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Sample records for geomagnetic secular variations

  1. Forecasts of geomagnetic secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardinski, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    We attempt to forecast the geomagnetic secular variation based on stochastic models, non-parametric regression and singular spectrum analysis of the observed past field changes. Although this modelling approach is meant to be phenomenological, it may provide some insight into the mechanisms underlying typical time scales of geomagnetic field changes. We follow two strategies to forecast secular variation: Firstly, by applying time series models, and secondly, by using time-dependent kinematic models of the advected secular variation. These forecasts can span decades, to longer periods. This depends on the length of the past observations used as input, with different input models leading to different details in the forecasts. These forecasts become more uncertain over longer forecasting periods. One appealing reason is the disregard of magnetic diffusion in the kinematic modelling. But also the interactions of unobservable small scale core field with core flow at all scale unsettle the kinematic forecasting scheme. A further (obvious) reason is that geomagnetic secular variation can not be mimicked by linear time series models as the dynamo action itself is highly non-linear. Whether the dynamo action can be represented by a simple low-dimensional system requires further analysis.

  2. Geomagnetic field models incorporating physical constraints on the secular variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constable, Catherine; Parker, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    This proposal has been concerned with methods for constructing geomagnetic field models that incorporate physical constraints on the secular variation. The principle goal that has been accomplished is the development of flexible algorithms designed to test whether the frozen flux approximation is adequate to describe the available geomagnetic data and their secular variation throughout this century. These have been applied to geomagnetic data from both the early and middle part of this century and convincingly demonstrate that there is no need to invoke violations of the frozen flux hypothesis in order to satisfy the available geomagnetic data.

  3. Global geomagnetic field mapping - from secular variation to geomagnetic excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    declination and paleointensity variation without prior calibration. The procedure is sensitive to the starting model for the inversion and it is, therefore, important to use absolute observations to initialize the calibration factors. Global geomagnetic field evolution is investigated in terms of changes in the field morphology at the core-mantle boundary, with particular interest in following the location of reconstructed flux lobes, determining need for any longitudinal structure and hemispheric asymmetry. The Laschamp excursion behavior suggests a time-transgressive process, either a true geomagnetic field feature or a result of age inconsistencies in the underlying data. An extreme axial dipole low is associated with the Laschamp excursion, but other reported excursions during the past 100 ka do not exhibit such pronounced dipole lows. Existing field studies extending back 10 thousand years show greater geomagnetic variability in the southern hemisphere than in the north, and lower average field strength. Modeling results are used to test whether hemispheric asymmetry in secular variation and the time-averaged field persist on this time scale, whether there are detectable differences in growth versus decay rates for the axial dipole.

  4. The geomagnetic secular variation S parameter: A mathematical artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, J. M.; Gilder, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Secular variation, the change in the Earth's magnetic field through time, reflects the energy state of the geodynamo. Secular variation is commonly quantified by the standard deviation of the angular distances of the virtual geomagnetic poles to their mean pole, known as the S value. The S value has long been thought to exhibit latitude dependence [S(λ)] whose origin is widely attributed to a combination of time-varying dipole and non-dipole components. The slope, magnitude and uncertainty of S(λ) are taken as a basis to model the geomagnetic field and understand its evolution. Here we show that variations in S stem from a mathematical aberration of the conversion from directions to poles. A new method to quantify secular variation is proposed.

  5. Localized sudden changes in the geomagnetic secular variation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    There is much debate as to whether there was a worldwide geomagnetic jerk in 1969 or 1970. It is agreed that there was an unusual sharp change in the secular variation in the east component, Y, in Europe at that time. This note points out how a localized sudden change in the secular variation pattern of one component in Europe can occur without having any large worldwide effects in any of the components. The accompanying changes in the spherical harmonic coefficients for such a localized change are also discussed. -after Author

  6. A model of geomagnetic secular variation for 1980-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Zunde, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    We developed an updated model of the secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during 1980 through 1983 based on annual mean values for that interval from 148 worldwide magnetic observatories. The model consists of a series of 80 spherical harmonics, up to and including those of degree and order 8. We used it to form a proposal for the 1985 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). Comparison of the new model, whose mean epoch is approximately 1982.0, with the Provisional Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1975-1980 (PGRF 1975), indicates that the moment of the centered-dipole part of the geomagnetic field is now decreasing faster than it was 5 years ago. The rate (in field units) indicated by PGRF 1975 was about -25 nT a-1, while for the new model it is -28 nT a-1. ?? 1987.

  7. Geomagnetic Secular Variation Prediction with Thermal Heterogeneous Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew; Jiang, Weiyuan

    2011-01-01

    It has long been conjectured that thermal heterogeneity at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) affects the geodynamo substantially. The observed two pairs of steady and strong magnetic flux lobes near the Polar Regions and the low secular variation in the Pacific over the past 400 years (and perhaps longer) are likely the consequences of this CMB thermal heterogeneity. There are several studies on the impact of the thermal heterogeneity with numerical geodynamo simulations. However, direct correlation between the numerical results and the observations is found very difficult, except qualitative comparisons of certain features in the radial component of the magnetic field at the CMB. This makes it difficult to assess accurately the impact of thermal heterogeneity on the geodynamo and the geomagnetic secular variation. We revisit this problem with our MoSST_DAS system in which geomagnetic data are assimilated with our geodynamo model to predict geomagnetic secular variations. In this study, we implement a heterogeneous heat flux across the CMB that is chosen based on the seismic tomography of the lowermost mantle. The amplitude of the heat flux (relative to the mean heat flux across the CMB) varies in the simulation. With these assimilation studies, we will examine the influences of the heterogeneity on the forecast accuracies, e.g. the accuracies as functions of the heterogeneity amplitude. With these, we could be able to assess the model errors to the true core state, and thus the thermal heterogeneity in geodynamo modeling.

  8. Gravitational dynamos and the low-frequency geomagnetic secular variation.

    PubMed

    Olson, P

    2007-12-18

    Self-sustaining numerical dynamos are used to infer the sources of low-frequency secular variation of the geomagnetic field. Gravitational dynamo models powered by compositional convection in an electrically conducting, rotating fluid shell exhibit several regimes of magnetic field behavior with an increasing Rayleigh number of the convection, including nearly steady dipoles, chaotic nonreversing dipoles, and chaotic reversing dipoles. The time average dipole strength and dipolarity of the magnetic field decrease, whereas the dipole variability, average dipole tilt angle, and frequency of polarity reversals increase with Rayleigh number. Chaotic gravitational dynamos have large-amplitude dipole secular variation with maximum power at frequencies corresponding to a few cycles per million years on Earth. Their external magnetic field structure, dipole statistics, low-frequency power spectra, and polarity reversal frequency are comparable to the geomagnetic field. The magnetic variability is driven by the Lorentz force and is characterized by an inverse correlation between dynamo magnetic and kinetic energy fluctuations. A constant energy dissipation theory accounts for this inverse energy correlation, which is shown to produce conditions favorable for dipole drift, polarity reversals, and excursions. PMID:18048345

  9. The 1995 revision of the joint US/UK geomagnetic field models - I. Secular variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macmillan, S.; Barraclough, D.R.; Quinn, J.M.; Coleman, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present the methods used to derive mathematical models of global secular variation of the main geomagnetic field for the period 1985 to 2000. These secular-variation models are used in the construction of the candidate US/UK models for the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field at 1990, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1995 to 2000, and the World Magnetic Model for 1995 to 2000 (see paper II, Quinn et al., 1997). The main sources of data for the secular-variation models are geomagnetic observatories and repeat stations. Over the areas devoid of these data secular-variation information is extracted from aeromagnetic and satellite data. We describe how secular variation is predicted up to the year 2000 at the observatories and repeat stations, how the aeromagnetic and satellite data are used, and how all the data are combined to produce the required models.

  10. Analysis of geomagnetic secular variation during 1980-1985 and 1985- 1990, and geomagnetic models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during the periods 1980-1985 and 1985-1990 was analyzed in terms of spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree and order. Data from worldwide magnetic observatories and the Navy's Project MAGNET aerial surveys were used. The resulting pair of secular-variation models was used to update the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model for 1980, resulting in new mainfield models for 1985.0 and 1990.0. These, along with the secular-variation model for 1985-1990, were proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). -Author

  11. On the Possibilities of Predicting Geomagnetic Secular Variation with Geodynamo Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Wei-Jia; Tangborn, Andrew; Sabaka, Terrance

    2004-01-01

    We use our MoSST core dynamics model and geomagnetic field at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) continued downward from surface observations to investigate possibilities of geomagnetic data assimilation, so that model results and current geomagnetic observations can be used to predict geomagnetic secular variation in future. As the first attempt, we apply data insertion technique to examine evolution of the model solution that is modified by geomagnetic input. Our study demonstrate that, with a single data insertion, large-scale poloidal magnetic field obtained from subsequent numerical simulation evolves similarly to the observed geomagnetic variation, regardless of the initial choice of the model solution (so long it is a well developed numerical solution). The model solution diverges on the time scales on the order of 60 years, similar to the time scales of the torsional oscillations in the Earth's core. Our numerical test shows that geomagnetic data assimilation is promising with our MoSST model.

  12. On the latitude dependence of drift velocity of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Takesi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2016-08-01

    There is an apparent difference in the westward drift between the geomagnetic main field and its time derivative, secular variation. The drift velocity of the main field is about 0.2°/year, definitely lower than that of the secular variation, 0.3°/year. The drift velocity of the main field appears to change with latitude, being low at high latitudes and higher at low latitudes, whereas the velocity of the secular variation is nearly constant irrespective of latitude. This paper examines what causes this difference by adopting the drifting and standing field model that assumes the geomagnetic field consists of the field steadily drifting westwards and the field remaining at nearly the same location. In this study, we confirm that the existence of the non-drifting standing field significantly affects the estimate of the drift velocity of the total field (i.e., the main field), and makes it slower than that of the secular variation. The drifting field is intense in low latitudes with its maximum at the equator, while the standing field dominates in higher latitudes. As a consequence, reduction of the apparent drifting velocity of the total field by the standing field is conspicuous in higher latitudes and less so in low latitudes. This creates the observed latitudinal structure of the drift velocity of the main field. On the other hand, the drift velocity of the secular variation is less affected by existence of the standing field, and mostly reflects the velocity of the drifting field that is almost constant with latitude. The velocity of the secular variation thus becomes almost uniform independent of latitude. The observed difference between the main field and the secular variation is naturally derived from the drifting and standing field model. This implies that physical mechanisms to generate the drifting and standing fields can be considered independently.

  13. Bottom-up control of geomagnetic secular variation by the Earth's inner core.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Christopher C; Fournier, Alexandre

    2013-10-10

    Temporal changes in the Earth's magnetic field, known as geomagnetic secular variation, occur most prominently at low latitudes in the Atlantic hemisphere (that is, from -90 degrees east to 90 degrees east), whereas in the Pacific hemisphere there is comparatively little activity. This is a consequence of the geographical localization of intense, westward drifting, equatorial magnetic flux patches at the core surface. Despite successes in explaining the morphology of the geomagnetic field, numerical models of the geodynamo have so far failed to account systematically for this striking pattern of geomagnetic secular variation. Here we show that it can be reproduced provided that two mechanisms relying on the inner core are jointly considered. First, gravitational coupling aligns the inner core with the mantle, forcing the flow of liquid metal in the outer core into a giant, westward drifting, sheet-like gyre. The resulting shear concentrates azimuthal magnetic flux at low latitudes close to the core-mantle boundary, where it is expelled by core convection and subsequently transported westward. Second, differential inner-core growth, fastest below Indonesia, causes an asymmetric buoyancy release in the outer core which in turn distorts the gyre, forcing it to become eccentric, in agreement with recent core flow inversions. This bottom-up heterogeneous driving of core convection dominates top-down driving from mantle thermal heterogeneities, and localizes magnetic variations in a longitudinal sector centred beneath the Atlantic, where the eccentric gyre reaches the core surface. To match the observed pattern of geomagnetic secular variation, the solid material forming the inner core must now be in a state of differential growth rather than one of growth and melting induced by convective translation. PMID:24108054

  14. Geomagnetic secular variation of Bransfield Strait (Western Antarctica) from analysis of marine crossover data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, M.; Agudo, L. M.; Muñoz, Alfonso

    2006-04-01

    Tracking the secular variation of the geomagnetic field in the past is severely limited in some cases by factors relating to the remoteness of the sites. This is maximal in the Antarctic where the remote location and severe climate lead to logistic limitations that make it difficult to keep a continuous record of magnetic field variations. From the magnetic information available from historical marine expeditions, it is possible to infer this time-varying component from the comparison of readings at crossovers. This study focuses on this technique, discusses the impact of the different error sources and proposes a simple mathematical procedure to infer average secular variation rates. The result is validated by comparing it with local data from the Arctowski and Livingston magnetic observatories, sited in the area. Additionally, using a high-quality data set from a local area in the neighbourhood of Deception Island, we have detected a systematic distribution in its secular variation. This dichotomy has been interpreted in terms of a volcano-magnetic signal. This fact and the nature of its principal mechanisms are analysed and discussed.

  15. Geomagnetic secular variation in the Cretaceous Normal Superchron and in the Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggin, Andrew J.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Langereis, Cor G.; Straathof, Gijs B.; Deenen, Martijn H. L.

    2008-08-01

    It is now widely thought that geomagnetic polarity reversals occur spontaneously as a result of normal dynamo action rather than being externally triggered. If this is the case, then it may well be that periods of time in which the geomagnetic reversal frequency was dramatically different were characterised by different styles of secular variation. Two such periods were the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS: 84-125 Ma) when the field was dominantly of a single polarity for 40 Myr and the Jurassic period (145-200 Ma) when reversals occurred at an average rate of as much as 4.6 Myr -1. Here, we analyse a database of new and published palaeomagnetic directions from lavas emplaced during these periods in order to obtain first-order descriptions of the palaeosecular variation (PSV) during these times. We then compare these records with one another and with that produced for the period 0-5 Ma (with average reversal frequency of 4.0 Myr -1). Our results are more equivocal than those obtained in a previous similar study [McFadden, P.L., Merrill, R.T., McElhinny, M.W., Lee, S.H., 1991. Reversals of the Earths magnetic-field and temporal variations of the dynamo families. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets 96, 3923-3933]. We demonstrate that this is probably a result of the previous study being affected by an artefact of their correction for within-site scatter. The usefulness of our Jurassic record is severely limited by the restricted palaeolatitudinal span of the available data. However, our record for the CNS is sufficient to allow us to conclude that it was likely that secular variation then was different from that in the 0-5 Ma period. This supports the hypothesis of a link between PSV and reversal frequency and therefore endorses PSV analysis as a first-order tool for determining geomagnetic stability in the past.

  16. Dynamic Responses of the Earth's Outer Core to Assimilation of Observed Geomagnetic Secular Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Assimilation of surface geomagnetic observations and geodynamo models has advanced very quickly in recent years. However, compared to advanced data assimilation systems in meteorology, geomagnetic data assimilation (GDAS) is still in an early stage. Among many challenges ranging from data to models is the disparity between the short observation records and the long time scales of the core dynamics. To better utilize available observational information, we have made an effort in this study to directly assimilate the Gauss coefficients of both the core field and its secular variation (SV) obtained via global geomagnetic field modeling, aiming at understanding the dynamical responses of the core fluid to these additional observational constraints. Our studies show that the SV assimilation helps significantly to shorten the dynamo model spin-up process. The flow beneath the core-mantle boundary (CMB) responds significantly to the observed field and its SV. The strongest responses occur in the relatively small scale flow (of the degrees L is approx. 30 in spherical harmonic expansions). This part of the flow includes the axisymmetric toroidal flow (of order m = 0) and non-axisymmetric poloidal flow with m (is) greater than 5. These responses can be used to better understand the core flow and, in particular, to improve accuracies of predicting geomagnetic variability in future.

  17. Statistics of the geomagnetic secular variation for the past 5 m.y

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constable, C. G.; Parker, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    A new statistical model is proposed for the geomagnetic secular variation over the past 5Ma. Unlike previous models, the model makes use of statistical characteristics of the present day geomagnetic field. The spatial power spectrum of the non-dipole field is consistent with a white source near the core-mantle boundary with Gaussian distribution. After a suitable scaling, the spherical harmonic coefficients may be regarded as statistical samples from a single giant Gaussian process; this is the model of the non-dipole field. The model can be combined with an arbitrary statistical description of the dipole and probability density functions and cumulative distribution functions can be computed for declination and inclination that would be observed at any site on Earth's surface. Global paleomagnetic data spanning the past 5Ma are used to constrain the statistics of the dipole part of the field. A simple model is found to be consistent with the available data. An advantage of specifying the model in terms of the spherical harmonic coefficients is that it is a complete statistical description of the geomagnetic field, enabling us to test specific properties for a general description. Both intensity and directional data distributions may be tested to see if they satisfy the expected model distributions.

  18. Statistics of the geomagnetic secular variation for the past 5Ma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constable, C. G.; Parker, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A new statistical model is proposed for the geomagnetic secular variation over the past 5Ma. Unlike previous models, the model makes use of statistical characteristics of the present day geomagnetic field. The spatial power spectrum of the non-dipole field is consistent with a white source near the core-mantle boundary with Gaussian distribution. After a suitable scaling, the spherical harmonic coefficients may be regarded as statistical samples from a single giant Gaussian process; this is the model of the non-dipole field. The model can be combined with an arbitrary statistical description of the dipole and probability density functions and cumulative distribution functions can be computed for declination and inclination that would be observed at any site on Earth's surface. Global paleomagnetic data spanning the past 5Ma are used to constrain the statistics of the dipole part of the field. A simple model is found to be consistent with the available data. An advantage of specifying the model in terms of the spherical harmonic coefficients is that it is a complete statistical description of the geomagnetic field, enabling us to test specific properties for a general description. Both intensity and directional data distributions may be tested to see if they satisfy the expected model distributions.

  19. A new Holocene record of geomagnetic secular variation from Windermere, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, Rachael S.; Xuan, Chuang; Kemp, Alan E. S.; Bull, Jonathan M.; Cotterill, Carol J.; Fielding, J. James; Pearce, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) records serve as valuable independent stratigraphic correlation and dating tools for marine and terrestrial sediment sequences. The master Holocene UK PSV record, used to date regional Holocene sediment sequences, was established over three decades ago using older radiocarbon techniques and discrete sediment samples from Windermere and two other lakes (Turner and Thompson, 1981). We present a new radiocarbon-dated record of Holocene geomagnetic secular variation from Windermere, with a view to updating the UK master PSV curve. Our analyses used u-channel samples taken from the centre of four sediment cores retrieved from Windermere in 2012.The natural remnant magnetisation (NRM) of each U-channel was measured before and after stepwise alternating field demagnetisation on a 2G Enterprises superconducting rock magnetometer at 0.5 cm resolution for the first core, and 1 cm resolution for the remaining cores. The NRM data reveal a stable and well-defined primary magnetization. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) directions of the four Windermere cores, especially the inclination records, appear to correlate well on their independent radiocarbon age models. The new Windermere PSV records compare well with the existing UK master curve on millennial timescales, as well as with records from other European lakes and northern North Atlantic marine records. These observations suggest that millennial scale secular variations of the Earth's magnetic field in the Europe- North Atlantic region shared common driving mechanisms during the Holocene. The new Windermere PSV record may thus be used in a regional context for correlating and dating sediment sequences through the Holocene.

  20. Constraints on geomagnetic secular variation modeling from electromagnetism and fluid dynamics of the Earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    A spherical harmonic representation of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation for epoch 1980, designated GSFC(9/84), is derived and evaluated. At three epochs (1977.5, 1980.0, 1982.5) this model incorporates conservation of magnetic flux through five selected patches of area on the core/mantle boundary bounded by the zero contours of vertical magnetic field. These fifteen nonlinear constraints are included like data in an iterative least squares parameter estimation procedure that starts with the recently derived unconstrained field model GSFC (12/83). Convergence is approached within three iterations. The constrained model is evaluated by comparing its predictive capability outside the time span of its data, in terms of residuals at magnetic observatories, with that for the unconstrained model.

  1. A new high-resolution record of Holocene geomagnetic secular variation from New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G. M.; Howarth, J. D.; de Gelder, G. I. N. O.; Fitzsimons, S. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first full Holocene palaeomagnetic secular variation record from New Zealand. The 11 500 year-long record, from the sediments of Mavora Lakes, comprises composite declination, inclination and relative palaeointensity logs, compiled from two six-metre long cores and the uppermost 1.5 m of another. An age model has been developed from 28 AMS radiocarbon age determinations on fragments of southern beech (Lophozonia menziesii and Fuscospora cliffortioides) leaves. The excellent between-core correlation in all three components of the field results in a high-resolution palaeosecular variation record, with precise and accurate age control. The variations change in character from high amplitude in-phase declination and inclination swings in the earliest part of the record to low amplitude variations in the middle part and declination and inclination swings that are 90° out of phase, leading to broad looping of the vector in the upper part of the record, that is consistent with westward drifting sources in the outer core. The present-day field at the site (Dec = 24.2°E, Inc = - 70.7 °, F = 59 μT) represents a rare steep and easterly extreme direction, but close to average intensity. The palaeointensity is inferred to have varied between about 40 and 90 μT, with variations that, to some extent, mirror variations in the virtual axial geomagnetic dipole moment seen from global data, but also show some notable differences, particularly in the past few thousand years.

  2. Bayesian inference of local geomagnetic secular variation curves: application to archaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanos, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The errors that occur at different stages of the archaeomagnetic calibration process are combined using a Bayesian hierarchical modelling. The archaeomagnetic data obtained from archaeological structures such as hearths, kilns or sets of bricks and tiles, exhibit considerable experimental errors and are generally more or less well dated by archaeological context, history or chronometric methods (14C, TL, dendrochronology, etc.). They can also be associated with stratigraphic observations which provide prior relative chronological information. The modelling we propose allows all these observations and errors to be linked together thanks to appropriate prior probability densities. The model also includes penalized cubic splines for estimating the univariate, spherical or three-dimensional curves for the secular variation of the geomagnetic field (inclination, declination, intensity) over time at a local place. The mean smooth curve we obtain, with its posterior Bayesian envelop provides an adaptation to the effects of variability in the density of reference points over time. Moreover, the hierarchical modelling also allows an efficient way to penalize outliers automatically. With this new posterior estimate of the curve, the Bayesian statistical framework then allows to estimate the calendar dates of undated archaeological features (such as kilns) based on one, two or three geomagnetic parameters (inclination, declination and/or intensity). Date estimates are presented in the same way as those that arise from radiocarbon dating. In order to illustrate the model and the inference method used, we will present results based on French, Bulgarian and Austrian datasets recently published.

  3. Mathematical modelling of the geomagnetic field and secular variation, and its applications; Proceedings of the Symposium, Hamburg, West Germany, August 15-27, 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraclough, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the topics discussed include: the assessment of near-surface accuracy of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF 80) model of the main geomagnetic field; application of the IGRF 80 to large sets of marine magnetometer data; and the sensitivity of cosmic ray trajectory calculations to geomagnetic field model representations. Consideration is also given to: a test of main IGRF 80 main field and secular variation in Europe; the perpendicular error effect in DGRF model proposals; a comparison of planetary reference fields over Italy; and the characteristics of secular variation of the geomagnetic field from 1964-1981 in Romania. Some additional topics include: the characteristics of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation in and near China in the past 20 years; the effects of the nonuniform distribution of magnetic observatory data on secular variation models; and earth magnetic field modeling and its relation to geological evolution and structure.

  4. Geomagnetic Secular Variation Recorded in Volcanic Rocks: The End of the Geocentric Axial Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, D. E.; Turrin, B. D.; Robinson, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Most paleomagnetic textbooks ascribe secular variation (SV) to the movement and waxing/waning of non-dipole magnetic features in the fluid core, perhaps joined by wobble of a geocentric axial dipole (GAD). The actuality of a GAD is profoundly limited by the existence of the static, solid inner core, and the dynamic nature of the fluid outer core. A study of >560 Brunhes Epoch Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGP) suggests that geomagnetic field behavior arises from the waxing/waning of three approximately "stationary" offset dipoles (OD) situated in the middle of the ring of the outer core. These OD have been loosely fixed to preferred longitudes of 40°E, 120°E, and 280°E for at least the past 17Ma. The three offset dipoles in these positions determine transitional and excursional paths, and also normal SV. An extended literature documents these longitude corridors as paths of preferred VGP movement, guided by the polarity inversion of one of the three OD. Analysis of volcanic rock and archeomagnetic SV records shows a three-fold symmetric movement of local magnetic directions, guided by the variation in strength of the three OD. Preliminary data indicates that in the recent past the dominant OD at a given time yields to the next OD in movement toward greater east longitude. The frequency of OD dominance exchange is ~400 years, with return to the original OD in ~1200 years. Archeomagnetic "jerks", not easily explained by a single dominant, inertial GAD, are more easily understood with 3 waxing/waning and exchanging OD. The particular analysis of Hawaiian SV with regard to the three OD suggests that tropical locales, far from the three spin axis-parallel OD, may still record true non-dipole influences.

  5. Correlation properties of a forecast of secular variation in the main geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demina, I. M.; Bricheva, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    The statistical and correlation characteristics for a forecast of secular variation ( SV) in the Earth's main magnetic field were derived for the territory of Russia and the adjacent water areas in comparison with other regions of the terrestrial globe. The spatial structure of the SV forecast was found to correlate best with the SV of the preceding epoch. SV is forecasted with the largest error for the Russian territory and the adjoining equatorial area. The existence of small-size SV anomalies that vary over time in the spatial structure is characteristic for both regions. The presence of a large anomaly, such as the Brazilian Geomagnetic Anomaly, influences the error level in forecasting the mean and relative standard deviation. The absolute values of the forecast error in this case are comparable in magnitude with the values obtained for the other regions. The spatial structure of the SV forecast error points to the integral nature of SV anomalies and the independent change in the parameters of different-scale flows in the liquid core that determine them. When the methods of coefficient extrapolation are used for the SV forecast, its accuracy can be improved only by updating forecast coefficients with an interval of no more than two years on the basis of data from magnetic observatories and repeat stations.

  6. Recent geomagnetic secular variation from Swarm and ground observatories as estimated in the CHAOS-6 geomagnetic field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Christopher C.; Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros; Gillet, Nicolas; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    We use more than 2 years of magnetic data from the Swarm mission, and monthly means from 160 ground observatories as available in March 2016, to update the CHAOS time-dependent geomagnetic field model. The new model, CHAOS-6, provides information on time variations of the core-generated part of the Earth's magnetic field between 1999.0 and 2016.5. We present details of the secular variation (SV) and secular acceleration (SA) from CHAOS-6 at Earth's surface and downward continued to the core surface. At Earth's surface, we find evidence for positive acceleration of the field intensity in 2015 over a broad area around longitude 90°E that is also seen at ground observatories such as Novosibirsk. At the core surface, we are able to map the SV up to at least degree 16. The radial field SA at the core surface in 2015 is found to be largest at low latitudes under the India-South-East Asia region, under the region of northern South America, and at high northern latitudes under Alaska and Siberia. Surprisingly, there is also evidence for significant SA in the central Pacific region, for example near Hawaii where radial field SA is observed on either side of a jerk in 2014. On the other hand, little SV or SA has occurred over the past 17 years in the southern polar region. Inverting for a quasi-geostrophic core flow that accounts for this SV, we obtain a prominent planetary-scale, anti-cyclonic, gyre centred on the Atlantic hemisphere. We also find oscillations of non-axisymmetric, azimuthal, jets at low latitudes, for example close to 40°W, that may be responsible for localized SA oscillations. In addition to scalar data from Ørsted, CHAMP, SAC-C and Swarm, and vector data from Ørsted, CHAMP and Swarm, CHAOS-6 benefits from the inclusion of along-track differences of scalar and vector field data from both CHAMP and the three Swarm satellites, as well as east-west differences between the lower pair of Swarm satellites, Alpha and Charlie. Moreover, ground observatory SV

  7. Geomagnetic field variations in Western Europe from 1500 BC to 200 AD. Part II: New intensity secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Gwenaël; Chauvin, Annick; Lanos, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    In order to extend the secular variation curve (SVC) of archaeointensity in Western Europe to the first millennium BC, we studied 24 kilns and hearths in place, two displaced hearths and six sets of pottery sherds from French archaeological sites. Archaeological artefacts, radiocarbon and dendrochronology dated the acquisition of the thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) carried by the studied objects. Rock magnetism experiments suggest that the main carrier of the magnetization is a Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Archaeointensity was determined by the Thellier-Thellier classical protocol with pTRM-checks. A strict criteria set was applied to select only the most reliable results with linear NRM-TRM diagrams (55% of total specimens). This study demonstrates that pottery sherds with two TRMs give reliable archaeointensities in the low-temperature interval, if the NRM-TRM diagram is adequately adjusted. Eighteen new mean archaeointensities (14 corrected from the anisotropy of TRM and 16 from cooling rate) were computed. The comparison with previously published Western Europe paleointensities show a strong dispersion between data primarily due to their variable quality. Western Europe data were weighted following the archaeointensity protocol, the number of specimens per site and the type of studied materials, in order to better highlight the secular variation of archaeointensity during the first millennium BC. The SVC, built with sliding windows of 160 years shifted every 50 years, presents (at Paris) a maximum of 90 μT around 800 BC and a minimum of 60 μT around 250 BC. These archaeointensity maximum and minimum correspond to cusps of the geomagnetic field direction in Western Europe. This new curve is consistent with Mesopotamian and Eastern Europe data. The archaeointensity secular variation in Western Europe predicted by global geomagnetic models CALS3k.4, ARCH3k.1 and ARCH3k_cst.1 is smoother than our SVC. We used our directional dataset (Hervé et al., 2013) to build

  8. Jovimagnetic secular variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Long term variations of a planetary magnetic field are one of the few observables available in the study of planetary interiors and dynamo theory. While variations of the geomagnetic field were accessible to direct measurement for centuries, knowledge of the secular variations of other planetary dynamos is limited. New limits on Jovimagnetic secular variations were found by comparison of a Jovian internal field model obtained from the Voyager 1 magnetic field observations at epoch 1979.2 with the epoch 1974.9 Pioneer 11 O4 model. No significant secular variation of either the magnitude or position of the Jovidipole is found for the years 1974.9 through 1979.2, although a small Earth-like variation cannot be ruled out.

  9. Modeling of geomagnetic field secular variations observed in the Balkan area for purposes of regional topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metodiev, Metodi; Trifonova, Petya; Buchvarov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The most significant of the Earth's magnetic field elements is the geomagnetic declination, which is widely used in geodesy, cartography and their associated navigational systems. The geomagnetic declination is incorporated in the naval navigation maps and is used in the navigation process. It is also a very important factor for aviation where declination data have major importance for every airport (civil or military). As the geomagnetic field changes with time but maps of the geomagnetic declination are not published annually and are reduced to an epoch in the past, it is necessary to define two additional parameters in the maps, needed to determine the value of the geomagnetic declination for a particular moment in the future: 1) estimated value of the annual declination variation and 2) a table with the average diurnal variation of the declination for a given month and hour. The goal of our research is to analyze the annual mean values of geomagnetic declination on the territory of the Balkan Peninsula for obtaining of a best fitting model of that parameter which can be used for prediction of the declination value for the next 10 years. The same study was performed in 1990 for the purposes of Bulgarian declination map's preparation. As a result, a linear model of the declination annual variation was obtained for the neighboring observatories and repeat stations data, and a map of the obtained values for the Bulgarian territory was drawn. We use the latest version of the GFZ Reference Internal Magnetic Model (GRIMM-3.0) to compare the magnetic field evolution predicted by that model between 2001 and 2010 to the data collected in five independent geomagnetic observatories in the Balkan region (PAG, SUA, PEG, IZN, GCK) over the same time interval. We conclude that the geomagnetic core field secular variation in this area is well described by the global model. The observed small-scale differences might indicate induced lithospheric anomalies but it is still an open

  10. Geomagnetic Secular Variation in Texas over the Last 17,000 Years: High-Intensity Geomagnetic Field 'Spike' Observed at ca. 3000 cal BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, M. D.; Feinberg, J. M.; Waters, M. R.; Stafford, T. W., Jr.; Forman, S. L.; Lundelius, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    By observing the fluctuations in direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, we increase our understanding of the fluid motions in the Earth's outer core that sustain the geomagnetic field, the geodynamo. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in the Near East have proposed extremely rapid increases - 'spikes' - in geomagnetic field intensity ca. 3000 years ago that have proved problematic for our current understanding of core-flow. However, until now, these geomagnetic spikes had not been observed outside of the Near East, where they have been found in metallurgical slag and mud brick walls. We present a new fully-oriented, geomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity (RPI) record for the last 17,000 years from Hall's Cave, Texas. Sediment washed into the cave has formed a continuous stratigraphic sequence that is at least 3.5 m thick. Within the stable, cool climate of the cave, pedogenic and bioturbation processes are almost non-existent, thereby limiting post-depositional physical and geochemical alteration of the magnetic record. The sub-aerial and subterranean setting of the sedimentary sequence in Hall's Cave enabled us to collect oriented palaeomagnetic cubes from an excavated section through the sequence. The palaeomagnetic samples yielded high-quality vectors. An age model for the sequence, determined using 57 AMS 14C-dates on individual bones from microvertebrate, was combined with the palaeomagnetic data to construct a secular variation record. The record is in broad agreement with predictions by Holocene field models for the site's location. However, at ca. 3000 years ago, the RPI data indicate an almost four-fold increase in geomagnetic field intensity lasting several hundred years and contemporaneous with the more short-lived, decadal-scale spikes reported from the Near East. Evidence for this extreme intensity event outside of the Near East has major implications for our current understanding of core-dynamics.

  11. Geomagnetic excursions in the past 60 ka: Ephemeral secular variation features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouveny, N.; Creer, K. M.

    1992-05-01

    Geomagnetic excursions have been reported for the past 25 years in both sedimentary and igneous rocks of Brunhes age and from widespread geographic localities. They comprise sequences of paleo-magnetic directions that are anomalous in that they depart widely from the range of geomagnetic north directions recorded through historic time; they have sometimes been interpreted as records of aborted reversals of polarity of the main geomagnetic dipole. The search for "excursions" sought to provide a set of stratigraphic markers. The case of the Laschamp "excursion," described in lava flows from the Chaîne des Puys (Massif Central, France), is analyzed here through a new sequential record of paleosecular variation recovered from sedimentary cores collected in Lac du Bouchet, a maar lake about 100 km from the Laschamp site. The absence of anomalous directions indicates that this excursion lasted for only a few centuries. This constitutes a warning to stratigraphers who attempt to use excursions as marker events, and it gives an insight on the behavior of Earth's geodynamo on the scale of 102 to 103 yr.

  12. Application of EOF/CEOF methodology to understand correlation between geomagnetic secular variation and decadal time-variable gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z.; Kuang, W.; Jiang, W.

    2006-12-01

    In this presentation we discuss the application of EOF and Complex EOF approaches to examine possible correlation between temporal-spatial distributions of the time variable gravity (TVG) and magnetic secular variations (SV) on decadal time scales and longer. The advantage of such approaches is to enable us identifying approximately 3 to 4 EOF/CEOF modes that account for the most of the signals. We apply these approaches to examine the gravity and magnetic field data generated by the MoSST numerical core dynamics model and the PREM model. Our results show that the first 3 EOF modes reproduce the most significant features of the spatial distributions, thus sufficient for understanding the correlation between the two potential fields. We are currently working on applying this analysis to the 20-year time variable gravity from SLR and satellite measurements, and the surface geomagnetic field from GUFM1.

  13. Secular variation of the geomagnetic field: data from the varved clays of Soviet Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmutov, Vladimir G.; Zagniy, Grigori F.

    1990-10-01

    In the territory of Soviet Karelia (62°N, 34°E) a paleomagnetic study of varved clays at six sections, situated in the north of Lake Ladoga and in the west and east of Lake Onega, has been carried out. The sections are located in different zones of deglaciation and overlap in age. They cover the time interval from 16 000 to 10 200 years BP. The sediment age has been defined from varvometric data, palynological and radiocarbon analyses as well as from the information about geological and geomorphological development of the region. The laboratory study reveals that considerable paleomagnetic information can be obtained from the varved clays. Geochronological and paleomagnetic studies have been carried out for each section. The geomagnetic origin for the variations of magnetic properties (declination, inclination) has been demonstrated. The result of these studies is presented in a magnetochronological plot of declination and inclination variations for the northwest territory of European U.S.S.R. in the time interval 16 000-10 200 years BP. Maximum amplitude of the declination variation reached 70° (˜ 12 000 years BP); inclination variation is 50% smaller. The characteristic periods for declination are 800, 1750, 2100-2200 and 2500 years, and for inclination 900, 1750-1850, 2600-2700 years, respectively, as obtained by spectral analysis. The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) moves both clockwise and counter-clockwise: the latter is generally predominant. VGP does not reach values lower than 60°N. The detailed curves of declination and inclination can be used for regional magnetostratigraphic studies and for correlation of sediments in adjacent regions such as Finland and Sweden.

  14. Geomagnetic Secular Variation record from a mid-latitude Brazilian speleothem: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaqueto, P.; Trindade, R. I.; Hartmann, G. A.; Novello, V.; Cruz, F. W.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    The magnetic study of speleothems is a new way to investigate the continuous record of the geomagnetic field. Recent improvements in magnetic instrumentation and analytical techniques provide the means to accurately measure the magnetic signal of the weakly magnetic speleothems and better characterize their magnetic mineralogy. At the same time, this material is suitable for high-precision U-Th dating and can also be easily correlated through stable isotopes. Continuous geomagnetic records in South America are rare, and the systematic paleomagnetic study of stalagmites could contribute significantly to improve the continent's database. As part of this effort, here we report preliminary magnetic results from a stalagmite located at 14.8°S, 56.4°W, in Mato Grosso State, (Brazil) with ages varying from 500 AD to 1900 AD. Magnetic properties, obtained with Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS) and Alternating Gradient Magnetometer (AGM), are very homogeneous throughout the stalagmite comprising partly oxidized PSD magnetite. Magnetic inclinations were obtained after stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetization with a resolution of 0.5 cm (temporal resolution of ~30 yrs). Our preliminary results agree within error with models CALS3k.3 and SED3K for the well-defined 1700-1900 AD period. For older periods, when models are much less constrained, our data does not match CALS3k.3 and SED3K inclinations. The agreement between our data and the well-constrained recent sector of the model suggests the speleothem is likely recording the geomagnetic field throughout its whole extension. From these preliminary tests we expect the continental record from stalagmites to provide a more refined picture of the spatial and temporal variations of the magnetic field over South America. We are currently working in order to improve the age model of the speleothem through the comparison of its δ180 record with well-dated "sister" speleothems from the same cave.

  15. Dispersion of the Geomagnetic Field Caused by Secular Variation: Constraints From Sediment Cores From Around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, G.; Jovane, L.; Verosub, K. L.; Sagnotti, L.; Ohneiser, C.; Strada, E.; Florindo, F.; Wilson, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    The angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) measured over time and at many sites around the globe provides a measure of spatial variability in geodynamo processes. For example, longitudinal and latitudinal variations in dispersion may imply lateral differences in the boundary conditions at the core-mantle interface. Latitudinal variations in dispersion may also provide constraints on the size of dipole wobble and zonal non-dipole components. Furthermore, changes in dispersion across high latitudes may be indicative of changes in outer core flow regimes across the tangent cylinder. The spatial variation of dispersion, particularly the latitudinal variation, thus has the potential to be a powerful constraint on geodynamo models. Currently, estimates of the latitudinal variation in dispersion are based on volcanic data sets that give ambiguous results, with some studies finding an increase in dispersion with latitude and others finding virtually no change with latitude. The ambiguity arises mainly from the sparseness of data from high latitudes and from the difficulty in dealing with excursional VGPs in volcanic data sets. To improve the dispersion estimates at high latitudes, we use paleomagnetic data obtained from sedimentary ocean drill cores from several sites from around Antarctica, including ODP Leg 178 Sites 1095, 1096, and 1098 cored off the Antarctic Peninsula, and ANDRILL Site AND-2A and Eltanin Core 27-21 from the Ross Sea. Unlike volcanic units, sedimentary sections can provide continuous paleomagnetic records that capture both short and long term geomagnetic field variability. This allows us to examine not only the size of dispersion but changes in dispersion that occur over time. Such records also make it possible to investigate the amount of time it takes to average paleosecular variation and to use that information to estimate the duration of sedimentation at other sites. As with volcanics, a variety of issues, including sedimentation

  16. Regional geomagnetic main field and secular variation modelling using ground, satellite and marine cross-over data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talarn, Àngela; Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Miquel Torta, J.; Qamili, Enkelejda

    2014-05-01

    After the good results obtained from an attempt to generate a regional model for the secular variation of the total geomagnetic field for gaining a better knowledge of the field over oceanic regions, we now present a new regional model for the full vector main field and its secular variation from 1960.0 to 2000.0 over the North Atlantic Ocean. The distinct facts of our approach with respect to previous existing global models arise from the new information afforded by a collection and selection of marine cross-over data, along with the techniques that we propose for constructing the regional model, which include uncertainty estimates of the results. The marine data offer the possibility to gain better and robust knowledge of the field over large areas lacked of observatories over periods of time without satellite information. In addition to the marine data, we used observatory and repeat station data in the peripheral areas and satellite data from OERSTED, MAGSAT and the OGO series. All the data passed a rigorous selection in order to reject suspicious data and different random selections of satellite data were applied to reduce the effect of the satellite tracks. Due to the use of different altitude data, we obtained our model using the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) in space and the penalized cubic B-splines in time. Taking advantage of the orthogonality of the basis functions, being particularly important in the inverse problem approach, we introduced two temporal and spatial regularization matrices with appropriate damping parameters, which are adjusted to assess the best compromise between the data fit and the model roughness. The obtained results show an improvement in terms of root mean square error when the regional model is compared with other global models for those epochs, such as the CM4, highlighting the importance of the use of the cross-over marine data in the oceanic regions.

  17. Geomagnetic field model for the last 5 My: time-averaged field and secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Tadahiro; Kono, Masaru

    2002-11-01

    Structure of the geomagnetic field has bee studied by using the paleomagetic direction data of the last 5 million years obtained from lava flows. The method we used is the nonlinear version, similar to the works of Gubbins and Kelly [Nature 365 (1993) 829], Johnson and Constable [Geophys. J. Int. 122 (1995) 488; Geophys. J. Int. 131 (1997) 643], and Kelly and Gubbins [Geophys. J. Int. 128 (1997) 315], but we determined the time-averaged field (TAF) and the paleosecular variation (PSV) simultaneously. As pointed out in our previous work [Earth Planet. Space 53 (2001) 31], the observed mean field directions are affected by the fluctuation of the field, as described by the PSV model. This effect is not excessively large, but cannot be neglected while considering the mean field. We propose that the new TAF+PSV model is a better representation of the ancient magnetic field, since both the average and fluctuation of the field are consistently explained. In the inversion procedure, we used direction cosines instead of inclinations and declinations, as the latter quantities show singularity or unstable behavior at the high latitudes. The obtained model gives reasonably good fit to the observed means and variances of direction cosines. In the TAF model, the geocentric axial dipole term ( g10) is the dominant component; it is much more pronounced than that in the present magnetic field. The equatorial dipole component is quite small, after averaging over time. The model shows a very smooth spatial variation; the nondipole components also seem to be averaged out quite effectively over time. Among the other coefficients, the geocentric axial quadrupole term ( g20) is significantly larger than the other components. On the other hand, the axial octupole term ( g30) is much smaller than that in a TAF model excluding the PSV effect. It is likely that the effect of PSV is most clearly seen in this term, which is consistent with the conclusion reached in our previous work. The PSV

  18. The South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly: a recent anomalous feature of the secular variation during the Holocene. Paleomagnetic evidence from Holocene Chilean volcanic rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, P. J.; Chauvin, A.; Lara, L.; Moreno, H.

    2015-12-01

    In order to better describe the secular variation during the Holocene in the southern hemisphere, we sampled 21 dated lava flows or pyroclastic flows from several Chilean volcanoes (Lonquimay, Llaima, Solipulli, Villarrica, Mocho-Choshuenco, Osorno, Calbuco). We also sampled 56 sites in Holocene lava flows with only relative ages with respect of the dated units. The steepest inclination of the geomagnetic field (-71.6°) and the highest intensity (70µT±5) are found at Osorno volcano (calibrated age range of 782-966AD). The steep inclination is also observed in dated lava flows of the same age range at Llaima volcano. The VGP associated with the steep inclination is not much different from the VGP recorded at European sites suggesting a significant dipole wobble at that time. Mean paleointensities of 63, 60.3 and 57.5µT obtained in three dated units in the time range 0-2000BC confirm the high geomagnetic dipole moment of the Earth's magnetic field for the two millennia BC. In contrast, paleointensity results in late Pleistocene units show that the magnetic field strength was low just prior to the Holocene (-14000 -15,000 BC). The available paleomagnetic results from Chile indicate little geomagnetic secular variation in direction during the Holocene. This observation contrasts with the large and rapid secular variation observed during the last two centuries (Roperch et al., 2015). Thus the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly appears to be a recent and unique anomalous feature of the Earth's magnetic field during the Holocene. Roperch et al. (2015), Phys. Earth. Planet. Int. doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2015.03.005

  19. The secular geomagnetic variation. Statistical methods for paleomagnetic directions in sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the character of variations in the magnetic field of the Earth in the geological past requires a mathematically substantiated method for testing the statistical hypotheses against the real paleomagnetic data. As known, the paleomagnetic data from lava flows are sort of momentary snapshots of the state of the ancient magnetic field. Being quite fragmentary in time and space, these data compose what is referred to as a sample in statistics: on the close discrimination of the lava flows, the internal correlations in the data are absent. It is well known that the distributions of the paleomagnetic directions from the sedimentary data differ from the distributions in lavas, which is mainly due to the effect of averaging of the magnetization over the time interval corresponding to the accumulation of sedimentary layers represented in the rock specimen. Assuming the rate of sedimentation to be known for each specimen, one can suggest the method for the quantitative testing the statistical consistency of the paleomagnetic data in the sediments with the model variations of the magnetic field of the Earth in terms of the Giant Gaussian Process (GGP). It turned out that the averaging effect can well be allowed for by the coefficients of GGP, and the scheme of the further testing is in this case identical to the scheme of testing the paleomagnetic data obtained from lavas.

  20. Paleomagnetic directions and thermoluminescence dating from a bread oven-floor sequence in Lübeck (Germany): A record of 450 years of geomagnetic secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Pucher, Rudolf; Goedicke, Christian; Manzano, Ana; Müller, Uwe; Lanos, Philippe

    2003-02-01

    A record of about 450 years of geomagnetic secular variation is presented from a single archaeological site in Lübeck (Germany) where a sequence of 25 bread oven floors has been preserved in a bakery from medieval times until today. The age dating of the oven-floor sequence is based on historical documents, 14C-dating and thermoluminescence dating. It confines the time interval from about 1300 to 1800 A.D. Paleomagnetic directions have been determined from each oven floor by means of 198 oriented hand samples. After alternating field as well as thermal demagnetization experiments, the characteristic remanent magnetization direction was obtained using principal component analysis. The mean directions of 24 oven floors are characterized by high Fisherian precision parameters (>146) and small α95 confidence limits (1.2°-4.6°). For obtaining a smooth curve of geomagnetic secular variation for Lübeck, a spherical spline function was fitted to the data using a Bayesian approach, which considers not only the obtained ages, but also stratigraphic order. Correlation with historical magnetic records suggests that the age estimation for the upper 10 layers was too young and must date from the end of the sixteenth to the mid of the eighteenth century. For the lowermost 14 layers, dating is reliable and provides a secular variation curve for Germany. The inclination shows a minimum in the fourteenth century and then increases by more than 10°. Declination shows a local minimum around 1400 A.D. followed by a maximum in the seventeenth century. This is followed by the movement of declination about 30° to western directions.

  1. Secular variation of the middle and late Miocene geomagnetic field recorded by the Columbia River Basalt Group in Oregon, Idaho and Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Ada R.; Van der Voo, Rob

    2014-06-01

    This study of 118 discrete volcanic flows from the Columbia River Basalt Group is aimed to determine their distribution of geomagnetic field directions and virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) and to compare the inherent secular variation parameters with those from other studies. The magnetic signature of these rocks is uniformly carried by primary titanomagnetite, indicating that magnetic changes are due to variations in the magnetic field. Although most flows are flat lying, those that are tilted pass the Tauxe and Watson tilt test. Sequential flows with statistically similar site means were grouped, and directions that were considered outliers were evaluated and removed using the Vandamme cut-off method. Three normal-polarity (N-polarity) and three reversed-polarity (R-polarity) intervals are revealed by the stratigraphically ordered flows and have mean directions of N polarity (dec/inc = 6.6°/+61.2°, k = 29.3, α95 = 4.2°), and R polarity (dec/inc = 178.2°/-59.2°, k = 16, α95 = 5.5°). Regression analysis indicates that the secular variation analysis has not been affected by regional rotation, and that apparent polar wander is negligible. The VGP distribution is almost perfectly circular and supports the preference of VGP positions for the dispersion analysis. Dispersion parameters with corrections for within-site scatter (Sb) show a range of 14.3°-25.5°, including error limits, and were consistently higher for R-polarity results than for those of N polarity. Published dispersion parameters for extrusives <5 Ma show Sb values slightly lower than ours, yielding values of 16°-19°, although the difference is not statistically significant. In contrast, published dispersion parameters from high quality data from the Cretaceous Normal Superchron are lower than those for the Neogene, which suggests that the noisiness of the magnetic field correlates with the frequency of reversals. Our new results allow us to extend the Plio-Pleistocene palaeosecular variation

  2. A paleomagnetic study of secular variation in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, A.

    1969-01-01

    Ancient secular variation in New Zealand was determined from paleomagnetic measurements on 22 volcanic formations with ages of less than 0.68 m.y. The angular standard deviation from the field of an axial dipole is 13.2?? with 95% confidence limits between 10.9?? and 16.7??. The angular standard deviation of the corresponding virtual geomagnetic poles is 19.6?? with confidence limits between 16.2?? and 24.7??. These values are larger than those predicted by most models for secular variation. No difference was detected between the angular secular variation in New Zealand and that at the same latitude in North America. ?? 1969.

  3. Paleomagnetic secular variation study of Ar-Ar dated lavas flows from Tacambaro area (Central Mexico): Possible evidence of Intra-Jaramillo geomagnetic excursion in volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Rafael Maciel; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle; Martínez, Vicente Carlos Ruiz; Rathert, Manuel Calvo; Siebe, Claus; Reyes, Bertha Aguilar; Morales, Juan

    2014-04-01

    More than 350 oriented paleomagnetic cores were obtained for rock-magnetic and paleomagnetic analysis from radiometrically dated (40Ar-39Ar) magmatic rocks occurring in the southern segment (Jorullo and Tacámbaro areas) of the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Most of the lavas (37) stem from monogenetic volcanoes dated at less than 4 Ma. Two additional sites were sampled from the plutonic basement dated at 33-30 Ma. Primary remanences carried by low-Ti titanomagnetites allowed to determining 34 reliable site-mean directions of mostly normal (27) but also reversed (7) polarities. The mean directions of these two populations are antipodal, and suggest neither major vertical-axis rotations with respect to the North America craton nor tilting in the region for the last 4 Ma (rotation and flattening of the inclination parameters being less than -5.9 ± 3.8 and 0.1 ± 3.9, respectively). The corresponding paleomagnetic pole obtained for Pliocene-Pleistocene times is PLAT = 83.4°, PLON = 2.4° (N = 32, A95 = 2.7°). Virtual geomagnetic poles also contribute to the time averaged field global database and to the paleosecular variation (PSV) investigations at low latitudes from lavas for the last 5 Ma, showing a geomagnetic dispersion value that is in agreement with available PSV models. When comparing the magnetic polarities and corresponding radiometric ages of the studied sites with the Cenozoic geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS), a good correlation is observable. This finding underscores the suitability of data obtained on lavas in Central Mexico for contributing to the GPTS. Furthermore, the detection of short-lived geomagnetic features seems possible, since the possible evidence of Intra-Jaramillo geomagnetic excursion could be documented for the first time in these volcanic rocks.

  4. A study of alternative schemes for extrapolation of secular variation at observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    The geomagnetic secular variation is not well known. This limits the useful life of geomagnetic models. The secular variation is usually assumed to be linear with time. It is found that attenative schemes that employ quasiperiodic variations from internal and external sources can improve the extrapolation of secular variation at high-quality observatories. Although the schemes discussed are not yet fully applicable in worldwide model making, they do suggest some basic ideas that may be developed into useful tools in future model work. ?? 1976.

  5. Rock-magnetic changes with reduction diagenesis in Japan Sea sediments and preservation of geomagnetic secular variation in inclination during the last 30,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Abdeldayem, A. L.; Ikehara, K.

    2003-06-01

    A rock-magnetic and paleomagnetic study was conducted on a sediment core of about 4.4 m long taken from the northeastern part of the Japan Sea. The core covers the last about 30 kyrs, which was dated by nineteen radiocarbon (14C) ages. Remanent magnetization is carried dominantly by magnetite. Reductive dissolution of magnetic minerals occurs between 1.2 and 1.6 m in depth (about 5-8 ka in age). A rapid downcore decrease of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) begins at the shallowest depth. Saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) follows, and a decrease of magnetic susceptibility (k) takes place at the deepest. Within this zone, coercivity of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and the ratios of ARM to k and SIRM to k also decreases with depth. These observations indicate that finer magnetic grains were lost earlier than larger grains. A decrease of S ratios, wasp-waisted hysteresis curves, and a deviation from a mixing trend of single-domain and multi-domain grains in a Day plot occur as the dissolution proceeds, which suggests that high coercivity minerals like hematite are more resistive to dissolution than low coercivity minerals like magnetite. The start of the dissolution at 1.2 m in depth is synchronous with increases in organic-carbon and total-sulfur contents, but the horizon does not coincide with the present Fe-redox boundary at about 0.02 m below the sediment-water interface. From low-temperature magnetometry, it is estimated that magnetites with maghemite skin are reduced to pure magnetites prior to dissolution. There is no evidence for precipitation of secondary magnetic phases and acquisition of chemical remanent magnetization (CRM). Neither pyrrhotite nor greigite was detected. Information of paleomagnetic directions have survived the reductive dissolution. Inclination variations of this core resembles closely to the secular variation records available around Japan. Well-dated records older than 10 ka are still very rare, and

  6. Magnetic Navigation in Sea Turtles: Insights from Secular Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, N. F.; Lohmann, K.

    2011-12-01

    Sea turtles are iconic migrants that posses a sensitive magnetic-sense that guides their long-distance movements in a variety of contexts. In the first few hours after hatching turtles use the magnetic field to maintain an offshore compass heading to reach deeper water, out of the reach of nearshore predators. Young turtles engage in directed swimming in response to regional magnetic fields that exist along their transoceanic migratory path. Older turtles also use magnetic information to relocate foraging sites and islands used for nesting after displacement. Numerous hypotheses have been put forth to explain how magnetic information functions in these movements, however, there is little consensus among animal navigation researchers. A particular vexing issue is how magnetic navigation can function under the constraints of the constant, gradual shifting of the earth's magnetic field (secular variation). Here, I present a framework based on models of recent geomagnetic secular variation to explore several navigational mechanisms proposed for sea turtles. I show that while examination of secular variation likely falsifies some hypothetical navigational strategies, it provides key insights into the selective pressures that could maintain other navigational mechanisms. Moreover, examination of secular variation's influence on the navigational precision in reproductive migrations of sea turtles offers compelling explanations for the population structure along sea turtle nesting beaches as well as spatiotemporal variation in nesting turtle abundance.

  7. Mineral magnetism and geomagnetic secular variation of marine and lacustrine sediments from central Italy: timing and nature of local and regional Holocene environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolph, Timothy C.; Vigliotti, Luigi; Oldfield, Frank

    2004-07-01

    Sediment core palaeomagnetic and mineral magnetic records from two crater lakes in central Italy and from the western margin of the Adriatic Sea have been used to evaluate local and regional responses to Holocene environmental change. In all cores, sediment magnetism reflects the interplay between catchment material and the in situ production of bacterial magnetite (magnetotactic bacteria). In the lakes, the earliest Holocene sediments record a waning catchment input that we attribute to rising lake levels and increased tree cover in the catchment. From ˜9000 to 5000 yr BP, both lakes become anoxic, a consequence of water-mass stratification driven by high lake levels. Bottom-water anoxia also developed in the Adriatic, with sapropel S1 produced between ˜9000 and 7000 yr BP. Subsequently, the lake and Adriatic mineral magnetic records show evidence for increased catchment delivery, consistent with pollen evidence for Bronze Age deforestation. In the lakes, this evidence is first recorded at ˜4300 yr BP and a number of distinct clearance events are recorded. In comparison, at Adriatic site RF93-30, lithogenic input increases abruptly at ˜3500 yr BP and is followed by a slowly changing record of waxing and waning sediment delivery. Inter-site comparisons of palaeomagnetic data point to a possible link between the magnitude of the bacterial magnetite component and the recorded magnetic inclination. The sites are at near identical latitudes and have similar sediment accumulation rates but the Adriatic sites have a core-average magnetic inclination that is some 10° steeper than the lake average values. We suggest that the large dipole moment of the magnetosome chains, which in life produce the passive alignment of the bacterium along the local geomagnetic field line, produce a more faithful (albeit smoothed) record of the geomagnetic field.

  8. Improving late Holocene radiocarbon-based chronologies by matching paleomagnetic secular variations to geomagnetic field models - Examples from Nam Co (Tibet) and Lake Kalimpaa (Sulawesi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberzettl, T.; Kasper, T.; St-Onge, G.; Behling, H.; Daut, G.; Doberschütz, S.; Kirleis, W.; Mäusbacher, R.; Nowaczyk, N.

    2010-12-01

    Precise age control is a prerequisite for reliable paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Almost all Holocene chronologies of lacustrine sequences are based on radiocarbon dating. Most reliable ages are obtained from fragile terrestrial vegetation remnants (e.g., leaves) as these neither yield a reservoir or hard water effect nor are reworked as they would be destroyed during this process. However, in many records no terrestrial plant remains or macro remains in general are found in the sediments. In this case the only option to establish a radiocarbon based chronology is to date bulk sediment. This sediment sometimes contains reworked material or, in hard water lakes, aquatic organic remains which contain old carbon - both resulting in older ages. Here we present two records dated by bulk material showing these inconveniences. Nam Co is a hard water lake on the Tibetan Plateau (30.5°N, 91°E). Previous studies from various sites in this lake revealed different hard water effects. A radiocarbon date of bulk sediment from the top of a gravity core yielded an age of 1420 ±40 BP for the sediment/water interface. In order to test if this value can be constantly extrapolated back in time we established a reservoir corrected chronology with this value. Subsequently, we compared inclination and declination data to the CALS3k.3 and the CALS7k geomagnetic field models which currently provide the best representation of the late Holocene geomagnetic field. This showed excellent accordance for the period covered by the gravity core, i.e., ~4000 cal BP. Lake Kalimpaa (1.3°S, 120.3°E) is located on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Radiocarbon-dated bulk samples also showed inconsistencies. Most likely not only the autochthonous carbon fraction was dated but also some allochthonous organic matter was incorporated into the samples. If this is the case, all ages are tentatively too old. Following a conservative approach, in order to minimize this error, only the youngest dates

  9. Are secular correlations between sunspots, geomagnetic activity, and global temperature significant?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Mursula, K.; Tsai, V.C.; Perkins, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have led to speculation that solar-terrestrial interaction, measured by sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, has played an important role in global temperature change over the past century or so. We treat this possibility as an hypothesis for testing. We examine the statistical significance of cross-correlations between sunspot number, geomagnetic activity, and global surface temperature for the years 1868-2008, solar cycles 11-23. The data contain substantial autocorrelation and nonstationarity, properties that are incompatible with standard measures of cross-correlational significance, but which can be largely removed by averaging over solar cycles and first-difference detrending. Treated data show an expected statistically- significant correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, Pearson p < 10-4, but correlations between global temperature and sunspot number (geomagnetic activity) are not significant, p = 0.9954, (p = 0.8171). In other words, straightforward analysis does not support widely-cited suggestions that these data record a prominent role for solar-terrestrial interaction in global climate change. With respect to the sunspot-number, geomagnetic-activity, and global-temperature data, three alternative hypotheses remain difficult to reject: (1) the role of solar-terrestrial interaction in recent climate change is contained wholly in long-term trends and not in any shorter-term secular variation, or, (2) an anthropogenic signal is hiding correlation between solar-terrestrial variables and global temperature, or, (3) the null hypothesis, recent climate change has not been influenced by solar-terrestrial interaction. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Independently dated paleomagnetic secular variation records from the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberzettl, T.; Henkel, K.; Kasper, T.; Ahlborn, M.; Su, Y.; Appel, E.; St-Onge, G.; Stoner, J. S.; Daut, G.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy has been serving as a valuable tool for dating and confirming chronologies of lacustrine sediments in many parts of the world. However, suitable paleomagnetic records on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and adjacent areas are extremely scarce. Here, independently radiocarbon dated sediments of two lakes on the southern central TP, Tangra Yumco and Taro Co some 250 km further west, were investigated for their potential to record paleomagnetic secular variations. Multiple sediment cores resemble a very similar inclination pattern for the past 4000 years. This demonstrates the high potential of inclination to compare records over the Tibetan Plateau and eventually date other Tibetan records stratigraphically. Comparisons to an existing record from Nam Co, a lake 350 km west of Tangra Yumco, a varve dated record from the Makran Accretionary Wedge, and a stack record from East Asia reveal many similarities. However, model output data of geomagnetic field models for the coordinates of Tangra Yumco do not agree with our findings.

