrared spectral identification of metasomatic alteration minerals and its implication to gold exploration in Shihu Gold Deposit, Hebei Province, P.R. China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiacheng; Yao, Yuzeng; Wang, Yingpeng; Yuan, Zhou

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal alteration is of great importance for mineral exploration, especially the blind ore-hunting due to its larger scale and special zonation compared to the ore bodies. Infrared spectral identification of metasomatic alteration minerals can be done with little or no sample preparation and quantitative result can be obtained. In this paper, 65 wall-rock samples of several horizontal and vertical profiles were selected from Shihu Gold deposit in Hebei Province to do reflectance spectrum measurements by means of rough surface, smooth section and powder with portable ASD FieldSpec®3 spectrometer. ViewspecPro software was used to preprocess the spectrum, and metasomatic alteration minerals were spectrally discriminated by SII (Spectral International Inc) Specmin software package with wavelength of 1100~2500nm. The results shows that: (1) among all the three spectral libraries embedded in SPECMIN software, i.e., ASD, USGS and JPL, ASD spectral library is more suitable for the spectral hydrothermal alteration minerals identification in Shihu Gold Deposit; (2) the observed mineral zonation from wall-rock gneiss to ore-body indicates obvious downtrend of amphibole, chlorite, sericite, carbonate and barite, which is consistent with the microscopic and XRD results; (3) spectral identification of metasomatic alteration minerals is theoretically feasible, which is economic and convenient, and most important of all, the result can be quantitative or semi-quantitative. The results are helpful and successfully applied to the further mineral exploration in Shihu Gold Deposit.

  15. Alteration and geochemical zoning in Bodie Bluff, Bodie mining district, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrera, P.A.; Closs, L.G.; Silberman, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Banded, epithermal quartz-adularia veins have produced about 1.5 million ounces of gold and 7 million ounces of silver from the Bodie mining district, eastern California. The veins cut dacitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and intrusions. Sinter boulders occur in a graben structure at the top of Bodie Bluff and fragments of sinter and mineralized quartz veins occur in hydrothermal breccias nearby. Explosive venting evidently was part of the evolution of the ore-forming geothermal systems which, at one time, must had reached the paleosurface. Previous reconnaissance studies at Bodie Bluff suggested that the geometry of alteration mineral assemblages and distribution of some of the major and trace elements throughout the system correspond to those predicted by models of hot-spring, volcanic rock hosted precious metal deposits (Silberman, 1982; Silberman and Berger, 1985). The current study was undertaken to evaluate these sugestions further. About 500 samples of quartz veins and altered rocks, including sinter, collected over a vertical extent of 200 meters within Bodie Bluff were petrographically examined and chemically analyzed for trace elements by emission spectrographic and atomic absorption methods. Sixty-five samples were analyzed for major elements by X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses showed that, in general, alteration mineral assemblage and vertical geochemical zoning patterns follow those predicted for hot-spring deposits, but that geochemical zoning patterns for sinter and quartz veins (siliceous deposits), and altered wall rocks are not always similar. The predicted depth-concentration patterns for some elements, notably Au, Ag, Hg, and Tl in quartz veins, and Hg, As and Ag in wall rocks were not as expected, or were perturbed by the main ore producing zone. For both quartz veins and altered wall rocks, the main ore zone had elevated metal contents. Increased concentration of many of these elements could indicate proximity to this zone. However, irregularities in the distribution of some key elements, such as Au and Ag, relative to the predictive models suggest that a larger suite of elements be considered for exploration for ore zones within the district. ?? 1993.

  16. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  17. Archeological Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses some of the publication outlets, from international to relatively esoteric, used in archeological geology and comments on a possible future trend in publication of archeological-geology research. Publication outlets considered include books (including those published by university presses), journals, and government publications.…

  18. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  19. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  20. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J., III

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  1. Geology of the Plumtree area, Spruce Pine district, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1953-01-01

    This report describes the results of study and geologic mapping (1:12,000) in the 70-square-mile Plumtree area in the northeastern part of the Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine and includes parts of Mitchell and Avery Counties shown on the portions of the 7.5-minute Spruce Pine, Linville Falls, Newland, North Carolina, and Carvers Gap, North Carolina and Tennessee quadrangle. The topography varies from rugged mountains to rounded or flat topped hills near the entrenched, meandering master streams. Old erosion surfaces are approximately 600,1,100, 1,500, and 2,500 feet above the present master stream level. The area is in late youth or early maturity after rejuvenation.. The regionally metamorphosed rocks of the amophibolite facies form three mappable units: mica gneiss, mica schist, and hornblende rock. These rocks, perhaps of Precambrian age, are intimately interlayered with thicknesses of the individual layers ranging from less than one inch to several tons of feet. Field relationships and chemical data suggest that the mica (Carolina-type) rocks were derived from sandstones, graywackes, and shales and that the hornblende-rich (Roan-type) layers were derived from impure carbonate rocks. The igneous rocks include alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age (?), dunite and associated soapstone of a prepegmatite age, and a few diabasic dikes of post-pegmatite age (Triassic?). The alaskite and pegmatite have similar bulk compositions, notably low in iron (0.3 percent). The major constituents in order of decreasing abundance are plagioclase, perthitic microcline, quartz, and muncovite. All of these minerals, as well as clay deposits derived from the weathering of alaskite under old terraces, have economic value. The zoned pegmatites contain fewer zones which are less complex mineralogically than those in the pegmatites of many other areas. These essentially unmetamorphosed bodies were intruded approximately at the peak of the regional metamorphism. Their emplacement was controlled by local structure and rock type. The source of this igneous material may have been the mobilized portions of the Cranberry gneiss which underlies the area. The dunite bodies were intruded early in the metamorphic cycle. The bodies are commonly zoned: from the wall rock inwards (1) talc-antrophyllite-serpentine fringe, (3) serpentinized dunite, (3) granular olivine core. Dunite, chromite, vermiculite, and anthophyllite are the major economic commodities. Extensive hydrothermal alteration of dunite bodies produced soapstone. The area is the northeast end of a southwest plunging synclinorium about 20 miles wide with the steeper limb on the northwest side. There are three structural zones: zone I on the northwest is characterized by the northeast-trending isoclinal folds with steep southeast dips; zone II on the southwest includes an area of rocks with low and variable dip; zone III is the complex central core. In the extreme northeast zones I and II have an indistinct boundary where they coalesce along the rim of the synclinorium. Six stratigraphic units are exposed totaling approximately 10,500 feet of metamorphic rocks. Small scale structural features include a foliation, and a lineation in the planes of the foliation. Minor folding reflects the trends of the major structures. There are randomly orient

  2. Geologic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, William L.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

  3. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  4. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, A. Gordon

    1972-01-01

    Briefly summarizes the major applications, during 1971, of geology to environmental problems in the United States and mentions some of the related literature from professional meetings and from other publications. (PR)

  5. Geology, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  6. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of precious-metal-rich silica-barite-carbonate white ores began at low temperature in a shallow, subaqueous setting, probably a thin carbonate shelf on the flanks of the Alexander landmass. Epigenetic carbonate replacement textures in the footwall dolostones are overlain by stratiform silica-carbonate-barite-rich ores and indicate that early mineralization formed at and just beneath the paleo sea floor by mixing of a reduced, precious-metal-rich, base-metal-poor hydrothermal fluid with oxygenated seawater. As rifting intensified, the shelf was downfaulted and isolated as a graben. Isolation of the basin and onset of starved-basin shale sedimentation was concurrent with emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusives at shallow levels in the rift, resulting in an increasingly higher temperature and progressively more anoxic ore-forming environment. The formation of the main stage of massive sulfide ores began as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur increased in the accumulating shales. As the main-stage mineralization intensified, shale sedimentation inundated the hydrothermal system, eventually forming a cap. Biogenic sulfate reduction supplied reduced sulfur to the base of the shales where mixing occurred with hot, base-metal-rich hydrothermal fluids. Ore deposition continued by destruction and epigenetic replacement of the early white ores in proximal areas and by inflation and diagenetic replacement of unlithified shale at the interface between the white ores and the base of the shale cap. Ore deposition waned as the shales became lithified and as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur to the site of ore deposition ceased. The final stages of rifting resulted in the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks into the Greens Creek system and extrusion of voluminous basaltic flows at the top of the Triassic section. Greenschist facies metamorphism during the Jurassic-Cretaceous accretion of the Alexander terrane to the continental margin resulted in recrystalli

  8. Proterozoic Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, P. K.

    1984-04-01

    This book and its companion, Early Proterozoic Geology of the Great Lakes Region (Mem. 160 Geological Society of America, 1984), edited by L.G. Medaris, Jr., are the products of an International Proterozoic symposium held at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, May 18-21, 1981. This volume contains 23 papers that present the current thinking of experts on many aspects of Proterozoic evolution of the earth; it is divided into five broad categories: tectonics, magmatism and metamorphism, mineral resources, evolution of life and the atmosphere, and glaciation.The Proterozoic is a distinctive interval in the geologic history of the earth, encompssing the transition from Archean conditions to those of the Phanerozoic. By Early Proterozoic time, extensive stable continental plates existed, and deformation, deposition, and intrusion styles were comparable to those of today. Also, the amount of free oxygen in the atmosphere and hydrosphere continuously increased during the Proterozoic and eventually reached levels supportive of metazoan evolution.

  9. Geological flows

    E-print Network

    Yu. N. Bratkov

    2008-11-19

    In this paper geology and planetology are considered using new conceptual basis of high-speed flow dynamics. Recent photo technics allow to see all details of a flow, 'cause the flow is static during very short time interval. On the other hand, maps and images of many planets are accessible. Identity of geological flows and high-speed gas dynamics is demonstrated. There is another time scale, and no more. All results, as far as the concept, are new and belong to the author. No formulae, pictures only.

  10. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  11. Geologic Map of the Estes Park 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, James C.; Braddock, William A.

    2009-01-01

    The rocks and landforms of the Estes Park 30 x 60 minute quadrangle display an exceptionally complete record of geologic history in the northern Front Range of Colorado. The Proterozoic basement rocks exposed in the core of the range preserve evidence of Paleoproterozoic marine sedimentation, volcanism, and regional soft-sediment deformation, followed by regional folding and gradational metamorphism. The metasedimentary rocks of the Estes Park quadrangle are distinct within northern Colorado for preserving the complete metamorphic zonation from low-grade chlorite-muscovite phyllites, through middle greenschist-grade rocks with sequential aluminous porphyroblasts, to partially melted gneisses that contain high-grade cordierite and garnet in the non-melted residues. Regional and textural evidence shows that the widespread metamorphism was essentially concurrent with intrusion of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite and related magmas and with the peak of deformation in the partially melted high-grade rocks. The metamorphic thermal pulse arrived later following the peak of deformation in the physically higher, cooler, low-grade terrane. Mesoproterozoic time was marked by intrusion of biotite granite in the Longs Peak-St Vrain batholith, a complex, irregular body that occupies nearly half of the core of the Front Range in this quadrangle. The magma was dry and viscous as it invaded the metamorphic rocks and caused wholesale plastic folding of the wall rock structure. Steep metamorphic foliation that resulted from the Paleoproterozoic deformations was bowed upward and re-oriented into flat-lying attitudes as the crystal-rich magma rose buoyantly and spread out in the middle crust. Magma invaded the schists and gneisses along weak foliation planes and produced a characteristic sill-upon-sill intrusive fabric, particularly in the higher parts of the batholith. Broad, open arches and swales that are defined by the flow-aligned feldspar foliation of the granite, as well as by compositional banding in the intruded and included metamorphic rocks, formed late during batholith emplacement due to rising, buoyant magma and sinking, dense wall rocks. The Longs Peak-St Vrain batholith was intruded into crust that was structurally neutral or moderately extending in an east-northeast direction. A broad zone of mylonite, the Moose Mountain shear zone, formed within the batholith during the final stages of consolidation as a result of differential buoyancy between the magma and dense wall rock, not as a result of regional tectonic deformation.

  12. Geology of the Midnite uranium mine area, Washington: maps, description, and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Bedrock geology of about 12 km2 near the Midnite mine has been mapped at the surface, in mine exposures, and from drilling, at scales from 1:600 to 1:12,000 and is presented here at 1:12,000 to provide description of the setting of uranium deposits. Oldest rocks in the area are metapelitic and metacarbonate rocks of the Precambrian (Y) Togo Formation. The chief host for uranium deposits is graphitic and pyritic mica phyllite and muscovite schist. Ore also occurs in calc-silicate hornfels and marble at the western edge of a calcareous section about 1,150 m thick. Calcareous rocks of the Togo are probably older than the pelitic as they are interpreted to be near the axis of a broad anticline. The composition and structural position of the calcareous unit suggests correlation with less metamorphosed carbonate-bearing rocks of the Lower Wallace Formation, Belt Supergroup, about 200 km to the east. Basic sills intrusive into the Togo have been metamorphosed to amphibolite. Unmetamorphosed rocks in the mine area are Cretaceous(?) and Eocene igneous rocks. Porphyritic quartz monzonite of Cretaceous age, part of the Loon Lake batholith, is exposed over one third of the mine area. It underlies the roof pendant of Precambrian rocks in which the Midnite mine occurs at depths of generally less than 300 m. The pluton is a two-mica granite and exhibits pegmatitic and aplitic textural features indicative of water saturation and pressure quenching. Eocene intrusive and extrusive rocks in the area provide evidence that the Eocene surface was only a short distance above the present uranium deposits. Speculative hypotheses are presented for penesyngenetic, hydrothermal, and supergene modes of uranium emplacement. The Precambrian Stratigraphy, similar in age and pre-metamorphic lithology to that of rocks hosting large uranium deposits in Saskatchewan and Northern Territory, Australia, suggests the possibility of uranium accumulation along with diagenetic pyrite in carbonaceous muds in a marine shelf environment. This hypothesis is not favored by the author because there is no evidence for stratabound uranium such as high regional radioactivity in the Togo. A hydrothermal mode of uranium emplacement is supported by the close apparent ages of mineralization and plutonism, and by petrology of the pluton. I speculate that uranium may have become enriched in postmagmatic fluids at the top of the pluton, possibly by hydrothermal leaching of soluble uranium associated with magnetite, and diffused outward into metasedimentary wall rocks to create an aureole about 100 m thick containing about 100 ppm uranium. Chemistry of the hydrothermal process is not understood, but uranium does not appear to have been transported by an oxidizing fluid, and the fluid did not produce veining and alteration comparable to that of base-metal sulfide deposits. Uranium in the low-grade protore is believed to have been redistributed into permeable zones in the Tertiary to create ore grades. Geologic and isotopic ages of uranium mineralization, and the small volume of porphyritic quartz monzonite available for leaching, are not supportive of supergene emplacement of uranium.

  13. Structural Geology Personal Computers

    E-print Network

    Cattin, Rodolphe

    Structural Geology and Personal Computers #12;Struetura1 Geology and Personal Computers Edited of Congress. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Structural geology and personal computers. Furthermore, a 167 #12;Structural Geology and Personal Computers classification ofmantle textures and related

  14. GEOLOGY, B.S.G. GEOLOGY OPTION

    E-print Network

    Hamburger, Peter

    GEOLOGY, B.S.G. GEOLOGY OPTION (Fall 2015-Summer 2016) IPFW Residency Requirements: ____ 32 credits GEOLOGY BSG CORE COURSES (66 credits) *Note: grades of C- or better required in GEOL courses/2.0 GPA ______ 3 - 5 Credits in Geology or Geography with Laboratory (Select 1 of the following): ___3 GEOL G103

  15. Geologic nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Susan Werner

    Sonic velocities of geologic fluids, such as volcanic magmas and geothermal fluids, can be as low as 1 m/s. Critical velocities in large rivers can be of the order of 1-10 m/s. Because velocities of fluids moving in these settings can exceed these characteristic velocities, sonic and supersonic gas flow and critical and supercritical shallow-water flow can occur. The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized and, as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid-flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, supercritical flow occurs where debris discharged from tributary canyons constricts the channel into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle. The geometry of the channel in these regions can be used to interpret the flood history of the Colorado River over the past 103-105 years. The unity of fluid mechanics in these three natural phenomena is provided by the well-known analogy between gas flow and shallow-water flow in converging-diverging nozzles.

  16. Geologic Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Susan Werner

    1989-02-01

    Sonic velocities of geologic fluids, such as volcanic magmas and geothermal fluids, can be as low as 1 m/s. Critical velocities in large rivers can be of the order of 1-10 m/s. Because velocities of fluids moving in these settings can exceed these characteristic velocities, sonic and supersonic gas flow and critical and supercritical shallow-water flow can occur. The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the gyeser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. The transport capacity in the rapids can be so great that the river contours the channel to a characteristic shape. This shape can be used to interpret the flood history of the Colorado River over the past 10³-105 years. The unity of fluid mechanics in these three natural phenomena is provided by the well-known analogy between gas flow and shallow-water flow in converging-diverging nozzles.

  17. DNA ALTERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

  18. A Handbook for Geology Students Why study Geology?.............................................................................................3

    E-print Network

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    1 A Handbook for Geology Students #12;2 Contents Why study Geology ..................................................................................7 Why Appalachian Geology?................................................................................10 Geology Faculty and Staff

  19. PHYSICAL GEOLOGY LABORATORY MANUAL

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    PHYSICAL GEOLOGY LABORATORY MANUAL Geology 001 Eleventh Edition by Professors Charles Merguerian and J Bret Bennington Department of Geology Hofstra University © 2010 #12;ii Table of Contents Lab and Find Out More about Geology at Hofstra Email: Geology professors can be contacted via Email: Full

  20. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  1. Geologic investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Orkild, P.P.; Baldwin, M.J.; Townsend, D.R.

    1983-12-31

    The Climax stock is a composite granitic intrusive of Cretaceous age, composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite, which intrudes rocks of Paleozoic and Precambrian age. Tertiary volcanic rocks, consisting of ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs, and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks overlie the sedimentary rocks and the stock. Erosion has removed much of the Tertiary volcanic rocks. Hydrothermal alteration of quartz monzonite and granodiorite is found mainly along joints and faults and varies from location to location. The Paleozoic carbonate rocks have been thermally and metasomatically altered to marble and tactite as much as 457 m (1500 ft) from the contact with the stock, although minor discontinuous metasomatic effects are noted in all rocks out to 914 m (3000 ft). Three major faults which define the Climax area structurally are the Tippinip, Boundary and Yucca faults. North of the junction of the Boundary and Yucca faults, the faults are collectively referred to as the Butte fault. The dominant joint sets and their average attitudes are N 32{degrees} W, 22{degrees} NE; N 60{degrees} W, vertical and N 35{degrees} E, vertical. Joints in outcrop are weathered and generally open, but in subsurface, the joints are commonly filled and healed with secondary minerals. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  4. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  5. Geological Society of America Special Paper 404

    E-print Network

    Toran, Laura

    storms as evidence of pathways to karst springs Laura Toran Jennifer H. Tancredi Department of Geology 16802, USA ABSTRACT Storms create stresses on karst systems that can alter the pathways and travel, and fractured matrix. In order to obtain evidence of pathway changes, we sampled three karst springs of varying

  6. doi:10.1130/G25699A.1 2009;37;615-618Geology

    E-print Network

    Benning, Liane G.

    terrestrial biosphere depends. Rock weathering through disso- lution reactions also affects the chemical weathering: Early stages of mineral alteration at the Geology on 29 June 2009geology;GEOLOGY, July 2009 615 ABSTRACT Plant-driven fungal weathering is a major pathway of soil formation, yet

  7. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  8. Geology for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Describes environmental geology as including planning to avoid natural hazards, acquire natural resources, and use land wisely. Describes philosophy and strategies for developing interdisciplinary, environmental geology education at the high school, college, professional graduate, and doctoral research levels. (PR)

  9. GEOLOGY 619 ADVANCED PETROLEUM GEOLOGY Wayne M. Ahr, Professor, CPG

    E-print Network

    GEOLOGY 619 ­ ADVANCED PETROLEUM GEOLOGY Wayne M. Ahr, Professor, CPG Draft v.1 ­ October, 2008 Advanced Petroleum Geology is designed for graduate students in geology, geophysics, and engineering. This course differs from Geology 404 ­ Petroleum Geology ­ by its more rigorous treatment of subject matter

  10. Structural geology report: Spent Fuel Test - Climax Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    We performed underground mapping and core logging in the Climax Stock, a granitic intrusive at the Nevada Test Site, as part of a major field test to determine the feasibility of using granitic or crystalline rock for the underground storage of spent fuel from a nuclear reactor. This mapping and logging identified more than 2500 fractures, over 1500 of which were described in enough detail to allow statistical analyses and orientation studies to be performed. We identified eight joint sets, three major shear sets, and a fault zone within the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) portion of the Stock. Joint sets identified within the SFT-C and elsewhere in the Stock correlated well. The orientations of joint sets identified by other investigators were consistent with our findings, indicating that the joint sets are persistent and have a relatively uniform orientation throughout a major portion of the Stock. The one joint set not seen elsewhere in the Stock is healed and the wall rock is altered, implying that healed joints were not included in the mapping criteria used by other investigators. The shear sets were distinguished from the joint sets by virtue of crushed minerals, continuous clay infilling, and other evidences of shearing, and from faults by the lack of offsetting. Previous investigators working mainly in the Pile Driver Drifts identified two of the shear sets. The third set, being nearly parallel to these Drifts had not been identified previously. The fault zone identified at the far (Receiving Room) end of the project is oriented approximately N45{sup 0}E-75{sup 0}SE, similar to both the Boundary and Shaft Station Faults. We have, therefore, concluded that the Receiving Room Fault is one of a series of normal faults that occur within the Climax Stock and that are possibly related, in both age and genesis, to the Boundary Fault. 52 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Geological Survey research 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1976-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Geological Survey research 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1978-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Pattern Alteration: Shoulder Slope 

    E-print Network

    2006-05-05

    Development and Resource Management Specialists B Pattern Alteration E-381 05-06 efore attempting this alteration, review Extension publications E-372, Principles of Pattern Alteration, and E-373, Personal Measurement Chart, for basic instructions...

  14. Environmental geology of the Summitville mine, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Atkinson, William W.

    1994-01-01

    Although altered and mineralized rocks at Summitville mine in Colorado contain minimal amount of sulfide minerals, acid mine problems existed primarily because of the pervasive alteration of the surrounding rocks, through hydrothermal process, to highly siliceous and argillized rocks that are incapable of buffering acidic waters during weathering. The problems are compounded by the continued exposure of altered and mineralized rocks in open pit, heap leach pad and waste piles to oxygenated waters. Inadequate subsurface structural control and underground mine workings also greatly affect water quality and the location of acid mine drainage output. It is expected that with these initial results, geological studies on constrained acid-generation from ore and altered rocks will be pursued.

  15. Evolution of fluid-rock interactions: fluid inclusion, isotopic, and major/minor element chemistry of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock in core RN-17B, Reykjanes, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, A. P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2011-12-01

    The Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, hosts a seawater-dominated geothermal system. Previous studies indicate an evolution of the system from meteoric to seawater. The inclined 4-inch diameter RN-17B drill core was collected from 2798.5 m to 2808.5 m (~2555 m below surface) at in situ temperature of approximately 330°C. Samples for this study were obtained from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The core contains hydrothermally altered rocks of basaltic composition. Hydrothermal alteration ranges from upper greenschist to lower amphibolite grade, dependent on protolith size and composition. Veins in the core grade inward from radial epidote + acicular hornblende + titanite + pyrite, to clearer equant and compositionally zoned epidote vein centers. Felted amphibole replaces hyaloclastite and smaller crystalline clasts within the core, but is absent from the centers of crystalline pillow basalt fragments. Amphibole in vein selvages and vesicle fillings is green and acicular. Electron microprobe analyses of amphibole indicate it spans a compositional range of ferrohornblende through paragasite. The pistacite component (Xps) of vein epidote ranges from 16.5 to 36.7. The Xps component shows both normal and reverse zoning within single epidote crystals across this range, and follows no distinct pattern. Vein epidote adjacent to the wall rock has a higher aluminum concentration than vein centers. This may be due to mobilization of aluminum from plagioclase in the wall rock during albitization. Solutions flowing through open fractures may have lower Al-content and thus precipitate more Fe-rich epidote than those next to the fracture walls. Primary fluid inclusions in epidote range in size from <1 to 10 ?m in diameter. Secondary fluid inclusions are <1 ?m in diameter and not measurable. Calculated fluid inclusion salinities range from 0.5 to 7.6 weight percent NaCl, with lower salinities adjacent to the wall rock and higher salinities in the vein centers. Homogenization temperature (Th) measurements fall into 3 categories: 1) non-homogenizing adjacent to vein walls; 2) inwards of vein wall (Th = 383.6 to 401.5°C); and 3) the vein center (Th = 344.9 to 378.3°C). Laser ablation ICP-MS spot measurements of strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) ratios decrease from the vein edges (0.70500) to the vein centers (0.70400). 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios are overall shifted away from oceanic basalt values towards seawater values. Lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the vein centers indicate an evolution of the system to lower water/rock ratios. If this conclusion is correct, lower water/rock ratio may be responsible for salinities greater than seawater in the vein centers following wall rock hydration.

  16. Geological Survey research 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress. (USGS)

  17. Sulfur and oxygen isotope study of the Vermont copper belt: evidence of seawater hydrothermal alteration and sulfate reduction in a high-grade metamorphic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, W.C. III; Woodruff, L.G.; Slack, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Massive sulfide deposits of the Orange County copper district, in east-central Vermont, consist of stratiform lenses of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and minor sphalerite within amphibolite-facies rocks of Early Devonian (.) age. The deposits occur at several different stratigraphic levels. The two largest, Elizabeth and Ely, are in quartz-mica schists of the Gile Mountain Formation; the Pike Hill deposit occurs in calcareous quartz-mica schist of the underlying Waits River Formation. Two small deposits (Orange and Gove) are within the Standing Pond Volcanics, a thin tholeiitic amphibolite near the Gile Mountain-Waits River contact. The Elizabeth deposit in particularly distinctive, and contains a suite of unusual wall rocks rich in quartz, carbonate, muscovite, amphibole, phlogopite, tourmaline, spessartine, and sodic plagioclase. Sulfur isotope values at Elizabeth and Ely of 5.1 to 9.1 per thousands contrast with values for Gove (1.9 to 4.2) and Pike Hill (1.5 to 4.6). Disseminated sulfides in amphibolites of the Standing Pond Volcanics have sulfur isotope values in the range -0.1 to 1.7 per thousands, typical of MORB. These data require sulfur contributions to massive sulfide deposits both from basalt and from contemporaneous seawater sulfate sources. Whole-rock (carbonate free) oxygen isotope analyses of host lithologies range from 7.9 per thousands (Standing Pond Volcanics) to 19.9 per thousands (Waits River Formation). Detailed sampling of Elizabeth wall rocks (including those high in B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Mn) yields a narrow range of oxygen isotope values (11.1 to 14.1); heavier values correlate with higher silica contents. Isotopically light wallrock lithologies are probably due to premetamorphic seawater hydrothermal alteration.

  18. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  19. Geologic time scale bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  20. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  1. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  2. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  3. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  4. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  5. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  6. Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2015

    E-print Network

    Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

    Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2015 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range Proterozoic Mesoproterozoic Paleoproterozoic Carboniferous Phanerozoic CenozoicMesozoicPaleozoic Quaternary

  7. GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS 2014-2015

    E-print Network

    Bermúdez, José Luis

    GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS 2014-2015 Graduate Student Handbook - 1 · Geology & Geophysics Core Values - 2 · A Message from the Graduate Advisor - 3 · Department Organizations - 60 · Departmental Executive Committee - 61 · Geology& Geophysics Development Advisory Council

  8. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  9. Thermal maturity patterns (conodont color alteration index and vitrinite reflectance) in Upper Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin: a major revision of USGS Map I-917-E using new subsurface collections: Chapter F.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Weary, David J.; Harris, Anita G.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) introduced by Epstein and others (1977) and Harris and others (1978) is an important criterion for estimating the thermal maturity of Ordovician to Mississippian rocks in the Appalachian basin. Consequently, the CAI isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) are commonly used by geologists to characterize the thermal and burial history of the Appalachian basin and to better understand the origin and distribution of oil and gas resources in the basin. The main objectives of this report are to present revised CAI isograd maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks in the Appalachian basin and to interpret the geologic and petroleum resource implications of these maps. The CAI isograd maps presented herein complement, and in some areas replace, the CAI-based isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) for the Appalachian basin. The CAI data presented in this report were derived almost entirely from subsurface samples, whereas the CAI data used by Harris and others (1978) were derived almost entirely from outcrop samples. Because of the different sampling methods, there is little geographic overlap of the two data sets. The new data set is mostly from the Allegheny Plateau structural province and most of the data set of Harris and others (1978) is from the Valley and Ridge structural province, east of the Allegheny structural front (fig. 1). Vitrinite reflectance, based on dispersed vitrinite in Devonian black shale, is another important parameter for estimating the thermal maturity in pre-Pennsylvanian-age rocks of the Appalachian basin (Streib, 1981; Cole and others, 1987; Gerlach and Cercone, 1993; Rimmer and others, 1993; Curtis and Faure, 1997). This chapter also presents a revised percent vitrinite reflectance (%R0) isograd map based on dispersed vitrinite recovered from selected Devonian black shales. The Devonian black shales used for the vitrinite studies reported herein also were analyzed by RockEval pyrolysis and total organic carbon (TOC) content in weight percent. Although the RockEval and TOC data are included in this chapter (table 1), they are not shown on the maps. The revised CAI isograd and percent vitrinite reflectance isograd maps cover all or parts of Kentucky, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia (fig. 1), and the following three stratigraphic intervals: Upper Ordovician carbonate rocks, Lower and Middle Devonian carbonate rocks, and Middle and Upper Devonian black shales. These stratigraphic intervals were chosen for the following reasons: (1) they represent target reservoirs for much of the oil and gas exploration in the Appalachian basin; (2) they are stratigraphically near probable source rocks for most of the oil and gas; (3) they include geologic formations that are nearly continuous across the basin; (4) they contain abundant carbonate grainstone-packstone intervals, which give a reasonable to good probability of recovery of conodont elements from small samples of drill cuttings; and (5) the Middle and Upper Devonian black shale contains large amounts of organic matter for RockEval, TOC, and dispersed vitrinite analyses. Thermal maturity patterns of the Upper Ordovician Trenton Limestone are of particular interest here, because they closely approximate the thermal maturity patterns in the overlying Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the probable source rock for oil and gas in the Upper Cambrian Rose Run Sandstone (sandstone), Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Knox Group (Dolomite), Lower and Middle Ordovician Beekmantown Group (dolomite or Dolomite), Upper Ordovician Trenton and Black River Limestones, and Lower Silurian Clinton/Medina sandstone (Cole and others, 1987; Jenden and others, 1993; Laughrey and Baldassare, 1998; Ryder and others, 1998; Ryder and Zagorski, 2003). The thermal maturity patterns of the Lower Devonian Helderberg Limestone (Group), Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone, and Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale-Upper Devonian Rhine street Shale Member-Upper Devonian Ohio Shale are of interest, because they clos

  10. Geologic effects of hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coch, Nicholas K.

    1994-08-01

    Hurricanes are intense low pressure systems of tropical origin. Hurricane damage results from storm surge, wind, and inland flooding from heavy rainfall. Field observations and remote sensing of recent major hurricanes such as Hugo (1989), Andrew (1992) and Iniki (1992) are providing new insights into the mechanisms producing damage in these major storms. Velocities associated with hurricanes include the counterclockwise vortex winds flowing around the eye and the much slower regional winds that steer hurricane and move it forward. Vectorial addition of theseof these two winds on the higher effective wind speed than on the left side. Coast-parallel hurricane tracks keep the weaker left side of the storm against the coast, whereas coast-normal tracks produce a wide swath of destruction as the more powerful right side of the storm cuts a swath of destruction hundreds of kilometers inland. Storm surge is a function of the wind speed, central pressure, shelf slope, shoreline configuration, and anthropogenic alterations to the shoreline. Maximum surge heights are not under the eye of the hurricane, where the pressure is lowest, but on the right side of the eye at the radius of maximum winds, where the winds are strongest. Flood surge occurs as the hurricane approaches land and drives coastal waters, and superimposed waves, across the shore. Ebb surge occurs when impounded surface water flows seaward as the storm moves inland. Flood and ebb surge damage have been greatly increased in recent hurricanes as a result of anthropogenic changes along the shoreline. Hurricane wind damage occurs on three scales — megascale, mesoscale and microscale. Local wind damage is a function of wind speed, exposure and structural resistance to velocity pressure, wind drag and flying debris. Localized extreme damage is caused by gusts that can locally exceed sustained winds by a factor of two in areas where there is strong convective activity. Geologic changes occuring in hurricanes include beach erosion, dune erosion, inlet formation from flood and ebb surge, landscape changes through tree destruction by wind and nearshore channeling and sedimentation resulting from ebb surge. Multi-decadal wet and dry cycles in West Africa seem to be associated with increases (wet periods) and decreases (dry periods) in the frequency of Atlantic Coast landfalling hurricanes. Coastalzone population and development has increased markedly in a time of low hurricane frequency in the 24 year dry cycle from1970 to the present. However, no previous climatic cycle in this century has exceeded 26 years. We may entering a multi-decadal cycle of greater hurricane activity, placing these highly urbanized shorelines in considerable danger.

  11. Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

  12. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  13. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  14. A geological explanation for intraplate earthquake clustering complexity: The zeolite-bearing fault/fracture networks in the Adamello Massif (Southern Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, E. D.; Holdsworth, R. E.; Imber, J.; Bistacchi, A.; Di Toro, G.

    2014-09-01

    Interconnected networks of faults and veins filled with hydrothermal minerals such as zeolite are widespread in many orogenic terrains. These fractures commonly form at relatively low temperatures (e.g. <200 °C) late in the tectonic history and represent significant phases of fluid flow and mineralisation during exhumation. Zeolite-bearing fractures spatially associated with the Gole Larghe Fault Zone in the Southern Italian Alps are preserved along an interconnected network of variably orientated pre-existing structures. They show evidence of repeated episodes of hydraulic tensile fracturing and small magnitude (total offsets <5 m) shear displacements. We use geological observations and Coulomb stress modelling to propose that repeated seismogenic rupturing of larger offset faults led to local stress transfer and reactivation of widely distributed smaller pre-existing structures in the wall rocks. The differing orientations of the pre-existing features within what is assumed to have been a single regional stress field led to the simultaneous development of reverse, strike-slip and extensional faults. The kinematic diversity and cyclic nature of the hydraulically-assisted deformation suggest that the mineralised fracture systems represent a geological manifestation of intraplate micro-earthquake clusters associated with fluid migration episodes in the upper crust. Our observations highlight the role of crustal fluids and structural reactivation during earthquakes.