  11. Evaluation of the 1985-1990 IGRF secular variation candidates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, J.C.; Kluth, C.

    1987-01-01

    The IGRF secular variation model for 1985-1990 was adopted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy at its Prague meeting in August 1985 as an average of the three candidate models submitted to the committee. We compared the three models at epoch 1985.0 against each other and against a new model based on observatory data available as of July 1, 1985. These comparisons showed that one of the three candidate models disagreed more with the other two and our model, especially in the eastern Pacific. None of the candidate models was seen to respond to a change in the secular variation of the vertical component that appears to have taken place most strongly in the western Pacific area since 1982. The lack of satellite data was seen to be a significant handicap towards prediction of the field change over most of the Earth's surface, especially the southern oceans. Maximum errors of any model are estimated to be of the order of 80 nT a-1. ?? 1987.

  12. The use of MAGSAT data to determine secular variation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, J.C.; Frayser, J.; Muth, L.; Schmitz, D.

    1983-01-01

    A combined spatial and secular variation model of the geomagnetic field, labeled M061581, is derived from a selection of MAGSAT data. Secular variation (SV) data computed from linear fits to midnight hourly values from 19 magnetic observatories were also included in the analysis but were seen to have little effect on the model. The SV patterns from this new model are compared with those from the 1980 IGRF and with those for 1970 computed by the DGRF and with the 1960 patterns computed using the GSFC(12/66) model. Most of the features of the M061581 are identical in location and level with those of the 1980 IGRF. Together they confirm that the reversals in sign of field change seen over Asia and North America between 1965 and 1975 are reverting to the pre-1965 states. The M061581 model gives -32 nT/yr for the dipole decay rate, larger than the 70% increase already reported since 1965. -Authors

  13. Two-scale model of a geomagnetic field variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braginsky, S. I.; Le Mouel, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the vertical scale is investigated by considering a simple kinematic two-scale model of fluid flow inducing a variable magnetic field. Depending on the time constant, the induced magnetic field displays a variety of behaviors and geometries. In the high-frequency case, for example, a strong magnetic field tangential to the core mantle boundary, and hidden in the Delta layer, can be generated. A detailed computation and description of this magnetic field are presented. Some possible features of the secular variation of the actual geomagnetic field are discussed in the light of the model proposed here.

  14. The development of a regional geomagnetic daily variation model using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Global and regional geomagnetic field models give the components of the geomagnetic field as functions of position and epoch; most utilise a polynomial or Fourier series to map the input variables to the geomagnetic field values. The only temporal variation generally catered for in these models is the long term secular variation. However, there is an increasing need amongst certain users for models able to provide shorter term temporal variations, such as the geomagnetic daily variation. In this study, for the first time, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are utilised to develop a geomagnetic daily variation model. The model developed is for the southern African region; however, the method used could be applied to any other region or even globally. Besides local time and latitude, input variables considered in the daily variation model are season, sunspot number, and degree of geomagnetic activity. The ANN modelling of the geomagnetic daily variation is found to give results very similar to those obtained by the synthesis of harmonic coefficients which have been computed by the more traditional harmonic analysis of the daily variation.

  15. Derivation and use of core surface flows for forecasting secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaler, K. A.; Beggan, C. D.

    2015-03-01

    Improving forecasts of the temporal and spatial changes of the Earth's main magnetic field over periods of less than 5 years has important scientific and economic benefits. Various methods for forecasting the rate of change, or secular variation, have been tried over the past few decades, ranging from the extrapolation of trends in ground observatory measurements to computational geodynamo modeling with data assimilation from historical magnetic field models. We examine the utility of an intermediate approach, using temporally varying core surface flow models derived from relatively short periods of magnetic field data to produce, by advection, secular variation estimates valid for the Earth's surface. We describe a new method to compute a core flow changing linearly with time from magnetic secular variation and acceleration data. We invert a combination of data from the CHAMP satellite mission and ground observatories over the period 2001.0 to 2010.0 for a series of such models. We assess their ability to forecast magnetic field changes by comparing them to CHAOS-4, a state-of-the-art model using data from 1997 to 2014.5. We show that the magnetic field predictions tend to have a lower root-mean-square difference from CHAOS-4 than the International Geomagnetic Reference Field or World Magnetic Map series of secular variation models.

  16. Study about geomagnetic variations from data recorded at Surlari Geomagnetic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimopolos, Laurentiu; Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Sandulescu, Agata Monica; Niculici, Eugen

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents statistical and spectral analysis of data from Surlari Geomagnetic Observatory that contributing to study of geomagnetic variations. Thus were highlighted, for long series of records over several solar cycles, periodicities of 22 years and 11 years. Following the same procedures for medium recording series (multi-annual) have highlighted annual, seasonal and monthly periodicities. For shorter data series, we highlighted diurnal, semidiurnal, 8 hours and even lower periodicities. For very short series with a high sample rate and for few magnetotellurics records, we highlight different types of pulsations (Pc2 - Pc5 and Pi 2). Geomagnetic signals are the convolution product of the atomic stationary signals mono-frequential of different amplitudes associated to phenomena with a very broad band of periodicities and nondeterministic signals associated with geomagnetic disturbances and non-periodic phenomena. Among analysis processes used for discrete series of geomagnetic data with different lengths and sampling rates, can conclude the following: Moving average works as a low pass filter in frequency or high pass in time. By eliminating high frequency components (depending on mobile window size used) can be studied preferential periodicities greater than a given value. Signal linearization (using least squares) provides information on linear trend of the entire series analyzed. Thus, for the very long data series (several decades) we extracted the secular variation slope for each geomagnetic component, separately. The numeric derivative of signal versus time proved to be a very reliable indicator for geomagnetic disturbed periods. Thus, the derivative value may be increased by several orders of magnitude during periods of agitation in comparisons to calm periods. The correlation factor shows significant increases when between two time series a causal relationship exists. Variation of the correlation factor, calculated for a mobile window containing k

  17. A Statistical Model of the Fluctuations in the Geomagnetic Field from Paleosecular Variation to Reversal

    PubMed

    Camps; Prevot

    1996-08-01

    The statistical characteristics of the local magnetic field of Earth during paleosecular variation, excursions, and reversals are described on the basis of a database that gathers the cleaned mean direction and average remanent intensity of 2741 lava flows that have erupted over the last 20 million years. A model consisting of a normally distributed axial dipole component plus an independent isotropic set of vectors with a Maxwellian distribution that simulates secular variation fits the range of geomagnetic fluctuations, in terms of both direction and intensity. This result suggests that the magnitude of secular variation vectors is independent of the magnitude of Earth's axial dipole moment and that the amplitude of secular variation is unchanged during reversals. PMID:8670413

  18. Solar generated quasi-biennial geomagnetic variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    The existence of highly correlated quasi-biennial variations in the geomagnetic field and in solar activity is demonstrated. The analysis uses a numerical filter technique applied to monthly averages of the geomagnetic horizontal component and of the Zurich relative sunspot number. Striking correlations are found between the quasi-biennial geomagnetic variations determined from several magnetic observatories located at widely different longitudes, indicating a worldwide nature of the obtained variation. The correlation coefficient between the filtered Dst index and the filtered relative sunspot number is found to be -0.79 at confidence level greater than 99% with a time-lag of 4 months, with solar activity preceding the Dst variation. The correlation between the unfiltered data of Dst and of the sunspot number is also high with a similar time-lag. Such a timelag has not been discussed in the literature, and a further study is required to establish the mode of sun-earth relationship that gives this time delay.

  19. Secular variation curves of Mexico, progress, problems and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler-Arechalde, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Three cases of secular variation of Mexico will be analyzed. The first is the preliminary results of the record of the transition Bruhnes-Matuyama in a paleosol sequence. The second is the research of a rock shelter since late Pliocene-early Holocene to Posclassic (AD 900-1527). Finally the improvement of the first archaeomagnetic secular variation curve of Mesoamerica from 1973 to 2012 with the inclusion of new results like La Ciudadela and Teopancazco of Teotihuacan, Tlatelolco and Templo Mayor of Mexico City and Tula. Our results will be compared with previous records from lake sediments and volcanic rocks, the models available like CALS*K or other published curves.

  20. Secular Variation Across the Oceans: a Retrospective Study from 35 Years of Shipboard Total Field Measurements in the NE Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. A.; Verhoef, J.; Macnab, R.

    1992-01-01

    This is a pilot study to determine whether secular variation information can be retrieved from underway shipboard total field measurements with sufficient accuracy to complement geomagnetic data from land-based observatories. Applying the various new techniques described in this report, we extracted values of the total field at 42,677 crossovers or ship track intersection points contained in data sets collected between 18 degrees N and 50 degress N in the NE Atlantic, and extending temporally from 1955 to 1990. We used an edited subset of these total field values to derive the secular variation at 30,140 different locations in the study area, and compared the results with DGRF secular variation over the study area, calculated at 5 year intervals. The derived and DGRF values agree well, showing that indeed marine data can be a source for secular variations. However the analysis demonstrated that due to inherent noise in the marine data, only minor improvements on the DGRF values for the secular variation can be achieved.

  1. Secular variation of a metallic asteroid dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Harrison, R. J.; Neufeld, J. A.; Nimmo, F.; Herrero-Albillos, J.; Kronast, F.; Weiss, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms by which inward core solidification may drive dynamo activity, and the properties of any fields that may result from this process, are highly uncertain. The fast cooling rates of the IVA iron meteorites suggest that their parent core had its silicate mantle removed by planetary collisions during the early solar system. Due to the resulting rapid radiative surface cooling, the IVA parent core solidified from the top-down, permitting a cold metallic crust that feasibly experienced fields generated by the hot interior liquid as it inwardly solidified. The IVA meteorites therefore potentially contain unique paleomagnetic information regarding top-down solidification. Through x-ray microscopy of the cloudy zone in the Steinbach and Chinautla meteorites and traditional paleomagnetic measurements on silicates extracted from the Steinbach, Bishop Canyon and São João Nepomuceno meteorites, we argue that the IVA parent core generated an intense (>100 μT) and secularly varying (time-scale <100 kyr) field during top-down solidification. These results show that certain iron meteorites are capable of having experienced dynamo fields, and that asteroids can generate directionally varying magnetic activity, strengthening claims that the fundamentals of dynamo activity are consistent across small and large bodies. Models of the thermochemical evolution and solidification of an unmantled core suggest that this field resulted from liquid motion induced by the repeated delamination and sinking of material from the base of the inwardly solidifying crust. This efficient dynamo generation mechanism was likely capable of readily creating magnetic activity at the slow cooling rates expected within mantled, inwardly solidifying cores (e.g., Mercury, Ganymede, many asteroids). Combining this observation with that of efficient solidification-driven dynamos during bottom-up asteroid core solidification, it is likely that magnetic activity was widespread in the early solar

  2. FENNOSTACK and FENNORPIS: Varve dated Holocene palaeomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity stacks for Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowball, Ian; Zillén, Lovisa; Ojala, Antti; Saarinen, Timo; Sandgren, Per

    2007-03-01

    A Holocene palaeomagnetic secular variation master curve (FENNOSTACK) and a relative palaeointensity curve (FENNORPIS) for Fennoscandia are presented. These curves were produced by stacking palaeomagnetic data obtained from six annually laminated (varved) lake sediment sequences and one non-laminated sediment sequence. The six independent varve chronologies were combined to form a timescale, which extends between the present year and 10,200 Cal yr BP. Smoothed inclination and declination curves show trends that are similar to a palaeomagnetic secular variation curve for the United Kingdom, except that the ages of most of the statistically significant features are a few hundred years younger in the Fennoscandian data set. These differences are most likely due to excessively old ages of the United Kingdom features produced by the radiocarbon dating of bulk sediments. The standardized relative palaeointensity stack shows that the intensity of the geomagnetic field in Fennoscandia was highest at 2300 Cal yr BP and lowest at 7000 Cal yr BP. Three palaeointensity peaks (PIPs) and three palaeointensity lows (PILs) are identified in FENNORPIS and indicate that the intensity of geomagnetic field varied significantly on millennial scales in this region during the Holocene, but there is much scatter in the reconstruction prior to 8000 Cal yr BP. Higher frequency palaeointensity features present in individual records are not significant in the stacked data set, which implies that these are a result of local environmental bias. Significant discrepancies exist between the data and the output of the CALS7K.2 geomagnetic field model for the last 7000 yr. In particular, the largest declination swing observed in the data at 2670 Cal yr BP (feature "f") is not produced by the model, which is most likely due to the influence of an inaccurately dated Icelandic secular variation curve on the model result. Short term trends in standardized relative palaeointensity do differ from the

  3. Variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment during the Holocene and the past 50 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Riisager, Peter; Donadini, Fabio; Snowball, Ian; Muscheler, Raimund; Korhonen, Kimmo; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2008-07-01

    All absolute paleointensity data published in peer-reviewed journals were recently compiled in the GEOMAGIA50 database. Based on the information in GEOMAGIA50, we reconstruct variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment over the past 50 kyr, with a focus on the Holocene period. A running-window approach is used to determine the axial dipole moment that provides the optimal least-squares fit to the paleointensity data, whereas associated error estimates are constrained using a bootstrap procedure. We subsequently compare the reconstruction from this study with previous reconstructions of the geomagnetic dipole moment, including those based on cosmogenic radionuclides ( 10Be and 14C). This comparison generally lends support to the axial dipole moments obtained in this study. Our reconstruction shows that the evolution of the dipole moment was highly dynamic, and the recently observed rates of change (5% per century) do not appear unique. We observe no apparent link between the occurrence of archeomagnetic jerks and changes in the geomagnetic dipole moment, suggesting that archeomagnetic jerks most likely represent drastic changes in the orientation of the geomagnetic dipole axis or periods characterized by large secular variation of the non-dipole field. This study also shows that the Holocene geomagnetic dipole moment was high compared to that of the preceding ˜ 40 kyr, and that ˜ 4 · 10 22 Am 2 appears to represent a critical threshold below which geomagnetic excursions and reversals occur.

  4. On the secular variation of Saturn's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, S.; Bloxham, J.

    2016-01-01

    Saturn's nearly axisymmetric magnetic field poses a problem for dynamo theory, requiring that a special mechanism operates to axisymmetrize the field. The leading explanation is that zonal flows in a stably stratified layer surrounding the dynamo source region attenuate the non-axisymmetric components of the field. Here we demonstrate an important theoretical consequence of this axisymmetrization process: the secular variation of the field components must be extremely slow. Observational evidence suggests this may indeed be the case for Saturn. In addition, we present numerical dynamo simulations that reproduce the observed axisymmetry of Saturn's field and confirm the extremely slow secular variation rates in highly axisymmetric models. A consequence of this result is that we can use time variation of the axisymmetric field to learn about the non-axisymmetric field components which are not observed in present data from Cassini.

  5. The secular variation of cometary magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.; Daniels, P. A.

    1983-03-01

    This paper calculates the mean variation in absolute magnitude per perihelion passage, ΔH10, for short-period comets from the data of Vsekhsvyatskii and finds a value of 0.30 ± 0.06. Other mechanisms used for estimating cometary decay are reviewed an it is concluded that a more probable value for ΔH10 is about 0.002. Reasons for the discrepancy between these two values are given.

  6. Secular variations in the spatial distribution of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.E.; Cairns, B.

    1996-12-31

    To investigate the possible connection between tropical convection and secular changes in ozone, the modes of secular variability present in the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) ozone measurement were examined. To avoid the possibility of filter bias, an objective analysis was performed using empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) in which no a priori assumptions were made regarding the modes of variability present in the ozone data. In this approach, the spatial maps associated with the EOFs were used to provide information on the latitudinal and longitudinal structure of the ozone variations while a spectral analysis of the time series was used to identify the periods associated with the ozone changes. Spectral analysis of the time series failed to reveal any statistically significant periods. It was found that the dominant modes of variability in the TOMS ozone measurements are, in decreasing order, the annual cycle, the quasi-biennial oscillation, a pattern of variability that appears to be associated with a semi-annual cycle modulated by the 11-year solar cycle and secular changes that are clearly associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. The short data record relative to the length of the solar cycle precludes a positive identification of this mode. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. A Secular Variation Model for Igrf-12 Based on Swarm Data and Inverse Geodynamo Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, A.; Aubert, J.; Erwan, T.

    2014-12-01

    We are proposing a secular variation candidate model for the 12th generation of the international geomagnetic reference field, spanning the years 2015-2020. The novelty of our approach stands in the initialization of a 5-yr long integration of a numerical model of Earth's dynamo by means of inverse geodynamo modelling, as introduced by Aubert (GJI, 2014). This inverse technique combines the information coming from the observations (in the form of an instantaneous estimate of the Gauss coefficients for the magnetic field and its secular variation) with that coming from the multivariate statistics of a free run of a numerical model of the geodynamo. The Gauss coefficients and their error covariance properties are determined from Swarm data along the lines detailed by Thébault et al. (EPS, 2010). The numerical model of the geodynamo is the so-called Coupled Earth Dynamo model (Aubert et al., Nature, 2013), whose variability possesses a strong level of similarity with that of the geomagnetic field. We illustrate and assess the potential of this methodology by applying it to recent time intervals, with an initialization based on CHAMP data, and conclude by presenting our SV candidate, whose initialization is based on the 1st year of Swarm data This work is supported by the French "Agence Nationale de la Recherche" under the grant ANR-11-BS56-011 (http://avsgeomag.ipgp.fr) and by the CNES. References: Aubert, J., Geophys. J. Int. 197, 1321-1334, 2014, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu064 Aubert, J., Finlay, C., Fournier, F. Nature 502, 219-223, 2013, doi: 10.1038/nature12574 Thébault E. , A. Chulliat, S. Maus, G. Hulot, B. Langais, A. Chambodut and M. Menvielle, Earth Planets Space, Vol. 62 (No. 10), pp. 753-763, 2010.

  8. The quasi-biennial variation in the geomagnetic field: a global characteristics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin

    2016-04-01

    The periodicity of 1.5-3 years, namely the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), has been identified in the solar, geophysical, and atmospheric variability. Sugiura (1976) investigated the observatory annual means over 1900-1970 and confirmed the QBO in the geomagnetic field. At present, studying the quasi-biennial oscillation becomes substantial for separating the internal/external parts in the geomagnetic observations. For the internal field, two typical periodicities, namely the 6-year oscillation in the geomagnetic secular acceleration (SA) and the geomagnetic jerk (occurs in 1-2 years), have close period to the QBO. Recently, a global quasi-biennial fluctuation was identified in the geomagnetic core field model (Silva et al., 2012). Silva et al. speculated this 2.5 years signal to either external source remaining in the core field model or consequence of the methods used to construct the model. As more high-quality data from global observatories are available, it is a good opportunity to characterize the geomagnetic QBO in the global range. In this paper, we investigate the QBO in the observatory monthly geomagnetic field X, Y, and Z components spanning 1985-2010. We employ the observatory hourly means database from the World Data Center for Geomagnetism (WDC) for the investigation. Wavelet analysis is used to detect and identify the QBO, while Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis to obtain the statistics of the QBO. We apply the spherical harmonic analysis on QBO's amplitude, in order to quantify and separate internal and external sources. Three salient periods respectively at 2.9, 2.2, and 1.7 years, are identified in the amplitude spectrum over 1988-2008. The oscillation with the period of ~2.2 years is most prominent in all field components and further studied. In the X component the QBO is attenuated towards the polar regions, while in the Z component the amplitude of QBO increases with increasing of the geomagnetic latitude. At the high latitudes, the QBO

  9. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, Atsuki; Koyama, Yukinobu; Nose, Masahito; Hori, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yatagai, Akiyo

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet (Sq) geomagnetic field daily variation have been investigated using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic observation stations within the period of 1947 to 2013. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear dependence on the 10- to 12-year solar activity cycle and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008 to 2009. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude was approximately linear but about 53% of geomagnetic stations showed a weak nonlinear relation to the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second-order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947 to 2013 and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, the majority of trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity at 100-km altitude and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71% of the geomagnetic stations. Furthermore, the residual Sq amplitude at the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  10. Geomagnetic field variations in seismic waves traveling across a fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukishov, B. G.; Spivak, A. A.; Ter-Semenov, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The results of regular instrumental observations over geomagnetic field variations in the zones of influence of tectonic faults during movement of seismic waves of varied intensity are presented. It has been shown that seismic waves with an amplitude more than 5-10 μm/s, traveling across the fault zone, always produced geomagnetic field variations. At weaker seismic disturbances, geomagnetic field variations are of the "glimmer" character, and the relative frequency of appearance of the effect drops as the seismic wave amplitude decreases. The quantitative dependence between the maximal value of the full vector of variations in geomagnetic field induction in a fault zone and the amplitude of the seismic disturbance has been found for the first time.

  11. Holocene Full-Vector Secular Variation from African Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, S.; Platzman, E. S.; Johnson, T. C.; Scholz, C. A.; Cohen, A. S.; Russell, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    We are developing a regional pattern of Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) from four lakes in East Africa - Lake Turkana (3°N), Lake Victoria (1°S), Lake Tanganyika (5°S), and Lake Malawi (10°S). Detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements have been made on two cores from Lake Malawi (9m meters in depth, last ~10,000 years), two cores from Lake Victoria (8 m, last ~8,000 years), 11 cores from Lake Turkana (2-9 m, last ~10,000 years), and one core from Lake Tanganyika (5 m, last ~5,000 years). Our rock magnetic studies identify significant intervals of magnetic mineral dissolution in Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika making parts of these cores unsuitable for relative paleointensity studies. On the other hand, rock magnetic variability in the Lake Malawi and Lake Turkana cores are stable and correlatable among cores. We have recovered directional secular variation records from Lakes Malawi, Victoria, and Turkana. Millennial-scale inclination and declination features can be correlated among cores at each lake and between lakes. We have also recovered relative paleointensity records from Lakes Malawi and Turkana. More than 20 radiocarbon dates and detailed seismic stratigraphy (Turkana) provide critical added information for correlating and dating the paleomagnetic records.

  12. New Data for the Mesoamerican Directional Secular Variation Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler-Arechalde, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mesoamerican direction secular variation curve is an endless project, new data has been incorporated each year. The new data have radiocarbon dates associated. Wolfman in 1990 proposed the First Curve of Mesoamerica from 1 to 1200 DC. Since 2000 the UNAM´s Archaeomagnetism team has been working continuously by sampling 9 new sites and resampling new stages of Teotihuacan, Teopancazco and Tula. As a result of these investigations more than 70 new data has been annexed and the curve grows until 1600 DC. Data from El Tejar and DuBois has allowed to expand the curve until 1200 BC. An analysis of the incorporation of these new data is presented and the resultant curve is compared to the ARCH3K model.

  13. Comments on 'Remarks on the secular change in the energy density spectrum of the geomagnetic field' by Joachim Meyer.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    Meyer has discussed only the Rn aspect of the Alldredge (1984) paper he is criticising. He has ignored the pictorial demonstration of the need for higher harmonics to properly describe the secular variation field than the main field as demonstrated. This more or less independent demonstration supports the general conclusion of that paper. -from Author

  14. An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M.G.; Fraser, B.J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J.Y.; Lynn, K.J.W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Otadoy, R.E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B.M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M. G.; Fraser, B. J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J. Y.; Lynn, K. J. W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V. M.; Otadoy, R. E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B. M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-10-01

    An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ≤ 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity.

  16. Estimating the change in asymptotic direction due to secular changes in the geomagnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flueckiger, E. O.; Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; Gentile, L. C.; Bathurat, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of geomagnetic optics, as described by the asymptotic directions of approach, is extremely useful in the analysis of cosmic radiation data. However, when changes in cutoff occur as a result of evolution in the geomagnetic field, there are corresponding changes in the asymptotic cones of acceptance. A method is introduced of estimating the change in the asymptotic direction of approach for vertically incident cosmic ray particles from a reference set of directions at a specific epoch by considering the change in the geomagnetic cutoff.

  17. Main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th IGRF generation after 10 months of Swarm measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturnino, Diana; Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan; Mandea, Mioara

    2015-06-01

    We describe the main field and secular variation candidate models for the 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field model. These two models are derived from the same parent model, in which the main field is extrapolated to epoch 2015.0 using its associated secular variation. The parent model is exclusively based on measurements acquired by the European Space Agency Swarm mission between its launch on 11/22/2013 and 09/18/2014. It is computed up to spherical harmonic degree and order 25 for the main field, 13 for the secular variation, and 2 for the external field. A selection on local time rather than on true illumination of the spacecraft was chosen in order to keep more measurements. Data selection based on geomagnetic indices was used to minimize the external field contributions. Measurements were screened and outliers were carefully removed. The model uses magnetic field intensity measurements at all latitudes and magnetic field vector measurements equatorward of 50° absolute quasi-dipole magnetic latitude. A second model using only the vertical component of the measured magnetic field and the total intensity was computed. This companion model offers a slightly better fit to the measurements. These two models are compared and discussed.We discuss in particular the quality of the model which does not use the full vector measurements and underline that this approach may be used when only partial directional information is known. The candidate models and their associated companion models are retrospectively compared to the adopted IGRF which allows us to criticize our own choices.

  18. Geomagnetic Indices Variations And Human Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2007-12-01

    A group of 86 volunteers was examined on each working day in autumn 2001 and in spring 2002. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were registered. Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated. Data about subjective psycho-physiological complaints (SPPC) were also gathered. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained. ANOVA was employed to check the significance of influence of daily amplitude of H-component of local geomagnetic field, daily planetary Ap-index and hourly planetary Dst-index on the physiological parameters examined. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors levels. Average values of SBP, DBP, PP and SPPC of the group were found to increase statistically significantly and biologically considerably with the increase of geomagnetic indices.

  19. Geomagnetic variations and solar activity relationship in the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly -SAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Frigo, Everton; Rigon Silva, Willian; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; de Siqueira, Josemar

    Comparative studies between the ACE satellite's solar wind parameters (speed and density of the solar plasma ) and the geomagnetic variations recorded in the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra, (29,43° S, 53,82° W, 488m a.s.l.), RS, Brazil, a were performed. The three orthogonal geomagnetic field components data were acquired with a fluxgate magnetometer with 0.5Hz acquisition rate. Comparisons between the temporal evolution of the geomagnetic field intensity and the solar wind parameters for different phases of the solar cycle were analyzed. It was possible to identify fast changes in the geomagnetic field which may be correlated with stronger or wicker solar activity with important effects around midday in the local Ionosphere. This fact confirm the existence of relationships between the local geomagnetic variations and the solar activity. The periods of higher solar activity are related to a significant increasing in the flow of electrically charged particles in the atmosphere. As consequence of the physical and chemical phenomena, associated to these particles flow increases, are damages in satellites that orbit this region, as well as the induced electric currents in the Earth surface that causes damages in the electric power systems.

  20. Archeointensities in Greece during the Neolithic period: New insights into material selection and secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, G.; Aidona, E.; Kondopoulou, D.; Camps, P.; Rathossi, C.; Poidras, T.

    2013-02-01

    Numerous archeomagnetic studies have provided high quality data for both the direction and the intensity of the geomagnetic field, essentially in Europe for the last 10 millennia. In particular, Greece supplies a lot of archeological materials due to its impressive cultural heritage and volcanic activity, so that numerous data have been obtained from burnt clays or historical lava flows. The most recent Greek secular variation curves are available for the last 8 millennia for the intensity and the last 6 millennia for the direction. Nevertheless, the coverage still presents several gaps for periods older than 2500 BC. In an effort to complete the Greek curve and extend it to older times, we present the archeointensity results from three Neolithic settlements in Northern Greece. The samples are of two different natures: burnt structures from Avgi (5250 ± 150 BC) and Vasili (4800 ± 200 BC), as well as ceramics from Dikili Tash (4830 ± 80 BC) and Vasili (4750 ± 250 BC). The samples have been subjected to standard rock magnetic analyses in order to estimate the thermal stability and the domain state of the magnetic carriers before archeointensity measurements. Surprisingly, very few ceramic samples provided reliable archeointensities whereas samples from burnt structures presented a very good success rate. Complementary studies showed that a detailed examination of the matrix color, following archeological information and classification standards can be a decisive test for pre-selection of sherds. In spite of these unsuccessful measurements from ceramics, we obtained an intensity value of 73.5 ± 1.1 μT for Dikili Tash, a higher value than the other data obtained in the same area, during the same period. However we do not have evidences for a technical artefact during the experiment. The burnt structures yielded two reliable archeointensities of 36.1 ± 1.8 μT and 46.6 ± 3.4 μT for Avgi and Vasili, respectively. Finally, we achieved a new archeomagnetic dating

  1. The visible spectrum of Pluto: secular and longitudinal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, Vania; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; Emery, Joshua P.; Licandro, Javier; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Grundy, Will; Binzel, Richard P.

    2015-11-01

    Continuous near-infrared spectroscopic observations during the last 30 years enabled the characterization of the Pluto's surface and the study of its variability. Nevertheless, only few data are available in the visible range, where the nature of the complex-organics can be studied.For this reason, we started an observational campaign to obtain the Pluto's relative reflectance in the visible range, with the aim of characterizing the different components of its surface, and providing ground based observations in support of the New Horizons mission. We observed Pluto on six nights in 2014, with the imager/spectrograph ACAM@WHT (La Palma, Spain). We obtained six spectra in the 0.40 - 0.93 µm range, that covered a whole Pluto's rotational period (6.4 days).To study longitudinal variations, we computed for all the spectra the spectral slope, and the position and the depth of the methane ice absorption bands. Also, to search for secular or seasonal variations we compared our data with previously published results.All the spectra present a red slope, indicating the presence of complex organics on Pluto's surface, and show the methane ice absorption bands between 0.73 and 0.90 μm. We also report the detection of the CH4 absorption band at 0.62 μm, already detected in the spectra of Makemake and Eris. The measurement of the band depth at 0.62 μm in the new spectra of Pluto, and in the spectra of Makemake and Eris, permits us to estimate the Lambert coefficient, not measured yet at this wavelength, at a temperature of 30 K and 40 K.We find that all the CH4 bands present a blue shift. This shift is minimum at the Charon-facing hemisphere, where the CH4 is also more abundant, indicating a higher degree of saturation of CH4 in the CH4:N2 dilution at this hemisphere.Comparing with data in the literature, we found that the longitudinal and secular variations of the parameters measured in our spectra are in accordance with previous results and with the distribution of the dark

  2. Comments on slow latitude variations and secular motion of the Earth's pole.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsun', A. A.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    Re-reduced latitude and time observations based on the HIPPARCOS frame were analysed in connection with the problem of existence of secular polar motion. It is shown that there are large non-polar variations of mean latitudes and longitudes which could hamper the determination of secular polar motion.

  3. The Mesoamerica Secular Variation Curve. A continuous research since 1999.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Caballero-Miranda, C. I.; Gogichaichvili, A.; Beramendi-Orosco, L.; Gonzalez-Hernández, G.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2009-05-01

    Since 1999 we have been working on improving the Mesoamerica Secular Variation Curve. We re-sampled some sites that Wolfman initially used in its first proposal of this Curve, such as Teotihuacan, Teopancazco and Tula. Wolfman 's curve only had 4 radiocarbon dates directly associated with the sampled sites; the other dating were actually stratigraphic and ceramic correlations. More than 28 radiocarbon dates have been incorporated from AD 60 to 560 from samples associated to Teotihuacan civilization, 13 more from Xochicalco and 10 from Tula. More than 1000 specimens, from 12 twelve sites were fully processed with alternated field demagnetization We have been working during the excavation campaigns and training the archeologist to get their samples. A 100-year moving window was employed to get the average poles. A Bayesian statistic has been employed in order to improve our curve. We still denote a lack of data from two time intervals: from 0 to 200 and from 1000 to 1600. We are now working on it, collecting samples from these periods, such as those from La Joya, Ver, which are now been processing and from which some preliminary results will be reported.

  4. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.

    2012-12-01

    It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by the global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region, which are generated by dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Recently, Elias et al. [2010] reported that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes in a period of 1961-2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is due to ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effect in the thermosphere due to increasing greenhouse gas. In the present study, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 solar flux as a good indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range as well as geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour observed at 184 geomagnetic stations. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum every day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude at all the geomagnetic stations shows a strong correlation with the solar F10.7 flux which depends on 11-year solar activity. The relationship between the Sq amplitude and F10.7 flux was not linear but nonlinear. This nonlinearity could be interpreted as the decrease of production rate of electrons and ions in the ionosphere for the strong EUV and UV fluxes as already reported by Balan et al. [1993]. In order to minimize the solar

  5. Secular variation of the aurora for the past 500 years

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.M. )

    1992-11-01

    Direct observations of the Sun exist only since about 1700. Understanding of long-term solar variability thus depends on proxy data, such as visual auroral observations, measurements of magnetic activity, and the radiocarbon record. These also give information on the interaction between the solar wind, interplanetary field, and terrestrial magnetosphere, as well as, for the radiocarbon record, heliospheric conditions. This paper uses a data base of visual auroral observations for a period of about 500 years, from 1450 to 1948, comprising about 45,000 observations, in addition to the well-known sunspot series and the magnetic activity index [ital aa], from 1868 to 1990. The secular variation of the aurora is examined and compared to sunspot data and magnetic activity data. Blackman-Tukey power spectra are used to determine periodicities. The study confirms the variability of the periodicities in frequency and amplitude. The 11.1-year cycle disappears during the Mounder minimum and at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century. While the 11.1-year period is normally strongly dominant for sunspots, other shorter periods become important for auroras and magnetic activity. Prolonged solar activity minima are clearly evident. In addition to the known Sporer, Mounder, Dalton, and 1901-1913 minima, a previously unrecognized minimum about 1765 is clearly evident in the data. Comparison of the depth of these minima shows that the Dalton minimum may rival the Mounder minimum in importance. Combining the polar data base with that of mid-latitudes provides a globally comprehensive historical record of auroral occurrence. The data provide confirmation of the anticorrelation of auroral occurrence in the polar regions with sunspot activity. The data provide a basis for understanding the variation over time of the general magnetic field of the Sun, in particular the polar field. 59 refs., 29 figs.

  6. Character of Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation in the tangent cylinder: Evidence from the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steve; Keigwin, Lloyd; Darby, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    We have carried out a paleomagnetic study on three deep-sea cores from the Chukchi Sea (72°N) in order to characterize the Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) in this high-latitude region. The Chukchi Sea lies within the geomagnetic-field tangent cylinder and PSV variability in this region might be expected to have a different pattern than PSV at sites located outside the tangent cylinder at lower latitudes. We have recovered correlatable directional PSV records and relative paleointensity records from all three cores. 15 radiocarbon dates were used to develop a chronostratigraphy for the PSV records. These records constitute the highest-resolution full-vector PSV records ever recovered from such high latitudes. We have compared our results with other previous studies from the region and find that our overall PSV is consistent with these other studies, although there are sometimes age differences up to 1000 years between correlatable PSV features. Our statistical PSV characteristics indicate that field variability (VGP angular dispersion) is lower than in regions just south of the Chukchi Sea and outside the tangent cylinder, but our records are probably not long enough to completely characterize PSV. However, our results are consistent with the only other published VGP angular dispersion results from inside the tangent cylinder (Antarctica, 79°S).

  7. Use of Paleomagnetic Secular Variation, Excursion, and Reversal Records to Correlate African Lake Climate Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J.; Heil, C.; Peck, J.; Scholz, C.; Shanahan, T.; Overpeck, J.

    2005-12-01

    Geomagnetic secular variation, excursions, and reversal records can provide an excellent means for high resolution correlation of sedimentary climate records. Recent drilling projects on Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, and Lake Malawi, Malawi, have provided the opportunity to study long African climate records (<1 Ma). Magnetic studies of these sedimentary archives indicate that high quality SV records are preserved through most of the sequence despite the fact that anoxia is the usual condition of bottom waters in both lakes. We compare the magnetic records of Lake Bosumtwi and Lake Malawi to test our ability to correlate between West African and East African lakes. In addition, we compare the magnetic record of Lake Malawi to records from Lake Tanganyika in East Africa and the Indian Ocean region, and the record of Lake Bosumtwi to that of Lake Barombi Mbo in West Africa. Correlations within regions are straightforward and highly useful for intrasite correlation. Correlation between East and West Africa is also possible, although the resolution of the correlation is more limited.

  8. The Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere at Solar Minimum: Cyclical and Secular Variation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Qian, L.; Luan, X.

    2009-12-01

    Solar activity during 2007 and 2008 was extremely low, including ultraviolet irradiance, solar wind parameters, and the interplanetary magnetic field. During this protracted solar minimum period, the terrestrial upper atmosphere and ionosphere were expectedly cooler, lower in density, and consequently lower in altitude, than usual. The question remains as to whether the terrestrial response to this solar minimum is significantly different from previous solar minima, and if so, how different. This question is posed against the backdrop of secular change due to increased levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which increase tropospheric temperature but have the inverse effect of cooling the upper atmosphere. In order to understand the causes of these changes, and to quantify the interplay of the solar cycle with the evolution of upper atmosphere and ionosphere climate, we present a combination of data analysis and global numerical simulation. Thermospheric density data from atmospheric drag on satellites, ionospheric measurements by the COSMIC mission and from ground-based sources, and cooling rate data from the SABER instrument on the TIMED mission are compared to model simulations by the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). Solar ultraviolet irradiance observations, solar wind and geomagnetic data, and measurements of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, provide the external forcing of the model. Changes during the descent into solar minimum are compared to previous solar minima, and to model simulations, to evaluate how much of the current phenomenon is attributable to solar variation, and how much to anthropogenic sources.

  9. Semiannual variation of the geomagnetic activity and solar wind parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, M.; Moreno, G.; Parisi, M.; Storini, M.

    1993-10-01

    The semiannual variation of the geomagnetic activity is investigated in connection with a large set of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field data (4494 daily averages from 1965 to 1987). Our analysis confirms that the geomagnetic activity (described by the aa index), is mainly modulated by the southward component of the magnetic field (BS), as suggested by Russell and McPherron. On the other hand, it is also found that the solar wind velocity (V) has a relevant role in this phenomenon. In fact, the amplitude of the aa modulation is best correlated with the function BSV2. We also explore the linkage between the annual trend of aa and the sunspot activity (1868-1989), showing that the modulation of the geomagnetic activity follows a more regular pattern during the descending phase of the solar cycle than during the rising and maximum parts.

  10. Geomagnetic Variations and Their Possible Effects on System Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeier, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Earth magnetic field exhibits a variety of temporal variations with time scales ranging from a few seconds up to millions of years. The most pronounced variation is certainly a polarity transition during which the geomagnetic field strength decays down to about 10-20 % of its current value. A question of immediate interest is whether and in which way System Earth reacts on such a dramatic event. First the magnetosphere changes its size and shape. Due to the decreasing geomagnetic field the magnetopause is located much closer to the surface of the Earth. If the field exhibits strong quadrupole components magnetic reconnection can happen in the northern dayside magnetosphere with the southern hemisphere featuring a closed magnetosphere. Also the magnetotail structure changes drastically. Energetic particle entry occurs not only in dipolar cap regions but over much enlarged areas. As the ionospheric conductivity depends on the geomagnetic field strength first estimates furthermore indicate that externally driven geomagnetic variations are stronger during times of a polarity transition. The weaker field also makes the middle atmosphere much more sensitive to energetic particle events and large natural ozone holes are very likely during polarity transitions as first model calculations indicate.

  11. The First Radiocarbon-Constrained Full-Vector Holocene Paleomagnetic Secular Variation Reconstruction for Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, F.; St-Onge, G.; Stoner, J.; Lajeunesse, P.

    2009-05-01

    Here we present the first high-resolution Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) master curve and relative paleointensity stack constrained by radiocarbon dates for Eastern Canada. This reconstruction is based on seven sedimentary sequences collected from the St. Lawrence Estuary and Gulf from the head to the mouth of the Laurentian Channel. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM), the anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) were measured on u-channel samples at the Paleomagnetism Laboratory of ISMER using a 2G Enterprises cryogenic magnetometer. Magnetic mineralogy was additionally assessed using a recently installed alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGM). The magnetic mineralogy of the Holocene postglacial sediments is mainly carried by low-coercivity ferrimagnetic minerals (most likely magnetite) in the pseudo-single domain size range. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), assessed by principal component analysis, reveals the presence of a stable and well-defined magnetization characterized by maximum angular deviation (MAD) values generally lower than 5°. Furthermore, ChRM inclinations fluctuate around the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic inclination for the latitude of the coring sites (from 63° to 66°). The similarity of these records on their own independent timescales implies that all of the individual sedimentary sequences record a reliable Holocene PSV record for Eastern Canada. Relative paleointensity (RPI) was estimated by normalizing the NRM by the ARM which provided the best coercivity match. Lastly, the paleomagnetic directional and RPI records were stacked on a common time scale spanning the last ~10 000 cal BP. The smoothed PSV stack reveal centennial- to millennial-scale geomagnetic features concordant with the CALS7K.2 time-varying spherical harmonic model, as well as with the US eastern stack (King and Peck, 2001). Comparisons further a field with the

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Geomagnetic Field Determined From the Paleomagnetism of Sediment Cores From Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, G.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of the main geomagnetic field at Earth's surface is important for understanding underlying geodynamo processes and conditions near the core-mantle boundary. Much of the geomagnetic variability, known as secular variation, occurs on timescales of tens of years to many thousands of years, requiring the use of paleomagnetic observations to derive continuous records of the ancient field, referred to as paleosecular variation (PSV) records. Marine depositional systems where thick sedimentary sections accumulate at high sedimentation rates provide some of the best locations for obtaining long continuous PSV records that can reveal both the short- and long-term changes in the field. Scientific ocean drilling has been successful at recovering many such sections and the paleomagnetic records from these reveal how the amplitude of PSV differs between sites and through time. In this study, several such records cored during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), and other cruises from high, mid, and low latitudes will be used to quantify time intervals of low and high PSV, to examine time-average properties of the field, to map spatial variations in the angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP), and to assess whether the spatial variation in angular dispersion changes with time.

  13. Solar daily variation at geomagnetic observatories in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Zain; Kumbher, Abdul Salam

    2016-03-01

    A study of solar daily variation is performed using the famous Chapman-Miller method for solar cycles 22 & 23 (1986-2007). The objective is to study the characteristics of Sq variation at Pakistani geomagnetic observatories using solar harmonics and a more traditional five quietest day's method. The data recorded at the Karachi geomagnetic observatory for SC 22 and 23 and data sets from other Pakistani geomagnetic observatories; Sonmiani, Quetta and Islamabad are analyzed for H, D and Z components of the geomagnetic field. Except for the D and Z components at Karachi and Sonmiani and H component at Islamabad, the two solar daily variations correlated well with each other. Also, the synthesized daily variation from the solar harmonics of H, D and Z components explained the equivalent Sq current system reasonably well for all seasons. For H component, the first solar harmonic (s1) obtained from spherical harmonic analysis of the data, appeared as the largest harmonic with no significant changes for the seasonal division of data. However, for D and Z components, amplitudes are comparable, but undergo distinct variations. s1 for H and D components increases with magnetic activity while for Z component it is the largest for the medium phase of magnetic activity. With the sunspot number division of data, the weighted mean of the Wolf ratio of all three components is in good agreement with the previous studies. The synthesized solar daily variation for D component, S(D), at Karachi, Sonmiani, Quetta and Islamabad did not show any signs of winter anomaly for the period studied. However, S(D) variation at Karachi during winter season showed morning minimum followed by a maximum at local noon and another minimum in the afternoon. We suggest this could be the effects of Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly (EIA) observable at the Karachi observatory only during the winter season. Similarly, much disturbed in equinoctial and summer months, S(Z) illustrated an unwavering daily

  14. Mountains versus valleys: Semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Kamide, Y.; Ling, A. G.

    2000-02-01

    The semiannual variation in geomagnetic activity is generally attributed to the Russell-McPherron effect. In that picture, enhancements of southward field Bs near the equinoxes account for the observed higher geomagnetic activity in March and September. In a contrary point of view, we argue that the bulk of the semiannual variation results from an equinoctial effect (based on the ψ angle between the solar wind flow direction and Earth's dipole axis) that makes Bs coupling less effective (by ~25% on average) at the solstices. Thus the semiannual variation is not simply due to ``mountain building'' (creation of Bs) at the equinoxes but results primarily from ``valley digging'' (loss of coupling efficiency) at the solstices. We estimate that this latter effect, which clearly reveals itself in the diurnal variation of the am index, is responsible for ~65% of the semiannual modulation. The characteristic imprint of the equinoctial hypothesis is also apparent in hourly/monthly averages of the time-differential Dst index and the AE index.

  15. Probing Geomagnetic Jerks combining Geomagnetic and Earth Rotation Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, R. T.; de Viron, O.

    2013-12-01

    Geomagnetic jerks, first observed in the late 1970s, are the most rapid variations in the observed geomagnetic field that are believed to be of internal origin. Their occurence has been correlated with a number of different geophysical phenomena. Here we consider simultaneous features in variations in Earth's length of day. Recently, we have provided a simple description of non-atmospheric variations in length of day (LOD), consisting of 3 components: a slowly varying decadal trend, a 5.9-year oscillation, and occasional sudden jumps. Both of the shorter period parts of this correlate with geomagnetic jerks, with peaks in the LOD oscillation being contemporaneous with well-known jerk occurances (for example in 1969, 1972, 1978 and 1982), and jumps in the LOD fitting a jerk observed in satellite data in 2003.5. The simultaneous observation of these two features constrains Earth structure, in particular limiting the electric conductivity of the deep mantle. However, the nature of the LOD changes also may change the paradigm for the study of jerk timings. it is customarily assumed that the jerks represent features in the geomagnetic field that are continuous in the secular variation, but discontinuous in its derivative, the secular acceleration. However, a jump in LOD suggested by the modelling of the data would correspond also to a jump in SV, thus invalidating standard methods for temporal location of a jerk (which will consider the intersection of best-fit straight lines to the secular variation before and after). Olsen and Mandea have localised a jerk in satellite virtual observatory data using flow modelling; this seems the most promising method to investigate whether jerks could have discontinuous secular variation. We apply similar methods to time series of virtual geomagnetic obseratories from satellite data to further explore geomagnetic jerks and their rotational links in the geomagnetic satellite era.

  16. New archaeointensity results from archaeological sites and variation of the geomagnetic field intensity for the last 7 millennia in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Kondopoulou, D.

    In this study six new intensity determinations are presented, obtained from five well dated archaeological sites, located in northern Greece and in Paros, Cyclades Islands. The fired structures consisted of ceramic and pottery kilns belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Between 8 and 21 samples of highly fired baked clays, tiles and bricks were taken, homogeneously distributed over the structures. The samples were analysed using the classical Thellier method, providing the past intensities and directions of the geomagnetic field recorded at each site. The intensity values have been corrected for anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetisation and cooling rate effects. Differences in the mean archaeointensities per site ranging from 1% to 11%, before and after TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections, were obtained. The new results indicate a decrease of 20% of the geomagnetic field strength in Greece, during the last four centuries BC. In order to compare our results with previously published data, a catalogue of archaeo- and palaeointensity results for the Aegean area has been established, covering the last 7 millennia. It consists of 336 data from Greece, western Turkey and Former Yugoslavia, collected from various authors. Weighting factors have been applied to these data, that then have been treated with a hierarchical Bayesian modelling, and a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for Greece was constructed. A good agreement is observed when comparing the curve for Greece with the Bulgarian secular variation curve (SVC) for intensity. Satisfactory coincidence is also found with the archaeointensity data from Mesopotamia. Despite the presence of some time gaps, a more precise secular variation intensity curve has been constructed for Greece which, combined with a forthcoming directional SVC, will help for dating purposes.

  17. Active experiments in the ionosphere and geomagnetic field variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivokon, V. P.; Cherneva, N. V.; Khomutov, S. Y.; Serovetnikov, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Variations of ionospheric-magnetospheric relation energy, as one of the possible outer climatology factors, may be traced on the basis of analysis of natural geophysical phenomena such as ionosphere artificial radio radiation and magnetic storms. Experiments on active impact on the ionosphere have been carried out for quite a long time in Russia as well. The most modern heating stand is located in Alaska; it has been used within the HAARP Program. The possibility of this stand to affect geophysical fields, in particular, the geomagnetic field is of interest.

  18. Magnetic signals from the core of the earth and secular variation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    An oscillating, radial magnetic dipole source was assumed to exist in the core of the earth, 100 km beneath the core-mantle boundary. As an approximation, electromagnetic propagation was assumed in the core in lieu of hydromagnetic propagation, which could not be used because of unknown internal fields. Using Debye potentials, the radial and horizontal components of the surface fields were calculated using various assumed conductivity parameters in the core and in the mantle. It is concluded that most spherical harmonic models of the earth's magnetic field do not include enough terms to describe properly the field of core sources with periods of tens of years. These short-period variations are especially important in describing the secular variation. Because of this, a proper description of the secular variation requires more spherical harmonic terms than are required for the field itself. Inadequate representation of short-period variations in spherical harmonic models may contribute to the rapid deterioration of predictive models. Alternatives to spherical harmonic analysis for secular variation should be investigated; regardlesss of the method used, a much greater spatial distribution of high quality secular variation data is needed. -Author

  19. Correlation of the earth's rotation rate and the secular change of the geomagnetic field. [power spectra/harmonic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    Power spectral density analysis using Burg's maximum entropy method was applied to the geomagnetic dipole field and its rate of change for the years 1901 to 1969. Both spectra indicate relative maxima at 0.015 cycles/year and its harmonics. These maxima correspond approximately to 66, 33, 22, 17, 13, 11, and 9-year spectral lines. The application of the same analysis techniques to the length-of-day (l.o.d) fluctuations for the period 1865 to 1961 reveal similar spectral characteristics. Although peaks were observed at higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency, the 22-year and 11-year lines are not attributed unambiguously to the solar magnetic cycle and the solar cycle. It is suggested that the similarity in the l.o.d fluctuations and the dipole field variations is related to the motion within the earth's fluid core during the past one hundred years.

  20. Empirical evidence for latitude dependence and asymmetry of geomagnetic spatial variation in mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shikun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xihai; Liu, Daizhi; Wang, Xiqin

    2016-05-01

    Spatiotemporal geomagnetic variation is a significant research topic of geomagnetism and space physics. Generated by convection and flows within the fluid outer core, latitude dependence and asymmetry, as the inherent spatiotemporal properties of geomagnetic field, have been extensively studied. We apply and modify an extension of existing method, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is an efficient tool for modeling the statistical properties of time series. Based on ground magnetic measurement data set in mainland China, first, we find the parameters of HMM can be used as the geomagnetic statistical signature to represent the spatiotemporal geomagnetic variations for each site. The results also support the existence of the geomagnetic latitude dependence more apparently. Furthermore, we provide solid empirical evidence for geomagnetic asymmetry relying on such ground magnetic measurement data set.

  1. New Sediment Data to Constrain Southern Atlantic Holocene Secular Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korte, M. C.; Frank, U.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Frederichs, T.; Brown, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The present day geomagnetic field shows a notable weak zone stretching from South America to southern Africa. This is known as the South Atlantic Anomaly caused by a growing patch of reversed magnetic flux at the core-mantle boundary. The investigation of existence and evolution of similar features over the past millennia using global spherical harmonic models is hampered by the fact that at present only very few paleomagnetic data from equatorial and many southern hemisphere regions are available to constrain models well in these regions. Here, we present the results of paleomagnetic investigations of sediment cores from four locations at low latitudes. OPD 1078 and 1079 lie off the coast of Angola, GeoB6517-2 and ODP 1076D are located in the Congo Fan and M35003-4 is situated southeast of Grenada in the Tobago Basin. In addition to the paleomagnetic work all cores were subjected to a comprehensive set of rock magnetic measurements. Detailed age models based on radiocarbon dating are available for all locations, since the sites were already subjects of different aspects of climatic studies. We include these new records and previously presented data from two Ethiopian locations in millennial scale global models of the CALSxk type. Agreement of the new data to previous models and modifications of models due to the additional data are discussed, focussing in particular on magnetic field structures resembling the present-day South Atlantic Anomaly.

  2. Geomagnetic Field Variation during CME Events at High Latitude in European Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandel, Babita

    Geomagnetic Field Variation during CME Events at High Latitude in European Zone Babita Chandel, Shailendra Saini ,Sneha Yadav and A.K.Gwal Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India Abstract: The concerning results, are the variation of Geomagnetic Field Component in European Zone during CME events. The geomagnetic events selected for this study occurred during 2003-2006, a period of declining phase of solar cycle 23rd at European zone (Tromso, Sodankyla and Rorvik with Geomagnetic Latitude 69.39o N and Long. 18.56o E, Geomagnetic Latitude 67.360o N and Long. 26.363o E and Geomagnetic Latitude 64.56o N and Long.10.59 o E). From this study it is observed that the strength of a geomagnetic storm depends on the interplanetary-magnetospheric coupling parameter VBz. Higher the value of VBz, higher will be the strength of geomagnetic storm. Magnitude of variation at Rorvik is more as compared to Tromso and magnitude of variation is more at Tromso as compared to Sodankyla. Variation in vertical component is less as compared to the north-south and east-west component. Geomagnetic field components shows the variation when either interplanetary magnetic field orientes southward or remains southward for few hours.

  3. The use of geomagnetic field models in magnetic surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, R. D.; Gain, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of global geomagnetic field models for the reduction of magnetic surveys is discussed. It is demonstrated that a numerical model with adequate secular variation correction, provides a suitable representation of the regional field. The limitations of the presently available models are reported, with emphasis on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field.

  4. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the amplitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsuda, T.

    2011-12-01

    It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region from middle latitudes to the magnetic equator. These currents are generated by a dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the thermosphere and ionosphere. From the Ohm's equation, the ionospheric currents strongly depend on the ionospheric conductivity, polarization electric field and neutral wind. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the thermosphere and ionosphere. Elias et al. [2010] found that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes from 1961 to 2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effects in the thermosphere due to increasing the greenhouse gases. In this talk, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. These observation data have been provided by the IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) project. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 flux as an indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range, geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum per day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the Sq amplitude at all the stations strongly depends on 11-year solar activity, and tends to enhance more during the high activities (19- and 22- solar cycles) than during the low activity (20-solar cycle). The Fourier spectra of the F10.7 flux and Sq

  5. Latitudinal variation of the polar cusp during a geomagnetic storm

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, C.

    1982-01-01

    Large amplitude latitudinal variation of the polar cusp position was observed during the intense geomagnetic storm of 15--16 February 1980. The observation of the polar cusp, identified as the region of intense but extremely soft electron precipitation, was made by two nearly noon-midnight orbit DMSP satellites over both northern and southern hemispheres. The latitudinal shift of the polar cusp is observed to be related to the intensity variation of the ring current indicated by the hourly Dst values. The polar cusp region moved from its normal location at approx.76/sup 0/ gm lat down to approx.62/sup 0/ gm lat at the peak of this storm. This movement took about 5 hours and was detected over both hemispheres. A drastic variation in the width of the cusp region was also observed; it is very narrow (approx.1/sup 0/) during the equatorial shift and expands to > or approx. =5/sup 0/ during the poleward recovery. Variation of the polar cusp latitude with that of the Dst index was also seen during the period before the intense storm.

  6. Modeling the Jovian magnetic field and its secular variation using all available magnetic field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Victoria A.; Holme, Richard

    2016-03-01

    We present new models of Jupiter's internal magnetic field and secular variation from all available direct measurements from three decades of spacecraft observation. A regularized minimum norm approach allows the creation of smooth, numerically stable models displaying a high degree of structure. External field from the magnetodisk is modeled iteratively for each orbit. Jupiter's inner magnetosphere is highly stable with time, with no evidence for variation with solar activity. We compare two spherical harmonic models, one assuming a field constant in time and a second allowing for linear time variation. Including secular variation improves data fit with fewer additional parameters than increasing field complexity. Our favored solution indicates a ˜0.012% yr-1 increase in Jupiter's dipole magnetic moment from 1973 to 2003; this value is roughly one quarter of that for Earth. Inaccuracies in determination of the planetary reference frame cannot explain all the observed secular variation. Should more structure be allowed in the solutions, we find the northern hemispherical configuration resembles recent models based on satellite auroral footprint locations, and there is also evidence of a possible patch of reversed polar flux seen at the expected depth of the dynamo region, resembling that found at Earth and with implications for the Jovian interior. Finally, using our preferred model, we infer flow dynamics at the top of Jupiter's dynamo source. Though highly speculative, the results produce several gyres with some symmetry about the equator, similar to those seen at Earth's core-mantle boundary, suggesting motion on cylinders aligned with the rotation axis.

  7. Paleosecular variations of the geomagnetic field during the Holocene from Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Qingsong; Yu, Kefu; Huang, Wenya; Zhu, Liyan; Zhang, Huodai; Liu, Jian; Li, JinHua

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) records bear great information of dynamics processes of the Earth's geomagnetic field, and can be further used for inter-profile correlation and for dating sediments. However, effects of changes in the depositional environment on PSV records have not been fully determined. This study constructed Holocene PSV records for the gravity piston core (ZSQD34) obtained from the northern South China Sea. Rock magnetic and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) results indicate that single (SD) and PSD domain magnetites are the main carrier of the natural remanent magnetization. Comparable to the records derived from the freshwater lakes and the modeling results, we observed that direction curves from these two environments of contrasting salinity content are rather consistent. The direction curves are independent of the constructed salinity. However, the gradual increasing trend of relative intensity since about 5 kyr might be related to the decreasing sea surface salinity. Furthermore, on the centennial and millennial time scale, the relative intensity and salinity show some positive relation, suggesting a potential contribution of salinity to the paleomagnetic relative intensity recording processes.

  8. Analysis of Geomagnetic Variations Related to Earthquakes Location: Occurred in and around the Korean Peninsula from 2012 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, D.; Oh, S.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims at the correlation analysis of geomagnetic variations related to earthquake locations occurred in and around the Korean peninsula from 2012 to 2014. The wavelet based semblance technique was used to confirm the geomagnetic variations related to earthquakes. And as a result of the analysis, a pattern of consistent geomagnetic variations has been found from the earthquake occurred within 100 km radius at observation site. And similar correlation between earthquake location and Z-field geomagnetic data was also confirmed by the wavelet-based semblance analysis of geomagnetic data. Geomagnetic data obtained from Cheong-yang observatory, which have shown high quality, was used in analysis mainly. Geomagnetic variations from the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 3 within 100 km radius of the Cheng-yang observatory (figure 1) showed meaningful result. In addition, geomagnetic data from Bohyunsan observatory were also used to ensure the validity of the correlation between earthquake and Z-field geomagnetic data.

  9. Present-day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of earth's geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mathematical formulation required for predicting secular variation in the geopotential is developed for the case of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic earth model and an arbitrary surface load which can include a gravitational self-consistent ocean loading component. The theory is specifically applied to predict the present-day secular variation in the zonal harmonics of the geopotenial arising from the surface mass loading associated with the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. A procedure is outlined in which predictions of the present-day geopotential signal due to the late Pleistocene glacial cycles may be used to derive bounds on the net present-day mass flux from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to the local oceans.