  15. Scaling the Geologic Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerritts, Mary

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction of a Geologic Time Scale on a 100 foot roll of paper and suggests activities concerning its use. Includes information about fossils and suggestions for conducting a fossil field trip with students. (BR)

  16. Experiencing Structural Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, George H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate structural geology course that incorporates field lab time and research. Lectures, outside readings, and in-class experimentation are coordinated with the field work to prepare a scientific report. (MA)

  17. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  18. Mass Extinctions Geology 331

    E-print Network

    Kammer, Thomas

    ;Stromatoporoids and Corals sarv.gi.ee/geology/photos.html #12;Rugose Corals #12;Victims · Permian ­ about 50 brachiopods ­ All rugose and tabulate corals ­ All remaining trilobites ­ Nearly all crinoids ­ Nearly all

  19. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  20. Geologic exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific objectives and methods involved in a geologic exploration of Mars from a manned outpost are discussed. The constraints on outpost activities imposed by the limited crew size, limited amount of time available for science, the limited diversity of scientific expertise, and the competition between scientific disciplines are addressed. Three examples of possible outpost locations are examined: the Olympus Mons aureole, Mangala Valles/Daedalia Planum, and Candor Chasma. The geologic work that could be done at each site is pointed out.

  1. Advances in planetary geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  2. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  3. BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TECHNICAL REPORT

    E-print Network

    BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TECHNICAL REPORT WM/00/17R Geomagnetism Series TTThhheee. Quinn, 2000. The Derivation of World Magnetic Model 2000. British Geological Survey Technical Report WM and John M. Quinn* (* at United States Geological Survey) #12;#12;BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TECHNICAL

  4. The geology of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  5. Geology of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Schaber, G. G.

    1987-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Jovian satellite Io has been completed at 1:15,000,000 scale for an area lying between +40 and -90 deg latitude and 230 and 45 deg longitude, which includes portions of the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) and the westernmost section of the Colchis Region (Ji3). Image resolution in the mapped area is commonly 0.5 to 2 km/pxl. High resolution areas (less than .5 km/pxl) are located near the south pole (Lerna Region) and in eastern Ruwa Patera quadrangle. Geologic maps for the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) have been produced at 1:5,000,000 scale. The present effort reexamines the previously mapped areas and synthesizes the geology of Io on a global scale.

  6. Geological fakes and frauds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  7. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P., III; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  8. Amazing Altered Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

  9. Planetary geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2014-11-01

    In this introduction to planetary geology, we review the major geologic processes affecting the solid bodies of the solar system, namely volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion. We illustrate the interplay of these processes in different worlds, briefly reviewing how they affect the surfaces of the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, then focusing on two very different worlds: Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the solar system, and Saturn's moon Titan, where the interaction between a dense atmosphere and the surface make for remarkably earth-like landscapes despite the great differences in surface temperature and composition.

  10. The Geology of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Robert E.

    The Geology of Earthquakes is a major contribution that brings together under one cover the many and complex elements of geology that are fundamental to earthquakes and seismology. Here are described and analyzed the basic causes of earthquakes, the resulting effects of earthquakes and faulting on the surface of the Earth, techniques of analyzing these effects, and engineering and public policy considerations for earthquake hazard mitigation. The three authors have played major roles in developing the fundamentals in both scientific and policy matters; thus they speak with an authority that few others could.

  11. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  12. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

  13. Geological processes and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Hartmann, W.K.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Masson, P.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.E.; Carr, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Geological mapping and establishment of stratigraphic relationships provides an overview of geological processes operating on Mars and how they have varied in time and space. Impact craters and basins shaped the crust in earliest history and as their importance declined, evidence of extensive regional volcanism emerged during the Late Noachian. Regional volcanism characterized the Early Hesperian and subsequent to that time, volcanism was largely centered at Tharsis and Elysium, continuing until the recent geological past. The Tharsis region appears to have been largely constructed by the Late Noachian, and represents a series of tectonic and volcanic centers. Globally distributed structural features representing contraction characterize the middle Hesperian. Water-related processes involve the formation of valley networks in the Late Noachian and into the Hesperian, an ice sheet at the south pole in the middle Hesperian, and outflow channels and possible standing bodies of water in the northern lowlands in the Late Hesperian and into the Amazonian. A significant part of the present water budget occurs in the present geologically young polar layered terrains. In order to establish more firmly rates of processes, we stress the need to improve the calibration of the absolute timescale, which today is based on crater count systems with substantial uncertainties, along with a sampling of rocks of unknown provenance. Sample return from carefully chosen stratigraphic units could calibrate the existing timescale and vastly improve our knowledge of Martian evolution.

  14. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  15. Appendix E: Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2008-01-17

    This appendix provides a detailed description of geology under the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site, emphasizing the areas around tank farms. It is to be published by client CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., as part of a larger, multi-contractor technical report.

  16. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  17. Dinosaur Paleobiology Geology 331

    E-print Network

    Kammer, Thomas

    Dinosaur Paleobiology Geology 331 Paleontology #12;Dinosaurs are popular with the public #12;Jack Horner, Montana State Univ. #12;Field Work in Montana #12;A dinosaur "drumstick" in its field jacket. #12;Abundant vascular canals in dinosaur bone support the warm- blooded theory #12;Thin section of dinosaur

  18. Geologic Data Systems

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Several of the systems used for viewing and storing geologic data as it's captured from the onboard instrumentation. The USGS returned from a seafloor data mapping mission offshore of the Delmarva Peninsula (Ocean City, MD) on July 25th, 2014. The data collected is foundational to our continued und...

  19. Critical Issues Geologic mapping

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    -bed methane, and geothermal energy. The IGS's important sources of information--geologic maps, rock and core technologies of energy production, such as integrated gasification combined cycle systems and underground coal understand the water cycle in Indiana, information that is vital to responsible water management

  20. Life on Guam: Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Gail

    This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

  1. Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age." Included are a list of objectives, an outline…

  2. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  3. Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of additional…

  4. IDAHO FLUVIAL GEOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restricted availability. Major Attributes: Polygons described by geologic type codes & descriptions. May be incorporated into maps at the state/county/basin scale. Probably too coarse for use at the site scale. Scale: 1:500:000. Extent: Idaho. Projection: Albers. Source: ...

  5. Radiometric dating in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-11-01

    The method of dating rocks and minerals is known as geochronology. Although in principle this term could be applied to estimation of relative ages according to traditional geological observation, it is nowadays usually restricted to the quantitative measurement of geological time using the constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. 14C dating is a technique based on measuring the residual radioactivity of this isotope which decays exponentially from the time of death of organisms which extract it from the atmosphere (e.g. when a living tree becomes simply 'wood'). The halflife of this decay is only 5600 years. Even using pre-concentration techniques and highly sensitive detectors, the practical range of the dating method does not extend back beyond about 100000 years-a period utterly insignificant in terms of the geological evolution of the Earth, which extends over the past 4500 million years. For geological dating one requires naturally occurring elements with much longer halflives. Most of the handful of appropriate decay schemes are listed. Most of the parent elements are rare metal constituents in the bulk chemical composition of the Earth. For such 'trace' elements it is generally convenient to express their concentration in natural materials in parts per million by weight (ppm) and even in the one case of a fairly common element (potassium) only a very small proportion occurs as the radioactive 40K. Also, some of the halflives are very long, even by geological reckoning, so that the actual level of natural radioactivity is rarely more than a few disintegrations per minute per gram.

  6. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  7. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  8. Geologic Map Database of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

  9. 78 FR 57877 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    .... Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and....m. Mountain Standard Time. The Advisory Committee, comprising representatives from Federal agencies.... Geological Survey on planning and implementation of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs....

  10. Geology and Geophysics 454: Engineering Geology Spring Semester, 2015, 3.0 Units

    E-print Network

    1 Geology and Geophysics 454: Engineering Geology Spring Semester, 2015: "Engineering Geology" by Perry Rahn, or "Practical Engineering Geology" by Steve Hencher Class Themes This class emphasizes a modern approach to engineering geology

  11. The Second Flowering of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Preston

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two "golden" ages in geological investigations/inquiry. The first, extending from the late eighteenth century through the early nineteenth century, established geology as a science based on naturalistic principles. The second, beginning after World War II, is characterized by advances in geological specialities and explanations based on…

  12. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC... advance. Please register by contacting Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283,...

  13. GRADUATE PROGRAM IN GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    5342 Geological Engineering: Soils and Weak Rocks 3 2 EOSC 535 Transport Processes in Porous Media 3 2GRADUATE PROGRAM IN GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING 2013-2014 Prior to registering for courses, students.Sc. (non-thesis) program supervised in Geological Engineering should register for EOSC 548 instead

  14. DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS UNDERGRADUATE

    E-print Network

    DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS UNDERGRADUATE SURVIVAL MANUAL 2014-2015 SCHOOL OF OCEAN & EARTH SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI`I AT MNOA Updated January 2015 #12;INTRODUCTION 1 Geology OF GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS _ 2 Who We Are _ 2 Where To Get Help _ 2 POLICIES, PROCEDURES & REQUIREMENTS 3

  15. The Lapworth Museum of Geology

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    The Lapworth Museum of Geology www.lapworth.bham.ac.uk www.bham.ac.uk Events The Lapworth Lectures take place on evenings during University term time. These lectures are on a wide range of geological geological topics, usually based around collections in the museum. These provide an opportunity to see

  16. Geologic Map of North America

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Geologic Map of North America is a product of GSA's Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) project. At a scale of 1:5,000,000, this map covers ~15% of Earth's surface and differs from previous maps in several important respects: it is the first such map to depict the geology of the seafloor, th...

  17. Environmental Trends in Geologic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestrong, Raymond

    1970-01-01

    Considers strategies for developing college level introductory environmental geology courses, emphasizing relevance to local surroundings, Considers graduate studies in this field, but does not recommend the establishment of an environmental geology department at this time. Reviews the responsibilities the geology department has to the community…

  18. Aerogeophysical measurements of collapse-prone hydrothermally altered zones at Mount Rainier volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, C.A.; Sisson, T.W.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrothermally altered rocks can weaken volcanoes, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to destructive debris flows1. Evaluating the hazards associated with such alteration is difficult because alteration has been mapped on few active volcanoes1-4 and the distribution and severity of subsurface alteration is largely unknown on any active volcano. At Mount Rainier volcano (Washington, USA), collapses of hydrothermally altered edifice flanks have generated numerous extensive debris flows5,6 and future collapses could threaten areas that are now densely populated7. Preliminary geological mapping and remote-sensing data indicated that exposed alteration is contained in a dyke-controlled belt trending east-west that passes through the volcano's summit3-5,8. But here we present helicopter-borne electromagnetic and magnetic data, combined with detailed geological mapping, to show that appreciable thicknesses of mostly buried hydrothermally altered rock lie mainly in the upper west flank of Mount Rainier. We identify this as the likely source for future large debris flows. But as negligible amounts of highly altered rock lie in the volcano's core, this might impede collapse retrogression and so limit the volumes and inundation areas of future debris flows. Our results demonstrate that high-resolution geophysical and geological observations can yield unprecedented views of the three-dimensional distribution of altered rock.

  19. Geologic Setting of the Hamme Tungsten District, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John Mason

    1963-01-01

    The Hamme tungsten district is in the eastern part of the Piedmont province, mainly in Vance County, North Carolina, but it extends a few miles into Virginia. The district is underlain by a central lenticular pluton of albite granodiorite that trends north-northeastward and is flanked on both sides by metamorphic rocks of low and medium grade that dip steeply westward. The relative ages of the metamorphic rocks are uncertain. The oldest rocks are likely to be the biotite gneisses in the eastern part of the district; successively younger units expose westward across the district are sericite-chlorite phyllites, greenstone, metafelsites, and metabasalts. The biotite gneisses and minor intercalated hornblende gneiss, which have a total thickness of many thousand feet, were derived from sediments. Some of the gneiss grades into phyllites and as probably formed by metasomatic alteration of the phyllites. Sericite-chlorite phyllite, epidote-quartz meta siltstone, quartzite, and conglomeratic phyllite occur principally in a wide belt on the west side of the central albite granodiorite. This unit is some 10,000 feet thick and originally consisted mainly of sediments of the graywacke suite. Greenstone totaling about 500 feet in thickness lies west of the phyllite and was derived from maflc lava flows and andesitic tuff. Metamorphosed massive aphanitic and porphyritic flows and dikes that range in composition from dacite to rhyolite, and phyllitic metatuffs and tuffaceous breccia are exposed west of the greenstone. These total at least 3,000 feet in thickness. Massive metabasalt that resembles greenstone but is less altered is common in the area between the Hamme district and the Virgilina district to the west. The thickness of the metabasalt is about 600 to 6,000 feet. The metamorphic rocks of the Hamme and Virgilina districts are parts of the Carolina slate belt, but map units cannot be directly correlated. Rocks in the Hamme district are thought by the writer to have been derived mainly from graywackes and volcanic flows, and subordinately from pyroclastic materials, whereas the rocks of the Virgilina district were interpreted by earlier workers as being mainly volcanic with much pyroclastic material but little sediment. Igneous, and perhaps pseudo igneous, rocks in the district include hornblende gabbro, albite granodiorite, aplite, and pegmatite--all of which are probably middle Paleozoic in age--and diabase and hypersthene tonalite of Late Triassic age. The gabbro forms three lenticular to subcircular bodies up to 2% miles in width in the western part of the area. Albite granodiorite forms a pluton with a maximum width of 7 miles which occupies the center of the area. At its northeastern end the pluton narrows abruptly to a point. Phyllite forms the wall rocks on all sides of the albite granodiorite. The contact is gradational and conformable in most places, but on the northwest side it cuts across wall structure for about 3 miles. Near its western edge the albite granodiorite includes a northeast-trending zone of schistose wall rock in and near which are localized the tungsten deposits. The origin of the albite granodiorite is uncertain, but it may have formed by the metasomatic replacement of the wallrocks, during which albite porphyroblasts developed first and were followed by microcline and quartz. Diabase and hypersthene tonalite occur as dikes and sills along four northward-trending belts. The dikes are a few feet to more than 300 feet thick, and several extend along strike for more than 10 miles. The Hamme district Is in the eastern part of the Carolina slate belt, and the Virg1l1na district lies along the western side of the belt. Rocks in the Hamme district dip mostly westward and in the Vifg1lina district dip mainly eastward into a syncline. This syncline, here named the Spewmarrow syncline, may be a structure of regional significance. Tungsten in the Hamme district occurs mainly

  20. Geology of the BK9 kimberlite (Damtshaa, Botswana): implications for the formation of dark volcaniclastic kimberlite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buse, B.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Field, M.; Schumacher, J. C.; Chisi, K.; Tlhaodi, T.

    2011-10-01

    The BK9 kimberlite consists of three overlapping pipes. It contains two dark varieties of massive volcaniclastic kimberlite, informally termed dark volcaniclastic kimberlite (DVK). DVK(ns) is present in the north and south pipes and is interbedded with lenses of basalt breccia at the margins of the pipes. DVK(c) is present within the central pipe where it is overlain by a sequence of basalt breccias with interbedded volcanogenic sediments. The features observed within the DVK units of the BK9 kimberlite provide strong evidence for gas fluidisation of the accumulating pyroclastic material. These include the massive interior of the pipes, marginal epiclastic units, well-dispersed country-rock xenoliths and small-scale heterogeneities in lithic clast abundance. The upper portions of the central pipe provide a record of the transition from pyroclastic eruption and infill to passive epiclastic infilling of the crater, after the eruption has ceased. The wall-rock of the BK9 kimberlite dips inwards and is interpreted as post pipe-fill subsidence of the adjacent country rock. The two DVK units contain interstitial, silt-sized pyroclasts. The DVK(ns) has a higher fraction of former melt and displays evidence of incipient welding, as a result of differences in eruption dynamics. These units demonstrate that whilst DVK is comparable in many respects to MVK and forms part of a spectrum of volcaniclastic rocks formed by fluidisation, it differs in frequently containing silt-sized particles and including agglutinated and welded varieties with a high melt fraction. The DVK varieties, studied here, also have a distinctive hydrothermal assemblage, resulting from the abundance of low-silica accidental lithic clasts. Both the hydrothermal alteration and the abundance of silt-sized particles contribute to the DVKs distinctive dark colour.

  1. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  2. Geological Survey research, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1975 ' is the 16th annual synopsis of the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations. These studies are largely directed toward the development of knowledge that will assist the Nation to use and conserve the land and its physical resources wisely. They are wide ranging in scope and deal with almost every facet of solid-earth science and fact finding. Many of the studies are continuations of investigations that have been in progress for several years. But others reflect the increased attention being given to problems that have assumed greater importance in recent years--problems relating to mineral fuels and mineral resources, water quality, environmental impact of mineral resources, land-use analysis, earthquake hazards reduction, subsidence, and the applications of LANDSAT data, to cite a few examples. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Geology of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

  4. Borehole geological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuck, W. H., III (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are discussed for performing geological assessments of a formation located along a borehole, and a boring tool that bores a pair of holes into the walls of the borehole and into the surrounding strata along with a pair of probes which are installed in the holes. One of the probes applies an input such as a current or pressured fluid, and the other probe senses a corresponding input which it receives from the strata.

  5. Principles of nuclear geology

    SciTech Connect

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

  6. Geologic processes influence the effects of mining on aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic processes strongly influence water and sediment quality in aquatic ecosystems but rarely are geologic principles incorporated into routine biomonitoring studies. We test if elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment are restricted to streams downstream of mines or areas that may discharge mine wastes. We surveyed 198 catchments classified as “historically mined” or “unmined,” and based on mineral-deposit criteria, to determine whether water and sediment quality were influenced by naturally occurring mineralized rock, by historical mining, or by a combination of both. By accounting for different geologic sources of metals to the environment, we were able to distinguish aquatic ecosystems limited by metals derived from natural processes from those due to mining. Elevated concentrations of metals in water and sediment were not restricted to mined catchments; depauperate aquatic communities were found in unmined catchments. The type and intensity of hydrothermal alteration and the mineral deposit type were important determinants of water and sediment quality as well as the aquatic community in both mined and unmined catchments. This study distinguished the effects of different rock types and geologic sources of metals on ecosystems by incorporating basic geologic processes into reference and baseline site selection, resulting in a refined assessment. Our results indicate that biomonitoring studies should account for natural sources of metals in some geologic environments as contributors to the effect of mines on aquatic ecosystems, recognizing that in mining-impacted drainages there may have been high pre-mining background metal concentrations.

  7. The Geology of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  8. The encyclopedia of applied geology

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    This compendium of engineering geology data includes contributions by experts from many countries. Topics center around the field of engineering geology, with special focus on landscapes, earth materials, and the ''management'' of geological processes. How to use geology to serve man is given particular attention. More than 80 entries deal with hydrology, rock structure monitoring, soil mechanics, and engineering geology. Facts are provided on earth science information and sources, electrokinetics, forensic geology, geogryology, nuclear plant siting, photogrammetry, tunnels and tunneling, urban geomorphology, and well data systems. This guide explains the geology of alluvial plains, arid lands, beaches and coasts, delataic plains, cold regions, glacial landscapes, and urban environments. Detailed analyses are given of the geotechnical properties of caliche, clay, duricrust, soil, laterite, marine sediments, and rocks.

  9. Viruses as new agents of organomineralization in the geological record.

    PubMed

    Pacton, Muriel; Wacey, David; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Kilburn, Matt R; Gorin, Georges E; Danovaro, Roberto; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities throughout marine and terrestrial ecosystems, but little is known about virus-mineral interactions or the potential for virus preservation in the geological record. Here we use contextual metagenomic data and microscopic analyses to show that viruses occur in high diversity within a modern lacustrine microbial mat, and vastly outnumber prokaryotes and other components of the microbial mat. Experimental data reveal that mineral precipitation takes place directly on free viruses and, as a result of viral infections, on cell debris resulting from cell lysis. Viruses are initially permineralized by amorphous magnesium silicates, which then alter to magnesium carbonate nanospheres of ~80-200?nm in diameter during diagenesis. Our findings open up the possibility to investigate the evolution and geological history of viruses and their role in organomineralization, as well as providing an alternative explanation for enigmatic carbonate nanospheres previously observed in the geological record. PMID:24989676

  10. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  11. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the length of the island and to American troop movement. This unique topography forced innovative tactics ranging from reverse slope defense to "blowtorch and corkscrew" offense in response. During this exercise, students apply their map-reading and interpretation skills, as well as their critical analysis abilities; the historical context, in turn, provides motivation to refine those skills. Sun Tzu wrote that all warfare is based on deception. What we hope to communicate to students with this activity is that much of warfare, and, more broadly, the way humans interact with the world, is inherently and undeniably based on geology.

  12. The geology of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutch, T. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Head, J. W., III; Jones, K. L.; Saunders, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The book constitutes a topographic/geologic atlas of Mars compiled on the basis of data from the various Mariner missions. A large number of maps has been included which systematically describe the character and distribution of the principal landforms: craters, channels, volcanoes, and faults; also related properties such as albedo, elevation, and wind streaks. Pictures of all the important topographic features have been included. The discussion of the material is carried out with a minimum of technical detail, and Mars is examined within a context of interplanetary comparisons.

  13. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

  14. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

  15. Pattern Alteration: Waistline 

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    A garment that is too tight in the waistline forms diagonal wrinkles, pinches the waist and gaps or pulls at the closings. A garment too loose in the waist hangs in vertical folds and falls away from the waist. This publication gives alteration...

  16. Geology, distribution, and classification of gold deposits in the western Qinling belt, central China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Qiu, Y.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Garwin, S.; Fengshou, R.

    2002-01-01

    Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt occur within the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen, which is located between the Precambrian North China and Yangtze cratons and east of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic orogen can be divided into northern, central, and southern zones, separated by the Shangdan and Lixian-Shanyang thrust fault systems. The northern zone consists of an early Paleozoic arc accreted to the North China craton by ca. 450 Ma. The central zone, which contains numerous orogenic gold deposits, is dominated by clastic rocks formed in a late Paleozoic basin between the converging cratonic blocks. The southern zone is characterized by the easternmost exposure of Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. These Early to Late Triassic turbidities, in part calcareous, of the immense Songpan-Ganzi basin also border the western Qinling belt to the west. Carlinlike gold deposits are abundant (1) along a westward extension of the southern zone defined by a window of early Paleozoic clastic rocks extending into the basin, and (2) within the easternmost margin of the basinal rocks to the south of the extension, and in adjacent cover rocks of the Yangtze craton. Triassic and Early Jurassic synkinematic granitoids are widespread across the western Qinling belt, as well as in the Songpan-Ganzi basin. Orogenic lode gold deposits along brittle-ductile shear zones occur within greenschist-facies, highly deformed, Devonian and younger clastic rocks of the central zone. Mainly coarse-grained gold, along with pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and minor base metal sulfides, occur in networks of quartz veinlets, brecciated wall rock, and are dissminated in altered wall rock. Isotopic dates suggest that the deposits formed during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic as the leading edge of the Yangtze craton was thrust beneath rocks of the western Qinling belt. Many gold-bearing placers are distributed along the river systems that flow south from the lode-bearing central zone. Carlin-like gold deposits have only been identified during the last decade in the southern zone of the western Qinling and in the northeastern corner of the Songpan-Ganzi basin. The deposits mainly contain micron-diameter gold in arsenical pyrite; are characterized by the common occurence of cinnabar, stibnite, realgar, and orpiment; exhibit strong silicification, carbonatization, pyritization, and decalcification dissolution textures; and are structurally controlled. The lack of reactive host lithologies may have prevented development of large (> 100 tones of gold), stratigraphically-controlled orebodies, which are typical of the Carlin deposits in the western USA. These deposits are hosted by Triassic turbidities and shallow-water carbonates, and an early Paleozoic inlier in the Songpan-Ganzi basin that extends in an east-west belt for about 300 km. Rather than true "Carlin" deposits, these Carlin-like deposits may be some type of shallow-crustal (i.e., epithermal) hybrid with features intermediate to Nevada-style Carlin deposits and the orogenic gold deposits to the immediate north. These Carlin-like deposits also overlap in age with the early Mesozoic orogenic gold deposits and, therefore, also formed during the final stages of collision between the cratons and intermediate basin closure.

  17. Practical aspects of geological prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Mallio, W.J.; Peck, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Nuclear waste disposal requires that geology be a predictive science. The prediction of future events rests on (1) recognizing the periodicity of geologic events; (2) defining a critical dimension of effect, such as the area of a drainage basin, the length of a fault trace, etc; and (3) using our understanding of active processes the project the frequency and magnitude of future events in the light of geological principles. Of importance to nuclear waste disposal are longer term processes such as continental denudation and removal of materials by glacial erosion. Constant testing of projections will allow the practical limits of predicting geological events to be defined. 11 refs.

  18. Petroleum geology of Tunisia

    SciTech Connect

    Burollet, P.F. ); Ferjami, A.B.; Mejri, F. )

    1990-05-01

    Recent discoveries and important oil shows have proven the existence of hydrocarbons in newly identified depocenters and reservoirs. In general, except for some areas around the producing fields, Tunisia is largely underdrilled. The national company ETAP has decided to release data and to publish a synthesis on the petroleum geology of Tunisia. The geology of Tunisia provides a fine example of the contrast between Alpine folding, which typifies northern Tunisia and the African craton area of the Saharan part. Eastern Tunisia corresponds to an unstable platform forming plains or low hills and extending eastwards to the shallow Pelagian Sea. There are a wide variety of basins: central and northern Tunisia represents a front basin the Saharan Ghadames basin or the Chott trough are sag basins; the Gulf of Gabes was formed as a distension margin the Gulf of Hammamet is a composite basin and several transversal grabens cut across the country, including offshore, and are rift-type basins. All these features are known to be oil prolific throughout the world. Two large fields and many modest-size pools are known in Tunisia. Oil and gas fields in the surrounding countries, namely the Saharan fields of Algeria and Libya the large Bouri field offshore Tripolitania and discoveries in the Italian part of the Straits of Sicily, suggest a corresponding potential in Tunisia. Exposed paleogeographic and structural maps, balanced sections, and examples of fields and traps will support an optimistic evaluation of the future oil exploration in Tunisia.

  19. Magnetic Fabric Development During Hydrothermal Alteration And Brittle Deformation In Granite From The EPS-1 Drilling, (Soultz-sous-Forets, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, J.; Kontny, A.; Dewall, H.

    2003-12-01

    The EPS-1 drilling occurs within the Upper Rhine Graben and penetrates Variscan granites from 1420 to 2200 m depth. According to studies of Traineau et al. (1991) two main hydrothermal alteration stages were determined. An early propyllitic and pervasive alteration took place during cooling and uplift history of the pluton. The multiphase evolution of the Cenozoic rift was accompanied by an intense brittle deformation of the pluton causing a vein alteration within discrete fault zones and their wall rocks. We present a rock-magnetic and fabric study of the fresh, pervasive and vein-altered granite comparing petrofabrics, fracture patterns and the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). AMS is caused by the directional dependence of the magnetic susceptibility based on the distribution of magnetic minerals, mostly Fe oxides. The magnetic foliation in the fresh granite is interpreted as a magmatic flow fabric which is oriented almost horizontal in the deeper part and reveal a steeper dip-values in the upper part according to wrench tectonics (Ziegler, 1986) during Variscan time. The AMS ellipsoids of the fresh granites show only oblate shapes with relative high magnetic anisotropy due to the association of clustered magnetite with Fe-Mg silicates describing the weak magmatic foliation. The magnetic foliation in the pervasive altered granite reveals similar orientations as the fresh granite with steeper dip-values indicating formation in a similar paleostress field. This alteration caused a major transformation of magnetite to hematite, started with the growth of hematite platelets relative to the \\{111\\} planes of magnetite expressed by low magnetic anisotropies. The magnetic foliation of the vein-altered granite is randomly oriented according to the multiphase Cenozoic rifting with successive compressional and extensional paleostress directions. New formed minerals like hematite show crystal growth in the veins but also due to the alignment of altered minerals. Both pervasive and vein-altered granites display oblate as well as prolate ellipsoids. The decreasing effect of magnetite and the increasing influence of new formed minerals like hematite, illite and Fe carbonates on the shape and orientation of the AMS ellipsoid will be demonstrated using AMS measurements performed at different temperatures. Traineau et al., 1991. Geotherm. Sci. Techn., 3(1-4), 1-29. Ziegler et al., 1986. Tectonopysics, 126, 303-328.

  20. Geol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2012

    E-print Network

    Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

    .0 Triassic 252.2 - 201.3 Permian 298.9 - 252.2 Pennsylvanian Sub-period 323.2 - 298.9 Mississippian Sub-periodGeol 102 Historical Geology The Geologic Timescale 2012 EON ERA PERIOD (Special Units) EPOCH Range

  1. Queen's University Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering

    E-print Network

    program, and perhaps take one or more language courses before departure. This information sheet experience in your degree program: As a geology or geological engineering student, see first-hand by universities or businesses ­ in some cases an internship may be linked to an academic program. Work experience

  2. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    SciTech Connect

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the geologic framework model (200 feet [61 meters]), discussed in Section 6.4.2, limits the size of features that can be resolved by the model but is appropriate for the distribution of data available and its intended use. Uncertainty and limitations are discussed in Section 6.6 and model validation is discussed in Section 7.

  3. Montana State University 1 Geology Option

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Geology Option The Geology Option is a degree program designed and private sectors in fields such as petroleum geology, mining geology, seismology (including earthquake and volcanic risk assessment), hydrology (surface and ground water) natural-hazard geology, environmental clean

  4. Geologic map of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis of Io's geology.

  5. 77 FR 38318 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    .... Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and.... Eastern Standard Time. The Advisory Committee, comprising representatives from Federal agencies, State... Survey on planning and implementation of the geologic mapping and data preservation programs....

  6. Mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Diagnostic ERTS imagery has been used to pinpoint surface conditions associated with known mining districts. These include enhancements which depict hitherto unrecognized surface alteration and allow analysis of ore-controlling fractures distribution in a regional context. ERTS has likewise provided observational data containing previously unrecognized surface anomalies in large oil-producing basins which correlate closely with known oil fields. These observational data offer promise of providing new and powerful techniques for oil exploration, especially if further work using more sophisticated enhancement-processing proves capable of emphasizing the anomalies. ERTS is showing a better-than-anticipated potential for producing accurate small-scale (large-area) geologic maps, often containing details that were previously not recorded on similar regional maps. The maps produced from ERTS imagery can be prepared more effectively than previously possible, mainly because of the synoptic, multispectral, and repetitive character of ERTS data. ERTS has also provided extensive information on possible geologic hazards. Many new fractures have been identified in several regions of the Pacific Coast seismic belt that have histories of recent earthquakes. This has obvious implications for engineering projects such as dams, aqueducts, and transportation routes. In the mid-continent area, ERTS data have been used to predict zones of rooffall danger in a working coal mine from newly discovered lineations (probably fractures) used as indicators of hazards.

  7. Geology of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  8. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  9. Geological consequences of superplumes

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.

  10. Geologic repository licensing strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, L.; Stern, M.E.; Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management`s objective is to characterize and determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site and, if this site is found suitable, obtain authorization from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct, operate, and eventually close a geologic repository at that site. The Department`s licensing strategy involves the application of a process, the licensing process, that addresses the achievement of each of the elements of this objective. The applicable laws and regulations with which the Department must comply, including the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, the National Environmental Policy Act, and the administrative Procedure Act, provide insights into what DOE must do if it is to achieve its objective. The Department`s licensing strategy, discussed in this paper, is based on these insights.

  11. Geologic mapping of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W., III; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central, rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  13. Computer Assisted Instruction in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepp, Henry

    The development of a computer self-test program in geology at Macalester College, Minnesota, is described. Based on the philosophy that tests, particularly those involving no grading, are useful study devices, computers are used to make tests available to students. Ten lessons have been developed on different topics in geology, and the computer…

  14. Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

  15. GEOLOGY, June 2009 483 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    GEOLOGY, June 2009 483 INTRODUCTION Fine-grained sedimentary rocks (grain size known as shales or mud- stones, are the most abundant sedimentary rock type. They contain the bulk of geologic his- tory recorded in sedimentary rocks (Schieber, 1998), and are a key element in organic

  16. GEOLOGY, September 2010 847 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Garneau, Michelle

    materials. Volatiles in the mantle allow plate tectonics to operate by lowering the strength of the upper). It is likely that changes in ocean water chem- istry over geological time have had an impor- tant impact insights into the processes that shape our planet and the changes therein over geological time. The key

  17. Field Trip Guide to Serpentinite, Silica-Carbonate Alteration, and Related Hydrothermal Activity in the Clear Lake Region, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser Goff; George Guthrie

    1999-06-01

    This guide is designed to familiarize scientists with the geology, structure, alteration, and fluids typical of California serpentinites for purposes of carbon dioxide sequestration (Lackner et al., 1995). Goff et al. (1997) and Goff and Lackner (1998) describe the geology and geochemistry of some of the serpentinites from this area. Mechanisms of silica-carbonate alteration were outlined by Barnes et al. (1973). Donnelly-Nolan et al. (1993) most recently reviewed relations between regional hydrothermal alteration and Quarternary volcanic activity. Stanley et al. (1998) summarized geophysical characteristics of the region.

  18. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  19. Geology and Geophysics 303: Structural Geology Fall Semester, 2015, 3.0 Units

    E-print Network

    Geology and Geophysics 303: Structural Geology Fall Semester, 2015, 3.0 Units Lectures: MW 10 Geology: An Introduction, by Pollard and Martel (PM) Basic Methods of Structural Geology, by Marshak geologic structures depends largely on how we perceive them. Few geologic structures form by trivially

  20. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  1. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  2. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  3. Chapter B in Geological Survey research 1966

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1966-01-01

    This collection of 43 short papers is the first published chapter of 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Conservation, Geologic, Topographic, and Water Resources Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done during fiscal year 1966, together with lists of investigations in progress, reports published, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices. 'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh volume of the annual series Geological Survey Research. The six volumes already published are listed below, with their series designations. Geological Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Geological Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Geological Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Geological Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Geological Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Geological Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525

  4. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  5. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  6. The Essence of Urban Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Garry D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Provides 60 quotations relating to urban geology, geologic hazards, engineering aspects of land use, urban resources, and geology and regional planning which have proven useful in developing central themes for lecture topics and student projects. (SL)

  7. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  8. Geology of the Jabal Riah area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Jabal Riah area is in the southern part of the Jibal al Hamdah quadrangle (lat 19?00'00'' to 19?07'S0'' N., long 45?37'30'' to 43?45'00' E.) in the southeastern Precambrian Shield, Asir Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Jabal Mahanid group of ancient gold mines, which is part of the Jabal Ishmas-Wadi Tathlith gold belt, is in the west-central part of the area. Rocks in the Jabal Riah area consist of Precambrian layered metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks intruded by Precambrian igneous rocks. The metamorphic rocks are, from oldest to youngest, interlayered hornblende and biotite schist, quartz-biotite schist, hornblende schist, serpentinite, and chlorite schist. The igneous rocks are, from oldest to youngest, diorite-gabbro including dikes, granodiorite, monzogranite-granodiorite, leucocratic quartz porphyry, rhyolite, and aplite and pegmatite dikes. A large area of jasper replaces serpentinite. On the valley floors, recent alluvium and pediment deposits overlie the bedrock. The structure of the area is dominated by a dome centered over the eastern border of the area; leucocratic quartz porphyry forms the core of the dome. Minor folds and faults are present. The Jabal Mahanid group of ancient gold mines is on a northwest-trending vein system, and major ancient mine areas are found where the system splits or changes direction. The veins consist of zones of brecciated and crushed rock, which are generally less than 0.5 m wide but may be as wide as 1 m. These zones contain quartz and calcite stringers and commonly are along hornblende schist-serpentinite contacts; however, they also cut both units. Most aplite, pegmatite, and quartz dikes in the area are thin and discontinuous and are intruded along the vein trend. Similar veins, at the same stratigraphic interval, have been found beyond the northeastern part of the map area. The veins contain detectable gold and silver (median gold, approximately 0.14 ppm; median silver, approximately 1 ppm). Gold and silver are most abundant in calcium-rich rocks and veins; silver was not detected in igneous rocks. Altered wall-rock zones are mineralized as much as 10 m away from the veins. Away from the Jabal Mahanid vein-system, silver was detected in the jasper. Gold and silver were detected in minor brecciated and sheared structures and in metasedimentary rocks. Gold was detected in sericitized margins of the leucocratic quartz porphyry, in unaltered rhyolite, and in aplite dikes. The presence of unusual amounts of gold and silver over a wide area is indicated by the ancient gold mines along veins at or near the hornblende schist-serpentinite contact in the map area and to the south in the Hajrah-Hamdah area and by the widespread evidence of precious metals in igneous rocks and other vein structures. A domed-shaped area, approximately 30 km in diameter, is outlined by the hornblende schist-serpentinite contact and has leucocratic quartz prophyry in the middle. Additional study of this area might reveal economic concentrations of gold and silver.

  9. Alteration mapping at Goldfield, Nevada, by cluster and discriminant analysis of Landsat digital data. [mapping of hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballew, G.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of Landsat multispectral digital data to differentiate among 62 combinations of rock and alteration types at the Goldfield mining district of Western Nevada was investigated by using statistical techniques of cluster and discriminant analysis. Multivariate discriminant analysis was not effective in classifying each of the 62 groups, with classification results essentially the same whether data of four channels alone or combined with six ratios of channels were used. Bivariate plots of group means revealed a cluster of three groups including mill tailings, basalt and all other rock and alteration types. Automatic hierarchical clustering based on the fourth dimensional Mahalanobis distance between group means of 30 groups having five or more samples was performed using Johnson's HICLUS program. The results of the cluster analysis revealed hierarchies of mill tailings vs. natural materials, basalt vs. non-basalt, highly reflectant rocks vs. other rocks and exclusively unaltered rocks vs. predominantly altered rocks. The hierarchies were used to determine the order in which sets of multiple discriminant analyses were to be performed and the resulting discriminant functions were used to produce a map of geology and alteration which has an overall accuracy of 70 percent for discriminating exclusively altered rocks from predominantly altered rocks.

  10. Petroleum geology of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The extremely large oil reserves in Kuwait result from the presence of all conditions necessary for hydrocarbon generation, migration, entrapment, and preservation, which can be ascribed to an exceptionally large trap volume in a simple geological setting and a late expulsion and migration from a huge area of thermally mature source rocks. The Lower and middle Cretaceous sequence of Kuwait is among the world's richest hydrocarbon habitats. The depositional history is dominated by sedimentation on a very stable broad platform characterized by quiescence as reflected by a continuous deposition in a slowly subsiding sea bottom. The reservoirs are composed of thick sandstone of the Wara, Burgan, and Zubar formations. In addition to these, Mauddud Limestone forms a good reservoir in the northern fields and, in the south, the oolitic limestone of the Lower Cretaceous in Greater Burgan, Umm Gudair, and Minagish fields contains substantial hydrocarbon deposits. The sandstone reservoirs are the world's largest over 1,500 ft (450 m) in thickness of perfect reservoir quality and composed of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sands that were deposited in a littoral or on the edge of a deltaic and coastal environment. The source rocks are mostly likely the same reservoir rocks, particularly with downdip more shaly development of widespread thermally mature organic rich facies juxataposed with a carbonate-sandstone shelf.

  11. Coordinated CRISM and Opportunity Observations to Characterize the Mineralogy and Geologic History of Meridiani Planum Outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover has traversed over 30 km across Meridiani Planum since January 2004, acquiring numerous remote sensing and in-situ measurements of rocks and soils at dozens of locations. Over the past year Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM (0.362 to 3.92 micrometer imaging spectrometer) observations have been used to directly support planning of Opportunity traverses and locations for detailed remote sensing and in-situ measurements. As part of these coordinated observations CRISM's gimbaled optics have been used to spatially oversample acquisition of image data in the along-track direction (ATO or along track oversampled observations). This new acquisition mode allows sharpening the spatial detail from the normal ~18 m/pixel observations to values as small as ~6 m/pixel, with due formal consideration of the decrease in S/N with decreasing pixel sizes for retrieval of the 544 band spectra for each pixel. CRISM ATO observations show that mono-hydrated sulfates, most likely kieserite, outcrop on the walls of Victoria crater and the southeastern rim of Santa Maria crater. Unfortunately, the Victoria identifications are on the opposite side of the crater relative to where Opportunity made measurements of Victoria wall rocks. On the other hand, Opportunity was directed to Santa Maria's southeastern rim based on CRISM spectral reflectance data, spending the last solar conjunction period acquiring long-duration in-situ measurements of outcrop that likely carries the mono-hydrated sulfate signature. Additional ATO data collected over the relatively fresh, 2.3 km wide Ada crater located in southeastern Meridiani Planum show a similar mono-hydrated sulfate signature, implying that these deposits are widespread. Further, ATO observations allow detailed mapping of extensive hydrated sulfates in Botany Bay immediately to the south of Cape York, a rim segment of the largely buried, Noachian age Endeavour crater. Opportunity will cross these hydrated bedrock exposures on the way to Cape York outcrops. We will report on results from Opportunity's measurements on Victoria, Santa Maria, and Ada craters, together with measurements within Botany Bay, focusing on the synergistic use of Opportunity and CRISM observations to understand the mineralogy and geologic history of Meridiani Planum.

  12. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

  13. Perspectives in geology. Circular 525

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

  14. GEOLOGY, July 2010 623 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Maloof, Adam

    GEOLOGY, July 2010 623 INTRODUCTION At the end of the Ediacaran Period, ca. 542 Ma (Bowring et al the ensuing Nemakit-Daldynian Stage of the early Cambrian, animals began to dig deeper burrows and new

  15. Outreach at Geology Camp 2008

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Hydrologist, Andy Long, demonstrates an interactive groundwater-flow model in the USGS South Dakota Water Science Center laboratory to students attending Geology Camp with the South Dakota School of Mines in 2008....

  16. Geology in Our Everyday Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirsky, Arthur

    1989-01-01

    Discusses methods to help the public recognize the geologic aspect of societal problems. Suggests using methods that will arouse immediate interest and demonstrate relevance in direct and personal ways. (MVL)

  17. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (editor); Schultz, P. H. (editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  18. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  19. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L., Jr.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  20. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  1. Q&A: Geological historian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witze, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    The first geological map of a nation was made 200 years ago by British surveyor William Smith; the rediscovery of a first-edition copy in the archives of the Geological Society of London was announced last month (see go.nature.com/oogpht). As researchers gather for a conference to celebrate the anniversary of the 1815 chart of England and Wales, John Henry, chair of the society's history group, talks about the map and its pioneering creator.

  2. Community Perceptions of Geologic Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Parodi, G. M.; Farrell, A.; Ray, I.

    2007-12-01

    Political momentum for mitigating climate change through the use of large-scale energy technologies such as geologic sequestration is growing. This paper explores the views of communities living near an actual or potential geologic sequestration project site. Given the potential importance of geologic sequestration to U.S. energy policy, what might explain and influence the views of this technology by the community-members. Through focus groups and one-on-one interviews, we gathered the views of two communities in California's Central Valley. One community close to a Department of Energy sponsored geologic sequestration pilot-project and another similarly located community that is not actually a project site. Our analysis combined a review of the history of the communities with other technologies and their social and economic indicators with the results of the focus groups and interviews. The results suggest that the sense of community empowerment, as contextualized by the history of the community and socio-economic indicators, is an important indicator of positive views of geologic sequestration. In addition, the results indicate community members prefer to be informed about geologic sequestration from a variety of sources (e.g., academia and industry).

  3. GEOLOGY | April 2013 | www.gsapubs.org 455 Diamond is essentially impermeable and unreactive under many

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    to constrain models of diamond formation, but interpretations of the data have differed dramatically. The crux only be explained by formation of eclogite-suite diamonds through subduction of sea- floor alteredGEOLOGY | April 2013 | www.gsapubs.org 455 ABSTRACT Diamond is essentially impermeable

  4. Virtual Geological Reality: Making Geospatial Models Applicable and Scientifically Memorable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, O. J.; Thurmond, J. B.; Hunt, D.; Gillespie, P.; Løseth, T. M.; Thurmond, A. K.

    2007-12-01

    Interpretation of geological data by using digital, geospatial models is a revolutionary breakthrough for analysis of high-resolution outcrop data as well as regional data sets. Like other major breakthroughs in geology and geophysics, this advance has been driven by access to new technology and data sets. CAVE visualization centers, high-resolution satellite imagery and digital photography, laser scanners/LIDAR and GPS/GIS technology have driven these new methods and ideas. This presentation summarizes major developments in collecting data and interpreting geospatial models over the last decade. A basic condition for making such models and data applicable is that visualization of the data is only a lead-in to advanced geological and geophysical analysis and not an aim in itself. Aiming for utilization of the visually attractive data leads to development of new geological methods which speed up, refine and alter existing classic methods and lead to interpretations on an entirely new level. Examples will be shown where highly complex fracture systems, fault systems and bed geometries can be understood in a much refined way compared to using classic techniques. In these and other cases, uncertainties, for instance for reservoir modeling, are reduced drastically. Thus, geospatial models become scientifically memorable and not merely visually attractive.

  5. Mapping the Surficial Geology of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Jakobsson, M.; Gebhardt, C.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Surficial geologic mapping of the Arctic Ocean was undertaken to provide a basis for understanding different geologic environments in this polar setting. Mapping was based on data acquired from numerous icebreaker and submarine missions to the polar region. The intent was to create a geologic layer overlying the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean. Analysis of subbottom profiler and multibeam bathymetric data in conjunction with sediment cores and the regional morphology rendered from the IBCAO data were used to map different surficial geologic units. For a relatively small ocean basin, the Arctic Ocean reveals a plethora of margin and basin types reflecting both the complex tectonic origins of the basin and its diverse sedimentation history. Broad and narrow shelves were subjected to a complex ice-margin history in the Quaternary, and bear the sediment types and morphological features as a result. Some shelfal areas are heavily influenced by rivers. Extensive deep water ridges and plateaus are isolated from coastal input and have a long history of hemipelagic deposition. An active spreading ridge and regions of recent volcanism have volcani-clastic and heavily altered sediments. Some regions of the Arctic Ocean are proposed to have been influenced by bolide impact. The flanks of the basins demonstrate complex sedimentation patterns resulting from mass failures and ice-margin outflow. The deep basins of the Arctic Ocean are filled with turbidites resulting from these mass-flows and are interbedded with hemiplegic deposits.

  6. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  7. 149Department of Geology Graduate Catalogue 201415

    E-print Network

    149Department of Geology Graduate Catalogue 2014­15 Department of Geology Chairperson: Abdel. Assistant Instructor: P Hajj-Chehadeh, Abdel-Halim MS in Geology Candidates pursuing the Master of Science program in geology must complete seven graduate courses (21 cr.) and a thesis (9 cr.). Students may select

  8. 242 Department of Geology Undergraduate Catalogue 201415

    E-print Network

    242 Department of Geology Undergraduate Catalogue 2014­15 Department of Geology Chairperson: Abdel. Assistant Instructor: P Hajj-Chehadeh, Abdel-Halim The Department of Geology offers programs leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Geology, and Master of Science degrees in certain areas of the vast

  9. Geology of the Shenandoah National Park Region

    E-print Network

    Eaton, L. Scott

    1 Geology of the Shenandoah National Park Region 39th Annual Virginia Geological Field Conference October 2nd - 3rd, 2009 Scott Southworth U. S. Geological Survey L. Scott Eaton James Madison University Meghan H. Lamoreaux College of William & Mary William C. Burton U. S. Geological Survey Christopher M

  10. 230 Department of Geology Undergraduate Catalogue 201516

    E-print Network

    230 Department of Geology Undergraduate Catalogue 2015­16 Department of Geology Chairperson: Abdel Khadra, Wisam M.; P Oueida, Raghida S. The Department of Geology offers programs leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Geology, and Master of Science degrees in certain areas of the vast field

  11. 149Department of Geology Graduate Catalogue 201516

    E-print Network

    149Department of Geology Graduate Catalogue 2015­16 Department of Geology Chairperson: Abdel Khadra, Wisam M.; P Oueida, Raghida S. MS in Geology Candidates pursuing the Master of Science program in geology must complete seven graduate courses (21 cr.) and a thesis (9 cr.). Students may select courses

  12. Department of Geology Annual Report 2013

    E-print Network

    ÆNIL ORAC ÆNIL ORAC VMR QT VV E DA Department of Geology Annual Report 2013 LUND UNIVERSITY #12 Environmental Dynamics Palaeoecology and Palaeoclimatology Biogeochemical Cycles Applied Geology Glacial Geology some of the research that scientists in the Department of Geology have undertaken during the past year

  13. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  14. Dr Eugenio Carminati Associate Professor (Structural Geology)

    E-print Network

    Dr Eugenio Carminati Associate Professor (Structural Geology) room 216 ph: +39 0649914950 fax a degree in Geological Sciences at the University of Milano with a thesis in Structural Geology. I achieved. I'm fellow of the Geological Society of Italy and of the American Geophysical union. Between 2004

  15. Soil-plant-microbial relations in hydrothermally altered soils of Northern California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils developed on relict hydrothermally altered soils throughout the Western United States present unique opportunities to study the role of geology on above and belowground biotic activity and composition. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at three unaltered andesite and three hydrothermally ...

  16. Geological myths and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ost?ihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní H?rka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating body exposed to strong tidal action of Moon and Sun. Ostrihansky, L.: The structure of the earth's crust and the heat-flow--heat-generation relationship in the Bohemian Massif. Tectonophysics, 68(3-4), 325-337, doi:10.1016/0040-1951(80)90182-1 1980.

  17. Field guide to hydrothermal alteration in the White River altered area and in the Osceola Mudflow, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Rytuba, James J.; Ashley, Roger P.; Blakely, Richard J.; Vallance, James W.; Newport, Grant R.; Heinemeyer, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    The Cenozoic Cascades arcs of southwestern Washington are the product of long-lived, but discontinuous, magmatism beginning in the Eocene and continuing to the present (for example, Christiansen and Yeats, 1992). This magmatism is the result of subduction of oceanic crust beneath the North American continent. The magmatic rocks are divided into two subparallel, north-trending continental-margin arcs, the Eocene to Pliocene Western Cascades, and the Quaternary High Cascades, which overlies, and is east of, the Western Cascades. Both arcs are calc-alkaline and are characterized by voluminous mafic lava flows (mostly basalt to basaltic andesite compositions) and scattered large stratovolcanoes of mafic andesite to dacite compositions. Silicic volcanism is relatively uncommon. Quartz diorite to granite plutons are exposed in more deeply eroded parts of the Western Cascades Arc (for example, Mount Rainier area and just north of Mt. St. Helens). Hydrothermal alteration is widespread in both Tertiary and Quaternary igneous rocks of the Cascades arcs. Most alteration in the Tertiary Western Cascades Arc resulted from hydrothermal systems associated with small plutons, some of which formed porphyry copper and related deposits, including copper-rich breccia pipes, polymetallic veins, and epithermal gold-silver deposits. Hydrothermal alteration also is present on many Quaternary stratovolcanoes of the High Cascades Arc. On some High Cascades volcanoes, this alteration resulted in severely weakened volcanic edifices that were susceptible to failure and catastrophic landslides. Most notable is the sector collapse of the northeast side of Mount Rainier that occurred about 5,600 yr. B.P. This collapse resulted in formation of the clay-rich Osceola Mudflow that traveled 120 km down valley from Mount Rainier to Puget Sound covering more than 200 km2. This field trip examines several styles and features of hydrothermal alteration related to Cenozoic magmatism in the Cascades arcs. The morning of the trip will examine the White River altered area, which includes high-level alteration related to a large, early Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal system exposed about 10 km east of Enumclaw, Washington. Here, vuggy silica alteration is being quarried for silica and advanced argillic alteration has been prospected for alunite. Clay-filled fractures and sulfide-rich, fine-grained sedimentary rocks of hydrothermal origin locally are enriched in precious metals. Many hydrothermal features common in high-sulfidation gold-silver deposits and in advanced argillic alteration zones overlying porphyry copper deposits (for example, Gustafson and Hunt, 1975; Hedenquist and others, 2000; Sillitoe, 2000) are exposed, although no economic base or precious metal mineralized rock has been discovered to date. The afternoon will be spent examining two exposures of the Osceola Mudflow along the White River. The Osceola Mudflow contains abundant clasts of altered Quaternary rocks from Mount Rainier that show various types of hydrothermal alteration and hydrothermal features. The mudflow matrix contains abundant hydrothermal clay minerals that added cohesiveness to the debris flow and helped allow it to travel much farther down valley than other, noncohesive debris flows from Mount Rainier (Crandell, 1971; Vallance and Scott, 1997). The White River altered area is the subject of ongoing studies by geoscientists from Weyerhaeuser Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The generalized descriptions of the geology, geophysics, alteration, and mineralization presented here represent the preliminary results of this study (Ashley and others, 2003). Additional field, geochemical, geochronologic, and geophysical studies are underway. The Osceola Mudflow and other Holocene debris flows from Mount Rainier also are the subject of ongoing studies by the USGS (for example, Breit and others, 2003; John and others, 2003; Plumlee and others, 2003, Sisson and others, 2003; Vallance and others, 2003). Studies of hydrothermal alteration in the Osceola Mudflow are being used to bett

  18. The Necessity of Geologic Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    R. Linden

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear wastes are the radioactive byproducts of nuclear power generation, nuclear weapons production, and other uses of nuclear material. Experts from around the world agree that deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a mined repository is the most environmentally sound means of removing these potential sources of radiation from interaction with the biosphere. Of the 360 millirem of background radiation received annually by the average American, from both natural and man-made sources, less than 1 millirem results from the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, destined for geologic disposal, are located at 126 sites in 39 states. The proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is far more isolated from the general population than any sites where these radioactive materials are presently located. Only solid forms of high-level wastes will be transported for disposal in a geologic repository. For more than 50 years, nuclear materials have been safely transported in North America, Europe, and Asia, without a single significant radiation release. Since the 1950s, select panels from the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and interagency advisory groups, and international experts selected by the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency, have examined the environmental, ethical, and intergenerational aspects of nuclear waste disposal, plus alternatives to geologic disposal. All have concluded that deep geologic disposal in a mined repository is clearly the preferred option. The concept of deep geologic disposal is based on the analogy to ore deposits, which are formed deep within the Earth's crust, commonly remain isolated from the biosphere for millions to billions of years, and are, generally, extremely difficult to detect. Before selecting the unsaturated tuffs at Yucca Mountain, DOE evaluated salt formations, basalts, and both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Other nations generating nuclear power also plan to use deep geologic disposal, and are evaluating sites in granites, argillaceous rocks, and salt formations.

  19. Aqueous Alteration of Basalts: Earth, Moon, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.

    2007-01-01

    The geologic processes responsible for aqueous alteration of basaltic materials on Mars are modeled beginning with our knowledge of analog processes on Earth, i.e., characterization of elemental and mineralogical compositions of terrestrial environments where the alteration and weathering pathways related to aqueous activity are better understood. A key ingredient to successful modeling of aqueous processes on Mars is identification of phases that have formed by those processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe what is known about the elemental and mineralogical composition of aqueous alteration products of basaltic materials on Mars and their implications for specific aqueous environments based upon our knowledge of terrestrial systems. Although aqueous alteration has not occurred on the Moon, it is crucial to understand the behaviors of basaltic materials exposed to aqueous environments in support of human exploration to the Moon over the next two decades. Several methods or indices have been used to evaluate the extent of basalt alteration/weathering based upon measurements made at Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Moessbauer and Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometers. The Mineralogical Alteration Index (MAI) is based upon the percentage of total Fe (Fe(sub T)) present as Fe(3+) in alteration products (Morris et al., 2006). A second method is the evaluation of compositional trends to determine the extent to which elements have been removed from the host rock and the likely formation of secondary phases (Nesbitt and Young, 1992; Ming et al., 2007). Most of the basalts that have been altered by aqueous processes at the two MER landing sites in Gusev crater and on Meridiani Planum have not undergone extensive leaching in an open hydrolytic system with the exception of an outcrop in the Columbia Hills. The extent of aqueous alteration however ranges from relatively unaltered to pervasively altered materials. Several experimental studies have focused upon the aqueous alteration of lunar materials and simulants (e.g., Keller and Huang, 1971; Eick et al., 1996). Lunar basalts are void of water and highly reduced, hence, these materials are initially very reactive when exposed to water under oxidizing conditions.

  20. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide has emerged as one of the most promising options for making deep cuts in carbon dioxide emissions. Geologic sequestration involves the two-step process of first capturing carbon dioxide by separating it from stack emissions, followed by injection and long term storage in deep geologic formations. Sedimentary basins, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep unminable coal seams, and brine-filled formations, provide the most attractive storage reservoirs. Over the past few years significant advances have been made in this technology, including development of simulation models and monitoring systems, implementation of commercial scale demonstration projects, and investigation of natural and industrial analogues for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. While much has been accomplished in a short time, there are many questions that must be answered before this technology can be employed on the scale needed to make significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. Questions such as how long must the carbon dioxide remain underground, to what extent will geochemical reactions completely immobilize the carbon dioxide, what can be done in the event that a storage site begins to leak at an unacceptable rate, what is the appropriate risk assessment, regulatory and legal framework, and will the public view this option favorably? This paper will present recent advances in the scientific and technological underpinnings of geologic sequestration and identify areas where additional information is needed.

  1. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  2. Pattern Alteration: Bodice Back Width 

    E-print Network

    2006-03-24

    If the back bodice of a garment is too tight or too loose because of a wide or narrow back, the pattern can be altered to make the garment fit better. This publication gives instructions on altering the bodice back width of patterns to solve...

  3. pre or co-requisite Geology Course Prerequisite Chart

    E-print Network

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    pre or co-requisite Geology Course Prerequisite Chart 1101, 1102, 1103,1104, 1105 2250 3160 2500 hours geology junior standing; six hours geology depends on course senior standing, permission hours geology six hours geology Evolution of the Earth Geophysics Physical Geology , Historical Geology

  4. West Virginia University Geology 404, Geology Field Camp

    E-print Network

    Kammer, Thomas

    areas will include folded and faulted sedimentary rocks, a variety of igneous rocks, and surficial often in association with igneous rocks. 3. To learn how to identify and map surficial deposits to describe and log stratigraphic sequences of sedimentary rocks. 2. To learn how to construct geologic maps

  5. B6) Quaternary Geology QUATERNARY GEOLOGY AND LANDFORMS BETWEEN

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    The Quaternary geology and landforms in western New York State north of the southern Finger Lakes (Valley Heads recession across a scarp-dominated bedrock landscape from Batavia to the southern Lake Ontario shoreline. The complex sequence of proglacial lakes that accompanied glacial recession across the Great Lakes region

  6. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  7. GEOLOGY, December 2007 1087 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Hemming, Sidney R

    is followed by localized seafloor spreading at mid-ocean ridges (MOR), which are consid- ered, on geological of seafloor spreading in the North Atlantic. The data show that the initiation of magmatic seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies, the age of final breakup and the onset of seafloor spreading between Iberia

  8. Classroom Strategies for Introductory Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Joan

    1991-01-01

    The author describes her use of writing assignments, small-group discussions, note-taking strategies (learning logs), and professional simulations in an introductory geology course. The learning log process consists of note taking on one side of a divided page. After taking notes, students review the notes and record their questions, reactions,…

  9. Geological rhythms and cometary impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Strothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Time series analysis reveals two dominant, long-term periodicities approximately equal to 32 and 260 million years in the known series of geological and biological upheavals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The cycles of these episodes agree in period and phase with the cycles of impact cratering on Earth, suggesting that periodic comet impacts strongly influence Earth processes.

  10. GEOLOGY, January 2008 51 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Shervais, John W.

    into the Snake River Plain, ca. 15 Ma and advanced with time to its current position at Yellowstone (CampGEOLOGY, January 2008 51 INTRODUCTION The Snake River Plain of southern Idaho is the archetype the past 17 m.y. (Fig. 1). Volcanic products erupted within the Snake River Plain comprise rhyolite

  11. GEOLOGY, January 2010 59 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    . Asymmetric ocean basins Giuliano Panza1 , Carlo Doglioni2 , and Anatoli Levshin3 1 Dipartimento di ScienzeGEOLOGY, January 2010 59 INTRODUCTION The mantle is thought to rise adiabatically along oceanic ridges and to melt, generating new oceanic crust (e.g., Cann et al., 1999, and references therein). Since

  12. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  13. Briefing on geological sequestration (Tulsa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  14. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  15. GEOLOGY, October 2008 771 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    GEOLOGY, October 2008 771 INTRODUCTION The relationship between oxygen stress and the Permian., 2007, for a review), the marine Late Permian mass extinc- tion is closely related to the development, these shorelines underwent a widespread latest Permian transgression, with maximum coastal onlap during the earli

  16. Infrared Analysis of Geological Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Clark, E. Roy

    1980-01-01

    Describes the infrared analysis of geological specimens which can form the basis of a laboratory exercise, allowing some minerals to be identified by "fingerprint" technique. Students can gain insight into the concept of symmetry and environment around an atom. (Author/SA)

  17. GEOLOGY, March 2010 227 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Purkis, Sam

    GEOLOGY, March 2010 227 INTRODUCTION The shallow waters of both the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea., 2007), though unlike the hyperarid Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, these sites receive >1 m of rainfall per year. In the Red Sea the reticulated structures support a veneer of live coral, whereas in the Arabian

  18. Coastal Geology I. Fluvial Systems

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Activity ­ coastal areas near tectonically active plate margins may subside or uplift according to plateLab 12 Coastal Geology I. Fluvial Systems Hydrologic Cycle Runoff that flows into rivers a stream over a certain amount of time. It is usually expressed in cubic feet per second, and is measured

  19. GEOLOGY, June 2009 515 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Klinger, Yann

    GEOLOGY, June 2009 515 INTRODUCTION On 12 May 2008, the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck Wenchuan assumptions, including modeling earthquake as single planar rupture (Chen et al., 2008; Parsons et al., 2008. SURFACE RUPTURE Field investigations and detailed mapping from postearthquake satellite images (GSA Data

  20. Geology of the Ar Rahail ancient gold mine, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Willis H.; Samater, Rashid M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    1987-01-01

    Pre-existing northwest-trending faults, possibly re-opened by stock emplacement, were invaded by later fluids that precipitated barren quartz veins and, in the adjacent faulted wall rocks, anomalous gold and arsenic. Gold, however, is restricted to the narrow structures, and, although values as much as 4.2 g/t are present, the tonnages are inadequate for profitable mining. No further work is recommended, because the hoped for dissemination of gold between faults does not exist.

  1. Geological Society of America Special Paper 388

    E-print Network

    the least-constrained attri- butions of geological and tectonic features to them do not include circular.C., and Anderson, D.L., eds., Plates, plumes, and paradigms: Geological Society of America Special Paper 388, p

  2. Panel Review Report United States Geological Survey

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Charles W.

    Panel Review Report United States Geological Survey Biological Resources Discipline Wildlife from senior United States Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior (DOI), and Congressional. · Determine the optimal level of reimbursable funding using a structured decision process, with the objective

  3. The Challenges of Standardized Planetary Geologic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    The process and product of creating standardized geologic maps of planetary bodies has been met with particular challenges. Addressing these challenges helps ensure that benchmark contextual geologic map products remain a reliable community resource.

  4. The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H. (editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

  5. Planetary geology in the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic aspects of solar system studies are defined and the goals of planetary geology are discussed. Planetary geology is the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of matter condensed in the form of planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. It is a multidisciplinary effort involving investigators with backgrounds in geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geodesy, cartography, and other disciplines concerned with the solid planets. The report is primarily restricted to the kinds of experiments and observations made through unmanned missions.

  6. Pattern Alteration: Protruding Hip Bone 

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    People with very thin figures typically have to alter their clothing for protruding hip bones. This is because diagonal wrinkles radiate from the hip bones. This well-illustrated publication shows how to correct this problem in pants and skirts....

  7. Learning Geologic Time in the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method used to teach the concept of geologic time to introductory geology students using an inquiry-based approach. Students work in teams to obtain rock samples that are used to interpret the geologic history of a region. (SAH)

  8. Geological and geotechnical databases and developments

    E-print Network

    Hack, Robert

    Geological and geotechnical databases and developments in the Netherlands Robert Hack & Wiebke Tegtmeier Namur, Belgium, 9 October 2007 #12;9 October 2007 Geological and geotech databases in NL - Hack 2007 Geological and geotech databases in NL - Hack & Tegtmeier 3 Surface data: · Climate · Vegetation

  9. 11 Years Engineering Geology Fieldwork in

    E-print Network

    Hack, Robert

    ;14 dec 2001 11 years engineering geology in Falset - science from fieldwork - hack 2 What did we Produce ? Why did we ? #12;14 dec 2001 11 years engineering geology in Falset - science from fieldwork - hack 3 happy #12;14 dec 2001 11 years engineering geology in Falset - science from fieldwork - hack 4 Why keep

  10. GEOLOGY, B.S.G. ENVIRONMENTAL OPTION

    E-print Network

    Hamburger, Peter

    GEOLOGY, B.S.G. ENVIRONMENTAL OPTION (Fall 2015-Summer 2016) IPFW Residency Requirements: ____ 32/Gen Ed GEOLOGY BSG CORE COURSES (66 credits) *Note: grades of C- or better required in GEOL courses/2.0 GPA ______ 3 - 5 Credits in Geology or Geography with Laboratory (Select 1 of the following): ___3

  11. Geological Carbon Storage: The Roles of Government

    E-print Network

    Geological Carbon Storage: The Roles of Government and Industry in Risk Management ROSE MURPHY version of this publication, please send an email to Mark Jaccard (jaccard@sfu.ca). #12;8 Geological to a location suitable for long-term storage. CO2 can be stored in onshore or offshore geological formations

  12. FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY GEOLOGY FIELD CAMP

    E-print Network

    FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY GEOLOGY FIELD CAMP IN NORTHERN NEW MEXICO May 9, through June 15, 2015 The Department of Earth, Ocean & Atmospheric Science, Geological Science at FSU offers a 6 semester-hour course in Field Geology (GLY4790). We have been teaching this highly successful course from a facility north

  13. Inner model theoretic geology Gunter Fuchs

    E-print Network

    Schindler, Ralf

    Inner model theoretic geology Gunter Fuchs Ralf Schindler November 18, 2014 Abstract One of the basic concepts of set theoretic geology is the mantle of a model of set theory V: it is the intersection in what was dubbed Set Theoretic Geology in that paper. One of the main results of [FHR] was that any

  14. INTERAGENCY REPORT APOLLO 17 LANDING SITE GEOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    INTERAGENCY REPORT APOLLO 17 LANDING SITE GEOLOGY UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ASTROGEOLOGY #73 JUNE 1975 Prepared under NASA Contract T-5874A and W13,130 NATIONAL STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY INTERAGENCY REPORT: ASTROGEOLOGY 73 Part I

  15. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  16. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  17. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  18. Inner model theoretic geology Gunter Fuchs

    E-print Network

    Schindler, Ralf

    Inner model theoretic geology Gunter Fuchs Ralf Schindler September 9, 2015 Abstract One of the basic concepts of set theoretic geology is the mantle of a model of set theory V: it is the intersection in what was dubbed Set Theoretic Geology in that paper. One of the main results of [FHR15] was that any

  19. PRECAMBRIAN GEOLOGY OF THE OJO CALIENTE QUADRANGLE,

    E-print Network

    Treiman, Allan H.

    PRECAMBRIAN GEOLOGY OF THE OJO CALIENTE QUADRANGLE, RIO ARRIBA AND TAOS COUNTIES, NEW MEXICO A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES OF STANFORD Treiman June 1977 PRECAMBRIAN GEOLOGY OF THE OJO CALIENTE QUADRANGLE, RIO ARRIBA AND TAOS COUNTIES, NEW

  20. Department of Geology & Geophysics University of Hawaii

    E-print Network

    Department of Geology & Geophysics University of Hawaii THE APPLICATION CHECKLIST SEND THESE ITEMS Honolulu, HI 96822 Attn: Geology & Geophysics Statement of Objectives http://www.hawaii.edu/graduate/download/forms/admission/sobj2008_09.pdf Geology and Geophysics Graduate Program Supplemental Information Form http://www.soest

  1. Bob Campbell Geology Museum Mission Statement

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Bob Campbell Geology Museum Mission Statement: To foster a greater awareness, understanding, and appreciation of the complex and dynamic nature of geology. The Museum's collection focuses on rocks, minerals and fossils of Southeastern US, but includes specimens from around the world. Bob Campbell Geology Museum

  2. Measuring Student Understanding of Geological Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-01-01

    There have been few discoveries in geology more important than "deep time"--the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and…

  3. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  4. 30 CFR 784.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent... mining. This description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas... structural geology may affect the occurrence, availability, movement, quantity and quality of...