  10. Exploring the use of paleomagnetic secular variations to date young sediments from the hardwater lake Tangra Yumco (Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberzettl, T.; Kasper, T.; Long, H.; Su, Y.; Ahlborn, M.; Appel, E.; Daut, G.; Henkel, K.; St-Onge, G.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy has been serving as a valuable tool for dating and confirming chronologies of lacustrine sediments. Although the coverage of suitable paleomagnetic records on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and around has been extremely scarce, recently emerging records enable a validation of existing age-depth models using magnetostratigraphy. This is very important, since almost all radiocarbon ages obtained from lacustrine sediments on the TP are affected by a reservoir effect. For example at Nam Co (co = lake) on the eastern TP the chronology for the past 4 ka cal BP was supported by the comparison of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and results from spherical harmonic geomagnetic field models. In addition, this approach was confirmed by comparison of the directional data of Nam Co to a varved record from the Makran accretionary wedge which is much further to the south-west but shows remarkable similarities. Here we present PSV data from multiple sediment cores from lake Tangra Yumco, located ~400 km west of Nam Co. Inclination and declination data from the different sediment cores are very similar, but only one core has been sufficiently dated yet. Unfortunately, validation of the reservoir corrected radiocarbon based age scale from this core is very poor although it contains one age from a part of wood (which because of its terrestrial nature was not reservoir corrected). On this chronology, the Tangra Yumco PSV data shows neither similarities with the Nam Co record, nor with geomagnetic field model outputs. Interestingly, if the chronology from Tangra Yumco is tuned to the chronology of the validated Nam Co record using inclination data, the minerogenic input proxies become almost identical. The minerogenic input is indicative of runoff and hence hydrological variations due to changes in the monsoon strength. Very similar hydrological variations can also be observed in the independently-dated Hongyuan peat bog (further to the north-east) which suggests

  11. Geomagnetic main field modeling using magnetohydrodynamic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of physical constraints are investigated which may be approximately satisfied by the Earth's liquid core on models of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation. A previous report describes the methodology used to incorporate nonlinear equations of constraint into the main field model. The application of that methodology to the GSFC 12/83 field model to test the frozen-flux hypothesis and the usefulness of incorporating magnetohydrodynamic constraints for obtaining improved geomagnetic field models is described.

  12. First archeointensity determinations on Maya incense burners from Palenque temples, Mexico: New data to constrain the Mesoamerica secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, G.; Camps, P.; Alva Valdivia, L. M.; Sougrati, M. T.; Cuevas-Garcia, M.; Perrin, M.

    2013-02-01

    We present archeointensity data carried out on pieces of incense burners from the ancient Maya city of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico, covering much of the Mesoamerican Classic period, from A.D. 400 to A.D. 850. We worked on pieces from 24 incense burners encompassing the five Classic ceramic phases of Palenque: Motiepa (A.D. 400-500), Cascadas (A.D. 500-600), Otulum (A.D. 600-700), Murcielagos (A.D. 700-770), and Balunté (A.D. 770-850). All the samples come from highly elaborate, flanged pedestal of incense burners that are undoubtedly assigned to a ceramic phase by means of their iconographic, morphological and stylistic analyses. Archeointensity measurements were performed with the Thellier-Thellier's method on pre-selected samples by means of their magnetic properties. We obtained archeointensities of very good technical quality from 19 of 24 pieces, allowing the determination of a precise mean value for each ceramic phase, between 29.1±0.9 μT and 32.5±1.2 μT. The firing temperatures of ceramics were estimated with Mössbauer spectroscopy between 700 °C and 1000 °C. These values ensure that a full thermo-remanent magnetization was acquired during the original heating. Our results suggest a relative stability of the field intensity during more than 400 years in this area. The abundance of archeological material in Mesoamerica contrasts with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available that are, in addition, of uneven quality. Thus, it is not possible to establish a trend of intensity variations in Mesoamerica, even using the global databases and secular variation predictions from global models. In this context, our high technical quality data represent a strong constraint for the Mesoamerican secular variation curve during the first millennium AD. The corresponding Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADM) are substantially smaller than the ones predicted by the last global geomagnetic models CALS3k.4, suggesting the need for additional data to develop a

  13. The influence of variations of the Earth' magnetic field on the elaboration of geomagnetic observations in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, E.

    2012-06-01

    The increase of accuracy of magnetic measurements generated the need of testing of the influence of variations of the geomagnetic field on their elaboration. On the basis of the magnetic data obtained from European observatories and from magnetic stations operating in 2010 and 2011, the chart of amplitude changes of Y magnetic field component (magnetic declination too) in Poland and the chart of time shift between the records of Belsk Observatory - considered as central observatory - as well as the records from other measurement points were processed. Data from some geomagnetic stations operating in the 1960. (with records of D, H and Z components) stored in the database at the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw, were re used to analyse geomagnetic field intensity changes (Uhrynowski, 1962, 1964). The error of transforming analogue data from paper records to the digital form is bigger than amplitude changes of declination D and H component. The results of Fourier transformation of millions of data from magnetic observatories allowed for mapping the distribution of amplitude changes of Y component and time shift of records from chosen European observatories with respect to Belsk Observatory. The range of amplitude changes of the X, Y and Z components of the geomagnetic field intensity in Poland is exceptionally small. It reaches only ±2-3 nT which is at the level of the error of geomagnetic data elaboration. The range of time shift of the record from points by eastern border of Poland with respect to those by western border of Poland vary from -6 to +15 minutes for Y component. The test made with data from secular point (repeat station) measurements from 2009-2011 shows that the differences between results obtained without and with time corrections reach only 10-302 for declination and inclination, and 5 nT for total intensity vector length. The use of the magnetograms from Belsk Observatory for the geomagnetic measurement reduction without any time

  14. Geomagnetic palaeosecular variation around 15 ka ago from NW Barents Sea cores (south of Svalbard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Macrì, Patrizia; Lucchi, Renata G.

    2016-02-01

    The sedimentary sequence deposited during the deglaciation phase following the last glacial maximum in the Storfjorden trough, on the northwestern Barents Sea south of Svalbard, was sampled with 10 piston and gravity cores during the SVAIS and EGLACOM cruises. Three cores (SV-02, SV-03 and SV-05) collected on the upper continental slope are characterized by a thin (20-40 cm) Holocene interval and a thick (up to 4.5 m in core SV-03) late Pleistocene sequence of finely laminated fine-grained sediments that have been interpreted as plumites deposited during the Melt Water Pulse 1a (MWP-1a). Radiocarbon ages obtained at the top and bottom of this stratigraphic interval revealed that deposition occurred during less than two centuries at around 15 ka ago, with a very high sedimentary rate exceeding 3 cm a-1. We studied the palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic properties of this interval, by taking magnetic measurements at 1 cm spacing on u-channel samples collected from the three cores. The data show that this sequence is characterized by good palaeomagnetic properties and the palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic trends may be correlated at high resolution from core to core. The obtained palaeomagnetic data therefore offer the unique opportunity to investigate in detail the rate of geomagnetic palaeosecular variation (PSV) in the high northern latitudes at a decadal scale. Notwithstanding the palaeomagnetic trends of the three cores may be closely matched, the amplitude of directional PSV and the consequent virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) scatter (S) is distinctly higher in one core (SV-05) than in the other two cores (SV-02 and SV-03). This might result from a variable proportion of two distinct populations of magnetic minerals in core SV-05, as suggested by the variable tendency to acquire a gyromagnetic remanent magnetization at high fields during the AF demagnetization treatment. For the plumite interval of cores SV-02 and SV-03, where the magnetic mineralogy is uniform and

  15. Statistical analysis of extreme values for geomagnetic and geoelectric field variations for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, Lidia; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Boteler, David

    2016-04-01

    Disturbances of the geomagnetic field produced by space weather events cause variable geoelectric fields at Earth's surface which drive electric currents in power systems, resulting in hazardous impacts on electric power transmission. In extreme cases, as during the magnetic storm in March 13, 1989, this can result in burnt-out transformers and power blackouts. To make assessment of geomagnetic and geoelectric activity in Canada during extreme space weather events, extreme value statistical analysis has been applied to more than 40 years of magnetic data from the Canadian geomagnetic observatories network. This network has archived digital data recordings for observatories located in sub-auroral, auroral, and polar zones. Extreme value analysis was applied to hourly ranges of geomagnetic variations as an index of geomagnetic activity and to hourly maximum of rate-of-change of geomagnetic field. To estimate extreme geoelectric fields, the minute geomagnetic data were used together with Earth conductivity models for different Canadian locations to calculate geoelectric fields. The extreme value statistical analysis was applied to hourly maximum values of the horizontal geoelectric field. This assessment provided extreme values of geomagnetic and geoelectric activity which are expected to happen once per 50 years and once per 100 years. The results of this analysis are designed to be used to assess the geomagnetic hazard to power systems and help the power industry mitigate risks from extreme space weather events.

  16. Spherical Cap Harmonic Modelling of 400 Years of Secular Variation in the South-west Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, M.; Alfheid, M.; Ingham, E. M.; Turner, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Historical magnetic data recorded in ship's logs on voyages of exploration and trade in the south-west Pacific have been used as a basis for constructing a model of secular variation in the region using spherical cap harmonic (SCH) analysis. The spherical cap used is centred on colatitude 115° and longitude 160° and has a radius of 50°, thus covering New Zealand, Australia and parts of Antarctica. Gaps in the observational data have been filled by an iterative procedure started by using IGRF field values to obtain SCH models for 2000, 1950 and 1900 and assuming that the spherical cap coefficients have a linear variation in time over the 400 year time period of the model, as is observed to a first approximation for Gauss coefficients calculated from a global spherical harmonic analysis. The resulting field models have generally smooth spatial and temporal variations in declination, inclination and intensity which show some differences from the variations calculated using the global spherical harmonic model gufm1. The technique clearly shows promise for producing more refined models of secular variation in the south-west Pacific when the historical data are supplemented by archeomagnetic and paleomagnetic data.

  17. Temporal correlation of U. S. Great Basin lake sediments below the Mono Lake Excursion using paleomagnetic secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.; Negrini, R. M.; Knott, J. R.; Lund, S.; Benson, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning nearly 50 years ago with a paleomagnetic study of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Mono Basin, CA (Denham and Cox, 1971), there have been subsequent studies to document paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) in the basin and to establish a chronology for that record (Vazquez and Lidzbarski, 2012). We report a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) investigation of lacustrine sediments in the Mono Basin, CA, that extends the base of the PSV record of Lund et al. (1988) by about 20 percent. We did our investigation at two localities separated by about 4 km on the southeastern and eastern sides of Mono Lake: South Shore Cliffs (SSC) and Warm Springs (WS). The sampled interval at SSC is from 0.1 m above to 2.2 m below Wilson Creek Ash 19 in the tephrostratigraphy of Lajoie (1968), ending in loose sand. At WS, we sampled from Ash 17 to 1.0 m below Ash 19, a total of 2 m. At SSC using back-to-back horizons 2-cm thick containing one to three samples each that were a.f. or thermally demagnetized, we found rapidly fluctuating PSV in the interval from ~ 0.3 to 1.0 m below Ash 19. The fluctuating PSV contains a change in declination of ~ 80˚ from 308˚ (n = 3, α-95: 6.1˚) to 29˚ (n = 3, α-95: 11.5˚) within a single hand sample that spans 14 cm. Inclination during that change in declination gradually rose from 56˚ to 63˚ and increased to 70˚ before reducing to a minimum of 29.9˚. The path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles when the declination is most westerly forms a narrow loop that reaches 49.7˚ N latitude near 170˚ E longitude. At WS the westerly swing in declination is absent, but the easterly declination and relatively steep inclination described above are recorded. A study of the relative paleomagnetic intensity (RPI) shows that the maximum RPI is ~1.5 m below Ash 19 and decreases to a minimum ~6 cm above the ash. Distinct PSV and RPI features below the Mono Lake excursion correlate well between records from the periphery of Mono Lake and those from

  18. Secular orbit variation due to solar radiation effects: a detailed model for BYORP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jay; Scheeres, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    A detailed derivation of the effect of solar radiation pressure on the orbit of a body about a primary orbiting the Sun is given. The result is a set of secular equations that can be used for long-term predictions of changes in the orbit. Solar radiation pressure is modeled as a Fourier series in the body’s rotation state, where the coefficients are based on the shape and radiation properties of the body as parameters. In this work, the assumption is made that the body is in a synchronous orbit about the primary and rotates at a constant rate. This model is used to write explicit variational equations of the energy, eccentricity vector, and angular momentum vector for an orbiting body. Given that the effect of the solar radiation pressure and the orbit are periodic functions, they are readily averaged over an orbit. Furthermore, the equations can be averaged again over the orbit of the primary about the Sun to give secular equations for long-term prediction. This methodology is applied to both circular and elliptical orbits, and the full equations for secular changes to the orbit in both cases are presented. These results can be applied to natural systems, such as the binary asteroid system 1999 KW4, to predict their evolution due to the Binary YORP effect, or to artificial Earth orbiting, nadir-pointing satellites to enable more precise models for their orbital evolution.

  19. Relationships of high-latitude geomagnetic variations to interplanetary plasma conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A. AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ ); Lanzerotti, L.J.; Maclennan, C.G.; Medford, L.V. )

    1987-01-01

    As an extension of the United States program at South Pole Station to study in detail the southern magnetospheric cusp region, the authors have initiated geomagnetic studies at Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay), Baffin Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. This location is approximately geomagnetically conjugate to South Pole Station under quiet geomagnetic conditions. Both sites are just inside the equatorward boundary of the dayside magnetospheric cusps in their respective hemispheres. This research includes studies of the conjugacy of geometric activity at these high latitudes, studies of the conditions under which conjugacy breaks down, and the relationship of geomagnetic variations to energy sources in the interplanetary plasma. In both hemispheres, variations in the magnetic field are measured with fluxgate magnetometers over the range from 0.0 to approximately 0.5 hertz. The field variations are measured in three orthogonal components: Geomagnetic north-south (H-component), geomagnetic east-west (D-component), and vertical (V-component). The magnetic field data are analyzed using a number of statistical techniques, including power spectra analysis. Presented here are the results of a study of hourly power spectra computed for the the H-component magnetic field data acquired at both South Pole and Iqaluit for the 30-day interval 17 July to 15 August 1985. After computing the spectra, the geomagnetic power is calculated over several different bandwidths corresponding, roughly, to frequencies related to hydromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  20. Peculiarities of geomagnetic variations in the central part of the Russian platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Spivak, A. A.; Kharlamov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The instrumental observations of geomagnetic variations in the middle latitudes are analyzed. The main periodicities are revealed in the background local variations of the magnetic field of the Earth. Besides the 27-29-day variations, which are associated with the rotation of the Sun around its axis, also the harmonic components with periods of ˜1, 6-8, 13-14, 57-60 days, and about a year are identified. It is shown that the periodicities in the background variations are both regular and sporadic. The peculiarities in the time behavior of some spectral components of geomagnetic variations are established.

  1. Possible relationship between the Earth's rotation variations and geomagnetic field reversals over the past 510 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacca, Igor; Frigo, Everton; Hartmann, Gelvam

    2015-04-01

    The Earth’s rotation can change as a result of several internal and external processes, each of which is at a different timescale. Here, we present some possible connections between the Earth’s rotation variations and the geomagnetic reversal frequency rates over the past 120 Myr. In addition, we show the possible relationship between the geomagnetic field reversal frequency and the δ18O oscillations. Because the latter reflects the glacial and interglacial periods, we hypothesize that it can be used as a possible indicator to explain the length of day (LOD) variations and consequently the reversal field frequency over the past 510 Myr. Therefore, our analysis suggests that the relationships between the geomagnetic reversal frequency rates and the Earth’s rotation changes during the Phanerozoic. However, more reversal data are required for periods before the KRS to strengthen the perspective of using the geomagnetic reversal data as a marker for the LOD variations through geological times.

  2. Dependence of Quiet Time Geomagnetic Activity Seasonal Variation on the Solar Magnetic Polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon

    2013-03-01

    The geomagnetic activity shows the semiannual variation stronger in vernal and autumnal equinoxes than in summer and winter solstices. The semiannual variation has been explained by three main hypotheses such as Axial hypothesis, Equinoctial hypothesis, and Russell-McPherron Effect. Many studies using the various geomagnetic indices have done to support three main hypotheses. In recent, Oh & Yi (2011) examined the solar magnetic polarity dependency of the geomagnetic storm occurrence defined by Dst index. They reported that there is no dependency of the semiannual variation on the sign of the solar polar fields. This study examines the solar magnetic polarity dependency of quiet time geomagnetic activity. Using Dxt index (Karinen & Mursula 2005) and Dcx index (Mursula & Karinen 2005) which are recently suggested, in addition to Dst index, we analyze the data of three-year at each solar minimum for eight solar cycles since 1932. As a result, the geomagnetic activity is stronger in the period that the solar magnetic polarity is anti-parallel with the Earth's magnetic polarity. There exists the difference between vernal and autumnal equinoxes regarding the solar magnetic polarity dependency. However, the difference is not statistically significant. Thus, we conclude that there is no solar magnetic polarity dependency of the semiannual variation for quiet time geomagnetic activity.

  3. ong-term trends of foE and geomagnetic activity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; de La Morena, B. A.

    2003-03-01

    A relationship between foE trends and geomagnetic activity long-term variations has been revealed for the first time. By analogy with earlier obtained results on the foF2 trends it is possible to speak about the geomagnetic control of the foE long-term trends as well. Periods of increasing geomagnetic activity correspond to negative foE trends, while these trends are positive for the decreasing phase of geomagnetic activity. This natural relationship breaks down around 1970 (on some stations later) when pronounced positive foE trends have appeared on most of the stations considered. The dependence of foE trends on geomagnetic activity can be related with nitric oxide variations at the E-layer heights. The positive foE trends that appeared after the break down effect may also be explained by the [NO] decrease which is not related to geomagnetic activity variations. But negative trends or irregular foE variations on some stations for the same time period require some different mechanism. Chemical pollution of the lower thermosphere due to the anthropogenic activity may be responsible for such abnormal foE behavior after the end of the 1960s.

  4. Geophysical variables and behavior: XXI. Geomagnetic variation as possible enhancement stimuli for UFO reports preceding earthtremors.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A

    1985-02-01

    The contribution of geomagnetic variation to the occurrence of UFORs (reports of UFOs) within the New Madrid States during the 6-mo. increments before increases in the numbers of IV-V or less intensity earthquakes within the central USA was determined. Although statistically significant zero-order correlations existed between measures of earthquakes, UFORs and geomagnetic variability, the association between the latter two deteriorated markedly when their shared variance with earthquakes was held constant. These outcomes are compatible with the hypothesis that geomagnetic variability (or phenomena associated with it) may enhance UFORs but only if tectonic stress and strain are increasing within the region. PMID:3982943

  5. foF2 long-term trend linked to Earth's magnetic field secular variation at a station under the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham Thi Thu, Hong; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Le Huy, Minh; Elias, Ana G.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term trend of the critical frequency of the F2 ionospheric region, foF2, at Phu Thuy station (21.03°N, 105.96°E), Vietnam, located under the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly, EIA, is studied. Annual mean data are analyzed at 04 LT and 12 LT for the period 1962-2002 using monthly median values and monthly mean values during magnetically quiet days (am < 20). In both cases we obtain similar trends at 4 LT and 12 LT, which we interpret as an absence of geomagnetic activity effect over trends. The positive trends obtained are not consistent with the negative values expected from greenhouse gases effect at this layer of the upper atmosphere. The increasing trend observed at 12 LT is qualitatively in agreement with the expected effect of the secular displacement of the dip equator over the EIA latitudinal profile. At 04 LT, when the EIA is absent, the positive trend is in qualitative agreement with the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field inclination, I, and the consequent increase of the sin(I)cos(I) factor at the corresponding location.

  6. Variations in geomagnetic field and temperature in Spain during the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Pilipenko, O. V.; Markov, G. P.

    2015-07-01

    The archaeomagnetic studies are conducted for the collection of coated ceramic samples from the Albarracin archaeological monument in Spain dated to the 10-20th centuries A.D. The pattern of variations in geomagnetic field intensity during this time interval is identified. The behavior of geomagnetic intensity is dominated by a decreasing trend (from ˜80 to 40 μT). The variation with a characteristic time of a few hundred years is the most striking one. Investigation of the material from this collection by the method of rehydroxylation provided the temperature estimates for this region of Spain for the time interval of pottery production. The temperature variations generally tend to increase, while the main trend in the variations of geomagnetic intensity is decreasing. The time series of temperature and intensity of the main magnetic field contain variations with close characteristic times shifted in time so that the changes in temperature go somewhat ahead of the changes in the geomagnetic field. It was previously suggested to improve the accuracy and resolution of the obtained variations in the past magnetic field using the method of archaeomagnetic dating of the material from archaeological monuments. The method was tested by dating the pottery kiln material from the El Molon monument, Spain, with the use of the virtual geomagnetic pole curve based on the past magnetic field in the East Europe. The method proved to be quite efficient and promising for dating the archaeological material from all over Europe.

  7. The steady part of the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloxham, Jeremy

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field results from the effects of magnetic induction in the fluid outer core and from the effects of magnetic diffusion in the core and the mantle. Adequate observations to map the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary extend back over three centuries, providing a model of the secular variation at the core-mantle boundary. Here we consider how best to analyze this time-dependent part of the field. To calculate steady core flow over long time periods, we introduce an adaptation of our earlier method of calculating the flow in order to achieve greater numerical stability. We perform this procedure for the periods 1840-1990 and 1690-1840 and find that well over 90 percent of the variance of the time-dependent field can be explained by simple steady core flow. The core flows obtained for the two intervals are broadly similar to each other and to flows determined over much shorter recent intervals.

  8. Worldwide Geomagnetic Data Collection and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Papitashvili, Vladimir

    2009-11-01

    Geomagnetic data provided by different platforms piece together a global picture of Earth's magnetic field and its interaction with geospace. Furthermore, a great diversity of the geomagnetic field changes, from secular (over decades to centuries) to short time variations (down to minutes and seconds), can be detected only through continued observations. An international effort to watch and record geomagnetic changes first began in the 1830s with a network of scientific observers organized by Karl Friedrich Gauss in Germany, and this effort has continued since then. One of the most remarkable achievements in understanding the geomagnetic field morphology and time behavior was made possible by the International Geophysical Year (IGY), an exploration and research effort that lasted for 18 months, starting on 1 July 1957. The IGY encompassed 11 geoscience disciplines, including geomagnetism. The IGY has represented a giant step forward in the quality and quantity of worldwide geomagnetic measurements, as well as in the widespread interest in magnetic measurements. A half century of probing the geomagnetic field spatial and temporal variations has produced a number of outstanding results, and the interested reader can find recent reviews on various geomagnetic field topics (from measurements to modeling) in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism [Gubbins and Herrero-Bervera, 2007] or Treatise on Geophysics: Geomagnetism [Kono, 2007].

  9. Phase relationships between total electron content variations, Doppler velocity oscillations and geomagnetic pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Y.; Berkey, F.T.

    1994-09-01

    The phase relationship between variations of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) and ground-level ULF geomagnetic pulsations has been examined for the advection and compression mechanisms. To determine the causal mechanism several earlier studies have examined the phase difference between oscillations of Doppler velocity in ionospherically reflected radio waves and simultaneous ULF geomagnetic pulsations. In most instances it was found that the phase relation varied from event to event. With the application of Euler`s formula this study shows that in low geomagnetic and midgeomagnetic latitudes the phase differences between variations of TEC and ULF pulsations in the northward component of the geomagnetic field due to the advection and compression mechanisms are 0{degrees} and 180{degrees}, respectively. The authors also found that TEC variations tend to lead ionospheric Doppler velocity oscillations by 90{degrees}. Furthermore, it is shown that the phase relationship between ionospheric Doppler velocity oscillations and ULF pulsations of the northward component of the geomagnetic field, caused by the advection and compression mechanisms, are functions of the scale length, frequency of ULF waves, and geomagnetic dip. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Analysis of Geomagnetic Disturbances and Cosmic Ray Intensity Variations in Relation to Medical Data from Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaropoulou, E.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Tsipis, A.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last few years many studies have been conducted concerning the possible influence of geomagnetic and solar activity and cosmic ray activity on human physiological state and in particular on human cardio - health state. As it is shown the human organism is sensitive to environmental changes and reacts to them through a series of variations of its physiological parameters such as heart rate, arterial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc. In this paper daily mean values of heart rate, as they were registered for a group of 2.028 volunteers during medical examinations in the Polyclinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy are analyzed in relation to daily cosmic ray intensity variations, as measured by the Neutron Monitor of the University of Athens and daily variations of the geomagnetic indices Dst, Ap and Kp. The results from this study show that geomagnetic activity changes and cosmic rays intensity variations may regulate the human homeostasis.

  11. Analysis of the Solar Diameter Variations at July, 1986 and the Geomagnetic Storm of March, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Garcia, Marcos A.; Papa, Andres R. R.; Calderari Boscardin, Sergio; Lousada Penna, Jucira; Sigismondi, Costantino

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we have a well-known event in scientific literature used to illustrate our investigation on the viability of the solar diameter variation be a precursor for the occurrence of sets of coronal mass ejections, and thus, for geomagnetic storms, as noted in previous works of our group, but now, in a time scale of a few days. The selected event was that of March 13, 1989, a strong geomagnetic storm that made the Hydro-Quebec power grid fall down by 9 hours, damaging the local economy in millions of dollars. At the same time we have investigated a time interval belonging to a solar minimum period, on July 1986, prior to the rising phase and solar maximum of Solar Cycle 22, to compare with the geomagnetic pattern, as well as with the solar diameter behavior along these periods of low solar and geomagnetic activity. We used the time series of the CERGA’s astrolabe (because its dataset is long enough as to comprise both time periods of the analysis), the geomagnetic index AP and the H geomagnetic component from the Tatuoca Magnetic Observatory (because it is near to the geomagnetic equator and with the extra aim of checking the sensitivity of its magnetometers to global events).

  12. Inferring interplanetary magnetic field polarities from geomagnetic variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhmyanin, M. V.; Ponyavin, D. I.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified procedure to infer the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarities from geomagnetic observations. It allows to identify the polarity back to 1905. As previous techniques it is based on the well-known Svalgaard-Mansurov effect. We have improved the quality and accuracy of polarity inference compared with the previous results of Svalgaard (1975) and Vennerstroem et al. (2001) by adding new geomagnetic stations and extracting carefully diurnal curve. The data demonstrates an excess of one of the two IMF sectors within equinoxes (Rosenberg-Coleman rule) evidencing polar field reversals at least for the last eight solar cycles. We also found a predominance of the two-sector structure in late of descending phase of solar cycle 16.

  13. Secular Orbit Variation Due to Solar Radiation Effects: A Detailed Model for BYORP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    A detailed derivation of the eff ect of solar radiation pressure on the orbit of a body about a primary other than the Sun is given. The result is a set of secular equations that can be used for long-term predictions of changes in the orbit. Solar radiation pressure is modeled as a Fourier series in the body's rotation state, where the coefficients include the shape and radiation properties of the body as parameters. In this work, the assumption is made that the body rotates at a constant rate such that it completes one rotation per orbit. This model is used to write explicit variational equations of the energy, eccentricity vector, and angular momentum vector for an orbiting body. Given that the e ffect of the solar radiation pressure and the orbit are periodic functions, they are readily averaged over an orbit. Furthermore, the equations can be averaged again over the orbit of the primary about the Sun to give secular equations for long-term prediction. This methodology is applied to both circular and elliptical orbits, and the results are discussed. These results can be applied to natural systems, such as the binary asteroid system KW4, to predict the evolution of the system due to the Binary YORP effect.

  14. Characteristics of long-term variation in the amlitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation using the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Gobal Observation NETwork (IUGONET) data analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet geomagnetic field daily variation (Sq) have been investigated using 1-hour geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations in a period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the IUGONET data analysis system. The Sq amplitude clearly showed a 10-12 year solar activity dependence and it tended to enhance during each solar maximum. During the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009, the Sq amplitude became the smallest in the investigated period. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude is approximately linear but 64 percent of geomagnetic stations show a weak nonlinear dependence on the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947-2013, and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed a negative value in a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71 percent of geomagnetic stations. On the other hand, the residual Sq amplitude in the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies the movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  15. Geophysical excitation of nutation and geomagnetic jerks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrák, Jan; Ron, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    Recently Zinovy Malkin (2013) proposed that the observed changes of Free Core Nutation parameters (phase, amplitude) might be related to geomagnetic jerks (rapid changes of the secular variations of geomagnetic field). We tested this hypothesis and found that if the numerical integration of Brzezinski broad-band Liouville equations of atmospheric/oceanic excitations is re-initialized at the epochs of geomagnetic jerks, the agreement between the integrated and observed celestial pole offsets is improved significantly. This approach however tacitly assumes that the influence of geomagnetic jerks has a stepwise character, which is physically not acceptable. The present study continues in this effort by introducing a simple continuous excitation function (hypothetically due to geomagnetic jerks). The results of numerical integration of atmospheric/oceanic excitations plus this newly introduced excitation are then compared with the observed celestial pole offsets.

  16. The Hidden Ocean on the Top of the Core and the Geomagnetic Secular Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braginsky, Stanislav I.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrodynamical properties of this specific region, however, differ drastically from those of the bulk of the Earth's core because of a very large Archimedean (buoyancy) force acting there. The properties of the lighter fluid layer are very close to those of the Earth's oceans. That is why this layer is called the Hidden Ocean of the Core in (Braginsky, 1993), or the Stratified Ocean of the Core (SOC) in the papers published under Grant NAG 5-2953. Oscillations with periods from diurnal to decades, similar to those observed in the Earth oceans and atmosphere, were considered in the project.

  17. Steady induction effects in geomagnetism. Part 1A: Steady motional induction of geomagnetic chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic effects of magnetic induction by hypothetically steady fluid motion and steady magnetic flux diffusion near the top of Earth's core are investigated using electromagnetic theory, simple magnetic earth models, and numerical experiments with geomagnetic field models. The problem of estimating a steady fluid velocity field near the top of Earth's core which induces the secular variation indicated by broad-scale models of the observed geomagnetic field is examined and solved. In Part 1, the steady surficial core flow estimation problem is solved in the context of the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core model. In the first paper (IA), the theory underlying such estimates is reviewed and some consequences of various kinematic and dynamic flow hypotheses are derived. For a frozen-flux core, fluid downwelling is required to change the mean square normal magnetic flux density averaged over the core-mantle boundary. For surficially geostrophic flow, downwelling implies poleward flow. The solution of the forward steady motional induction problem at the surface of a frozen-flux core is derived and found to be a fine, easily visualized example of deterministic chaos. Geomagnetic effects of statistically steady core surface flow may well dominate secular variation over several decades. Indeed, effects of persistent, if not steady, surficially geostrophic core flow are described which may help explain certain features of the present broad-scale geomagnetic field and perhaps paleomagnetic secular variation.

  18. The variations of geomagnetic energy and solar irradiance and their impacts on Earth's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanshi

    2012-10-01

    It is important to understand and estimate the energy inputs to the upper atmosphere, in order to provide accurate calculation and prediction of the thermospheric neutral density, which is important for satellite orbital determination. The primary energy sources of Earth's upper atmosphere are the solar irradiance and geomagnetic energy including Joule heating and particle precipitation. Various data (OMNI2, CHAMP, DMSP) and models (SOLAR2000, FISM, Weimer05, AMIE, NCAR TIE-GCM) are utilized to investigate the variations of energy inputs and their influences on the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere system, with focus on the wavelength dependence of solar irradiance enhancement during are events, the geomagnetic energy associated with high-speed solar wind streams, the altitudinal distribution of Joule heating in different solar conditions, and the variation of solar irradiance and geomagnetic energy inputs during last solar cycle.

  19. A new 200 Ma paleomagnetic pole for Africa, and paleo-secular variation scatter from Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) intrusives in Morocco (Ighrem and Foum Zguid dykes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palencia-Ortas, A.; Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Osete, M. L.; Vegas, R.; Touil, A.; Hafid, A.; McIntosh, G.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-06-01

    Available apparent polar wander (APW) paths for the 200 Ma configuration of Pangea, just prior to the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean, differ as much as 10o in arc length. Here, we add new data from northwest Africa for this time, obtained from the northeast-trending Foum-Zguid and Ighrem dykes (ca. 200 Ma). These dykes form part of the northern domain of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), and crosscut the Anti-Atlas Ranges in Morocco, and compositionally correspond to quartz-normative tholeiites intruded in continental lithosphere shortly before the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. The Foum-Zguid dyke has been intensively studied, whereas the Ighrem dyke has received less scientific focus. We sampled both dykes for paleomagnetic investigation along 100 km of each dyke (12 sites for Foum-Zguid and 11 for Ighrem, 188 samples included in the final analyses). Rock magnetic experiments indicate a mixture of multidomain and single-domain magnetite and/or low-Ti titanomagnetite particles as the principal remanence carriers. In both dykes, the primary nature of the characteristic remanent magnetization is supported by positive contact tests, related to Fe-metasomatism or baked overprints of the corresponding sedimentary country rocks. The directions of the characteristic magnetization exhibit exclusively normal polarity. Site-mean virtual geomagnetic poles are differently grouped in each dyke, suggesting distinct geomagnetic secular variation records. The Foum-Zguid paleomagnetic pole (N= 12, PLat= 67.9°N, PLon= 247.9°E, κ= 125, A95= 3.9°) plots close to that of Ighrem (N= 11, PLat= 78.4°N, PLon= 238.2°E, κ= 47, A95= 6.7°), confirming those mineralogical and geochemical evidences supporting that they represent dissimilar magmatic stages. Virtual geomagnetic poles dispersion from both dykes (S= 10.5°13.0°8.1°) is in line with those obtained from recent studies of a CAMP-related dyke in Iberia and results from CAMP lavas in the Argana

  20. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  1. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Jenkins, Erica S.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  2. Total electron content variations observed at a low latitude GPS station in association to geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes da Costa, A.; Fonseca Junior, E.; Vilas Boas, J.

    Total electron content (TEC) has been continuously monitored since January 1997, using a GPS dual frequency receiver located at Presidente Prudente (22o 07'S, 51o 22' W). In this paper the enhancements observed in the ionspheric TEC are associated with geomagnetic field variations for six geomagnetic storms that occurred from 1997 to 2000. The events were selected according to the integrity and availability of data. The purpose of this study is to provide a better knowledge of the low-latitude behavior of TEC in association to geomagnetic storms. Quiet-time TEC values were obtained by the average of the five magnetically less disturbed days of the month. These values were subtracted from the TEC hourly averages measured during the period of the magnetic storms. Magnetic field intensity measured on the ground was used for the identification of the storm time variations and the Dst indices were also included as a reference for the latitudes considered. The results showed that moderate geomagnetic storms produce small effects in TEC, intense and super intense (Dst < ~150 nT) geomagnetic storms produce well defined and long lasting TEC enhancements. The super intense storms cause the GPS signals to loose their track and the corresponding TEC values cannot be derived.

  3. Near east paleomagnetic secular variation recorded in sediments from the Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R.; Turner, G. M.; Stiller, M.; Kaufman, A.

    1985-03-01

    Paleomagnetic records of declination and inclination from sediments recovered from the bed of Lake Kinneret (32.4°N, 35.7°E) have been dated by radiocarbon techniques. The sediments span the last 5000 yr. The changes in inclination down the sediment cores are more pronounced than the declination fluctuations and are repeatable between the three coring sites, which are several kilometers apart. Magnetic susceptibility logs display 13 maxima in the 5-m-long sequences, with a pronounced susceptibility minimum about 1000 yr B.P. Many of the susceptibility maxima and minima can be easily correlated between coring sites and are shown to be dominantly related to changes in sediment carbonate content. The natural remanent magnetization intensity follows a similar pattern to that of susceptibility, and the natural remanence of the Kinneret sediments is presumed to reside in detrital magnetite grains carried into the lake by the river Jordan from the basalt-rich bedrock of the rift floor and the Golan Heights. The 14C chronology is strongly supported by a pollen study in which pronounced changes in the proportion of olive pollen were interpreted as being due to extensive cultivation of olives around Galilee in the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. The Kinneret paleosecular variation records, if accurately dated, point to a complex spatial pattern of Holocene secular variation with significant variations over distances as small as 1000-2000 km.

  4. On the secular variations in the composition of Phanerozoic marine potash evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, H.D.; Horita, J.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    In a recent paper, L.A. Hardie proposed that the secular changes in the mineralogy of marine nonskeletal limestones and in the mineralogy of marine potash evaporites during the Phanerozoic are the result of changes in the composition of seawater caused primarily by fluctuations in the flux of seawater through mid-ocean ridges. He suggested that even quite small variations (25%) in this flux have a profound effect on the composition of seawater. We show that the effects of changes in the hydrothermal flux are much smaller than he proposed. Nevertheless, a doubling of the hydrothermal flux could probably alter the composition of seawater sufficiently to affect the mineralogy of marine potash evaporites. An alternative explanation for the variations in the mineralogy of these deposits invokes differences in the degree of dolomitization during the evaporation of seawater. The apparent near constancy of the K{sup +} content of seawater during the Phanerozoic supports this hypothesis. It seems likely that during periods of rapid seafloor spreading the rate of seawater cycling is greater than today, that sea level is higher, that very large carbonate platforms are more abundant, and that changes in seawater chemistry together with increases in dolomitization during the evaporation of seawater lead to MgSO{sub 4}-free potash deposits. The relative importance of these several effects can probably be determined with certainty only when we have analyses of relatively unaltered seawater from the several Phanerozoic periods. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Paleomagnetic Secular Variation Patterns in Taiwan for the last seven thousands years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Teh-Quei; Huang, Yin-Sheng; Wei, Kuo-Yen

    2013-04-01

    This study presents the paleomagnetic secular variation patterns including paleo-declination, paleo-inclination and relative paleo-intensity in Taiwan for the last 7 kys. The record analyzed is from a marine sediment core of about 1.87 meter taken from offshore of eastern Taiwan near a volcanic islet. Based on six levels AMS 14C dating of the core analyzed from planktonic foraminiferal shells (>250 μm, >6 mg, Globigerinoides spp. and Orbulina universa), this core is proposed to provide the information for the last 7000 years. Single domain (SD) to fine-grained psuedo-single domain (PSD) magnetite is identified as the most important magnetic carrier. The paleo-declinations of the samples varied about ±200 around their mean and their paleo-inclinations varied between 300 and 500 . The variation pattern of the paleo-declination is quite similar to that obtained from Japan reported by Hyoto et al. (1993). Relative paleo-intensity (RPI) shows an increased trend during 6500 yrB.P. to 3000 yrB.P., but decreased after. The RPI trend is very similar to that reported by Korte and Constable (2005) and shows the dominance of axial dipole behavior

  6. Variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field in Siberia during the last 13000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Pilipenko, O. V.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal magnetization of the samples from the archaeological sites in Siberia is studied. The magnetization of the collected samples was studied using the authors' modification of the Thellier method amended by the magnetic anisotropy and chemical alterations. Resulting from the study of the burned material from the Kazachka site, the time series of the geomagnetic field intensity in Siberia spanning the time interval from 10000 to 1000 B.C. is obtained. These data are unique in terms of the duration and representativeness. For the first time, the main variation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field is traced by studying the magnetization of the samples from a single archeological site. The pattern of the variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field in Siberia from 11000 B.C. to 2000 A.D., which is reconstructed from the data of the Kazachka, Ust-Karenga, and some other sites of Cis-Baikalia, indicates that the characteristics time of the long-period oscillation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field is about 8000 years. It also suggests the existence of rapid variations superimposed on the main oscillation.

  7. Relationship Between Human Physiological Parameters And Geomagnetic Variations Of Solar Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    variations of solar origin. The examinations and analyses performed show that space weather prediction may be utilized for the purpose of pharmacological and regime measures to limit the adverse physiological reactions to geomagnetic storms.

  8. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the variation of geomagnetic pulsation activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.C.; Olson, J.V.

    1980-10-01

    It is shown that the observed local time variation of dayside geomagnetic micropulsations is consistent with the Kelvin-Helmholtz generation mechanism operating at the magnetopause. The variation of the angle between the interplanetary magnetic field and the magnetopause around the magnetosphere causes variations in the magnetosheath magnetic field, which in turn lead to local time variations in micropulsation amplitudes. Morning sector pulsations are expected to be larger than afternoon sector pulsations. Furthermore, large-amplitude pulsations are expected to be more frequently observed when the angle between the interplanetary magnetic field and the solar wind velocity in front of the bow shock is small.

  9. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the variation of geomagnetic pulsation activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Olson, J. V.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the observed local time variation of dayside geomagnetic micropulsations is consistent with the Kelvin-Helmholtz generation mechanism operating at the magnetopause. The variation of the angle between the interplanetary magnetic field and the magnetopause around the magnetosphere causes variations in the magnetosheath magnetic field, which in turn lead to local time variations in micropulsation amplitudes. Morning sector pulsations are expected to be larger than afternoon sector pulsations. Furthermore, large-amplitude pulsations are expected to be more frequently observed when the angle between the interplanetary magnetic field and the solar wind velocity in front of the bow shock is small.

  10. The effect of variations of geomagnetic activity changing rate on trunk objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. I.; Mullayarov, V. A.; Grigor'ev, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    The frequency of occurrence of a certain level of the rate of change of geomagnetic activity can be expressed as a power law with an exponent of the order -1.7, and the probability of exceedance of a given level can be expressed by the law lg(P) = -0.0517 (dB / dt) - 0.1946. The largest high-frequency variations are noted during the recovery phase of magnetic bay and correspond to geomagnetic pulsations of the Pc5 range (a period of variations of 200-300 s). On a pipeline on these pulsations other high-frequency variations are imposed and they start earlier - from a maximum of bay of disturbance. It is noted the need of monitoring and forecasting of magnetic storms and recommendations on the allocation of periods, during which one cannot disable protection for preventive works.

  11. Geomagnetic superchrons and time variations in the cooling rate of the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos are used to explore the relationship between geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, and time variations in the rate of the cooling of the core. We develop a parameterization of the average reversal frequency from numerical dynamos in terms of the core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit of this parameterization to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reversed Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic GPTS imply a core heat flux approximately 20% higher than at present-day. Low heat flux and slow cooling of the core inferred during the Kiaman Reversed Polarity Superchron is qualitatively consistent with predictions from mantle global circulation models (mantle GCMs) that show a reduction in mantle convective activity during the time of Pangea, whereas these same mantle GCMs and most plate motion reconstructions predict fast core cooling during the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron, suggesting that the cooling rate of the core is not generally in phase with variations in plate motions.

  12. Spectral characteristics of geomagnetic field variations at low and equatorial latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Geomagnetic field spectra from eight standard observations at geomagnetic latitudes below 30?? were studied to determine the field characteristics unique to the equatorial region. Emphasis was placed upon those variations having periods between 5 min and 4 hr for a selection of magnetically quiet, average, and active days in 1965. The power spectral density at the equator was about ten times that the near 30?? latitude. The initial manifestation of the equatorial electrojet as evidenced by the east-west alignment of the horizontal field or the change in vertical amplitudes occurred below about 20?? latitude. Induced current effects upon the vertical component from which the Earth conductivity might be inferred could best be obtained at times and latitudes unaffected by the electrojet current. Values of about 1.6 ?? 103 mhos/m for an effective skin depth of 500-600 km were determined. The spectral amplitudes increased linearly with geomagnetic activity index, Ap. The spectral slope had a similar behavior at all latitudes. The slope changed systematically with Ap-index and showed a diurnal variation, centered on local noon, that changed form with geomagnetic activity.

  13. Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation from East China Sea and a PSV stack of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Hongbo; Deng, Chenglong; Liu, Qingsong

    2014-11-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) provides information on the mechanisms of the geodynamo and can also be used for stratigraphic correlation on a regional scale. In this study, we constructed PSV curves of relative rapidly deposited Holocene marine sequence from East China Sea. Results show that the dominant magnetic carriers are pseudo-single domain (PSD) to multidomain (MD) magnetites. Paleomagnetic directions are preserved by coarse-grained magnetite, even affected by post-depositional diagenetic alteration. The PSV record of core MD06-3040 exhibits six major inclination peaks and five declination swings during the Holocene. The periodicities for inclination are about 2000 and 550 years, and for declination are about 1400 and 500 years. The PSV of MD06-3040 is comparable to archeomagnetic and historic results for the last 2500 years and to PSV results from lake sediments in southern China and Japan during the Holocene. A PSV stack of East Asia is constructed by sedimentary and archeological PSV results, which can be used as an important reference curve for a large region, and the PSV correlation between sites can be applied for relative dating of East Asia.

  14. Paleomagnetic secular variation and environmental magnetism of Holocene-age sediments from Tulare Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roza, Janine; Jackson, Brandon; Heaton, Eric; Negrini, Rob

    2016-05-01

    The lake-level record from Tulare Lake, CA has been shown to provide valuable constraints on late Pleistocene and Holocene runoff from the Sierra Nevada mountain range into the San Joaquin Valley of California, one of the world's most prolific agricultural centers. This project uses the magnetic properties of the Tulare Lake sediments in order to date the sediments and to constrain the relative lake level at the time of deposition. Shallowing lake conditions were identified leading up to a prominent unconformity; magnetic mineralogy and grain size indicators, primarily decreasing ARM/IRM and S-Ratio values suggest coarser grain sizes and more oxidizing conditions. Approximately half of the samples possessed well-behaved paleomagnetic directions suitable for paleomagnetic secular variation dating. The results indicate that the sediments below the unconformity were deposited approximately 7600-8500 cal yr BP, and the sediments above the unconformity were deposited approximately 2500-800 cal yr BP. The ages of the corresponding sediments are consistent with the time intervals during which previous studies indicate that lake level was above the elevation of this site, before and after a mid Holocene regression.

  15. Paleomagnetic Secular Variation and Environmental Magnetism of Holocene-aged Sediments from Tulare Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roza, J.; Jackson, B.; Heaton, E.; Negrini, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The lake-level record from Tulare Lake, CA has been shown to provide valuable constraints on late Pleistocene and Holocene channelized runoff from the Sierra Nevada mountain range into the San Joaquin Valley of California, one of the world's most prolific agricultural centers. This project focuses on the use of magnetic properties of the Tulare Lake sediments in order to test previous results by dating the sediments and determining the relative lake level at the time of deposition. Shallowing lake conditions were identified leading up to a prominent unconformity from magnetic mineralogy and grain size indicators, primarily decreasing ARM/IRM and S-Ratio values suggesting coarser grain sizes and more oxidizing conditions. Approximately half of the samples possessed well-behaved paleomagnetic directions suitable for paleomagnetic secular variation dating. The results indicate that the sediments below the unconformity were deposited approximately 7600-6700 14C years ago (~7600 to 8500 cal yr B.P.), and the sediments above the unconformity were deposited approximately 2200-500 14C years ago. The ages of the corresponding sediments are consistent with the time intervals during which lake level was predicted to be above the elevation of the Poso Canal site before and after a mid-Holocene regression.

  16. Natural variations in the geomagnetically trapped electron population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vampola, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Temporal variations in the trapped natural electron flux intensities and energy spectra are discussed and demonstrated using recent satellite data. These data are intended to acquaint the space systems engineer with the types of natural variations that may be encountered during a mission and to augment the models of the electron environment currently being used in space system design and orbit selection. An understanding of the temporal variations which may be encountered should prove helpful. Some of the variations demonstrated here which are not widely known include: (1) addition of very energetic electrons to the outer zone during moderate magnetic storms: (2) addition of energetic electrons to the inner zone during major magnetic storms; (3) inversions in the outer zone electron energy spectrum during the decay phase of a storm injection event and (4) occasional formation of multiple maxima in the flux vs altitude profile of moderately energetic electrons.

  17. Dominant dipole effect embedded in paleomagnetic secular variation in Taiwan region over the past 7500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yin-Sheng; Lee, Teh-Quei; Wei, Kuo-Yen

    2014-09-01

    To study the Holocene paleomagnetic field in Taiwan area, we performed a series of magnetic experiments to a marine sediment core OR1-715-21 obtained from the offshore of eastern Taiwan during the OR1-715 cruise. Analyzed magnetic properties show that the remanent magnetization carriers of the core are uniformly dominated by single-domain and pseudo-single-domain magnetite, revealing a suitable material for relative paleointensity (RPI) estimation. The stable and well defined characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) provides the reliable determination of the inclination and declination. Dipole moments were further calculated by using the RPI and inclination data. The variation of the dipole moments compares well to the CALS10k.1b model (a continuous model of archaeomagnetic and lake sediment data for the past 10000 years), implying the dominance of the dipole field in Taiwan area. Though the real declination is unavailable because of lacking core orientation during coring, we could correct the values based on some critical conditions. If the paleosecular variation (PSV) is considered, the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) is generally suggested to vary between 80°N and 90°N instead of coinciding with the geography North Pole. To fit the condition considering the PSV effect, the ChRM declination had to be rotated 180° to get the corrected declination. As a result, variation patterns of the paleo-inclination, -declination, and paleointensity could be suitably determined in the study. Outcomes of these analyses reveal that the paleomagnetic field in Taiwan region should be dominantly driven from the dipole field under the PSV effect for the last 7500 years.

  18. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  19. Evidence for Solar-Cycle Forcing and Secular Variation in the Armagh Observatory Temperature Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    A prominent feature of previous long-term temperature studies has been the appearance of warming since the 1880s, this often being taken as evidence for anthropogenic-induced global warming. In this investigation, the long-term, annual, mean temperature record (1844-1992) of the Armagh Observatory (Armagh, North Ireland), a set of temperature data based on maximum and minimum thermometers that predates the 1880s and correlates well with northern hemispheric and global standards, is examined for evidence of systematic variation, in particular, as related to solar-cycle forcing and secular variation. Indeed, both appear to be embedded within the Armagh data. Removal of these effects, each contributing about 8% to the overall reduction in variance, yields residuals that are randomly distributed. Application of the 10-year moving average to the residuals, furthermore, strongly suggests that the behavior of the residuals is episodic, inferring that (for extended periods of time) temperatures at Armagh sometimes were warmer or cooler (than expected), while at other times they were stable. Comparison of cyclic averages of annual mean temperatures against the lengths of the associated Hale cycles (i.e., the length of two, sequentially numbered, even-odd sunspot cycle pairs) strongly suggests that the temperatures correlate inversely (r = -0.886 at less than 2% level of significance) against the length of the associated Hale cycle. Because sunspot cycle 22 ended in 1996, the present Hale cycle probably will be shorter than average, implying that temperatures at Armagh over this Hale cycle will be warmer (about 9.31 q 0.23 C at the 90% confidence level) than average (= 9.00 C).

  20. Spring-fall asymmetry of substorm strength, geomagnetic activity and solar wind: Implications for semiannual variation and solar hemispheric asymmetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mursula, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the seasonal variation of substorms, geomagnetic activity and their solar wind drivers in 1993-2008. The number of substorms and substorm mean duration depict an annual variation with maxima in Winter and Summer, respectively, reflecting the annual change of the local ionosphere. In contradiction, substorm mean amplitude, substorm total efficiency and global geomagnetic activity show a dominant annual variation, with equinoctial maxima alternating between Spring in solar cycle 22 and Fall in cycle 23. The largest annual variations were found in 1994 and 2003, in the declining phase of the two cycles when high-speed streams dominate the solar wind. A similar, large annual variation is found in the solar wind driver of substorms and geomagnetic activity, which implies that the annual variation of substorm strength, substorm efficiency and geomagnetic activity is not due to ionospheric conditions but to a hemispherically asymmetric distribution of solar wind which varies from one cycle to another. Our results imply that the overall semiannual variation in global geomagnetic activity has been seriously overestimated, and is largely an artifact of the dominant annual variation with maxima alternating between Spring and Fall. The results also suggest an intimate connection between the asymmetry of solar magnetic fields and some of the largest geomagnetic disturbances, offering interesting new pathways for forecasting disturbances with a longer lead time to the future. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Spring-fall asymmetry of substorm strength, geomagnetic activity and solar wind: Implications for semiannual variation and solar hemispheric asymmetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsula, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the seasonal variation of substorms, geomagnetic activity and their solar wind drivers in 1993–2008. The number of substorms and substorm mean duration depict an annual variation with maxima in Winter and Summer, respectively, reflecting the annual change of the local ionosphere. In contradiction, substorm mean amplitude, substorm total efficiency and global geomagnetic activity show a dominant annual variation, with equinoctial maxima alternating between Spring in solar cycle 22 and Fall in cycle 23. The largest annual variations were found in 1994 and 2003, in the declining phase of the two cycles when high-speed streams dominate the solar wind. A similar, large annual variation is found in the solar wind driver of substorms and geomagnetic activity, which implies that the annual variation of substorm strength, substorm efficiency and geomagnetic activity is not due to ionospheric conditions but to a hemispherically asymmetric distribution of solar wind which varies from one cycle to another. Our results imply that the overall semiannual variation in global geomagnetic activity has been seriously overestimated, and is largely an artifact of the dominant annual variation with maxima alternating between Spring and Fall. The results also suggest an intimate connection between the asymmetry of solar magnetic fields and some of the largest geomagnetic disturbances, offering interesting new pathways for forecasting disturbances with a longer lead time to the future.

  2. First geomagnetic measurements in the Antarctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Demina, I. M.; Meshcheryakov, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    Based on data from literature and archival sources, we have further processed and analyzed the results of geomagnetic measurements made during the 1772-1775 Second World Expedition by James Cook and the 1819-1821 overseas Antarctic Expedition by Russian mariners Bellingshausen and Lazarev. Comparison with the GUFM historical model showed that there are systematic differences in the spatial structure of both the declination and its secular variation. The results obtained can serve as a basis for the construction of regional models of the geomagnetic field for the Antarctic region.

  3. Annual and semiannual variations of the geomagnetic field at equatorial locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    For a year of quiet solar-activity level, geomagnetic records from American hemisphere observatories located between about 0?? and 30?? north geomagnetic latitude were used to compare the annual and semiannual variations of the geomagnetic field associated with three separate contributions: (a) the quiet-day midnight level, MDT; (b) the solar-quiet daily variation, Sq; (c) the quiet-time lunar semidiurnal tidal variation, L(12). Four Fourier spectral constituents (24, 12, 8, 6 h periods) of Sq were individually treated. All three orthogonal elements (H, D and Z) were included in the study. The MDT changes show a dominant semiannual variation having a range of about 7 gammas in H and a dominant annual variation in Z having a range of over 8 gammas. These changes seem to be a seasonal response to the nightside distortions by magnetospheric currents. There is a slow decrease in MDT amplitudes with increasing latitude. The Sq changes follow the patterns expected from an equatorial ionospheric dynamo electrojet current system. The dominant seasonal variations occur in H having a range of over 21 gammas for the 24 h period and over 12 gammas for the 12 h period spectral components. The higher-order components are relatively smaller in size. The Sq(H) amplitudes decrease rapidly with increasing latitude. Magnetospheric contributions to the equatorial Sq must be less than a few per cent of the observed magnitude. The L(12) variation shows the ionospheric electrojet features by the dominance of H and the rapid decrease in amplitude with latitude away from the equator. However, the seasonal variation range of over 7 gammas has a maximum in early February and minimum in late June that is not presently explainable by the known ionospheric conductivity and tidal behavior. ?? 1981.

  4. Geomagnetic Field Variations from some Equatorial Electrojet Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimula, I. A.; Rabiu, A. B.; Yumoto, Y.; Magdas Group

    2011-12-01

    Quiet day variations of the equatorial electrojet along the dip equator from 10 MAGDAS stations show that there could be substantial day to day variability in the electrojet (EEJ) strength. Variations of greater than 80 nT are found in pairs of stations on the same day. The analyses show that the correlation between pairs of stations decreases as a function of increasing distance between them. The results confirm the presence of counter electrojet occurring mainly in the morning and evening hours with strengths of up to 30 nT in certain instances. The data show a longitudinal variability in the EEJ, with results showing strongest EEJ current in the South American sector and weakest in the Malaysian sector.

  5. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and geomagnetic Sq-variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, G.; Ruzhin, Y.

    Statistic analyses demonstrate that the probability of earthquake occurrence in many earthquake regions strongly depends on the time of day, that is on Local Time (e.g. Conrad, 1909, 1932; Shimshoni, 1971; Duma, 1997; Duma and Vilardo, 1998). This also applies to strong earthquake activity. Moreover, recent observations reveal an involvement of the regular diurnal variations of the Earth's magnetic field, commonly known as Sq-variations, in this geodynamic process of changing earthquake activity with the time of day (Duma, 1996, 1999). In the article it is attempted to quantify the forces which result from the interaction between the induced Sq-variation currents in the Earth's lithosphere and the regional Earth's magnetic field, in order to assess the influence on the tectonic stress field and on seismic activity. A reliable model is obtained, which indicates a high energy involved in this process. The effect of Sq-induction is compared with the results of the large scale electromagnetic experiment "Khibiny" (Velikhov, 1989), where a giant artificial current loop was activated in the Barents Sea.

  6. Long-term variation in the ionosphere and lower thermosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hori, T.; Nose, M.; Otsuka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate characteristics of the long-term variation in the ionosphere and lower thermosphere, we analyzed the amplitude of geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) field daily variation using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations within the period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) products (metadata database and analysis software) for finding and handling the long-term observation data obtained at many observatories. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear solar activity dependence and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009. This significant depression implies that the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation responsible for ionization of the upper atmosphere decreased during this solar cycle minimum. In order to examine a global distribution of the long-term trend in the Sq amplitude, we derived the residual Sq amplitude from the deviation from the fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. Moreover, we estimate the neutral wind in the lower thermosphere from the Sq amplitude and height-integrated ionospheric conductivity in order to know the physical mechanism of the long-term trend in the residual Sq amplitude. As a result, the estimated thermospheric zonal and meridional winds showed a seasonal variation with a period of one year or less, but the solar activity dependence was unclear. This result suggests that the solar cycle dependence of the Sq amplitude may be mainly attributed to the variation of the ionospheric conductivity.

  7. High-resolution Late Pleistocene paleomagnetic secular variation record from Laguna Potrok Aike, Southern Patagonia (Argentina): preliminary results from the ICDP-PASADO drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisé-Pronovost, Agathe; St-Onge, Guillaume; Haberzettl, Torsten; Pasado Science Team

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution paleomagnetic reconstructions from sedimentary sequences are scarce in the Southern Hemisphere. Therefore, the millennial- to centennial-scale variability of the geomagnetic field is under-represented in the Southern Hemisphere relative to the Northern Hemisphere and the possible global nature of that variability cannot be assessed. Here we present the first high-resolution Late Pleistocene paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) reconstruction from the continental archive Laguna Potrok Aike south of 42°S in South America. Laguna Potrok Aike (51°58'S, 70°23'W) is a maar lake located in the Pali Aike Volcanic Field in southern Patagonia (Argentina). Previous studies revealed very high Holocene sedimentation rates (> 100 cm/ka) in the center of the lake. During the austral spring 2008, the multi-national Potrok Aike maar lake Sediment Archive Drilling prOject (PASADO) science team drilled two ~100 m holes under the framework of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). A preliminary Holocene age model based on comparison of magnetic susceptibility data from the PASADO core with the well-dated (radiocarbon- and tephra-based chronology) core located nearby in the center of the lake (PTA03-12) indicates a continuous deposition of ~19 m of lacustrine sediments since the last 16 ka cal. BP. Hysteresis measurements using an alternating gradient force magnetometer indicate a magnetic assemblage dominated by magnetite grains in the pseudo-single domain range. Principal component analysis (PCA) inclination and declination profiles were constructed from the stepwise alternating field demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) measured on u-channels at 1 cm intervals using a 2G Enterprises cryogenic magnetometer. The PCA inclinations vary around the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination for the latitude of the coring site and the maximum angular deviation (MAD) values are generally lower than 5°, indicating

  8. Evidence for a New Geomagnetic Jerk in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Torta, J. M.; Marsal, S.; Finlay, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The production of quasi-definitive data at an observatory has enabled us to detect a new geomagnetic jerk in 2014. The jerk has been confirmed by inspecting recent direct observations of the development of the time derivative of the field elements at several other geomagnetic observatories. Its characteristics are similar to those reported for previous jerks, though on this occasion the change in the secular variation slope in Europe almost equals that experienced at the Africa-Atlantic observatories. A global model produced with the latest available satellite and observatory data supports these findings, giving a global perspective on both the jerk and a related secular acceleration pulse at the core-mantle boundary. Should the present field variation persist, predictions from models produced with data only up until the epoch during which the jerk occurred, such as the 12th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field, might be poorer than expected in the upcoming years.