  5. Geological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Clark R.

    Geological Society of America 3300 Penrose Place P.O. Box 9140 Boulder, CO 80301 (303) 447 and restrictions: Copyright © 2002, The Geological Society of America, Inc. (GSA). All rights reserved. Copyright. Opinions presented in this publication do not reflect official positions of the Society. #12;Geological

  6. The Marine Geology Program of the US Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, N. T.

    The U.S. Geological Survey and charged it with the responsibility for the classification of public lands and examination of the geologic structure, mineral resources and products of the national domain. The national domain for seabed resources was extended to 200 nautical miles offshore. This United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), a marine domain surrounding the continental U.S., Hawaii, and U.S. related islands, constitutes an area about one and two thirds larger than the size of the onshore area. In this vast domain lie resources of immense importance to the Nation: an estimated 35 percent of the economically recoverable oil and gas yet to be found in the United States; major resources of strategic metals like cobalt, manganese, and nickel in seafloor crusts, pavements, and modules; massive sulfide deposits actively forming today; and major concentrations of heavy minerals in nearshore sand bodies.

  7. Mathematical Geology, Vol. 34, No. 1, January 2002 ( C 2002) On Modelling Discrete Geological Structures

    E-print Network

    Baran, Sándor

    Mathematical Geology, Vol. 34, No. 1, January 2002 ( C 2002) On Modelling Discrete Geological there is a large amount of missing observations, which often is the case in geological applications. We make,predictions,MarkovchainMonteCarlo,simulatedannealing,incomplete observations. INTRODUCTION In many geological applications, there is an interest in predicting properties

  8. Formal Concept Analysis in Geology 1 7 Formal Concept Analysis in Geology

    E-print Network

    Belohlavek, Radim

    Formal Concept Analysis in Geology 1 7 Formal Concept Analysis in Geology: Attribute Tables-attribute knowledge is vague (fuzzy), which is typical of sciences like geology, biology etc. Basically, formal of fuzzy data and its possible applications in geological and related sciences. The presen- #12;Formal

  9. ABOUT THE JOURNAL One of the oldest journals in geology, The Journal of Geology has

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    ABOUT THE JOURNAL One of the oldest journals in geology, The Journal of Geology has promoted the systematic philosophical and fundamental study of geology since 1893. The Journal publishes original research across a broad range of subfields in geology, including geophysics, geochemistry, sedimentology

  10. Courses: Geology (GEOL) Page 319Sonoma State University 2015-2016 Catalog Geology (GEOL)

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Courses: Geology (GEOL) Page 319Sonoma State University 2015-2016 Catalog Geology (GEOL) geoL 102 our dynAMiC eArtH: introduCtion to geoLogy (3) Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. A study. Emphasis on local geology, including earthquakes and other environmental as- pects. Laboratory study

  11. Hypothesis tests for hydrologic alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Charles N.; Croteau, Kelly E.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrologic systems can be altered by anthropogenic and climatic influences. While there are a number of statistical frameworks for describing and evaluating the extent of hydrologic alteration, here we present a new framework for assessing whether statistically significant hydrologic alteration has occurred, or whether the shift in the hydrologic regime is consistent with the natural variability of the system. Four hypothesis tests based on shifts of flow duration curves (FDCs) are developed and tested using three different experimental designs based on different strategies for resampling of annual FDCs. The four hypothesis tests examined are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS), Kuiper (K), confidence interval (CI), and ecosurplus and ecodeficit (Eco). Here 117 streamflow sites that have potentially undergone hydrologic alteration due to reservoir construction are examined. 20 years of pre-reservoir record is used to develop the critical value of the test statistic for type I errors of 5% and 10%, while 10 years of post-alteration record is used to examine the power of each test. The best experimental design, based on calculating the mean annual FDC from an exhaustive jackknife resampling regime, provided a larger number of unique values of each test statistic and properly reproduced type I errors. Of the four tests, the CI test consistently had the highest power, while the K test had the second highest power; KS and Eco always had the lowest power. The power of the CI test appeared related to the storage ratio of the reservoir, a rough measure of the hydrologic alteration of the system.

  12. Physical Geology Laboratory Manual Charles Merguerian and J Bret Bennington

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    Physical Geology Laboratory Manual Charles Merguerian and J Bret Bennington Geology Department Hofstra University © 2006 #12;i PHYSICAL GEOLOGY LABORATORY MANUAL Ninth Edition Professors Charles Merguerian and J Bret Bennington Geology Department Hofstra University #12;ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank

  13. Acidic Alteration Environments on Mars and Implications for Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Flahaut, J.; Weitz, C. M.; Gross, C.; Parente, M.; Horgan, B. H. N.

    2014-12-01

    Unique surface materials have been discovered recently at Valles Marineris (Roach et al., 2010; Weitz et al., 2014; Flahaut et al., 2014), Noctis Labyrinthus (Weitz et al., 2011), Mawrth Vallis (Bishop et al., 2013), and elsewhere that have CRISM features distinct from those of any known minerals. Typically these unusual sites are found in light-toned outcrops or interior layered deposits associated with phyllosilicates, sulfates or both. Frequently these units are called "doublet" materials because they exhibit a doublet absorption in CRISM spectra between 2.2 and 2.3 µm. We are investigating the spectral signatures of these martian materials compared to our library of minerals and alteration materials. We are also evaluating the stratigraphy of these unique alteration phases compared with neighboring phyllosilicate and sulfate units. A similar 2.2-2.3 µm doublet has been observed in spectra taken of acid altered clays produced in the laboratory (Madejova et al., 2009; Tosca et al., 2009). The band centers and relative intensities of these martian doublet features vary greatly suggesting that a process such as acid weathering could be acting on OH-bearing minerals to produce altered phases that differ depending on the type of substrate, water/rock ratio, solution chemistry, and duration of aqueous processes. Because these unique materials occur in many regions across a range of times on Mars, acidic alteration may have been a key process at local and regional scales throughout martian geologic history. Constraining the types of acidic alteration that have taken place on Mars will assist in defining the aqueous geochemistry at these sites and whether habitable conditions were possible. References: Bishop et al. (2013) PSS, 86, 130-149. Flahaut et al. (2014) EPSC, #211. Madejová et al. (2009) Vibrational Spectroscopy, 49, 211-218. Roach et al. (2010) Icarus, 206, 253-268. Tosca & Knoll (2009) 40th LPSC, #1538. Weitz et al. (2011) Geology, 39, 899-902. Weitz et al. (2014) Icarus, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.04.009.

  14. Geologic periodicities and the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    New geologic and astronomical developments are reviewed that have recently led to the proposal of various Galactic theories to explain the temporal pattern of impact craters on earth. Linear and harmonic time series analyses have revealed that two dominant periodicities about equal to 33 + or - 3 Myr and 260 + or - 25 Myr underlie the geologic record of terrestrial impact cratering and global tectonic phenomena. It is argued that purely terrestrial mechanisms cannot account for the cratering cycles as being preservational artifacts; cratering rather appears to influence tectonism, possibly through perturbations of mantle convection. Galactic models proposed to explain the two long-term periodicities are reviewed critically. The most likely explanation for the 33 Myr cycle involves the comparatively stable half period of vertical oscillation of the solar system about the Galactic plane. The 260 Myr cycle may be related to rare encounters with Galactic spiral arms during the revolution of the solar system around the Galactic center.

  15. Geology of the reading prong

    SciTech Connect

    Schutz, D.

    1987-03-01

    For over a billion years the geological terrain now called New Jersey has been the site of unusually high uranium concentrations. Although the highest of these concentrations occurs in the Reading Prong, the area is itself only part of a larger geologic province extending to the northeast and southwest. The rocks in the Reading Prong are not uniformly radioactive. High uranium concentrations tend to be associated with magnetite deposits - metamorphic equivalents of iron-rich formations - and with pegmatites - rocks formed by precipitation from mineralizing solutions in the late phases of granite emplacement. Because of the way they were formed, the uranium-bearing magnetite and pegmatite bodies tend to be long and narrow, and the resulting patterns of radon occurrence can be expected to be the same. This may explain why, in some places, adjacent houses have very different radon concentrations.

  16. Shock compression of geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, S.; Braithwaite, C.; Williamson, D.; Jardine, A.

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the shock compression of geological materials is important for many applications, and is particularly important to the mining industry. During blast mining the response to shock loading determines the wave propagation speed and resulting fragmentation of the rock. The present work has studied the Hugoniot of two geological materials; Lake Quarry Granite and Gosford Sandstone. For samples of these materials, the composition was characterised in detail. The Hugoniot of Lake Quarry Granite was predicted from this information as the material is fully dense and was found to be in good agreement with the measured Hugoniot. Gosford Sandstone is porous and undergoes compaction during shock loading. Such behaviour is similar to other granular material and we show how it can be described using a P-a compaction model.

  17. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  18. Computer image processing: Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Sequestration Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, P. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Brennan, S.; Corum, M.; Merrill, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geological storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State geological surveys. To conduct the assessment, the USGS developed a probability-based assessment methodology that was extensively reviewed by experts from industry, government and university organizations (Brennan et al., 2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127). The methodology is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales and it identifies storage assessment units (SAUs) that are based on two depth categories below the surface (1) 3,000 to 13,000 ft (914 to 3,962 m), and (2) 13,000 ft (3,962 m) and greater. In the first category, the 3,000 ft (914 m) minimum depth of the storage reservoir ensures that CO2 is in a supercritical state to minimize the storage volume. The depth of 13,000 ft (3,962 m) represents maximum depths that are accessible with average injection pressures. The second category represents areas where a reservoir formation has potential storage at depths below 13,000 ft (3,962 m), although they are not accessible with average injection pressures; these are assessed as a separate SAU. SAUs are restricted to formation intervals that contain saline waters (total dissolved solids greater than 10,000 parts per million) to prevent contamination of protected ground water. Carbon dioxide sequestration capacity is estimated for buoyant and residual storage traps within the basins. For buoyant traps, CO2 is held in place in porous formations by top and lateral seals. For residual traps, CO2 is contained in porous formations as individual droplets held within pores by capillary forces. Preliminary geologic models have been developed to estimate CO2 storage capacity in approximately 40 major sedimentary basins within the United States. More than 200 SAUs have been identified within these basins. The results of the assessment are estimates of the technically accessible storage resources based on present-day geological and engineering technology related to CO2 injection into geologic formations; therefore the assessment is not of total in-place resources. Summary geologic descriptions of the evaluated basins and SAUs will be prepared, along with the national assessment results. During the coming year, these results will be released as USGS publications available from http://energy.usgs.gov. In support of these assessment activities, CO2 sequestration related research science is being conducted by members of the project. Results of our research will contribute to current and future CO2 storage assessments conducted by the USGS and other organizations. Research topics include: (a) geochemistry of CO2 interactions with subsurface environments; (b) subsurface petrophysical rock properties in relation to CO2 injection; (c) enhanced oil recovery and the potential for CO2 storage; (d) storage of CO2 in unconventional reservoirs (coal, shale, and basalt); (e) statistical aggregation of assessment results; and (f) potential risks of induced seismicity.

  20. Geological exploration from orbital altitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Badgley, Peter C.; Fischer, William A.; Lyon, Ronald J. P.

    1965-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration is planning geologic exploration from orbiting spacecraft. For that purpose it is evaluating new and refined exploration tools, often called remote sensors, including devices that are sensitive to force fields, such as gravity gradient systems, and devices that record the reflection or emission of electromagnetic energy. Both passive electromagnetic sensors (those that rely on natural sources of illumination, such as the Sun) and active electromagnetic sensors (which use an artificial source of illumination) are being considered.

  1. Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, George E.

    2004-01-01

    Geological mapping and topical studies, primarily in the southern Acidalia Planitia/Cydonia Mensae region of Mars is presented. The overall objective was to understand geologic processes and crustal history in the northern lowland in order to assess the probability that an ocean once existed in this region. The major deliverable is a block of 6 1:500,000 scale geologic maps that will be published in 2004 as a single map at 1:1,000,000 scale along with extensive descriptive and interpretive text. A major issue addressed by the mapping was the relative ages of the extensive plains of Acidalia Planitia and the knobs and mesas of Cydonia Mensae. The mapping results clearly favor a younger age for the plains. Topical studies included a preliminary analysis of the very abundant small domes and cones to assess the possibility that their origins could be determined by detailed mapping and remote-sensing analysis. We also tested the validity of putative shorelines by using GIs to co-register full-resolution MOLA altimetry data and Viking images with these shorelines plotted on them. Of the 3 proposed shorelines in this area, one is probably valid, one is definitely not valid, and the third is apparently 2 shorelines closely spaced in elevation. Publications supported entirely or in part by this grant are included.

  2. Global geologic map of Ganymede

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Geoffrey C.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Head, James W.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Prockter, Louise M.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.; Kay, Johnathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ganymede is the largest satellite of Jupiter, and its icy surface has been formed through a variety of impact cratering, tectonic, and possibly cryovolcanic processes. The history of Ganymede can be divided into three distinct phases: an early phase dominated by impact cratering and mixing of non-ice materials in the icy crust, a phase in the middle of its history marked by great tectonic upheaval, and a late quiescent phase characterized by a gradual drop in heat flow and further impact cratering. Images of Ganymede suitable for geologic mapping were collected during the flybys of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 (1979), as well as during the Galileo Mission in orbit around Jupiter (1995–2003). This map represents a synthesis of our understanding of Ganymede geology after the conclusion of the Galileo Mission. We summarize the properties of the imaging dataset used to construct the map, previously published maps of Ganymede, our own mapping rationale, and the geologic history of Ganymede. Additional details on these topics, along with detailed descriptions of the type localities for the material units, may be found in the companion paper to this map (Patterson and others, 2010).

  3. Geologic mapping using thermal images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal radiance data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite has been used to measure surface reflectance data and to provide additional material composition information through remote sensing. The primary goal was to investigate the utility of HCMM data for geologic applications. Three techniques were used for displaying and combining thermal and visible near infrared (VNIR) data for two desert areas in southern California (Trona and Pisgah): color additive composites (CAC) for day and night IR and day VNIR, principal components, and calculation of thermal inertia images. The HCMM thermal data were more effective than Landsat data in producing separation of compositionally different areas including volcanic and intrusive rocks. The satellite CAC data produced an image for a 1 x 2 degree area, and the color picture was enlarged to a scale of 1:250,000. Playa composition, moisture content, presence of standing water, and vegetation cover were displayed in a variety of colors according to physical characteristics. Areas such as sand dunes were not distinguishable because of the coarse 500-mm HCMM resolution. HCMM thermal data have shown a new dimension to geologic remote sensing, and future satellite missions should allow the continued development of the thermal infrared data for geology.

  4. Pennsylvania's contribution to petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    John F. Carll of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania laid the foundations of both petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. J. P. Lesley, director of the Second Survey, had introduced structure contours when he was working in the anthracite fields. He pointed out that the great oil fields of Pennsylvania were in the only part of the state where there were no anticlines. I. C. White, another geologist with the Second Survey, emphasized the anticlinal theory adopted as a method of prospecting until the discovery of the Cushing field in Oklahoma in 1912. George Ashley, state geologist of Pennsylvanian in the 1930s and 1940s, said that after the gas companies had drilled all the anticlines there would still be the synclines. David White in 1915 noticed the relation between the metamorphosis (rank) of coal and the occurrence of oil and gas. This method (vitrinite reflectance) is now widely applied in the evaluation of basins. In the late 1930s, the resurvey of the Pennsylvania oil regions showed that the reservoirs were shoreline sands, probably barrier islands. In the 1950s the AAPG recommended a study of the recent sediments of the Mississippi delta by Scripps Institute of Oceanography. The ability to recognize depositional environments has caused a revolution in petroleum geology, and recently has been recognized by petroleum engineers as the key to reservoir characterization.

  5. Multistage hydrothermal silicification and Fe-Tl-As-Sb-Ge-REE enrichment in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district, northern Alaska: Geochemistry, origin, and exploration applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Kelley, K.D.; Anderson, V.M.; Clark, J.L.; Ayuso, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE) in more than 200 samples of variably silicified and altered wall rocks, massive and banded sulfide, silica rock, and sulfide-rich and unmineralized barite were obtained from the Main, Aqqaluk, and Anarraaq deposits in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district of northern Alaska. Detailed lithogeochemical profiles for two drill cores at Aqqaluk display an antithetic relationship between SiO2/Al2O3 and TiO2/Zr which, together with textural information, suggest preferential silicification of carbonate-bearing sediments. Data for both drill cores also show generally high Tl, Sb, As, and Ge and uniformly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* > 1.0). Similar high Tl, Sb, As, Ge, and Eu/Eu* values are present in the footwall and shallow hanging wall of Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide intervals at Anarraaq but are not as widely dispersed. Net chemical changes for altered wall rocks in the district, on the basis of average Al-normalized data relative to unaltered black shales of the host Kuna Formation, include large enrichments (>50%) of Fe, Ba, Eu, V, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb, and Ge at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, Si at Red Dog, and Sr, U, and Se at Anarraaq. Large depletions (>50%) are evident for Ca at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, for Mg, P, and Y at Red Dog, and for Na at Anarraaq. At both Red Dog and Anarraaq, wall-rock alteration removed calcite and minor dolomite during hydrothermal decarbonation reactions and introduced Si, Eu, and Ge during silicification. Sulfidation reactions deposited Fe, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, and Sb; barite mineralization introduced Ba, S, and Sr. Light REE and U were mobilized locally. This alteration and mineralization occurred during Mississippi an hydrothermal events that predated the Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous Brookian orogeny. Early hydrothermal silicification at Red Dog took place prior to or during massive sulfide mineralization, on the basis of the dominantly planar nature of Zn-Pb veins, which suggests filling of fractures that developed in previously lithified rock. Uniformly low Ca and Mg and uniformly negative Ce anomalies in highly siliceous Red Dog wall rocks reflect hydrothermal decarbonation reactions and pervasive silicification owing to conductive cooling of oxidized metalliferous fluids. Similar Ca and Mg depletions are evident at Anarraaq but generally lack associated silicification, possibly because temperatures of the hydrothermal fluids were too low (<180??C) or because the thermal contrast between the fluids and wall rocks was smaller owing to the greater depth of alteration and mineralization there, compared with Red Dog. Chalcophile element anomalies (Fe, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb) in wall rocks at both Red Dog and Anarraq are attributed to sulfidation reactions, coeval with subsurface Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization, during the mixing of oxidized metalliferous fluids with H2S-rich fluids derived locally within the Kuna Formation. Sedimentary wall rocks in the Red Dog district are characterized by a distinctive suite of geochemical anomalies, especially for Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb, Ge, and Eu/Eu*. At the Aqqaluk deposit, wall rocks without visible sphalerite or galena (<300 ppm Zn + Pb) have anomalous Eu/Eu*, Tl, Sb, and As for up to ???100 m stratigraphically below Zn-rich silica rock. At Anarraaq, the Tl anomaly is most extensively developed, and enrichment relative to unaltered black shale of the Kuna Formation is present up to 62 m above the highest Zn-Pb sulfide zones. The magnitude of the enrichment and systematic behavior of Tl in the district make Tl a promising geochemical exploration guide for Red Dog-type Zn-Pb-Ag deposits elsewhere. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

  6. The use of high resolution ground and airborne magnetic surveys to evaluate the geometry of hydrothermal alteration zones over volcanic provinces (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouligand, C.; Glen, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical methods can provide critical constraints on the distribution and volume of hydrothermal alteration, important parameters in understanding the evolution of geothermal systems. Because hydrothermal alteration modifies the magnetic properties of the volcanic substratum, magnetic surveys can be used to provide constraints on the distribution of hydrothermal alteration at depth. Using Yellowstone caldera as an example, we show that both ground and airborne magnetic surveys can be used to map and assess the volume of hydrothermal alteration. Ground magnetic surveys over unaltered volcanic terranes display high-amplitude, short-wavelength anomalies, in contrast to smooth, subdued magnetic anomalies over volcanic substrata demagnetized by hydrothermal alteration. We use this contrast to map areas of hydrothermal alteration in detail. Inverse methods applied to high-resolution airborne and ground magnetic data can be used to create three-dimensional models of the distribution of magnetization and thus illuminate the geometry of hydrothermal alteration. Because of the non-uniqueness of potential fields, the construction of inverse models requires simplifying assumptions on the distribution of magnetization, knowledge of induced and remanent magnetization of fresh and altered geological units, and detailed geological and geophysical data. Within the three hydrothermal sites that we investigated in Yellowstone National Park, subdued short-wavelength signal indicates pervasive demagnetization (alteration) of the shallow substratum that extends over larger areas than initially mapped by geology. These data also reveal that the largest degree of demagnetization (alteration) and maximum thicknesses of demagnetized (altered) substratum, reaching a few hundred meters, are associated with hydrothermal vents and with superficial hydrothermal alteration. Our three dimensional models of magnetization provide estimates of the volume of buried hydrothermal alteration ranging from 10 to 20 km3 buried within each of our 10 x 10 km2 study areas.

  7. Geology and tectonics of Japanese islands: A review - The key to understanding the geology of Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakita, Koji

    2013-08-01

    The age of the major geological units in Japan ranges from Cambrian to Quaternary. Precambrian basement is, however, expected, as the provenance of by detrital clasts of conglomerate, detrital zircons of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and as metamorphic rocks intruded by 500 Ma granites. Although rocks of Paleozoic age are not widely distributed, rocks and formations of late Mesozoic to Cenozoic can be found easily throughout Japan. Rocks of Jurassic age occur mainly in the Jurassic accretionary complexes, which comprise the backbone of the Japanese archipelago. The western part of Japan is composed mainly of Cretaceous to Paleogene felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks and accretionary complexes. The eastern part of the country is covered extensively by Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. During the Quaternary, volcanoes erupted in various parts of Japan, and alluvial plains were formed along the coastlines of the Japanese Islands. These geological units are divided by age and origin: i.e. Paleozoic continental margin; Paleozoic island arc; Paleozoic accretionary complexes; Mesozoic to Paleogene accretionary complexes and Cenozoic island arcs. These are further subdivided into the following tectonic units, e.g. Hida; Oki; Unazuki; Hida Gaien; Higo; Hitachi; Kurosegawa; South Kitakami; Nagato-Renge; Nedamo; Akiyoshi; Ultra-Tamba; Suo; Maizuru; Mino-Tamba; Chichibu; Chizu; Ryoke; Sanbagawa and Shimanto belts. The geological history of Japan commenced with the breakup of the Rodinia super continent, at about 750 Ma. At about 500 Ma, the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate began to be subducted beneath the continental margin of the South China Block. Since then, Proto-Japan has been located on the convergent margin of East Asia for about 500 Ma. In this tectonic setting, the most significant tectonic events recorded in the geology of Japan are subduction-accretion, paired metamorphism, arc volcanism, back-arc spreading and arc-arc collision. The major accretionary complexes in the Japanese Islands are of Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene age. These accretionary complexes became altered locally to low-temperature and high-pressure metamorphic, or high-temperature and low-pressure metamorphic rocks. Medium-pressure metamorphic rocks are limited to the Unazuki and Higo belts. Major plutonism occurred in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Early Paleozoic Cambrian igneous activity is recorded as granites in the South Kitakami Belt. Late Paleozoic igneous activity is recognized in the Hida Belt. During Cretaceous to Paleogene time, extensive igneous activity occurred in Japan. The youngest granite in Japan is the Takidani Granite intruded at about 1-2 Ma. During Cenozoic time, the most important geologic events are back-arc opening and arc-arc collision. The major back-arc basins are the Sea of Japan and the Shikoku and Chishima basins. Arc-arc collision occurred between the Honshu and Izu-Bonin arcs, and the Honshu and Chishima arcs.

  8. Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fiske, Richard S.; Hopson, Clifford Andrae; Waters, Aaron Clement

    1963-01-01

    Mount Rainier National Park includes 378 square miles of rugged terrain on the west slope of the Cascade Mountains in central Washington. Its mast imposing topographic and geologic feature is glacier-clad Mount Rainier. This volcano, composed chiefly of flows of pyroxene andesite, was built upon alt earlier mountainous surface, carved from altered volcanic and sedimentary rocks invaded by plutonic and hypabyssal igneous rocks of great complexity. The oldest rocks in the park area are those that make up the Olmnapecosh Formation of late Eocene age. This formation is more than 10,000 feet thick, and consists almost entirely of volcanic debris. It includes some lensoid accumulations of lava and coarse mudflows, heaped around volcanic centers., but these are surrounded by vastly greater volumes of volcanic clastic rocks, in which beds of unstratified coarse tuff-breccia, about 30 feet in average thickness, alternate with thin-bedded breccias, sandstones, and siltstones composed entirely of volcanic debris. The coarser tuff-breccias were probably deposited from subaqueous volcanic mudflows generated when eruption clouds were discharged directly into water, or when subaerial ash flows and mudflows entered bodies of water. The less mobile mudflows and viscous lavas built islands surrounded by this sea of thinner bedded water-laid clastics. In compostion the lava flows and coarse lava fragments of the Ohanapecosh Formation are mostly andesite, but they include less abundant dacite, basalt, and rhyolite. The Ohanapecosh Formation was folded, regionally altered to minerals characteristic of the zeolite facies of metamorphism, uplifted, and deeply eroded before the overlying Stevens Ridge Formation of Oligocene or early Miocene age was deposited upon it. The Stevens Ridge rocks, which are about 3,000 feet in maximum total thickness, consist mainly of massive ash flows. These are now devitrified and altered, but they originally consisted of rhyodacite pumice lapilli and glass shards, which compacted and welded into thick massive units during emplacement and cooling. Subordinate water-laid clastic rocks occur t(ward the top of the formation, and thin-bedded pyroclastic layers occur between some of the ash flows. Exposures on Backbone Ridge and on Carbon River below the mouth of Cataract Creek show that in places the thick basal Stevens Ridge ash flows swept with great violence over an old erosion surface developed on rocks of the Ohanapecosh Formation. Masses of mud, tree trunks, and other surface debris were swirled upward into the base of the lowermost ash fiery, and lobes and tongues of hot ash were forced downward into. the saprolitic mud. The Stevens Ridge Formation is concordantly overlain by the Fifes Peak Formation of probable early Miocene age, which consists of lava flows, subordinate mudflows, and minor quantities of tuffaceous clastic rocks. The lavas are predominantly olivine basalt and basaltic andesite, but they include a little rhyolite. They are slightly to moderately altered: the ferromagnesian phenocrysts are generally replaced by saponite, chiprite, or carbonate ; the glass is devitrified ; and the rocks are locally permeated by veinlets of zeolite. Swarms of diabase sills and dikes are probably intrusive equivalents of the Fifes Peak lavas. The upper part of the Fifes Peak Formation has been mostly eroded from Mount Rainier National Park, but farther north, in the Cedar Lake quadrangle, it attains a thickness of more than 5,000 feet. The Fifes Peak and earlier formations were gently folded, faulted, uplifted, and eroded before the. late Miocene Tatoosh pluton worked its way upward to shallow depths and eventually broke through to the surface. The rise of the pluton was accompanied by .the injection of a complicated melange of satellitic stocks, sills, and dikes. A favored horizon for intrusion of sills was along or near the unconfo

  9. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM).

  10. B.S. GEOLOGY (Geology Subplan) CHECKLIST of required courses for major Geology Core Courses: 9-10 courses, 33-34 credits

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    B.S. GEOLOGY (Geology Subplan) CHECKLIST of required courses for major Geology Core Courses: 9 - Experiencing Geology Lab and either GEOSCI 103 - Intro to Oceanography or GEOSCI 105 - Dynamic Earth 4 (1) (4 semester GEOSCI 201 ­ History of the Earth 4 1st or 2nd year, spring semester GEOSCI 231 ­ Geological Field

  11. Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, 8th, Denver, CO, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain papers discussing the state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing, along with the research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The following topics are addressed: spectral geology, U.S. and international hydrocarbon exporation, radar and thermal infrared remote sensing, engineering geology and hydrogeology, mineral exploration, remote sensing for marine and environmental applications, image processing and analysis, geobotanical remote sensing, and data integration and geographic information systems. Particular attention is given to spectral alteration mapping with imaging spectrometers, mapping the coastal plain of the Congo with airborne digital radar, applications of remote sensing techniques to the assessment of dam safety, remote sensing of ferric iron minerals as guides for gold exploration, principal component analysis for alteration mappping, and the application of remote sensing techniques for gold prospecting in the north Fujian province.

  12. Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing, 8th, Denver, CO, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain papers discussing the state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing, along with the research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The following topics are addressed: spectral geology, US and international hydrocarbon exporation, radar and thermal infrared remote sensing, engineering geology and hydrogeology, mineral exploration, remote sensing for marine and environmental applications, image processing and analysis, geobotanical remote sensing, and data integration and geographic information systems. Particular attention is given to spectral alteration mapping with imaging spectrometers, mapping the coastal plain of the Congo with airborne digital radar, applications of remote sensing techniques to the assessment of dam safety, remote sensing of ferric iron minerals as guides for gold exploration, principal component analysis for alteration mappping, and the application of remote sensing techniques for gold prospecting in the north Fujian province.

  13. Pattern Alteration: Prominent Posture Problems 

    E-print Network

    2006-05-05

    stream_source_info pdf_691.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9687 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name pdf_691.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Prominent Posture Problems Extension.... ?.................................................................................................................................................................................. Determine the location of the alteration by measuring the body from the base of the neck at the center back to the point of the greatest curve. Alter the pattern at the same point. Basic bodice and bodice with raglan sleeve 1. Measure down the center...

  14. Pattern Alteration: Personal Measurement Chart 

    E-print Network

    2006-02-09

    arm with elbow bent 2 ? 3 inches (5.1 ? 7.6 cm) *1 ? 1 ? inches (2.5 ? 3.8 cm) 11. Sleeve length ? With arm bent a. Shoulder to elbow b. Shoulder over elbow to waist bone 0 inches Skirt 12. High hip ? Approximately 3? (7.6 cm) below waist ? ? 1 inch... to desired length 0 inches *Ease needed for stretchy knits The Pattern Alteration series includes the following leafl ets: E?372, Principles of Pattern Alteration E?373, Personal Measurement Chart E?374, Back Hip Fullness E?375, Bodice Back Width E?376...

  15. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R.

    1984-01-01

    Three objectives were outlined: (1) global distribution, geometry and composition of continental rock units; (2) morphology and structure of the continental crust; and (3) monitoring selected surface processes. Mapping soil, sediment and rock characteristics for land surfaces requires the use of visible, reflected, thermal and radio parts of the spectrum. Digital topographic data (elevation, slope angle, slope magnitude) are needed to correct reflectance, emission, and radar data. In addition, images of the topographic data provide fundamental information on the morphology and structure of the land.

  16. Bedrock geologic map of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and accompanying conodont data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Werdon, Melanie B.; Bleick, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    This 1:500,000-scale geologic map depicts the bedrock geology of Seward Peninsula, western Alaska, on the North American side of the Bering Strait. The map encompasses all of the Teller, Nome, Solomon, and Bendeleben 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, and parts of the Shishmaref, Kotzebue, Candle, and Norton Bay 1:250,000-scale quadrangles (sh. 1; sh. 2). The geologic map is presented on Sheet 1. The pamphlet includes an introductory text, detailed unit descriptions, tables of geochronologic data, and an appendix containing conodont (microfossil) data and a text explaining those data. Sheet 2 shows metamorphic and tectonic units, conodont color alteration indices, key metamorphic minerals, and locations of geochronology samples listed in the pamphlet. The map area covers 74,000 km2, an area slightly larger than West Virginia or Ireland.

  17. Geological and geothermal investigations for HCMM-derived data. [hydrothermally altered areas in Yerington, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. J. P.; Prelat, A. E.; Kirk, R. (principal investigators)

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to match HCMM- and U2HCMR-derived temperature data over two test sites of very local size to similar data collected in the field at nearly the same times. Results indicate that HCMM investigations using resolutions cells of 500 m or so are best conducted with areally-extensive sites, rather than point observations. The excellent quality day-VIS imagery is particularly useful for lineament studies, as is the DELTA-T imagery. Attempts to register the ground observed temperatures (even for 0.5 sq mile targets) were unsuccessful due to excessive pixel-to-pixel noise on the HCMM data. Several computer models were explored and related to thermal parameter value changes with observed data. Unless quite complex models, with many parameters which can be observed (perhaps not even measured (perhaps not even measured) only under remote sensing conditions (e.g., roughness, wind shear, etc) are used, the model outputs do not match the observed data. Empirical relationship may be most readily studied.

  18. Petroleum geology of southwestern Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Sitler, G.

    1987-09-01

    Approximately 250 wells have been drilled in the 22-county area comprising southwestern Ohio. Despite numerous shows from various zones, no sustained commercial production has been established. Live oil and gas shows have been reported from surface exposures of outcropping Silurian carbonates down to, and including, the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone. Several wells have been completed and actually produced hydrocarbons for a short period, but were subsequently abandoned. Despite the lack of established production, the area holds considerable promise as a potential oil and natural gas producing region. Gravity, magnetics, seismic, surface and source rock geochemistry, linear trace analysis, and subsurface computer mapping have all been used to study the structure, stratigraphy, and petroleum geology of the area. Basement geology is complex and has affected sedimentation patterns in the overlying Cambrian rocks. The Grenville-Central Province contact is present in the area and exhibits faulting, mineralization, and possibly plutonism. The Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the area is relatively simple, with clastics at the base, carbonates in the middle, and a thick shale capping the sequence. Several major facies changes are evident within the section. Structural geology is also fairly simple. However, local discontinuities are apparent and include Precambrian doming and faulting, reactivated faulting, and Knox unconformable surfaces. Potential reservoirs in the area include the Utica Shale, Trenton Limestone, St. Peter Sandstone, Rose Run sandstone, Knox dolomites, Kerbel sandstone, Eau Claire Sandstone, and Mount Simon Sandstone. Favorable source rock geochemistry and the abundance of hydrocarbon shows suggest favorable source rocks to be present. Many different types of traps have been observed.

  19. Applications of ISES for geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The principal applications for onboard data processing and real-time data transmission in the geological sciences are the detection of early warning signs of potential catastrophic events and the rapid assessment of impact and damage following major events. Also, the opportunity for quick look and supporting data during field investigations should not be disregarded. The Eos platforms are ideal for these applications because of the variety of earth sensing instruments and their differing modes of operation. Further study is required to define the role for each instrument and to assess how they can aid each other in establishing an improved output product.

  20. United States Geological Survey yearbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This yearbook of the U.S. Geological Survey describes results of a number of USGS research efforts in such diverse areas as studying the quality of the nation's surface-and ground-water resources, assessing the nation's oil and gas resources, and applying cartographic and remote sensing techniques to aid legislators, policymakers, and the public in solving land-and resources-management problems. Specific issues discussed in this yearbook include erosion of Louisiana's coastal barrier islands, transport of pollutants in sediment in the Mississippi River, primary mapping economic analysis, and probabilities of large earthquakes in California.

  1. Altered Vision Near the Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

  2. Art as Alterity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  3. Automatic Detection of Altered Fingerprints

    E-print Network

    Automatic Detection of Altered Fingerprints Soweon Yoon, Jianjiang Feng, Anil K. Jain, Arun Ross Michigan State University http://biometrics.cse.msu.edu #12;Outline · Fingerprint matching · Fingerprint · Future work #12;Fingerprints Law enforcement Border control Most widely used biometrics in law

  4. Objective Subsurface Geological Modeling using Geological Columns - A case study for the Kisarazu Distinct, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological models of subsurface structure play an important role in disaster assessment, environmental preservation, and underground utilization. These models are often constructed subjectively based on geological data obtained from field survey. However, reliability of subjective model depends on modeler's knowledge and experience as well as on quality of basic data. In order to ensure a more stable reliability of the model, objective approach is necessary. The purpose of this study is to establish an objective geological modeling method. For the purpose of this study, we constructed a subsurface geological model focusing on mathematical treatment of stratigraphy. Study area is the Kisarazu distinct, in the middle part of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Basic data for modeling are 44 geological columns. In the modeling, firstly, we constructed a Logical Model of Geological Structure (LMGS) that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The LMGS is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. Secondly, we generated Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of geological boundary surfaces using geological columns. Thirdly, we constructed an objective geological model using the LMGS and the DEMs. Finally, we visualized the model in 2D and 3D using GRASS GIS. As a result, in the areas with high number of geological columns, geological map and geological cross-sections derived from objective model were in good agreement with the ones derived from subjective model reported in other studies. In the areas with low number of geological columns, the objective map and cross-sections were somewhat different from subjective ones. In conclusion, the results indicate that objective model may give new findings about subsurface structure. In addition, the objective model gives a more stable reliability than the subjective model because the former ensures traceability of modeling procedures. The LMGS is unfit for complicated geological structures like lens. For the solution of this problem, we need to improve theoretical base of the LMGS.

  5. Introduction: The Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David A.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Garry, W. Brent

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Geologic Mapping of Vesta Special Issue/Section of Icarus, which includes several papers containing geologic maps of the surface of Vesta made to support data analysis conducted by the Dawn Science Team during the Vesta Encounter (July 2011-September 2012). In this paper we briefly discuss pre-Dawn knowledge of Vesta, provide the goals of our geologic mapping campaign, discuss the methodologies and materials used for geologic mapping, review the global geologic context of Vesta, discuss the challenges of mapping the geology of Vesta as a small airless body, and describe the content of the papers in this Special Issue/Section. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned from our quadrangle-based mapping effort and provide recommendations for conducting mapping campaigns as part of planetary spacecraft nominal missions.

  6. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  7. Digital geologic map of Texas County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrand, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This data set consists of digital data and accompanying documentation for the surficial geology of Texas County, Oklahoma. The original data are from the Hydrogeologic Map, sheet 1 of 3, included in the U.S. Geological Survey publication, Availability of ground water in Texas County, Oklahoma, Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-250, Wood and Hart, 1967. The geology was compiled by S.L. Schoff, 1939 and 1953.

  8. County digital geologic mapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included.

  9. Alteration minerals in impact-generated hydrothermal systems - Exploring host rock variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Kring, David A.

    2013-09-01

    Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been previously linked to the alteration of Mars’ crust and the production of secondary mineral assemblages seen from orbit. The sensitivity of the resultant assemblages has not yet been evaluated as a function of precursor primary rock compositions. In this work, we use thermochemical modeling to explore the variety of minerals that could be produced by altering several known lithologies based on martian meteorite compositions. For a basaltic host rock lithology (Dhofar 378, Humphrey) the main alteration phases are feldspar, zeolite, pyroxene, chlorite, clay (nontronite, kaolinite), and hematite; for a lherzolithic host rock lithology (LEW 88516) the main alteration phases are amphibole, serpentine, chlorite, clay (nontronite, kaolinite), and hematite; and for an ultramafic host rock lithology (Chassigny) the main minerals are secondary olivine, serpentine, magnetite, quartz, and hematite. These assemblages and proportions of phases in each of those cases depend on W/R and temperature. Integrating geologic, hydrologic and alteration mineral evidence, we have developed a model to illustrate the distribution of alteration assemblages that occur in different levels of an impact structure. At the surface, hot, hydrous alteration affects the ejecta and melt sheet producing clay and chlorite. Deeper in the subsurface and depending on the permeability of the rock, a variety of minerals - smectite, chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles and hematite - are produced in a circulating hydrothermal system. These modeled mineral distributions should assist with interpretation of orbital observations and help guide surface exploration by rovers and sample return assets.

  10. United States Geological Survey Geospatial Information Response

    E-print Network

    1 United States Geological Survey Geospatial Information Response Standard Operating Procedures May 20, 2013 Executive Summary The Geospatial, reporting requirements, and business processes for acquiring and providing geospatial

  11. Geology of central Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Wold, R.J.; Paull, R.A.; Wolosin, C.A.; Friedel, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    The geology beneath Lake Michigan between 43/sup 0/00' and 44/sup 0/00'N and between 86/sup 0/30' and 87/sup 0/40' W is interpreted from a synthesis of 1,700 km of continuous seismic reflection profile data, bathymetry, grab samples, and onshore surface and subsurface information. The continuous seismic reflection profiles and bathymetry provided information for maps of unconsolidated sediment thickness and Paleozoic bedrock topography. Two structural-stratigraphic cross sections of the study area were constructed by utilizing a composite subsurface-surface section for eastern Wisconsin and two control wells in western Michigan. The cross sections, grab samples previously described in the literature, the bedrock topographic map, and published maps were used to construct a Paleozoic geologic map for central Lake Michigan. Rocks from Middle Silurian through Early Mississippian age form subcrops beneath the study area, whereas rocks of Early Silurian, Ordovician, and Late Cambrian age are present at greater depth. The Upper Cambrian rocks unconformably overlie Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks. The structural-stratigraphic cross sections also allow speculation about the petroleum potential beneath Lake Michigan. The possibility of oil occurrences within the Silurian is enhanced by major east-west facies changes, and other horizons with promise are present in Devonian and Ordovician rocks. Although Michigan and Wisconsin laws currently prohibit petroleum exploration in Lake Michigan, it is an area with future potential.

  12. Geology of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, S. K.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A geological analysis of six of the Uranus satellites observed in detail by Voyager 2 is presented. All of the satellites except the smallest, Puck, show evidence of cryovolcanic resurfacing: global on the largest four satellites, local in the spectacular coronae on Miranda. The cryovolcanic materials exhibit a range of albedos and morphologies, which are interpreted to reflect a variety of compositions and conditions of eruption at least as complex as those which occur on earth. Eruptions are predominantly large fissure flows that produce extensive flood deposits. Possible evidence of small circular vents and cryoclastic volcanic activity is seen on Miranda and Ariel. All of the satellites except Puck also have extensive sets of grabens and riftlike canyons that show remarkable similarity of pattern: intersection sets trending roughly NW-SW and NE-SW in the low latitudes grading into E-W trends near the poles. As a group, the Uranian satellites are somewhat more active geologically than similarly sized Saturnian satellites.

  13. Elements of Australian petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Scott, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum geology of Australia reflects the existence of a large cratonic block broken away from India and Antarctica in the early Mesozoic and early Tertiary that has resulted in a rifted passive-margin character on the northwestern, western, and southern boundaries of the continent. Pre-breakup paleozoic sediments are widely distributed but commonly not deeply buried nor particularly thick, and hence contribute minimally to petroleum resource occurrence. Like their Asian neighbors, much of Australian petroleum geology is nonmarine and associated with marginal rift basins. The small Gippsland basin on the southeastern coast, which is responsible for more than 90% of oil and 28% of the gas discovered in Australia, derives its petroleum from nonmarine Eocene to Cretaceous graben-fill sediments, sealed and buried by Oligocene marine shales. The most active play in Australia is in the Eromanga depression of the Great Artesian basin, where nonmarine oil is trapped stratigraphically in small fields in Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones. These Mesozoic sediments are sag-fill deposits above the Permian-Triassic Cooper basin, and are responsible for some 12% of the gas reserves in Australia. Offshore of the western coast, graben basins filled with late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments are prolific and gas-prone - 55% of reserves - owing to coaly source rocks. North Sea-type, Upper Jurassic grabens off the northwestern coast of Australia contain Kimmeridgian hot shales, but developmental drilling, following the initial Jabiru discovery, has yet to demonstrate large reserves.

  14. Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Geol G308 Paleontology and Geology of Indiana Department of Geological Sciences | P. David Polly 1 hosts information about paleontology and geology in Indiana, copies of lecture slides and handouts for this course, but for anyone who is interested in Indiana's "deep history". Description G308 Paleontology

  15. Geological Visualization Tools and Structural Geology Geologists use several visualization tools to understand rock outcrop

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    to understand rock outcrop relationships, regional patterns and subsurface geology in 3D and 4D. Geological maps are topographic maps on which different rock types are represented. An upcoming lab will be entirely devoted is the study of how geologic units (bodies of rock or sediments) are deformed relative to their original

  16. Contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data to geologic exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The increased number of carefully selected narrow spectral bands and the increased spatial resolution of thematic mapper data over previously available satellite data contribute greatly to geologic exploration, both by providing spectral information that permits lithologic differentiation and recognition of alteration and spatial information that reveals structure. As vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases relative to the value of the spatial component of the data. However, even in vegetated areas, the greater spectral breadth and discrimination of TM data permits improved recognition and mapping of spatial elements of the terrain. As our understanding of the spectral manifestations of the responses of soils and vegetation to unusual chemical environments increases, the value of spectral components of TM data to exploration will greatly improve in covered areas.

  17. Enceladus: Correlation of Surface Particle Distribution and Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Brown, R. H.; Clark, R.; Wagner, R.; Filacchione, G.; Buratti, B. J.; Nelson, R. M.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sotin, C.; Baines, K. H.; Le Mouélic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Hansen, G. B.; Roatsch, T.; Capaccioni, F.; Ciarniello, M.

    2011-10-01

    The surface of Enceladus consists almost completely of water ice [1,2]. The band depths of water ice absorptions are sensitive to the size of particles covering the surface. Thus, ice absorption features can be used to map variations of icy particles across the surface. The water ice band depths were compared to water ice models that represent theoretically calculated reflectance spectra for a range of particle diameters between 2 ?m and 1 mm [2,3,4]. Cassini VIMS observations show that the particle diameter of water ice increases toward younger tectonically altered surface units with the largest particles exposed in relatively "fresh" surface material. The smallest particles were generally found in old densely cratered terrains. The largest particles are concentrated at the south polar active zones. In general, the particle diameters are strongly correlated with geologic features and surface ages, indicating a stratigraphic evolution of the surface that is caused by cryovolcanic resurfacing and impact gardening.

  18. Lessons from Natural Analog Studies for Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    For over fifty years natural analog studies have provided lessons addressing scientific, technical, and social problems concerning geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Idealized concepts for permanent disposal environments evolved from an understanding of the geological, geochemical and hydrological characteristics of analogous rocks including natural salt deposits (as advocated by the US National Academy of Sciences in 1957), ancient cratonic rocks (as investigated at Lac du Bonnet, Canada, Aspö, Sweden, and Vienne, France), and marine sedimentary rock formations (as studied at Mol, Belgium, and Bure, France). Additional multidisciplinary studies have been conducted at natural sites that bear characteristics analogous to potential repository systems, notably at natural uranium (and thorium) deposits including Poços de Caldas, Brazil, Alligator Rivers, Australia, Peña Blanca, Mexico, and Oklo, Gabon. Researchers of natural analogs for geologic disposal have addressed technical uncertainties regarding processes that have transpired over large time and space scales, which are generally inaccessible to laboratory studies. Principal questions for nuclear waste disposal include the geochemical stability and alteration rates of radionuclide bearing minerals and the mechanisms and rates of transport of radionuclides in groundwater. In their most direct applications, natural analogs studies have been devoted to testing specific models for repository performance and the experimental data that support those models. Parameters used in predictive performance assessment modeling have been compared to natural system data, including mineral solubilities, sorption coefficients, diffusion rates, and colloid transport properties. For example, the rate of uraninite oxidation and the natural paragenesis of uranium mineral alteration at Peña Blanca have been compared favorably to results of experimental studies of spent fuel alteration related to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. These results generally bracket repository conditions between natural and experimental systems providing confidence in the understanding of expected processes. Also, the conceptual bases and numerical techniques for modeling unsaturated zone contaminant transport over periods of thousands of years at Yucca Mountain were tested by modeling the observable record of metal transport from archaeological artifacts buried in Holocene tuff at Akrotiri, Greece. Geologically episodic mineral alteration and contaminant transport have been documented using radioisotope data in numerous analog systems providing insights for the interpretation and validity of predictive models for long term repository performance. The applicability and value of natural analog studies to understanding geologic disposal systems is a persistent question. As proposed disposal sites become increasingly well defined by site characterization and engineering design, the strengths and weaknesses of analogies can be assessed. Confidence in predictive models for complex geologic and engineered phenomena can be enhanced through multiple lines of investigation including studies of natural analog systems.

  19. Mars exploration rover geologic traverse by the spirit rover in the plains of Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crumpler, L.S.; Squyres, S.W.; Arvidson, R.E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; DesMarais, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Fergason, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, F.D.; Grant, J.A.; Greeley, R.; Hahn, B.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Knudson, A.T.; Landis, G.A.; Li, R.; Maki, J.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D.W.; Moersch, J.E.; Payne, M.C.; Rice, J.W.; Richter, L.; Ruff, S.W.; Sims, M.; Thompson, S.D.; Tosca, N.; Wang, A.; Whelley, P.; Wright, S.P.; Wyatt, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Spirit rover completed a 2.5 km traverse across gently sloping plains on the floor of Gusev crater from its location on the outer rim of Bonneville crater to the lower slopes of the Columbia Hills, Mars. Using the Athena suite of instruments in a transect approach, a systematic series of overlapping panoramic mosaics, remote sensing observations, surface analyses, and trenching operations documented the lateral variations in landforms, geologic materials, and chemistry of the surface throughout the traverse, demonstrating the ability to apply the techniques of field geology by remote rover operations. Textures and shapes of rocks within the plains are consistent with derivation from impact excavation and mixing of the upper few meters of basaltic lavas. The contact between surrounding plains and crater ejecta is generally abrupt and marked by increases in clast abundance and decimeter-scale steps in relief. Basaltic materials of the plains overlie less indurated and more altered rock types at a time-stratigraphic contact between the plains and Columbia Hills that occurs over a distance of one to two meters. This implies that regional geologic contacts are well preserved and that Earth-like field geologic mapping will be possible on Mars despite eons of overturn by small impacts. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  20. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoshuk, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems.

  1. Geologic mapping of tectonic planets Vicki L. Hansen *

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Vicki

    Geologic mapping of tectonic planets Vicki L. Hansen * Department of Geological Sciences, Southern 2000; accepted 14 January 2000 Abstract Geological analysis of planets typically begins with the construction of a geologic map of the planets' surfaces using remote data sets. Geologic maps provide the basis

  2. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  3. The Black Mountain tectonic zone--a reactivated northeast-trending crustal shear zone in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: Chapter D in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Day, Warren C.; Alienikoff, John N.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Mountain tectonic zone in the YukonTanana terrane of east-central Alaska is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can been traced across Black Mountain in the southeast corner of the Big Delta 1°×3° degree quadrangle. Geologic mapping in the larger scale B1 quadrangle of the Big Delta quadrangle, in which Black Mountain is the principal physiographic feature, has revealed a continuous zone of normal and left-lateral strikeslip high-angle faults and shear zones, some of which have late Tertiary to Quaternary displacement histories. The tectonic zone includes complexly intruded wall rocks and intermingled apophyses of the contiguous mid-Cretaceous Goodpaster and Mount Harper granodioritic plutons, mafic to intermediate composite dike swarms, precious metal mineralization, early Tertiary volcanic activity and Quaternary fault scarps. These structures define a zone as much as 6 to 13 kilometers (km) wide and more than 40 km long that can be traced diagonally across the B1 quadrangle into the adjacent Eagle 1°×3° quadrangle to the east. Recurrent activity along the tectonic zone, from at least mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary, suggests the presence of a buried, fundamental tectonic feature beneath the zone that has influenced the tectonic development of this part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The tectonic zone, centered on Black Mountain, lies directly above a profound northeast-trending aeromagnetic anomaly between the Denali and Tintina fault systems. The anomaly separates moderate to strongly magnetic terrane on the northwest from a huge, weakly magnetic terrane on the southeast. The tectonic zone is parallel to the similarly oriented left-lateral, strike-slip Shaw Creek fault zone 85 km to the west.

  4. Rock alteration in an experimentally imposed temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Rock alteration in a dynamic (circulating) hydrothermal system can be applied to any geologic system with mobile fluids. Some examples are geothermal energy extraction, ore mineral extraction, and radioactive waste isolation. While isothermal systems yield important results, polythermal (i.e., temperature gradient) systems more closely model reactions of fluid moving through a rock reservoir. The above examples will generally involve temperature gradients across the rock reservoir. A controlled temperature gradient circulation system was developed to help define these rock-fluid reactions. Six fine grained prisms are placed along the axis of a 113 cm pressure vessel. The prisms are at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310{degrees}C under flow conditions of 4 cc/min. at 1/3 kbar total pressure. In this experiment a granodiorite was reacted with initially distilled water.

  5. Geologic mapping using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegal, B. S.; Abrams, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of automated classification for lithologic mapping with LANDSAT digital data was evaluated using three classification algorithms. The two supervised algorithms analyzed, a linear discriminant analysis algorithm and a hybrid algorithm which incorporated the Parallelepiped algorithm and the Bayesian maximum likelihood function, were comparable in terms of accuracy; however, classification was only 50 per cent accurate. The linear discriminant analysis algorithm was three times as efficient as the hybrid approach. The unsupervised classification technique, which incorporated the CLUS algorithm, delineated the major lithologic boundaries and, in general, correctly classified the most prominent geologic units. The unsupervised algorithm was not as efficient nor as accurate as the supervised algorithms. Analysis of spectral data for the lithologic units in the 0.4 to 2.5 microns region indicated that a greater separability of the spectral signatures could be obtained using wavelength bands outside the region sensed by LANDSAT.

  6. 9th Caribbean Geological Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Gren

    The ninth in a series of Caribbean Geological Conferences, which are held every 3 or 4 years, took place in Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, from the 15th to 26th of August 1980. The conference, which was sponsored by the government of the Dominican Republic and the Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, was preceded by 2 days of field trips and was opened by President Antonio Guzman on the evening of the 17th of August. Generous support was provided by Alcoa Exploration Co., Falconbridge Dominicana, and Rosario Dominicana.Geologists and geophysicists from 25 countries presented about 130 papers on a wide variety of topics ranging from geophysics to paleontology. While the whole Caribbean area was discussed, there was special emphasis on the northern Caribbean and Hispaniola, as befitted the site of the conference. The contribution of workers from the Dirección General de Mineriá was particularly notable.

  7. Geologic research at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Moore, J.N.; Nielson, D.L.

    1996-04-10

    Geologic research at The Geysers vapor-dominated geothermal field during the past year has yielded new information on the nature of steam-reservoir porosity and permeability; the origin of the caprock; mechanisms of lateral sealing; the evolution of The Geysers hydrothermal system; and specific reservoir controls in and immediately above {open_quotes}the felsite{close_quotes}, an hypabyssal, batholith-sized pluton largely responsible for The Geysers` existence. Our research has shown that (1) fluid conduits above the felsite may be dominantly vuggy, high-angle hydrothermal veins; (2) latest-stage hydrothermal calcite in such veins may seal them at the margins of the steam reservoir; mixed-layer clays are probably the corresponding seals in the caprock; (3) steam entries in the felsite are concentrated along the top of the youngest intrusive phase in the pluton - a 1 m.y.-old granodiorite; (4) steam entries in the felsite show a negative correlation with massive borosilicate enrichments.

  8. Measuring Geologic Time on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Recent images from Mars show compelling evidence of near-surface flowing water, aeolian activity slope processes, and ice cap evolution that underscores the dynamic geologic history of the planet. Establishing an accurate chronology for Martian planetary features is critical for addressing fundamental questions about the evolution of the planet's surface and atmosphere and the differentiation of its interior. For example, how long was standing water on the surface? If life did evolve on Mars, did it occur before or after the evolution of life on Earth? These are arguably some of the most profound questions currently being asked by the planetary science community. Yet answers will not be forthcoming without an absolute chronology of Mars history, enabling the construction of a timescale comparable to Earth's. Discussion of methods for establishing such a chronology is particularly timely in light of new missions to Mars that are being planned to return in situ measurements or samples to Earth.

  9. Geological remote sensing in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  10. An Overview of Yellowstone Geologic Introduction

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    ;landscape, and have influenced both mountain and forest geography. In recent geologic time, violent volcanicAn Overview of Yellowstone Geologic History Introduction Yellowstone National Park --the nation all of the living organisms found in pre-Columbian times, though not in the same numbers. Because

  11. A Graphical Approach to Quantitative Structural Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paor, Declan G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how computer graphic methods can be used in teaching structural geology. Describes the design of a graphics workstation for the Apple microcomputer. Includes a listing of commands used with software to plot structures in a digitized form. Argues for the establishment of computer laboratories for structural geology classes. (TW)

  12. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  13. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  14. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  15. Department of Geological Sciences Undergraduate Handbook 2015

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    of geological sciences to civil engineering design and construction practice, as well as geological hazards Design your Degree 22 Contact Information Cover Image Aerial view of the Tongariro National Park and Policies can found in the UC Regulations website at http://www.canterbury. ac.nz/regulations/ #12;2 Welcome

  16. Geological Society of America Special Paper 365

    E-print Network

    Dorsey, Becky

    Geological Society of America Special Paper 365 2002 251 Stratigraphic record of Pleistocene faults were connected via a releasing bend that produced a pull-apart basin in the Borrego Badlands of the Southwestern United States: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper 365, p. 251­269. *E

  17. Abstracts for the Planetary Geology Field Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (editor); Black, D.

    1977-01-01

    The conference was to foster a better understanding of the volcanic history of the planets through the presentation of papers and through field trips to areas on the basalt plains of Idaho that appear to be analogous to some planetary surfaces. Papers include discussions of the volcanic geology of the Snake River Plain, general volcanic geology, and aspects of volcanism on the terrestrial planets.

  18. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Work conducted in the Planetary Geology program is summarized. The following categories are presented: outer solar system satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; cratering processes and landform development; volcanic processes and landforms; aolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes and landform development; periglacial and permafrost processes; structure, tectonics and stratigraphy; remote sensing and regolith studies; geologic mapping, cartography and geodesy.

  19. Department of Geological Sciences Postgraduate Handbook 2015

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    are time- travellers. The scientific detective work on events in deep geological time help us to understand of the hows and whys of plate tectonics, and engineers and architects will use our data to influence the wayAnalyse. Department of Geological Sciences Postgraduate Handbook 2015 SCIENCE #12;Contents 2

  20. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent areas down to and including...mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas, and other parameters...

  1. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent areas down to and including...mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas, and other parameters...

  2. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent areas down to and including...mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas, and other parameters...

  3. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent areas down to and including...mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas, and other parameters...

  4. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the proposed permit and adjacent areas down to and including...mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the permit and adjacent areas, and other parameters...

  5. Phosphoinositides alter lipid bilayer properties

    PubMed Central

    Hobart, E. Ashley; Koeppe, Roger E.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which constitutes ?1% of the plasma membrane phospholipid, plays a key role in membrane-delimited signaling. PIP2 regulates structurally and functionally diverse membrane proteins, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, inwardly rectifying ion channels, transporters, and receptors. In some cases, the regulation is known to involve specific lipid–protein interactions, but the mechanisms by which PIP2 regulates many of its various targets remain to be fully elucidated. Because many PIP2 targets are membrane-spanning proteins, we explored whether the phosphoinositides might alter bilayer physical properties such as curvature and elasticity, which would alter the equilibrium between membrane protein conformational states—and thereby protein function. Taking advantage of the gramicidin A (gA) channels’ sensitivity to changes in lipid bilayer properties, we used gA-based fluorescence quenching and single-channel assays to examine the effects of long-chain PIP2s (brain PIP2, which is predominantly 1-stearyl-2-arachidonyl-PIP2, and dioleoyl-PIP2) on bilayer properties. When premixed with dioleoyl-phosphocholine at 2 mol %, both long-chain PIP2s produced similar changes in gA channel function (bilayer properties); when applied through the aqueous solution, however, brain PIP2 was a more potent modifier than dioleoyl-PIP2. Given the widespread use of short-chain dioctanoyl-phosphoinositides, we also examined the effects of diC8-phosphoinositol (PI), PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,5)P2, PI(3,4)P2, and PI(3,4,5)P3. The diC8 phosphoinositides, except for PI(3,5)P2, altered bilayer properties with potencies that decreased with increasing head group charge. Nonphosphoinositide diC8 phospholipids generally were more potent bilayer modifiers than the polyphosphoinositides. These results show that physiological increases or decreases in plasma membrane PIP2 levels, as a result of activation of PI kinases or phosphatases, are likely to alter lipid bilayer properties, in addition to any other effects they may have. The results further show that exogenous PIP2, as well as structural analogues that differ in acyl chain length or phosphorylation state, alters lipid bilayer properties at the concentrations used in many cell physiological experiments. PMID:23712549

  6. Phosphoinositides alter lipid bilayer properties.

    PubMed

    Rusinova, Radda; Hobart, E Ashley; Koeppe, Roger E; Andersen, Olaf S

    2013-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which constitutes ?1% of the plasma membrane phospholipid, plays a key role in membrane-delimited signaling. PIP2 regulates structurally and functionally diverse membrane proteins, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, inwardly rectifying ion channels, transporters, and receptors. In some cases, the regulation is known to involve specific lipid-protein interactions, but the mechanisms by which PIP2 regulates many of its various targets remain to be fully elucidated. Because many PIP2 targets are membrane-spanning proteins, we explored whether the phosphoinositides might alter bilayer physical properties such as curvature and elasticity, which would alter the equilibrium between membrane protein conformational states-and thereby protein function. Taking advantage of the gramicidin A (gA) channels' sensitivity to changes in lipid bilayer properties, we used gA-based fluorescence quenching and single-channel assays to examine the effects of long-chain PIP2s (brain PIP2, which is predominantly 1-stearyl-2-arachidonyl-PIP2, and dioleoyl-PIP2) on bilayer properties. When premixed with dioleoyl-phosphocholine at 2 mol %, both long-chain PIP2s produced similar changes in gA channel function (bilayer properties); when applied through the aqueous solution, however, brain PIP2 was a more potent modifier than dioleoyl-PIP2. Given the widespread use of short-chain dioctanoyl-phosphoinositides, we also examined the effects of diC8-phosphoinositol (PI), PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,5)P2, PI(3,4)P2, and PI(3,4,5)P3. The diC8 phosphoinositides, except for PI(3,5)P2, altered bilayer properties with potencies that decreased with increasing head group charge. Nonphosphoinositide diC8 phospholipids generally were more potent bilayer modifiers than the polyphosphoinositides. These results show that physiological increases or decreases in plasma membrane PIP2 levels, as a result of activation of PI kinases or phosphatases, are likely to alter lipid bilayer properties, in addition to any other effects they may have. The results further show that exogenous PIP2, as well as structural analogues that differ in acyl chain length or phosphorylation state, alters lipid bilayer properties at the concentrations used in many cell physiological experiments. PMID:23712549

  7. Petroleum geology of western Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Antarctica's geology is mostly obscured by thick, moving ice that covers 95% of the land and continental shelf. Reconnaissance investigations of outcrops, shallow boreholes, and geophysical surveys are limited and peripheral owing to ice coverage. However, it is possible to outline substantial elements of the regional geology. Further insight is gained by comparison to analogous sedimentary provinces, especially provinces once adjoined within the framework of the Gondwana supercontinent until middle Cretaceous. The petroleum potential of Antarctica, as in the case of the other related high-standing Gondwana continental fragments, is in Early Cretaceous rifts associated with the Gondwana breakup and with the Pacific convergence in the west Antarctica back arc. The Pacific-facing western Antarctica includes two structural provinces: (1) the Cretaceous and younger interior rift system on the east side of the Weddell and Ross Sea embayment, which contain aulacogens that form the boundary with East Antarctica and (2) the back-arc and fore-arc basins adjoining the Antarctica Peninsula and extending into Marie Byrd Land and the Bellingshausen Sea which are associated with the eastward convergence of the Pacific plate. The petroleum potential of the rifts may be assessed by analogies with related rifts of Australia, India, and South Africa; assessment of the convergent basins of western Antarctica depends upon analogy with similar basins of South America, New Zealand, and Indonesia. An estimate of the petroleum potential of western Antarctica generally is comparable with oil and gas occurrences (both in overall quantity and in field sizes) in the other Gondwana continental fragments. However, in view of the thict moving ice cover, the remote locale, and severe climate, petroleum production is largely beyond technology at this time and probably is economically unfeasible.

  8. Report on geologic exploration activities

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, J.; Laughon, R. B.; Hall, R. J.; Voss, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the geological exploration activities being carried out as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, which has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the technology and provide the facilities for the safe, environmentally acceptable isolation of civilian high-level and transuranic nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements, for which the Federal government is responsible. The principal programmatic emphasis is on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Explorations are being conducted or planned in various parts of the country to identify potential sites for such repositories. The work is being undertaken by three separate but coordinated NWTS project elements. Under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), basalt formations underlying DOE's Hanford Reservation are being investigated. Granite, tuff, and shale formations at the DOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) are being similarly studied in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is investigating domed salt formations in several Gulf Coast states and bedded salt formations in Utah and Texas. The ONWI siting studies are being expanded to include areas overlying crystalline rocks, shales, and other geohydrologic systems. The current status of these NWTS efforts, including the projected budgets for FY 1981, is summarized, and the criteria and methodology being employed in the explorations are described. The consistency of the overall effort with the recommendations presented in the Report to the President by the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG), as well as with documents representing the national technical consensus, is discussed.

  9. Exchange flow with geological heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K.; Hesse, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Two aquifers can be hydraulically connected by a fault cutting across the intermediate aquitard. If the upper aquifer contains denser fluid, an exchange flow across the fault will develop. The unstable density stratification leads to fingering pattern with localized zones of upwelling and downwelling along the fault. Due to the small volume of the fault relative to the aquifers the exchange-flow will quickly approach a quasi steady state. If the permeability of the fault plane is homogeneous, the average number of the quasi-steady plume fingers, , follows a power law function of the Rayleigh number Ra (? Ra1/2) and the exchange rate measured by dimensionless convective flux, the Sherwood number Sh, is a linear function of Ra (Sh? Ra). The presence of flow barriers along the fault triggers unsteady exchange flow and subsequently controls the growth of the plume fingers. If the barriers are sufficiently wide to dominate the flow system, they creates preferential pathways for exchange flow that determines the distribution of the quasi-steady fingers, and converges to a constant value. In addition, wider barriers induce substantial lateral spreading and enhance the efficiency of structural trapping, and reduce the exchange rate that follows a power law Sh? Ran, where n<1 and decreases with increasing barrier length. This study is motivated by geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in brine-saturated aquifer, but the unstable exchange of multiphase fluids through conductive faults is also important in many other geological and engineering applications, in particular the migration of hydrocarbons in tectonic-driven faulting system or hydraulically developed fractures in unconventional reservoirs. Better understanding of the density-driven flow in a faulted system will allow more precise estimate of the reservoir capacity as well as more efficient operation of injection or production wells.

  10. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  11. Global Geological Map of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, M. A.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: The Magellan SAR images provide sufficient data to compile a geological map of nearly the entire surface of Venus. Such a global and selfconsistent map serves as the base to address the key questions of the geologic history of Venus. 1) What is the spectrum of units and structures that makes up the surface of Venus [1-3]? 2) What volcanic/tectonic processes do they characterize [4-7]? 3) Did these processes operated locally, regionally, or globally [8- 11]? 4) What are the relationships of relative time among the units [8]? 5) At which length-scale these relationships appear to be consistent [8-10]? 6) What is the absolute timing of formation of the units [12-14]? 7) What are the histories of volcanism, tectonics and the long-wavelength topography on Venus? 7) What model(s) of heat loss and lithospheric evolution [15-21] do these histories correspond to? The ongoing USGS program of Venus mapping has already resulted in a series of published maps at the scale 1:5M [e.g. 22-30]. These maps have a patch-like distribution, however, and are compiled by authors with different mapping philosophy. This situation not always results in perfect agreement between the neighboring areas and, thus, does not permit testing geological hypotheses that could be addressed with a self-consistent map. Here the results of global geological mapping of Venus at the scale 1:10M is presented. The map represents a contiguous area extending from 82.5oN to 82.5oS and comprises ~99% of the planet. Mapping procedure: The map was compiled on C2- MIDR sheets, the resolution of which permits identifying the basic characteristics of previously defined units. The higher resolution images were used during the mapping to clarify geologic relationships. When the map was completed, its quality was checked using published USGS maps [e.g., 22-30] and the catalogue of impact craters [31]. The results suggest that the mapping on the C2-base provided a highquality map product. Units and structures: A limited set of material units and tectonic structures describes the geological situation on the surface of Venus (Fig. 1). The globally applicable stratigraphic sequence summarizing varieties of local to regional columns consists of the following units (from older to younger), the relative ages of which are established by relationships of embayment: Tessera (t) represents elevated regions deformed by multiple sets of tectonic structures. Densely lineated plains (pdl) are dissected by numerous subparallel narrow and short lineaments. Ridged plains (pr) commonly form elongated belts of ridges. Shield plains (psh) have numerous small volcanic edifices on the surface. Regional plains were divided into the lower (pr1) and the upper (pr2) units. The lower unit has uniform and relatively low radar albedo; the upper unit is brighter and often forms flow-like occurrences. Shield clusters (sc) are morphologically similar to psh but occur as small patches that postdate regional plains. Smooth plains (ps) have uniform and low radar albedo and occur near impact craters and at distinct volcanic centers. Lobate plains (pl) form fields of lava flows that are typically undeformed by tectonic structures and are associated with major volcanic centers. Several structural assemblages complicate the surface of the material units: Tessera-forming structures (ridges and grooves), belts of ridges, belts of grooves (structural unit gb), mountain belts (structural unit mt that occurs around Lakhmi Planum), wrinkle ridges, and rift zones (structural unit rt). The higly tectonized material and structural units such as t, pdl, pr, mt, and gb predate vast plains units such as psh and rp1. Wrinkle ridges deform all units that are older than units ps and pl. Smooth and lobate plains together with rift zones and shield clusters appear to be contemporaneous and form the top of the global stratigraphic column. Crater statistics: Two factors, the atmosphere screening [32-34] and the observational bias [35], appear to affect the statistics of the smaller craters on Venus. For the larger crater

  12. North Dakota geology school receives major gift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Petroleum geology and related areas of study at the University of North Dakota (UND) received a huge financial boost with the announcement on 24 September of $14 million in private and public partnership funding. The university announced the naming of the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering, formerly a department within the College of Engineering and Mines, in recognition of $10 million provided as a gift by oilman Harold Hamm and Continental Resources, Inc. Hamm is the chair and chief executive officer of Continental, the largest leaseholder in the Bakken Play oil formation in North Dakota and Montana, and he is also an energy policy advisor to Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. UND also received $4 million from the Oil and Gas Research Program of the North Dakota Industrial Commission to support geology and geological engineering education and research.