  9. Effect of secular variation in oceanic Mg/Ca on calcareous biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Stanley, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    The polymorph mineralogy of simple, hypercalcifying marine organisms has generally varied in synchroneity with the polymorph mineralogy of abiotic CaCO3 precipitates (ooids, marine cements) throughout the Phanerozoic Eon. This synchroneity is caused by secular variation in the Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (SW; mMg/Ca > 2 = aragonite + high-Mg calcite; mMg/Ca < 2 = calcite), determined primarily by the mixing rate of mid-ocean-ridge/large-igneous-province hydrothermal brines and river water, driven by the global rate of ocean crust production. Here, we present experiments evaluating the effect of seawater Mg/Ca on the biomineralization and growth of extant representatives of hypercalcifying taxa that have been subjected to fluctuations in oceanic Mg/Ca in the past. Codiacean algae (arag), scleractinian corals (arag), coccolithophores (low-high Mg-calc), coralline algae (high Mg-calc), various reef-dwelling animals (echinoids, crabs, shrimp, calcareous serpulid worms; high Mg- calc), and calcifying microbial mats (arag + high-Mg calc) were grown in artificial SW formulated over the range of mMg/Ca (1.0 to 5.2) that occurred throughout each taxon's history. Codiacean algae and scleractinian corals exhibited higher rates of calcification and growth in artificial SW favoring their aragonite mineralogy and, significantly, produced a portion of their CaCO3 as calcite in the artificial calcite SW. Coccolithophores (low-high Mg calc.) showed higher calcification and growth rates and produced low-Mg calcite in the calcite SW. Likewise, coralline algae and the reef-dwelling animals (high-Mg calc) varied skeletal Mg/Ca with seawater Mg/Ca. The calcifying microbial mats grew equally well in the calcite and aragonite SW and varied their mineral polymorph commensurate with the SW (mMg/Ca<2 = low- Mg calc; mMg/Ca>2 = arag + high-Mg calc), suggesting a nearly abiotic mode of calcification. The precipitation of low-Mg calcite + aragonite by codiacean algae and scleractinian corals (arag

  10. Do the Secular Variations in WY Cancri Mark the Spot Cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckert, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    I present optical photometry of the short-period eclipsing RS Canum Venaticorum binary WY Cancri taken after the most recent secular luminosity increase, in 1997. Data taken between the previous two secular luminosity increases, in 1988 and 1997, show a tendency for spots to migrate toward increasing longitude within an active longitude belt. These new data show a trend for spots to migrate in the opposite direction, toward decreasing longitude. Based on these trends, I suggest that WY Cnc shows cyclic behavior and that the previously observed secular luminosity increases in WY Cnc mark the start of new magnetic activity cycles in which the direction of longitudinal spot migration reverses. Continued observations will of course be necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  11. Synchronization of Heart Rates and Geomagnetic Field Variations: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenchenko, Tatjana; Jordanova, Malina; Poskotinova, Lilia; Medvedeva, Anna; Uzunov, Todor; Alenikova, Alexandra; Breus, Tamara

    2013-12-01

    The project "Heliobiology" (2011 - 2015) reflects the intense interest towards the influence of solar activity on the human health. One of its tasks is to study the putative relationship between geomagnetic activity and the changes of heart rate variability in healthy volunteers. The paper presents the first results from 5 simultaneous experiments performed in 2013 at 3 different latitudes - Sofia, Moscow and Arkhangelsk. The aim of the experiment is to study the degree of conjugation of the heart rate variability with the variations of the geomagnetic field. To minimize the experimental bias one and the same hard- and software is applied during the testing. ECG signals are recorder via "KARDI-2"; the software package is "Ecosan-2007", both developed by "Medical Computer Systems", Zelenograd, Russia. The duration of the observations ranged from 60 to 100 minutes. A comparison of the dynamics of the minute variations of the heart rate with the horizontal components of the geomagnetic field vector has revealed a synchronization of the research parameters. Further experiments are planned in the years to come to confirm the results in a larger experimental group.

  12. Motions of the Earth's Core and Mantle, and Variations of the Main Geomagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Hide, R

    1967-07-01

    Theoretical work on the magnetohydrodynamics of the earth's liquid core indicates (a) that horizontal variations in the properties of the core-mantle interface that would escape detection by modern seismological methods might nevertheless produce measurable geomagnetic effects; (b) that the rate of drift, relative to the earth's surface, of nonaxisymmetric features of the main geomagnetic field might be much faster than the average zonal speed of hydrodynamic motion of core material relative to the surrounding mantle; and (c) why magnetic astronomical bodies usually rotate. Among the consequences of (a) and (b) are the possibilities that (i) the shortest interval of time that can be resolved in paleomagnetic studies of the geocentric axial dipole component of the earth's magnetic field might be very much longer than the value often assumed by many paleomagnetic workers, (ii) reversals in sign of the geomagnetic dipole might be expected to show some degree of correlation with processes due to motions in the mantle (for example, tectonic activity, polar wandering), and (iii) variations in the length of the day that have hitherto been tentatively attributed to core motions may be due to some other cause. PMID:17838151

  13. Fossil corals as an archive of secular variations in seawater chemistry since the Mesozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gothmann, Anne M.; Stolarski, Jarosław; Adkins, Jess F.; Schoene, Blair; Dennis, Kate J.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Mazur, Maciej; Bender, Michael L.

    2015-07-01

    Numerous archives suggest that the major ion and isotopic composition of seawater have changed in parallel with large variations in geologic processes and Earth's climate. However, our understanding of the mechanisms driving secular changes in seawater chemistry on geologic timescales is limited by the resolution of data in time, large uncertainties in seawater chemistry reconstructions, and ambiguities introduced by sample diagenesis. We validated the preservation of a suite of ∼60 unrecrystallized aragonitic fossil scleractinian corals, ranging in age from Triassic through Recent, for use as new archives of past seawater chemistry. Optical and secondary electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that fossil coral crystal fabrics are similar to those of modern coralline aragonite. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL), and Raman studies confirm that these specimens contain little to no secondary calcite. In order to screen for geochemical changes indicative of alteration, we measured 87Sr/86Sr ratios, clumped isotopes, and trace element ratios sensitive to diagenesis (e.g., Mn/Ca). We retain samples when these tests either fail to identify any diagenetic modifications, or identify specific domains free of detectable alteration. Using the validated fossil coral archive we reconstruct seawater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios, measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), back to ∼230 Ma. The effects of temperature on coral trace element incorporation cannot explain the trends observed in our fossil coral Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca data. In agreement with independent records, seawater Mg/Ca molar ratios inferred from corals are low (Mg/Ca ∼1) during the Cretaceous and Jurassic, and increase between the Early Cenozoic and present (Mg/Ca = 5.2). Seawater Sr/Ca ratios from corals vary systematically between ∼8 and 13 mmol/mol since 230 Ma, with maximum values in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. The coral Sr/Ca record disagrees with records from

  14. Preliminary Study on the Variation of Geomagnetic Field during 33n-32r-32n Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, B.; Yu, Y.; Doh, S.; Kim, W.

    2009-12-01

    Occurrence of geomagnetic polarity reversals with abrupt field strength variation is the most dramatic manifestation of the geodynamo. A potential Late Cretaceous (73-79 Ma from the radiogenic dating) geomagnetic transition is well preserved in Jeongok Lava Complex (JLC), central Korea. Preliminary paleomagnetic investigation identified a reversed or transitional component from the middle part of the JLC. Of course, a normal polarity was determined from the lower and upper regions of JLC. Such a distinct directional swing of normal-reversed-normal polarity may indicate a record of 33n-32r-32n transition. In addition, paleointensity determination was carried out for over 120 samples, using the IZZI method. Paleointensity estimates were 15.7 ± 1.1 μT, equivalent to a virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 27.7 ± 2.0 ZAm2, approximately 1/3 of the present magnetic field intensity.

  15. Weak Vibrations Generated in the Earth Crust by Geomagnetic Filed Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Victor

    2010-05-01

    At present the problem of short-term earthquake prediction based on behavior of precursors (featured variations of various geophysical fields) is far from solving. At the same time an evidence of earthquake triggering by natural and man-made factors is world-wide verified. Based on well-monitored triggering impacts the new concept of earthquake prediction may be developed. From this point of view an analysis of various triggering factors and mechanisms of interactions of rocks under stressed conditions with physical impacts is very important. One of the possible triggering mechanisms was proposed by G. Duma and Yu. Ruzhin [2003], which is a generation of mechanical forces in the Earth crust due to interaction of magnetotelluric currents with geomagnetic field. It was shown that the energy produced by this interaction is equivalent to the energy of M4 earthquake for an area of 200x200 km. Based on results of analysis of dynamic triggering of earthquake it should be noted that this energy is not sufficient for significant influence on seismic activity. Nevertheless, it is known that weak vibrations may result in changing the seismic cycle of seismogenic fault. These vibrations may be produced by variations of geomagnetic field. For verification of the hypothesis a territory of Bishkek geodynamical proving ground (Northern Tien Shan region: 40.5°-44.5°N, 71.5°-78.5°E) was selected where seismic and geomagnetic observatories are concentrated, and extensive geophysical data bases are available. A correlation of seismic activity and frequency/magnitude of variations of geomagnetic field is analyzed. Various statistical methods (cross-correlation, spectral analysis) are employed. Based on results of performed analysis it is concluded that the geomagnetic field variations may produce weak vibrations in the Earth crust resulted in increase/decrease of seismic activity. The work is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR grant No. 09-05-00919-a "Analysis

  16. On the geomagnetic jerk of 1969

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, M. G.

    1985-05-01

    Courtillot et al. (1978) have first reported a sudden change in the slope of the first time derivatives of the geomagnetic field components which occurred around 1970. It was found that the change took place in a large part of the northern hemisphere. Malin and Hodder (1982) reported on studies which were conducted to determine whether this 1970 step change in the second time derivative of the geomagnetic field components, which they termed a geomagnetic 'jerk', was of internal or external origin. It was concluded that internal sources can give rise to changes in secular variation on time scales as short as one or two years and that these were the major factor in the geomagnetic jerk which occurred around 1970. The present paper provides new supporting evidence for the existence of a worldwide geomagnetic jerk, its (average) time of occurrence, and its internal nature. New estimates are given of the spherical harmonic coefficients of the jerk and of the pre-1969 and post-1969 secular acceleration.

  17. On the geomagnetic jerk of 1969

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Courtillot et al. (1978) have first reported a sudden change in the slope of the first time derivatives of the geomagnetic field components which occurred around 1970. It was found that the change took place in a large part of the northern hemisphere. Malin and Hodder (1982) reported on studies which were conducted to determine whether this 1970 step change in the second time derivative of the geomagnetic field components, which they termed a geomagnetic 'jerk', was of internal or external origin. It was concluded that internal sources can give rise to changes in secular variation on time scales as short as one or two years and that these were the major factor in the geomagnetic jerk which occurred around 1970. The present paper provides new supporting evidence for the existence of a worldwide geomagnetic jerk, its (average) time of occurrence, and its internal nature. New estimates are given of the spherical harmonic coefficients of the jerk and of the pre-1969 and post-1969 secular acceleration.

  18. Investigations of secular variations spatial structure in the Ukrainian repeat stations network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymchuk, V.; Horodyskyy, Yu.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic and electromagnetic variations before local earthquakes in the Transcarpathians active seismic zone V. Maksymchuk, Yu.Horodyskyy, V.Kuznetsova, T.Klymkovych (Carpathian Branch of S.I.Subbotin's Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sci. of Ukraine, Lviv) The territory of Transcarpathians is one of the most active seismic zones in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Its seismicity is characterized by earthquakes with sources in Eastern Carpathians, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. An influence of catastrophic deep focuses earthquakes from the Vranch zone (Romania) is felt here up to 4 units after MSK-64 scale. In 1970th years was founded the Carpathian geodynamic polygon in this region to study earthquakes precursors in different geomagnetic fields. To define magnetic precursors of earthquakes in the Transcarpathians active seismic zone during more then 20 years continuous measurements of F module on 4 permanent seismic stations are fulfilled. They are based in the zones of active faults in 30 - 50 km range. The analyses of ΔF anomalous changes shows characteristic bay-like and positive-negative changing anomalies, abrupt level changes with following slow leveling, long-term trends, high-dispersion periods and short-terms fluctuations of a field in the Transcarpathian active seismic trough. Mostly such anomalies have a bay-like form. For earthquakes with epicenters in the deep Thranscarpathian fault zone in differential field ΔF corresponds positive anomalies, and for earthquakes in Vyhorlat-Gutin volcanic zone amount of positive and negative anomalies is equal. Evidently, anomalies are caused by piezo-magnetic effect when an epicenter is located in magnetic rocks, or by electro-kinetic effect in fault zones of a sedimentary cover. Except named anomalous effects that are related with local earthquakes, in a differential field ΔF mostly in spring are observed anomalies without any connection with seismic events. Time connections of such anomalies with

  19. Cosmic rays, conditions in interplanetary space and geomagnetic variations during solar cycles 19-24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biktash, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    We have studied conditions in interplanetary space, which can have an influence on galactic and solar cosmic rays (CRs). In this connection the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters and CRs variations have been compared with geomagnetic activity represented by the equatorial Dst and Kp indices beginning from 1955 to the end 2015. The indices are in common practice in the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction studies and they are the final product of this interaction. The important drivers in interplanetary medium which have effect on cosmic rays as CMEs (coronal mass ejections) and CIRs (corotating interaction regions) undergo very strong changes during their propagation to the Earth. Correlation of sunspot numbers and long-term variations of cosmic rays do not adequately reflect peculiarities concerned with the solar wind arrival to 1 AU also. Moreover records of in situ space measurements of the IMF and most other indicators of solar activity cover only a few decades and have a lot of gaps for calculations of long-term variations. Because of this, in such investigations, the geomagnetic indices have some inestimable advantage as continuous series other the solar wind measurements. We have compared the yearly average variations of the indices and of the solar wind parameters with cosmic ray data from Moscow, Climax, Halekala and Oulu neutron monitors during the 20-24 solar cycles. During the descending phases of the solar cycles the long-lasting solar wind high speed streams occurred frequently and were the primary contributors to the recurrent Dst variations and had effects on cosmic rays variations. We show that long-term Dst and Kp variations in these solar cycles were correlated with cosmic ray count rates and can be used for prediction of CR variations. Climate change in connection with evolution of CRs variations is discussed.

  20. Anomalous geomagnetic variations associated with the volcanic activity of the Mayon volcano, Philippines during 2009-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takla, E. M.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kawano, H.; Uozumi, T.; Abe, S.

    2014-12-01

    Local anomalous geomagnetic variations preceding and accompanying the volcanic eruptions had been reported by several researchers. This paper uses continuous high-resolution geomagnetic data to examine the occurrence of any anomalous geomagnetic field variations that possibly linked with the volcanic eruption of the Mayon volcano, Philippines during 2009-2010. The nearest geomagnetic observing point from the Mayon volcano is the Legazpi (LGZ) station, Philippines; which is located about 13 km South of the Mayon volcano. The amplitude range of daily variations and the amplitude of Ultra Low Frequency emissions in the Pc3 range (Pc3; 10-45 s) were examined at the LGZ station and also were compared with those from the Davao (DAV) station, Philippines as a remote reference station. Both the LGZ and DAV stations belong to the MAGDAS Network. The result of data analysis reveals significant anomalous changes in the amplitude range of daily variations and the Pc3 amplitude at the LGZ station before and during the volcanic eruption of the Mayon volcano. From the obtained results, it appears that the observed anomalous variations are dependent on the change in the underground conductivity connected with variation in the physical properties of the Earth's crust due to the activity of the Mayon volcano. Therefore, these anomalous geomagnetic variations are considered to be of a local volcanic origin.

  1. Geomagnetic variations possibly associated with the Pisco earthquake on 15 August 2007, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takla, E. M.; Yumoto, K.; Ishitsuka, J.; Rosales, D.; Dutra, S.; Uozumi, T.; Abe, S.

    2012-02-01

    On 15 August 2007, Pisco earthquake (magnitude 8.0) hit the central coast of Peru near the MAGDAS Ancon (ANC) station. Geomagnetic data from ANC and other reference stations have been analyzed to detect any signature related to this great earthquake. Results indicate the presence of annual geomagnetic variations in the vertical component at ANC and Huancayo (HUA) stations (in the vicinity of the epicenter of Pisco earthquake). These variations have a quasi-sinusoidal waveform with amplitudes of about 10 and 5 nT for ANC and HUA stations respectively. They appeared clearly during the period preceding the onset of the Pisco earthquake especially at ANC station. By using HUA, Eusebio (EUS) and Kourou (KOU) as reference stations in the vicinity and away from the epicenter of Pisco earthquake, a clear disappearance of the diurnal variation of the vertical component was observed at ANC station during the day of earthquake. Moreover, the Pisco earthquake and another earthquake (on 29 March 2008) near ANC station were found to occur concurrently with the depressions in the polarization ratio (Z/H) of Pc 3 (10-45 s) amplitude. Such anomalous variations appear to be a result of changes in the crustal stress field and the lithospheric conductivity in the studied region.

  2. A proposed International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1965- 1985.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Fabiano, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A set of spherical harmonic models describing the Earth's main magnetic field from 1965 to 1985 has been developed and is proposed as the next revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). A tenth degree and order spherical harmonic model of the main field was derived from Magsat data. A series of eighth degree and order spherical harmonic models of the secular variation of the main field was derived from magnetic observatory annual mean values. Models of the main field at 1965, 1970, 1975, and 1980 were obtained by extrapolating the main-field model using the secular variation models.-Authors spherical harmonic models Earth main magnetic field Magsat data

  3. The geomagnetic elements in Denmark 1928-1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, H. A.

    Geomagnetic surveys in Denmark from 1928 till 1980 are reported. The Danish Meteorological Institute initiated a new, geomagnetic survey of Denmark in 1928 by the establishment of 10 repeat statins for observation of the geomagnetic, secular variation. The stations were visited again in 1930 and since then every fifth year. The general survey was started in 1939 and continued during the years 1946 to 1957 with the mapping of Northern Jutland. In 1967 the survey taken with a coarser spacing of the measured points during the following years succeeded in completing the mapping of the country with primary consideration to the declination. The observations on the repeat stations during the time 1928-1980 allowed development of mathematical formulas for the secular change of the magnetic elements D, H and Z at any arbitrary point in the country.

  4. Geomagnetic Pulsation Amplitude and Spectrum Variations Accompanying the Ionospheric Heating by High-Power Radio waves from the Sura Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogor, L. F.; Frolov, V. L.

    2014-10-01

    Aperiodic and quasiperiodic variations in the geomagnetic pulsation amplitude in a range of periods from 40 to 1000 s, which accompany the quasicontinuous and periodic impact on the ionospheric plasma by high-power radio waves from the SURA facility near Nizhny Novgorod (Russia) were recorded near Kharkov (Ukraine) using a magnetometer-fluxmeter. The main parameters of aperiodic and quasiperiodic disturbances of the geomagnetic field are determined. The mechanisms for generation and propagation of detected disturbances are discussed.

  5. Paleomagnetic secular variation as an intra-basinal and extra-basinal correlation tool for Pleistocene lake sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Negrini, R.M.; Erbes, D.B. . Dept. of Physics and Geology); Roberts, A.P.; Verosub, K.L.

    1993-04-01

    High-resolution age control is a serious problem encountered by those studying middle to late Pleistocene lake sediments, especially saline lake deposits which commonly are low in organic content obviating the use of bulk sediment radiocarbon dating. Paleomagnetic secular variation, the low amplitude variation in the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, can be recorded accurately in lake sediments. In this case if offers a high-resolution correlation tool which can be used for intra- and extra-basinal correlations. In principal, this could extend geographically as far away as marine environments enabling on to tie non-marine stratigraphy into the well-dated chronology common to marine sediment records. Examples are given of correlations based on this technique. The examples, in turn, are based on ongoing paleomagnetic and lithostratigraphic studies in the sediments of Pleistocene Lakes Chewaucan, Lahontan and previously-published paleomagnetic records from Pleistocene Lake Russell and from two un-named Pleistocene lakes. Intrabasinal correlations in Lake Chewaucan support the contention that secular variation can be used to correlate outcrop exposures (three samples per horizon) on a depth scale of several centimeters which probably corresponds to a temporal resolution of a few hundred years or less.

  6. Synchronous Variations of the Free Aquifer Groundwater Level and Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabova, Svetlana A.; Spivak, Alexander A.

    2015-04-01

    We consider long period variations of the magnetic field at the Earth's crust surface and its relation to seasonal change of the groundwater regime at the middle latitude geophysical observatory "Mikhnevo", situated at 85 km south of Moscow. Observatory is located away from large industrial projects allowing one to realize correct recording of geophysical fields. Results of synchronous observations of geomagnetic variations and groundwater regime were used as basic data. Measurements of the local variations of the magnetic field were carried out in special geomagnetic pavilion using flux-gate magnetometer LEMI-018 (measurement range ±68 000 nT, resolution capacity 10 pT). Received digital data rows with discretization 1 s resulted in sequence of values in 1 min. Measurements of the groundwater variations in water-table aquifer were carried out in the well of 30 m depth using sensitive sensor of water level LMP308i (resolving capacity 0.1 mm). Magnetic tipper, which is very sensitive to changes of the Earth's crust properties, was considered as characteristics of the magnetic variations, and in the same time as an indicator of the change of the electric properties of the medium. Results of calculations demonstrate clear marked annual variation of both real and imaginary composites of magnetic tipper describing relation between vertical component of magnetizing force and its horizontal components. Increase of thickness of the layer of watered rock resulting from rise of underground water level in water-table aquifer causes an increase of electrical conductivity of subsurface Earth's crust plot. It results in synchronous magnetic tipper variations.

  7. Modelling of spatial-temporal changes of the geomagnetic field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiaoli; Utsugi, Mitsuru; Shirai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Akira; He, Jinlan; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro

    2006-06-01

    A geomagnetic regional model is constructed to provide a spatial-temporal variation of three orthogonal components ( X, Y, Z) in Japan. In order to obtain a high temporal and spatial resolution, Natural Orthogonal Components (NOC) analysis and Spherical Cap Harmonic (SCH) analysis were employed to produce a spatial-temporal model based on the observed data from geomagnetic observatories and continuous geomagnetic stations. Using this model, we calculated the secular variation between 1999 and 2004 in Japan. The root mean square (RMS) scatter of the model is less than 3 nT, which indicates a good agreement between calculated and input data.

  8. Do Geomagnetic Variations Affect the Foliar Spiral Direction of Coconut Palms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minorsky, P. V.; Bronstein, N. B.

    2005-12-01

    In coconut palms, leaves are attached to the stem in either an ascending clockwise (left-handed or L) or counter-clockwise (right-handed or R) spiral (1). Foliar spiral direction (FSD) is a classic case of morphological antisymmetry, in which dextral and sinistral forms are not inherited and are equally common within a species (2). FSD would seem a simple stochastic process unworthy of further study if not for the observation, based on data collected from 71,640 coconut palms in 42 locations around the world, that the FSD of coconut palms varies with latitude: R-trees predominate in the N Hemisphere and L-trees predominate in the S Hemisphere (3). Hemispheric asymmetries in FSD are significantly better correlated with magnetic latitude than with geographic or geomagnetic latitude, suggesting that latitudinal asymmetries in FSD might be associated with the temporally varying component of Earth's magnetic field (4). Here, we present two new lines of evidence that geomagnetic variations may underlie asymmetries in palm FSD. First, we show that asymmetries occur in the FSD of palm populations on opposite sides of islands, and second, that asymmetries in FSD vary with the 11-year solar cycle. The prediction that asymmetries in coconut palm FSD should exist on opposite sides of islands arises from the fact that because seawater is more electrically conductive than land, induced earth currents divide and stream past an island more strongly in one particular direction. The "geomagnetic island effect" is characterized by a complete reversal of the vertical Z component of short-period geomagnetic field anomalies at observation points on opposite sides of islands (5). To examine whether FSD varied around the circumferences of islands, we collected data on 6 islands (Puerto Rico, n = 4311; Antigua, n = 2038; Hawaii, n = 3552; Maui, n = 2175; Tahiti, n = 1582; Moorea, n = 2116). For each population, the degree of asymmetry was determined by calculating an "asymmetry quotient

  9. Magnetic Flux Transport and Pressure Variations at Magnetotail Plasma Flow Bursts during Geomagnetically Quiet Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowada, M.; Fu, S.-Y.; Parks, G. K.; Pu, Z.-Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Carlson, C. W.; Auster, H.-U.

    2012-04-01

    The fast plasma flows in the geomagnetotail are observed during both geomagnetically active and quiet times. However, it has been unclear about the fundamental difference in the plasma fast flows between at two different geomagnetic conditions, that is, the generation mechanism of, and pictures of the energy transport and balance at the fast plasma flows. Magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail has been believed as one of the most possible mechanisms to generate the fast plasma flows regardless of the geomagnetic conditions. Recently, Nowada et al. [2012], however, demonstrated that the magnetotail magnetic reconnection does not always contribute to the generation of the fast plasma flows at geomagnetically quiet times based on the THEMIS measurements. It is very important to reveal how the energy transport and balance in the magnetotail in association with these plasma fast flows are on obtaining a clue to elucidate an essential difference in the plasma fast flows between during active and quiet geomagnetic conditions. Based on three events of the magnetotail plasma flow bursts, which are transient fast plasma flows with the durations between 1 and 2 minutes, during geomagnetically quiet times, observed by THEMIS, we examined detailed variations of the electric field as a proxy of the flux transport aspect, and associated pressure. The main characteristics of these events are shown as follows; 1) the GSM-X component of the plasma velocity (Vx) was higher than 300 km/s 2) associated parallel (V//) and perpendicular (V⊥) velocities to the local magnetic field line were higher than 200 km/s 3) the flow bursts were observed during which AL and AU indices were lower than 40 nT, and simultaneous Kp index range was between -1 and 1. For almost events, the parallel (E//) and perpendicular (E⊥) components of the electric field to the local magnetic field line were much stronger than the dawn-dusk electric field component (Ey). This result implies that a larger amount

  10. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, N. Jeni; Panneerselvam, C.; Anil Kumar, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses on the variations of the atmospheric vertical electric field measured at sub-auroral station Maitri (70∘75'S, 11∘75'E), and polar station Vostok (78.5∘S, 107∘E) during the geomagnetic disturbances on 25-26 January 2006. Diurnal variation of surface electric field measured at Maitri shows a similar variation with worldwide thunderstorm activity, whereas the departure of the field is observed during disturbed periods. This part of the field corresponds to the magnetospheric/ionospheric (an additional generator in the polar regions) voltage generators. Solar wind parameters and planetary indices represent the temporal variation of the disturbances, and digital fluxgate magnetometer variation continuously monitored to trace the auroral movement at Maitri. We have observed that the electrojet movement leaves its signature on vertical and horizontal components of the DFM in addition; the study infers the position of auroral current wedge with respect to Maitri. To exhibit the auroral oval, OVATION model is obtained with the aid of DMSP satellite and UV measurements. It is noted that the Maitri is almost within the auroral oval during the periods of disturbances. To examine the simultaneous changes in the vertical electric field associated with this magnetic disturbance, the dawn-dusk potential is studied for every UT hours; the potential was obtained from Weimer model and SuperDARN radar. The comparison reveals the plausible situation for the superposition of dawn-dusk potential on surface electric field over Maitri. This observation also shows that the superposition may not be consistent with the phase of the electrojet. Comparison of surface electric field at Maitri and Vostok shows that the parallel variation exhibits with each other, but during the period of geomagnetic disturbances, the influence is not much discerned at Vostok.

  11. Paleomagnetic secular variation study of lavas from the Massif central, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doell, Richard R.

    1970-01-01

    The angular standard deviation of virtual geomagnetic poles determined from a paleomagnetic study of 31 Brunhes-age lava flows from France has been obtained. The value, referred to the axial dipole (geographic axis), is 15.2?? with 95% confidence limits of 18.4?? and 12.9??. This value is not significantly different from that obtained in similar studies of lavas from other midlatitude localities (Western United States and New Zealand). ?? 1970.

  12. An independent constraint on the secular rate of variation of the gravitational constant from pulsating white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2013-06-01

    A secular variation of the gravitational constant modifies the structure and evolutionary time scales of white dwarfs. Using an state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary code and an up-to-date pulsational code we compute the effects of a secularly varying G on the pulsational properties of variable white dwarfs. Comparing the the theoretical results obtained taking into account the effects of a running G with the observed periods and measured rates of change of the periods of two well studied pulsating white dwarfs, G117-B15A and R548, we place constraints on the rate of variation of Newton's constant. We derive an upper bound Ġ/G ∼ −1.8 × 10{sup −10} yr{sup −1} using the variable white dwarf G117-B15A, and Ġ/G ∼ −1.3 × 10{sup −10} yr{sup −1} using R548. Although these upper limits are currently less restrictive than those obtained using other techniques, they can be improved in a future measuring the rate of change of the period of massive white dwarfs.

  13. Crustal structure of Precambrian terranes in the southern African subcontinent with implications for secular variation in crustal genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachingwe, Marsella; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    New estimates of crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio and crustal shear wave velocity have been obtained for 39 stations in Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia by modelling P-wave receiver functions using the H-κ stacking method and jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These estimates, combined with similar results from previous studies, have been examined for secular trends in Precambrian crustal structure within the southern African subcontinent. In both Archean and Proterozoic terranes we find similar Moho depths [38-39 ± 3 km SD (standard deviation)], crustal Poisson's ratio (0.26 ± 0.01 SD), mean crustal shear wave velocity (3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 SD), and amounts of heterogeneity in the thickness of the mafic lower crust, as defined by shear wave velocities ≥4.0 km s-1. In addition, the amount of variability in these crustal parameters is similar within each individual age grouping as between age groupings. Thus, the results provide little evidence for secular variation in Precambrian crustal structure, including between Meso- and Neoarchean crust. This finding suggests that (1) continental crustal has been generated by similar processes since the Mesoarchean or (2) plate tectonic processes have reworked and modified the crust through time, erasing variations in structure resulting from crustal genesis.

  14. Solar activity secular cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mordvinov, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term variations in solar activity secular cycles have been studied using a method for the expansion of reconstructed sunspot number series Sn( t) for 11400 years in terms of natural orthogonal functions. It has been established that three expansion components describe more than 98% of all Sn( t) variations. In this case, the contribution of the first expansion component is about 92%. The averaged form of the 88year secular cycle has been determined based on the form of the first expansion coordinate function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle have been revealed based on the time function conjugate to the first function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle coincide with those observed in the Sn( t) series spectrum. A change in the secular cycle form and the time variations in this form are described by the second and third expansion components, the contributions of which are about 4 and 2%, respectively. The variations in the steepness of the secular cycle branches are more pronounced in the 200-year cycle, and the secular cycle amplitude varies more evidently in the 2300-year cycle.

  15. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the third generation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    In August 1981 the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy revised the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). It is the second revision since the inception of the IGRF in 1968. The revision extends the earlier series of IGRF models from 1980 to 1985, introduces a new series of definitive models for 1965-1976, and defines a provisional reference field for 1975- 1980. The revision consists of: 1) a model of the main geomagnetic field at 1980.0, not continuous with the earlier series of IGRF models together with a forecast model of the secular variation of the main field during 1980-1985; 2) definitive models of the main field at 1965.0, 1970.0, and 1975.0, with linear interpolation of the model coefficients specified for intervening dates; and 3) a provisional reference field for 1975-1980, defined as the linear interpolation of the 1975 and 1980 main-field models.-from Author

  16. New archeointensity data from French Early Medieval pottery production (6th-10th century AD). Tracing 1500 years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Jesset, Sébastien; Thébault, Erwan; Bouillon, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Annie; Le Goff, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    Nineteen new archeointensity results were obtained from the analysis of groups of French pottery fragments dated to the Early Middle Ages (6th to 10th centuries AD). They are from several medieval ceramic production sites, excavated mainly in Saran (Central France), and their precise dating was established based on typo-chronological characteristics. Intensity measurements were performed using the Triaxe protocol, which takes into account the effects on the intensity determinations of both thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate. Intensity analyses were also carried out on modern pottery produced at Saran during an experimental firing. The results show very good agreement with the geomagnetic field intensity directly measured inside and around the kiln, thus reasserting the reliability of the Triaxe protocol and the relevance of the quality criteria used. They further demonstrate the potential of the Saran pottery production for archeomagnetism. The new archeointensity results allow a precise and coherent description of the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe during the Early Medieval period, which was until now poorly documented. They show a significant increase in intensity during the 6th century AD, high intensity values from the 7th to the 9th century, with a minimum of small amplitude at the transition between the 7th and the 8th centuries and finally an important decrease until the beginning of the 11th century. Together with published intensity results available within a radius of 700 km around Paris, the new data were used to compute a master curve of the Western European geomagnetic intensity variations over the past 1500 years. This curve clearly exhibits five intensity maxima: at the transition between the 6th and 7th century AD, at the middle of the 9th century, during the 12th century, in the second part of the 14th century and at the very beginning of the 17th century AD. Some of these peaks are smoothed, or

  17. Palaeomagnetism of the Upper Miocene- Lower Pliocene lavas from the East Carpathians: contribution to the paleosecular variation of geomagnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Vişan, Mădălina; Panaiotu, Cristian G.; Necula, Cristian; Dumitru, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field on geological timescales depend on globally distributed data sets from lava flows. We report new paleomagnetic results from lava flows of the East Carpathian Mountains (23.6°E, 46.4°N) erupted between 4 and 6 Ma. The average virtual geomagnetic pole position (76 sites) includes the North Geographic Pole and the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles is in general agreement with the data of the Time Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative. Based on this study and previous results from the East Carpathians obtained from 0.04–4 Ma old lava flows, we show that high value of dispersion are characteristic only for 1.5–2.8 Ma old lava flows. High values of dispersion during the Matuyama chron are also reported around 50°N, in the global paleosecular variation data set. More data are needed at a global level to determine if these high dispersions reflect the behaviour of the geomagnetic field or an artefact of inadequate number of sites. This study of the East Carpathians volcanic rocks brings new data from southeastern Europe and which can contribute to the databases for time averaged field and paleosecular variation from lavas in the last 6 Ma. PMID:26997549

  18. Palaeomagnetism of the Upper Miocene- Lower Pliocene lavas from the East Carpathians: contribution to the paleosecular variation of geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vişan, Mădălina; Panaiotu, Cristian G.; Necula, Cristian; Dumitru, Anca

    2016-03-01

    Investigations of the paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field on geological timescales depend on globally distributed data sets from lava flows. We report new paleomagnetic results from lava flows of the East Carpathian Mountains (23.6°E, 46.4°N) erupted between 4 and 6 Ma. The average virtual geomagnetic pole position (76 sites) includes the North Geographic Pole and the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles is in general agreement with the data of the Time Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative. Based on this study and previous results from the East Carpathians obtained from 0.04–4 Ma old lava flows, we show that high value of dispersion are characteristic only for 1.5–2.8 Ma old lava flows. High values of dispersion during the Matuyama chron are also reported around 50°N, in the global paleosecular variation data set. More data are needed at a global level to determine if these high dispersions reflect the behaviour of the geomagnetic field or an artefact of inadequate number of sites. This study of the East Carpathians volcanic rocks brings new data from southeastern Europe and which can contribute to the databases for time averaged field and paleosecular variation from lavas in the last 6 Ma.

  19. Palaeomagnetism of the Upper Miocene- Lower Pliocene lavas from the East Carpathians: contribution to the paleosecular variation of geomagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Vişan, Mădălina; Panaiotu, Cristian G; Necula, Cristian; Dumitru, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field on geological timescales depend on globally distributed data sets from lava flows. We report new paleomagnetic results from lava flows of the East Carpathian Mountains (23.6°E, 46.4°N) erupted between 4 and 6 Ma. The average virtual geomagnetic pole position (76 sites) includes the North Geographic Pole and the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles is in general agreement with the data of the Time Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative. Based on this study and previous results from the East Carpathians obtained from 0.04-4 Ma old lava flows, we show that high value of dispersion are characteristic only for 1.5-2.8 Ma old lava flows. High values of dispersion during the Matuyama chron are also reported around 50°N, in the global paleosecular variation data set. More data are needed at a global level to determine if these high dispersions reflect the behaviour of the geomagnetic field or an artefact of inadequate number of sites. This study of the East Carpathians volcanic rocks brings new data from southeastern Europe and which can contribute to the databases for time averaged field and paleosecular variation from lavas in the last 6 Ma. PMID:26997549

  20. Klimovskaya: A new geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, A. A.; Sidorov, R. V.; Krasnoperov, R. I.; Grudnev, A. A.; Khokhlov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    In 2011 Geophysical Center RAS (GC RAS) began to deploy the Klimovskaya geomagnetic observatory in the south of Arkhangelsk region on the territory of the Institute of Physiology of Natural Adaptations, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPNA UB RAS). The construction works followed the complex of preparatory measures taken in order to confirm that the observatory can be constructed on this territory and to select the optimal configuration of observatory structures. The observatory equipping stages are described in detail, the technological and design solutions are described, and the first results of the registered data quality control are presented. It has been concluded that Klimovskaya observatory can be included in INTERMAGNET network. The observatory can be used to monitor and estimate geomagnetic activity, because it is located at high latitudes and provides data in a timely manner to the scientific community via the web-site of the Russian-Ukrainian Geomagnetic Data Center. The role of ground observatories such as Klimovskaya remains critical for long-term observations of secular variation and for complex monitoring of the geomagnetic field in combination with low-orbiting satellite data.

  1. Ergodicity of the recent geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, A.; Qamili, E.; Cianchini, G.

    2011-06-01

    The geomagnetic field is a fundamental property of our planet: its study would allow us to understand those processes of Earth's interior, which act in its outer core and produce the main field. Knowledge of whether the field is ergodic, i.e. whether time averages correspond to phase space averages, is an important question since, if this were true, it would point out a strong spatio-temporal coupling amongst the components of the dynamical system behind the present geomagnetic field generation. Another consequence would be that many computations, usually undertaken with many difficulties in the phase space, can be made in the conventional time domain. We analyse the temporal behaviour of the deviation between predictive and definitive geomagnetic global models for successive intervals from 1965 to 2010, finding a similar exponential growth with time. Also going back in time (at around 1600 and 1900 by using the GUFM1 model) confirms the same findings. This result corroborates previous chaotic analyses made in a reconstructed phase space from geomagnetic observatory time series, confirming the chaotic character of the recent geomagnetic field with no reliable prediction after around 6 years from definitive values, and disclosing the potentiality of estimating important entropic quantities of the field by time averages. Although more tests will be necessary, some of our analyses confirm the efforts to improve the representation of the geomagnetic field with more detailed secular variation and acceleration.

  2. Eight thousand years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevey, AgnèS.; Gallet, Yves; Margueron, Jean-Claude

    2003-05-01

    Twenty new intensity determinations of the ancient geomagnetic field have been obtained from groups of potsherds and brick fragments from Syria. These artifacts, archeologically well dated from ˜6000 B.C. to approximately A.D. 1200, have been analyzed using the [1959] method as modified by [1967]. Intensity values have been corrected for the effects of anisotropy of thermal remanent magnetization and cooling rate. Our results indicate that field intensities were moderate in Syria from ˜6000 B.C. to ˜3500 B.C., with values of ˜30-40 μT. There was a significant increase in intensity by a factor of 2 from ˜3500 B.C. to ˜700 B.C., which was interrupted by a moderate decrease between ˜2550 B.C. and ˜1750 B.C. During more recent periods, our results show an intensity minimum approximately A.D. 200 and a maximum around the tenth century. Comparison with different data sets from the eastern Mediterranean and central Asia shows that geomagnetic field intensity variations were consistent at this large regional scale, at least over the last 5 millennia.

  3. On cosmic rays flux variations in midlatitudes and their relations to geomagnetic and atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Anna; Blanco, Juan Jose; Mendes Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando

    The cosmic rays flux is globally modulated by the solar cycle and shows anti-correlation with the sunspot number. Near to the Earth it is modulated by the solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field. The analysis of the secondary cosmic rays produced when they interact in the low stratosphere allows extracting information about solar wind structures surrounding Earth's orbit, the magnetic field of the Earth and the temperature of the stratosphere. Recently, a new cosmic ray detector, the TRAGALDABAS, composed by RPC (Resistive Plate Chamber) planes, has been developed and installed to go deeper into the understanding of the cosmic rays arriving to the Earth surface. An international collaboration has been organized for keeping the detector operative and for analyzing the data. Here we present the analysis of the cosmic rays flux variations measured by two cosmic rays detectors of different types located in Spain (Castilla-La Mancha Neutron Monitor - CaLMa - in Guadalajara and TRAGALDABAS in Santiago de Compostela) and their comparison to changes both in the geomagnetic field components measured by the Coimbra Geomagnetic Observatory (Portugal) and in the atmospheric conditions (tropo- and stratosphere) measured by Spanish and Portuguese meteorological stations. The study is focused on a number of recent cosmic rays events and pays specific attention to the comparison of the CaLMa series and the preliminary TRAGALDABAS data.

  4. Physical Meaning of the Equinoctial Effect for Seasonal Variation of Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, A.

    2008-12-01

    The general tendency for magnetic disturbances to be more stormy at equinoxes than at solstices has been recognised for more than 150 years. To explain the seasonal variation three principal hypotheses have been proposed; the axial hypothesis (Cortie, 1912), the equinoctial hypothesis (Bartels, 1932; McIntosh, 1959), and the Russell and McPherron (RM) hypothesis (Russell and McPherron, 1973). The RM hypothesis, which is based on the recognition that the magnetic field in the solar equatorial plane tends to have the largest southward component in geocentric solar magnetospheric (GSM) coordinates in early April and October, has been largely accepted for many years. However, recent studies have confirmed that the RM effect accounts for only a subordinate proportion of the seasonal variation of geomagnetic activity, and that the larger part of the phenomenon is attributable to the equinoctial effect in which the angle between the solar wind flow and the dipole axis of the Earth plays an essential role (Cliver, Kamide and Ling, 2000; Cliver, Kamide, Ling and Yokoyama, 2001; O'Brien and McPherron, 2002). In this paper physical meaning of the equinoctial effect is investigated based on the data of three-hourly am index and solar wind parameters acquired by the ACE satellite. The am indices are well correlated with BsVxVx, where Bs is the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and Vx is the solar wind velocity in the sun-earth direction. It is found, however, that the am - BsVxVx relation depends on the range of VxVx: The am in higher ranges of VxVx tends to be larger than am in lower ranges of VxVx for both equinoctial and solstitial epochs for the same value of BsVxVx. Using the data sets of the same VxVx range, it is shown that distribution of points in the am - BsVxVx diagram at the solstitial epochs overlaps with that at the equinoctial epochs and the average am values in each BsVxVx bin in solstitial epochs are almost equal to those in

  5. Monitoring the ionospheric total electron content variations over the Korean Peninsula using a GPS network during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Jong-Uk

    2011-06-01

    We have established a regional ionospheric model (RIM) for investigating changes in the total electron content (TEC) over South Korea using 38 Korean GPS reference stations. The inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method was applied to create a two-dimensional ionospheric map of vertical TEC units (TECU) based on a grid. To examine the diurnal patterns of ionospheric TEC over South Korea, we first processed the GPS data from a geomagnetically quiet period of 10 days. In a second step, we compared the estimated GPS-TEC variations with the changes in geomagnetic activity indices (the K p and D st indices) and the auroral electrojet index (AE) as a function of universal time (UT) on 4 and 20 November, 2003. The GPS-TEC responses for those storm events were proportional to the geomagnetic activity at this mid-latitude location. The sudden increases in ionospheric TEC (SITEC) caused by the geomagnetic storms were detected. The variations in GPS-TEC may help reveal the processes of ionospheric disturbances caused by geomagnetic storms.

  6. Spatial structure of 60- and 30-year variations of the geomagnetic field according to data of analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, V. I.; Rotanova, N. M.; Golovkov, V. P.

    1984-10-01

    The distribution of the amplitudes and phases of 60-year variations of the geomagnetic field on the earth's surface is obtained on the basis of analytical models. It is shown that the characteristic features or foci of these variations have different configurations and a dissimilar intensity. A global map of the spatial distribution of 30-year variations is also obtained; and a comparison of maps of the 60- and 30-year variations shows that, although the structure of the latter variations is more complex, the characteristic foci of both types of variations are manifested in the same regions.

  7. Improving geomagnetic observatory data in the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Morschhauser, Achim; Brando Soares, Gabriel; Pinheiro, Katia

    2016-04-01

    The Swarm mission clearly proofs the benefit of coordinated geomagnetic measurements from a well-tailored constellation in order to recover as good as possible the contributions of the various geomagnetic field sources. A similar truth applies to geomagnetic observatories. Their scientific value can be maximised by properly arranging the position of individual observatories with respect to the geometry of the external current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, with respect to regions of particular interest for secular variation, and with respect to regions of anomalous electric conductivity in the ground. Here, we report on our plans and recent efforts to upgrade geomagnetic observatories and to recover unpublished data from geomagnetic observatories at low latitudes in the South Atlantic Anomaly. In particular, we target the magnetic equator with the equatorial electrojet and low latitudes to characterise the Sq- and ring current. The observatory network that we present allows also to study the longitudinal structure of these external current systems. The South Atlantic Anomaly region is very interesting due to its secular variation. We will show newly recovered data and comparisons with existing data sets. On the technical side, we introduce low-power data loggers. In addition, we use mobile phone data transfer, which is rapidly evolving in the region and allows timely data access and quality control at remote sites that previously were not connected to the internet.

  8. Secular variation between 5 and 10c CE in Japan: remeasurements of 2000 samples collected between 1960-70's from Sueki earthenware kilns in Osaka.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, H.; Mochizuki, N.; Hatakeyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, archeomagnetic measurements are vigorously developed for years, though it is not well known to paleomagnetism community in english. One of the works is massive archeomagnetic study of Suemura kiln group carried out in Osaka University in 1960's to early 70's. More than 500 kilns were excavated in Sakai city and vicinities, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The kiln group is called as Suemura Kilns, and are for Sueki earthenware of 5c to 10c CE. About 300 kilns were sampled and most of the samples were measured at the time, and the results are reported in e.g. Hirooka (1971) and Shibuya (1980). However, the results have significant scatter in direction, which may be due to the limitation of old astatic magnetometer measurements and handwriting graphic determination of magnetic direction, and/or the lack of demagnetization. We recently inherited many of those samples and remeasured them with spinner magnetometer applying alternation field demagnetization (afd). The magnetizations are generally very stable, as usual as other archeomagnetic samples, and afd does not change the magnetic direction mostly. However, significant number of sites show large scatter in magnetic directions, which might be due to the wrong identification of kiln floor or disturbance at the time of collapsing or excavation. Taking kilns of α95<4o, we recovered 131 paleomagnetic directions. Although third of them are dated by pottery shape chronology, the range of each pottery style is not precisely known and the relation of the baked floor and the potteries excavated around kilns are not always clear. The carbon dating of those kilns are very scares. Thus we first try to draw secular variation curve in declination-inclination plot. With the rough ages of those kilns, it is pretty easy to draw the SVC. It is also numerically determined taking the distance of each direction from nearest point in SVC and the velocity change of the SVC as penalty function, within a couple of degrees in the error

  9. Temporal Variation of Different Categories Sunspot Groups since 1996: Their Relation with Geomagnetic Ap and Dst Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcik, Ali; Ozguc, Atila; Rozelot, Jean Pierre; Donmez, Burcin; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2016-07-01

    We studied the temporal variation of the number of sunspot groups and sunspot counts in these groups in four categories as small (A, B), medium (C), large (D, E, F) and final (H modified Zurich classes) since 1996. Then we compared these data sets with geomagnetic Ap and Dst indices. In results of our analysis we found followings: 1) different categories sunspot groups and sunspot counts in these groups behave differently during a solar cycle. ii) Response of geomagnetic indices to these data sets are also different.

  10. 27-day variation of the GCR intensity based on corrected and uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances data of neutron monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alania, M. V.; Modzelewska, R.; Wawrzynczak, A.; Sdobnov, V. E.; Kravtsova, M. V.

    2015-08-01

    We study 27-day variations of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity for 2005-2008 period of the solar cycle #23. We use neutron monitors (NMs) data corrected and uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances. Besides the limited time intervals when the 27-day variations are clearly established, always exist some feeble 27-day variations in the GCR intensity related to the constantly present weak heliolongitudinal asymmetry in the heliosphere. We calculate the amplitudes of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity based on the NMs data corrected and uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances. We show that these amplitudes do not differ for NMs with cut-off rigidities smaller than 4-5 GV comparing with NMs of higher cut-off rigidities. Rigidity spectrum of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity found in the uncorrected data is soft while it is hard in the case of the corrected data. For both cases exists definite tendency of softening the temporal changes of the 27-day variation's rigidity spectrum in period of 2005 to 2008 approaching the minimum of solar activity. We believe that a study of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity based on the data uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances should be carried out by NMs with cut-off rigidities smaller than 4-5 GV.

  11. The semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity: Phases and profiles for 130 years of aa data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Kamide, Y.; Ling, A. G.

    2001-05-01

    We determined the phases of the maxima (spring, fall) and minima (summer, winter) in the curve of smoothed daily averages of the aa geomagnetic index, available from 1868-1998. The dates we obtained are consistent with the equinoctial hypothesis which has aberration-adjusted theoretical maxima on 25 March (experimentally determined to be 27 March) and 27 September (27 September) and minima on 26 June (26 June) and 26 December (27 December). We also show that the overall shape of the modulation curve throughout the year (broad minima, narrow peaks) bears greater fidelity (r = -0.96) to the solar declination D (the controlling angle for the seasonal variation under the equinoctial hypothesis) than to the solar B angle (r = 0.83; axial hypothesis) or the solar P angle (r = 0.80; Russell-McPherron effect). Lastly, a three-parameter fit of the smoothed annual variation of the aa data with a function consisting of the sum of the smoothed yearly curves for the D, B, and P angles yielded an amplitude of 0.58 for the D component vs. 0.20 for B and 0.16 for P. Generally similar results for each of these analyses (timing, shape, relative contributions) were obtained for shorter intervals of data for the ap and am indices. We conclude that the semiannual modulation of average values of mid-latitude range indices such as aa and ap is primarily controlled by the equinoctial hypothesis.

  12. GPS derived spatial ionospheric total electron content variation over South-Indian latitudes during intense geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Sampad K.; Gedam, Shirishkumar S.

    2012-10-01

    The geomagnetic storms are turbulence in geomagnetic field when interplanetary magnetic field driven by solar wind move southward and continue for extended period of time. Although these occur less frequently, but may energize ionospheric electrons and particles adversely affecting ground- and space-based electronic systems. Ionosphere at higher latitude is more prone to geomagnetic storms. Over lower latitude region like Indian sub-continent, the effect is less prominent but still can exhibit many distinctive effects like scintillations, equatorial ionization anomaly, fountain effect and equatorial electrojets. The increased numbers of free electrons in ionosphere introduce delays in global positioning system (GPS) satellite signals resulting in errors during GPS positioning. In a dual frequency GPS receiver, the line integral of free electron density along the pathway of signal through the ionosphere (i.e., Total Electron Content, TEC) can be measured. In this present paper, GPS observation data of three low latitude GPS stations in India located at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Mumbai during four severe geomagnetic storms from 2003-2005, are processed to measure ionospheric TEC during the events. The measured TEC at each of the station is compared with quietest days of the months to investigate its abnormal changes in responses to severe geomagnetic storms. The consequences of TEC variation is analyzed and correlated with interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz), geomagnetic Kp and Dst-indices to study its behavioral changes during the storms. Eventually the aim of the study is to estimate the influence of ionospheric condition on GPS positioning to devise suitable method for accurate position measurements in the low latitude Indian region.

  13. Latitudinal Variation of Angular Standard Deviation of Virtual Geomagnetic Poles for the Past Five Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, C. G.

    2008-05-01

    A method of obtaining a model of how the angular standard deviation of VGPs varies as a function of observation latitude is described. A more stringent selection process is used on the available data from lava flows to determine the angular standard deviation of paleomagnetic Virtual Geomagnetic Poles as a function of latitude over the past 5 Ma. Data were used even if they gave low latitude Virtual Geomagnetic Poles. In other words there was no low latitude cutoff of the data. This resulted in 3579 data being available. The distribution of VGP latitude for any observational latitude band of sites was poorly fit by a Fisher distribution because the VGP data have a long tail towards low latitudes. An excellent distribution is to use a Fisher distribution as well as a distribution that is uniform as a function of latitude. This requires only two parameters to describe it, the Fisher precision parameter, κ, and the proportion of the results that are Fisher distributed, pf. The proportion of results that are uniformly distributed is therefore 1- pf. This method of fitting the complete VGP data set is a little simpler than that proposed by Shibuya et al. (1995) which required three parameters for a complete description of a data set. If the precision parameter of the Fisher distribution is used to determine an angular standard deviation there is a strong latitudinal variation resulting in the ASD rising form about 10° for a set of observations at the equator to 20° for a set of observations at a latitude of about 70°. Although there is considerable scatter of results, this scatter is within the bounds suggested by the errors in determining the ASDs. There is also evidence for considerable amounts of correlation of VGPs from successive lava flows, meaning that the total number of independent results is less than that given above. When this is allowed for, the proportion of uniformly distributed poles for an individual latitude band does not vary significantly and

  14. On the periodic variations of geomagnetic activity indices Ap and ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1998-05-01

    Yearly averages of geomagnetic activity indices Ap for the years 1967-1984 are compared to the respective averages of 2·Bs, where v is the solar wind velocity and Bs is the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component. The correlation of both quantities is known to be rather good. Comparing the averages of Ap with 2 and Bs separately we find that, during the declining phase of the solar cycle, 2 and during the ascending phase Bs have more influence on Ap. According to this observation (using Fourier spectral analysis) the semiannual and 27 days, Ap variations for the years 1932-1993 were analysed separately for years before and after sunspot minima. Only those time-intervals before sunspot minima with a significant 27-day recurrent period of the IMF sector structure and those intervals after sunspot minima with a significant 28-28.5-day recurrent period of the sector structure were used. The averaged spectra of the two Ap data sets clearly show a period of 27 days before and a period of 28-29 days after sunspot minimum. Moreover, the phase of the average semiannual wave of Ap is significantly different for the two groups of data: the Ap variation maximizes near the equinoxes during the declining phase of the sunspot cycle and near the beginning of April and October during the ascending phase of the sunspot cycle, as predicted by the Russell-McPherron (R-M) mechanism. Analysing the daily variation of ap in an analogue manner, the same equinoctial and R-M mechanisms are seen, suggesting that during phases of the solar cycle, when ap depends more on the IMF-Bs component, the R-M mechanism is predominant, whereas during phases when ap increases as v increases the equinoctial mechanism is more likely to be effective.

  15. Period analysis of secular optical light variations of the quasar PKS 2251+158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng-yue, Su

    2001-04-01

    We have collected optical observational data of the blazar PKS 2251+158 for nearly 100 years and analyzed its long-tem periodicity in the light variation. The maximum amplitude of light variation in B was found to be 2.86 mag. Using the Jurkevich method, a period of 12.39 yr was found. It is probable that at the center of this object there is a black hole of mass 8.0×10 5 and that the γ amplification factor is not less than 7.2. The Jurkevich method was also discussed.

  16. Morphology of the southern African geomagnetic field derived from observatory and repeat station survey observations: 2005-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, P. B.; Korte, M.

    2016-02-01

    Geomagnetic field data from four observatories and annual field surveys between 2005 and 2015 provide a detailed description of Earth's magnetic field changes over South Africa, Namibia and Botswana on time scales of less than 1 year. The southern African area is characterized by rapid changes in the secular variation pattern and lies in close proximity to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) where the geomagnetic field intensity is almost 30 % weaker than in other regions at similar latitudes around the globe. Several geomagnetic secular acceleration (SA) pulses (geomagnetic jerks) around 2007, 2010 and 2012 could be identified over the last decade in southern Africa. We present a new regional field model for declination and horizontal and vertical intensity over southern Africa (Southern African REGional (SAREG)) which is based on field survey and observatory data and covering the time interval from 2005 to 2014, i.e. including the period between 2010 and 2013 when no low Earth-orbiting vector field satellite data are available. A comparative evaluation between SAREG and global field models like CHAOS-5, the CHAMP, Orsted and SAC-C model of the Earth's magnetic field and International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) reveals that a simple regional field model based on a relatively dense ground network is able to provide a realistic representation of the geomagnetic field in this area. We particularly note that a global field model like CHAOS-5 does not always indicate similar short-period patterns in the field components as revealed by observatory data, while representing the general secular variation reasonably well during the time interval without near-Earth satellite vector field data. This investigation further shows the inhomogeneous occurrence and distribution of secular variation impulses in the different geomagnetic field components and at different locations in southern African.

  17. Holocene geomagnetic field intensity variations: Contribution from the low latitude Canary Islands site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wandres, C.

    2015-11-01

    New absolute paleomagnetic intensity (PI) are investigated from 37 lava flows located at Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). They complete previously published directional results from the same flows and therefore allow to examine the time variations of the full geomagnetic vector. Twenty-eight flows are radiocarbon dated between 1706 AD and about 13 200 BC and one is historical. Eight other flows are not dated but they have stratigraphic links with the dated flows and archeomagnetic ages had been attributed to them based on their paleomagnetic directions. Various mineralogical analyses were conducted, giving access to the nature of the magnetic minerals and to their grain size. We performed the original Thellier and Thellier paleointensity (PI) experiments with a success rate of about 65% coupling this experiment with the strict set of selection criteria PICRIT-03. The mean PIs at the flow level are based on 3 to 12 independent PI determinations except for one site in which only one reliable determination could be obtained. The data indicate some variability in the local field intensity with a prominent PI peak centered around 600 BC and reaching 80 μT (VADM 16 ×1022 Am2), documented for the first time in this region. Combined with the published data obtained from western Africa, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the Azores within a 2000 km-radius around the Canary Islands, our data allow to construct a curve illustrating the Earth magnetic field intensity fluctuations for Southwestern Europe/Western Africa. This curve, compared to the one produced for the Middle East and one calculated for Central Asia shows that maximum intensity patches have a very large geographical extent. They do not yet appear clearly in the models of variations of the dipolar field intensity.

  18. Reconstruction of past solar wind variations: Inversion of the geomagnetic response at Godhavn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasen, G. Kjoergaard

    1997-04-01

    The first quantitative inference of the past solar wind conditions is successfully attempted. Using Godhavn magnetometer data, we are able to deduce the gross temporal variations of the solar wind back to 1926. First, a set of daily perturbation quantities is defined from the hourly magnetic elements H, D, and Z characterizing different aspects of the high-latitude current system. An extensive analysis by means of robust multiregression methods enable us for the satellite era to chart the sensitivity of the perturbation quantities to specific interplanetary parameters. Second, at an arbitrary day the derived statistical relations are used to invert the geomagnetic response to give the daily averages of the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component Bs, the azimuthal IMF component By, and the solar wind speed V. It is necessary to incorporate a priori observations of Bs, By, and V in the least squares solution but only with very low weights relative to those of the Godhavn observations. The inversion procedure is verified and optimized on solar cycle 20 and 21. Reconstruction results are given for solar cycle 16, 17, and 18 covering the interesting period with a steep long-term increase of the solar activity. The cyclic features observed in situ are also found for the deduced solar wind conditions: a pronounced modulation of Bs and By, and the maximum in V occurring a few years before the activity minimum. A systematic trend is only observed for the solar wind speed. This occurs in the first half of cycle 16 and cycle 17, where the normal variations appear superposed on a linear increase. A distinct increase in the solar wind speed is apparent through cycle 17.

  19. Geomagnetic intensity variations for the past 8 kyr: New archaeointensity results from Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shuhui; Tauxe, Lisa; Deng, Chenglong; Pan, Yongxin; Jin, Guiyun; Zheng, Jianming; Xie, Fei; Qin, Huafeng; Zhu, Rixiang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we have carried out paleointensity experiments on 918 specimens spanning the last ∼7 kyr, including pottery fragments, baked clay and slag, collected from Shandong, Liaoning, Zhejiang and Hebei Provinces in China. Approximately half of the specimens yielded results that passed strict data selection criteria and give high-fidelity paleointensities. The virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) of our sites range from ∼2×1022 to ∼13×1022 Am. At ∼2250 BCE our results suggest a paleointensity low of ∼2×1022 Am, which increases to a high of ∼13×1022 Am by ∼1300 BCE. This rapid (less than 1000 yrs) six-fold change in the paleointensity may have important implications for the dynamics of core flow at this time. Our data from the last ∼3 kyr are generally in good agreement with the ARCH3k.1 model, but deviate significantly at certain time periods from the CALS3k.4 and CALS10k.1b model, which is likely due to differences in the data used to constrain these models. At ages older than ∼3 ka, where only the CALS10k.1b model is available for comparison, our data deviate significantly from the model. Combining our new results with the published data from China and Japan, we provide greatly improved constraints for the regional model of Eastern Asia. When comparing the variations of geomagnetic field in three global representative areas of Eastern Asia, the Middle East and Southern Europe, a common general trend of sinusoidal variations since ∼8 ka is shown, likely dominated by the dipole component. However, significant disparities are revealed as well, which we attribute to non-dipolar components caused by movement of magnetic flux patches at the core-mantle boundary.

  20. Geomagnetic modeling by optimal recursive filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, B. P.; Estes, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of using Kalman filter techniques for geomagnetic field modeling are given. Specifically, five separate field models were computed using observatory annual means, satellite, survey and airborne data for the years 1950 to 1976. Each of the individual field models used approximately five years of data. These five models were combined using a recursive information filter (a Kalman filter written in terms of information matrices rather than covariance matrices.) The resulting estimate of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation was propogated four years past the data to the time of the MAGSAT data. The accuracy with which this field model matched the MAGSAT data was evaluated by comparisons with predictions from other pre-MAGSAT field models. The field estimate obtained by recursive estimation was found to be superior to all other models.

  1. Secular variation of activity in comets 2P/Encke and 9P/Tempel 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haken, Michael; AHearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D.; Budzien, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    We compare production rates of H20 derived from International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from multiple apparitions of 2 comets, 2P/Encke and 9P/Tempel 1, whose orbits are in near-resonance with that of the Earth. Since model-induced errors are primarily a function of observing geometry, the close geometrical matches afforded by the resonance condition results in the cancellation of such errors when taking ratios of production rates. Giving careful attention to the variation of model parameters with solar activity, we find marginal evidence of change in 2P/Encke: a 1-sigma pre-perihelion decrease averaging 4%/revolution over 4 apparitions from 1980-1994, and a 1-sigma post-perihelion increase of 16%/revolution for 2 successive apparitions in 1984 and 1987. We find for 9P/Tempel 1, however, a 7-sigma decrease of 29%/revolution over 3 apparitions from 1983-1994, even after correcting for a tracking problem which made the fluxes systematically low. We speculate on a possible association of the character of long-term brightness variations with physical properties of the nucleus, and discuss implications for future research.

  2. Discovery of secular variations in the atmospheric abundances of magnetic Ap stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The stars of the middle main sequence have relatively quiescent outer layers, and unusual chemical abundance patterns may develop in their atmospheres. The presence of chemical peculiarities reveal the action of such subsurface phenomena as gravitational settling and radiatively driven levitation of trace elements, and their competition with mixing processes such as turbulent diffusion. At present, little is known about the time evolution of these anomalous abundances, nor about the role that diffusion may play in maintaining them, during the main sequence lifetime of such a star. Aims: We want to establish whether abundance peculiarities change as stars evolve on the main sequence, and provide observational constraints to diffusion theory. Methods: We have performed spectral analysis of 15 magnetic Bp stars that are members of open clusters (and thus have well-known ages), with masses between about 3 and 4 M⊙. For each star, we measured the abundances of He, O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr and Nd. Results: We have discovered the systematic time evolution of trace elements through the main-sequence lifetime of magnetic chemically peculiar stars as their atmospheres cool and evolve towards lower gravity. During the main sequence lifetime, we observe clear and systematic variations in the atmospheric abundances of He, Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr and Nd. For all these elements, except He, the atmospheric abundances decrease with age. The abundances of Fe-peak elements converge towards solar values, while the rare-earth elements converge towards values at least 100 times more abundant than in the Sun. Helium is always underabundant compared to the Sun, evolving from about 1% up to 10% of the solar He abundance. We have attempted to interpret the observed abundance variations in the context of radiatively driven diffusion theory, which appears to provide a framework to understand some, but not all, of the anomalous abundance levels and variations that we observe. Based in part

  3. High resolution Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation records from Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usapkar, A.; Dewangan, P.; Badesab, F. K.; Mazumdar, A.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K. S.; Basavaiah, N.

    2016-03-01

    We present high resolution paleosecular variation (PSV) records up to 8 cal. kyr BP from three piston cores, MD161/8, MD161/11 and MD161/13 acquired in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, Bay of Bengal. During the Holocene period, high sedimentation rates are recorded at MD161/8 (38.8-248.3 cm/kyr), MD161/11 (137-336 cm/kyr) and MD161/13 (∼573 cm/kyr). Rock magnetic data analysis suggests that the remanence signal is carried by titanomagnetite/titanohematite grains in stable single domain (SSD)/pseudo single domain (PSD) state. The PSV records of MD161/11 and MD161/13 show good correlation in the uppermost sediments despite significant variation in the sedimentation rates; however, poor correlation of PSV records is observed for the core MD161/8 probably due to local effects. Paleoinclination records of MD161/8, MD161/11 and MD161/13 show a low between ∼2.4 and 2.0 cal. kyr BP, an increase between 2.0 and 1.4 cal. kyr BP and a decrease towards the present. To varying degrees these trends can be observed in the other Asian PSV records of Shuangchiling (SCL) and Biwa lakes. However, the magnitude of the observed inclination anomaly in KG basin is higher (∼40°) compared to those reported from SCL (∼25°) and Biwa (∼10°) lakes. Paleodeclination records of MD161/11 and MD161/13 show a decline between ∼4.0 and 2.9 cal. kyr BP, an increase between 2.9 and 2.1 cal. kyr BP, a substantial decrease between ∼2.1 and 1.0 cal. kyr BP and an increase towards the present. Similar trends can be observed in the other Asian PSV records of SCL and Biwa lakes with a minor age offset of 0.2-0.5 kyr. The available models CALS7k.2 and CALS10k.1 are evaluated for their capability in predicting the inclination and declination anomalies from the Asian regions. The CALS7k.2 model can predict most of the inclination anomalies while the CALS10k.1 is unable to predict many of them. The CALS7k.2 model shows that the observed inclination anomalies can be attributed to the presence of

  4. Latitude dependence of cosmic-ray cutoff-rigidity variations during the initial phase of a geomagnetic storm

    SciTech Connect

    Flueckiger, E.O.; Smart, D.F.; Shea, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the cosmic-ray cutoff-rigidity variations over Europe during the initial phase of the 17/18 December 1971 geomagnetic storm. Cutoff-rigidity changes deduced from neutron-monitor measurements are compared to results obtained by tracing cosmic-ray trajectories in a model of the perturbed geomagnetic field. It is demonstrated that about 1 hour after the storm sudden commencement at 1418 UT on 17 December 1971 the cosmic ray cutoff rigidities over Europe were increased. Due to the dominating effect caused by the magnetopause currents the increases had a significant amplitude of about 0.3 GV at high latitudes whereas at middle and low latitudes they were only of the order of 0.1GV or less.

  5. Mapping Geomagnetic Field Variations in the Cretaceous Quiet Zone with Unmanned Airborne Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, J. S.; Cande, S. C.; Kent, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    About one quarter of the present seafloor was generated during the constant normal polarity interval from 121 to 83 Ma (Cretaceous Quiet Zone or KQZ), and the lack of temporal markers limits tectonic reconstructions in these areas. Although magnetostratigraphic studies provide strong evidence that the KQZ formed during predominantly normal polarity, there are nonetheless relatively large amplitude variations in many sea surface magnetic anomaly profiles crossing KQZ crust. To evaluate the relative importance of geomagnetic and crustal variables (thickness, geochemistry) in generating these anomalies, we collected multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data on 19 profiles crossing anomaly 34 and extending 500 km into the KQZ in the southwest Pacific. The relatively fast spreading (60 km/m.y. half rate), minimal sediment cover and high paleolatitude of formation make this area ideal for evaluating the magnetic anomaly pattern. An additional 10,000 km of magnetic anomaly data were acquired using an autonomous unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV). Although land-launched UAVs have been used in a variety of research applications, the nine successful flights during our cruise represent the first deployment from a UNOLS research vessel. The UAV (operated by Fugro Airborne) was launched from a pneumatic catapult and captured by a wingtip clip that attaches to a rope suspended from a retractable boom on the fantail. The Cs-vapor magnetometer data from the UAV compare favorably with results from the surface-towed magnetometer, with minor differences related primarily to the higher elevation (120m above sea level) of the UAV. The resulting magnetic coverage indicates that, as with younger seafloor, quasi-linear short wavelength anomalies are present within the KQZ. These anomalies can vary on spatial scales smaller than the multibeam swath width, highlighting the utility of obtaining additional coverage with the UAVs.

  6. Geomagnetic intensity variations for the past 6 kyr: New archeointensity results from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; Tauxe, L.; Deng, C.; Zhu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The geomagnetic field is a window to the motion of the fluid outer core of Earth, which has varied over a broad range of timescales. To understand this variation over periods of thousands of years we rely entirely on measurements of remanent magnetization from geological and archeological materials. Archeomagnetic data from Eastern Asia, however, are sparse, particularly those that would be widely regarded as reliable. The longevity of Chinese civilization and the abundant nature of archeological artifacts make archeomagnetic studies within China an important tool for filling in many gaps in our current data sets. In this study, have we carried out paleointensity experiments on 969 specimens, which includes pottery fragments, burnt earth and slags, collected from Shandong, Zhejiang and Hebei Province in China and span the last 6 kyr. Approximately half of the samples yielded results that passed strict data selection and give high-fidelity paleointensities. The virtual axial dipoles moments (VADMs) of our sites range from 4 to 12e22Am2. Our data from the last 2.5 kyr are in good agreement with the ARCH3k.1 model, but deviate at times from the CALS10k.1b model, which is likely due to differences in the data used for these models. At ages older than 3ka, where only the CALS10k.1b model is available for comparison, our data deviate significantly from the model. At ca. 1350 BCE our results suggest a paleointensity high of 12E22Am2, which drops to a low of 4E22Am2 by 2250 BCE. This rapid (less than 1000 year) three-fold change in the paleointensity may have important implications for the dynamics of core flow at this time.

  7. Predicting the Size of Sunspot Cycle 24 on the Basis of Single- and Bi-Variate Geomagnetic Precursor Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Examined are single- and bi-variate geomagnetic precursors for predicting the maximum amplitude (RM) of a sunspot cycle several years in advance. The best single-variate fit is one based on the average of the ap index 36 mo prior to cycle minimum occurrence (E(Rm)), having a coefficient of correlation (r) equal to 0.97 and a standard error of estimate (se) equal to 9.3. Presuming cycle 24 not to be a statistical outlier and its minimum in March 2008, the fit suggests cycle 24 s RM to be about 69 +/- 20 (the 90% prediction interval). The weighted mean prediction of 11 statistically important single-variate fits is 116 +/- 34. The best bi-variate fit is one based on the maximum and minimum values of the 12-mma of the ap index; i.e., APM# and APm*, where # means the value post-E(RM) for the preceding cycle and * means the value in the vicinity of cycle minimum, having r = 0.98 and se = 8.2. It predicts cycle 24 s RM to be about 92 +/- 27. The weighted mean prediction of 22 statistically important bi-variate fits is 112 32. Thus, cycle 24's RM is expected to lie somewhere within the range of about 82 to 144. Also examined are the late-cycle 23 behaviors of geomagnetic indices and solar wind velocity in comparison to the mean behaviors of cycles 2023 and the geomagnetic indices of cycle 14 (RM = 64.2), the weakest sunspot cycle of the modern era.

  8. Variations of terrestrial geomagnetic activity correlated to M6+ global seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    From the surface of the Sun, as a result of a solar flare, are expelled a coronal mass (CME or Coronal Mass Ejection) that can be observed from the Earth through a coronagraph in white light. This ejected material can be compared to an electrically charged cloud (plasma) mainly composed of electrons, protons and other small quantities of heavier elements such as helium, oxygen and iron that run radially from the Sun along the lines of the solar magnetic field and pushing into interplanetary space. Sometimes the CME able to reach the Earth causing major disruptions of its magnetosphere: mashed in the region illuminated by the Sun and expanding in the region not illuminated. This interaction creates extensive disruption of the Earth's geomagnetic field that can be detected by a radio receiver tuned to the ELF band (Extreme Low Frequency 0-30 Hz). The Radio Emissions Project (scientific research project founded in February 2009 by Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi), analyzing the change in the Earth's geomagnetic field through an induction magnetometer tuned between 0.001 and 5 Hz (bandwidth in which possible to observe the geomagnetic pulsations) was able to detect the existence of a close relationship between this geomagnetic perturbations and the global seismic activity M6+. During the arrival of the CME on Earth, in the Earth's geomagnetic field are generated sudden and intensive emissions that have a bandwidth including between 0 and 15 Hz, an average duration of 2-8 hours, that preceding of 0-12 hours M6+ earthquakes. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012, all M6+ earthquakes recorded on a global scale were preceded by this type of signals which, due to their characteristics, have been called "Seismic Geomagnetic Precursors" (S.G.P.). The main feature of Seismic Geomagnetic Precursors is represented by the close relationship that they have with the solar activity. In fact, because the S.G.P. are geomagnetic emissions, their temporal modulation depends

  9. Environmental Magnetism and Paleomagnetic Secular Variation of Late Holocene-aged Sediments of Tulare Lake, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roza, Janine; Jackson, Brandon; Heaton, Eric; Negrini, Rob

    2015-04-01

    The Tulare lake level history over the past 10,000 years is consistent with other paleoclimate records of south-central California. The record from this particular lake, if improved with respect to resolution especially in the latest Holocene, will potentially provide valuable constraints on forecasting runoff from the Sierra Nevada over the next several generations into one of the most important agricultural regions in the world. This project focuses on the magnetic properties of Tulare lake sediments in an attempt to better date the sediments and to determine the relative lake level at the time they were deposited. Toward this end, four trenches were dug at two localities in the southern end of the Tulare lake bed, totaling approximately six meters in depth. Each trench was sampled at two-centimeter spacing. The samples were analyzed at the UC Davis Paleomagnetics Laboratory and the Institute for Rock Magnetism in Minneapolis, MN for both remanence directions and magnetic properties. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility results for the Atwell Island site are consistent with the Poso Canal site in terms of locating the unconformity. For both locations, there is a spike in the cooling curve at the location of the unconformity. However for the Atwell Island site the spike does not decrease with time, which is likely due to the fact that this site is at a higher elevation within the lake, and the period of non-deposition/erosion lasted longer at this site than for the Poso Canal site. In addition, the MPMS data and the S-ratio values suggest that there is less magnetite at the Atwell Island site. The Day plots also indicate larger grains with more multi domain characteristics than the samples from the Poso Canal site. The lack of magnetite and the larger grain size may help to explain why the paleomagnetic secular variation dating was unsuccessful at the Atwell Island site.

  10. Relationship between human physiological parameters and geomagnetic variations of solar origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    Results presented concern influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure and heart rate of 86 volunteers were measured on working days in autumn 2001 (01/10 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. Questionnaire information about subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were the following: (1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; (2) gender males and females; (3) blood pressure degree persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors’ levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the group examined reached 9%. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females.

  11. Local geomagnetic indices and their role in space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Antonio; Cid, Consuelo; Saiz, Elena; Palacios, Judith; Cerrato, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of local geomagnetic disturbances (specific longitude and latitude) have recently proved to play an important role in space weather research. Localized strong (high intensity) and impulsive (fast developed and fast recovered) geomagnetic disturbances are typically recorded at high latitudes and commonly related to field-aligned currents. These type of disturbances are also recorded, less frequently, at mid and low latitudes, representing an important hazard for technology. In order to obtain geomagnetic disturbances (geomagnetic index) from the records at a certain observatory, a baseline has to be removed. The baseline is usually determined taking into account geomagnetic secular variation and solar quiet time. At mid-latitudes the shape of the daily solar quiet component presents a strong day-to-day variability difficult to predict. In this work we present a new technique capable to determine the baseline at mid-latitudes which allows us to obtain a high resolution local geomagnetic index with the highest accuracy ever obtained at mid-latitudes.

  12. Seasonal and diurnal variation of geomagnetic activity: Russell-McPherron effect during different IMF polarity and/or extreme solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H.; Zong, Q.-G.

    2012-11-01

    The Russell-McPherron (R-M) effect is one of the most prevailing hypotheses accounting for semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity. To validate the R-M effect and investigate the difference of geomagnetic activity variation under different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity and during extreme solar wind conditions (interplanetary shock), we have analyzed 42 years interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic indices data and 1270 SSC (storm sudden commencement) events from the year 1968 to 2010 by defining the R-M effect with positive/negative IMF polarity (IMF away/toward the Sun). The results obtained in this study have shown that the response of geomagnetic activity to the R-M effect with positive/negative IMF polarity are rather profound: the geomagnetic activity is much more intense around fall equinox when the direction of IMF is away the Sun, while much more intense around spring equinox when the direction of IMF is toward the Sun. The seasonal and diurnal variation of geomagnetic activity after SSCs can be attributed to both R-M effect and the equinoctial hypothesis; the R-M effect explains most part of variance of southward IMF, while the equinoctial hypothesis explains similar variance of ring current injection and geomagnetic indices as the R-M effect. However, the R-M effect with positive/negative IMF polarity explains the difference between SSCs with positive/negative IMF By accurately, while the equinoctial hypothesis cannot explain such difference at the spring and fall equinoxes. Thus, the R-M effect with positive/negative IMF polarity is more reasonable to explain seasonal and diurnal variation of geomagnetic activity under extreme solar wind conditions.

  13. Variations of total electron content during geomagnetic disturbances: A model/observation comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roble, G. Lu X. Pi A. D. Richmond R. G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the ionospheric response to major geomagnetic storm of October 18-19, 1995, using the thermosphere-ionosphere electrodynamic general circulation model (TIE-GCM) simulations and the global ionospheric maps (GIM) of total electron content (TEC) observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) worldwide network.

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation growth is sensitive to lunisolar tidal acceleration and may also be weakly correlated with geomagnetic variations

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Peter W.; Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Moraes, Thiago A.; Khabarova, Olga V.; Gallep, Cristiano M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Correlative evidence suggests a relationship between the lunisolar tidal acceleration and the elongation rate of arabidopsis roots grown under free-running conditions of constant low light. Methods Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in a controlled-climate chamber maintained at a constant temperature and subjected to continuous low-level illumination from fluorescent tubes, conditions that approximate to a ‘free-running’ state in which most of the abiotic factors that entrain root growth rates are excluded. Elongation of evenly spaced, vertical primary roots was recorded continuously over periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging and were analysed in conjunction with geophysical variables. Key Results and Conclusions The results confirm the lunisolar tidal/root elongation relationship. Also presented are relationships between the hourly elongation rates and the contemporaneous variations in geomagnetic activity, as evaluated from the disturbance storm time and ap indices. On the basis of time series of root elongation rates that extend over ≥4 d and recorded at different seasons of the year, a provisional conclusion is that root elongation responds to variation in the lunisolar force and also appears to adjust in accordance with variations in the geomagnetic field. Thus, both lunisolar tidal acceleration and the geomagnetic field should be considered as modulators of root growth rate, alongside other, stronger and more well-known abiotic environmental regulators, and perhaps unexplored factors such as air ions. Major changes in atmospheric pressure are not considered to be a factor contributing to oscillations of root elongation rate. PMID:23532042

  15. Variations of solar, interplanetary, and geomagnetic parameters with solar magnetic multipole fields during Solar Cycles 21-24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bogyeong; Lee, Jeongwoo; Yi, Yu; Oh, Suyeon

    2015-01-01

    In this study we compare the temporal variations of the solar, interplanetary, and geomagnetic (SIG) parameters with that of open solar magnetic flux from 1976 to 2012 (from Solar Cycle 21 to the early phase of Cycle 24) for a purpose of identifying their possible relationships. By the open flux, we mean the average magnetic field over the source surface (2.5 solar radii) times the source area as defined by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model of the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO). In our result, most SIG parameters except the solar wind dynamic pressure show rather poor correlations with the open solar magnetic field. Good correlations are recovered when the contributions from individual multipole components are counted separately. As expected, solar activity indices such as sunspot number, total solar irradiance, 10.7 cm radio flux, and solar flare occurrence are highly correlated with the flux of magnetic quadrupole component. The dynamic pressure of solar wind is strongly correlated with the dipole flux, which is in anti-phase with Solar Cycle (SC). The geomagnetic activity represented by the Ap index is correlated with higher order multipole components, which show relatively a slow time variation with SC. We also found that the unusually low geomagnetic activity during SC 23 is accompanied by the weak open solar fields compared with those in other SCs. It is argued that such dependences of the SIG parameters on the individual multipole components of the open solar magnetic flux may clarify why some SIG parameters vary in phase with SC and others show seemingly delayed responses to SC variation.

  16. Seasonal dependence of magnetic field variations from subauroral latitude to the magnetic equator during geomagnetic sudden commencements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Tsuji, Y.; Kikuchi, T.; Araki, T.; Ikeda, A.; Uozumi, T.; Solovyev, S. I.; Shevtsov, B.; Otadoy, R. S.; Utada, H.; Nagatsuma, T.; Hayashi, H.; Tsuda, T.; Yumoto, K.; Iugonet Project Team

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal dependence of diurnal variation of the main impulse (MI) of geomagnetic sudden commencements (SCs) has been investigated using the long-tern geomagnetic field data with high time resolution of 1 sec within a period from 1996 to 2008 provided from the NSWM [Kikuchi et al., 2008] and CPMN [Yumoto and the CPMN group, 2001] chains and the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto. In the present analysis, we used the geomagnetic field data obtained from the 10 stations. In this study, we defined an SC phenomenon as a rapid increase of the SYM-H value with more than 5 nT and time variation in the SYM-H index. Then, we identified 3163 events of SCs in a period from January 1996 to 2008, which has no Pi 2 signature around 10 minutes at the SC onset. Moreover, the SC amplitude obtained at the above 10 stations has been normalized by that in the SYM-H index with latitude correction in order to minimize the different contribution of the rapid change in solar wind dynamic pressure. As a result, in sub-auroral (ZYK) and middle latitudes (MMB) tends to be larger in summer than in winter in all the magnetic local time. The peak-to-peak amplitude in the daytime sector strongly depends on solar zenith angle. These result imply that ionospheric currents (ICs) and field-aligned currents (FACs) generated during the MI phase of SC are enhanced due to the increase of ionospheric conductivity in summer. This feature suggests that SC current system is the voltage generator. On the other hand, the sesonal variation of SC amplitude in both the low latitude and magnetic equator showed quite a different signature from that in the sub-auroral and middle latitudes. The remarkable feature is that the equatorial enhancement of SC amplitude due to an intensification of the Pedersen currents via the Cowling effect tends to become smaller in summer, compared with that in winter. This tendency suggests that ionospheric conductivity does not depend on only the solar zenith angle. One of the implications

  17. NOAA/NGDC candidate models for the 12th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, Patrick; Maus, Stefan; Chulliat, Arnaud; Manoj, Chandrasekharan

    2015-05-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is a model of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation, produced every 5 years from candidate models proposed by a number of international research institutions. For this 12th generation IGRF, three candidate models were solicited: a main field model for the 2010.0 epoch, a main field model for the 2015.0 epoch, and the predicted secular variation for the five-year period 2015 to 2020. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has produced three candidate models for consideration in IGRF-12. The 2010 main field candidate was produced from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite data, while the 2015 main field and secular variation candidates were produced from Swarm and Ørsted satellite data. Careful data selection was performed to minimize the influence of magnetospheric and ionospheric fields. The secular variation predictions of our parent models, from which the candidate models were derived, have been validated against independent ground observatory data.

  18. Archaeomagnetic determination of the ancient intensity of the geomagnetic field in Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, K.; Dheenathayalu, M.; Bharathan, S.

    1985-10-01

    A detailed study of the ancient intensity of the Earth's magnetic field in Tamilnadu, India is presented using pottery, bricks, tiles etc., obtained from the excavations that have been carried out at some of the important places of historical and archaeological interest. An attempt is made to reconstruct the secular variation of the geomagnetic field intensity. The results reported here reveal considerable changes in the Earth's magnetic field in this region during the past 2400 y. It is observed that the intensity of the geomagnetic field has been previously 57% greater than at present.

  19. Potentials and Limitations of calcite Speleothems to chart the Secular Variation of the Earth's magnetic field during the Holocene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, P. C.; Poidras, T.; Audra, P.; Carvallo, C.; Bosch, D.; Goupil, A.

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses several issues of using calcite speleothems as a high temporal resolution archive of the directional fluctuations of the Earth's magnetic field. This was achieved by collecting 3 stalagmites in the Theoreticians' cave (St Benoît, French Alps). This cave, although hardly accessible, presents two advantages. First, there are recent speleothems as evidenced by their still active growth. Thus the remanent magnetization can be directly compared with a secular variation model such as ARCH.3k. Second, the cave is carved in lutetian limestones that are directly overlain by iron-sulfide-rich priabonian marlstones. So potentially, drip water can contain iron that is a major asset for a magnetic study. We estimated by means of various rock magnetic experiments that the remanent magnetization is carried by single-domain magnetite. The recent age of the stalagmites is confirmed with U/Th dating suggesting that our sampling covers the last 3 millennia. These ages yield a mean growing rate of about 0.1 mm/yr. Remanent magnetization measurements are carried out with a 2G cryogenic magnetometer. The challenging issue is to measure samples of small size (cylinder of 1 inch in diameter and about 2 mm in height, i.e. a sample of about 1 gram). We worked on improving measurement protocols as well as on the development of a new type of sample holder. Before each series of measurements, the magnetometer must be perfectly tuned in order to have the lowest possible baseline and a minimum drift. In the best conditions, encountered during the nights or during the weekends, the background noise is around 1x10-12 Am2. Such conditions are necessary to measure the NRM that is characterized in most cases by intensity less than 1x10-8 Am2/kg (i.e one order of magnitude above the sensitivity limit of our magnetometer). With such NRM intensities, the major challenge is to determine the direction of the ChRM by stepwise AF treatment. The results obtained are very encouraging in

  20. Late Quaternary paleomagnetic secular variation, relative paleointensity, and environmental magnetism from Cascade Lake, Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, D. P.; Kaufman, D. S.; Stoner, J. S.; Reilly, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Two sediment cores from Cascade Lake (68.38°N, 154.60°W), Arctic Alaska were selected for paleomagnetic analysis to compare 14C age control with paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity (RPI) age control derived from field models and other local sedimentary records. Rock magnetic experiments were performed to quantify variability in magnetic properties and to infer sediment sourcing during the late Quaternary. U-channels were studied through AF demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization, and laboratory-induced magnetizations including anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) acquisition, ARM demagnetization, and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM). Maximum angular deviation values average <2°, indicating a strong, well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization dominated by a low-coercivity component that increases up core. Average inclinations are within 4° of the expected geocentric axial dipole, and major inclination features can be correlated across the two cores. Correlation of inclination changes with the Burial Lake record, 200 km to the west (Dorfman, 2013, unpub. thesis), indicates that the Cascade Lake sedimentary sequence overlying the basal diamicton likely spans at least 16 ka. Cascade Lake sediments may be suitable for RPI estimation using the ARM or IRM as a normalizer, following a more detailed examination of magnetic properties. A systematic offset between the Cascade Lake 14C chronology and PSV and RPI chronologies wiggle-matched to field models suggests a hard-water effect of ~1000 yr, although we cannot rule out the possibility that at least some of the age offset represents a post-depositional remanent magnetization lock-in effect at Cascade Lake. S-ratios (IRM0.3T/SIRM) and ARM-ratios (ARM/SIRM) show a sharp decrease in low-coercivity material across the transition from clastic sediments to organic-rich sediments, followed by an increase in the concentration of fine-grained magnetic material and

  1. International geomagnetic reference field 1980: a report by IAGA Division I working group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the recommendations of the working group, which suggested additions to IGRF because of the cumulative effect of the inevitable uncertainties in the secular variation models which had led to unacceptable inaccuracies in the IGRF by the late 1970's. The recommendations were accepted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy on August 15, 1981 at the 4th Scientific Assembly, Edinburgh. An extended table sets out spherical harmonic coefficients of the IGRF 1980.-R.House

  2. [Seasonal variations in the myocardial infarction incidence and possible effects of geomagnetic micropulsations on the cardiovascular system in humans].

    PubMed

    Kleĭmenova, N G; Kozyreva, O V; Breus, T K; Rapoport, S I

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the ambulance calls in Moscow, related to myocardial infarction (85.000 events), sudden death (71.700 events), and hypertension crises (165.500 events) over the period of 1979-1981 demonstrated their clear seasonal variations with a profound summer minimum and a winter maximum. The same results were obtained in the analysis of statistical monthly data on sudden death from infarction in Bulgaria over the period of 15 years (1970-1985). However, there are a great number of clinical and statistical studies confirming the rises in the incidence of myocardial infarction, hypertension crise, and sudden death during geomagnetic disturbances, which have maximum occurrence near equinox, not in winter. In order to explain this contradiction, we suggested that one of critical factors that affect the human cardiovascular system is geomagnetic micropulsations Pc1 having the frequency comparable with the frequency of heart rate beatings and winter maximum in their occurrence. The results of a comparative analysis of data of ambulance calls in Moscow related to myocardial infarction and sudden death and the catalog of Pc1 observations at the geophysical observatory "Borok" (Yaroslavl region) are presented. It is shown that in approximately 70% of days with an anomalously large number of ambulance calls related to myocardial infarction, Pc1 micropulsations have been registered. The probability of simultaneous occurrence of myocardial infarction and Pc1 in the winter season was 1.5 times greater than their accidental coincidence. Moreover, it was found that in winter the effects of magnetic storms and Pc1 IM(A) were much higher than in summer. We suggested that one of possible reasons for the seasonal variations in the occurrence of myocardial infarction is an increase in the production of the pineal hormone melatonin in winter which leads to an unstable state of the human organism and an increase in its sensitivity to the effect of geomagnetic pulsations. PMID

  3. TEC variations during geomagnetic storm/substorm with Pc5/PI2 pulsation signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, A. M.; Mahrous, A. M.; Fathy, I.; Ghamry, E.; Groves, K.; Yumoto, K.

    2015-06-01

    The electron density integral along the paths between a GPS satellite and receiver is known as Total Electron Content (TEC), and this parameter is used in studying the ionosphere behaviors. TEC can be obtained by means of many methods. A space-based radio navigation system, such as Global Positioning System (GPS), offers good opportunities for studying the ionosphere. The TEC is calculated from the group path delay and phase advance in GPS satellite signals along the slant paths connecting GPS receivers and satellites at 22,000 km. Locally, a dual frequency GPS receiver was installed in Helwan, Egypt (29.86°N, 31.32°E) in November 2009. Here, GPS data were analyzed to establish a daily observation of Vertical TEC in a region located near to the northern crest of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly. During a moderate geomagnetic storm, observed on 02-05 May 2010, a number of ionospheric/magnetic phenomena were observed. Also, observations for Pc5/Pi2 pulsations were recorded during the geomagnetic storm phases. These geomagnetic observations are taken from MAGDAS-magnetometer station, located at Aswan (23.59°N, 32.51°E). More than 10 TECU increase in the ionospheric TEC values were recorded during the daytime of 02 May, followed by a large reduction during 03 May, reference to the pre-storm conditions. This confirms the enhancement in the geomagnetic H-component peak during the storm's initial phase and its reduction during the main phase.

  4. Energy dependence of relativistic electron flux variations in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Li, Jinxing; Fu, Suiyan; Pu, Zuyin; Chen, Lunjin; Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms can either increase or decrease relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt, depending on the delicate competition between electron energization and loss processes. Despite the well-known "energy independent" prototype in which electron fluxes enhance after geomagnetic storms at all energies, we present observations of "energy dependent" events, i.e., post-storm electron fluxes at lower energies (0.3-2.5 MeV, measured by MEPED/POES) recover or even exceed the pre-storm level, while electron fluxes at higher energies (2.5-14 MeV, measured by PET/SAMPEX) do not restore. The statistical survey of 84 isolated storms demonstrates that geomagnetic storms preferentially decrease relativistic electron fluxes at higher energies while flux enhancements are more common at lower energies: ~ 82% (3%) storm events produce increased (decreased) flux for 0.3-2.5 MeV electrons, while ~ 37% (45%) storms lead to enhancements (reductions) of 2.5-14 MeV electron flux. Superposed epoch analysis suggests that "energy dependent" events preferentially occur during periods of high solar wind density along with high dynamic pressure. Previous statistical studies have shown that this kind of solar wind conditions account for significant enhancements of EMIC waves, which cause efficient precipitation of > 2 MeV electrons into atmosphere via pitch angle scattering. Two cases of "energy dependent" events are investigated in detail with evident observations of EMIC waves that can resonate effectively with >2 MeV electrons. Besides, we do not capture much differences in the chorus wave activity between those "energy dependent" and "energy independent" events. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that EMIC waves play a crucial role in the occurrences of those "energy dependent" events in the outer zone during geomagnetic storms.

  5. Latitudinal variation of 732.0 nm dayglow emission under geomagnetic storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vir; Dharwan, Maneesha

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive model is developed to study 732.0 nm dayglow emission. The Solar2000 EUV (extreme ultraviolet) flux model, neutral atmosphere model (NRLMSISE-00), latest transition probabilities and updated reaction rate coefficients are incorporated in the present model. The modeled volume emission rates (VER) are compared with the measurements as provided by Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite, Dynamics Explorer-2 spacecraft and WINDII measurements. The model is found in very good agreement with the measurements. This model is used to study the effects of geomagnetic storm on the 732.0 nm dayglow emission at various latitudes in northern hemisphere. It is found that the VER decreases as the latitude increases. The decrease in VER from low to mid latitudes is due to the decrease in atomic oxygen number density with latitude. The zenith intensity at the maximum geomagnetic activity is about 15% higher than the zenith intensity before the start of the geomagnetic storm in equatorial region. However, no appreciable change in the zenith intensity is found at higher latitudes (above 50° N). Further a negative correlation is found between the volume emission rate and DST index at all latitudes.

  6. Centennial variations in sunspot number, open solar flux, and streamer belt width: 2. Comparison with the geomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, M.; Owens, M. J.; Barnard, L.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the relationship between interdiurnal variation geomagnetic activity indices, IDV and IDV(1d), corrected sunspot number, RC , and the group sunspot number RG . RC uses corrections for both the "Waldmeier discontinuity," as derived in Paper 1, and the "Wolf discontinuity" revealed by Leussu et al. (2013). We show that the simple correlation of the geomagnetic indices with RCn or RGn masks a considerable solar cycle variation. Using IDV(1d) or IDV to predict or evaluate the sunspot numbers, the errors are almost halved by allowing for the fact that the relationship varies over the solar cycle. The results indicate that differences between RC and RG have a variety of causes and are highly unlikely to be attributable to errors in either RG alone, as has recently been assumed. Because it is not known if RC or RG is a better predictor of open flux emergence before 1874, a simple sunspot number composite is suggested which, like RG , enables modeling of the open solar flux for 1610 onward in Paper 3 but maintains the characteristics of RC .

  7. Improving our knowledge of the rapid geomagnetic field intensity variation observed in Europe around 800 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Kovacheva, M.; Hill, M. J.; Beamud, E.; Gutiérrez-Lloret, S.; Cañavate, V.; Blain, S.; Bouvier, A.; Oberlin, C.; Guibert, P.; Sapin, C.; Pringent, D.

    2011-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes. The aim of this study is to obtain an improved description of the sharp geomagnetic intensity change that took place in Western Europe around 800 yrs AD as well as to investigate if this peak is observed at a continental scale. For this purpose 13 precisely dated early medieval Spanish pottery fragments, 4 archeological French kilns and a 3 collections of bricks used for the construction of different historical buildings from France and with ages ranging between 330 to 1290 AD have been studied. The material collected has been dated by archeological/historical constraints together with radiocarbon,thermoluminiscence (TL) and archeomagentic analysis. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 164 specimens (119 of them giving reliable results) ten new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. The new intensity data together with a selection of the most reliable data from Western Europe have been relocated to the latitude of Paris and confirm the existence of an intensity maxima of ~85 μT centred at ~850 AD and related to intensity changes up to 20 μT per century. The results also indicate that a previous abrupt intensity change (reaching a maximum value of ~ 90 μT) took place in Western Europe around 650 AD. A selection of high-quality intensity data from Bulgaria, Italy and Greece indicate a very similar intensity trend for Eastern Europe. Although available data indicate that the duration of such periods of high intensities may be of less than one century more data are needed to infer the exact duration of these maximums. A comparison between the selected data and regional and global geomagnetic field models indicates that

  8. Variation of Paleo-temperature and Geomagnetic Field Intensity: Do They Responsible for the Rise and Fall of Ancient Civilization in East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, H.; Yu, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstruction involves various components including the temporal and spatial variation of temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind. In particular, we tested whether there is a direct correlation among paleo-temperature variation, geomagnetic field intensity fluctuation, and the rise and fall of ancient dynasties in China, Korea, and Japan. Paleo-temperature proxy included a composite record of ice cores, stalagmites, tree-rings, lake sediments, historical documents and peat. For the past 3000 years in East Asia, it is apparent that paleo-temperature and geomagnetic field intensity varies synchronously. Both in China and Korea, the rise and fall of ancient civilizations were less influenced by paleo-temperature or geomagnetic field intensity variation. However, a period of cold temperature matches temporally well with the ascent of new civilizations in Japan.

  9. Detection of the significant geomagnetic field signals in the interannual variations of Length-of-Day using wavelet method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Genyou; Duan, Pengshuo; Hao, Xiaoguang; Hu, Xiaogang

    2015-04-01

    The previous studies indicated that the most of the interannual variations in Length-Of-Day (LOD) could be explained by the joint effects of ENSO (EI Nino-Southern Oscillations) and QBO (Quasi-Biennial Oscillation) phenomenon in the atmosphere. Due to the limit of the used methods, those results cannot give the 'time-frequency' coherence spectrum between ENSO and LOD, and cannot indicate in which specific periods the weak coherence occurred and difficult to give the reliable reason. This paper uses Daubechies wavelet with 10 order vanishing moment to analyze the LOD monthly time series from 1962 to 2011. Based on cross-wavelet and wavelet coherence methods, the analysis of the time-frequency correlations between ENSO and LOD series (1962-2011) on the 1.3~10.7 year scales is given. We have extracted and reconstructed the LOD signals on 1.3~10.7year scales. The result shows that there is obvious weak coherence on both biennial and 5~8 year scales after 1982 relative to before 1982. According to the previous works, the biennial weak coherence is due to QBO, but the weak coherence on 5~8 year scales cannot be interpreted by the effects of ENSO and QBO. In this study, the Geomagnetic field signals (can be characterized as Aa index) are introduced, we have further extracted and reconstructed the LOD, ENSO and Aa signals in 5-8.0 year band using wavelet packet analysis. Through analyzing the standardized series of the three signals, we found a linear time-frequency formula among the original observation series: LOD(t,f) =αENSO(t,f) +βAa(t,f). This study indicates that the LOD signals on 5.3~8.0 year scales can be expressed in term of linear combination of ENSO and Aa signals. Especially after 1982, the contributions of ENSO and Aa to LOD respectively reach about 0.95ms and 1.0ms.The results also imply that there is an obvious Geomagnetic field signal in interannual variations of LOD. Furthermore, after considering the geomagnetic field signal correction, the Pearson

  10. Holocene geomagnetic field variations from low latitude site: contribution from the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Perez-Torrado, Francisco; Carrracedo, Juan-Carlos; Wandres, Camille

    2016-04-01

    Full geomagnetic vector information was retrieved from 37 lava flows (corresponding to 38 sites because one flow was sampled at two different localities) located in Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Twenty-eight flows are dated between 1706 AD and about 13200 BC and one is historical. Eight other non-dated flows have stratigraphic links with the dated flows and at the end, our study allowed us to attribute to them archeomagnetic ages based on their paleomagnetic characteristics. Various mineralogical analyses were conducted, giving access to the nature and grain size of the magnetic minerals. Full stepwise (about 13 steps) thermal and AF demagnetizations were conducted on more than 400 samples to determine the paleomagnetic directions. The individual MAD values are on the average about 2° and the mean precision parameter at the flow scale (alpha95) is 4.2°. For paleointensities (PI), we performed the original Thellier and Thellier experiments with a success rate of about 65%, coupling it with the strict set of selection criteria PICRIT-03. The mean PIs at the flow level are based on 3 to 12 independent PI determinations except for one site in which only one reliable determination could be obtained. The obtained data are unique in this area over the 1000-14000 BC period and they are complementary to the dataset obtained in the Canary Islands for the last 500 years. Over the last 3 kyr, they indicate some variability in the local field intensity with a prominent PI peak centered around 600 BC and reaching 80 μT (VADM 16 x 10 ^22 Am ^2), documented by four different flows and associated to significantly easterly deviated declinations. The directional data are rather consistent with the most recent models proposed for that area but the obtained PI indicate that models largely underestimate the paleointensities. Combined with published data obtained from western Africa, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the Azores within a 2000 km-radius around the Canary

  11. Explanation of observable secular variations of gravity and alternative methods of determination of drift of the center of mass of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    The summary. On the basis of geodynamic model of the forced relative displacement of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle of the Earth the secular variations of a gravity and heights of some gravimetry stations on a surface of the Earth have ben studied. At the account of secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth which on our geodynamic model is caused by the unidirectional drift of the core of the Earth relatively to the mantle, the full explanation is given to observable secular variations of a gravity at stations Ny-Alesund (Norway), Churchill (Canada), Medicine (Italy), Sayowa (Antarctica), Strastburg (France), Membach (Belgium), Wuhan (China) and Metsahovi (Finland). Two new methods of determination of secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth, alternative to classical method of a space geodesy are offered: 1) on the basis of gravimetry data about secular trends of a gravity at the stations located on all basic regions of the Earth; 2) on the basis of the comparative analysis of altimetry and coastal data about secular changes of sea level also in basic regions of ocean. 1. Secular drift of the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the Earth. A secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth to the North relatively to special center O on an axis of rotation of the Earth for which the coefficient of third zonal harmonic J3' = 0, has been predicted in the author work [1]. A drift in a direction to a geographical point (pole P) 70°0 N and 104°3 E has been established for the first time theoretically - as a result of the analysis of the global directed redistribution of masses of the Earth, explaining the observed secular drift of the pole of an axis of rotation of the Earth and not tidal acceleration of its axial rotation [2]. In [1] velocity of drift it has been estimated in 1-2 cm/yr. For specified center O the figure of a planet is as though deprived of pure-shaped form (J3' = 0). And in this sense the point O can be

  12. UT variations of geomagnetic activity as a basis for understanding the magnetic state and dynamics of planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, T.; Laptukhov, A.

    This paper deals with the effect of the mutual orientation of the vectors of the dipole magnetic moment, the IMF and the solar wind electric field on the terrestrial magnetosphere in case of the reconnection between the dipole magnetic field and an IMF of arbitrary orientation. Our results can be applied to any magnetosphere, when analyzing the data measured in vicinity of the planets. Results of studies of UT variations of geomagnetic activity are still controversial. We examine the UT variations in Kp index for the period from 1964-1996. We are concerned with not only the UT variation but also how it is controlled by the solar wind and IMF and use the IMF and plasma data for the same period. We attract for the studies a reconnection model elaborated by us. The mo el describes a reconnection betweend the Earth's magnetic field and an IMF of arbitrary orientation taking into account annual and daily motions of the Earth. We use the data to study invariant parameters (independent from a choice of a coordinate system) derived from our model that determine the reconnection. 1)cos(BM), where (BM) is angle between vectors of the IMF B and geomagnetic moment M; 2)vector of electric field of the solar wind E presented by its projections along and across the M vector (Em and Emv). Functional relation of mean Kp-index and cos(BM) is obtained from the analyzed data. The correlation coefficient Cc=0.98 between the data from different years. The Kp has functional dependencies with the parameters Em and Emv too; Cc have the same high values from year to year. These parameters calculated from the data for 33 years taking into account the UT orientation of the vectors show clearly that geomagnetic activity has essential repeated component. Derived functions Kp=F(Emv) and Kp=f(Em) (Kp changes from 0 to 9) show essentially different behavior and differs from the discussed earlier. We use the derived connections for our analysis of the UT course in Kp (daily and annual). Special

  13. On the evolution of high-frequency ingredients of the secular variation and of their expression at core surface, as inferred from observatory data and main field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetrescu, C.; Dobrica, V.; Stefan, C.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of the first time derivative, with the residual external contribution removed, of H, Z, and D for 24 observatories world-wide with 100-150 years long time series, shows the presence in data of a so-called ~80-year variation. The geographical distribution and its temporal evolution as revealed by 400 years time span of the gufm1 field model is derived and discussed. Time-longitude, time-latitude plots and spectral analysis have been used to derive quantitative information on the ~80-year variation features. The analysis has been extended to the radial component of the geomagnetic field at the core surface. The results indicate that the ~80-year variation entirely accounts for the field with time-averaged axisymmetric component subtracted and high-pass-filtered with cutoff period 400 years of Finlay and Jackson (2003).

  14. Domino model for geomagnetic field reversals.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Schmitt, D; Wicht, J; Ferriz-Mas, A; Mouri, H; Nakamichi, A; Morikawa, M

    2013-01-01

    We solve the equations of motion of a one-dimensional planar Heisenberg (or Vaks-Larkin) model consisting of a system of interacting macrospins aligned along a ring. Each spin has unit length and is described by its angle with respect to the rotational axis. The orientation of the spins can vary in time due to spin-spin interaction and random forcing. We statistically describe the behavior of the sum of all spins for different parameters. The term "domino model" in the title refers to the interaction among the spins. We compare the model results with geomagnetic field reversals and dynamo simulations and find strikingly similar behavior. The aggregate of all spins keeps the same direction for a long time and, once in a while, begins flipping to change the orientation by almost 180 degrees (mimicking a geomagnetic reversal) or to move back to the original direction (mimicking an excursion). Most of the time the spins are aligned or antialigned and deviate only slightly with respect to the rotational axis (mimicking the secular variation of the geomagnetic pole with respect to the geographic pole). Reversals are fast compared to the times in between and they occur at random times, both in the model and in the case of the Earth's magnetic field. PMID:23410284

  15. The 2000 revision of the joint UK/US geomagnetic field models and an IGRF 2000 candidate model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macmillan, S.; Quinn, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The method of derivation of the joint UK/US spherical harmonic geomagnetic main-field and secular-variation models is presented. Early versions of these models, with the main field truncated at degree 10, are the UK/US candidates for the IGRF 2000 model. The main-field model describes the Earth's magnetic field at the 2000.0 epoch, while the secular-variation model predicts the evolution of this field between 2000.0 and 2005.0. A revised 1995.0 main-field model was also generated. Regional models for the continental US, Alaska and Hawaii were also produced as a by-product of the UK/US global modelling effort. Copy right?? The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences.

  16. Structure in the secular variation of seawater sup 87 Sr/ sup 86 Sr for the Ivorian/Chadian (Osagean, Lower Carboniferous)

    SciTech Connect

    Douthit, T.L.; Hanson, G.N.; Meyers, W.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The secular variations of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in seawater for the Ivorian/Chadian, (equivalent to the Osagean, Lower Carboniferous) were determined through detailed analysis of well-preserved marine cements from the Waulsortian facies of Ireland. The results indicate that marine cements have utility in characterizing marine paleochemistries. Marine cements were judged pristine on the basis of nonluminescent character and stable isotopic composition comparable to previous estimates of Mississippian marine calcite. Analysis of the marine cements yielded {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios lower than previously reported values for the Ivorian/Chadian. Error resulting from chronostratigraphic correlation between different geographic areas was avoided by restricting the sample set to a single 1,406-ft-long core (core P-1). The P-1 core is estimated to represent a minimum of 8.7 m.y. of continuous Waulsortian Limestone deposition. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of 11 nonluminescent cements document a non-monotonic variation in seawater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr along the length of the core. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ranges from a high of 0.707908 in the early Ivorian to a low of about 0.707650 in the late Ivorian and middle Chadian with an early Chadian maximum at 0.707800 (all data are adjusted to a value of 0.710140 for SRM 987). The indicated maximum rate of change in seawater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr is {minus}0.00011/Ma, comparable in magnitude to Tertiary values. The secular variation curve of seawater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr for the Ivorian/Chadian has previously been thought to decrease monotonically with decreasing age. These data suggest that the seawater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr variation over this interval may be sinusoidal in nature and emphasize the importance of well-characterized intraformational isotopic base lines.

  17. Seasonal and secular variation of wind streaks on Mars - An analysis of Mariner 9 and Viking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    1979-01-01

    Viking orbiter observations extending over 1 Martian year have been used in conjunction with Mariner 9 data obtained in 1971-1972 to study the seasonal and secular behavior of several kinds of wind streaks. Most bright streaks, inferred to consist of dust storm fallout in the lees of obstacles, have changed very little in form or orientation over a period of 3 Martian years. Some are extremely stable and have experienced no effective eolian action over the 3 years. A few bright streaks changed rapidly during global dust storms; these streaks are located in areas subject to both global and topographic winds. Viking images have shown for the first time that dark, erosional streaks are stable from the time of their formation after major dust storms until the onset of the next episode of major storm activity. Available evidence shows that the large, dark streaks in Oxia Palus consist of material deflated from dune fields within the associated craters. These streaks lengthened secularly since 1972; changes appear to occur episodically during southern summer. The great majority of all streaks reflect winds during the period from late southern spring to early southern fall, although some changes occur throughout the year. The global pattern of wind streaks and the variability of the streaks thus depend strongly upon the current south-north asymmetry of seasons on Mars.

  18. Variation of the cold plasma density structure above the polar ionosphere associated with geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, N.; Shinbori, A.; Nishimura, Y.; Ono, T.; Iizima, M.; Kumamoto, A.; Yamada, M.; Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.

    2007-12-01

    Plasma outflow from the polar ionosphere into the magnetosphere is one of the most important processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the polar region. Recent satellite observations have clarified that plasma outflow takes an important role for plasma transport into the magnetosphere, abrupt changes of the ring current ion composition, and the disappearance of the auroral acceleration region during geomagnetic storms. In the present study, we analyzed the electron density data observed by the Akebono satellite in an altitude range from 300 to 10500 km, in order to clarify the formation process of the plasma density enhancement above the polar ionosphere. The electron density along the satellite path was derived using the upper-hybrid resonance (UHR) frequency and maximum frequency of whistler-mode waves observed by the PWS instrument onboard the Akebono satellite with the time resolution of 2 seconds. In the present data analysis, we used the electron density data from March, 1989 to July, 1990 for statistical analyses. First, we investigate the statistically averaged density distributions during the quiet time in summer, equinox, and winter seasons. The data are sorted by day and night in magnetic local time, 5 degrees in invariant latitude and 100 km in altitude. The logarithmically averaged data in each bin are fitted by using the non-linear least square fitting method in altitude direction, using the equation of sum of the exponential and power law functions. Then, the fitted profiles are interpolated in ILAT direction by exponential functions. Finally, we obtain electron density distribution on the meridian plane. From comparing these distributions, it is identified that electron density in summer is 5 to 50 times larger than that in winter below 5000 km altitude in the polar cap and auroral zone. Next, we perform case studies for the geomagnetic storm events which occurred on June 6, June 9, 1989 and March 30, 1990. In these events, enhancements

  19. A heating process of Kuchi-erabu-jima volcano, Japan, as inferred from geomagnetic field variations and electrical resistivity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, W.; Utsugi, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Fujii, I.; Hasenaka, T.; Shigeno, N.

    2009-12-01

    Since August 2000, we have recorded the total intensity of the geomagnetic field at the summit area of Kuchi-erabu-jima volcano, where phreatic eruptions repeatedly occurred. Prominent variations in the geomagnetic field have been observed since 2001 in concordance with the elevated volcanic activity as a result of the time series analysis performed to extract the volcanomagnetic variations. The obtained variations indicate thermal demagnetization of the subsurface around the presently active crater. The demagnetization source for the early variations until summer 2002 was roughly estimated at 200 m below sea level. For the variations after 2003, the source was modeled on the basis of the expansion of a uniformly magnetized ellipsoid. The modeling result showed that the source is located at 300 m above sea level beneath the crater. We carried out an audio-frequency magnetotelluric survey with the aim of obtaining a relation between the demagnetization source and the shallow structure of the volcano. A two-dimensional inversion applied to the data detected two good conductors, one of which is thin and restricted to the region near the ground surface around the summit area, while the other extends over the edifice at depths between 200 and 800m. These conductors are regarded as clay-rich layers with low permeability, which were assumed to be generated through hydrothermal alteration. The demagnetization source for the early variations is located at the lower part of the deep conductor and the source after 2003 lies between the two conductors, where groundwater is considered to be abundant. Based on these results, as well as on seismological, geodetic, and geochemical information, we propose a heating process of the Kuchi-erabu-jima volcano. At the early stage, high-temperature volcanic gases supplied from the deep-seated magma remained temporarily at the level around the lower part of the less permeable deep conductor since the ascent path had not yet been

  20. High-resolution paleomagnetic secular variations and relative paleointensity since the Late Pleistocene in southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisé-Pronovost, Agathe; St-Onge, Guillaume; Gogorza, Claudia; Haberzettl, Torsten; Preda, Michel; Kliem, Pierre; Francus, Pierre; Zolitschka, Bernd; Pasado Science Team

    2013-07-01

    Paleomagnetic inclination, declination and relative paleointensity were reconstructed from the sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike in the framework of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Potrok Aike maar lake Sediment Archive Drilling prOject (PASADO). Here we present the u-channel-based full vector paleomagnetic field reconstruction since 51.2 ka cal BP. The relative paleointensity proxy (RPI) was built by normalising the natural remanent magnetisation with the anhysteretic remanent magnetisation using the average ratio at 4 demagnetisation steps part of the ChRM interval (NRM/ARM10-40 mT). A grain size influence on the RPI was removed using a correction based on the linear relationship between the RPI and the median destructive field of the natural remanent magnetisation (MDFNRM). The new record is compared with other lacustrine and marine records and stacks from the mid- to high-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, revealing consistent millennial-scale variability, the identification of the Laschamp and possibly the Mono Lake geomagnetic excursions, and a direction swing possibly associated to the Hilina Pali excursion at 20 ka cal BP. Nonetheless, a global-scale comparison with other high-resolution records located on the opposite side of the Earth and with various dipole field references hint at a different behaviour of the geomagnetic field around southern South America at 46 ka cal BP.

  1. Earth orientation parameters: excitation by atmosphere, oceans and geomagnetic jerks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrak, Jan; Ron, Cyril

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that geophysical fluids (atmosphere, oceans) excite Earth orientation. The influence is known to be dominant for polar motion, partly responsible for length-of-day changes, and very small effects are now observable also in nutation. Very recently several authors (Holme and de Viron 2005, Gibert and le Mouel 2008, Malkin 2013) noted that sudden changes of Earth's speed of rotation and phase/amplitude of the free motions of its spin axis (Chandler wobble, Free core nutation) occur near the epochs of geomagnetic jerks (GMJ - rapid changes of the secular variations of geomagnetic field). By using the numerical integration of broad-band Liouville equations (Brzezinski 1994) we demonstrate that if non-periodical bell-like excitations of limited length (app. 1 year) around the epochs of GMJ are added to atmospheric and oceanic excitations, the agreement between observed and calculated Earth orientation parameters is improved significantly.

  2. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher C.; Beggan, Ciarán D.; Alken, Patrick; Aubert, Julien; Barrois, Olivier; Bertrand, Francois; Bondar, Tatiana; Boness, Axel; Brocco, Laura; Canet, Elisabeth; Chambodut, Aude; Chulliat, Arnaud; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Civet, François; Du, Aimin; Fournier, Alexandre; Fratter, Isabelle; Gillet, Nicolas; Hamilton, Brian; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Hulot, Gauthier; Jager, Thomas; Korte, Monika; Kuang, Weijia; Lalanne, Xavier; Langlais, Benoit; Léger, Jean-Michel; Lesur, Vincent; Lowes, Frank J.; Macmillan, Susan; Mandea, Mioara; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Maus, Stefan; Olsen, Nils; Petrov, Valeriy; Ridley, Victoria; Rother, Martin; Sabaka, Terence J.; Saturnino, Diana; Schachtschneider, Reyko; Sirol, Olivier; Tangborn, Andrew; Thomson, Alan; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Vigneron, Pierre; Wardinski, Ingo; Zvereva, Tatiana

    2015-05-01

    The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2010.0, a main field model for epoch 2015.0, and a linear annual predictive secular variation model for 2015.0-2020.0. Here, we present the equations defining the IGRF model, provide the spherical harmonic coefficients, and provide maps of the magnetic declination, inclination, and total intensity for epoch 2015.0 and their predicted rates of change for 2015.0-2020.0. We also update the magnetic pole positions and discuss briefly the latest changes and possible future trends of the Earth's magnetic field.

  3. Magnetic and Electromagnetic Induction Effects in the Annual Means of Geomagnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetrescu, Crisan; Andreescu, Maria

    1992-01-01

    The solar-cycle related (SC) variation in the annual means of the horizontal and vertical components of the geomagnetic field at European observatories is used to infer information on the magnetic and electric properties of the interior, characteristic of the observatory location, by identifying and analyzing the magnetic induction component and respectively the electromagnetic induction component of the SC variation. The obtained results and the method can be used to better constrain the anomaly bias in main field modelling and to improve the reliability of secular variation models beyond the time interval covered by data.

  4. The Steens Mountain (Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition: 2. Field intensity variations and discussion of reversal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PréVot, Michel; Mankinen, Edward A.; Coe, Robert S.; Grommé, C. Sherman

    1985-10-01

    transitional field and the historical nondipole field at the site latitude. However, a field intensity increase to pretransitional values occurs when the field temporarily reaches normal directions, which suggests that dipolar structure could have been briefly regenerated during the transition in an aborted attempt to reestablish a stationary field. Changes in the field vector are progressive but jerky, with at least two, and possibly three, large swings at astonishingly high rates. Each of those transitional geomagnetic impulses occurs when the field intensity is low (less than 10 μT) and is followed by an interval of directional stasis during which the magnitude of the field increases greatly. For the best documented geomagnetic impulse the rapid directional change corresponds to a vectorial intensity change of 6700±2700 nT yr-1, which is about 15-50 times larger than the maximum rate of change of the nondipole field observed during the last centuries. The occurrence of geomagnetic impulses seems to support reversal models assuming an increase in the level of turbulence within the liquid core during transitions. The record closes with an estimated several thousand years of normal polarity with an average intensity of 46.7±20.1 μT, agreeing with the expected Miocene value. However, the occurrence of rather large and apparently rapid intensity fluctuations accompanied by little change in direction suggests that the newly reestablished dipole was still somewhat unstable.