  13. Ronald Greeley Planetary Geology Scholarship for Undergraduate Students

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    Ronald Greeley Planetary Geology Scholarship for Undergraduate Students Application ASU ID#: Date of 5 RESEARCH PROJECT The Ronald Greeley Planetary Geology Scholarship includes an undergraduate research component in planetary geology, which must be conducted in collaboration with a member

  14. Panel Organization 1. Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering

    E-print Network

    Appendix A Panel Organization 1. Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering Chair: Dr. Clarence R Technical Exchange (open) Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering Denver, Colorado Topic: DOE & Performance Analysis and the Panel on Structural Geology & Geoengineering Denver, Colorado Topic: Repository

  15. Use of Library Readings to Augment Conventional Geology Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nold, John Lloyd

    1989-01-01

    Examples of sets of questions on library readings designed to lead students into articles and emphasize important information and associated literature are presented for introductory geology courses, historical geology, structural geology, mineralogy, and petrology. (Author/CW)

  16. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  17. Effect of natural and synthetic iron corrosion products on silicate glass alteration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillmann, Philippe; Gin, Stéphane; Neff, Delphine; Gentaz, Lucile; Rebiscoul, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Glass long term alteration in the context of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage is influenced by near-field materials and environmental context. As previous studies have shown, the extent of glass alteration is strongly related to the presence of iron in the system, mainly provided by the steel overpack around surrounding the HLW glass package. A key to understanding what will happen to the glass-borne elements in the geological disposal lies in the relationship between the iron-bearing phases and the glass alteration products formed. In this study, we focus on the influence of the formation conditions (synthetized or in-situ) and the age of different iron corrosion products on SON68 glass alteration. Corrosion products obtained from archaeological iron artifacts are considered here to be true analogues of the corrosion products in a waste disposal system due to the similarities in formation conditions and physical properties. These representative corrosion products (RCP) are used in the experiment along with synthetized iron anoxic corrosion products and pristine metallic iron. The model-cracks of SON68 glass were altered in cell reactors, with one of the different iron-sources inserted in the crack each time. The study was successful in reproducing most of the processes observed in the long term archaeological system. Between the different systems, alteration variations were noted both in nature and intensity, confirming the influence of the iron-source on glass alteration. Results seem to point to a lesser effect of long term iron corrosion products (RCP) on the glass alteration than that of the more recent products (SCP), both in terms of general glass alteration and of iron transport.

  18. REM sleep alteration and depression.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Curzi, M L; Romanowsi, C P N

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in sleep patterns are often recognized as a premorbid symptom accompanied by affective disorders, particularly by major depression. However, the mechanism is rather complex, and differentiating its causalities from those of depression undergoes hardships. Indeed, depression is a complex disease. It has been clearly demonstrated that depressed patients display very characteristic changes in sleep architecture. Previous animal studies also demonstrated that several depression models, which had targeted elevated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, showed increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep while insomniac sleep phenotype did not evidently appear. However, all stress hormones seem to be elevated in those models. Therefore, it has been difficult to determine which particular hormone in the HPA axis is primarily responsible for altered sleep in depression. In recent years, we have widely analyzed sleep characteristics of conditional transgenic mouse lines focusing on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the initial mediator of the HPA system, in which the levels of peripheral stress hormones are normal. Conditional CRH-overexpressing (COE) mice, especially those overexpress CRH limitedly within the forebrain including limbic structures (CRH-COE-Cam), dis- play enhanced REM sleep. Further, the higher occurrence of REM sleep in CRH-COE-Cam mice could be due to their hyper-cholinergic activity. REM sleep disinhibition observed in depressed patients similarly appears in animals which are genetically stress-vulnerable strain or chronically stressed, possibly due to enhanced action of limbic CRH. Indeed, REM sleep is a fragile vigilance state and closely connected with emotional control. Thus, depressive episodes may affect REM sleep earlier than nonREM sleep, and such altered REM sleep can be a state marker of depression. PMID:25828683

  19. Acidic Alteration Environments at Valles Marineris, Noctis Labyrinthus and Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Flahaut, Jessica; Gross, Christoph; Horgan, Briony

    2015-04-01

    Unique surface materials have been discovered at Valles Marineris, Noctis Labyrinthus, Mawrth Vallis, and elsewhere that have CRISM features distinct from those of any known minerals. Typically these unusual sites are found in light-toned outcrops or interior layered deposits associated with phyllosilicates and/or sulfates. We term these units "doublet" materials because they exhibit a doublet absorption in CRISM spectra between 2.2 and 2.3 µm. We are investigating the spectral signatures of these outcrops compared to lab spectra of minerals, mixtures and alteration products. We're also evaluating the stratigraphy of these unique alteration phases compared with neighboring phyllosilicate and sulfate units. A similar 2.2-2.3 µm doublet has been observed in spectra taken of acid altered clays produced in the laboratory. The band centers and relative intensities of these Martian doublet features vary greatly suggesting that a process such as acid weathering could be acting on OH-bearing minerals to produce altered phases that differ depending on the type of substrate, water/rock ratio, solution chemistry, and duration of aqueous processes. Because these unique materials occur in many regions across a range of times on Mars, acidic alteration may have been a key process at local and regional scales throughout Martian geologic history. Constraining the types of acidic alteration that have taken place on Mars will assist in defining the aqueous geochemistry at these sites.

  20. Alteration mapping at Goldfield, Nevada, by cluster and discriminant analysis of LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballew, G.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of Landsat multispectral digital data to differentiate among 62 combinations of rock and alteration types at the Goldfield mining district of Western Nevada was investigated by using statistical techniques of cluster and discriminant analysis. Multivariate discriminant analysis was not effective in classifying each of the 62 groups, with classification results essentially the same whether data of four channels alone or combined with six ratios of channels were used. Bivariate plots of group means revealed a cluster of three groups including mill tailings, basalt and all other rock and alteration types. Automatic hierarchical clustering based on the fourth dimensional Mahalanobis distance between group means of 30 groups having five or more samples was performed. The results of the cluster analysis revealed hierarchies of mill tailings vs. natural materials, basalt vs. non-basalt, highly reflectant rocks vs. other rocks and exclusively unaltered rocks vs. predominantly altered rocks. The hierarchies were used to determine the order in which sets of multiple discriminant analyses were to be performed and the resulting discriminant functions were used to produce a map of geology and alteration which has an overall accuracy of 70 percent for discriminating exclusively altered rocks from predominantly altered rocks.

  1. UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII AT MANOA DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS

    E-print Network

    UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII AT MANOA DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS Graduate Admissions 1680 East * Geophysics & Tectonics; Marine & Environmental Geology; Planetary Geosciences; Volcanology, Geochemistry

  2. Geologic and structural map of eastern Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Letouzey, J.; Sage, L.

    1986-07-01

    A synthesis of the onshore and offshore geologic data of eastern Asia, prepared by the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), has allowed the construction of geologic and structural maps for this region. These maps include three color sheets (scale = 1:2.5 million) and three plates of geologic and structural cross sections. Located between lat. 4/sup 0/ and 35/sup 0/N, and long. 106/sup 0/ and 132/sup 0/E, the maps cover the following geographic areas: East and South China Sea, Sulu Sea, West Philippine basin and onshore neighboring terrains, Kyushu and Ryukyu Islands, the China margin, Taiwan Island, Vietnam, North West Borneo, and the Philippines. The maps synthesize seismic interpretations, oil well data, geologic work in south Japan, Taiwan, Borneo, and the Philippines, and recent data published between 1976 and 1985. Twenty-four geologic cross sections (scale = 1:1.25 million, vertical exaggeration x 6) intersect ocean margins, important basins, and the different structural domains. They are based on seismic profiles, well data, and available onshore and offshore geologic data. These cross sections show basement composition and structures, different tectonic and sedimentary domains, and the structure and thickness of different sedimentary deposits (such as age, unconformities, and geologic structures). Maps and cross sections will be published in early 1987.

  3. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-encounter Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula, and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, the putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observations. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by New Horizons' cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate of the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration) and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of prospects for endogenic activity in the form of tectonics and cryo-volcanism.

  4. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-encounter Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four small known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique, lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been significant to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, these putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observation. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto system's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by the New Horizons cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate on the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration), and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of the prospects for endogenic activity in the form of tectonics and cryovolcanism.

  5. Sedimentary reservoir oxidation during geologic CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Laura N.; Brown, Gordon E.; Bird, Dennis K.; Thomas, Randal B.; Johnson, Natalie C.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Maher, Katharine

    2015-04-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide into subsurface geologic reservoirs during geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) introduces an oxidizing supercritical CO2 phase into a subsurface geologic environment that is typically reducing. The resulting redox disequilibrium provides the chemical potential for the reduction of CO2 to lower free energy organic species. However, redox reactions involving carbon typically require the presence of a catalyst. Iron oxide minerals, including magnetite, are known to catalyze oxidation and reduction reactions of C-bearing species. If the redox conditions in the reservoir are modified by redox transformations involving CO2, such changes could also affect mineral stability, leading to dissolution and precipitation reactions and alteration of the long-term fate of CO2 in GCS reservoirs. We present experimental evidence that reservoirs with reducing redox conditions are favorable environments for the relatively rapid abiotic reduction of CO2 to organic molecules. In these experiments, an aqueous suspension of magnetite nanoparticles was reacted with supercritical CO2 under pressure and temperature conditions relevant to GCS in sedimentary reservoirs (95-210 °C and ?100 bars of CO2). Hydrogen production was observed in several experiments, likely caused by Fe(II) oxidation either at the surface of magnetite or in the aqueous phase. Heating of the Fe(II)-rich system resulted in elevated PH2 and conditions favorable for the reduction of CO2 to acetic acid. Implications of these results for the long-term fate of CO2 in field-scale systems were explored using reaction path modeling of CO2 injection into reservoirs containing Fe(II)-bearing primary silicate minerals, with kinetic parameters for CO2 reduction obtained experimentally. The results of these calculations suggest that the reaction of CO2 with reservoir constituents will occur in two primary stages (1) equilibration of CO2 with organic acids resulting in mineral-fluid disequilibrium, and (2) gradual dissolution of primary minerals promoting significant CO2 reduction through the release of Fe(II). The reduction of CO2 is identified as a new trapping mechanism that could significantly enhance the long-term stability of GCS reservoirs. Identification of reservoir characteristics that promote CO2 redox transformations could be used as an additional factor in screening geologic reservoirs for GCS.

  6. Aqueous Alteration of Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Ziegler, K.; Weisberg, M. K.; Gounelle, M.; Berger, E. L.; Le, L.; Ivanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kaidun meteorite is different from all other meteorites [1], consisting largely of a mixture of “incompatible” types of meteoritic material – carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites, i.e. corre-sponding to the most oxidized and the most reduced samples of meteorite materials, including CI1, CM1-2, CV3, EH3-5, and EL3. In addition to these, minor amounts of ordinary and R chondrites are present. In addition, approximately half of the Kaidun lithologies are new materials not known as separate meteorites. Among these are aqueously altered enstatite chondrites [1], which are of considerable interest because they testify that not all reduced asteroids escaped late-stage oxidation, and hydrolysis, and also because hydrated poorly crystalline Si-Fe phase, which in turn is re-placed by serpentine (Figs 3-5). In the end the only indication of the original presence of metal is the re-sidual carbides. In other enstatite chondrite lithogies (of uncertain type) original silicates and metal have been thoroughly replaced by an assemblage of authi-genic plagioclase laths, calcite boxwork, and occasion-al residual grains of silica, Cr-rich troilite, ilmenite, and rare sulfides including heideite (Fig. 6). Fe and S have been largely leached from the rock (Fig. 4). Again the accessory phases are the first clue to the original character of the rock, which can be verified by O isotopes. It is fortunate that Kaidun displays every step of the alteration process.

  7. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  8. Mineral resources, geological structures, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Since March 1973 there has been a shift in ERTS results in geology from the initial show-and-tell stage to a period in which scientific studies predominated, and now to an emphasis on effective applications having economic benefits and clearcut relevance to national needs. Many years will be spent on geological tasks resulting from ERTS alone; reconnaissance mapping in inaccessible regions, map revisions, regional or synoptic analysis of crustal fractures, assessment of dynamic surficial processes, systematic search for mineral wealth, use of sophisticated enhancement techniques, recognition of potential geologic hazards, and many more applications that still need to be defined.

  9. Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. PMID:20623004

  10. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, David

    2008-02-27

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  11. (abstract) Topographic Signatures in Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Evans, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Topographic information is required for many Earth Science investigations. For example, topography is an important element in regional and global geomorphic studies because it reflects the interplay between the climate-driven processes of erosion and the tectonic processes of uplift. A number of techniques have been developed to analyze digital topographic data, including Fourier texture analysis. A Fourier transform of the topography of an area allows the spatial frequency content of the topography to be analyzed. Band-pass filtering of the transform produces images representing the amplitude of different spatial wavelengths. These are then used in a multi-band classification to map units based on their spatial frequency content. The results using a radar image instead of digital topography showed good correspondence to a geologic map, however brightness variations in the image unrelated to topography caused errors. An additional benefit to the use of Fourier band-pass images for the classification is that the textural signatures of the units are quantative measures of the spatial characteristics of the units that may be used to map similar units in similar environments.

  12. Geology of Lofn Crater, Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Heiner, Sarah; Klemaszewski, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Lofn crater is a 180-km-diameter impact structure in the southern cratered plains of Callisto and is among the youngest features seen on the surface. The Lofn area was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft at regional-scale resolutions (875 m/pixel), which enable the general geology to be investigated. The morphology of Lofn crater suggests that (1) it is a class of impact structure intermediate between complex craters and palimpsests or (2) it formed by the impact of a projectile which fragmented before reaching the surface, resulting in a shallow crater (even for Callisto). The asymmetric pattern of the rim and ejecta deposits suggests that the impactor entered at a low angle from the northwest. The albedo and other characteristics of the ejecta deposits from Lofn also provide insight into the properties of the icy lithosphere and subsurface configuration at the time of impact. The "target" for the Lofn impact is inferred to have included layered materials associated with the Adlinda multiring structure northwest of Loh and ejecta deposits from the Heimdall crater area to the southeast. The Lofn impact might have penetrated through these materials into a viscous substrate of ductile ice or possibly liquid water. This interpretation is consistent with models of the current interior of Callisto based on geophysical information obtained from the Galileo spacecraft.

  13. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect

    David Archer

    2008-02-27

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  14. Structural geology of impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael H.; Wulf, Gerwin

    2014-05-01

    The formation of impact craters is a highly dynamic and complex process that subjects the impacted target rocks to numerous types of deformation mechanisms. Understanding and interpreting these styles of micro-, meso- and macroscale deformation has proved itself challenging for the field of structural geology. In this paper, we give an overview of the structural inventory found in craters of all size ranges on Earth, and look into the structures of craters on other planetary bodies. Structural features are discussed here that are caused by i) extremely high pressures and temperatures that occur during the initial passage of the shock wave through the target rock and projectile, ii) the resulting flow field in the target that excavates and ejects rock materials, and iii) the gravitationally induced modification of the crater cavity into the final crater form. A special focus is put on the effects that low-angle impacting bodies have on crater formation. We hope that this review will help both planetary scientists and structural geologists understand the deformation processes and resulting structures generated by meteorite impact.

  15. Antarctica: geology and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    St. John, B.

    1984-09-01

    The first impression of the hydrocarbon potential of Antarctica is generally negative. The environment is hostile and only 2% of the continent is seen through the ice. Careful study of the surprisingly ample volume of published data available on the geology and geophysics and Antarctica, coupled with the application of the principles and mechanics of plate tectonics relative to the oceans and adjacent land masses, gives a different and very positive attitude toward the hydrocarbon potential of this vast unexplored frontier area. On the basis of limited data, 21 sedimentary basins are identified for Antarctica and immediately adjacent areas. These include six onshore subglacial basins and 15 offshore basins. Excluding 11 basins considered to have little or no potential, the other 10 basins contain an estimated 16.9 million km/sup 3/ (4.05 million mi/sup 3/) of sediment having a potential hydrocarbon yield of 203 billion bbl oil equivalent. The problems associated with hydrocarbon exploration in Antarctica are formidable. Technology is adequate for seismic surveys and exploratory drilling of the Antarctic continental shelf, as concluded from current operations in the Arctic and from operating requirements of drilling rigs under construction. However, a working relationship among involved nations must first be evolved and production, storage, and transportation problems solved.

  16. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    ScienceCinema

    David Archer

    2010-01-08

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  17. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... category airplanes subject to § 26.43. (b) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing and future... alteration data and identify all alterations that affect fatigue critical baseline structure identified under... fatigue critical alteration structure; (3) Develop and submit to the FAA Oversight Office for review...

  18. OneGeology: Making the World’s Geological Map Data Accessible Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, H.; Jackson, I.; Robida, F.; Thorleifson, H.

    2009-12-01

    OneGeology (http://onegeology.org) is a successful international initiative of the geological surveys of the world and the flagship project of the ‘International Year of Planet Earth’. Its aim is to provide dynamic web access to geological map data covering the world, creating a focus for accessing geological information for everyone. Thanks to the enthusiasm and support of participating nations the initiative has progressed rapidly and geological surveys and the many users of their data are excited about this ground-breaking project. Currently 10 international geoscience organizations have endorsed the initiative and more than 109 countries have agreed to participate. OneGeology works with whatever digital format is available in each country. The target scale is 1:1 million, but the project is pragmatic and accepts a range of scales and the best available data. The initiative recognizes that different nations have differing abilities to participate and transfer of know-how to those who need it is a key aspect of the approach. A key contributor to the success of OneGeology has been its utilization of the latest new web technology and an emerging data exchange standard for geological map data called GeoSciML. GeoSciML (GeoScience Markup Language) is a schema written in GML (Geography Markup Language) for geological data. GeoSciML has the ability to represent both the geography (geometries e.g. polygons, lines and points) and geological attribution in a clear and structured format. OneGeology was launched March 2007 at the inaugural workshop in Brighton England. At that workshop the 43 participating nations developed a declaration of a common objective and principles called the “Brighton Accord” (http://onegeology.org/what_is/accord.html) . Work was initiated immediately and the resulting OneGeology Portal was launched at the International Geological Congress in Oslo in August 2008 by Simon Winchester, author of “The Map that Changed the World”. Since the successful launch, OneGeology participants have continued working both to increase national participation and content, and to put in place a more formal governance structure to oversee the long term evolution of the initiative. OneGeology is an example of collaboration in action and is both multilateral and multinational. In 2007, a group of motivated geoscientists and data managers identified an opportunity and took the initiative to engage their peers to work in concert to achieve a shared objective. OneGeology has facilitated collaborative development of an Internet site that provides unprecedented online access to global geological map data.

  19. Classifying Terrestrial Volcanic Alteration Processes and Defining Alteration Processes they Represent on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Schiffman, P.; Southard, R. J.; Drief, A.; Verosub, K. L.; Smith, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Characterizing alteration of the rocks on Mars is difficult, but some guidelines can be made through comparison with terrestrial volcanic alteration. Subaerial volcanic activity on the Hawaiian islands and subglacial volcanic activity on Iceland have led to the formation of a variety of silicate and iron oxide-rich alteration products that may serve as models for chemical alteration on Mars. Multiple samples have been collected from palagonitized tuffs, altered pillow lavas, altered tephra, and S-rich vents for study in the lab. Variations in the kinds of alteration products have been observed depending on the sample environment. We are defining associations between the alteration products and formation conditions that can be used to provide information about environmental conditions on Mars. In particular, we are providing definitions for palagonitic, pedogenic and solfataric alteration that can be used to characterize these alteration processes.

  20. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

  1. US Geological Survey Office of Human Resources

    E-print Network

    ..............................................................................................3 Customer Identification and Partnership Relationship .............................. 4 HRUS Geological Survey Office of Human Resources Customer Service Plan #12;2 Table of Contents Human Resources Customer Service Plan .............................................. 3 · Introduction - Vision

  2. Physical and geological processes of delta formation 

    E-print Network

    Bates, Charles Carpenter

    1953-01-01

    . Therefore, a strategy to aid cultural resource management (CRM) is needed. A geoscience strategy for CRM was developed by modifying engineering geological approaches. Evaluation of existing approaches revealed a common three or four phase strategy...

  3. Mineral Resources, Geological Structure and Landform Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results are presented of ERTS-1 investigations of landform surveys, mineral resources, and geological structures. The report covers four areas: (1) mapping investigations; (2) dynamic surface processes and landforms; (3) structural elements; and (4) mineral deposits.

  4. The Geologic Story of Colorado National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1981-01-01

    From 1946 until about 1956 I carried out fieldwork intermittently on the geology and artesian water supply of the Grand Junction area, Colorado, the results of which have been published. The area mapped geologically contains about 332 square miles in the west-central part of Mesa County and includes all of Colorado National Monument. During the field work several successive custodians or superintendents and several park naturalists urged that upon completion of my professional paper I prepare a brief account of the geology of the Monument in terms understandable by laymen, and which could be sold at the Visitor Center. This I was happy to do and there resulted 'The geologic story of Colorado National Monument', published by the Colorado and Black Canyon Natural History Association in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report contained colored sketches by John R. Stacy and a colored cover, but the photographs and many of the drawings were reproduced in black and white.

  5. The geology and geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

  6. Planetary Geology, Astrobiology, and Dusty Plasmas

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    of planetary systems, including: · Geological processes on Mars · Evolution of Saturn's ring system biology Our faculty studies varied fields such as the history of water on Mars, the composition of Saturn

  7. Reports of planetary geology program, 1980. [Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (compiler); Kosters, E. C. (compiler)

    1980-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports which summarize work conducted in the Planetary Geology Program. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  8. Hominid/Human Evolution Geology 331

    E-print Network

    Kammer, Thomas

    Hominid/Human Evolution Geology 331 Paleontology #12;Primate Classification- 1980's Order Primates Suborder Prosimii: tarsiers and lemurs Suborder Anthropoidea: monkeys, apes, and hominids Superfamily Hominoidea Family Pongidae: great apes Family Hominidae: Homo and hominid ancestors #12;Primate

  9. Queen's Geology Distinguished Speaker Series Completed Talks

    E-print Network

    of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor GAC Hutchinson Lecturer "Convergent Plate:30-1:30 pm; Miller Hall, Room 105. Dr. Jean H. Bédard, Geological Survey of Canada, Québec. GAC Howard Street

  10. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  11. Remote-sensing applications to geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of two day workshop on applications of remote sensing to geology are summarized in report. Topics discussed are environmental analysis, crop classification, plant epidemics and diseases, irrigation reform, and soil surveys.

  12. WESTERN PALESTINE. PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    McKay, Brendan

    .' '/ SURVEY ()~. .., . / ~:. WESTERN PALESTINE. MEMOIR ON THE PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY ARABIA PETlUEA, PALESTINE, AND ADJOINING DISTRICTS. WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE MODE OF FORMATION. , ........' .'. ....' ,......-.. " '. .... ..... ... . .-.. .'. .' ......,.. .... ',. '. ". . ... .-.- ... .....-.: : :. -. : ~: ...:: -. :.. : .. : :.; : .. :. \\ :. : PUBLISHED FOR THE COMMITTEE OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND I, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI. 1886

  13. Geological Society of America Special Paper 377

    E-print Network

    Brady, John B.

    . Steiner Department of Geology, Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts 01002, USA Sarah K. Carmichael, 1957, 1963; Root, 1965; Burger, 1966, 1969; Hess, 1967; Gillmeister, 1972b, 1972a; Cordua, 1973; Hanley

  14. Reports of planetary geology program, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of the Planetary Geology Program were addressed including outer solar system satellites, asteroids, comets, Venus, cratering processes and landform development, volcanic processes, aeolian processes, fluvial processes, periglacial and permafrost processes, geomorphology, remote sensing, tectonics and stratigraphy, and mapping.

  15. Geomorphology in North American Geology Departments, 1971

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sidney E.; Malcolm, Marshall D.

    1972-01-01

    Presents results of a 1970-71 survey of 350 geomorphologists and geology departments to determine what sort of geomorphology is being taught in the colleges and universities of the United States and Canada. (PR)

  16. Volcanic geology of Tyrrhena Patera, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Crown, David, A.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the geology of Tyrrhena Patera, a large low-relief volcano in the southern cratered highlands of Mars. The general geology of Tyrrhena Patera is outlined and models for the formation of the volcano are described. Models derived from studies of terrestrial pyroclastic flows are applied to deposits at Tyrrhena Patera, showing that the characteristics of the deposits are consistent with an origin by the emplacement of gravity-driven ash flows generated by hydromagmatic or magmatic explosive eruptions.

  17. Geologic investigations of outer planets satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Four tests are examined: (1) investigation of volcanism on Io; Interim results of thermal and structural modeling of volcanism on Io are presented, (2) a study of the ancient heavily cratered regions on Ganymede, (3) a geologic comparison of the cratering record on Ganymede and Callisto, and (4) a geological and chemical investigation of internal resurfacing processes on the Saturnian satellites. Tasks 2, 3, and 4 utilize Voyager imaging data.

  18. Impact cratering at geologic stage boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The largest known Cenozoic impact craters with the most accurately measured ages are found to correlate very closely with geologic stage boundaries. The level of confidence in this result is 98-99 percent even under the most pessimistic assumptions concerning dating errors. One or more large impacts may have led, in at least some cases, to the extinctions and first appearances of biotic species that mark many of the geologic stage boundaries.

  19. Petroleum geology of East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    The unmetamorphosed geologic section of the East Siberian region consists of upper Proterozoic clastic and carbonate sediments; Cambrian evaporites, carbonates, and black shales; Ordovician to permian clastic and carbonate sediments; Triassic basaltic flows and intrusives; and Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic sediments. During the Cambrian, a barrier reef extended across the region. Salt and anhydrite were deposited in the vast lagoon to the southwest behind this reef. The structure is typical of platforms; broad, gentle warps are complicated by smaller highs. The total area of East Siberia that is potentially favorable for oil and gas is 3.23 million km/sup 2/ (1.24 million mi/sup 2/). Deposits in the Lena-Tunguska province are in stratigraphic traps in Proterozoic to Cambrian clastic and carbonate sediments sealed by Cambrian salt and in anticlinal structures in areas of salt tectonics. Source beds seem to be Proterozoic. Pools in the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are in anticlines in Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. Source beds are Permian carbonaceous shale. Most discoveries have been of gas; however, several fields have oil rings. The traps appear to have been filled by oil at one time. Undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources of East Siberia are assessed, at 90% probability, within the range of 2.2-14.6 billion bbl of oil and 72-278 tcf of gas. Mean estimates are 7.3 billion bbl of oil and 158 tcf of gas, respectively. Gas-hydrate deposits in the Lena-Vilyuy province, where permafrost is more than 400 m thick, are estimated to contain 27 tcf of possibly recoverable gas.

  20. Tethys - Geological and Spectral Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Wagner, Roland; Clark, Roger N.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Brown, Robert H.; Giese, Bernd; Roatsch, Thomas; Matson, Dennis; Baines, Kevin H.; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccione, Fabrizio; Burratti, Bonnie J.; Nicholson, Phil D.; Rodriguez, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Despite the spectral dominance of H2O ice on Tethys' surface, distinct spectral variations derived by the Cassini VIMS instrument could be detected. The ice infrared absorption strengths are very different from what was expected from the visible albedo derived from Voyager and Cassini camera data. Although on Tethys, the major ice absorptions at 1.5 and 2µm are general stronger on the leading hemisphere of the satellite similar to that seen on the neighboring satellites Dione and Rhea, the detailed mapping shows a more complex pattern. Two relatively narrow N/S trending bands enriched in H2O ice of relatively large particle size separate the Saturn-facing and the anti-Saturnian hemisphere. The largest impact crater Odysseus (33°N/129°W) is included in the N/S trending band of deeper H2O absorptions on the leading hemisphere, whereas the geologically older and fourth largest impact crater Penelope (11°S/249°W) is excluded from the 'icy' band on the trailing hemisphere - supporting an exogenic origin of these bands. The oval shaped dark albedo unit observed by Voyager in the equatorial region of Tethys' leading hemisphere, which could be related to magnetospheric 'dust' impacting the surface, exhibits slightly surpressed H2O ice absorptions compared to their surrounding regions. Variations in the spectral slope from the visible to the ultra-violet wavelength range are similar to the variations observed by Cassini ISS. The spectral slope is steepest (i.e. the effect of an ultra-violet absorber other than H2O ice is strongest) on the leading as well on the trailing hemisphere. No spectral properties could be exclusively associated with Tethys' extended graben system Ithaca Chasma. Local variations, i.e. local deepening of H2O ice absorptions, are mostly related to several probably fresh impact craters and to locations where topographic slope is high like crater walls. However, only a few such fresh impact craters could be observed.

  1. Early lunar geology and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Despite a number of human and robotic missions to the Moon, there are still important unanswered questions about its early evolution, and how it came to be the object we observe today. Here we use observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques to examine three important events that took place early in lunar history and have left a lasting signature. The first event is the formation of the largest basin on the Moon, the South Pole-Aitken Basin. We develop a systematic method to define the previously unknown boundaries of this degraded structure and quantify its gross shape. We also combine a number of remote sensing data sets to constrain the origin of heat producing elements in its interior. The second event we examine is the evolution of the lunar orbit, and the coupling between the Moon's early geophysical properties and the growth of orbital eccentricity. We use analytical models for tidal deformations and orbit evolution to show that the shape of the Moon suggests its early orbit was highly eccentric. However, we are also able to explain the presently high eccentricity entirely by traditional, secular tidal growth while the early Moon was hot. The third event we examine is the magnetization of lunar samples. We perform extensive paleomagnetic measurements of an ancient, deep-seated lunar sample, and determine that a long-lived magnetic field like that of a core dynamo is the most plausible explanation for its magnetic remanence. In sum, the earliest portion of lunar history has been largely obscured by later geologic events, but a great deal can still be learned from this formative epoch. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  2. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geological Mapping and Modeling Activities at the Geological Survey of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Bang-Kittilsen, A.; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S.; Seither, A.

    2015-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3D mapping and modelling has been reflected by the increase of number of groups and researches dealing with 3D in geology within NGU. This paper highlights 3D geological modelling techniques and the usage of these tools in bedrock, geophysics, urban and groundwater studies at NGU, same as visualisation of 3D online. The examples show use of a wide range of data, methods, software and an increased focus on interpretation and communication of geology in 3D. The goal is to gradually expand the geospatial data infrastructure to include 3D data at the same level as 2D.

  3. Introductory Geology From the Liberal Arts Approach: A Geology-Sociology Linked Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, E. O.; Davis, E.

    2008-12-01

    Geology can be a hard sell to college students, especially to college students attending small, liberal arts institutions in localities that lack exaggerated topography. At these schools, Geology departments that wish to grow must work diligently to attract students to the major; professors must be able to convince a wider audience of students that geology is relevant to their everyday lives. Toward this end, a Physical Geology course was linked with an introductory Sociology course through the common theme of Consumption. The same students took the two courses in sequence, beginning with the Sociology course and ending with Physical Geology; thus, students began by discussing the role of consumption in society and ended by learning about the geological processes and implications of consumption. Students were able to ascertain the importance of geology in their daily lives by connecting Earth processes to specific products they consume, such as cell phones and bottled water. Students were also able to see the connection between seemingly disparate fields of study, which is a major goal of the liberal arts. As a theme, Consumption worked well to grab the attention of students interested in diverse issues, such as environmental science or social justice. A one-hour lecture illustrating the link between sociology and geology was developed for presentation to incoming freshmen and their parents to advertise the course. Initial response has been positive, showing an increase in awareness of geological processes among students with a wide range of interests.

  4. OneGeology-Europe: architecture, portal and web services to provide a European geological map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez-Arenas, Agnès.; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Tertre, François; Laxton, John

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is a large ambitious project to make geological spatial data further known and accessible. The OneGeology-Europe project develops an integrated system of data to create and make accessible for the first time through the internet the geological map of the whole of Europe. The architecture implemented by the project is web services oriented, based on the OGC standards: the geological map is not a centralized database but is composed by several web services, each of them hosted by a European country involved in the project. Since geological data are elaborated differently from country to country, they are difficult to share. OneGeology-Europe, while providing more detailed and complete information, will foster even beyond the geological community an easier exchange of data within Europe and globally. This implies an important work regarding the harmonization of the data, both model and the content. OneGeology-Europe is characterised by the high technological capacity of the EU Member States, and has the final goal to achieve the harmonisation of European geological survey data according to common standards. As a direct consequence Europe will make a further step in terms of innovation and information dissemination, continuing to play a world leading role in the development of geosciences information. The scope of the common harmonized data model was defined primarily by the requirements of the geological map of Europe, but in addition users were consulted and the requirements of both INSPIRE and ‘high-resolution' geological maps were considered. The data model is based on GeoSciML, developed since 2006 by a group of Geological Surveys. The data providers involved in the project implemented a new component that allows the web services to deliver the geological map expressed into GeoSciML. In order to capture the information describing the geological units of the map of Europe the scope of the data model needs to include lithology; age; genesis and metamorphic character. For high resolution maps physical properties, bedding characteristics and weathering also need to be added. Furthermore, Geological data held by national geological surveys is generally described in national language of the country. The project has to deal with the multilingual issue, an important requirement of the INSPIRE directive. The project provides a list of harmonized vocabularies, a set of web services to deal with them, and a web site for helping the geoscientists while mapping the terms used into the national datasets into these vocabularies. The web services provided by each data provider, with the particular component that allows them to deliver the harmonised data model and to handle the multilingualism, are the first part of the architecture. The project also implements a web portal that provides several functionalities. Thanks to the common data model implemented by each web service delivering a part of the geological map, and using OGC SLD standards, the client offers the following option. A user can request for a sub-selection of the map, for instance searching on a particular attribute such as "age is quaternary", and display only the parts of the map according to the filter. Using the web services on the common vocabularies, the data displayed are translated. The project started September 2008 for two years, with 29 partners from 20 countries (20 partners are Geological Surveys). The budget is 3.25 M€, with a European Commission contribution of 2.6 M€. The paper will describe the technical solutions to implement OneGeology-Europe components: the profile of the common data model to exchange geological data, the web services to view and access geological data; and a geoportal to provide the user with a user-friendly way to discover, view and access geological data.