  5. An electromagnetic sounding experiment in Germany using the vertical gradient of geomagnetic variations observed in a deep borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmucker, Ulrich; Spitzer, Klaus; Steveling, Erich

    2009-09-01

    We have recorded for 13 d, geomagnetic variations simultaneously on the Earth's surface and in a borehole at 832 m depth straight below, with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. In addition, geoelectric variations were observed at the same site near Bad Königshofen in Frankonia, Germany. The penetrated moderately conductive Triassic sediments lie above highly resistive Permian deposits. A presumably crystalline basement begins at 1500-1900 m depth. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the skin effect of geomagnetic variations and to derive from it the equivalent to the magnetotelluric (MT) surface impedance, using the vertical gradient (VG) method of electromagnetic (EM) sounding. In this way, we were able to reproduce all four elements of the MT impedance tensor, except for an unexplained but consistent downward shift of VG phases against MT phases by roughly 15° for the two off-diagonal elements. Hence, our tensor evaluation goes beyond the common practice, to express the skin effect by a single VG transfer function in response to a layered structure. The otherwise good agreement of VG and MT results implies that at our test site, the MT impedance tensor is largely distortion-free and that, for example, its pronounced anisotropy should be regarded as a genuine characteristic of the EM response for a laterally non-uniform or possibly anisotropic deep structure. The drilling site lies within the range of a widespread induction anomaly. We have observed the resulting variations of the vertical magnetic component at the surface and in the borehole and found them to be identical. The thus established absence of a skin effect for the vertical component allows us to treat the sedimentary layer down to the depth of the borehole instrument as a thin sheet, and the pertinent thin-sheet approximation for EM induction forms the basis of our analysis. We have derived the required estimate of conductance from the skin effect of horizontal components, noting that this estimate

  6. Geomagnetic inverse problem and data assimilation: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Julien; Fournier, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    In this presentation I will present two studies recently undertaken by our group in an effort to bring the benefits of data assimilation to the study of Earth's magnetic field and the dynamics of its liquid iron core, where the geodynamo operates. In a first part I will focus on the geomagnetic inverse problem, which attempts to recover the fluid flow in the core from the temporal variation of the magnetic field (known as the secular variation). Geomagnetic data can be downward continued from the surface of the Earth down to the core-mantle boundary, but not further below, since the core is an electrical conductor. Historically, solutions to the geomagnetic inverse problem in such a sparsely observed system were thus found only for flow immediately below the core mantle boundary. We have recently shown that combining a numerical model of the geodynamo together with magnetic observations, through the use of Kalman filtering, now allows to present solutions for flow throughout the core. In a second part, I will present synthetic tests of sequential geomagnetic data assimilation aiming at evaluating the range at which the future of the geodynamo can be predicted, and our corresponding prospects to refine the current geomagnetic predictions. Fournier, Aubert, Thébault: Inference on core surface flow from observations and 3-D dynamo modelling, Geophys. J. Int. 186, 118-136, 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05037.x Aubert, Fournier: Inferring internal properties of Earth's core dynamics and their evolution from surface observations and a numerical geodynamo model, Nonlinear Proc. Geoph. 18, 657-674, 2011, doi:10.5194/npg-18-657-2011 Aubert: Flow throughout the Earth's core inverted from geomagnetic observations and numerical dynamo models, Geophys. J. Int., 2012, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggs051

  7. Variation of Solar, Interplanetary and Geomagnetic Parameters during Solar Cycles 21-24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Suyeon; Kim, Bogyeong

    2013-06-01

    The length of solar cycle 23 has been prolonged up to about 13 years. Many studies have speculated that the solar cycle 23/24 minimum will indicate the onset of a grand minimum of solar activity, such as the Maunder Minimum. We check the trends of solar (sunspot number, solar magnetic fields, total solar irradiance, solar radio flux, and frequency of solar X-ray flare), interplanetary (interplanetary magnetic field, solar wind and galactic cosmic ray intensity), and geomagnetic (Ap index) parameters (SIG parameters) during solar cycles 21-24. Most SIG parameters during the period of the solar cycle 23/24 minimum have remarkably low values. Since the 1970s, the space environment has been monitored by ground observatories and satellites. Such prevalently low values of SIG parameters have never been seen. We suggest that these unprecedented conditions of SIG parameters originate from the weakened solar magnetic fields. Meanwhile, the deep 23/24 solar cycle minimum might be the portent of a grand minimum in which the global mean temperature of the lower atmosphere is as low as in the period of Dalton or Maunder minimum.

  8. High-intensity geomagnetic field 'spike' observed at ca. 3000 cal BP in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Mark D.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Waters, Michael R.; Lundelius, Ernest; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    By observing the fluctuations in direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, we increase our understanding of the fluid motions of the Earth's outer core that sustain the geomagnetic field, the geodynamo. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in the Near East have found extremely rapid increases - 'spikes' - in geomagnetic field intensity at ca. 3000 yr cal BP. These observations have proved problematic for our current understanding of core-flow. However, until now, these geomagnetic spikes had not been observed outside of the Near East, where they have been preserved in metallurgical slag and fired, mud brick walls. We present a new, fully oriented, geomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity (RPI) record for the last 17,000 yr from Hall's Cave, Texas, whose complete, >3.8 m thick sedimentary sequence spans from the present to 16 , 850 ± 110 RC yr BP (Modern to 20,600 cal BP). Within the stable, cool climate of the cave, pedogenic and bioturbation processes are negligible to non-existent, thereby limiting post-depositional physical and geochemical alteration of the magnetic record. The sub-aerial and subterranean setting of the sedimentary sequence in Hall's Cave enabled us to collect oriented palaeomagnetic cubes from a previously excavated stratigraphic section. The palaeomagnetic samples yielded high-quality vectors. An age model for the sequence, determined using 15 AMS 14C-dates on individual bones from microvertebrates, was combined with the palaeomagnetic data to construct a secular variation record. The record is in broad agreement with predictions by Holocene field models for the site's location. However, starting ca. 3000 yr ago, the RPI data indicate an almost four-fold increase in geomagnetic field intensity lasting several hundred years. This record presents well-dated evidence, obtained using conventional techniques, for the existence of a geomagnetic intensity spike in North America that is contemporaneous with the

  9. Time-correlated patterns from spherical harmonic expansions: Application to geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, M. A.; Alberto, P.; Pinheiro, F. J. G.

    2015-12-01

    We use empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOFA) directly on sets of Schmidt spherical harmonic (SH) coefficients modeling the internal geomagnetic field or its time derivatives at different epochs. We show how to properly use the method such that the application of EOFA to either spatial or spectral domains leads to the same results, bypassing the need to work on snapshots of field charts synthesized from SHs. In case a spatial grid is required, we point out which is the best grid to use. We apply the method to the CM4 geomagnetic field model to illustrate the differences in EOFA modes obtained with and without corrections. Once the corrected main modes of secular acceleration (SA) have been singled out, we retrieve previous results showing that the 1969, 1978, and 1991 geomagnetic field acceleration jumps have the same spatial pattern. A new finding in this study is that the same spatial pattern is present in principal modes of secular variation which, once inverted, may provide the flow responsible for the jerk sequence. Another finding is the unveiling of a different spatial structure common to a second group of jerks with SA pulses around 1985 and 1996, displaying a localization very similar to SA pulses identified in 2006 and 2009 using recent satellite data. Finally, if properly handled, the EOFA can be directly applied to a grid of data values of the geomagnetic field in order to produce SH models of decorrelated modes which may help to separate different sources of the field.

  10. Review: geological and experimental evidence for secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca (calcite-aragonite seas) and its effects on marine biological calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.

    2010-09-01

    Synchronized transitions in the polymorph mineralogy of the major reef-building and sediment-producing calcareous marine organisms and abiotic CaCO3 precipitates (ooids, marine cements) throughout Phanerozoic time are believed to have been caused by tectonically induced variations in the Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (molar Mg/Ca>2="aragonite seas", <2="calcite seas"). Here, I assess the geological evidence in support of secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca and its effects on marine calcifiers, and review a series of recent experiments that investigate the effects of seawater Mg/Ca (1.0-5.2) on extant representatives of calcifying taxa that have experienced variations in this ionic ratio of seawater throughout the geologic past. Secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca is supported by synchronized secular variations in (1) the ionic composition of fluid inclusions in primary marine halite, (2) the mineralogies of late stage marine evaporites, abiogenic carbonates, and reef- and sediment-forming marine calcifiers, (3) the Mg/Ca ratios of fossil echinoderms, molluscs, rugose corals, and abiogenic carbonates, (4) global rates of tectonism that drive the exchange of Mg2+ and Ca2+ along zones of ocean crust production, and (5) additional proxies of seawater Mg/Ca including Sr/Mg ratios of abiogenic carbonates, Sr/Ca ratios of biogenic carbonates, and Br concentrations in marine halite. Laboratory experiments have revealed that aragonite-secreting bryopsidalean algae and scleractinian corals and calcite-secreting coccolithophores exhibit higher rates of calcification and growth in experimental seawaters formulated with seawater Mg/Ca ratios that favor their skeletal mineral. These results support the assertion that seawater Mg/Ca played an important role in determining which hypercalcifying marine organisms were the major reef-builders and sediment-producers throughout Earth history. The observation that primary production increased along with calcification within the bryopsidalean

  11. Geomagnetic field variations during the last 400 kyr in the western equatorial Pacific: Paleointensity-inclination correlation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Kanamatsu, T.; Mizuno, S.; Hokanishi, N.; Gaffar, E. Z.

    2008-12-01

    A paleomagnetic study was conducted on four piston cores newly obtained from the West Caroline Basin in the western equatorial Pacific in order to investigate variations in paleointensity and inclination during the last 400 kyr. An inclination-intensity correlation was previously reported in this region using giant piston cores, but the quality of the paleomagnetic data of the younger end, the last ca. 300 kyr, was needed to be checked because the upper part of the giant piston cores could suffer from perturbation by oversampling. Age control is based on the oxygen-isotope ratios for one core and inter-core correlation using relative paleointensity for other cores. The mean inclinations of the four cores show negative inclination anomalies ranging from -5.2 to -11.2 degree. The western equatorial Pacific is documented as a region of a large negative inclination anomalies, and the observed values are comparable to those expected from the time-averaged field (TAF) models [Johnson and Constable, 1997; Hatakeyama and Kono, 2002]. Stacked curves of paleointensity and inclination were constructed from the four cores. It was confirmed that geomagnetic variations on the order of 10 to 100 kyrs occur in inclination as well as paleointensity. A cross-correlation analysis showed that significant in-phase correlation occurs between intensity and inclination for periods longer than about 25 kyr, and power spectra of both paleointensity and inclination variations have peaks at ~100 kyr periods. The regional paleointensity stack with higher resolution than the Sint-800 stack [Guyodo and Valet, 1999] should be useful for paleointensity-assisted chronostratigraphy.

  12. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Love, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    This is a set of five world charts showing the declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, vertical component, and total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at mean sea level at the beginning of 2005. The charts are based on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) main model for 2005 and secular change model for 2005-2010. The IGRF is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 ellipsoid. Additional information about the USGS geomagnetism program is available at: http://geomag.usgs.gov/

  13. Restoration project of geomagnetic survey in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlakovs, J.; Lembere, I.

    2003-04-01

    THE RESTORATION PROJECT OF GEOMAGNETIC SURVEY IN LATVIA J. Burlakovs, I. Lembere State Land Service of Latvia, Geodesy Board juris.burlakovs@gp.vzd.gov.lv / Fax: +371-7612736 The aim of geomagnetic survey measurements is to study the geomagnetic field at global, regional as well as local scales. To determine secular changes of the geomagnetic field it is very important to do a lot of regular field work. Recalculation and comparison of measured data for corrections must be made using the observatory or magnetic station data collected nearby the investigated area in the real-time. Field geomagnetic survey measurements in Latvia have not been made since 1991. The State Land Service of Latvia, the Geodesy Board plans to restart such kind of measurements in Latvia. The repeat station network must be renewed, regular magnetic declination, inclination and total field intensity data must be gathered, compared with the observatory data and secular changes of the geomagnetic field discovered. It is also possible to do regional correlations for data to determine future trends of the geomagnetic field changes. The detection of geomagnetic anomalies and the reason of the existence of those at particular territories could be made. Such kind of measurements demands the highest accuracy and therefore is necessary to cooperate with geomagnetic research network groups in neighbouring areas - Estonia, Finland and Poland, where permanent magnetic stations are situated. One permanent magnetic station also could be established in Latvia to do permanent recordings of geomagnetic field components, which give the possibility to do regional corrections for separate measurement recordings in the field. Geomagnetic field studies are important for cartography, navigational and military needs, also it is possible to use this information together with geological and geophysical data to create and specify the geological model for the territory. In future Latvia must participate within the

  14. Narrow Scale Flow and a Weak Field by the Top of Earth's Core: Evidence from Orsted, Magsat and Secular Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2004-01-01

    As Earth's main magnetic field weakens, our magnetic shield against the onslaught of the solar wind thins. And the field strength needed to fend off battering by solar coronal mass ejections is decreasing, just when the delicate complexity of modem, vulnerable, electro-technological systems is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Recently, a working group of distinguished scientist from across the nation has asked NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards program a key question: What are the dynamics of Earth s magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system? Paleomagnetic studies of crustal rocks magnetized in the geologic past reveal that polarity reversals have occurred many times during Earth s history. Networked super-computer simulations of core field and flow, including effects of gravitational, pressure, rotational Coriolis, magnetic and viscous forces, suggest how this might happen in detail. And space-based measurements of the real, time-varying magnetic field help constrain estimates of the speed and direction of fluid iron flowing near the top of the core and enable tests of some hypotheses about such flow. Now scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have developed and applied methods to test the hypotheses of narrow scale flow and of a dynamically weak magnetic field near the top of Earth s core. Using two completely different methods, C. V. Voorhies has shown these hypotheses lead to specific theoretical forms for the "spectrum" of Earth s main magnetic field and the spectrum of its rate of change. Much as solar physicists use a prism to separate sunlight into its spectrum, from long wavelength red to short wavelength blue light, geophysicists use a digital prism, spherical harmonic analysis, to separate the measured geomagnetic field into its spectrum, from long to short wavelength fields. They do this for the rate of change of the field as well.

  15. The variations of ionosphere critical frequency of E layer over the equatorial geomagnetic region in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenpankho, Prasert; Ishii, Mamoru; Supnithi, Pornchai

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the values of the critical frequency of the ionospheric E layer, foE, obtained at Chumphon ionospheric observatory station, Thailand. For a declining phase of the solar cycle 23 during the year 2005-2008 and an inclining phase of the solar cycle 24 during the year 2009-2013, the foE data have been used to investigate the foE variations over the equatorial geomagnetic region in Southeast Asia. A comparison between the observation data and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model has also been investigated and studied. The results show that the foE obtained from IRI 2012 model underestimates foE from Chumphon station especially during the period of 7-11 am and after 6 pm for each day and all seasons. As the results combining with the previous investigations, we suggest that the underestimation of ionospheric foE by IRI 2012 model is helpful for the correction and improvement of IRI model in an equatorial Asia region.

  16. Time scale of FAC variations estimated by SWARM and a comparison with ground based geomagnetic and micro-barometric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyemori, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Aoyama, T.; Luhr, H.; Odagi, Y.; Yokoyama, Y.; Iguchi, M.; Sugitani, S.; Hashiguchi, H.; Utsugi, M.; Ono, T.; Sanoo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The low altitude magnetic satellites such as Oersted, CHAMP or SWARM observed small scale magnetic fluctuations having period about 10 to 30 sec along their orbits in middle or low latitudes. The amplitude is usually less than a few nT and they were observed almost always on the dayside. Most of them are interpreted as the spatial structure of small scale FACs probably generated by atmospheric gravity waves (Nakanishi et al., 2014). From a statistical analysis of correlation coefficients between a pair of the SWARM satellites, Iyemori et al. (2015) estimated the temporal scale of FAC variation to be roughly about 200 secs for meridional magnetic components and about 340 secs for longitudinal, i.e., east-west component. Based on a spectral analysis of ground geomagnetic and micro-barometric observations, we found that the spectral peaks with similar periods, i.e., 200sec or 320-350sec tend to appear statistically. This tendency supports the idea that the source of the FACs is mainly the acoustic mode of gravity waves. We discuss the characteristics of the power spectra, in particular, those of micro-barometric observations.

  17. A neural network-based local model for prediction of geomagnetic disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleisner, Hans; Lundstedt, Henrik

    2001-05-01

    This study shows how locally observed geomagnetic disturbances can be predicted from solar wind data with artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. After subtraction of a secularly varying base level, the horizontal components XSq and YSq of the quiet time daily variations are modeled with radial basis function networks taking into account seasonal and solar activity modulations. The remaining horizontal disturbance components ΔX and ΔY are modeled with gated time delay networks taking local time and solar wind data as input. The observed geomagnetic field is not used as input to the networks, which thus constitute explicit nonlinear mappings from the solar wind to the locally observed geomagnetic disturbances. The ANNs are applied to data from Sodankylä Geomagnetic Observatory located near the peak of the auroral zone. It is shown that 73% of the ΔX variance, but only 34% of the ΔY variance, is predicted from a sequence of solar wind data. The corresponding results for prediction of all transient variations XSq+ΔX and YSq+ΔY are 74% and 51%, respectively. The local time modulations of the prediction accuracies are shown, and the qualitative agreement between observed and predicted values are discussed. If driven by real-time data measured upstream in the solar wind, the ANNs here developed can be used for short-term forecasting of the locally observed geomagnetic activity.

  18. Further investigations of geomagnetic diurnal variations associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Peng; Hattori, Katsumi; Xu, Guangjing; Ashida, Ryo; Chen, Chieh-Hung; Febriani, Febty; Yamaguchi, Hiroki

    2015-12-01

    As one of the most promising candidates for short-term earthquake forecasting, the seismo-electromagnetic phenomena have been intensively studied for several decades. Recently, Xu et al. (2013) have reported unusual behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations in the vertical component prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0). To validate this result, further investigations have been applied in this study. Geomagnetic data of 16 years' long term observation have been analyzed using the same method in Xu et al. (2013). Ratios of diurnal variation range between the target station Esashi (ESA) which is about 130 km from the epicenter and the remote reference station Kakioka (KAK) about 300 km distant to the epicenter have been computed. After removing seasonal variations revealed by wavelet transform analysis, the 15-day mean values of the ratios in the vertical component shows a clear anomaly exceeding the statistical threshold about 2 months before the mega event. This anomaly is unique over a 16-year long background, and further discussions indicate that this anomaly is unlikely caused by strong geomagnetic storms or a statistical fluke. Therefore, this study has provided a strong support to the previous results in Xu et al. (2013).

  19. Evaluation of models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) comprises a definitive main-field model for 1985.0, a main-field model for 1990.0, and a forecast secular-variation model for the period 1990-1995. The five 1985.0 main-field models and five 1990.0 main-field models that were proposed have been evaluated by comparing them with one another, with magnetic observatory data, and with Project MAGNET aerial survey data. The comparisons indicate that the main-field models proposed by IZMIRAN, and the secular-variation model proposed jointly by the British Geological Survey and the US Naval Oceanographic Office, should be assigned relatively lower weight in the derivation of the new IGRF models. -Author

  20. Geomagnetically conjugate observations of ionospheric and thermospheric variations accompanied with a midnight brightness wave at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, D.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Kubota, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Nishioka, M.; Komonjinda, S.; Yatini, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    A midnight brightness wave (MBW) is the phenomenon that the OI (630-nm) airglow enhancement propagates poleward once at local midnight. In this study, we first conducted geomagnetically conjugate observations of 630nm airglow for an MBW at conjugate stations. An airglow enhancement which is considered to be an MBW was observed in the 630-nm airglow images at Kototabang, Indonesia (geomagnetic latitude (MLAT): 10.0S) at around local midnight from 1540 to 1730 UT (from 2240 to 2430 LT) on 7 February 2011. This MBW was propagating south-southwestward, which is geomagnetically poleward, with a velocity of 290 m/s. However, similar wave was not observed in the 630-nm airglow images at Chiang Mai, Thailand (MLAT: 8.9N), which is close to being conjugate point of Kototabang. This result indicates that the MBW does not have geomagnetic conjugacy. We simultaneously observed thermospheric neutral winds observed by a co-located Fabry-Perot interferometer at Kototabang. The observed meridional winds turned from northward (geomagnetically equatorward) to southward (geomagnetically poleward) just before the MBW was observed. The bottomside ionospheric heights observed by ionosondes rapidly decreased at Kototabang and slightly increased at Chiang Mai simultaneously with the MBW passage. In the presentation, we discuss the MBW generation by the observed poleward neutral winds at Kototabang, and the cause of the coinciding small height increase at Chiang Mai by the polarization electric field inside the observed MBW at Kototabang.

  1. Effects of geomagnetic activity variations on the physiological and psychological state of functionally healthy humans: Some results of Azerbaijani studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayev, Elchin S.; Allahverdiyeva, Aysel A.

    There are collaborative and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences conducted with purposes of revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems. This paper describes some results of the experimental studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of geomagnetic activity upon human brain, human health and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23 on the mentioned systems in middle-latitude location. It is experimentally established that weak and moderate geomagnetic storms do not cause significant changes in the brain's bioelectrical activity and exert only stimulating influence while severe disturbances of geomagnetic conditions cause negative influence, seriously disintegrate brain's functionality, activate braking processes and amplify the negative emotional background of an individual. It is concluded that geomagnetic disturbances affect mainly emotional and vegetative spheres of human beings while characteristics reflecting personality properties do not undergo significant changes.

  2. Analysis of long-term variations in the geomagnetic poloidal field intensity and evaluation of their relationship with global geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggin, A. J.; Thomas, D. N.

    2003-02-01

    The 1167 published cooling unit (CU) palaeointensity estimates contained in the 400-10 Ma portion of the PINT global database were rigorously filtered according to accurate age determinations, palaeodirectional reliability, recognition of polarity and the method of palaeointensity acquisition. The remaining 865 estimates (group 1) were further filtered to ensure self-consistency, reducing the data set to 425 estimates (group 2). Group 1 and 2 data were clustered into temporally and/or spatially distinct rock suites (RS) enabling each part of the record to be assessed for potential biasing by overrepresentation of palaeosecular variation (PSV). The record was segmented according to the distribution of the data, rather than using arbitrary time windows, to ensure quasi-consistent behaviour within each segment. Differences between these segments clearly indicate that a significant long-timescale (107 and 108 yr) variation of the mean geomagnetic poloidal field intensity (GPFI) occurred during the 400-10 Ma period and hence that changing lowermost mantle conditions affect the capacity of the geodynamo to generate a poloidal field. Both the mean dipole moment and its standard deviation appear to be a function of the range of values each CU may adopt at one particular time. This range is itself controlled by the variation of the maximum limit of dipole moment, while the value of the minimum limit remains relatively constant. Tentative support is provided for the recent suggestion that PSV may have been reduced during the Cretaceous normal superchron (CNS), though more data are needed in the range 120-60 Ma to confirm this. No conclusive evidence was found to support the suggestion that the GPFI record may be biased towards low or high values by palaeointensity determinations obtained using methods that do not adopt pTRM checks. Indeed, offsets caused by unreliable data in well-represented parts of the record are likely to be random and cancel one another out. When GPFI

  3. Geomagnetic Paleosecular Variation and Tectonic Correction for the Past 12 Ma in Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Amador, B. I.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2014-12-01

    During the last 30 years, study of Paleosecular Variation (PSV) has been analyzed within specific timescales (e.g. 0-5 Ma; 5-22.5 Ma; etc.), considering the main criteria variation in directions of paleomagnetic data due to displacement of tectonic plates, and the scarcity of spatial and temporal distribution of rock outcrops, we propose using the previous geological and geophysical studies comprising the tectonic displacement of Baja California for the last 12 Ma, a method (working in space and time) to precise the PSV of our paleomagnetic sites (assuming a thermoremanent magnetization). We completed two paleomagnetic rock field sampling works: Loreto-Santa Rosalia-Punta Abreojos (between 26° and 27.4° N), with 156 cores from 16 sites; and San Borja and Jaraguay volcanic fields (between 28° and 30° N), with 230 cores from 27 sites. These sites are mainly volcanic rocks (andesite-basalt) with radiometric ages previously reported. We selected those younger than 12 Ma age without effect of rotation or flattening within the peninsula. Rock magnetic experiments were done to characterize the magnetic carrier of the remanence, such as susceptibility vs. low and high temperature, hysteresis, FORC, Koenigsberger ratio determination and directional analysis. Our results suggest that in most of the cases (80%) we have a contribution of TM0 to TM20, and magnetic domain of PSD + SP. In addition to our data, we gathered all paleomagnetic works in volcanic rocks younger than 12 Ma along Baja California. For the PSV, we calculated the angular standard deviation (SB) of the VGPs with respect to its mean average and also to the geographic axis. Both results were compared with the calculation of the SB once the correction of paleomagnetic sites based on the tectonic displacement was applied. Finally, all results (with and without correction) were compared with Model G and TK03.GAD, finding that data of the SB with tectonic correction are the best fit models, suggesting a

  4. Possible links between long-term geomagnetic variations and whole-mantle convection processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggin, A. J.; Steinberger, B.; Aubert, J.; Suttie, N.; Holme, R.; Torsvik, T. H.; van der Meer, D. G.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2012-08-01

    The Earth's internal magnetic field varies on timescales of months to billions of years. The field is generated by convection in the liquid outer core, which in turn is influenced by the heat flowing from the core into the base of the overlying mantle. Much of the magnetic field's variation is thought to be stochastic, but over very long timescales, this variability may be related to changes in heat flow associated with mantle convection processes. Over the past 500 Myr, correlations between palaeomagnetic behaviour and surface processes were particularly striking during the middle to late Mesozoic era, beginning about 180 Myr ago. Simulations of the geodynamo suggest that transitions from periods of rapid polarity reversals to periods of prolonged stability -- such as occurred between the Middle Jurassic and Middle Cretaceous periods -- may have been triggered by a decrease in core-mantle boundary heat flow either globally or in equatorial regions. This decrease in heat flow could have been linked to reduced mantle-plume-head production at the core-mantle boundary, an episode of true polar wander, or a combination of the two.

  5. Dynamic techniques for studies of secular variations in position from ranging to satellites. [using laser range measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Agreen, R. W.; Dunn, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite laser range measurements were applied to the study of latitude variation arising from polar motion, and the solid-earth and ocean tidal distortion of the earth's gravity field. Experiments involving two laser tracking stations were conducted. The relative location of one station with respect to the other was determined by performing simultaneous range measurements to a satellite from two stations several hundred kilometers apart. The application of this technique to the San Andreas Fault Experiment in California is discussed. Future capabilities of spacecraft equipped with laser retroreflectors include: (1) determination of the product of the earth's mass and gravitational constant; (2) measurement of crustal and tectonic motions; (3) determination of the elastic response of the solid-earth tidal forces; (4) measurement of the amplitudes and phase of certain components of the ocean tides; and (5) self-monitoring of the latitude and height variations of the tracking station.

  6. Measurements of the vertical profile, diurnal variation, and secular change of ClO in the stratosphere over Thule, Greenland, February-March, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezafra, Robert L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Reeves, John M.; Shindell, Drew T.

    1994-01-01

    We report observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide over the altitude range approx. 16 to 50 km at Thule, Greenland from Feb. 8 to Mar. 24, 1992. A new, more sensitive ground-based mm-wave spectrometer was employed for these measurements, similar in principle to that used earlier for the discovery of low altitude ClO in the Antarctic springtime. In this report, we discuss different aspects of vertical distribution, secular trends, and diurnal variation of ClO in the Arctic stratosphere, based on a preliminary analysis of our Thule data. We see no evidence for large (approx. 1.2-1.5 ppb) amounts of ClO in the lower stratosphere at any time during February or March, in agreement with UARS-MLS findings for this period, and in marked contrast to findings reported for the Arctic in January. We have some evidence for small enhancements (approx. 0.2-0.5 ppb) in the 18-30 km range in late February-early March, which might be associated with volcanic aerosol, rather than PSC, processing.

  7. Dynamics of the properties of steppe paleosols of the Sarmatian time (2nd century BC-4th century AD) in relation to secular variations in climatic humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkin, V. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Demkina, T. S.; Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; El'Tsov, M. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.

    2012-02-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans of the Early (2nd-1st centuries BC), Middle (1st-2nd centuries AD) and Late (2nd-IV centuries AD) Sarmatian epochs were studied in dry steppes and desert steppes of the Lower Volga region (the Privolzhskaya and Ergeni Uplands and the Caspian Lowland). It was found that temporal variations in the morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of the paleosols in the interval of 2200-1600 BP were characterized by the cyclic pattern related to secular dynamics of climatic humidity with changes in the mean annual precipitation of ±30-50 mm. These climate changes did not transform chestnut paleosols and paleosolonetzes at the type or subtype taxonomic levels. However, they led to certain changes in the humus, carbonate, and salt profiles of the soils; in the character of solonetzic horizon B1; and in the state of microbial communities. According to these data, the Sarmatian time was characterized by alternation of micropluvial and microarid stages lasting fro about 100-200 years. In particular, the stages of humidization were observed in the 1st century BC-1st century AD and in the 4th century AD; the most arid conditions were observed in the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.

  8. Evidence for a secular variation in the C-13/C-12 ratio of carbon implanted in lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A curve of delta(C-13) vs delta(N-15) for lunar soils and breccias shows that the previously recorded 30% change in delta(N-15) is associated with a change in delta(C-13). The correlation represents concurrent changes in the isotope ratios of both elements at their source, and does not result from maturation effects or nonselective sample contamination. A computation of the relative production rates of C-13 and N-15 shows that spallation reactions in the sun could produce the observed ratio of the delta(C-13) to delta (N-15) variations.

  9. Long periods (1 -10 mHz) geomagnetic pulsations variation with solar cycle in South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon Silva, Willian; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Guimarães Dutra, Severino Luiz; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; de Siqueira, Josemar; Espindola Antunes, Cassio

    The occurrence and intensity of the geomagnetic pulsations Pc-5 (2-7 mHz) and its relationship with the solar cycle in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly -SAMA is presented. The study of geomagnetic pulsations is important to help the understanding of the physical processes that occurs in the magnetosphere region and help to predict geomagnetic storms. The fluxgate mag-netometers H, D and Z, three axis geomagnetic field data from the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra (29.42° S, 53.87° W, 480m a.s.l.), RS, Brasil, a were analyzed and correlated with the solar wind parameters (speed, density and temperature) from the ACE and SOHO satellites. A digital filtering to enhance the 2-7 mHz geomagnetic pulsations was used. Five quiet days and five perturbed days in the solar minimum and in the solar maximum were selected for this analysis. The days were chosen based on the IAGA definition and on the Bartels Musical Diagrams (Kp index) for 2001 (solar maximum) and 2008 (solar minimum). The biggest Pc-5 amplitude averages differences between the H-component is 78,35 nT for the perturbed days and 1,60nT for the quiet days during the solar maximum. For perturbed days the average amplitude during the solar minimum is 8,32 nT, confirming a direct solar cycle influence in the geomagnetic pulsations intensity for long periods.

  10. Dating Lake Tahoe (CA/NV) and Mono Lake (CA) sediment using palaeomagnetic secular variation as a chronology for late Pleistocene palaeoclimate in the U.S. Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    In 1976, six meters of graded and varved sediment were recovered in three piston cores from Lake Tahoe, CA/NV, and used for palaeomagnetic and sedimentologic investigations (Palmer et al., 1979; Denham, 1981). The long-term changes (secular variation) in the Lake Tahoe palaeomagnetic record were compared to secular variation in exposed lacustrine sediment of the Wilson Creek Formation (Lajoie, 1993) in the Mono Basin, CA, (Denham and Cox, 1971), 100 km away. During the more than 30 years since the coring was done in Lake Tahoe, the record of palaeomagnetic secular variation in the Mono Basin and elsewhere in the Great Basin has been refined (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Lund et al., 1988, Liddicoat and Coe, 1997; Liddicoat and Coe, 1998; Benson et al., 1998; Negrini and Davis, 1992; Kent et al., 2002; Zimmerman et al., 2006) to allow a reexamination of the palaeomagnetic directions and environmental magnetic record in the Lake Tahoe cores and the age of those sediments. Inferences are also possible about the sedimentological importance during the recording of the palaeomagnetic field at Lake Tahoe and possibly in the Mono Basin, and the age of the Lake Tahoe sediment recovered, which postdates the Mono Lake Excursion. The age of the Mono Lake Excursion and Wilson Creek Formation is relevant to investigations of Late Pleistocene palaeoclimate reconstructions for the U.S. Great Basin (Zimmerman et al., 2006).

  11. A Comparison of Paleomagnetic Secular Variation during MIS 7-10 between the Bering Sea (IODP Ex. 323) and North Atlantic Ocean (ODP Leg 172): Implications for the space/time pattern of field and environmental variability (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, S.; Okada, M.; Acton, G.; Clement, B. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Platzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed records of Brunhes paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-10 have been recovered from four IODP Ex. 323 sites in the Bering Sea (U1339, U1343-U1345) and four ODP Leg 172 sites from the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean (1060-1063). Reproducible records of PSV (both directions and paleointensity) have been recovered from three or more holes at each site and correlated among the four independent sites in each region. These PSV records provide an unprecedented database for considering patterns of long-term secular variation and evidence for excursional field behavior on a larger than individual regional scale. We will present reproducible evidence for sustained long-term secular variation in each region and assess the extent to which they may be interrelated. We have identified the times of magnetic field excursions 7α, 7β, 8α, 9α, and 9β in the Atlantic records and correlated those times to the Bering Sea records. There are no true excursions in the Bering Sea at those times, but several of these intervals mark the most anomalous field behavior in the Bering Sea during MIS 7-10. In both regions, the PSV also serves as a high-resolution chronostratigraphic tool for regional correlation of environmental variability. Both regions show clear, reproducible evidence among the sites for synchronous millennial-scale environmental variability that has not been diagnosed previously.

  12. Plio-Pleistocene paleomagnetic secular variation and time-averaged field: Ruiz-Tolima volcanic chain, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Duque, A.; Mejia, V.; Opdyke, N. D.; Huang, K.; Rosales-Rivera, A.

    2016-02-01

    Paleomagnetic results obtained from 47 Plio-Pleistocene volcanic flows from the Ruiz-Tolima Volcanic Chain (Colombia) are presented. The mean direction of magnetization among these flows, which comprise normal (n = 43) and reversed (n = 4) polarities, is Dec = 1.8°, Inc = 3.2°, α95 = 5.0°, and κ = 18.4. This direction of magnetization coincides with GAD plus a small persistent axial quadrupolar component (around 5%) at the site-average latitude (4.93°). This agreement is robust after applying several selection criteria (α95 < 10º α95 < 5.5º polarities: normal, reversed, and tentatively transitional). The data are in agreement with Model G proposed by McElhinny and McFadden (1997) and the fit is improved when sites tentatively identified as transitional (two that otherwise have normal polarity) are excluded from the calculations. Compliance observed with the above mentioned time-averaged field and paleosecular variation models, is also observed for many recent similar studies from low latitudes, with the exception of results from Galapagos Islands that coincide with GAD and tend to be near sided.

  13. Secular variation of Nd and Pb isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, H.-F.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Frank, M.; O'Nions, R. K.

    1998-02-01

    Two ferromanganese crusts from the Indian Ocean and one from the Atlantic Ocean have been analysed for 10Be/9Be, 143Nd/144Nd and 208,207,206Pb/204Pb ratios as a function of depth beneath their growth surfaces. 10Be/9Be ratios provide growth rate estimates for these crusts between 1.55 and 2.82 mm Ma-1 and further suggest that 87Sr/86Sr in crusts do not in any case examined so far provide reliable estimates for growth rates. A crust ALV-539 from 35°N in the western N. Atlantic has ɛNd and Pb-isotope variations indistinguishable from crust BM-1969.05 from 39°N in the N. Atlantic [K.W. Burton, H.-F. Ling, R.K. O'Nions, Closure of the central American isthmus and its impact on North Atlantic deepwater circulation, Nature (London) 386 (1997) 382-385] when 10Be/10Be ratios are used to estimate growth rates. Both crusts provide evidence for a marked change in deepwater composition in the western N. Atlantic with a reduction in ɛNd and an increase in 206Pb/204Pb from ~8 Ma ago towards the present day. The two crusts from the Indian Ocean show comparatively small variations in ɛNd between -8.0 and -7.0 over the last 20 Ma and do not show the large shift in ɛNd seen in the Atlantic crusts. Comparison of ɛNd in the crusts analysed here with those published previously [H.-F. Ling, K.W. Burton, R.K. O'Nions, B.S. Kamber, F. von Blanckenburg, A.J. Gibb, J.R. Hein, Evolution of Nd and Pb isotopes in central Pacific seawater from ferromanganese crusts, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 146 (1997) 1-12 K.W. Burton, H-F. Ling, R.K. O'Nions, Closure of the central American isthmus and its impact on North Atlantic deepwater circulation, Nature (London) 386 (1997) 382-385] shows that provinciality in the present-day ɛNd structure of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans has been maintained over ~20 Ma or more despite the palaeogeographic changes that have occurred within this period. These include the closure of the Panama gateway and the uplift of the Himalayas. Superimposed on this

  14. Secular variation of Nd and Pb isotopes in ferromanganese crusts from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Nions, R. K.; Frank, M.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Ling, H.-F.

    1998-02-01

    Two ferromanganese crusts from the Indian Ocean and one from the Atlantic Ocean have been analysed for 10Be/ 9Be, 143Nd/ 144Nd and 208,207,206Pb/ 204Pb ratios as a function of depth beneath their growth surfaces. 10Be/ 9Be ratios provide growth rate estimates for these crusts between 1.55 and 2.82 mm Ma -1 and further suggest that 87Sr/ 86Sr in crusts do not in any case examined so far provide reliable estimates for growth rates. A crust ALV-539 from 35°N in the western N. Atlantic has ɛNd and Pb-isotope variations indistinguishable from crust BM-1969.05 from 39°N in the N. Atlantic [K.W. Burton, H.-F. Ling, R.K. O'Nions, Closure of the central American isthmus and its impact on North Atlantic deepwater circulation, Nature (London) 386 (1997) 382-385] when 10Be/ 10Be ratios are used to estimate growth rates. Both crusts provide evidence for a marked change in deepwater composition in the western N. Atlantic with a reduction in ɛNd and an increase in 206Pb/ 204Pb from ˜8 Ma ago towards the present day. The two crusts from the Indian Ocean show comparatively small variations in ɛNd between -8.0 and -7.0 over the last 20 Ma and do not show the large shift in ɛNd seen in the Atlantic crusts. Comparison of ɛNd in the crusts analysed here with those published previously [H.-F. Ling, K.W. Burton, R.K. O'Nions, B.S. Kamber, F. von Blanckenburg, A.J. Gibb, J.R. Hein, Evolution of Nd and Pb isotopes in central Pacific seawater from ferromanganese crusts, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 146 (1997) 1-12; K.W. Burton, H-F. Ling, R.K. O'Nions, Closure of the central American isthmus and its impact on North Atlantic deepwater circulation, Nature (London) 386 (1997) 382-385] shows that provinciality in the present-day ɛNd structure of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans has been maintained over ˜20 Ma or more despite the palaeogeographic changes that have occurred within this period. These include the closure of the Panama gateway and the uplift of the Himalayas

  15. A model for solar constant secular changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, contrast models for solar active region and global photospheric features are used to reproduce the observed Active Cavity Radiometer and Earth Radiation Budget secular trends in reasonably good fashion. A prediction for the next decade of solar constant variations is made using the model. Secular trends in the solar constant obtained from the present model support the view that the Maunder Minimum may be related to the Little Ice Age of the 17th century.

  16. Assessment of models proposed for the 1985 revision of the international geomagnetic reference field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Zunde, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Geomagnetic measurements from land, marine and aerial surveys conducted in the years 1945-1964 were used to test the 14 models proposed as additions, for that period, to the series of definitive geomagnetic reference field (DGRF) models. Overall, NASA's 'SFAS' models and the BGS (British Geological Survey) models agree best with these data. Comparisons of the two proposed definitive main-field models for 1980.0, with each other and with the existing IGRF 1980 main-field model, show mostly close agreement, with the greatest absolute differences (several tens of nanotesla) occurring in the region of Antarctica. Comparison of the the three proposed forecast secular-variation models for 1985-1990 with estimates of recent rates of change at 148 magnetic observatories shows that the IZMIRAN (U.S.S.R.) and USGS models are in closest agreement with these data. ?? 1987.

  17. Dynamical similarity of geomagnetic field reversals.

    PubMed

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre; Courtillot, Vincent; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2012-10-01

    No consensus has been reached so far on the properties of the geomagnetic field during reversals or on the main features that might reveal its dynamics. A main characteristic of the reversing field is a large decrease in the axial dipole and the dominant role of non-dipole components. Other features strongly depend on whether they are derived from sedimentary or volcanic records. Only thermal remanent magnetization of lava flows can capture faithful records of a rapidly varying non-dipole field, but, because of episodic volcanic activity, sequences of overlying flows yield incomplete records. Here we show that the ten most detailed volcanic records of reversals can be matched in a very satisfactory way, under the assumption of a common duration, revealing common dynamical characteristics. We infer that the reversal process has remained unchanged, with the same time constants and durations, at least since 180 million years ago. We propose that the reversing field is characterized by three successive phases: a precursory event, a 180° polarity switch and a rebound. The first and third phases reflect the emergence of the non-dipole field with large-amplitude secular variation. They are rarely both recorded at the same site owing to the rapidly changing field geometry and last for less than 2,500 years. The actual transit between the two polarities does not last longer than 1,000 years and might therefore result from mechanisms other than those governing normal secular variation. Such changes are too brief to be accurately recorded by most sediments. PMID:23038471

  18. Geomagnetism applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    The social uses of geomagnetism include the physics of the space environment, satellite damage, pipeline corrosion, electric power-grid failure, communication interference, global positioning disruption, mineral-resource detection, interpretation of the Earth's formation and structure, navigation, weather, and magnetoreception in organisms. The need for continuing observations of the geomagnetic field, together with careful archiving of these records and mechanisms for dissemination of these data, is emphasized.

  19. Anomalous behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangjing; Han, Peng; Huang, Qinghua; Hattori, Katsumi; Febriani, Febty; Yamaguchi, Hiroki

    2013-11-01

    There have been many reports on ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes in a very wide frequency range. In this study, unusual behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) have been reported. Ratios of diurnal variation range between the target station Esashi (ESA) which is about 135 km from the epicenter and the remote reference station Kakioka (KAK) about 302 km distant to the epicenter have been computed. The results of 10-day running mean of the ratios showed a clear anomaly exceeding the statistical threshold in the vertical component about 2 months before the mega event. This anomaly is unique over a 3-year background, and the further stochastic test indicates that this anomaly is unlikely a random anomaly, which is highly suggestive of correlation with the mega event. The original records of geomagnetic fields of the ESA station also exhibit continuous anomalous behaviors for about 10 days in the vertical component approximate 2 months prior to the Mw9.0 earthquake.

  20. Anomalous behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, P.; Hattori, K.; Huang, Q.; Xu, G.

    2013-12-01

    There have been many reports on ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes in a very wide frequency range. In this study, unusual behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variations prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) have been reported. Ratios of diurnal variation range between the target station Esashi (ESA) which is about 135 km from the epicenter and the remote reference station Kakioka (KAK) about 302 km distant to the epicenter have been computed. The results of 10-day running mean of the ratios showed a clear anomaly exceeding the statistical threshold in the vertical component about 2 months before the mega event. This anomaly is unique over a three-year background, and the further statistical test indicates that this anomaly is unlikely a random anomaly, which is highly suggestive of correlation with the mega event. The original records of geomagnetic fields of the ESA station also exhibits continuous anomalous behaviors for about 10 days in the vertical component approximate two months prior to the Mw 9.0 earthquake.

  1. Stochastic forecasting of the geomagnetic field from the COV-OBS.x1 geomagnetic field model, and candidate models for IGRF-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Barrois, Olivier; Finlay, Christopher C.

    2015-05-01

    We present the geomagnetic field model COV-OBS.x1, covering 1840 to 2020, from which have been derived candidate models for the IGRF-12. Towards the most recent epochs, it is primarily constrained by first differences of observatory annual means and measurements from the Oersted, Champ, and Swarm satellite missions. Stochastic information derived from the temporal spectra of geomagnetic series is used to construct the a priori model covariance matrix that complements the constraint brought by the data. This approach makes it possible the use of a posteriori model errors, for instance, to measure the `observations' uncertainties in data assimilation schemes for the study of the outer core dynamics. We also present and illustrate a stochastic algorithm designed to forecast the geomagnetic field. The radial field at the outer core surface is advected by core motions governed by an auto-regressive process of order 1. This particular choice is motivated by the slope observed for the power spectral density of geomagnetic series. Accounting for time-correlated model errors (subgrid processes associated with the unresolved magnetic field) is made possible thanks to the use of an augmented state ensemble Kalman filter algorithm. We show that the envelope of forecasts includes the observed secular variation of the geomagnetic field over 5-year intervals, even in the case of rapid changes. In a purpose of testing hypotheses about the core dynamics, this prototype method could be implemented to build the `state zero' of the ability to forecast the geomagnetic field, by measuring what can be predicted when no deterministic physics is incorporated into the dynamical model.

  2. Variations in the geomagnetic and gravitational background associated with two strong earthquakes of the May 2012 sequence in the Po Valley Plain (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    Reawakening of seismic activity in the Emilian Po Valley Plain (Italy) resulted in 2,492 earthquakes over five and a half months: 2,270 with M<3, 189 with a magnitude from 3.0<= M <4.0, 27 con 4.0<= M <5.0, and 7 M>= 7. The mainshock was recorded during the night of 20 May 2012, at 04:03:52 Italian time (02:03:52 UTC) with epicentre in Finale Emilia, at a depth of 6.3km, by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV). A long sequence of telluric shocks occurred in the same seismic district in the areas between the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantua, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. In addition to the general devastation plus damage to civil and industrial buildings and the historical heritage, the earthquakes resulted in a total of 27 victims. Concomitant with the two strongest quakes, recorded on 20 and 29 May 2012, respectively, as in the case of others, variations were noted in the geomagnetic background by the LTPA monitoring station in Rome (Italy). The geomagnetic background variations were associated with the appearance of radio-anomalies in a frequency range from 0.1 to 3.0Hz, as well as gravimetric variations found around 60km from the epicentre. The peak accelerations, detected in correspondence with the strongest shocks on 20 and 29 May 2012, were respectively 0.31g and 0.29g. The appearance of the radio-anomalies coincided, from a temporal point of view, with average gravimetric variations of approximately 30µGal around the epicentre areas, concurrent with the mainshock. In this study, both the appearance of radio-anomalies and the gravitational variations recorded before strong earthquakes were related to the dynamics of the fault and a progressive reduction in granulometry in the core of the fracture, until the point of dislocation was reached. The intense friction in the fault and the damping factors produced before the shock are hypothesized as being proportional to the number of radio-anomalies measured. The radio

  3. Full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation records from latest quaternary sediments of Lake Malawi (10.0°S, 34.3°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steve; Platzman, Ellen; Johnson, Tom

    2016-07-01

    We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of Late Quaternary sediments from Lake Malawi, East Africa, in order to develop a high-resolution record of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV). This study has recovered PSV records from two cores (3P, 6P) in northern Lake Malawi (10.0°S, 34.3°E). The PSV appears to be recorded in fine-grained detrital magnetite/titanomagnetite grains. Detailed af demagnetization of the natural remanence (NRM) shows that a distinctive characteristic remanence (ChRM) is demagnetized from ∼20 to 80 mT, which decreases simply toward the origin. The resulting directional PSV records for 3P and 6P are easily correlatable with 29 distinct inclination features and 29 declination features. The statistical character of the PSV in both cores is consistent with Holocene PSV noted at other Holocene equatorial sites. Radiocarbon dating of the cores is based on 18 independent radiocarbon dates and four dated stratigraphic horizons that can be correlated into each core. The final directional PSV time series cover the last 24,000 years with an average sediment accumulation rate of ∼30 cm/kyr. We have also developed a relative paleointensity estimate for these PSV records based on normalizing the NRM (after 20 mT af demagnetization) by the SIRM (after 20 mT af demagnetization). Changing sedimentation patterns complicate any attempt to develop a single paleointensity record for the entire core lengths. We have developed a relative paleointensity record for the last 6000 years that has 14 correlatable features including 5 notable peaks in intensity. Three of these peaks are synchronous with paleointensity highs farther north in SE Europe/SW Asia/Egypt but two of the peaks are at times of low paleointensity farther north. We interpret this to indicate that Lake Malawi (10°S) is at least partly under the influence of a different flux-regeneration region of the outer-core dynamo. A relative paleointensity record was also developed for ∼11,000-24,000 YBP

  4. A detailed record of paleomagnetic field change from Searles Lake, California: 1. Long-term secular variation bounding the Gauss/Matuyama polarity reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Coe, Robert S.

    1999-06-01

    More than 33 m of 2.5 Ma sediment from Searles Lake, California was studied in order to construct a record of secular variation (SV) across the Gauss/Matuyama (G/M) normal-to-reverse polarity transition. The behavior of the field preceding and following the reversal is considered here, while in a companion paper [Glen et al., this issue] the details of the transition are discussed. The record encompasses an interval of roughly 183,000 years beginning 50 kyr (9 m) before and extending more than 128 kyr (23 m) beyond the transition, while the main phase of the transition lasts for nearly 5 kyr (1 m). Because the core was rotary drilled, and declinations lost, SV was characterized by the inclination and its angular dispersion. Inclination-only statistics reveal that (1) the record displays overall higher than expected values of angular dispersion (normal S˜20°; reverse S˜19°; expected S˜15.5°), suggesting that the field proximal to transitions may be more noisy than the distal field. In addition, normal data from immediately before the transition display higher S than reverse data immediately following it, implying that the postransitional field is more stable than the pretransitional field. One of the most prominent features of this record is an excursion of the field occurring roughly 4 kyr prior to the onset of the reversal. A record of the G/M transition from Chinese loess (R. Zhu et al., submitted manuscript, 1999) displays a similar event (also occurring roughly 4 kyr before the transition). This and the fact that the event is associated with anomalously low intensities suggest that the disturbance may be global in nature. The fact that comparable features are associated with other transitions [Hartl and Tauxe, 1996; Clement, 1992] intimates that the field may commonly show signs of early instability. This precursory event is actually one of a sequence of oscillations (in inclination and intensity) preceding the transition. That these fluctuations occur at

  5. Using an independent geochronology based on palaeomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and atmospheric Pb deposition to date Baltic Sea sediments and infer 14C reservoir age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, Bryan C.; Snowball, Ian; Moros, Matthias; Kabel, Karoline; Muscheler, Raimund; Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Wacker, Lukas

    2012-05-01

    Dating of sediment cores from the Baltic Sea has proven to be difficult due to uncertainties surrounding the 14C reservoir age and a scarcity of macrofossils suitable for dating. Here we present the results of multiple dating methods carried out on cores in the Gotland Deep area of the Baltic Sea. Particular emphasis is placed on the Littorina stage (8 ka ago to the present) of the Baltic Sea and possible changes in the 14C reservoir age of our dated samples. Three geochronological methods are used. Firstly, palaeomagnetic secular variations (PSV) are reconstructed, whereby ages are transferred to PSV features through comparison with varved lake sediment based PSV records. Secondly, lead (Pb) content and stable isotope analysis are used to identify past peaks in anthropogenic atmospheric Pb pollution. Lastly, 14C determinations were carried out on benthic foraminifera (Elphidium spec.) samples from the brackish Littorina stage of the Baltic Sea. Determinations carried out on smaller samples (as low as 4 μg C) employed an experimental, state-of-the-art method involving the direct measurement of CO2 from samples by a gas ion source without the need for a graphitisation step - the first time this method has been performed on foraminifera in an applied study. The PSV chronology, based on the uppermost Littorina stage sediments, produced ten age constraints between 6.29 and 1.29 cal ka BP, and the Pb depositional analysis produced two age constraints associated with the Medieval pollution peak. Analysis of PSV data shows that adequate directional data can be derived from both the present Littorina saline phase muds and Baltic Ice Lake stage varved glacial sediments. Ferrimagnetic iron sulphides, most likely authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), present in the intermediate Ancylus Lake freshwater stage sediments acquire a gyroremanent magnetisation during static alternating field (AF) demagnetisation, preventing the identification of a primary natural remanent magnetisation for

  6. Authigenic 10Be/9Be Ratio Signatures of the Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Linked to Geomagnetic Dipole Moment Variation During and Since the Brunhes/Matuyama Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Q.; Thouveny, N.; Bourles, D. L.; Ménabréaz, L.; Valet, J. P.; Valery, G.; Choy, S.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric production rate of cosmogenic nuclides is linked to the geomagnetic dipole moment (GDM) by a non-linear inverse relationship. Large amplitude GDM variations associated with reversals and excursions can potentially be reconstructed using time variation of the cosmogenic beryllium-10 (10Be) production recorded in ocean sediments. Downcore profiles of authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) in oceanic cores provide independent and additional records of the evolution of the geomagnetic intensity and complete previous information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI). Here are presented new authigenic 10Be/9Be results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and from the top of core MD05-2930 collected in the West Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Completing data of Ménabréaz et al. (2012, 2014), these results provide the first continuous 10Be production rate sedimentary record covering the last 800 ka. Along these cores, authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio peaks are recorded - within methodological errors - at the stratigraphic level of RPI lows. High-resolution chronologies (δ18O-derived) lead to interpret these peaks as successive global 10Be overproduction events triggered by geomagnetic dipole lows present in the PISO-1500 and Sint-2000 stacks. The largest amplitude 10Be production enhancement is synchronous to the very large decrease of the dipole field associated with the last polarity reversal (772 ka). It is consistent in shape and duration with the peak recorded in core MD90-0961 from the Maldive area (Indian Ocean) (Valet et al. 2014). Two significant 10Be production enhancements are coeval with the Laschamp (41 ka) and Icelandic basin (190 ka) excursions, while 10Be production peaks of lower amplitude correlate to other recognized excursions such as the Blake (120 ka), Pringle-Falls (215 ka), Portuguese Margin (290 ka), Big Lost (540 ka) among others. This study provides new data on the amplitude and timing of dipole field variations

  7. Effect of Cross-Correlation on Geomagnetic Forecast Accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Wei, Zigang; Tangborn, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Surface geomagnetic observation can determine up to degree L = 14 time-varying spherical harmonic coefficients of the poloidal magnetic field. Assimilation of these coefficients to numerical dynamo simulation could help us understand better the dynamical processes in the Earth's outer core, and to provide more accurate forecast of geomagnetic secular variations (SV). In our previous assimilation studies, only the poloidal magnetic field in the core is corrected by the observations in the analysis. Unobservable core state variables (the toroidal magnetic field and the core velocity field) are corrected via the dynamical equations of the geodynamo. Our assimilation experiments show that the assimilated core state converges near the CMB, implying that the dynamo state is strongly constrained by surface geomagnetic observations, and is pulled closer to the truth by the data. We are now carrying out an ensemble of assimilation runs with 1000 years of geomagnetic and archeo/paleo magnetic record. In these runs the cross correlation between the toroidal and the poloidal magnetic fields is incorporated into the analysis. This correlation is derived from the physical boundary conditions of the toroidal field at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The assimilation results are then compared with those of the ensemble runs without the cross-correlation, aiming at understanding two fundamental issues: the effect of the crosscorrelation on (1) the convergence of the core state, and (2) the SV prediction accuracies. The constrained dynamo solutions will provide valuable insights on interpreting the observed SV, e.g. the near-equator magnetic flux patches, the core-mantle interactions, and possibly other geodynamic observables.

  8. Temporal variation of the arterial pressure in healthy young people and its relation to geomagnetic activity in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.; Sánchez de la Peña, S.; Martínez, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    We present a study of the temporal behavior of the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure for a sample of 51 normotensive, healthy volunteers, 18 men and 33 women with an average age of 19 years old in Mexico City, Mexico, during April and May, 2008. We divided the data by sex along the circadian rhythm. Three geomagnetic storms occurred during the studied time-span. The strongest one, a moderate storm, is attributed to a coronal hole border that reached the Earth. The ANOVA test applied to the strongest storm showed that even though we are dealing with a moderate geomagnetic storm, there are statistically significant responses of the blood pressure. The superposed epoch analysis during a three-day window around the strongest storm shows that on average the largest changes occurred for the SBP. Moreover, the SBP largest increases occurred two days before and one day after this storm, and women are the most sensitive group as they present larger SBP and DBP average changes than men. Finally, given the small size of the sample, we cannot generalize our results.

  9. Geochemistry of Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle limestone, Oklahoma: Implications for diagenetic. delta. sup 18 O alteration and secular. delta. sup 13 C and sup 87 Sr/ sup 86 Sr variation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Guoqiu; Land, L.S. )

    1991-10-01

    Isotopic analyses of 227 limestone samples from the Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, Oklahoma, document slow secular changes in the chemistry of the limestones. From late Cambrian to early Ordovician, the {delta}{sup 18}O values of the limestones increase from {minus}10{per thousand} to {minus}7{per thousand} (PDB); {delta}{sup 13}C values decrease from 0{per thousand} to {minus}2{per thousand} (PDB); and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios decrease from 0.7091 to 0.7088. The light {delta}{sup 18}O values suggest that all Arbuckle limestones underwent diagenetic alteration, probably caused by meteoric water recharged during the development of the overlying, pre-middle Ordovician unconformity. The gradual {delta}{sup 18}O increase from late Cambrian to early Ordovician reflects reduced {sup 18}O depletion with decreasing burial temperature during alteration, although the presence of additional primary secular {delta}{sup 18}O variation cannot be ruled out. The {delta}{sup 13}C and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr variations, in accord with {delta}{sup 13}C and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr variations in the literature, represent primary secular variations. The variations indicate that the {delta}{sup 13}C value and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of early Paleozoic surface seawater decreased from late Cambrian to early Ordovician. The {delta}{sup 13}C variation during this time period seems to correlate with sea-level variation. Specifically, during sea-level fall, an increase in the rate of oxidation of organic matter caused {sup 13}C depletion of inorganic bicarbonate in seawater. As a result, early Ordovician carbonates, probably deposited during the regression stage of the latest Precambrian to latest early Ordovician cycle, became {sup 13}C depleted, relative to late Cambrian carbonates. The decrease of seawater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio from late Cambrian to early Ordovician may have resulted from decreased riverine Sr input caused by decreased rate of continental weathering.

  10. Secular Change in the Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, L.; Roble, R. G.; Solomon, S. C.; Kane, T. J.

    2007-05-01

    Observed long-term changes in the upper atmosphere have been attributed to increasing of greenhouse gases, mainly CO2, which cools the mesosphere and thermosphere. There has also been evidence [e.g., Lastovica et al., Science, 314, 1253, 2006] indicating that changes in the ionosphere accompany the neutral atmosphere changes, including a slight decrease in E-region altitude and small increases in the maximum electron density of E-region and F1-region. However, trends in the peak electron density and peak electron density height of F2- region have been controversial. Using a global mean upper atmosphere model, CO2 concentration measured at Mauna Loa Observatory, and solar variation based on a proxy model, we have calculated the secular change of thermosphere neutral density. The model result is compared to trend estimates of thermosphere density derived from satellite drag observations, showing good agreement. Sensitivity studies show that in the upper thermosphere, the effect of CO2 increases is much greater than effects from changes in CH4, H2O and O3, etc., accounting for nearly 90% of upper thermosphere density change. We have also used the model to confirm the expected trends in the ionosphere E-region and F1-region. The non-geomagnetic trend of the height of peak electron density in the F2-region is predicted to be negative but the non-geomagnetic trend of the peak electron density of the F2-region can be either positive or negative, depending on solar activity.

  11. Study of simultaneous presence of DD and PP electric fields during the geomagnetic storm of November 7-8, 2004 and resultant TEC variation over the Indian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galav, P.; Sharma, Shweta; Rao, S. S.; Veenadhari, B.; Nagatsuma, T.; Pandey, R.

    2014-04-01

    During very intense geomagnetic storm of November 7-8, 2004 simultaneous presence of storm time disturbance dynamo and eastward and westward directed prompt penetration electric fields inferred from the ground based magnetometer data in the 75∘ E sector is presented. Magnetometer observations show that, on the whole, average Δ H variation on 8 November remains below the night time level compared to its quiet day variation. A number of upward and downward excursions have been observed between 0130 UT and 0800 UT in the Δ H variation on 8 November. These excursions in Δ H have been attributed to the episodes of eastward and westward prompt penetrating electric fields. Ionospheric response in the equatorial ionization anomaly region along 75∘ E has also been studied using the total electron content data recorded at five GPS stations, namely Udaipur, Bengaluru (IISC), Hyderabad (HYDE), Maldives (MALD) and Diego Garcia (DGAR). Observation of markedly suppressed EIA, in conjunction with Δ H variation which was m negative during the daytime on 8 November, indicates the presence of an external field of opposite polarity (the disturbance dynamo electric field) that either undermined, or overshadowed the daytime ambient (eastward) electric field to the extent that the equatorial plasma fountain could not become effective.

  12. Comments on the paper "TEC variations during geomagnetic storm/substorm with PC5/PI2 pulsation signature" by A.M. Hamada, A.M. Mahrous, I. Fathy, E. Ghamry, K. Groves, K. Yumoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaji, O. S.

    2016-02-01

    Hamada, Mahrous, Fathy, Ghamry, Groves, Yumoto (2015) have described the TEC variations during geomagnetic storm/substorm with PC5/P12 pulsation signature over Egypt. Some reports made by the authors are not correct according to my view. Hence, I would like to clarify these points here.

  13. Variations of the Geomagnetic Field During the Holocene-Pleistocene: Relative Paleointensity Records From South-Western Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogorza, C. S.

    2008-05-01

    I present a review of the research carried out by the Group of Geomagnetism at Universidad Nacional del Centro (Argentina) on paleointensity records from bottom sediments from three lakes: Escondido (Gogorza et al., 2004), Moreno (Gogorza et al., 2006) and El Trébol (Gogorza et al., 2007; Irurzun et al., 2008) (South-Western Argentina, 41° S, 71° 30'W). Based on these studies, we construct a first relative (RPI) stack for South-Western Argentina covering the last 21,000 14C years BP. The degree of down-core homogeneity of magnetic mineral content as well as magnetic mineral concentration and grain sizes vary between all lakes and are quantified by high-resolution rock magnetic measurements. Rock magnetic studies suggest that the main carriers of magnetization are ferrimagnetic minerals, predominantly pseudo-single domain magnetite The remanent magnetization at 20 mT (NRM20mT) was normalized using the anhysteric remanent magnetization at 20mT (ARM20mT), the saturation of the isothermal remanent at 20 mT (SIRM20mT) and the low field magnetic susceptibility {k}. Coherence function analysis indicates that the normalised records are free of environmental influences. Our paleointensity (NRM20mT/ ARM20mT) versus age curve shows a good agreement with published records from other parts of the world suggesting that, in suitable sediments, paleointensity of the geomagnetic field can give a globally coherent, dominantly dipolar signal. References Gogorza, C.S.G., Irurzun, M.A., Chaparro, M.A.E., Lirio, J.M., Nuñez, H., Bercoff, P.G., Sinito, A.M. Relative Paleointensity of the Geomagnetic Field over the last 21,000 years bp from Sediment Cores, Lake El Trébol, (Patagonia, Argentina). Earth, Planets and Space. V58(10), 1323-1332. 2006. Gogorza, C.S.G., Sinito, A.M., Lirio, J.M., Nuñez, H., Chaparro, M.A.E., Bertorello, H.R. Paleointensity Studies on Holocene-Pleistocene Sediments from Lake Escondido, Argentina. Physical of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Elsevier, ISSN

  14. Northern hemisphere mid-latitude geomagnetic anomaly revealed from Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation (LAC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, R.; Tauxe, L.; Agnon, A.; Ben-Yosef, E.; Hassul, E.

    2015-12-01

    The rich archaeological heritage of Israel and nearby Levantine countries provides a unique opportunity for archaeomagnetic investigation in high resolution. Here we present a summary of our ongoing effort to reconstruct geomagnetic variations of the past several millennia in the Levant at decadal to millennial resolution. This effort at the Southern Levant, namely the "Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation" (LAC), presently consists of data from over 650 well-dated archaeological objects including pottery, slag, ovens, and furnaces. In this talk we review the methodological challenges in achieving a robust master secular variation curve with realistic error estimations from a large number of different datasets. We present the current status of the compilation, including the southern and western Levant LAC data (Israel, Cyprus, and Jordan) and other published north-eastern Levant data (Syria and southern Turkey), and outline the main findings emerging from these data. The main feature apparent from the new compilation is an extraordinary intensity high that developed over the Levant region during the first two millennia BCE. The climax of this event is a double peak intensity maximum starting at ca. 1000 BCE and ending at ca. 735 BCE, accompanied with at least two events of geomagnetic spikes. Paleomagnetic directions from this period demonstrate anomalies of up to 20 degrees far from the averaged GAD field. This leads us to postulate that the maximum in the intensity is a manifestation of an intense mid-latitude local positive geomagnetic anomaly that persisted for over two centuries.

  15. New Archaeointensity Result from Middle-Eastern China and Its Constraints on the Variation of the Geomagnetic Field during the last 6 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; Jin, G.; Deng, C.; Tauxe, L.; Qin, H.; Pan, Y.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Archaeomagnetic study is an effective way to understand the variation of the geomagnetic field over periods of hundreds to thousands of years. We have carried out archaeointensity studies on archaeological artifacts, including pottery fragments, bricks and baked clay, collected from several sites covering the middle to eastern part of China spanning the past ~6 kyr. We designed detailed rock magnetic and archaeointensity experiments in this study. Rock magnetic results indicate that the main magnetic carriers of these samples are stable magnetite or titanomagnetite with mainly fine particles of SD and SP. About 40% of the specimens in the paleointensity experiment pass the strict selection criteria and are considered to record robust intensity values. The virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) of our sites range from ~2.5×1022 to ~15.8×1022 Am2. We record three low intensity values with VADMs of less than 3×1022 Am2, two of them comparable to the one reported by Cai et al. (2015) at ~3000 BCE while the other one comparable to those reported by Cai et al. (2014) at ~2200 BCE, which supply further evidence for the existence of 'DIPs' (decreases in paleoinetnsity) in China during the period of ~3000-2000 BCE. A high intensity value of ~16×1022 Am2 is recorded by our new data at ~1300 BCE, which may represent a new spike at this time period. The low and high values recorded by our new data update the six-fold variation between ~2200 BCE and ~1300 BCE discussed in Cai et al. (2014) to eight-fold, which may indicate a stronger geodynamic process during this period. Our new data are generally in good agreement with the published data in China, Japan and Korea at similar time periods, except the extreme low and high values discussed above, which will improve the Eastern Asian model greatly. The new data together with the published data suggest severe fluctuation of the geomagnetic field in Eastern Asia during the last 6 kyr. Vast quantities of reliable data are needed to

  16. Drifting and standing fields in the geomagnetic field for the past 400 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Takesi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2015-11-01

    Based on the field model by Jackson et al. (2000), we reanalyzed the data of historical times and decomposed the geomagnetic field into drifting and standing fields. It has been confirmed that the results are consistent with the earlier analyses. When the field is expressed in a spherical harmonic series, the drifting field is characterized by two remarkable features. One is that the drifting field is represented mostly by sectorial harmonics, and the other is that the drift velocity does not differ significantly between the harmonics. The standing field that remains after subtraction of the drifting field from the main geomagnetic field is stronger than the drifting field. The predominance of sectorial terms in the drifting field means that the vertical component, for instance, of the drifting field is symmetric about the equator. On the other hand, the standing field is antisymmetric. Due to this difference, the drifting field largely controls the geomagnetic secular variation in the low latitude region, whereas the standing field dominates in the middle and higher latitudes.

  17. Geomagnetic excursions in the Brunhes and Matuyama Chrons: Do they come in bunches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E. T.

    2012-04-01

    Geomagnetic excursions, defined here as brief directional aberrations of the main dipole field outside the range of expected secular variation, remain controversial. Poorly-correlated records of apparent excursions from lavas and sediments can often be assigned to sampling artifacts, sedimentological phenomena, volcanic terrane effects, or local secular variation, rather than behavior of the main dipole field. Although records of magnetic excursions date from the 1960s, the number of Brunhes excursions in recent reviews of the subject have reached the 12-17 range, of which only about ~7 are adequately and/or consistently recorded. For the Matuyama Chron, the current inventory of excursions stands at about 10. The better quality excursion records, with reasonable age control, imply millennial-scale or even sub-millennial-scale durations. When "adequately" recorded, excursions are manifest as paired polarity reversals flanking virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) that reach high latitudes in the opposite hemisphere. At the young end of the excursion record, the Mono Lake (~33 ka) and Laschamp (~41 ka) excursions are well documented, although records of the former are not widely distributed. Several excursions younger than the Mono Lake excursion (at 17 ka and 25 ka) have recently been recorded in lavas and sediments, respectively. Is the 17-41 ka interval characterized by multiple excursions? Similarly, multiple excursions have been recorded in the 188-238 ka interval that encompasses records of the Iceland Basin excursion (~188 ka) and the Pringle Falls (PF) excursion. The PF excursion has been assigned ages in the 211-238 ka range. Does this mean that this interval is also characterized by several discrete excursions? The 500-600 ka interval incorporates not only the Big Lost excursion at ~565 ka, but also anomalous magnetization directions from lava flows, particularly in the West Eifel volcanics that yield mid-latitude northern-hemisphere VGPs with a range of Ar

  18. Solar constant secular changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.; Orosz, Jerome A.

    1990-01-01

    A recent model for solar constant secular changes is used to calculate a 'proxy' solar constant for: (1) the past four centuries, based upon the sunspot record, (2) the past nine centuries, based upon C-14 observations and their relation to solar activity, and (3) the next decade, based upon a dynamo theory model for the solar cycle. The proxy solar constant data is tabulated as it may be useful for climate modelers studying global climate changes.

  19. Quickly erupted volcanic sections of the Steens Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group: Secular variation, tectonic rotation, and the Steens Mountain reversal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarboe, N.A.; Coe, R.S.; Renne, P.R.; Glen, J.M.G.; Mankinen, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Steens Basalt, now considered part of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), contains the earliest eruptions of this magmatic episode. Lava flows of the Steens Basalt cover about 50,000 km2 of the Oregon Plateau in sections up to 1000 m thick. The large number of continuously exposed, quickly erupted lava flows (some sections contain over 200 flows) allows for small loops in the magnetic field direction paths to be detected. For volcanic rocks, this detail and fidelity are rarely found outside of the Holocene and yield estimates of eruption durations at our four sections of ??2.5 ka for 260 m at Pueblo Mountains, 0.5 to 1.5 ka for 190 m at Summit Springs, 1-3 ka for 170 m at North Mickey, and ??3 ka for 160 m at Guano Rim. That only one reversal of the geomagnetic field occurred during the eruption of the Steens Basalt (the Steens reversal at approximately 16.6 Ma) is supported by comparing 40Ar/39Ar ages and magnetic polarities to the geomagnetic polarity timescale. At Summit Springs two 40Ar/39Ar ages from normal polarity flows (16.72 ?? ?? 0.29 Ma (16.61) and 16.92 ?? ?? 0.52 Ma (16.82); ?? ?? equals 2s error) place their eruptions after the Steens reversal, while at Pueblo Mountains an 40Ar/39Ar age of 16.72 ?? ?? 0.21 Ma (16.61) from a reverse polarity flow places its eruption before the Steens reversal. Paleomagnetic field directions yielded 50 nontransitional directional-group poles which, combined with 26 from Steens Mountain, provide a paleomagnetic pole for the Oregon Plateau of 85.7??N, 318.4??E, K = 15.1, A95 = 4.3. Comparison of this new pole with a reference pole derived from CRBG flows from eastern Washington and a synthetic reference pole for North America derived from global data implies relative clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 7.4 ?? 5.0?? or 14.5 ?? 5.4??, respectively, probably due to northward decreasing extension of the basin and range. ?? 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Seasonal and diurnal variation of ELF emission occurrences at 750-Hz band observed at geomagnetically conjugate stations

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki ); Sato, Natsuo )

    1987-06-01

    Statistical characteristics of emission occurrence are examined, using digital data of 750-Hz intensity records obtained at the conuugate pai of statins, Syowa Station in Antarrctica and Husafell in Iceland. The geographic local time at Syowa and Husafell is magnetic local time plus 3 hours and minur 1 hour, respectively. The following notable diurnal variations and seasonal variations were found: (1) The emissions were mostly observed during the daytime in the conjugate region. However, the magnetic local time when the emission occurrence rate reached maximum at Husafell was 2-3 hours later than that at Syowa. (2) The seasonal variations of emission occurrence showed the same tendency at the conjugate stations. The emission intensities showed a maximum during local summer and a minimum during local winter in both hemispheres. The ratio fo average emission intensity in each season to the intensity in winter is approximately 2.1-2.2 for summer, 1.7-1.9 for autumn, and 1.7 for spring. From these statistical characteristics, ELF emission intensity strongly depends on not only magnetic local time but also geographic local time and seasons, suggesting that ELF emissions observed on the ground are strongly controlled by the sunlight effects. The sunlight may affect the asymmetry of wave duct enhancement and wave propagation from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere in both hemisphers. Other effects are also discussed in this paper.

  1. Geomagnetic field variations during the last 400 kyr in the western equatorial Pacific: Paleointensity-inclination correlation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Mizuno, Sakiko; Hokanishi, Natsumi; Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2008-10-01

    A paleomagnetic study was conducted on four piston cores newly obtained from the West Caroline Basin in the western equatorial Pacific in order to investigate variations in paleointensity and inclination during the last 400 kyr. An inclination-intensity correlation was previously reported in this region using giant piston cores, but the quality of the paleomagnetic data of the younger end, the last ca. 300 kyr, was needed to be checked because the upper part of the giant piston cores could suffer from perturbation by oversampling. Age control is based on the oxygen-isotope ratios for one core and inter-core correlation using relative paleointensity for other cores. Stacked curves of paleointensity and inclination were constructed from the four cores. It was confirmed that variations on the order of 104 to 105 years occur in inclination as well as paleointensity. A cross-correlation analysis showed that significant in-phase correlation occurs between intensity and inclination for periods longer than about 25 kyr, and power spectra of both paleointensity and inclination variations have peaks at ~100 kyr periods. The regional paleointensity stack with higher resolution than the Sint-800 stack (Guyodo and Valet, 1999) should be useful for paleointensity-assisted chronostratigraphy.

  2. Steady flows at the top of earth's core derived from geomagnetic field models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1986-01-01

    Select models of the main geomagnetic field and its secular variation are extrapolated to the base of an insulating mantle and used to estimate the adjacent fluid motion of a perfectly conducting outer core. The assumption of steady motion provides formally unique solutions and is tested along with that of no upwelling. The hypothesis of no upwelling is found to be substantially worse than that of steady motion. Although the actual motion is not thought to be steady, the large-scale secular variation at the top of the core can be adequately described by a large-scale, combined toroidal-poloidal circulation which is steady for intervals of at least a decade or two. The derived flows include a bulk westward drift but are complicated by superimposed jets, gyres, and surface divergence indicative of vigorous vertical motion at depth. The circulation pattern and key global properties including rms speed, upwelling, and westward drift are found to be fairly insensitive to variations in modeling parameters.

  3. Keith's early work in geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowes, F. J.

    This paper describes how Runcorn was started on his geophysical career by a chance combination of circumstances, when in 1947 he was given the job of measuring the variation of the geomagnetic field with depth inside the Earth, down British coal mines. It then shows how his interest in the semi-conduction of the lower mantle led to attempts to detect DC earth currents, at first again in mines, but later using discarded trans-Pacific telegraph cables. It ends by briefly discussing the “fifth force” measurements he instigated, which, though not a geomagnetic problem, had many similarities with the original mine experiments.

  4. Mapping the earth conductivity-depth structure of African geomagnetic equatorial anomaly regions using solar quiet current variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugbor, D. O.; Okeke, F. N.; Yumoto, K.

    2016-04-01

    The solar quiet day ionospheric (Sq) current variations observed in Abuja, Bangui and Addis Ababa were used to delineate the mantle conductivity-depth structure along the equatorial African regions. Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) was employed in separating the internal and external field contributions to the Sq variations. For each of the paired external and internal coefficients of the SHA, we used transfer function to compute the conductivity-depth profile for the region. Strikingly, we observed increased electrical conductivity values in the Earth layers and deep depth penetration. The calculated average electrical conductivity values in Addis Ababa and Abuja are 0.087 Sm-1 and 0.104 Sm-1 at depths of 93 km and 121 km respectively. These values suddenly rose to 0.235 Sm-1 and 0.222 Sm-1 at depths of 440 km and 427 km respectively. In Bangui, the calculated average values are 0.092 Sm-1, 0.144 Sm-1, 0.312 Sm-1 and 0.466 Sm-1 at 96 km, 300 km, 834 km and 1228 km depths respectively. At the greatest depths of penetration of 1412 km, 1385 km and 1278 km in Addis Ababa, Abuja and Bangui, the electrical conductivity attained the highest values of 0.415 Sm-1, 0.467 Sm-1 and 0.515 Sm-1 respectively. Two most Earth conductive layers were discovered in the magnetic equatorial zone. These layers lie between the depth of about 100 and 400 km within the upper mantle and beyond 1200 km in the lower mantle. It can be inferred that the closer one goes towards the Earth magnetic equator; the deeper the Sq current can penetrate the Earth's interior.

  5. Extended record of 10Be at EPICA Dome C during the last 800 000 years and its synchronization with geomagnetic paleointensity variations from marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquoin, Alexandre; Raisbeck, Grant; Jouzel, Jean; Bard, Edouard; Aster Team

    2013-04-01

    Polar ice cores are exceptional archives that permit the reconstruction of many parameters (variations of temperature, atmospheric composition...) and the reconstitution of the past variations of the Earth climate and environment. They also give access to beryllium-10 (10Be) fallout, an isotope of cosmogenic origin, created by the interaction of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR, constituted of high energy charged particles) with the upper atmosphere. The cosmic rays being modulated by solar activity and Earth's magnetic field intensity, the 10Be production is inversely related to the intensity of these two parameters. Most 10Be produced is quickly removed from the atmosphere (residence time in the stratosphere ~1-2 years) and, on the Antarctic plateau, falls mainly by dry deposition as aerosols. So, 10Be can be used as a proxy of paleointensity. It has allowed the improvement of ice cores chronologies thanks to absolute stratigraphic markers linked to excursions and inversions of the geomagnetic field such as the Laschamp excursion [1] or the Matuyama-Brunhes reversal [2, 3]. EPICA Dome C (75° 06' S, 123° 21' E) is a 3270 meter ice core drilled in East Antarctica in the framework of an international project. It offers a complete climate record over the last 800 000 years. As shown at the IPICS 2012 meeting, for the 355 - 800 ka period [4], a continuous high-resolution (11 cm) 10Be profile in this core can be synchronized with continuous variations of paleointensity (PISO-1500) recorded in marine sediments [5] in order to obtain a continuous relative chronology of climate proxies (δD and δ18O respectively) for these two reservoirs. Here, we extend this synchronization down to 269 ka, thus including termination IV and interstadial MIS 9. [1]. Raisbeck et al. (2007) Clim.Past, 3, 541 - 547. [2]. Raisbeck et al. (2006) Nature, 444, 82 - 84. [3]. Dreyfus et al. (2008) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 274, 151 - 156. [4]. G.Raisbeck et al. (2012) IPICS Open Science Conference

  6. Causal relationships between solar and geomagnetic cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponyavin, D. I.

    2006-12-01

    Sunspots are sui generis "hot spots" that display the most responsive regions to solar cycle changes. Rudolf Wolf in 1848 derived a simple measure of solar cyclicity by counting a number of sunspots and sunspot groups at the solar disk. Edward Sabine in 1852 announced that geomagnetic cycle was "absolutely identical" to solar cycle. However geomagnetic and sunspot indices due to their different nature do not exhibit similar variations and often manifest out of phase behavior. Long-term sunspot and geomagnetic time-series were studied using wavelet transforms and recurrence plot techniques. We have analyzed similarities and relationships between sunspot and geomagnetic cycles in order to find recurrence, synchronization and phase differences on interannual scale. Predictive schemes of the current and future solar cycles using geomagnetic proxies were analyzed and discussed.

  7. The influence of the great inequality on the secular disturbing function of the planetary system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, P.

    1971-01-01

    This paper derives the contribution by the great inequality to the secular disturbing function of the principal planets. Andoyer's expansion of the planetary disturbing function and von Zeipel's method of eliminating the periodic terms is employed; thereby, the corrected secular disturbing function for the planetary system is derived. The conclusion is drawn that the canonicity of the equations for the secular variation of the heliocentric elements can be preserved if there be retained, in the secular disturbing function, terms only of the second and fourth order relative to the eccentricity and inclinations. The Krylov-Bogoliubov method is suggested for eliminating periodic terms, if it is desired to include the secular perturbations of the fifth and higher order in the heliocentric elements. The additional part of the secular disturbing function derived in this paper can be included in existing theories of the secular effects of principal planets.

  8. The 1995 revision of the joint US/UK geomagnetic field models. II: Main field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, J.M.; Coleman, R.J.; Macmillan, S.; Barraclough, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the 1995 main-field revision of the World Magnetic Model (WMM-95). It is based on Project MAGNET high-level (??? 15,000 ft.) vector aeromagnetic survey data collected between 1988 and 1994 and on scalar total intensity data collected by the Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Survey (POGS) satellite during the period 1991 through 1993. The spherical harmonic model produced from these data describes that portion of the Earth's magnetic field generated internal to the Earth's surface at the 1995.0 Epoch. When combined with the spherical harmonic model of the Earth's secular variation described in paper I, the Earth's main magnetic field is fully characterized between the years 1995 and 2000. Regional magnetic field models for the conterminous United States, Alaska and, Hawaii were generated as by-products of the global modeling process.

  9. Space-time structure of the 2003 geomagnetic jerk at Mid-Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin; Xu, Wenyao; Yang, Dongmei

    2015-04-01

    The 2003 jerk has an abrupt change in the geomagnetic secular variation (SV), and was recognized as a local phenomenon of internal origin from the satellite observations (Olsen and Mandea, 2007). Notable strength of the 2003 jerk is located at Mid-Eastern Asia. The temporal and spatial features at this area are important to resolve the Earth's core fluid flow dynamics at local scale (e.g. Wardinski et al., 2008). We investigate the temporal-spatial development of the 2003 jerk in more detail at Mid-Eastern Asia with the ground-based observations and CHAOS-3 core field model. We select the data in the international geomagnetic quiet days to calculate the monthly means. In order to reduce the influence of the external field, we adopt a function comprising the terms associated with the indices of the geomagnetic activity, and the terms of the periodic signals on the observatory monthly means data (Stewart and Whaler, 1992). We then use an empirical AR-2 model to represent the internal field signals in the observatory data. The extreme detection is applied to identify the jerk in the SV time series. The onset time and the strength of the 2003 jerk are obtained through the detection for geomagnetic field component, X, Y and Z. The maximum of the strength of the 2003 jerk is located under the Indian mainland. The onset time of this jerk propagates approximately southeastward. Two jerks in 2001 and 2003 for the Z component are further compared and they are confirmed as independent processes. We suggest the jerk in 2001 identical to the well known 1999 jerk in Europe (Mandea et al., 2000). Our results reveal the fine structures of the 2003 jerk that corroborate the conclusions in previous studies. The larger scale time-spatial structure given by the AR-2 model constructed from ground observatory data (monthly values) is consistent with the results from the CHAOS-3 model. This structure can be applied for further inversion of the local core surface fluid flow motions

  10. Flow throughout the Earth's core inverted from geomagnetic observations and numerical dynamo models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Julien

    2013-02-01

    This paper introduces inverse geodynamo modelling, a framework imaging flow throughout the Earth's core from observations of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation. The necessary prior information is provided by statistics from 3-D and self-consistent numerical simulations of the geodynamo. The core method is a linear estimation (or Kalman filtering) procedure, combined with standard frozen-flux core surface flow inversions in order to handle the non-linearity of the problem. The inversion scheme is successfully validated using synthetic test experiments. A set of four numerical dynamo models of increasing physical complexity and similarity to the geomagnetic field is then used to invert for flows at single epochs within the period 1970-2010, using data from the geomagnetic field models CM4 and gufm-sat-Q3. The resulting core surface flows generally provide satisfactory fits to the secular variation within the level of modelled errors, and robustly reproduce the most commonly observed patterns while additionally presenting a high degree of equatorial symmetry. The corresponding deep flows present a robust, highly columnar structure once rotational constraints are enforced to a high level in the prior models, with patterns strikingly similar to the results of quasi-geostrophic inversions. In particular, the presence of a persistent planetary scale, eccentric westward columnar gyre circling around the inner core is confirmed. The strength of the approach is to uniquely determine the trade-off between fit to the data and complexity of the solution by clearly connecting it to first principle physics; statistical deviations observed between the inverted flows and the standard model behaviour can then be used to quantitatively assess the shortcomings of the physical modelling. Such deviations include the (i) westwards and (ii) hemispherical character of the eccentric gyre. A prior model with angular momentum conservation of the core-mantle inner-core system, and

  11. Two thousand years of geomagnetic field direction over central Europe revealed by indirect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Péter

    2010-04-01

    Supplemented by 32 new directions, the Hungarian archaeomagnetic data set now consists of 217 archaeologically dated directions ranging in age from 300 BC to 1800 AD. From this data set, reference curves of secular variation of the geomagnetic field direction were computed using hierarchical modelling and curve estimation by moving average technique. Thanks to some of the new data, the gap in the earlier reference curves around 500 AD has now been filled up. For comparison's sake, directional records of comparable length from central Europe were also processed by the same curve building method. For this purpose, all dated directional data (declination and inclination with statistics) were drawn from the GEOMAGIA50 database for France, Germany, the Ukraine and Moldavia, Bulgaria and Italy and transferred via their virtual geomagnetic poles to a reference point of their respective countries. The resulting reference curves, including those for Hungary, show more or less similar temporal behaviour to the corresponding CALS7K.2 model curves (also available from the GEOMAGIA50 database), but significant deviations from the low-order CALS7K.2 predictions are also discernible owing to the likely presence of additional higher-order complications in the regional field. Therefore, the regional field and its secular variation are suggested to be approximated by the reference rather than the predicted curves. At any other location within the study area, the direction of the regional field can be obtained by spatial interpolation from the reference curves as illustrated by isogonic and isoclinic maps shown for selected times. Local time-series of interpolated directions for other central European countries lacking reference curves might serve as master curves for magnetic dating.

  12. Torque Balances on the Taylor Cylinders in the Geomagnetic Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation we report on our continuing effort in geomagnetic data assimilation, aiming at understanding and predicting geomagnetic secular variation on decadal time scales. In particular, we focus on the effect of the torque balances on the cylindrical surfaces in the core co-axial with the Earth's rotation axis (the Taylor cylinders) on the time evolution of assimilated solutions. We use our MoSST core dynamics,model and observed geomagnetic field at the Earth's surface derived via Comprehensive Field Model (CFM) for the geomagnetic data assimilation. In our earlier studies, a model solution is selected randomly from our numerical database. It is then assimilated with the observations such that the poloidal field possesses the same field tomography on the core-mantel boundary (CMB) continued downward from surface observations. This tomography change is assumed to be effective through out the outer core. While this approach allows rapid convergence between model solutions and the observations, it also generates sevee numerical instabilities: the delicate balance between weak fluid inertia and the magnetic torques on the Taylor cylinders are completely altered. Consequently, the assimilated solution diverges quickly (in approximately 10% of the magnetic free-decay time in the core). To improve the assimilation, we propose a partial penetration of the assimilation from the CMB: The full-scale modification at the CMB decreases linearly and vanish at an interior radius r(sub a). We shall examine from our assimilation tests possible relationships between the convergence rate of the model solutions to observations and the cut-off radius r(sub a). A better assimilation shall serve our nudging tests in near future.

  13. Climate determinism or Geomagnetic determinism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.; Le Goff, M.; Fluteau, F.; Courtillot, V.

    2006-12-01

    A number of episodes of sharp geomagnetic field variations (in both intensity and direction), lasting on the order of a century, have been identified in archeomagnetic records from Western Eurasia and have been called "archeomagnetic jerks". These seem to correlate well with multi-decadal cooling episodes detected in the North Atlantic Ocean and Western Europe, suggesting a causal link between both phenomena. A possible mechanism could be a geomagnetic modulation of the cosmic ray flux that would control the nucleation rate of clouds. We wish to underline the remarkable coincidence between archeomagnetic jerks, cooling events in Western Europe and drought periods in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the northern hemisphere. The latter two can be interpreted in terms of global teleconnections among regional climates. It has been suggested that these climatic variations had caused major changes in the history of ancient civilizations, such as in Mesopotamia, which were critically dependent on water supply and particularly vulnerable to lower rainfall amounts. This is one of the foundations of "climate determinism". Our studies, which suggest a geomagnetic origin for at least some of the inferred climatic events, lead us to propose the idea of a "geomagnetic determinism" in the history of humanity.

  14. Geomagnetism of earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumentation, analytical methods, and research goals for understanding the behavior and source of geophysical magnetism are reviewed. Magsat, launched in 1979, collected global magnetometer data and identified the main terrestrial magnetic fields. The data has been treated by representing the curl-free field in terms of a scalar potential which is decomposed into a truncated series of spherical harmonics. Solutions to the Laplace equation then extend the field upward or downward from the measurement level through intervening spaces with no source. Further research is necessary on the interaction between harmonics of various spatial scales. Attempts are also being made to analytically model the main field and its secular variation at the core-mantle boundary. Work is also being done on characterizing the core structure, composition, thermodynamics, energetics, and formation, as well as designing a new Magsat or a tethered satellite to be flown on the Shuttle.

  15. Recent Geodynamo Simulations and Observations of the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Masaru; Roberts, Paul H.

    2002-12-01

    In 1995, two groups [, 1995; , 1995a, 1995b] reported results of numerical integrations of fully three-dimensional, fully nonlinear dynamos. Their papers were precursors of a stream of such models that have focused particularly on the geodynamo. They provide us, in unprecedented detail, with spectacular realizations of interesting geomagnetic field behaviors, such as secular variation and even polarity reversals. The proliferation of models has, however, created some confusion and apparently conflicting results. This can be partly attributed to the different ways in which different groups have modeled the core, normalized their equations, defined their dimensionless parameters, chosen their boundary conditions, and selected their energy sources. This has made it difficult to compare the results of different simulations directly. In this paper, we first try, as far as possible, to overcome this difficulty, so that all reported results can be compared on common ground. We then review the results, emphasizing three major topics: (1) onset and evolution of convection, (2) character of the magnetic field generated, and (3) comparison with the observed geomagnetic field. Although there are large differences in the way that the simulations are defined, the magnetic fields that they generate have some surprising similarities. The fields are dominated by the axial dipole. In some models they are most strongly generated in shear layers near the upper and lower boundaries and near the tangent cylinder, an imaginary surface touching the inner core on its equator. Convection rolls occur within which a type of the α effect distorts the toroidal field lines to create poloidal magnetic field. Some features of the models are found to strongly affect the fields that they produce. In particular, the boundary conditions defining the energy flow (e.g., an inhomogeneous heat flux or distribution of buoyancy sources) are very influential and have been extensively studied. They change

  16. Steady induction effects in geomagnetism. Part 1B: Geomagnetic estimation of steady surficial core motions: A non-linear inverse problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of estimating a steady fluid velocity field near the top of Earth's core which induces the secular variation (SV) indicated by models of the observed geomagnetic field is examined in the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core (SFI/VFFC) approximation. This inverse problem is non-linear because solutions of the forward problem are deterministically chaotic. The SFM/FFC approximation is inexact, and neither the models nor the observations they represent are either complete or perfect. A method is developed for solving the non-linear inverse motional induction problem posed by the hypothesis of (piecewise, statistically) steady core surface flow and the supposition of a complete initial geomagnetic condition. The method features iterative solution of the weighted, linearized least-squares problem and admits optional biases favoring surficially geostrophic flow and/or spatially simple flow. Two types of weights are advanced radial field weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the radial field component near Earth's surface implied by the models, and generalized weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the scalar potential specified by the models.

  17. Geomagnetic field effects of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernogor, L. F.

    2014-09-01

    An analysis was conducted of time variations in geomagnetic field components on the day of the Chelyabinsk meteorite event (February 15, 2013) and on control days (February 12 and 16, 2013). The analysis uses the data collected by magnetic observatories in Novosibirsk, Almaty, Kyiv, and Lviv. The distance R from the explosion site to the observatories varies in the range 1200-2700 km. The flyby and explosion of the Chelyabinsk cosmic body is found to have been accompanied by variations mainly in the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field. The variations are quasi-periodic with a period of 30-40 min, an amplitude of 0.5-2 nT for R ≈ 2700-1200 km, respectively, and a duration of 2-3 h. The horizontal velocity of the geomagnetic field disturbances is close to 260-370 m/s. A theoretical model of wave disturbances is proposed. According to the model, wave disturbances in the geomagnetic field are caused (a) by the motion of the gravity wave generated in the atmosphere by the falling space body and (b) by traveling ionospheric disturbances, which modulate the ionospheric current at dynamo altitudes. The calculated amplitudes of the wave disturbances are 0.6-1.8 nT for R ≈ 2700-1200 km, respectively. The estimates are in good agreement with the observational data. Disturbances in the geomagnetic field level (geomagnetic pulsations) in the period range 1-1000 s are negligible (less than 1 nT).

  18. Secular Variation in the Storage and Dissipation of Elastic Strain Energy Along the Central Altyn Tagh Fault (86-88.5°E), NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowgill, E.; Gold, R. D.; Arrowsmith, R.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    In elastic rebound theory, hazard increases as interseismic strain rebuilds after rupture. This model is challenged by the temporal variation in the pacing of major earthquakes that is both predicted by mechanical models and suggested by some long paleoseismic records (e.g., 1-3). However, the extent of such behavior remains unclear due to a lack of long (5-25 ky) records of fault slip. Using Monte Carlo analysis of 11 offset landforms, we determined a 16-ky record of fault slip for the active, left-lateral Altyn Tagh fault, which bounds the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau. This history reveals a pulse of accelerated slip between 6.4 and 6.0 ka, during which the fault slipped 9 +14/-2 m at a rate of 23 +35/-5 mm/y, or ~3x the 16 ky average of 8.1 +1.2/-0.9mm/y. These two modes of earthquake behavior suggest temporal variation in the rates of stress storage and release. The simplest explanation for the pulse is a cluster of 2-8 Mw > 7.5 earthquakes. Such supercyclicity has been reported for the Sunda (4) and Cascadia (3) megathrusts, but contrasts with steady slip along the strike-slip Alpine fault (5), for example. A second possibility is that the pulse reflects a single, unusually large rupture. However, this Black Swan event is unlikely: empirical scaling relationships require a Mw 8.2 rupture of the entire 1200-km-long ATF to produce 7 m of average slip. Likewise, Coulomb stress change from rupture on the adjacent North Altyn fault is of modest magnitude and overlap with the ATF. Poor temporal correlation between precipitation and the slip pulse argues against climatically modulated changes in surface loading (lakes/ice) or pore-fluid pressure. "Paleoslip" studies such as this sacrifice the single-event resolution of paleoseismology in exchange for long records that quantify both the timing and magnitude of fault slip averaged over multiple ruptures, and are essential for documenting temporal variations in fault slip as we begin to use calibrated physical

  19. Improved geomagnetic referencing in the Arctic environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poedjono, B.; Beck, N.; Buchanan, A. C.; Borri, L.; Maus, S.; Finn, Carol; Worthington, Bill; White, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Geomagnetic referencing uses the Earth’s magnetic field to determine accurate wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs, either as an alternative or a complement to north-seeking gyroscopic referencing. However, fluctuations in the geomagnetic field, especially at high latitudes, make the application of geomagnetic referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise crustal mapping and the monitoring of real-time variations by nearby magnetic observatories is crucial to achieving the required geomagnetic referencing accuracy. The Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate, real-time data to the oilfield drilling industry. Geomagnetic referencing is enhanced with real-time data from DED and other observatories, and has been successfully used for accurate wellbore positioning. The availability of real-time geomagnetic measurements leads to significant cost and time savings in wellbore surveying, improving accuracy and alleviating the need for more expensive surveying techniques. The correct implementation of geomagnetic referencing is particularly critical as we approach the increased activity associated with the upcoming maximum of the 11-year solar cycle. The DED observatory further provides an important service to scientific communities engaged in studies of ionospheric, magnetospheric and space weather phenomena.

  20. Normal amplitude Brunhes paleosecular variation at low-latitudes - A paleomagnetic record from the trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Fucugauchi, Jaime Urrutia; del Pozzo, Ana Lillian Martin; Boehnel, Harald

    1986-12-01

    Ancient secular variation in Central Mexico was determined from paleomagnetic measurements on 45 independent lava flows ranging in age (C-14 and K-Ar dates) from 2,500 to 580,000 years B.P. All the analyzed flows are characterized by a normal polarity placing them within the Brunhes Chron. The paleosecular variation analysis yielded an angular standard deviation from the field of an axial dipole of 15.3 deg with 95 percent confidence limits f 13.4 deg and 17.9 deg, and that of the corresponding Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) of 13.9 deg with confidence limits of 12.1 deg and 16.1 deg. These values are in agreement with those predicted by most statistical models of secular variation, but divergent from those obtained from low latitudes (19 deg N) such as Hawaii and Pagan Is.

  1. High-resolution palaeomagnetic records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from ODP Sites 1061 and 1062

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, M. D.; Henderson, G. M.; Thomas, A. L.; Mac Niocaill, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Laschamp geomagnetic excursion (~41 ka) was a brief global deviation in geomagnetic field behaviour from that expected during normal secular variation. Previously published records suggest rapid changes in field direction and a concurrent substantial decrease in field intensity. We present here high-resolution palaeomagnetic records of the Laschamp excursion obtained from two Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1061 and 1062 on the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge (ODP Leg 172) and compare this record with previously published records of the Blake and Iceland Basin Excursions. Relatively high sedimentation rates (>10 cm kyr-1) at these locations allow the determination of transitional field behaviour during the excursion. Rather than assuming a constant sedimentation rate between assigned age tie-points, we employ measurements of 230Thxs concentration in the sediment to assess variations in the sedimentation rates through the core sections of interest. This allows us to better determine the temporal behaviour of the Laschamp excursion with greater accuracy and known uncertainty. The Laschamp excursion at this location appears to be much shorter in duration than the Blake and Iceland Basin excursions. Palaeomagnetic measurements of discrete samples from four cores reveal a single excursional feature, across an interval of 30 cm, associated with a broader palaeointensity low. The excursion is characterised by rapid transitions (less than 500 years) between a stable normal polarity and a partially-reversed, polarity. Peaks in inclination either side of the directional excursion indicate periods of time when the local field is dominated by vertical flux patches. Similar behaviour has been observed in records of the Iceland Basin Excursion from the same region. The palaeointensity record is in good agreement between the two sites. The palaeointensity record shows two minima, where the second dip in intensity is associated with a more limited directional deviation. Similar

  2. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large statistical study of extreme geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence

  3. Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar geomagnetic field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    In order to infer the interplanetary sector polarity from polar geomagnetic field diurnal variations, measurements were carried out at Godhavn and Thule (Denmark) Geomagnetic Observatories. The inferred interplanetary sector polarity was compared with the polarity observed at the same time by Explorer 33 and 35 magnetometers. It is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar cap geomagnetic fields.

  4. Geomagnetic disturbances and pulsations as a high-latitude response to considerable alternating IMF Variations during the magnetic storm recovery phase (Case study: May 30, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitin, A. E.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Gromova, L. I.; Antonova, E. E.; Dremukhina, L. A.; Zelinsky, N. R.; Gromov, S. V.; Malysheva, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Features of high-latitude geomagnetic disturbances during the magnetic storm ( Dst min =-144 nT) recovery phase were studied based on the observations on the Scandinavian profile of magnetometers (IMAGE). Certain non-typical effects that occur under the conditions of large positive IMF Bz values (about +20-25 nT) and large negative IMF By values (to-20 nT) were revealed. Thus, an intense (about 400 nT) negative bay in the X component of the magnetic field (the polar electrojet, PE) was observed in the dayside sector at geomagnetic latitudes higher than 70°. As the IMF B y reverses its sign from negative to positive, the bay in the X component was replaced by the bay in the Y component. The possible distribution of the fieldaligned currents of the NBZ system was analyzed based on the CHAMP satellite data. The results were compared with the position of the auroral oval (the OVATION model) and the ion and electron flux observations on the DMSP satellite. Analysis of the particle spectra indicated that these spectra correspond to the auroral oval dayside sector crossings by the satellite, i.e., to the dayside projection of the plasma ring surrounding the Earth. Arguments are presented for the assumption that the discussed dayside electrojet ( PE) is localized near the polar edge of the dayside auroral oval in a the closed magnetosphere. The features of the spectral and spatial dynamics of intense Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations were studied in this time interval. It was established that the spectrum of high-latitude (higher than ~70°) pulsations does not coincide with the spectrum of fluctuations in the solar wind and IMF. It was shown that Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations can be considered as resonance oscillations at latitudes lower than 70° and apparently reflect fluctuations in turbulent sheets adjacent to the magnetopause (the low-latitude boundary layer, a cusp throat) or in a turbulent magnetosheath at higher latitudes.

  5. Geomagnetic fluctuations reveal stable stratification at the top of the Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Buffett, Bruce

    2014-03-27

    Modern observations of the geomagnetic field reveal fluctuations with a dominant period of about 60 years. These fluctuations are probably a result of waves in the liquid core, although the precise nature of the waves is uncertain. Common suggestions include a type of magnetic wave, known as a torsional oscillation, but recent studies favour periods that are too short to account for a 60-year fluctuation. Another possibility involves MAC waves, which arise from the interplay between magnetic, Archimedes and Coriolis forces. Waves with a suitable period can emerge when the top of the core is stably stratified. Here I show that MAC waves provide a good description of time-dependent zonal flow at the top of the core, as inferred from geomagnetic secular variation. The same wave motion can also account for unexplained fluctuations in the dipole field. Both of these independent predictions require a 140-kilometre-thick stratified layer with a buoyancy frequency comparable to the Earth's rotation rate. Such a stratified layer could have a thermal origin, implying a core heat flow of about 13 terawatts. Alternatively, the layer could result from chemical stratification. In either case, the existence of a stratified layer at the top of the core obscures the nature of flow deeper in the core, where the magnetic field is continually regenerated. PMID:24670768

  6. Inner Core Rotation from Geomagnetic Westward Drift and a Stationary Spherical Vortex in Earth's Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, C. V.

    1999-01-01

    The idea that geomagnetic westward drift indicates convective leveling of the planetary momentum gradient within Earth's core is pursued in search of a differentially rotating mean state, upon which various oscillations and secular effects might be superimposed. The desired state conforms to roughly spherical boundary conditions, minimizes dissipative interference with convective cooling in the bulk of the core, yet may aide core cooling by depositing heat in the uppermost core and lower mantle. The variational calculus of stationary dissipation applied to a spherical vortex within the core yields an interesting differential rotation profile akin to spherical Couette flow bounded by thin Hartmann layers. Four boundary conditions are required. To concentrate shear induced dissipation near the core-mantle boundary, these are taken to be: (i) no-slip at the core-mantle interface; (ii) geomagnetically estimated bulk westward flow at the base of the core-mantle boundary layer; (iii) no-slip at the inner-outer core interface; and, to describe magnetic locking of the inner core to the deep outer core, (iv) hydrodynamically stress-free at the inner-outer core boundary. By boldly assuming the axial core angular momentum anomaly to be zero, the super-rotation of the inner core is calculated to be at most 1.5 degrees per year.

  7. Inner Core Rotation from Geomagnetic Westward Drift and a Stationary Spherical Vortex in Earth's Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1998-01-01

    The idea that geomagnetic westward drift indicates convective leveling of the planetary momentum gradient within Earth's core is pursued in search of a differentially rotating mean state, upon which various oscillations and secular effects might be superimposed. The desired state conforms to roughly spherical boundary conditions, minimizes dissipative interference with convective cooling in the bulk of the core, yet may aid core cooling by depositing heat in the uppermost core and lower mantle. The variational calculus of stationary dissipation applied to a spherical vortex within the core yields an interesting differential rotation profile, akin to spherical Couette flow bounded by thin Hartmann layers. Four boundary conditions are required. To concentrate shear induced dissipation near the core-mantle boundary, these are taken to be: (i) no-slip at the core-mantle interface; (ii) geomagnetically estimated bulk westward flow at the base of the core-mantle boundary layer; (iii) no-slip at the inner-outer core interface; and, to describe magnetic locking of the inner core to the deep outer core; (iv) hydrodynamically stress-free at the inner-outer core boundary. By boldly assuming the axial core angular momentum anomaly to be zero, the super-rotation of the inner core relative to the mantle is calculated to be at most 1.5 deg./yr.

  8. Steady induction effects in geomagnetism. Part 1C: Geomagnetic estimation of steady surficial core motions: Application to the definitive geomagnetic reference field models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1993-01-01

    In the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core magnetic earth model, the non-linear inverse steady motional induction problem was solved using the method presented in Part 1B. How that method was applied to estimate steady, broad-scale fluid velocity fields near the top of Earth's core that induce the secular change indicated by the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) models from 1945 to 1980 are described. Special attention is given to the derivation of weight matrices for the DGRF models because the weights determine the apparent significance of the residual secular change. The derived weight matrices also enable estimation of the secular change signal-to-noise ratio characterizing the DGRF models. Two types of weights were derived in 1987-88: radial field weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the radial geomagnetic field component at Earth's surface implied by the DGRF's, and general weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the scalar potential specified by these models. The difference is non-trivial because not all the geomagnetic data represented by the DGRF's constrain the radial field component. For radial field weights (or general weights), a quantitatively acceptable explication of broad-scale secular change relative to the 1980 Magsat epoch must account for 99.94271 percent (or 99.98784 percent) of the total weighted variance accumulated therein. Tolerable normalized root-mean-square weighted residuals of 2.394 percent (or 1.103 percent) are less than the 7 percent errors expected in the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core approximation.

  9. Comment on 'The semiannual variation of great geomagnetic storms and the postshock Russell-McPherron effect preceding coronal mass ejecta' by N. U. Crooker, E. W. Cliver and B. T. Tsurutani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, W. D.; Clua de Gonzalez, A. L.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1993-08-01

    It is proposed by Crooker et al. (1992) that for a subgroup of great geomagnetic storms, for which the associated strong southward IMF (B(S)) fields reside in the postshock plasma, preceding the driver gas of coronal mass ejections, such strong B(S) fields result from a 'major increase in the Russell-McPherron polarity effect, through a systematic pattern of compression and draping' of the Archimedean field in the x-y plane. The critics test the scenario proposed by Crooker et al., namely, that the Russell-McPherron polarity effect is a major contribution to the semiannual variable of intense geomagnetic storms. It is found by the critics that in the cases studied there is little difference between the B(S) values as measured in geocentric solar ecliptic and geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates, and it is concluded that the Russell-McPherron mechanism cannot explain by itself the seasonal dependence of intense storms, for which the variation is the largest. Crooker et al. present arguments to show that the combined preshock and postshock Russell-McPherron effect remains the sole cause of the semiannual variation of great storm occurrence.

  10. Dynamics of secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James

    2013-10-01

    The material in this article was presented in five hours of lectures to the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School. The School’s theme was ‘Secular Evolution of Galaxies’ and my task was to present the underlying stellar-dynamical theory. Other lecturers were speaking on the role of bars and chemical evolution, so these topics are avoided here. The material starts with an account of the connections between isolating integrals, quasiperiodicity and angle-action variables - these variables played a prominent and unifying role throughout the lectures. This leads on to the phenomenon of resonant trap- ping and how this can lead to chaos in cuspy potentials and phase-space mixing in slowly evolving potentials. Surfaces of section and frequency analysis are introduced as diagnostics of phase-space structure. Real galactic potentials include a fluctuating part that drives the system towards unattainable thermal equilibrium. Two-body encounters are only one source of fluctuations, and all fluctuations will drive similar evolution. The orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck equation is derived, as are relations that hold between the second-order diffusion coefficients and both the power spectrum of the fluctuations and the first-order diffusion coefficients. From the observed heating of the solar neighbourhood we show that the second-order diffusion coefficients must scale as ˜ J1/2. We show that periodic spiral structure shifts angular momentum outwards, heating at the Lindblad resonances and mixing at corotation. The equation that would yield the normal modes of a stellar disk is first derived and then used to discuss the propagation of tightly wound spiral waves. The winding up of such waves is described and explains why cool stellar disks are responsive systems that amplify ambient noise. An explanation is offered of why the Lin-Shu-Kalnajs dispersion relation and even global normal-mode calculations provide a very incomplete understanding of the dynamics of stellar disks.

  11. Geomagnetic storm fields near a synchronous satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawasaki, K.; Akasofu, S. I.

    1971-01-01

    An apparent early recovery of the main phase of geomagnetic storms at the distance of the synchronous satellite is examined in terms of changing electric current distributions in the magnetosphere during magnetic storms. It is suggested that a rapid recession of the edge of the plasma sheet (after the advance toward the earth during an early epoch of the main phase) is partly responsible for the early recovery. Relevant plasma sheet variations during geomagnetic storms are found to be in agreement with the inferred variations.

  12. Large geomagnetic field anomalies revealed in Bronze to Iron Age archeomagnetic data from Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Ron, Hagai; Ebert, Yael; Zuckerman, Sharon; Finkelstein, Israel; Agnon, Amotz

    2016-05-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements from the past few centuries show heightened secular variation activity in the southern hemisphere associated with the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). It is uncertain whether geomagnetic anomalies at a similar scale have existed in the past owing to limited coverage and uncertainties in the paleomagnetic database. Here we provide new evidence from archaeological sources in the Levant suggesting a large positive northern hemisphere anomaly, similar in magnitude to the SAA during the 9th-8th centuries BCE, called "Levantine Iron Age anomaly". We also report an additional geomagnetic spike in the 8th century. The new dataset comprises 73 high precision paleointensity estimates from ca. 3000 BCE to 732 BCE, and five directional measurements between the 14th and the 9th centuries BCE. Well-dated pottery and cooking ovens were collected from twenty archaeological strata in two large contemporaneous stratigraphical mounds (tells) in Israel: Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor. The new data are combined with previously published data and interpreted automatically using the PmagPy Thellier GUI program. The Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor data sets demonstrate excellent internal consistency and remarkable agreement with published data from Mesopotamia (Syria). The data illustrate the evolution of an extreme geomagnetic high that culminated in at least two spikes between the 11th and the 8th centuries BCE (Iron Age in the Levant). The paleomagnetic directional data of the 9th century BCE show positive inclination anomalies, and deviations of up to 22° from the averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) direction. From comparison of the Levantine archaeomagnetic data with IGRF model for 2015 we infer the "Levantine Iron Age anomaly" between the 10th and the 8th centuries BCE is a local positive anomaly. The eastward extent of the anomaly is currently unknown.

  13. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  14. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    PubMed

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  15. An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  16. Nonlinear Behavior of the Geomagnetic Fluctuations Recorded in Different Geomagnetic Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, P.; Heilig, B.; Koppan, A.; Vadasz, G.; Echim, M.

    2014-12-01

    The paper concerns with the nonlinear properties of geomagnetic variations recorded in different geomagnetic latitudes, in the years of solar maximum and minimum. For the study, we use the geomagnetic time-series recorded by some of the stations of the EMMA quasi-meridional magnetometer network, established for pulsation study, in September 2001. The stations are located approx. along the magnetic meridian of 100 degree, and the sampling frequency of the series is 1 Hz. It is argued that the geomagnetic field exhibits nonlinear intermittent fluctuations in certain temporal scale range. For quantitatively investigating the scaling ranges and the variation of intermittent properties with latitude and time, we analyse the higher order moments of the time records (probability density function or structure function analyses). The multifractal or self-similar scaling of the fluctuations is investigated via the fitting of the P model to structure function scaling exponents. We also study the power-law behaviour of the power-spectral density functions of the series in order to evaluate the possible inertial frequency (and temporal) range of the geomagnetic field and compare them with the scaling ranges of structure functions. The range where intermittent geomagnetic variation is found falls typically between 100 and 20.000 s, i.e. covers the temporal range of the main phases of geomagnetic storms. It is shown that the intensity of intermittent fluctuations increases from solar minimum to solar maximum. The expected increase in the level of intermittency with the geomagnetic latitude can be evidenced only in the years of solar minimum. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013]) under grant agreement n° 313038/STORM.

  17. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism: Progress in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress and aspects is the study of the geomagnetic variations in the Indian region on quiet and disturbed days, equatorial electrojet field, electromagnetic induction in the earth, magnetic pulsations, aeronomy, radio scintillations, magnetosphere and solar wind, and solar-terrestrial relationships were reported.

  18. Recurring features of mid-Miocene transitional geomagnetic field behavior: Observations from NE Nevada and SE Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogue, S. W.; Glen, J. M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetic results from a 150m thick stack of 15.2 my old lava flows in the Sheep Creek Range (north central Nevada; 40.7N, 243.2E) show that distinctive aspects of the reversing geomagnetic field can recur after 1.5 million years. The Sheep Creek lavas preserve a partial record of what is likely the C5Br-C5Bn geomagnetic reversal. That event occurred 1.5 million years and five polarity switches after reversal (C5Cr-C5Cn) recorded in great detail at Steens Mountain in SE Oregon. During both transitions, the VGP made repeat visits to low latitude positions in South America and near Africa although in different order. This behavior implies a control that varies over a timescale much longer that associated with flow in the outer core (~60 yrs), presumably lateral variations in lower mantle temperature or topography on the core-mantle boundary. Furthermore, the field in both reversals moved from clearly transitional to normal-polarity-like (i.e., down and north) directions before "rebounding" to intermediate directions. It has been suggested recently (Valet et al., Nature 2012) that this kind of behavior (i.e., directional change in the form of precursor- main polarity switch-rebound) may be a systematic aspect of transitional field behavior, a suggestion reinforced by these new observations. The distinctive, two component magnetization of a particular lava flow in the Sheep Creek section has been interpreted by Bogue and Glen (GRL, 2010) as evidence of directional change (~1 deg/week) orders of magnitude faster than normal secular variation. If the field was strong at the end of the directional change, then a large change in the local geomagnetic field vector is implied by the directional data for any initial field strength. Preliminary paleointensity experiments aimed at resolving this aspect of the record are in progress.

  19. First European directional paleosecular variation curve for the Neolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrancho, A.; Villalain, J.; Pavon-Carrasco, F.; Osete, M. L.; Straus, L. G.; Vergès, J.; Carretero, J.; Angelucci, D. E.; González Morales, M.; Arsuaga, J.; Bermúdez de Castro, J.; Carbonell, E.

    2013-05-01

    Extending back in time paleosecular variation (PSV) records worldwide is necessary to improve geomagnetic field models whose applications range from the reconstruction of geomagnetic field behavior to archeomagnetic dating. To that aim, independently well-dated and high-quality geomagnetic field recorders are required in order to avoid the smoothing effect produced by the inclusion of sedimentary records in global and regional models. This is the case of lava flows and archeomagnetic materials which usually carry a stable thermoremament magnetization (TRM). Although the archeomagnetic European database is the most complete of the world, there is a significant lack of archeomagnetic data in Western Europe before the third millennium B.C., because older, well-dated, in situ materials carrying a TRM are scarce. Here we show anthropogenic cave sediments as new geomagnetic field recorders, reporting 26 new archeomagnetic directions obtained from three caves in Northern Spain ranging between ~5,500 and 2,000 yr. cal. B.C. These data represent the oldest archeomagnetic directions currently existing in all Western Europe. The combination of data presented here and the recent updated Bulgarian database allows us to propose the first European secular variation curve for the Neolithic which can be used for dating purposes. For certain periods the proposed European directional PSV curve may reach similar precision as radiocarbon. Taking into account the good preservation, age-control and widespread occurrence of these materials across southern Europe, these materials represent a new source of data for archeomagnetic dating, as well as geomagnetic field modeling.

  20. Geomagnetically Induced Currents, a space weather hazard. Case study - Europe under intense geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrica, V.; Demetrescu, Cr.; Stefan, C.; Greculeasa, R.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of the solar wind and heliospheric magnetic field with the magnetosphere and ionosphere results in variations of the geomagnetic field that induce hazardous electric currents in grounded technological systems (electric power and hydrocarbon transportation networks), the so-called geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). In order to evaluate the hazard induced on the European continent, we present a study of the surface electric field induced by 16 intense (Dst < -150 nT) geomagnetic storms, based on the analysis of the geomagnetic records from the European network of observatories, study that tend to solve the geophysical part of the problem. The evolution during storm development and the sources of the disturbance field are explored in case of the largest geomagnetic storm in the cycle 23 (Dst = -422 nT, November 20-21, 2003), and the geographical distribution of the maximum induced surface geoelectric field over Europe by the 16 storms considered in the study is presented. As source proxies, the Dst geomagnetic index, showing the disturbed field produced by the magnetospheric ring current at the geomagnetic equator, the AL geomagnetic index, showing the disturbed field produced by the ionospheric electrojet at auroral latitude, and the PC geomagnetic index, showing the disturbed field produced by the polar cap current, were examined.

  1. Geomagnetic disturbances imprints in ground and satellite altitude observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiat, Yasmina; Lamara, Souad; Zaourar, Naima; Hamoudi, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of the geomagnetic field and its variations have been repeatedly studied from both ground observatories and near-earth orbiting platforms. With the advent of the space ageand the launches of geomagnetic low altitude orbits satellites, a global coverage has been achieved. Since Magsat mission, more satellites were put into orbit and some of them are still collecting data enhancing the spatial and temporal descriptions of the field. Our study uses new data gathered by the latest SWARM satellite mission launched on November, 22nd 2013. It consists of a constellation of three identical satellites carrying on board high resolution and accuracy scientific equipment. Data from this constellation will allow better understanding the multiscale behavior of the geomagnetic field. Our goal is to analyze and interpret the geomagnetic data collected by this Swarm mission, for a given period and try to separate the external disturbances from internal contributions. We consider in the study the variation of the horizontal component H, for different virtual geomagnetic observatories at the satellite altitude. The analysis of data by Swarm orbital segments shows clearly the external disturbances of the magnetic field like that occurring on 27th of August 2014. This perturbation is shown on geomagnetic indexes and is related to a coronal mass ejection (CME). These results from virtual observatories are confirmed, by the equivalent analysis using ground observatories data for the same geographic positions and same epochs. Key words: Geomagnetic field, external field, geomagnetic index, SWARM mission, virtual observatories.

  2. Geomagnetic anomaly detected at hydromagnetic wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloni, A.; Medford, L. V.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1985-04-01

    We report the discovery, in northwestern Illinois, of a geomagnetic anomaly, using hydromagnetic wave frequencies as the source spectrum. Three portable magnetometer stations with computer-compatible digital data acquisition systems were operated in a longitude array at Piano and Ashton, Illinois, and Cascade, Iowa (total separation ˜200 km), in 1981-1982. Analysis of the natural geomagnetic field fluctuations in the hydromagnetic wave regime reveals that the vertical components of the detected fluctuations are essentially 180° out of phase between Plano/Ashton and Cascade for variations with periods ˜30-120 s. The observations can be modeled in terms of a shallow (˜10-20 km) north-south oriented geomagnetic anomaly of enhanced conductivity located between Ashton and Cascade, approximately parallel to the Mississippi River valley.

  3. Tsunami related to solar and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2016-04-01

    The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between earthquakes of high intensity capable of generating tsunami and variations of solar and Earth's geomagnetic activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the four earthquakes of high intensity that have generated tsunamis: 1) Japan M9 earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 at 05:46 UTC; 2) Japan M7.1 earthquake occurred on October 25, 2013 at 17:10 UTC; 3) Chile M8.2 earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014 at 23:46 UTC; 4) Chile M8.3 earthquake occurred on September 16, 2015 at 22:54 UTC. The data relating to the four earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). Geomagnetic activity data were provided by Tromsø Geomagnetic Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund Geomagnetic Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark and by Space Weather Prediction Center of Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already

  4. Secular Redemptions: Biopolitics by Example.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I analyze the practices of a group of Catholic nuns who run shelters for 'victims of human trafficking' in Italy, and are thus involved in state-funded rehabilitation programs for former foreign prostitutes. This case shows how the state and the Church are deeply implicated in each other's projects of redemption and the creation of new forms of life. In Italy, the legal model for rehabilitating foreign prostitutes is avowedly secular yet also deeply shaped by a Catholic impetus to purify sinners. At the same time, however, the nuns themselves develop an understanding of redemption as a secular life-saving project in line with the state's project of recognition, and thus inscribe their practices within the biopolitical effort to transform lives. Ultimately, I argue, leading by example becomes a specific Catholic instantiation of biopolitics that characterizes both the state's and the Church's approach to foreigners. PMID:26258728

  5. Atmospheric helium and geomagnetic field reversals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.; Kern, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of the earth's helium budget is examined in the light of recent work on the interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetic planets. It is proposed that the dominant mode of helium (He4) loss is ion pumping by the solar wind during geomagnetic field reversals, when the earth's magnetic field is very small. The interaction of the solar wind with the earth's upper atmosphere during such a period is found to involve the formation of a bow shock. The penetration altitude of the shock-heated solar plasma is calculated to be about 700 km, and ionization rates above this level are estimated for a cascade ionization (electron avalanche) process to average 10 to the 9th power ions/sq cm/sec. The calculated ionization rates and the capacity of the solar wind to remove ionized helium (He4) from the upper atmosphere during geomagnetic dipole reversals are sufficient to yield a secular equilibrium over geologic time scales. The upward transport of helium from the lower atmosphere under these conditions is found to be adequate to sustain the proposed loss rate.