  5. Estimating the social value of geologic map information: A regulatory application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Brookshire, D.S.; McKee, M.; Soller, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    People frequently regard the landscape as part of a static system. The mountains and rivers that cross the landscape, and the bedrock that supports the surface, change little during the course of a lifetime. Society can alter the geologic history of an area and, in so doing, affect the occurrence and impact of environmental hazards. For example, changes in land use can induce changes in erosion, sedimentation, and ground-water supply. As the environmental system is changed by both natural processes and human activities, the system's capacity to respond to additional stresses also changes. Information such as geologic maps describes the physical world and is critical for identifying solutions to land use and environmental issues. In this paper, a method is developed for estimating the economic value of applying geologic map information to siting a waste disposal facility. An improvement in geologic map information is shown to have a net positive value to society. Such maps enable planners to make superior land management decisions.

  6. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas.

  7. OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

  8. Department of Geology and Geophysics University of Wisconsin-Madison

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    Department of Geology and Geophysics University of Wisconsin-Madison Lewis G. Weeks Hall for the Geological Sciences 1215 West Dayton Street Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1692 Phone: 608-262-8960 Fax: 608-262-0693 E-mail: geodept@geology.wisc.edu The Outcrop Staff Chuck DeMets­ Editor (chuck@geology

  9. Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: Results from MER Spirit and MRO HiRISE Observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R.E.; Squyres, S.W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F., III; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Johnson, J.R.; Klingelhofer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.W., Jr.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity.

  10. Page 1 | B.S. in Geology | Academic Plan of Study Updated April 2014 B.S. in Geology

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yongge

    Page 1 | B.S. in Geology | Academic Plan of Study Updated April 2014 B.S. in Geology Academic Plan Available: No · Other Information: GEO (Geology & Earth Science Organization); GTU (Gamma Theta Upsilon coordinator for METR, thsirle@uncc.edu PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Geology at UNC Charlotte is for students who

  11. Sphene-a geological chameleon

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, H.W. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Synthetic sphene, CaTiO(SiO[sub 4]), is colorless and the natural, rock-forming mineral, yellow-brown-red-black. Sphene is:(Ca, U, Th, Pb, REE)(Ti, Fe[sup 3+], Al, Nb, Cr) (O,F)(SiO[sub 4]). Color appears to change and deepen with geologic age and radiation dosage, based upon study of 100-200 samples concentrated from calc-alkaline and alkaline plutonic rocks. Maximum absorption of light coincides with Z, the slow vibration direction, and high index of refraction, n=1.943-2.110, along a zig-zag or kinked octahedral chain, made up of: O-Ti-O-Fe-O-Ti-O-Nb-O-Ti-O..., where each O is an octahedral corner, and each transition metal, M, and octahedral center. Octahedra in each chain are cross-linked by (SiO[sub 4]) tetrahedral corners, and Ca ions lie in 7-fold holes. Along a chain, O-Ti-O distances alternate between 1.973 and 1.766 [angstrom]. Short O-M distances favor O-M charge transfer and adsorption of UV, blue, and green light, yielding yellow transmission. Energetic U+Th alpha-particle recoil will induce lattice damage over time (t) where dosage =[alpha]t, or alpha/mg/t and may involve 10[sup 15] alpha events in a Precambrian mineral. High dosage promotes a metamict state with partial loss of crystallinity, strain, expansion, hydration, and partial reduction of Fe[sup 3+] [r arrow] Fe[sup 2+]. Yellow-brown sphene has become black over time. Grains and fragments of black, metamict Precambrian sphene from Ontario and S. Africa, placed between graphite electrodes and energized for 3 secs. at T=7800[degree] in a carbon arc, turned bright yellow on cooling, without having fused. Reoxidation of Fe[sup 2+] [r arrow] Fe[sup 3+] in the arc would induce lattice contraction as r[sub Fe[sup 3+

  12. Geologic and mineralogic controls on acid and metal-rich rock drainage in an alpine watershed, Handcart Gulch, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The surface and subsurface geology, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralogy of the Handcart Gulch area was studied using map and drill core data as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understand the hydrology and affects of geology on acid-rock drainage in a mineralized alpine watershed. Handcart Gulch was the locus of intense hydrothermal alteration that affected an area of nearly 3 square kilometers. Hydrothermal alteration and accompanied weak mineralization are spatially and genetically associated with small dacite to low-silica rhyolite stocks and plugs emplaced about 37-36 Ma. Felsic lithologies are commonly altered to a quartz-sericite-pyrite mineral assemblage at the surface, but alteration is more variable in the subsurface, ranging from quartz-sericite-pyrite-dominant in upper core sections to a propylitic variant that is more typical in deeper drill core intervals. Late-stage, hydrothermal argillic alteration [kaolinite and(or) smectite] was superimposed over earlier-formed alteration assemblages in the felsic rocks. Smectite in this late stage assemblage is mostly neoformed resulting from dissolution of chlorite, plagioclase, and minor illite in more weakly altered rocks. Hydrothermally altered amphibolites are characterized by biotitic alteration of amphibole, and subsequent alteration of both primary and secondary biotite to chlorite. Whereas pyrite is present both as disseminations and in small veinlets in the felsic lithologies, it is mostly restricted to small veinlets in the amphibolites. Base-metal sulfides including molybdenite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena are present in minor to trace amounts in the altered rocks. However, geologic data in conjunction with water geochemical studies indicate that copper mineralization may be present in unknown abundance in two distinct areas. The altered rocks contain an average of 8 weight percent fine pyrite that is largely devoid of metals in the crystal structure, which can be a significant source of trace metals in other areas with acid rock drainage. Thus, elevated base-metal concentrations in the trunk stream and discrete springs in the study area, as determined in previous studies, are likely derived from discrete metal-rich sources, rather than the abundant pyrite veins or disseminations. Pyrite is oxidized in nearly all outcrops examined. Drill core data show that zones of pyrite oxidation range in depth from 100 meters below the surface at higher elevations to just a few meters depth at the lowest elevations in the study area. However, discrete pyrite oxidation zones are present in drill core to depths of several hundred meters below the pervasive near-surface oxidation zones. These deeper discrete oxidation zones, which are present where fresh pyrite predominates, are spatially associated with fractures, small faults, and breccias. Quartz-sericite-pyrite-altered rocks containing unoxidized pyrite likely have the highest acid-generating capacity of all alteration assemblages in the study area. Hydrothermal alteration has left these rocks base-cation leached and thus acid-neutralizing potential is negligible. In contrast, propylitic-altered felsic rocks commonly contain trace to minor calcite and abundant chlorite, which provide some amount of acid-neutralization despite the presence of a few percent pyrite.

  13. Geological monitoring of Surtsey, Iceland, 1967-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakobsson, Sveinn P.; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Moore, James G.

    2000-01-01

    Aspects of the geological monitoring of the volcanic island of Surtsey 1967-1998, are described. A hydrothermal system was developed within the tephra craters in late 1966 to early 1967. Temperatures in a drill hole, situated at the eastern border of the hydrothermal area, indicate that the hydrothermal system at that site has been cooling at an average rate of ? 1°C per year since 1980. The tephra was altered rapidly within the hydrothermal area, producing the first visible palagonite tuff in 1969. A substantial part of the tephra pile above sea level was probably converted to tuff by 1972. The visible area of tuff has gradually increased since then, primarily due to erosion of tephra at the surface. By 1998 52% of the exposed tephra area had been converted to palagonite tuff. By volume, however, some 80-85% of the tephra pile above sea level has been converted to tuff in 1998. The area of Surtsey has shrunk from its original 2.65 km2 (1967) to 1.47 km2 (1998) due to marine abrasion. The geological formations on Surtsey have, however, responded quite variably to erosion. The tephra pile was easily eroded, but marine abrasion. The central core of palagonite tuff is estimated to be ?0.39 km2. Statistical estimation of models of the decreases of Surtsey indicate that it will last for a long time. The numerical experiments indicate that it will take over 100 years until only the palagonite tuff core is left. It is postulated that the final remnany of Surtsey before complete destruction will be a palagonite tuff crag, comparable to those of the other islands in the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago.

  14. Can the Balmy Pliocene Predict Geologic timeline spiral courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey

    E-print Network

    Can the Balmy Pliocene Predict Geologic timeline spiral courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey 20.AthanasiosKoutavas,CUNYCollegeofStatenIsland the past appears to be the only way we can see how climate responded over a long enough time span

  15. Prototype of Partial Cutting Tool of Geological Map Images Distributed by Geological Web Map Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Geological maps and topographical maps play an important role in disaster assessment, resource management, and environmental preservation. These map information have been distributed in accordance with Web services standards such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) recently. In this study, a partial cutting tool of geological map images distributed by geological WMTS was implemented with Free and Open Source Software. The tool mainly consists of two functions: display function and cutting function. The former function was implemented using OpenLayers. The latter function was implemented using Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). All other small functions were implemented by PHP and Python. As a result, this tool allows not only displaying WMTS layer on web browser but also generating a geological map image of intended area and zoom level. At this moment, available WTMS layers are limited to the ones distributed by WMTS for the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan. The geological map image can be saved as GeoTIFF format and WebGL format. GeoTIFF is one of the georeferenced raster formats that is available in many kinds of Geographical Information System. WebGL is useful for confirming a relationship between geology and geography in 3D. In conclusion, the partial cutting tool developed in this study would contribute to create better conditions for promoting utilization of geological information. Future work is to increase the number of available WMTS layers and the types of output file format.

  16. 76 FR 19783 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Geophysical Data Preservation Program (NGGDPP) Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior... data preservation programs. The Committee will hear updates on progress of the NCGMP toward fulfilling... components of the NCGMP; and the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program. DATES:...

  17. GDA (Geologic Data Assistant), an ArcPad extension for geologic mapping: code, prerequisites, and instructions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evan E. Thoms and Ralph A. Haugerud

    2006-01-01

    GDA (Geologic Data Assistant) is an extension to ArcPad, a mobile mapping software program by Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) designed to run on personal digital assistant (PDA) computers. GDA and ArcPad allow a PDA to replace the paper notebook and field map traditionally used for geologic mapping. GDA allows easy collection of field data.

  18. Geologic datasets for weights of evidence analysis in northeast Washington: 1. geologic raster data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boleneus, David E.; Causey, J. Douglas

    2000-01-01

    This dataset contains the combination of geology data (geologic units, faults, folds, and dikes) from 6 1:100,000 scale digital coverages in eastern Washington (Chewelah, Colville, Omak, Oroville, Nespelem, Republic). The data was converted to an Arc grid in ArcView using the Spatial Analyst extension.

  19. Powering Triton's recent geological activity by obliquity tides: Implications for Pluto geology

    E-print Network

    Nimmo, Francis

    Powering Triton's recent geological activity by obliquity tides: Implications for Pluto geology F: Satellites, dynamics Tides, solid body Pluto Triton a b s t r a c t We investigate the origins of Triton's deformed and young surface. Assuming Triton was captured early in Solar System history, the bulk

  20. Andean Geology 38 (1): 1-22. January, 2011 Andean Geology formerly Revista Geolgica de Chile

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Mary

    Andean Geology 38 (1): 1-22. January, 2011 Andean Geology formerly Revista Geológica de Chile www.scielo.cl/andgeol.htm Olivine-hornblende-lamprophyre dikes from Quebrada los Sapos, El Teniente, Central Chile (34°S 80309-0399 U.S.A. Charles.Stern@colorado.edu 2 Superintendencia de Geología, El Teniente, CODELCO-Chile

  1. Andean Geology 40 (2): 359-391. May, 2013 Andean Geology formerly Revista Geolgica de Chile

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Andean Geology 40 (2): 359-391. May, 2013 Andean Geology formerly Revista Geológica de Chile www: Chaitén Volcano, Chile Frederick J. Swanson1 , Julia A. Jones2 , Charles M. Crisafulli3 , Antonio Lara4 1. ccrisafulli@fs.fed.us 4 Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile

  2. CNS development under altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E.

    The future of space exploration depends on a solid understanding of the developmental process under microgravity. In furtherance of this goal, the present studies assessed the impact of altered gravity on the developing rat cerebellum. Specifically, the expression of selected cerebellar proteins and corresponding genes was compared in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity (1.5G) from embryonic day (E) 11 to postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 against their expression in rat neonates developing under normal gravity. Cerebellar proteins were analyzed by quantitative western blots of cerebellar homogenates; RNA analysis was performed in the same samples using ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). Densitometric analysis of western blots suggested 21% to 31% reduction in neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and 31% to 45% reduction in glial acidic protein (GFAP). RPA results suggested a small reduction (<10%) in NCAM mRNA and a moderate reduction (<25%) in GFAP mRNA. These data indicate that the expression of selected cerebellar proteins may be affected at both the transcriptional and translational/postranslational level. Furthermore, these results suggest that changes in expression of selected genes may underlie hypergravity's effect on the developing CNS. (Supported by NASA grant NCC2-1042 and BWH Psychiatry Fund).

  3. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  4. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet s surface, and it is the first order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics or remote sensing. These allied sciences, as important as they are, derive the basis of their understanding from the knowledge of the geology of a given location. When we go back to the Moon, and on to Mars, the surface systems we deploy will need to support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture will consider what field geology is about - why it s important, how we do it, how the conduct of field geology informs many other sciences, and how it will affect the design of surface systems and implementation of operations in the future.

  5. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in September 2005. Non-coincidence of these boundaries is due to differences in the respective data sources and to inexact registration of the geologic data to the DEM base. Province boundaries, province capital locations, and political names were also acquired from the AIMS Web site in September 2005. The AIMS data were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Version 2 differs from Version 1 in that (1) map units are colored according to the color scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org), (2) the minerals database has been updated, and (3) all data presented on the map are also available in GIS format.

  6. Geology of the epithermal Ag-Au Huevos Verdes vein system and San José district, Deseado massif, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Andreas; Gutierrez, Ronald; Nelson, Eric P.; Layer, Paul W.

    2012-03-01

    The San José district is located in the northwest part of the Deseado massif and hosts a number of epithermal Ag-Au quartz veins of intermediate sulfidation style, including the Huevos Verdes vein system. Veins are hosted by andesitic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and locally by rhyodacitic pyroclastic rocks of the Chon Aike Formation. New 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the age of host rocks and mineralization define Late Jurassic ages of 151.3 ± 0.7 Ma to 144.7 ± 0.1 Ma for volcanic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and of 147.6 ± 1.1 Ma for the Chon Aike Formation. Illite ages of the Huevos Verdes vein system of 140.8 ± 0.2 and 140.5 ± 0.3 Ma are 4 m.y. younger than the volcanic host rock unit. These age dates are among the youngest reported for Jurassic volcanism in the Deseado massif and correlate well with the regional context of magmatic and hydrothermal activity. The Huevos Verdes vein system has a strike length of 2,000 m, with several ore shoots along strike. The vein consists of a pre-ore stage and three main ore stages. Early barren quartz and chalcedony are followed by a mottled quartz stage of coarse saccharoidal quartz with irregular streaks and discontinuous bands of sulfide-rich material. The banded quartz-sulfide stage consists of sulfide-rich bands alternating with bands of quartz and bands of chlorite ± illite. Late-stage sulfide-rich veinlets are associated with kaolinite gangue. Ore minerals are argentite and electrum, together with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, minor bornite, covellite, and ruby silver. Wall rock alteration is characterized by narrow (< 3 m) halos of illite and illite/smectite next to veins, grading outward into propylitic alteration. Gangue minerals are dominantly massive quartz intergrown with minor to accessory adularia. Epidote, illite, illite/smectite, and, preferentially at deeper levels, Fe-chlorite gangue indicate near-neutral pH hydrothermal fluids at temperatures of >220°C. Kaolinite occurring with the late sulfide-rich veinlet stage indicates pH < 4 and a temperature of <200°C. The Huevos Verdes system has an overall strike of 325°, dipping on average 65° NE. The orientations of individual ore shoots are controlled by vein strike and intersecting north-northwest-striking faults. We propose a structural model for the time of mineralization of the San José district, consisting of a conjugate shear pair of sinistral north-northwest- and dextral west-northwest-striking faults that correspond to R and R' in the Riedel shear model and that are related to master faults (M) of north-northeast-strike. Veins of 315° strike can be interpreted as nearly pure extensional fractures (T). Variations in vein strike predict an induced sinistral shear component for strike directions of >315°, whereas strike directions of <315° are predicted with an induced dextral strike-slip movement. The components of the structural model appear to be present on a regional scale and are not restricted to the San José district.

  7. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Impact, and its implications for geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1988-01-01

    The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

  10. Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Antoun, T

    2009-12-17

    Predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in a jointed geologic media remain a modern day scientific frontier. In part this is due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the complex physical processes associated with the transient response of geologic material, and in part it is due to numerical challenges that prohibit accurate representation of the heterogeneities that influence the material response. Constitutive models whose properties are determined from laboratory experiments on intact samples have been shown to over-predict the free field environment in large scale field experiments. Current methodologies for deriving in situ properties from laboratory measured properties are based on empirical equations derived for static geomechanical applications involving loads of lower intensity and much longer durations than those encountered in applications of interest involving wave propagation. These methodologies are not validated for dynamic applications, and they do not account for anisotropic behavior stemming from direcitonal effects associated with the orientation of joint sets in realistic geologies. Recent advances in modeling capabilities coupled with modern high performance computing platforms enable physics-based simulations of jointed geologic media with unprecedented details, offering a prospect for significant advances in the state of the art. This report provides a brief overview of these modern computational approaches, discusses their advantages and limitations, and attempts to formulate an integrated framework leading to the development of predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in jointed and fractured geologic materials.

  11. Geological assessment of the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Analysis of the U.S. geological survey streamgaging network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3,493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The weighted standard error for all stations, with current operating procedures, was 19.9 percent. By altering field activities, as determined by the analyses, this could be reduced to 17.8 percent. The existing streamgaging networks in four Districts were further analyzed to determine the impacts that satellite telemetry would have on the cost effectiveness. Satellite telemetry was not found to be cost effective on the basis of hydrologic data collection alone, given present cost of equipment and operation.This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U. S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3, 493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The weighted standard error for all stations, with current operating procedures, was 19. 9 percent. By altering field activities, as determined by the analyses, this could be reduced to 17. 8 percent. Additional study results are discussed.

  13. Thermal state and complex geology of a heterogeneous salty crust of Jupiter's satellite, Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Kargel, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The complex geology of Europa is evidenced by many tectonic and cryomagmatic resurfacing structures, some of which are "painted" into a more visible expression by exogenic alteration processes acting on the principal endogenic cryopetrology. The surface materials emplaced and affected by this activity are mainly composed of water ice in some areas, but in other places there are other minerals involved. Non-ice minerals are visually recognized by their low albedo and reddish color either when first emplaced or, more likely, after alteration by Europan weathering processes, especially sublimation and alteration by ionizing radiation. While red chromophoric material could be due to endogenic production of solid sulfur allotropes or other compounds, most likely the red substance is an impurity produced by radiation alteration of hydrated sulfate salts or sulphuric acid of mainly internal origin. If the non-ice red materials or their precursors have a source in the satellite interior, and if they are not merely trace contaminants, then they can play an important role in the evolution of the icy crust, including structural differentiation and the internal dynamics. Here we assume that these substances are major components of Europa's cryo/hydrosphere, as some models have predicted they should be. If this is an accurate assumption, then these substances should not be neglected in physical, chemical, and biological models of Europa, even if major uncertainties remain as to the exact identity, abundance, and distribution of the non-ice materials. The physical chemical properties of the ice-associated materials will contribute to the physical state of the crust today and in the geological past. In order to model the influence of them on the thermal state and the geology, we have determined the thermal properties of the hydrated salts. Our new lab data reveal very low thermal conductivities for hydrated salts compared to water ice. Lower conductivities of salty ice would produce steeper thermal gradients than in pure ice. If there are salt-rich layers inside the crust, forming salt beds over the seafloor or a briny eutectic crust, for instance, the high thermal gradients may promote endogenic geological activity. On the seafloor, bedded salt accumulations may exhibit high thermochemical gradients. Metamorphic and magmatic processes and possible niches for thermophilic life at shallow suboceanic depths result from the calculated thermal profiles, even if the ocean is very cold. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of altered streamflow conditions at ungaged basins across the conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, K.; Carlisle, D. M.; Falcone, J. A.; Wolock, D.

    2011-12-01

    To aid managers in characterizing the extent and severity of alterations to the natural streamflow regime beyond the limited streamflow gaging network monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey, a tool is presented in this study. Such tools are needed to leverage the substantial amounts of biological data collected at ungaged stream locations to evaluate the potential ecological consequences of altered streamflows. We develop random forest statistical models that predict the likelihood of alteration of the streamflow regime (defined by 5 hydrologic metrics) away from its natural state at ungaged basins. These hydrologic metrics represent 3 seasonal statistics, a measure of high flows, and a measure of homogeneity of the flow regime. The models are formed using roughly 4,200 basins throughout the United States that had varying levels of human alteration. These models use watershed features that are influenced by human activities, such as number of dams and road density, to predict the likelihood or probability of alteration. We then apply these national models to a single basin, the South Platte River basin, to demonstrate the utility of these models. In general, the national models are good at predicting the likelihood of alteration to the 5 hydrologic metrics for large regions and at smaller scales as demonstrated in the South Platte River basin. Diminished hydrologic metrics (streamflows that are below what would be expected at the basin if it was in a natural state) were consistently predicted with better accuracy than inflated hydrologic metrics (streamflows above the natural state). The primary human factors causing alteration to the streamflow regime across many regions are (1) the residence time of annual runoff held in storage in dams, (2) the degree of urbanization measured by the road density, and (3) the amount of agricultural activities in a basin.

  15. The Geologic History of Mars: An Astrobiology Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Westall, Frances; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Socki, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen SNC meteorites contain information which must be incorporated with recent spaceflight data for developing Mars' geologic history. SNCs have crystallization ages of 4500 to 160 m.y. Tle oldest meteorite ALH84001 contains information on the Noachian period of Mars' history. There are no meteorites from the Hesperian period and the remaining 13 meteorites fall into two age groups within the Amazonian: The nakhlites around 1300 m.y. and the shergottites between 800-160 m.y. Oxygen isotopic analysis of Martian samples shows two distinct O2 reservoirs throughout Martian history indicating late additions of volatiles and a lack of plate tectonics prior to 3.9 Gy. Evidence for percolation of aqueous brines through impact-produced fractures in the rocky surface is contained in the 3.9 Gy-old ALH84001 carbonate deposits. These carbonates precipitated at approx. 100 C. At this time life had already evolved on Earth. Early Mars could have hosted life similar to the bacteria that inhabited early Earth. Potential microorganisms could have been transported into fractures by carbonate-bearing waters and their remains could have become incorporated into the precipitated carbonate. Since Mars had a weak magnetic field at this time, it can be hypothesized that some of the Martian microorganisms may have been similar to terrestrial magnetotactic bacteria. Over geologic time episodic cratering, and tectonic events have occurred on Mars along with the periodic release of subsurface waters which may have produced clays within SNC meteorites. The geochemical data contained within SNC meteorites complements previous observational data and the recent Mars Global Surveyor data to provide a geological and environmental history which spans almost the entire lifespan on Mars. One of the outstanding features of this model is the possible creation of an early (about 4 Gy) volatile reservoir distinct from the outgassed Mars volatiles, and the persistence of this reservoir throughout most, if not all of subsequent Mars' history. Within the framework of this history a potential scenario for a possible record of living organisms is provided by suggestive structures and organic signatures trapped within secondary mineral deposits and alteration features of some SNC meteorites. Tracing the differences in oxygen isotopic compositions within Martian components allows us to gain insight in the history of Mars.

  16. Nanosized aluminum altered immune function.

    PubMed

    Braydich-Stolle, Laura K; Speshock, Janice L; Castle, Alicia; Smith, Marcus; Murdock, Richard C; Hussain, Saber M

    2010-07-27

    On the basis of their uses in jet fuels and munitions, the most likely scenario for aluminum nanoparticle (NP) exposure is inhalation. NPs have been shown to be capable of penetrating deep into the alveolar regions of the lung, and therefore human alveolar macrophages (U937) with human type II pneumocytes (A549) were cultured together and exposed to NPs dispersed in an artificial lung surfactant to more accurately mimic the lung microenvironment. Two types of NPs were evaluated: aluminum (Al) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Following a 24-h incubation, cell viability was assessed using MTS, and mild toxicity was observed at higher doses with the U937 cells affected more than the A549. Since the U937 cells provided protection from NP toxicity, the cocultures were exposed to a benign concentration of NPs and infected with the respiratory pathogen community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ca-MRSA) to determine any changes in cellular function. Phagocytosis assays demonstrated that the NPs impaired phagocytic function, and bacterial growth curves confirmed that this reduction in phagocytosis was not related to NP-bacteria interactions. Furthermore, NFkappaB PCR arrays and an IL-6 and TNF-alpha real time PCR demonstrated that both types of NPs altered immune response activation. This change was confirmed by ELISA assays that evaluated the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha and illustrated that the NPs repressed secretion of these cytokines. Therefore, although the NPs were not toxic to the cells, they did impair the cell's natural ability to respond to a respiratory pathogen regardless of NP composition. PMID:20593840

  17. Avian assemblages on altered grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopf, Fritz L.

    1994-01-01

    Grasslands comprise 17% of the North American landscape but provide primary habitat for only 5% of native bird species. On the Great Plains, grasslands include an eastern component of tall grasses and a western component of short grasses, both of which have been regionally altered by removing native grazers, plowing sod, draining wetlands, and encouraging woody vegetation. As a group, populations of endemic bird species of the grasslands have declined more than others (including neotropical migrants) in the last quarter century. Individually, populations of the Upland Sandpiper and McCown’s Longspur have increased; the wetlands-associated Marbled Godwit and Wilson’s Phalarope appear stable; breeding ranges are shifting for the Ferruginous Hawk, Mississippi Kite, Short-eared Owl, Upland Sandpiper, Horned Lark, Vesper, Savannah, and Henslow’s sparrows, and Western Meadowlark; breeding habitats are disappearing locally for Franklin’s Gull, Dickcissel, Henslow’s and Grasshopper sparrows. Lark Bunting, and Eastern Meadowlark; and populations are declining throughout the breeding ranges for Mountain Plover, and Cassin’s and Clay-colored sparrows. Declines of these latter three species, and also the Franklin’s Gull, presumably are due to ecological phenomena on their respective wintering areas. Unlike forest species that winter in the neotropics, most birds that breed in the North American grasslands also winter on the continent and problems driving declines in grassland species are associated almost entirely with North American processes. Contemporary programs and initiatives hold promise for the conservation of breeding habitats for these birds. Ecological ignorance of wintering habits and habitats clouds the future of the endemic birds of grasslands, especially those currently experiencing widespread declines across breeding locales.

  18. Textures of Secondary Alteration Zones in Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Longazo, T. G.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Gibson, E. K.

    2001-01-01

    Textures of secondary minerals in cracks in Nakhla are described and illustrated with high resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and BSE. Some Nakhla textures resemble alteration textures of glass in seafloor basalts. Criteria for inorganic vs. biogenic alteration are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. 46 CFR 28.501 - Substantial alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantial alterations. 28.501 Section 28.501 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.501 Substantial alterations. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  20. Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ben Morgan; And Others

    This document contains the reports of research at a symposium on "Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol." The participants primarily agreed that alcohol induces an altered state of consciousness similar to other drugs, but that this phenomenon has not been explicitly stated due to the current interest in newer and more novel drugs. The…

  1. An Analysis of the Alteration Specialist Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buerkel, Elaine; Rehling, Joseph H.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the textile service occupation. The industry needs properly trained alteration specialists, bushelmen and dressmakers, in the repairing, remodeling, altering or renovating of garments. Their personal…

  2. An Environmental Estrogen Alters Reproductive Hierarchies, Disrupting

    E-print Network

    Tyler, Charles

    estrogens, at concentrations found in the environment, impairs reproductive function and behavior. However generational effects through epigenetic mechanisms, via alteration of DNA methylation (9). In mammals exposure to estrogens has been shown to induce alterations in neurological development (10) and behavior (11, 12

  3. Conodont color and textural alteration: an index to regional metamorphism, contact metamorphism, and hydrothermal alteration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rejebian, V.A.; Harris, A.G.; Huebner, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental and field data are used to extend the utility of conodonts as semi-quantitative thermal indices into the regimes of regional and contact metamorphism, as well as hydrothermal alteration. These experiments approximate the type of Colour Alteration Indices mixture characteristically found in conodonts recovered from hydrothermally altered rocks. These data indicate that CAI values of 6 to 8 cannot be used to assess precise temperatures of hydrothermally altered rocks but may serve as useful indicators of potential mineralization. - from Authors

  4. Geologic time: The age of the Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, William L.

    1977-01-01

    The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists and believed by some to reach back to the birth of the Solar System, is difficult if not impossible to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and man's centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

  5. Geology and deposits of the Serenitatis basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Hawke, B. Ray; Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The Serenitatis basin is prominent on the near side of the Moon, just east of Mare Imbrium. Originally thought to be one of the oldest lunar basins, re-interpretation of both geological relations and Apollo 17 isotopic data suggest instead that Serenitatis is one of the youngest basins, having formed in the Nectarian Period about 3.87 Ga ago. As part of our continuing effort to understand the geology of multi-ring basins on the Moon and to use basins as probes of the deep lunar crust, we here report results for the Serenitatis basin. Our examination of Serenitatis was stimulated in part by a new effort to re-examine the geology of the Apollo 17 landing site.

  6. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  7. Geology of the Apollo 17 site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlberger, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 landing site was unique in several aspects: (1) it was the only site that was not selected from telescopic-based geologic interpretation--interest in the site was generated by the visual observations of Al Worden, Apollo 15 Command Module pilot, who interpreted dark-haloed craters as possible cinder cones; (2) instead of 20-m-resolution photographs, as was the norm for all earlier missions, this site had Apollo 15 panoramic camera photography coverage that had 2-m resolution; and (3) it had a geologist-astronaut aboard who was intimately involved in all stages of planning and mission operation, and was also instrumental in the design of a long-handled sample bag holder that eliminated the need for crew to dismount before collecting a sample, which then permitted sampling between major stations. Details of site geology, sample description, and geologic synthesis of the site as viewed from studies through 1976 are summarized.

  8. Chapter D in Geological Survey research 1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1964-01-01

    This collection of 43 short papers is the last of the chapters of Geological Survey Research 1964. The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Geologic, Conservation, Water Resources, and Topographic Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the papers present results of completed parts of continuing investigations; others announce new discoveries or preliminary results of investigations that will be discussed in greater detail in reports to be published in the future. Still others are. scientific notes of limited scope, and short papers on techniques and instrumentation. Chapter A of this series presents a summary of results of work done during the present fiscal year.

  9. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  10. Geology before Pluto: Pre-encounter considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Alan D.; Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Bierhaus, Edward B.; Bray, Veronica J.; Spencer, John R.; Binzel, Richard P.; Buratti, Bonnie; Grundy, William M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold; Young, Leslie A.; Beyer, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be imminently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto system's landscapes. In this paper, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by the New Horizons cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then we broadly review the major geological processes that could potentially operate on the surfaces of Pluto and its major moon Charon. We first survey exogenic processes (i.e. those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration), and the work of wind. We conclude with an assessment of the prospects for endogenic activity in the form of tectonics and cryovolcanism.

  11. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  12. A Geology Sampling System for Microgravity Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Anthony; Naids, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are been discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a microgravity body. Currently the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  13. OneGeology Web Services and Portal as a global geological SDI - latest standards and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Tim; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    The global coverage of OneGeology Web Services (www.onegeology.org and portal.onegeology.org) achieved since 2007 from the 120 participating geological surveys will be reviewed and issues arising discussed. Recent enhancements to the OneGeology Web Services capabilities will be covered including new up to 5 star service accreditation scheme utilising the ISO/OGC Web Mapping Service standard version 1.3, core ISO 19115 metadata additions and Version 2.0 Web Feature Services (WFS) serving the new IUGS-CGI GeoSciML V3.2 geological web data exchange language standard (http://www.geosciml.org/) with its associated 30+ IUGS-CGI available vocabularies (http://resource.geosciml.org/ and http://srvgeosciml.brgm.fr/eXist2010/brgm/client.html). Use of the CGI simpelithology and timescale dictionaries now allow those who wish to do so to offer data harmonisation to query their GeoSciML 3.2 based Web Feature Services and their GeoSciML_Portrayal V2.0.1 (http://www.geosciml.org/) Web Map Services in the OneGeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org). Contributing to OneGeology involves offering to serve ideally 1:1000,000 scale geological data (in practice any scale now is warmly welcomed) as an OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard based WMS (Web Mapping Service) service from an available WWW server. This may either be hosted within the Geological Survey or a neighbouring, regional or elsewhere institution that offers to serve that data for them i.e. offers to help technically by providing the web serving IT infrastructure as a 'buddy'. OneGeology is a standards focussed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and works to ensure that these standards work together and it is now possible for European Geological Surveys to register their INSPIRE web services within the OneGeology SDI (e.g. see http://www.geosciml.org/geosciml/3.2/documentation/cookbook/INSPIRE_GeoSciML_Cookbook%20_1.0.pdf). The Onegeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org) is the first port of call for anyone wishing to discover the availability of global geological web services and has new functionality to view and use such services including multiple projection support. KEYWORDS : OneGeology; GeoSciML V 3.2; Data exchange; Portal; INSPIRE; Standards; OGC; Interoperability; GeoScience information; WMS; WFS; Cookbook.

  14. Aqueous Alteration on Mars. Chapter 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous alteration is the change in composition of a rock, produced in response to interactions with H2O-bearing ices, liquids, and vapors by chemical weathering. A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Mineralogical indicators for aqueous alteration include goethite (lander), jarosite (lander), kieserite (orbiter), gypsum (orbiter) and other Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-sulfates (landers), halides (meteorites, lander), phyllosilicates (orbiter, meteorites), hematite and nanophase iron oxides (telescopic, orbiter, lander), and Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-carbonates (meteorites). Geochemical indicators (landers only) for aqueous alteration include Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-sulfates, halides, and secondary aluminosilicates such as smectite. Based upon these indicators, several styles of aqueous alteration have been suggested on Mars. Acid-sulfate weathering (e.g., formation of jarosite, gypsum, hematite, and goethite), may occur during (1) the oxidative weathering of ultramafic igneous rocks containing sulfides, (2) sulfuric acid weathering of basaltic materials, and (3) acid fog (i.e., vapors rich in H2SO4) weathering of basaltic or basaltic-derived materials. Near-neutral or alkaline alteration occurs when solutions with pH near or above 7 move through basaltic materials and form phases such as phyllosilicates and carbonates. Very low water:rock ratios appear to have been prominent at most of the sites visited by landed missions because there is very little alteration (leaching) of the original basaltic composition (i.e., the alteration is isochemical or in a closed hydrologic system). Most of the aqueous alteration appears to have occurred early in the history of the planet (3 to 4.5 billion years ago); however, minor aqueous alteration may be occurring at the surface even today (e.g., in thin films of water or by acid fog).

  15. Economic geology of lunar Helium-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1988-01-01

    Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recovering He-3 from the lunar maria are not new to human experience. A parametric cost and technology evaluation scheme, based on existing and future data, is required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the comprehensive economic feasibility and return on investment of He-3 recovery from the lunar maria. There are also many political issues which must be considered as a result of nuclear fusion and lunar mining.

  16. Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

  17. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  18. Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1966-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh annual review of the econamic and scientific work of the U.S. Geological Survey. As in previous years the purpose of the volume is to make available promptly to the public the highlights of Survey investigations. This year the volume consists of 4 chapters (A through D) of Professional Paper 550. Chapter A contains a summary of significant results, and the remaining chapters are made up of collections of short technical papers. Many of the results summarized in chapter A are discussed in greater detail in the short papers or in reports listed in 'Publications in Fiscal Year 1966,' beginning on page A265. The tables of contents for chapters B through D are listed on pages A259-A264. Numerous Federal, State, county, and municipal agencies listed on pages A211-A215 cooperated financially with the Geological Survey during fiscal 1966 and have contributed significantly to the results reported here. They are identified where appropriate in the short technical papers that have appeared in Geological Survey Research and in papers published cooperatively, but generally are not identified in the brief statements in chapter A. Many individuals on the staff of the Geological Survey have contributed to 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' Reference is made to only a few. Frank W. Trainer, Water Resources Division, was responsible for organizing and assembling chapter A and for critical review of papers in chapters B-D, assisted by Louis Pavlides, Geologic Division. Marston S. Chase, Publications Division, was in charge of production aspects of the series, assisted by Jesse R. Upperco in technical editing, and William H. Elliott and James R. Hamilton in planning and preparing illustrations. The volume for next year, 'Geological Survey Research 1967,' will be published as chapters af Professional Paper 5715. Previous volumes are listed below, with their series designations. Gealagical Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Gealagical Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Gealagical Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Gealagical Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Gealagical Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Gealagical Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525

  19. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of 205 reports from Principal investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology Program succinctly summarize work conducted and reflect the significant accomplishments. The entries are arranged under the following topics: (1) Saturnian satellites; (2) asteroids, comets and Galilean satellites; (3) cratering processes and landform development; (4) volcanic processes and landforms; (5) Aerolian processes and landforms; (6) fluvial, preglacial, and other processes of landform development; (7) Mars polar deposits, volatiles, and climate; (8) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (9) remote sensing and regolith chemistry; (10) cartography and geologic mapping; and (11) special programs.

  20. Geological Data Preservation Program Receives Bipartisan Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    More than 22 million vertical feet of geologic cores and cuttings fill the Kentucky Geological Survey's Well Sample and Core Library in Lexington. The materials are from at least 22,000 sites within Kentucky—including collections from oil and gas exploration operations, coal and other mining companies, highway construction projects, environmental studies, and federal facilities such as Fort Knox—and they are straining the 15-year-old facility to the point where there is no room to keep everything, according to geologist Patrick Gooding, the library manager.

  1. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interoperability of online geological maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Wu, Chonglong; van der Meer, Freek D.; Liu, Gang

    2011-10-01

    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale (GTS) to alleviate linguistic barriers of GTS records among online geological maps. We extended the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model to represent the ordinal hierarchical structure of GTS terms. We collected GTS terms in seven languages and encoded them into a thesaurus by using the extended SKOS model. We implemented methods of characteristic-oriented term retrieval in JavaScript programs for accessing Web Map Services (WMS), recognizing GTS terms, and making translations. With the developed thesaurus and programs, we set up a pilot system to test recognitions and translations of GTS terms in online geological maps. Results of this pilot system proved the accuracy of the developed thesaurus and the functionality of the developed programs. Therefore, with proper deployments, SKOS-based multilingual geoscience thesauri can be functional for alleviating linguistic barriers among online geological maps and, thus, improving their interoperability.

  2. Structural Geology of the Mount St. Helens Fault-Gouge Zone - Field Relations Along the Volcanic Conduit - Wallrock Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, J. S.; Hoblitt, R.; Denlinger, R.; Sherrod, D.; Cashman, K.; Thornber, C.; Moran, S.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past two years, Mount St. Helens has erupted seven large dacite spines, each mantled by an arcuate fault zone composed of striated fault gouge and cataclastic breccia produced by shear along the margins of the volcanic conduit. During the summer of 2006, we landed on the fourth of seven spines erupted to date and spent approximately 10 hours over two days examining field relations in sections through the fault gouge zone. This initial field work revealed classic Reidel-shear structures and related brittle deformation features that are remarkably similar to those seen in shallow tectonic fault zones, and consistent with stick-slip models for seismicity accompanying the eruption. The fault zone consists of a 1-3 m thickness of cataclasite and breccia, which abruptly overlies massive dacite lava of the spine interior, and is itself overlain by a thin mantle of finely comminuted soft gouge, which contains several 1-3-mm-thick, surface-parallel layers of relatively hard, extremely fine grained, slickenside- bearing ultracataclasite. The slickenside lineations are parallel to the eruption-transport direction and direction indicators are consistent with shear accompanying transport of the spine up and out of the vent. With an increase in grain size, the fine-grained gouge transitions into the underlying coarser grained cataclastic breccia. Presence of orange paint fragments confirmed that the outermost ultracataclasite layer represents the original surface of the spine, as we had paint-bombed it during extrusion in 2004- 2005. The cataclasite and breccia contains multiple generations of Reidel shear surfaces, including well developed S1 and subordinate S2 and S3 shears with spacings that range from centimeters to <1 mm, and contributing to the intense fragmentation of the dacite. The Reidel shear planes occur in packets that are typically 30 cm to 1 m thick. The packets are separated by through-going ultracataclasite C layers. Orientation of these S-C surfaces are consistent with brittle transport of the spine upward and out of the vent relative to conduit wall rocks. These relations document two dominant modes of brittle failure: small-scale, but pervasive, S-shears, and through-going C-surfaces, the latter extending over 10/'s to hundreds of m2 of surface area. Together, these structures are thought to represent the geologic expression of the deformation associated with the hundreds of thousands of repetitive very small (M<2) earthquakes (drumbeats), which are inferred to have individual offsets of a few mm, as well as the occasional larger (M2-3.8) earthquakes, which are thought to occur when the spine lurches upward as shear motion is concentrated along the larger through-going C-surfaces. In spite of rotation of about >70 degrees from an inferred near-vertical position, initial flux-gate paleomagnetic measurements yielded normal remnant magnetic vectors with shallow inclinations, suggesting that the dacite remained above Curie temperature during rotation. These data are consistent with petrologic data that require nearly complete decompression-driven solidification of the dacite at depths of 0.5 to 1 km beneath the vent and prior to shear-fragmentation in the hypocentral envelope for the eruption.

  3. The Geologic History of Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, H. D.

    2003-12-01

    Aristotle proposed that the saltness of the sea was due to the effect of sunlight on water. Robert Boyle took strong exception to this view and - in the manner of the Royal Society - laid out a program of research in the opening paragraph of his Observations and Experiments about the Saltness of the Sea (1674) (Figure 1): (20K)Figure 1. Title page of Robert Boyle's Tracts consisting of Observations about the Saltness of the Sea and other essays (1674). The Cause of the Saltness of the Sea appears by Aristotle's Writings to have busied the Curiosity of Naturalists before his time; since which, his Authority, perhaps much more than his Reasons, did for divers Ages make the Schools and the generality of Naturalists of his Opinion, till towards the end of the last Century, and the beginning of ours, some Learned Men took the boldness to question the common Opinion; since when the Controversie has been kept on foot, and, for ought I know, will be so, as long as ‘tis argued on both sides but by Dialectical Arguments, which may be probable on both sides, but are not convincing on either. Wherefore I shall here briefly deliver some particulars about the Saltness of the Sea, obtained by my own trials, where I was able; and where I was not, by the best Relations I could procure, especially from Navigators.Boyle measured and compiled a considerable set of data for variations in the saltness of surface seawater. He also designed an improved piece of equipment for sampling seawater at depth, but the depths at which it was used were modest: 30 m with his own instrument, 80 m with another, similar sampler. However, the younger John Winthrop (1606-1676), an early member of the Royal Society, an important Governor of Connecticut, and a benefactor of Harvard College, was asked to collect seawater from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean during his crossing from England to New England in the spring of 1663. The minutes of the Royal Society's meeting on July 20, 1663, give the following account of his unsuccessful attempt to do so (Birch, 1756 and Black, 1966):Mr. Winthrop's letter written from Boston to Mr. Oldenburg was read, giving an account of the trials made by him at sea with the instrument for sounding of depths without a line, and with the vessel for drawing water from the bottom of the sea; both which proved successless, the former by reason of too much wind at the time of making soundings; the latter, on account of the leaking of the vessel. Capt. Taylor being to go soon to Virginia, and offering himself to make the same experiments, the society recommended to him the trying of the one in calm weather, and of the other with a stanch vessel.Mr. Hooke mentioning, that a better way might be suggested to make the experiment above-mentioned, was desired to think farther upon it, and to bring in an account thereof at the next meeting.A little more than one hundred years later, in the 1780s, John Walker (1966) lectured at Edinburgh on the saltness of the oceans. He marshaled all of the available data and concluded that "these reasons seem all to point to this, that the water of the ocean in respect to saltness is pretty much what it ever has been."In this opinion he disagreed with Halley (1715), who suggested that the salinity of the oceans has increased with time, and that the ratio of the total salt content of the oceans to the rate at which rivers deliver salt to the sea could be used to ascertain the age of the Earth. The first really serious attempt to measure geologic time by this method was made by Joly (1899). His calculations were refined by Clarke (1911), who inferred that the age of the ocean, since the Earth assumed its present form, is somewhat less than 100 Ma. He concluded, however, that "the problem cannot be regarded as definitely solved until all available methods of estimation shall have converged on one common conclusion." There was little appreciation in his approach for the magnitude of: (i) the outputs of salt from the oceans, (ii) geochemical cycles, and (iii) the notion of a steady-state ocean

  4. Magellan stereo images and Venusian geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Saunders, R. S.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Parker, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Areas of Venus imaged by Magellan radar with multiple viewing conditions provide unique data that will contribute to the solution of venusian geologic problems and provide a basis for quantitative comparison of venusian landforms with those on other planetary bodies. Three sets of images with different viewing conditions have been acquired: (1) left-looking with variable incidence angles (cycle 1 profile), (2) right-looking with nearly constant incidence angles (cycle 2 profile), and (3) left-looking with variable incidence angles that are almost always smaller than those in (1) (cycle 3 profiles). The unique data provided by paired images of the same scene with different incidence angles arises from image displacements caused by the relief of individual landforms at scales comparable to the ground-range and azimuth resolutions of the images. There are two aspects of the data: (1) Stereopsis achieved by simultaneous viewing of paired left-looking images of the same scene permits three-dimensional perception and interpretation of the morphologies of landforms at resolutions much finer than the altimetry footprints. (2) Measurements of differences of image displacements (parallax) on paired images with known imaging geometries provide quantitative estimates of the relief and shapes of landforms. The potential scientific contributions of the data can be grouped into two interrelated classes: (A) geologic mapping, analysis, and interpretation and (B) topical studies that involve topographic measurements. Stereopsis, without quantitative measurements, enhances geologic mapping, analysis, and interpretation of the rock units of Venus to a degree that cannot be overestimated. In geologic mapping, assemblages of landforms, assessments of backscatter and variations in backscatter, and fine-scale topography are used to define and characterize geologic map units that represent laterally continuous deposits or rock units. Stereopsis adds the important dimension of local relief for characterization of geologic units at a scale that is not possible with Magellan altimetry or products derived from the altimetry. Relative ages of the geologic units are determined using the well-known principles of superposition and intersection. Here, the perception of relief is invaluable because superposition relations among the geological units are more readily and clearly established. The recognition of folds, faults, and fault systems, regardless of their orientations, is facilitated with stereopsis so that sequences of deformation of the geologic units can be determined and structural analyses vastly improved. Shapes of landforms are readily perceived so that they can be properly interpreted. The end result of the mapping, analyses, and interpretations is a geologic history of Venus that includes the sequences of formation and deformation of various geologic units. Measurements of relief at the finest scale possible are necessary for numerous topical studies. Standard altimetry will provide the necessary information on the relief of most large landforms, but it tends to underestimate the relief of small landforms and distorts their shapes. Although special processing of the altimeter echoes improves the estimates of the relief and shapes of some landforms, there are uncertainties in the interpretations of the echoes. Examples of topical studies requiring measurements of relief are given.

  5. Effects of alteration of infrared spectra: Interpreting aqueous redistribution of silica on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Michael David

    2009-10-01

    The distribution and nature of minerals on the Martian surface provide essential information about the planet's geological history, including the history of water. The interaction of water with the rocky materials of the planet formed new minerals that hold clues about water's history on Mars. But those same interactions of aqueous alteration and chemical weathering also complicate spectroscopic measurements: the means by which mineralogy is investigated. It is necessary to study the how chemical weathering affects spectral measurements so that the observations, and ultimately the mineralogy and aqueous history of Mars, may be better understood. Altered basalts were studied in the laboratory in order to better understand how alteration affects spectral measurements and their interpretation. Alteration causes significant changes to basalt spectra in the mid-infrared (IR). The spectra change because alteration minerals or mineraloids that form when silicate minerals breakdown in water are silica-rich, and the mineralogical redistribution of silica is strongly detectable in the mid-IR. Furthermore, the new materials form thin coatings on the original minerals in the rock that hide portions of the rock from spectral detection, which complicates modeling techniques traditionally used to analyze those data. While weathering rinds and coatings are strongly detected in the mid-IR, they are largely undetected in the near-IR, where spectral signatures expected from the hydrous weathering products cannot be seen because of the coatings configuration. Spectroscopic observations of Mars indicate regions of high-silica materials, but those same regions are devoid of near-IR hydration features. Although these observations have been interpreted as a lack of aqueous alteration, they are consistent with the laboratory investigations of chemically altered rocks. The distribution of high-silica materials on Mars is correlated with the distribution of geologically recently periglacial features. The formation model suggested here is that high-silica regions of Mars resulted from weathering of basaltic materials in icy soil environments where high-silica materials formed thin coatings on basaltic particles and rocks. Weathering likely has been an ongoing process on Mars, and there may have been enough liquid water in the near-surface environment to drive weathering reactions throughout much of Martian history.

  6. Geology, Ore-microscopy and Fluid inclusion study on Auriferous Quartz Veins at the Gidami Gold Mine, Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed; Salem, Ibrahim; Slobodnik, Marek

    2013-04-01

    The gold deposits are represented by auriferous quartz veins and aplitic dykes that are cutting through granitic rocks. The main lode of gold is confined to two principal veins occupying fracture zones and fissures. The main auriferous vein is striking mainly NNW-SSE with dipping 85° NE, it extends up to 450 m with an average thickness 120 cm. The second vein is striking NW-SE and dipping 60° E, it extends for 150 m with an average thickness 35 cm. The gold bearing veins are made up of fine grained quartz that is always massive, milky-white with reddish or greenish tint. They commonly include vugs, some of them are occasionally filled with iron oxides, carbonate and clay minerals. Sometimes the quartz veins enclose remnants of altered wall rock materials as an indication for the metamorphic or syntectonic nature of the veins. Brecciation, comb layering, swelling and nodules manganese dendrites are usually detected. The microscopic examination for thin and polished sections of auriferous quartz veins revealed that quartz and calcite are the predominant minerals commonly associated with accessory minerals (fluorite, apatite, zircon, muscovite and sericite). Ore mineral assemblage is found as disseminated sulfide minerals (pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite covellite, galena and pentlandite). Ilmenite and goethite are the main iron oxide mineral phases. Gold most commonly occurs as small inclusions within pyrite or goethite. Gold also occurs as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides) or as disseminated grains in the altered wall rocks. Hydrothermal alteration includes silicification, kaolinitization, sericitisation, carbonatisation confined to a delicate set of veins. Petrography and microthermometry of fluid inclusions revealed that the majority of inclusions are of primary/pseudosecondary nature that occur in clusters and along growth zones or along intra-granular planar trails (pseudosecondary inclusions). Two types of samples were taken from the auriferous quartz vein; samples from the outer zone (Rim) and samples from the inner zone (Core). With respect to number of phases present at the room temperature (20 °C) there are two main groups of fluid inclusions can be recognized in both zones: A) two-phase - aqueous inclusions (Type I) and B) three-phase - carbonic-rich inclusions (Type II). Type I inclusions could be further subdivided into two sub-types (H2O-NaCl±KCl) and (H2O-NaCl±MgCl2) systems, based mainly on the eutectic temperature (Teu). For (H2O-NaCl±KCl) system, eutectic temperatures range from -22.1 °C to -23.9 °C at the rim and from -22.7 °C to -23.5 °C at the core. Values of homogenization temperatures (Th) are between (190.4 °C - 273.1 °C) at the rim and between (217 °C - 281.1 °C) at the core. Salinity has a range of (0.73 to 4.7 mass% of NaCl) at the rim and (0 to 1.65 mass% of NaCl) at the core. For (H2O-NaCl± MgCl2) system, eutectic temperatures range from -32.7 °C to -35 °C at the rim and from -33.9 °C to -34.2 °C at the core. Values of homogenization temperatures are up to 376.1 °C at the rim and between (310.6 °C - 480.2 °C) at the core. Salinity has a range of (2.15 to 3.8 mass% of NaCl) at the rim and (2.15 to 3.65 mass% of NaCl) at the core. Type II inclusions of (H2O-NaCl-CO2±CH4) system, most of them were homogenized to liquid state and the other were homogenized to vapour or rarely to critical state. The total homogenization temperature ranges between (260 °C - 340 °C) at the rim with low salinity (0 - 4.2 mass% NaCl equiv.) and density of range (0.49 - 0.86 g/cc). Within core samples, the total homogenization temperature ranges between (299.9 °C - 408.8 °C) with salinity (3.73 - 4.78 mass% of NaCl equiv.) and density of range (0.61 - 0.87 g/cc). These data are consistent with transportation of gold as a bisulphide complex, likely due to decreases in sulphur activity accompanying fluid unmixing.

  7. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (editor)

    1978-01-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

  8. 40 CFR 98.448 - Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.448 Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and...

  9. 40 CFR 98.448 - Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.448 Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and...

  10. 40 CFR 98.448 - Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and verification...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.448 Geologic sequestration monitoring, reporting, and...

  11. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery provides sufficient resolution to discern two effects of geothermal activity at the Namafjall geothermal area: snowmelt anomalies and delineation of altered ground. The fallout pattern of tephra from Hekla's 1970 volcanic eruption can be mapped where sufficient depth of deposition destroyed the vegetation. Lava flows from the volcanic eruptions at Askja and Hekla can be delineated. Low sun-angle imagery of snow-covered terrain has permitted the mapping of new structural and volcanic features beneath the icecaps. Coastline changes on the islands of Surtsey and Heimaey can be mapped. Variations of sediment plumes from glacial rivers on the south coast give a qualitative indication of seasonal changes in melting rates of glaciers. ERTS-1 imagery has been shown to be especially amenable to portrayal of changing glaciological phenomena: surging glaciers, collapse features in icecaps caused by subglacial volcanic (?) and geothermal activity and resulting jokulhlaups, and variations in size of glacier-margin lakes. A fifth vegetation class has now been added: lichen-covered bedrock. The high latitude permits more precise analysis of landforms, vegetation distribution, occurrence of snow cover, glaciers, and geologic structure.

  12. Seabed substrates and sedimentation rates of the European Seas - EMODnet-Geology2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Alanen, Ulla; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet Geology 2

    2015-04-01

    Seas and oceans are important for us. However, increased human activities in marine and coastal areas have altered marine ecosystems worldwide. To ensure sustainable use of marine resources and health of the seas, improved management is needed. The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive targets to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of the EU's marine waters by 2020. However, it has been acknowledged that the poor access to data on the marine environment was a handicap to government decision-making, a barrier to scientific understanding and a break on the economy. The effective management of the broad marine areas requires spatial datasets covering all European marine areas. As a consequence the European Commission adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) in 2009 to combine dispersed marine data into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 and it will run for 3 years. The partnership includes 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. The partners, mainly from the marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - EuroGeoSurveys), aim to assemble marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). In comparison to the urEMODnet project (2009-2012) the data will be more detailed and aim to cover much larger area. The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first seabed substrate map for the European Seas, as well as data/map showing sedimentation rates at the seabed. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on seabed substrates will be delivered in the portal, in addition to the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase that will be updated with data from the new sea areas. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations. Further information about the EMODnet-Geology 2 project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/).

  13. Marine geology: A planet earth perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    This text provides coverage of the basic geology of the marine development. It starts with the formation of the oceans using plate tectonics, continues with discussions of the mid-ocean ridges, and concludes with coverage of the formation and deformation of the continents.

  14. The KU Geologic Record Volume 4, 2006

    E-print Network

    of the Department of Geology watched what was to come, a storm with a microburst that brought 80 mile-per-hour winds," said Depart- ment Chair Bob Goldstein. "I watched the microburst plow through my back yard and saw was comparatively light, it still was significant. Most of its vehicles were damaged dur- ing the microburst

  15. Developing Successful Learning Strategies in Structural Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Caprariis, Pascal P.

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case that geologic fieldwork requires more than knowledge of basic skills learned in the standard undergraduate curriculum. Argues that synthesis of the skills into a schema must be done before one can address the kinds of problems that arise when doing field investigations. Argues for the use of descriptive geometry and trigonometry in…

  16. The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification Bärbel Hönisch,1 * Andy Ridgwell,2 Daniela N. Schmidt L. Foster,6 Branwen Williams20 Ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine ocean acidification plus their associated biotic responses. We review events exhibiting evidence

  17. Geologic characterization of tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Law, B.E.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of US Geological Survey (USGS) work during FY 89 were to conduct geologic research characterizing tight gas-bearing sandstone reservoirs and their resources in the western United States. Our research has been regional in scope but, in some basins, our investigations have focused on single wells or small areas containing several wells where a large amount of data is available. The investigations, include structure, stratigraphy, petrography, x-ray mineralogy, source-rock evaluation, formation pressure and temperature, borehole geophysics, thermal maturity mapping, fission-track age dating, fluid-inclusion thermometry, and isotopic geochemistry. The objectives of these investigations are to provide geologic models that can be compared and utilized in tight gas-bearing sequences elsewhere. Nearly all of our work during FY 89 was devoted to developing a computer-based system for the Uinta basin and collecting, analyzing, and storage of data. The data base, when completed will contain various types of stratigraphic, organic chemistry, petrographic, production, engineering, and other information that relate to the petroleum geology of the Uinta basin, and in particular, to the tight gas-bearing strata. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Geology of magma systems: background and review

    SciTech Connect

    Peterfreund, A.R.

    1981-03-01

    A review of basic concepts and current models of igneous geology is presented. Emphasis is centered on studies of magma generation, ascent, emplacement, evolution, and surface or near-surface activity. An indexed reference list is also provided to facilitate future investigations.

  19. Applications of geohydrologic concepts in geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxey, G.B.; Hackett, J.E.

    1963-01-01

    Subsurface water, an active agent in many geologic proceses, must be considered in interpreting geologic phenomena. Principles of the occurrence, distribution, and movement of subsurface waters are well established and readily applicable. In many interpretations in geologic literature, geohydrologic principles have been employed realistically, but in many others these principles have been either ignored or violated. Explanations of genesis of underclays and associated deposits afford some examples wherein principles of movement and activity of vadose and ground water have been ignored and others in which they have been used advantageously. Postulates stating that waters percolate downward from swamp areas do not allow for the usual movement of subsurface water in such environments. The idea that sediments were leached by vadose water after uplift satisfies the geohydrologic requirements. Weathering and solution form porous and permeable zones subjacent to unconformities in dense rocks such as carbonates and granites; this illustrates the geohydrologic and economic significance of unconformities. Examples are Mohawkian carbonate aquifers of northern Illinois and oil-bearing limestones of Mississippian age of eastern Montana. The flushing effects of meteoric water and other hydrodynamic factors active during erosion periods are important elements in the genesis and concentration of brines. Explanation of the origin and occurrence of brines must include consideration of the geohydrologic environments throughout their geologic history. ?? 1963.

  20. Lunar Crustal Magnetism: Correlations with Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Frey, S.; Acuna, M. H.; Hood, L. L.; Binder, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    With Lunar Prospector reflectometry data we now have sufficient surface coverage to allow detailed comparisons between crustal magnetism and geology. We find substantial evidence that lunar magnetism is dominated by the effects of impact processes. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. The Geology of Comet 19/P Borrelly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, D. T.; Boice, D. C; Buratti, B. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Nelson, R. M.; Oberst, J.; Sandel, B. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stern, S. A.; Thomas, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Space One spacecraft flew by Comet 19P/Borrelly on September 22, 2001 and returned a rich array of imagery with resolutions of up to 48 m/pixel. These images provide a window into the surface structure, processes, and geological history of a comet. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. The Geology of Delaware Coastal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert E.

    This teachers' manual provides model classroom lessons in earth science. It is specially designed to be used with John C. Kraft's A GUIDE TO THE GEOLOGY OF DELAWARE'S COASTAL ENVIRONMENT. The lessons suggest an approach for using the guide in the science classroom and in field studies. The manual can be used as a complete unit, or individual…

  3. Environmental geology in loess areas of China

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Jianzhong )

    1988-08-01

    There are several unfavorable geological hazards in the loess area of China. The major purposes of environmental geology studies in this region are to expound the causes of these hazards and to determine treatments. Geological hazards include endemic diseases, depletion of groundwater, land subsidence, ground fissures, soil erosion, and collapsibility of loess. This article is a summary of studies regarding these hazards. Keshan disease and Kaschin-Beck disease, for example, can be prevented and cured by adding selenates to table salt. Ponds can be constructed on the loess plateau and dikes around farmlands to collect rainfall to recharge groundwater resources. Excess extraction of groundwater is the major cause of land subsidence. Ground fissures in Xi'an are primarily caused by tectonics, but over-extraction of ground water strengthens its activity. Observation stations should be established in order to forecast and prevent landslides. Planting trees in a regional shelterbelt is the primary measure necessary to prevent soil erosion. As a result of these geological studies, valuable experience in preventing collapse of loess in China has been gained.

  4. The Geology of the Florida Keys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Eugene A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the ancient geologic history of the Florida Keys from Key Largo to Key West including the effects of glaciers, sea level rise, reef distribution, spurs and grooves, backstepping and ecological zonation, growth rates and erosion. Predicts future changes in this area. (CW)

  5. Geologic Mapping of Arsia and Pavonis Montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Shean, D.; Greeley, R.

    2012-01-01

    We are funded by the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program (MDAP) to produce 1:1,000,000 scale geologic maps of Arsia Mons and Pavonis Mons, as well as conduct mapping of surrounding regions. In this abstract we discuss progress made during years 1 and 2 of the 4-year project.

  6. The United States Geological Survey Library System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Library, established in 1882, is one of the largest earth science libraries in the world. The Library System consists of the headquarters library in Reston, Virginia, and three branch libraries in Denver, Colorado; Flagstaff, Arizona; and Menlo Park, California

  7. A geologic atlas of TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Elsa

    1986-01-01

    In the three years since the first data were taken, it was well demonstrated that the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), properly used, can be a most valuable tool for the geologist. Compilation of the TIMS data into a geological atlas was felt to be useful. Several data sets were extensively studied to establish TIMS as a geologic tool and to explore the optimum enhancement techniques. It was found that a decorrelation stretch of bands 1, 3, and 5 enhance the data to a form that is very useful and this enhancement will be used in the geologic atlas along with an accompanying geologic map and description. Many data sets are well published and familiar to TIMS users, but there are some sets that, for lack of time and funds, were not thoroughly studied or published. A short description of these least studied sets of data is presented. The images presented along with the many previously studied and published TIMS images constitute an enormously useful set of information for the geologist in the 8 to 10 micron range.

  8. Monitored Geologic Repository Test Evaluation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    M.B. Skorska

    2002-01-02

    The Monitored Geologic Repository test & evaluation program will specify tests, demonstrations, examinations, and analyses, and describe procedures to conduct and document testing necessary to verify meeting Monitored Geologic Repository requirements for a safe and effective geologic repository for radioactive waste. This test program will provide assurance that the repository is performing as designed, and that the barriers perform as expected; it will also develop supporting documentation to support the licensing process and to demonstrate compliance with codes, standards, and regulations. This comprehensive program addresses all aspects of verification from the development of test requirements to the performance of tests and reporting of the test results. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test & Evaluation Plan'' provides a detailed description of the test program approach necessary to achieve the above test program objectives. This test plan incorporates a set of test phases focused on ensuring repository safety and operational readiness and implements a project-wide integrated product management team approach to facilitate test program planning, analysis, and implementation. The following sections provide a description of the individual test phases, the methodology for test program planning and analyses, and the management approach for implementing these activities.

  9. The emerging Medical and Geological Association.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Centeno, J.A.; Selinus, O.

    2005-01-01

    The impact on human health by natural materials such as water, rocks, and minerals has been known for thousands of years but there have been few systematic, multidisciplinary studies on the relationship between geologic materials and processes and human health (the field of study commonly referred to as medical geology). In the past few years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in medical geology. Geoscientists working with medical researchers and public health scientists have made important contributions to understanding novel exposure pathways and causes of a wide range of environmental health problems such as: exposure to toxic levels of trace essential and non-essential elements such as arsenic and mercury; trace element deficiencies; exposure to natural dusts and to radioactivity; naturally occurring organic compounds in drinking water; volcanic emissions, etc. By linking with biomedical/public health researchers geoscientists are finally taking advantage of this age-old opportunity to help mitigate environmental health problems. The International Medical Geology Association has recently been formed to support this effort.

  10. Status of Geological Education in Iranian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shomali, Bahman Saghatchian; Hungerford, Harold R.

    1974-01-01

    A statistical survey revealed that education in three Iranian universities is primarily based on memorizing and recalling theoretical knowledge rather than on applying knowledge and skills in solving geological problems, and also that the curricula ignore the fact that the study of the earth is an interdisciplinary science. (MLH)

  11. Geological Society of America Special Paper 255

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    Mesozoichigh-pressurerocks in theKlamath Mountains and SierraNevada Bradley R. Hacker* Departmentof Earth and Space, 1990) and tains and easternSierra Nevada attest to convergencebetween B. R. Hacker (unpublished data:Departmentof Geology,StanfordUniversity,Stanford, Nevada. California 94305-2115. Hacker,B.R.,andGoodge,J. W., 1990

  12. Geological Society of America Special Paper 255

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    and Trinity terrane of theKlamath Mountains with theFeatherRiver terrane of theSierraNevada Bradley R. Hacker. The California94305-2115. descriptionsof the Central Metamorphic Belt, the Trinity terrane, Hacker, B. R:Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper255. 75 - #12;76 Hacker and Peacock I and the Feather

  13. A Field Course in Urban Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, H. Robert

    1973-01-01

    Describes a course attempting to educate people in environmental and urban matters. It is divided into two sections: One section for geology and the other science majors; the other for non-science majors who had not taken a college-level laboratory science. (DF)

  14. The Emerging Medical and Geological Association

    PubMed Central

    Finkelman, Robert B; Centeno, Jose A; Selinus, Olle

    2005-01-01

    The impact on human health by natural materials such as water, rocks, and minerals has been known for thousands of years but there have been few systematic, multidisciplinary studies on the relationship between geologic materials and processes and human health (the field of study commonly referred to as medical geology). In the past few years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in medical geology. Geoscientists working with medical researchers and public health scientists have made important contributions to understanding novel exposure pathways and causes of a wide range of environmental health problems such as: exposure to toxic levels of trace essential and non-essential elements such as arsenic and mercury; trace element deficiencies; exposure to natural dusts and to radioactivity; naturally occurring organic compounds in drinking water; volcanic emissions, etc. By linking with biomedical/public health researchers geoscientists are finally taking advantage of this age-old opportunity to help mitigate environmental health problems. The International Medical Geology Association has recently been formed to support this effort. PMID:16555612

  15. Life on Guam: Geology. 1977 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Gail; And Others

    As part of an updated series of activity oriented educational materials dealing with aspects of the Guam environment, this publication focuses on the physical environment of Guam through an introduction to the geology of Guam. Contents include the formation of Guam, weathering and erosion, earthquakes, soil, and water. Activities investigate…

  16. The Evolution of Whales Geology 331

    E-print Network

    Kammer, Thomas

    : Mysticetes (baleen) and Odontocetes (toothed) #12;Blue Whale, Humpback Whale, Sperm Whale, and Killer WhaleThe Evolution of Whales Geology 331 #12;#12;Prothero, 2007 Whales #12;Evolution of Whales 1990s #12;Evolution of Whales 2000s Prothero, 2007 #12;Archaeocetes #12;The two major groups of living whales

  17. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA OPEN FILE 7689

    E-print Network

    Hattori, Kéiko H.

    and the variables at the same scale. In order to assess elemental assemblages related to rare earth element (REE-rich Maw Zone, Athabasca Basin, Canada S. Chen1 , E.C. Grunsky2 , K. Hattori1 and Y. Liu3 1 Dept. Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, Ontario 2 Geological Survey of Canada, 601

  18. THE GEOLOGIC STORY of Chain O' Lakes

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    surface form and geologic makeup to the action of glaciers during the most recent Ice Age (the Pleistocene Finster Lake is one of the kettle lakes that formed as the Wisconsin-age glacier retreated. Large blocks of ice broke free from the glacier and were buried under insulating debris. The ice slowly melted

  19. US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY WELL WATERLEVEL DATA, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS well waterlevel data for NC wells, as provided by North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NC-DENR). The zipped file contains 2 FoxPro databases:
    usgs.dbf - This database contains the well construction information for the US Geological Survey's moni...

  20. Iapetus: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Many papers have been written about the surface of Iapetus, but most of these have discussed either the nature of the strongly contrasting light and dark materials or the cratering record. Little has been said about other geologic features on Iapetus, such as tectonic structures, which would provide constraints on Iapetus' thermal history. Most references have suggested that there is no conclusive evidence for any tectonic activity, even when thermal history studies indicate that there should be. However, a new study of Iapetus' surface involving the use of stereo pairs, an extensive tectonic network has been recognized. A few new observations concerning the craters and dark material were also made. Thus the geology and geologic history of Iapetus can be more fully outlined than before. The tectonic network is shown along with prominent craters and part of the dark material in the geologic/tectonic sketch map. The topology of crater rims and scarps are quite apparent and recognizable in the different image pairs. The heights and slopes of various features given are based on comparison with the depths of craters 50 to 100 km in diameter, which are assumed to have the same depths as craters of similar diameter on Rhea and Titania.