  6. Geomagnetic referencing in the arctic environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podjono, Benny; Beck, Nathan; Buchanan, Andrew; Brink, Jason; Longo, Joseph; Finn, Carol A.; Worthington, E. William

    2011-01-01

    Geomagnetic referencing is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to north-seeking gyroscopic surveys to achieve the precise wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs. However, the greater magnitude of variations in the geomagnetic environment at higher latitudes makes the application of geomagnetic referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise, real-time data on those variations from relatively nearby magnetic observatories can be crucial to achieving the required accuracy, but constructing and operating an observatory in these often harsh environments poses a number of significant challenges. Operational since March 2010, the Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located in Deadhorse, Alaska, was created through collaboration between the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and a leading oilfield services supply company. DED was designed to produce real-time geomagnetic data at the required level of accuracy, and to do so reliably under the extreme temperatures and harsh weather conditions often experienced in the area. The observatory will serve a number of key scientific communities as well as the oilfield drilling industry, and has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate data while offering significant cost and time savings, compared with traditional surveying techniques.

  7. Geomagnetic referencing in the arctic environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poedjono, B.; Beck, N.; Buchanan, A. C.; Brink, J.; Longo, J.; Finn, C.A.; Worthington, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    Geomagnetic referencing is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to north-seeking gyroscopic surveys to achieve the precise wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs. However, the greater magnitude of variations in the geomagnetic environment at higher latitudes makes the application of geomagnetic referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise, real-time data on those variations from relatively nearby magnetic observatories can be crucial to achieving the required accuracy, but constructing and operating an observatory in these often harsh environments poses a number of significant challenges. Operational since March 2010, the Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located in Deadhorse, Alaska, was created through collaboration between the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and a leading oilfield services supply company. DED was designed to produce real-time geomagnetic data at the required level of accuracy, and to do so reliably under the extreme temperatures and harsh weather conditions often experienced in the area. The observatory will serve a number of key scientific communities as well as the oilfield drilling industry, and has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate data while offering significant cost and time savings, compared with traditional surveying techniques. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  8. Studies on the Geomagnetic Induction Vectors of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Huiqian; Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the geomagnetic data of 16 stations, near 6 years for most, provided by the National Geomagnetic Center of China, were used to study on the geomagnetic induction vectors. The stations cover the whole North China and part of southwestern China, both of which has a complicate geological and tectonic background. This study will not only advance the understanding of regional tectonic variations, but also provide some suggestions on the construction for geomagnetic observation network of earthquake monitoring. The time series of geomagnetic induction vectors were obtained by the robust estimation method, which has been verified and compared with the ordinary least square and the weighted square method. A principle of selecting a specified period's results from the robust estimation method was defined. Then, the results with the period of 640s for all stations were selected by this principle. The long-term trends (more than six months at least) within the time series were extracted by the Fourier harmonic analysis. Consistent phase variations exist for most stations within a similar tectonic background. About one-month period variations in the most stations' results after removing the long-term trends were found. Spectrum analysis for the results and geomagnetic activity index showed that those phenomena may relate to the period of the global geomagnetic activity. A preference azimuth of the geomagnetic induction vectors was found in each station by statistical analysis on the time series. It pointed out the possible relatively high conductivity structures. Exactly, geomagnetic vectors of BJI, JIH, LYH and TAY station, which surround the basin of North China, suggested a relatively higher conductivity layer; that of stations around the Erdos block suggested a complicated structure. Three-dimension inversion by ModEM verifies our results.

  9. Vertical total electron content and geomagnetic perturbations at mid- and sub-auroral southern latitudes during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Amalia; Andrea van Zele, María; Claudio, Brunini; Rosalía Cabassi, Iris

    2005-03-01

    Several new space geodesy techniques allow us to analyze the behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) with high spatial and temporal resolution. This study is based on the VTEC computed from global positioning system (GPS) satellite signals that are recorded from observatories located at mid- and sub-auroral southern latitudes. The geomagnetic disturbances are analyzed using the Dst and AL geomagnetic indices and geomagnetic field variations which are recorded from an observatory close to one of the GPS stations and from observatories located at equivalent geomagnetic latitudes but in the Northern Hemisphere. The study is focused on two consecutive geomagnetic storms, which happened on October 4 and 5, 2000, characterized by two flips of the interplanetary magnetic field. During this perturbed period, the substorms are evidenced by the AL index and by the field variations recorded by the geomagnetic observatories. We also analyze a substorm effect that occurred during a geomagnetic storm. Variations in f0F2 are currently considered to study the geomagnetic storm effects on the ionosphere. Our results show that at mid- and subauroral southern latitudes the behavior of the VTEC evidences the “dusk” effect (positive ionospheric storm after noon) in a similar way to f0F2 variations. Similar geomagnetic conditions can be inferred from the Dst index for both geomagnetic storms but a quick rise of the VTEC and the dusk effect is only observed on the first stormy day. The positive ionospheric storm is followed by a negative phase that lasts until October 6. The second geomagnetic storm starts when the negative phase of the first ionospheric storm is still deployed and the ionosphere/plasmasphere system conditions do not allow a new positive ionospheric storm. The AL index and the geomagnetic field variations allow us to recognize the expansion phase of the substorm due to the presence of the electromagnetic wedge that couples the magnetosphere and

  10. Simulation Of Fluctuating Geomagnetic Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John; Tabor, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model produces synthetic geomagnetic-index (ap) data including short-term fluctuations like those of real ap data. Measures geomagnetic activity computed from measurements of fluctuations in geomagnetic field taken at 12 high-latitude stations every 3 hours. Used in studies of interactions between solar wind and Earth, especially in studies of effect of geomagnetic field upon heating of thermosphere by impacts of energetic charged solar-wind particles.

  11. An assessment of ENSO-scale secular variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.L.; Ropelewski, C.F.

    1995-06-01

    Secular changes in the spatial and temporal structures of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle using four different versions of global sea surface temperature (SST) analysis are examined. The assessments were made for both multidecadal climate means and multidecadal measures of variability by separating the SST variations into low-frequency components. The reliability of these estimates is also addressed. This study substantiates a conceptual framework that views the multidecadal, low-frequency variations as a varying climate {open_quotes}base state{close_quotes} upon which ENSO-scale variability is superposed. The secular changes of the climate base state were quantified both in space and in time. The analysis suggests that multidecadal SST variability has been concentrated in the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean Basins. The Pacific is dominated by the ENSO-scale variability. The analyses reveal that variations in the climate base state and ENSO-scale variability were positively correlated; that is, ENSO-scale variability is higher (lower) when the climate mean SST is relatively warmer (colder). However, the quantification of secular changes of the ENSO-scale variability was found to be sensitive to the particular SST analysis used. Therefore, the conclusions from this study are subject to further verification by using more variables and longer records. 18 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Geomagnetic field fluctuations at synchronous orbit. II - Radial diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Webb, D. C.; Arthur, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Power spectra of geomagnetic-field variations measured at synchronous equatorial altitude (geomagnetic shell parameter about 6.6) in the magnetosphere are used to calculate the time dependence of the radial diffusion coefficient for particles in the radiation belts. The diffusion coefficients calculated are mainly applicable for relativistic electrons. The magnitudes of the derived diffusion coefficients using data only from local day observations are consistent with those reported from analyses of most particle observations and thus are slightly larger than those derived from magnetic sudden commencements. They are consistent with the diffusion coefficients calculated from power spectra of ground-based geomagnetic data measured near L = 4.

  13. Estimation of interplanetary electric field conditions for historical geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Veenadhari, B.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Selvakumaran, R.; Mukherjee, Shyamoli; Singh, Rajesh; Kadam, B. D.

    2015-09-01

    Ground magnetic measurements provide a unique database in understanding space weather. The continuous geomagnetic records from Colaba-Alibag observatories in India contain historically longest and continuous observations from 1847 to present date. Some of the super intense geomagnetic storms that occurred prior to 1900 have been revisited and investigated in order to understand the probable interplanetary conditions associated with intense storms. Following Burton et al. (1975), an empirical relationship is derived for estimation of interplanetary electric field (IEFy) from the variations of Dst index and ΔH at Colaba-Alibag observatories. The estimated IEFy values using Dst and ΔHABG variations agree well with the observed IEFy, calculated using Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite observations for intense geomagnetic storms in solar cycle 23. This study will provide the uniqueness of each event and provide important insights into possible interplanetary conditions for intense geomagnetic storms and probable frequency of their occurrence.

  14. Electron and ion density variation below 4000 km along the L~2 flux tube as a function of geomagnetic activity: A study using whistler mode echoes observed by RPI/IMAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, A.; Sonwalkar, V. S.

    2012-12-01

    Whistler mode (WM) echoes observed by RPI/IMAGE were used to study the electron and ion density variation along the L~2 flux tube from 90 km to ~4000 km during the period from Aug 30 to Sep 09, 2005. This interval included the onset, main phase, and recovery period of a major (7-geomagnetic storms. WM echoes were observed on almost every IMAGE orbit (14.2 hr orbital period) at L~2 and at ~ 14 MLT before, during, and after the geomagnetic storms. A nominal quiet time density model (both electron and ion) along the geomagnetic filed line was obtained as a reference by analyzing WM echoes observed before and after the storms during quiet time ( Kp≤2, -20 nTvariation of electron and ion densities was also observed after the moderate storms on Sep

  15. Effects of magnetic fields produced by simulated and real geomagnetic storms on rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we report experiments of arterial pressure (AP) measurements of ten Wistar rats subjected to geomagnetic field changes and to artificially stimulated magnetic field variations. Environmental electromagnetic effects were screened using a semianechoic chamber, which allowed us to discern the effects associated with geomagnetic storms. We stimulated the subjects with a linear magnetic profile constructed from the average changes of sudden storm commencement (SSC) and principal phases of geomagnetic storms measured between 1996 and 2008 with Dst ⩽ -100 nT. Although we found no statistically significant AP variations, statistically significant AP changes were found when a geomagnetic storm occurred during the experimental period. Using the observed geomagnetic storm variations to construct a geomagnetic profile to stimulate the rats, we found that the geomagnetic field variations associated to the SSC day were capable of increasing the subjects AP between 7% and 9% from the reference value. Under this magnetic variation, the subjects presented a notably restless behavior not seen under other conditions. We conclude that even very small changes in the geomagnetic field associated with a geomagnetic storm can produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response.

  16. Can core flows inferred from geomagnetic field models explain the Earth's dynamo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, N.; Silva, E. Lora; Pais, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    We test the ability of large-scale velocity fields inferred from geomagnetic secular variation data to produce the global magnetic field of the Earth. Our kinematic dynamo calculations use quasi-geostrophic (QG) flows inverted from geomagnetic field models which, as such, incorporate flow structures that are Earth-like and may be important for the geodynamo. Furthermore, the QG hypothesis allows straightforward prolongation of the flow from the core surface to the bulk. As expected from previous studies, we check that a simple QG flow is not able to sustain the magnetic field against ohmic decay. Additional complexity is then introduced in the flow, inspired by the action of the Lorentz force. Indeed, on centennial timescales, the Lorentz force can balance the Coriolis force and strict quasi-geostrophy may not be the best ansatz. When our columnar flow is modified to account for the action of the Lorentz force, magnetic field is generated for Elsasser numbers larger than 0.25 and magnetic Reynolds numbers larger than 100. This suggests that our large-scale flow captures the relevant features for the generation of the Earth's magnetic field and that the invisible small-scale flow may not be directly involved in this process. Near the threshold, the resulting magnetic field is dominated by an axial dipole, with some reversed flux patches. Time dependence is also considered, derived from principal component analysis applied to the inverted flows. We find that time periods from 120 to 50 yr do not affect the mean growth rate of the kinematic dynamos. Finally, we note that the footprint of the inner core in the magnetic field generated deep in the bulk of the shell, although we did not include one in our computations.

  17. High-resolution record of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion at the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Mark D.; Mac Niocaill, Conall; Thomas, Alex L.; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2013-12-01

    Geomagnetic excursions are brief deviations of the geomagnetic field from behaviour expected during `normal secular' variation. The Laschamp excursion at ˜41 ka was one such deviation. Previously published records suggest rapid changes in field direction and a concurrent substantial decrease in field intensity associated with this excursion. Accurate dating of excursions, and determination of their durations from multiple locations, is vital to our understanding of global field behaviour during these deviations. We present here high-resolution palaeomagnetic records of the Laschamp excursion obtained from two Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites, 1061 and 1062 on the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge (ODP Leg 172). High sedimentation rates (˜30-40 cm kyr-1) at these locations allow determination of transitional field behaviour during the excursion. Palaeomagnetic measurements of discrete samples from four cores reveal a single excursional feature, across an interval of 30 cm, associated with a broader palaeointensity low. We determine the age and duration of the Laschamp excursion using a stratigraphy linked to the δ18O record from the Greenland ice cores. This chronology dates the Laschamp excursion at the Blake Ridge to 41.3 ka. The excursion is characterized by rapid transitions (less than 200 yr) between stable normal polarity and a partially reversed polarity state. The palaeointensity record is in good agreement between the two sites, revealing two prominent minima. The first minimum is associated with the Laschamp excursion at 41 ka and the second corresponds to the Mono Lake excursion at ˜35.5 ka. We determine that the directional excursion during the Laschamp at this location was no longer than ˜400 yr, occurring within a palaeointensity minimum that lasted 2000 yr. The Laschamp excursion at this location is much shorter in duration than the Blake and Iceland Basin excursions.

  18. Geomagnetism and climate V: general conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, N.-A.; Nevanlinna, H.; Dergachev, V.; Shumilov, O.; Raspopov, O.; Abrahamsen, N.; Pilipenko, O.; Trubikhin, V.; Gooskova, E.

    2003-04-01

    The shielding capacity of the Earth’s geomagnetic field is a prime factor regulating the flux into the atmosphere of galactic cosmic ray (in its turn controlling the 14C and 10Be production). This shielding capacity is controlled both by the Earth’s own geomagnetic field variability and by the Solar Wind variations. The Solar Wind interaction with the magnetosphere also affects the Earth’s rate of rotation (as recorded in the correlation between LOD and Sunspot activity). This opens for three possible lines of Solar Terrestrial interaction. (1) Changes in the total irradiance (known to be very small, however, over a full sun spot cycle). (2) Changes in cosmic ray flux reaching into the Earth’s atmosphere where it has the potential of affecting airglow and cloudiness (especially the cloudiness at a height in the order of 15 km). (3) Changes in the Earth’s rate of rotation affecting the oceanic circulation redistributing ocean-stored heat and water masses. The Spörer, Maunder and Dalton sun spot minima seem all to have led to periods of rotational acceleration pulling Arctic water down the European coasts and displacing the warm Gulf Stream towards Gibraltar. The geomagnetic field as regulator of cosmic ray flux and rotational potential is likely to have played a significant role even over longer time periods. It should be noted, however, the geometry of the Earth’s geomagnetic field cannot have differed very much due to frozen plasma conditions even at excursions and reversals. If the recorded sunspot and geomagnetic cycles are extrapolated into the future they predict a new low (“Little Ice Age”) in the years 2050 2100 (i.e. a scenario very different from that presented by IPCC). Our study of the relation between geomagnetism and climate has shown that geomagnetic field changes have played an important role in modulation Earth’s climate. These changes may originate from internal planetary sources (i.e. the Earth’s own geomagnetic field) as well

  19. On Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1998-01-01

    A statistical description of Earth's broad scale, core-source magnetic field has been developed and tested. The description features an expected, or mean, spatial magnetic power spectrum that is neither "flat" nor "while" at any depth, but is akin to spectra advanced by Stevenson and McLeod. This multipole spectrum describes the magnetic energy range; it is not steep enough for Gubbins' magnetic dissipation range. Natural variations of core multipole powers about their mean values are to be expected over geologic time and are described via trial probability distribution functions that neither require nor prohibit magnetic isotropy. The description is thus applicable to core-source dipole and low degree non-dipole fields despite axial dipole anisotropy. The description is combined with main field models of modem satellite and surface geomagnetic measurements to make testable predictions of: (1) the radius of Earth's core, (2) mean paleomagnetic field intensity, and (3) the mean rates and durations of both dipole power excursions and durable axial dipole reversals. The predicted core radius is 0.7% above the 3480 km seismologic value. The predicted root mean square paleointensity (35.6 mu T) and mean Virtual Axial Dipole Moment (about 6.2 lx 1022 Am(exp 2)) are within the range of various mean paleointensity estimates. The predicted mean rate of dipole power excursions, as defined by an absolute dipole moment <20% of the 1980 value, is 9.04/Myr and 14% less than obtained by analysis of a 4 Myr paleointensity record. The predicted mean rate of durable axial dipole reversals (2.26/Myr) is 2.3% more than established by the polarity time-scale for the past 84 Myr. The predicted mean duration of axial dipole reversals (5533 yr) is indistinguishable from an observational value. The accuracy of these predictions demonstrates the power and utility of the description, which is thought to merit further development and testing. It is suggested that strong stable stratification

  20. Asteroid Secular Resonant Proper Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    1993-09-01

    A practical algorithm for the computation of the dynamic evolution of asteroids which are inside or close to a secular resonance has been developed. The results are checked with many numerical simulations of both real and fictitious objects. These tests prove that the algorithm is able to identify the dynamic nature of resonant objects and distinguish between future planet crossers and regular bodies. The short CPU time necessary for its execution makes it a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of meteorite transport to the inner Solar System. For this purpose, the sets of initial conditions which lead to large eccentricity in the v6 secular resonance are identified. Finally, the dynamic behavior of 44 numbered asteroids very close to the v6 resonance is analyzed. Only 4 of these asteroids are found in regions dangerous for their stability. A few others become temporary Mars crossers. The rest of them, as 6 Hebe, have a moderate eccentricity during all their quasi-periodic dynamic evolution.

  1. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, William J.

    Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the geomagnetic field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. Geomagnetism, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of geomagnetism is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of geomagnetic topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.

  2. Secularism, Criticism, and Religious Studies Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Secularization, the idea that religion would gradually diminish over time, was once widely assumed to be true by scholars of religion, but the unexpected resurgence of religious traditions has called it into question. Related debates on the distinction between religion and the secular have destabilized religious studies further. What does the…

  3. [Nursing care at home and secularism].

    PubMed

    Lecointre, Brigitte

    2015-12-01

    The question of secularism, long-time confined to schools and the relationships between the Church and State, is today being raised in the field of public health. Nurses are directly affected and are integrating this dimension of secularism into their care practices. A private practice nurse describes the effect these changes are having on her practice in patients' homes. PMID:26654502

  4. Unsafe Gods: Security, Secularism and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This book makes the compelling argument that religion can be complicit in conflict and that a new secularism is vital to foster security. Using insights from complexity science, it shows how dynamic secularism can be used to accommodate diverse faiths and beliefs within worldly politics. Exploration of the interplay of religion and education in…

  5. The Secular University and Its Critics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobani, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Universities in the USA have become bastions of secularity in a distinctly religious society. As such, they are subjected to a variety of robust and rigorous religious critiques. In this paper I do not seek to engage in the debate between the supporters of the secular university and its opponents. Furthermore, I do not claim to summarize the…

  6. Geomagnetic activity and Hale sector boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundstedt, H.; Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The variation of the geomagnetic activity index Ap at the IMF sector boundaries (+ to - and - to +) has been studied for three solar cycles, separating data into vernal and autumnal equinoxes. It was found that a reported increase in Ap as an effect of a Hale boundary can be better attributed to the occurrence of a negative IMF Bz component in the geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinate system and to the occurrence of high speed solar wind streams.

  7. Range indices of geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, W.F.; Green, A.W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest index of geomagnetic activity is the range in nT from maximum to minimum value of the field in a given time interval. The hourly range R was recommended by IAGA for use at observatories at latitudes greater than 65??, but was superceded by AE. The most used geomagnetic index K is based on the range of activity in a 3 h interval corrected for the regular daily variation. In order to take advantage of real time data processing, now available at many observatories, it is proposed to introduce a 1 h range index and also a 3 h range index. Both will be computed hourly, i.e. each will have a series of 24 per day, the 3 h values overlapping. The new data will be available as the range (R) of activity in nT and also as a logarithmic index (I) of the range. The exponent relating index to range in nT is based closely on the scale used for computing K values. The new ranges and range indices are available, from June 1987, to users in real time and can be accessed by telephone connection or computer network. Their first year of production is regarded as a trial period during which their value to the scientific and commercial communities will be assessed, together with their potential as indicators of regional and global disturbances' and in which trials will be conducted into ways of eliminating excessive bias at quiet times due to the rate of change of the daily variation field. ?? 1988.

  8. Beryllium isotopes as tracers of Lake Lisan (last Glacial Dead Sea) hydrology and the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmaker, Reuven; Stein, Mordechai; Beer, Jürg; Christl, Marcus; Fink, David; Lazar, Boaz

    2014-08-01

    The content of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be (t1/2=1.39 Ma) in lacustrine sediments that deposit in lakes with a large watershed is susceptible to both climate and cosmogenic production rate variations. In order to distinguish between these two controls, we measured 10Be and major elements in several sections of the annually laminated sediments of the Lake Lisan (the last Glacial precursor of the Dead Sea) that are composed of detrital sediments and primary (evaporitic) aragonites. The sections were selected to represent regional hydrology and climate as reflected by different lake configurations (level rise, drop and high-stands) and rapid change in the 10Be production rate during the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion. Since the short-lived cosmogenic “sister” of 10Be, 7Be (t1/2=53.3 d) has virtually no recycled component, the recycled 10Be in Lake Lisan detrital sediments was evaluated by measuring 7Be in their modern equivalents: modern flood suspended matter, dust and mud cracks. Our results demonstrate that although the recycled 10Be component is significant, secular variations in the 10Be concentration in Lake Lisan sediments correlate with hydrological variations and geomagnetic excursions. During periods of moderate variations in 10Be production rate, the 10Be concentration in the Lisan detrital sediments positively correlates with lake level, Al + Fe content and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. These correlations suggest that the 10Be is adsorbed on the fine silicate component (probably clays) of the detrital laminae. The fine silicates together with carbonates were transported to Dead Sea drainage basin mainly as airborne dust that after a short residence time was washed into Lake Lisan as flood suspended matter. We suggest that preferential dissolution of carbonates in the flood suspended matter concentrated the residual fine component leading to the positive correlation between 10Be and the (Al + Fe)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. During periods of increased water

  9. Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.; Putman, Nathan F.; Lohmann, Catherine M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure. PMID:19060188

  10. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  11. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  12. Foundations of Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andy

    The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or geomagnetism, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of Geomagnetism? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.

  13. Automated detection of geomagnetic storms with heightened risk of GIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Rachel L.; Leonhardt, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Automated detection of geomagnetic storms is of growing importance to operators of technical infrastructure (e.g., power grids, satellites), which is susceptible to damage caused by the consequences of geomagnetic storms. In this study, we compare three methods for automated geomagnetic storm detection: a method analyzing the first derivative of the geomagnetic variations, another looking at the Akaike information criterion, and a third using multi-resolution analysis of the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform of the variations. These detection methods are used in combination with an algorithm for the detection of coronal mass ejection shock fronts in ACE solar wind data prior to the storm arrival on Earth as an additional constraint for possible storm detection. The maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform is found to be the most accurate of the detection methods. The final storm detection software, implementing analysis of both satellite solar wind and geomagnetic ground data, detects 14 of 15 more powerful geomagnetic storms over a period of 2 years.

  14. Globally strong geomagnetic field intensity circa 3000 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hoabin; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Ran Hee; Park, Jingyu; Doh, Seong-Jae; Kim, Wonnyon; Sung, Hyongmi

    2013-12-01

    High-fidelity geomagnetic field intensity determination was carried out using 191 baked fragments collected from 20 kilns or hearths with ages ranging between ∼1200 BC and ∼AD 1725 in South Korea. Geomagnetic field intensity variation displayed three narrow minima at ∼800-700 BC, ∼AD 700, and ∼AD 1600 and two maxima at ∼1200-1100 BC and ∼AD 1000-1100. In most time intervals, virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) variation is confined within 20% of the present VADM. However, geomagnetic field intensity circa 3000 yr ago is nearly 40% larger than the present value. Such high VADMs circa 3000 yr ago are in phase with those in other longitudinal bands in northern hemisphere centered at 5E (France), 30E (the Middle East) and 200E (Hawaii). Although strong geomagnetic field intensity circa 3000 yr ago is globally synchronous, the highest VADM occurs at slightly different time intervals in different locations. Hence it is possible that the globally strong geomagnetic field intensity circa 3000 yr ago reflects the migration of persistent hemispheric flux in northern hemisphere or an episode of geomagnetic field hemispheric asymmetry.

  15. Geomagnetic storm environments and effects on electrical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Barnes, P.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the behavior of the earth's magnetic field during a geomagnetic storm. Temporal variations of the B-field on the earths surface can induce an electric field in the earth, and this E-field will induce currents to flow in long, grounded conductors. Previous experience with geomagnetic storms indicates that such geomagnetically-induced currents can cause damage to power system components, and at times, can cause power blackouts. This paper presents some recently measured geomagnetic field variations, and illustrates how the induced electric field can be calculated, assuming a simple model of the imperfectly conducting earth. This calculation may be performed either in the time or in the frequency domain. Approximations to the time dependence of the geomagnetic field permit an analytical evaluation of the corresponding E-field in the earth, and this results in a simple expression for the transient Enfield. A knowledge of this Enfield is important in understanding the effects of geomagnetic storms on the power system, and in devising protection methods.

  16. Studying geomagnetic pulsation characteristics with the local approximation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getmanov, V. G.; Dabagyan, R. A.; Sidorov, R. V.

    2016-03-01

    A local approximation method based on piecewise sinusoidal models has been proposed in order to study the frequency and amplitude characteristics of geomagnetic pulsations registered at a network of magnetic observatories. It has been established that synchronous variations in the geomagnetic pulsation frequency in the specified frequency band can be studied with the use of calculations performed according to this method. The method was used to analyze the spectral-time structure of Pc3 geomagnetic pulsations registered at the network of equatorial observatories. Local approximation variants have been formed for single-channel and multichannel cases of estimating the geomagnetic pulsation frequency and amplitude, which made it possible to decrease estimation errors via filtering with moving weighted averaging.

  17. On regional geomagnetic charts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author

  18. Geomagnetism. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The latest attempt to summarise the wealth of knowledge now available on geomagnetic phenomena has resulted in this multi-volume treatise, with contributions and reviews from many scientists. The first volume in the series contains a thorough review of all existing information on measuring the Earth's magnetic field, both on land and at sea, and includes a comparative analysis of the techniques available for this purpose.

  19. Spiking the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, C.; Davies, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic field intensities corresponding to virtual axial dipole moments of up to 200 ZAm2, more than twice the modern value, have been inferred from archeomagnetic measurements on artifacts dated at or shortly after 1000 BC. Anomalously high values occur in the Levant and Georgia, but not in Bulgaria. The origin of this spike is believed to lie in Earth's core: however, its spatio-temporal characteristics and the geomagnetic processes responsible for such a feature remain a mystery. We show that a localized spike in the radial magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) must necessarily contribute to the largest scale changes in Earth's surface field, namely the dipole. Even the limiting spike of a delta function at the CMB produces a minimum surface cap size of 60 degrees for a factor of two increase in paleointensity. Combined evidence from modern satellite and millennial scale field modeling suggests that the Levantine Spike is intimately associated with a strong increase in dipole moment prior to 1000 BC and likely the product of north-westward motion of concentrated near equatorial Asian flux patches like those seen in the modern field. New archeomagnetic studies are needed to confirm this interpretation. Minimum estimates of the power dissipated by the spike are comparable to independent estimates of the dissipation associated with the entire steady state geodynamo. This suggests that geomagnetic spikes are either associated with rapid changes in magnetic energy or strong Lorentz forces.

  20. On extreme geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Extreme geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.

  1. Geomagnetic activity effect on the global ionosphere during the 2007-2009 deep solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiding; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Wan, Weixing

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the significant effect of weaker geomagnetic activity during the 2007-2009 deep solar minimum on ionospheric variability on the shorter-term time scales of several days was highlighted via investigating the response of daily mean global electron content (GEC, the global area integral of total electron content derived from ground-based GPS measurements) to geomagnetic activity index Ap. Based on a case during the deep solar minimum, the effect of the recurrent weaker geomagnetic disturbances on the ionosphere was evident. Statistical analyses indicate that the effect of weaker geomagnetic activity on GEC variations on shorter-term time scales was significant during 2007-2009 even under relatively quiet geomagnetic activity condition; daily mean GEC was positively correlated with geomagnetic activity. However, GEC variations on shorter-term time scales were poorly correlated with geomagnetic activity during the solar cycle descending phase of 2003-2005 except under strong geomagnetic disturbance condition. Statistically, the effects of solar EUV irradiance, geomagnetic activity, and other factors (e.g., meteorological sources) on GEC variations on shorter-term time scales were basically equivalent during the 2007-2009 solar minimum.

  2. Paleomagnetic studies of volcanic rocks in Siberia and sedimentary rocks in Southern Alberta: From long-term geomagnetic field variations to age determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Acuna, Dunia

    Paleomagnetism is a fundamental tool to understand the ancient variations of Earth's magnetic field through time. Important applications to geochronology and paleography come from interpreting the variations of the planetary magnetic vector. This dissertation explores the different applications of paleomagnetism to uncover important characteristics of the paleointensity magnetic field during the Permo-Triassic boundary and the nature of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Siberia, and to create geochronological frameworks for kimberlites in the Siberian platform and for sediments at the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Detailed absolute paleointensity measurements from Permo-Triassic sills at the Siberian platform are studied to determine the existence of a low dipole field, which has been previously reported in the area. We found a mean virtual dipolar moment value of 6.01 +/- 1.45 x 1022 Am 2 which is over 50% higher than the results previously obtained by other authors. Diamondiferous kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. The age of the magmatic activity cannot be clearly determined from isotopic age data---this is the reason why new paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes are obtained to study their paleomagnetic age. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian APWP, we estimate the age of the kimberlite magmatism. The acquired paleomagnetic ages span from the Early Silurian to the Middle Late Jurassic. Magnetostratigraphic analysis is used as a dating tool on three deep drilling cores that penetrate Santonian-Campanian strata in southern Alberta, Canada. Chrons 34n and 33r are clearly identified from the studied sections---providing a high-resolution age boundary that creates new age boundaries between adjacent stratigraphic units. In addition, normal polarity zones are observed within C33r, previously described as reverse polarity over its entire length. Siberian APWP contains long unresolved

  3. The national geomagnetic initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  4. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  5. Geomagnetic survey and geomagnetic model research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zuowen; Zhan, Zhijia; Gao, Jintian; Han, Wei; An, Zhenchang; Yao, Tongqi; Chen, Bin

    2006-06-01

    The geomagnetic survey at 135 stations in China were carried out in 2003. These stations are with better environmental condition and small magnetic field gradient (<5 nT/m). In the field survey, the geomagnetic declination D, the inclination I and the total intensity F were measured. Ashtech ProMark2 differential GPS (Global Positioning System) was used in measuring the azimuth, the longitude, the latitude and the elevation at these stations. The accuracy of the azimuth is 0.1'. The geomagnetic survey data were reduced using the data at geomagnetic observatories in China. The mean standard deviations of the geomagnetic reduced values are: <1.5 nT for F, <0.5' for D and I. Using the geomagnetic data which include the data at 135 stations and 35 observatories in China, and the data at 38 IGRF (International Geomagnetic Reference Field) calculation points in China's adjacent regions, the Taylor polynomial model and the spherical cap harmonic model were calculated for the geomagnetic field in China. The truncation order of the Taylor polynomial model is 5, and its original point is at 36.0°N and 104.5°E. Based on the geomagnetic anomalous values and using the method of spherical cap harmonic (SCH) analysis, the SCH model of the geomagnetic anomalous field was derived. In the SCH model, the pole of the spherical cap is at 36.0°N and 104.5°E, and the half-angle is 30°, the truncation order K= 8 is determined according to the mean square deviation between the model calculation value and the observation value, the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) and the distribution of geomagnetic field.

  6. The use of the McIlwain L-parameter to estimate cosmic ray vertical cutoff rigidities for different epochs of the geomagnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Gentile, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    Secular changes in the geomagnetic field between 1955 and 1980 have been large enough to produce significant differences in both the verical cutoff rigidities and in the L-value for a specified position. A useful relationship employing the McIlwain L-parameter to estimate vertical cutoff rigidities has been derived for the twenty-five year period.

  7. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Pignatelli, A.; Speranza, F.; Meloni, A.

    2011-06-01

    Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleo)secular variation ((P)SV) are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional dataset, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination measurements, respectively, carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via the virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E), the rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method) by French data (for period 1670-1789), and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640-1657 and 1790-1962). Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19° yr-1 westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000) and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009). However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933-1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yield the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600-1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by Jackson et al. (2000) yields more

  8. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ajello Caracciolo, F.; Pignatelli, A.; Speranza, F.; Meloni, A.

    2011-12-01

    Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleo)secular variation ((P)SV) are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional data set, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination (respectively) measurements carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8°N, 15.2°E), rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method) by French data (for period 1670-1789), and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640-1657 and 1790-1962). Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46±0.19 °/yr westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000) and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009). However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933-1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yields the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600-1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by Jackson et al. (2000) yields more accurate

  9. Holocene records of geomagnetic field behavior from a north-south transect along the western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, S. A.; Shah, D. P.; St-Onge, M.; St-Onge, G.

    2013-12-01

    Geochronology is inherently difficult when working with Antarctic margin sediments. Radiocarbon dating and oxygen isotope stratigraphy are challenging or impossible in sites with poor preservation of biogenic calcite. Radiocarbon dating of the acid insoluble organic matter (AIOM) is further complicated by organically lean sediment and the presence of reworked organic carbon or detrital carbon from sedimentary rocks. These complications limit the ability to interpret a paleoclimate record. Geomagnetic paleointensity dating is a proven 'tuning' technique that has been successfully applied in several studies around the Antarctic margin. However, the reference curves to which these sites were tuned were constructed primarily from Northern Hemisphere data. Here we present paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity (RPI) data from three Antarctic Peninsula sites that possess independent chronologies and which have moderate to ultra-high sedimentation rates (40 - 700 cm/ka). Maxwell Bay, located in the volcanic South Shetland Islands, is an ultra-high-resolution site with strongly magnetic sediments from which the Shallow Drilling (SHALDRIL) program recovered a 108-m record spanning the last 14 ka. Outer Barilari Bay and Hugo Island Trough, which lie to the South along the western Antarctic Peninsula, are moderate resolution sites with a high proportion of biogenic silica. Maxwell Bay and Bariliari Bay are unique in that they possess homogenous sediment and uniform magnetic mineral assemblages, while also preserving biogenic calcite, a rare combination on the Antarctic margin. All three sites preserve strong, stable remanent magnetizations with an easily isolated characteristic component and MAD values generally < 2°, with the exception of turbidites, intervals with abundant dropstones, and biosiliceous ooze intervals. Inclination values fluctuate between the present-day value at the cores sites (-58°) and the geomagnetic axial dipole inclination

  10. Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr - Part 1: A new geomagnetic data composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, M.; Barnard, L.; Nevanlinna, H.; Owens, M. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rouillard, A. P.; Davis, C. J.

    2013-11-01

    We present a new composite of geomagnetic activity which is designed to be as homogeneous in its construction as possible. This is done by only combining data that, by virtue of the locations of the source observatories used, have similar responses to solar wind and IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) variations. This will enable us (in Part 2, Lockwood et al., 2013a) to use the new index to reconstruct the interplanetary magnetic field, B, back to 1846 with a full analysis of errors. Allowance is made for the effects of secular change in the geomagnetic field. The composite uses interdiurnal variation data from Helsinki for 1845-1890 (inclusive) and 1893-1896 and from Eskdalemuir from 1911 to the present. The gaps are filled using data from the Potsdam (1891-1892 and 1897-1907) and the nearby Seddin observatories (1908-1910) and intercalibration achieved using the Potsdam-Seddin sequence. The new index is termed IDV(1d) because it employs many of the principles of the IDV index derived by Svalgaard and Cliver (2010), inspired by the u index of Bartels (1932); however, we revert to using one-day (1d) means, as employed by Bartels, because the use of near-midnight values in IDV introduces contamination by the substorm current wedge auroral electrojet, giving noise and a dependence on solar wind speed that varies with latitude. The composite is compared with independent, early data from European-sector stations, Greenwich, St Petersburg, Parc St Maur, and Ekaterinburg, as well as the composite u index, compiled from 2-6 stations by Bartels, and the IDV index of Svalgaard and Cliver. Agreement is found to be extremely good in all cases, except two. Firstly, the Greenwich data are shown to have gradually degraded in quality until new instrumentation was installed in 1915. Secondly, we infer that the Bartels u index is increasingly unreliable before about 1886 and overestimates the solar cycle amplitude between 1872 and 1883 and this is amplified in the proxy data used

  11. Theory of Secular Chaos and Mercury's Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2011-09-01

    We study the chaotic orbital evolution of planetary systems, focusing on secular (i.e., orbit-averaged) interactions, which dominate on long timescales. We first focus on the evolution of a test particle that is forced by multiple planets. To linear order in eccentricity and inclination, its orbit precesses with constant frequencies. But nonlinearities modify the frequencies, and can shift them into and out of resonance with either the planets' eigenfrequencies (forming eccentricity or inclination secular resonances), or with linear combinations of those frequencies (forming mixed high-order secular resonances). The overlap of these nonlinear secular resonances drives secular chaos. We calculate the locations and widths of nonlinear secular resonances, display them together on a newly developed map (the "map of the mean momenta"), and find good agreement between analytical and numerical results. This map also graphically demonstrates how chaos emerges from overlapping secular resonances. We then apply this newfound understanding to Mercury to elucidate the origin of its orbital chaos. We find that since Mercury's two free precession frequencies (in eccentricity and inclination) lie within ~25% of two other eigenfrequencies in the solar system (those of the Jupiter-dominated eccentricity mode and the Venus-dominated inclination mode), secular resonances involving these four modes overlap and cause Mercury's chaos. We confirm this with N-body integrations by showing that a slew of these resonant angles alternately librate and circulate. Our new analytical understanding allows us to calculate the criterion for Mercury to become chaotic: Jupiter and Venus must have eccentricity and inclination of a few percent. The timescale for Mercury's chaotic diffusion depends sensitively on the forcing. As it is, Mercury appears to be perched on the threshold for chaos, with an instability timescale comparable to the lifetime of the solar system.

  12. Geomagnetic activity and polar surface air temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, A.; Randall, C. E.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rozanov, E.; Rodger, C. J.

    2009-10-01

    Here we use the ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level air temperature data sets from 1957 to 2006 to examine polar temperature variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the A p index. Previous modeling work has suggested that NO x produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in surface air temperatures (SATs). We find that during winter months, polar SATs in years with high A p index are different than in years with low A p index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, depending on location. The temperature differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are excluded. We take into account solar irradiance variations, unlike previous analyses of geomagnetic effects in ERA-40 and operational data. Although we cannot conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating wintertime surface air temperatures. We tested our SAT results against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode, and we cannot robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface temperature variability and geomagnetic activity.

  13. The Incidence and Management of Conflicts in Secular and Non-Secular Tertiary Institutions in South West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayodele, Joseph Babatola; Adewumi, Joseph Olukayode

    2007-01-01

    This paper compared the incidence and management of conflicts in secular and non-secular tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The sample of this study was made of sixty staff, and two hundred and forty students randomly selected each from two secular and two non-secular tertiary institutions in south western Nigeria. A validated questionnaire was…

  14. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms

    PubMed Central

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-01-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<−100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3–6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow. PMID:26167429

  15. Evolution of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity Indices, and Their Relationship: 1960 - 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanac, G.; Mandea, M.; Vršnak, B.; Sentic, S.

    2011-07-01

    We employ annually averaged solar and geomagnetic activity indices for the period 1960 - 2001 to analyze the relationship between different measures of solar activity as well as the relationship between solar activity and various aspects of geomagnetic activity. In particular, to quantify the solar activity we use the sunspot number R s, group sunspot number R g, cumulative sunspot area Cum, solar radio flux F10.7, and interplanetary magnetic field strength IMF. For the geomagnetic activity we employ global indices Ap, Dst and Dcx, as well as the regional geomagnetic index RES, specifically estimated for the European region. In the paper we present the relative evolution of these indices and quantify the correlations between them. Variations have been found in: i) time lag between the solar and geomagnetic indices; ii) relative amplitude of the geomagnetic and solar activity peaks; iii) dual-peak distribution in some of solar and geomagnetic indices. The behavior of geomagnetic indices is correlated the best with IMF variations. Interestingly, among geomagnetic indices, RES shows the highest degree of correlation with solar indices.

  16. [Relation between microcirculation parameters and Pc3 geomagnetic pulsations].

    PubMed

    Zenchehko, T A; Poskotinova, L V; Rekhtina, A G; Zaslavskaia, R M

    2010-01-01

    An individual analysis of long-term monitoring of microcirculation parameters of nine healthy volunteers showed that an increase in the geomagnetic activity led to an increase in tissue perfusion, variability of blood flow and growth of the amplitude of neurogenic and myogenic oscillations in four volunteers. It was found that the degree of microcirculation sensitivity to the level of geomagnetic activity values with time and is proportional to its average level in the period of measurement. A comparison of frequency ranges of oscillations of blood flow and variations of the geomagnetic activity shows that neurogenic and myogenic oscillations showing the highest sensitivity to the geomagnetic activity have the same frequency as geomagnetic Pc3 pulsations. The pulsations of this frequency range are excited mainly during geomagnetic disturbances, which may explain the correlation between the microcirculation parameters and the Kp index. The relation of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of Pc3-pulsations can explain the results obtained using the alternating magnetic fields. PMID:20968090

  17. High-resolution palaeomagnetic records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from the Blake Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Niocaill, C.; Bourne, M. D.; Thomas, A. L.; Henderson, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    Geomagnetic excursions are brief (1000s of years) deviations in geomagnetic field behaviour from that expected during 'normal secular' variation. The Laschamp excursion (~41 ka) was a global deviation in geomagnetic field behaviour. Previously published records suggest rapid changes in field direction and a concurrent substantial decrease in field intensity. Accurate dating of excursions and determinations of their durations from multiple locations is vital to our understanding to global field behaviour during these deviations. We present here high-resolution palaeomagnetic records of the Laschamp excursion obtained from two Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1061 and 1062 on the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge (ODP Leg 172) Relatively high sedimentation rates (~30-40 cm kyr-1) at these locations allow the determination of transitional field behaviour during the excursion. Despite their advantages, sedimentary records can be limited by the potential for unrecognized variations in sedimentation rates between widely spaced age-constrained boundaries. Rather than assuming a constant sedimentation rate between assigned age tie-points, we employ measurements of the concentration of 230Thxs in the sediment. 230Thxs is a constant flux proxy and may be used to assess variations in the sedimentation rates through the core sections of interest. Following this approach, we present a new age model for Site 1061 that allows us to better determine the temporal behaviour of the Laschamp excursion with greater accuracy and known uncertainty. Palaeomagnetic measurements of discrete samples from four cores reveal a single excursional feature, across an interval of 30 cm, associated with a broader palaeointensity low. The excursion is characterised by rapid transitions (less than 200 years) between a stable normal polarity and a partially-reversed, polarity. Peaks in inclination either side of the directional excursion indicate periods of time when the local field is dominated by vertical

  18. Full vector spherical harmonic analysis of the Holocene geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Marcia

    High-quality time-series paleomagnetic measurements have been used to derive spherical harmonic models of Earth's magnetic field for the past 2,000 years. A newly-developed data compilation, PSVMOD2.0 consists of time-series directional and intensity records that significantly improve the data quality and global distribution used to develop previous spherical harmonic models. PSVMOD2.0 consists of 185 paleomagnetic time series records from 85 global sites, including 30 full-vector records (inclination, declination and intensity). It includes data from additional sites in the Southern Hemisphere and Arctic and includes globally distributed sediment relative paleointensity records, significantly improving global coverage over previous models. PSVMOD2.0 records have been assessed in a series of 7 regional intercomparison studies, four in the Northern Hemisphere and 3 in the southern hemisphere. Comparisons on a regional basis have improved the quality and chronology of the data and allowed investigation of spatial coherence and the scale length associated with paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) features. We have developed a modeling methodology based on nonlinear inversion of the PSVMOD2.0 directional and intensity records. Models of the geomagnetic field in 100-year snapshots have been derived for the past 2,000 with the ultimate goal of developing models spanning the past 8,000 years. We validate the models and the methodology by comparing with the GUFM1 historical models during the 400-year period of overlap. We find that the spatial distribution of sites and quality of data are sufficient to derive models that agree with GUFM1 in the large-scale characteristics of the field. We use the the models derived in this study to downward continue the field to the core-mantle boundary and examine characteristics of the large-scale structure of the magnetic field at the source region. The derived models are temporally consistent from one epoch to the next and exhibit

  19. Real-Time Tracking Method for a Magnetic Target Using Total Geomagnetic Field Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liming; Kang, Chong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wan, Shengwei

    2016-06-01

    We propose an efficient and effective method for real-time tracking a long-range magnetic target using total geomagnetic field intensity. This method is based on a scalar magnetometer sensor array and an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm. Due to the effect of the geomagnetic field variations, the detection distance range of the method based on the gradient tensor is short. To increase the detection range, the geomagnetic field variations must be eliminated in the method. In this paper, the geomagnetic quasi-gradient calculated from total geomagnetic field intensity in the sensor array is used. We design a sensor array with five magnetometers and use the geomagnetic quasi-gradient to eliminate the geomagnetic field variations. The improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm, which minimizes the errors of total geomagnetic field values between measurements and calculations, is applied in this real-time tracking method to track a long-range magnetic target position. The detailed principle of the method and the steps of the IPSO algorithm are described in detail. The method is validated with a numerical simulation. The results show that the average relative error of position is less than 2 % and the execution time is less than 1.5 s.

  20. Comparison Of The Global Analytic Models Of The Main Geomagnetic Field With The Stratospheric Balloon Magnetic Data 335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Yu.; Filippov, S.; Frunze, A.

    2013-12-01

    Three global analytical models of a main geomagnetic field constructed by satellite data are used: model IGRF, Daily Mean Spherical Harmonic Models (DMSHM), and model EMM/2010, and also scalar data of geomagnetic field and its gradients, received in stratospheric balloon gradient magnetic surveys at altitudes of ~30 km. At these altitudes the regional magnetic field is formed from all sources of the Earth's crust. It enables to receive along lengthy routes of surveys the fullest data on regional and longwave-lenght magnetic anomalies. Model DMSHM is used at extracting of magnetic anomalies for elimination of a secular variation up to significant value 0,2 nT. The model can be constructed within the limits of ± 1 months from the moment stratospheric balloon surveys with beneficial day terms with magnetic activity up to Kp <20, that leads to an error of representation of main MFE equal ±5 нТл. It is possible at presence acting for the period of stratospheric balloon magnetic survey of the satellite, for example, Swarm. On stratospheric balloon data it is shown, that model EMM/2010 unsatisfactorily displays MFE at altitude of 30 km. Hence, the qualitative model of the constant (main and anomaly) magnetic field cannot be constructed only with use of satellite and ground data. The improved model constant MFE, constructed according to satellite and stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys, developed up to a degree and the order m=n=720, will have a reliable data about regional crust magnetic field, hence, and about deep magnetic structure of the Earth's crust. The use gradient magnetic surveys aboard stratospheric balloons allows to find the places alternating approximately through 3000 km in which there are no magnetic anomalies. In these places probably to supervise satellite magnetic models for a range of altitude of 20-40 km, timed to stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys.

  1. A 2015 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) candidate model based on Swarm's experimental absolute magnetometer vector mode data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Pierre; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils; Léger, Jean-Michel; Jager, Thomas; Brocco, Laura; Sirol, Olivier; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lalanne, Xavier; Chulliat, Arnaud; Bertrand, François; Boness, Axel; Fratter, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Each of the three satellites of the European Space Agency Swarm mission carries an absolute scalar magnetometer (ASM) that provides the nominal 1-Hz scalar data of the mission for both science and calibration purposes. These ASM instruments, however, also deliver autonomous 1-Hz experimental vector data. Here, we report on how ASM-only scalar and vector data from the Alpha and Bravo satellites between November 29, 2013 (a week after launch) and September 25, 2014 (for on-time delivery of the model on October 1, 2014) could be used to build a very valuable candidate model for the 2015.0 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). A parent model was first computed, describing the geomagnetic field of internal origin up to degree and order 40 in a spherical harmonic representation and including a constant secular variation up to degree and order 8. This model was next simply forwarded to epoch 2015.0 and truncated at degree and order 13. The resulting ASM-only 2015.0 IGRF candidate model is compared to analogous models derived from the mission's nominal data and to the now-published final 2015.0 IGRF model. Differences among models mainly highlight uncertainties enhanced by the limited geographical distribution of the selected data set (essentially due to a lack of availability of data at high northern latitude satisfying nighttime conditions at the end of the time period considered). These appear to be comparable to differences classically observed among IGRF candidate models. These positive results led the ASM-only 2015.0 IGRF candidate model to contribute to the construction of the final 2015.0 IGRF model.

  2. Lagged association between geomagnetic activity and diminished nocturnal pain thresholds in mice.

    PubMed

    Galic, M A; Persinger, M A

    2007-10-01

    A wide variety of behaviors in several species has been statistically associated with the natural variations in geomagnetism. To examine whether changes in geomagnetic activity are associated with pain thresholds, adult mice were exposed to a hotplate paradigm once weekly for 52 weeks during the dark cycle. Planetary A index values from the previous 6 days of a given hotplate session were correlated with the mean response latency for subjects to the thermal stimulus. We found that hotplate latency was significantly (P < 0.05) and inversely correlated (rho = -0.25) with the daily geomagnetic intensity 3 days prior to testing. Therefore, if the geomagnetic activity was greater 3 days before a given hotplate trial, subjects tended to exhibit shorter response latencies, suggesting lower pain thresholds or less analgesia. These results are supported by related experimental findings and suggest that natural variations in geomagnetic intensity may influence nociceptive behaviors in mice. PMID:17657732

  3. Geomagnetic field behaviour preceding a Superchron: new evidence for a weak Devonian geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, L.; Anwar, T.; Scherbakova, V.; Biggin, A. J.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Shatsillo, A.; Holt, J.; Pavlov, V.

    2015-12-01

    The ~50 million year transition from the peak in reversal frequency in the Middle Jurassic (~170Ma), associated with a weak geomagnetic field, to the stable and apparently strong field during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (84-121Ma), represents a dramatic change in time-averaged geomagnetic field behaviour during the Mesozoic Era. New evidence from Siberian samples suggests there is a similar transition in geomagnetic field behaviour during the Palaeozoic, with a weak geomagnetic field in the Upper Devonian preceding the Permo-Carboniferous Superchron (262-318Ma). Both sites, the Viluy Traps and the Zharovsk complex of the Patom Margin, have seemingly reliable, published palaeomagnetic directions and new age constraints, 364.4 ± 1.7Ma (40Ar/39A) 371-377Ma (U-Pb) respectively. The samples were measured using the Thermal Thellier-Coe protocol with partial thermo-remanent magnetisation (pTRM) and tail checks and the Microwave Thellier-IZZI protocol with pTRM checks. Accepted Arai plots show positive pTRM checks, a clear relation between distinct primary directional and palaeointensity components and little to no zig-zagging. Three distinct magneto-mineralogical types were identified from SEM and rock magnetic techniques; low Ti- and intermediate Ti- titanomagnetite and possible maghemite, with mineral type affecting the success rate of samples but resulting in no significant variation in palaeointensity results. The Arai plots also commonly have a distinct two-slope concave-up shape, although non-heating, pseudo-Thellier experiments have supported this resulting from a strong overprint component rather than alteration or multi-domain effects. Results from these experiments give low site mean values between 2.3-29.9μT (Virtual Dipole Moments 4-50.6 ZAm2). The apparently periodic (~180 million years) transitions in geomagnetic field behaviour may indicate the influence of mantle convection changing heat flow across the Core Mantle Boundary.

  4. On Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2000-01-01

    A partial description of Earth's broad scale, core-source magnetic field has been developed and tested three ways. The description features an expected, or mean, spatial magnetic power spectrum that is approximately inversely proportional to horizontal wavenumber atop Earth's core. This multipole spectrum describes a magnetic energy range; it is not steep enough for Gubbins' magnetic dissipation range. Temporal variations of core multipole powers about mean values are to be expected and are described statistically, via trial probability distribution functions, instead of deterministically, via trial solution of closed transport equations. The distributions considered here are closed and neither require nor prohibit magnetic isotropy. The description is therefore applicable to, and tested against, both dipole and low degree non-dipole fields. In Part 1, a physical basis for an expectation spectrum is developed and checked. The description is then combined with main field models of twentieth century satellite and surface geomagnetic field measurements to make testable predictions of the radius of Earth's core. The predicted core radius is 0.7% above the 3480 km seismological value. Partial descriptions of other planetary dipole fields are noted.

  5. Mechanism of secular increasing of mean gravity in Northern hemisphere and secular decreasing of mean gravity in Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    phenomena as cyclicity and synchronism of planetary natural processes, inversion of activity of natural processes in opposite hemispheres. Numerous confirmations give the extensive data of every possible geophysical observations. The phenomenon of synchronism in annual variations of activity of various natural processes is rather brightly expressed - their phases are precisely synchronized, and the periods of extreme activity (or passivity) fall to February - March or August - September. In daily variations of natural processes similar laws are observed. Here we speak about modern processes, but similar laws take place in various time scales, including geological. In the given report we shall concentrate on the analysis of possible secular variations of a gravity at displacement of an external core (of its centre of mass) relatively to the elastic mantle. The analysis has shown, that gravitational influence of displaced superfluous mass of the core are a major factor of secular variations of a gravity. However the displaced core causes directed redistribution of atmospheric masses from a southern hemisphere in northern, and also complex slow redistribution of oceanic masses. Increase of loading of atmospheric and oceanic masses on an elastic crust of northern hemisphere results in its slow lowering. Return processes should observed in a southern hemisphere. All listed factors, certainly, directly influence variations of a gravity. In a more comprehensive sense redistribution of all fluid masses, including climatic character also result in changes of a gravity. Hemispheres mean secular trends of gravity. For an estimation of a role of factors of redistribution of air and fluid masses in variations of a gravity the point model of redistribution of masses of the Earth (Barkin, 2001), obtained very effective applications at studying of fundamental problems of geodynamics, has been used. Let's emphasize, that the Earth is active dynamic object at which activity in the certain

  6. Bayesian inference in geomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1988-01-01

    The inverse problem in empirical geomagnetic modeling is investigated, with critical examination of recently published studies. Particular attention is given to the use of Bayesian inference (BI) to select the damping parameter lambda in the uniqueness portion of the inverse problem. The mathematical bases of BI and stochastic inversion are explored, with consideration of bound-softening problems and resolution in linear Gaussian BI. The problem of estimating the radial magnetic field B(r) at the earth core-mantle boundary from surface and satellite measurements is then analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the selection of lambda in the studies of Gubbins (1983) and Gubbins and Bloxham (1985). It is argued that the selection method is inappropriate and leads to lambda values much larger than those that would result if a reasonable bound on the heat flow at the CMB were assumed.

  7. About possible secular drift of the pole of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    southern hemisphere in northern. As well as in the case of the Earth this process carries asymmetric, but strictly directed character. Such asymmetric slow redistribution of masses inevitably will result in secular variations of coefficients of gravitational potential of Mars, in particular in its coefficients of second and third zonal harmonics. The data available for today on variations of these coefficients basically already now allow to analyze these secular trends (more confidently for coefficient of the third harmonicJ3, and rather uncertainly for coefficient J2). In the given work they are estimated by the following figures: J˙2= - 57.0 × 10-11 1/yr and J˙3 = -4.94 × 10-11 1/yr. On base of these values the secular variations of masses of modeling points located on a surface of Mars at poles of axis OP (with coordinates 570N, 820 E and 570S, 2620 E) have been determined: ṁ2 = 0.402 × 1015kg/yr and ṁ1 = 0.257 × 1015kg/yr. It is possible, that value of velocity J˙2= - 57.0 × 10-11 1/yr is overestimated. Longer series of observations are necessary for its specification. Therefore the estimations executed in the given work for parameters of drift of a pole and angular acceleration of axial rotation of Mars (in other my report on the given EGU GA), are especially preliminary and can be considered as numerical evaluations or examples. These estimations turn out on the basis of known formulas for a components of pole drift of a deformable planet [6]: ( • • ) ( • • ) ˙p = (1+ ?•Î© ) C˙21 I - ˙P G ?, ˙q = (1+ ? •Î© ) S˙21 I - ˙Q G ?. Here Ċ21 and á¹ 21 are velocities of secular changes of coefficients of gravitational potetial C21 and S21. á¹- and ˙ Q are velocities of secular changes of components of angular momentum of relative motion of the fluids of a planet. Ω is a Chandler frequency, taking into account rotational deformations of elastic planet, and ? is an angular velocity of diurnal rottaion of planet. G

  8. Analysis on the Time-Lag Correlation for the Changes of the Length of the Day and Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guo-Ming; Kang, Guo-Fa; Bai, Chun-Hua; Li, Wei

    2007-06-01

    Two data sets including the historical geomagnetic field model and the length of the day are used to analyze the correlation characteristics of the geomagnetic field variation and the changes in the length of the day from 1840-2000. The results show that a lag correlation is available in the changes of geomagnetic field and the length od the day. The geomagnetic intensity parameter is approximately exceeding LOD by 7.5-10 year. However the geomagnetic western drift parameters lag behind LOD variation, the western drift components lag behind LOD by 7.5 years, the average drifting speed and the latitudinal drifting components of the geomagnetic filed lag behind LOD by 20-22.5 years.

  9. A study of the lunisolar secular resonance 2dot{ω}+dot{Ω}=0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celletti, Alessandra; Gales, Catalin

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of small bodies around the Earth has gained a renewed interest, since the awareness of the problems that space debris can cause in the nearby future. A relevant role in space debris is played by lunisolar secular resonances, which might contribute to an increase of the orbital elements, typically of the eccentricity. We concentrate our attention on the lunisolar secular resonance described by the relation 2dot{ω}+dot{Ω}=0, where ω and Ω denote the argument of perigee and the longitude of the ascending node of the space debris. We introduce three different models with increasing complexity. We show that the growth in eccentricity, as observed in space debris located in the MEO region at the inclination about equal to 56°, can be explained as a natural effect of the secular resonance 2dot{ω}+dot{Ω}=0, while the chaotic variations of the orbital parameters are the result of interaction and overlapping of nearby resonances.

  10. Day-to-Day Variability of H Component of Geomagnetic Field in Central African Sector Provided by YACM (Yaoundé-Cameroon) Amber Magnetometer Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoundi Messanga, Honoré

    2015-04-01

    The geomagnetic data obtained from Amber Network station in Cameroon has been used for this study. The variability of H component of geomagnetic field has been examined by using geomagnetic field data of X and Y components recorded at AMBER magnetometer station hosted by the Department of Physics of University of Yaoundé (3.87°N, 11.52°E). The day-to-day variability of the horizontal intensity of the geomagnetic field has been examined and shows that the scattering of H component of magnetic field variation is more on disturbed than on quiet days. The signatures H of geomagnetic Sq and Sd variations in intensities in the geomagnetic element, has been studied. This paper shows that the daytime variations in intensities of geomagnetic elements H, Sq(H) and Sd(H) respectively are generally greater at diurnal-times than at night-times. This study mainly interests to answer to two questions: 1) how can geomagnetic variations be used to study the equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and electrojet equatorial over Africa in general and Cameroon in particular? 2) How can geomagnetic variations be used to monitor and predict Space weather events in Cameroon? This study presents and interprets the results of H component of geomagnetic field variations during magnetic storms and on quiet days.

  11. Asteroid proper elements and secular resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    In a series of papers (e.g., Knezevic, 1991; Milani and Knezevic, 1990; 1991) we reported on the progress we were making in computing asteroid proper elements, both as regards their accuracy and long-term stability. Additionally, we reported on the efficiency and 'intelligence' of our software. At the same time, we studied the associated problems of resonance effects, and we introduced the new class of 'nonlinear' secular resonances; we determined the locations of these secular resonances in proper-element phase space and analyzed their impact on the asteroid family classification. Here we would like to summarize the current status of our work and possible further developments.

  12. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    PubMed

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-01

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency. PMID:17735224

  13. Prediction of secular acceleration of axial rotation of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    Secular motion of the Earth pole and non-tidal acceleration of its diurnal rotation have obtained rather precise explanation with the help of simple one-point model of the directed transport of fluid masses from a southern hemisphere in northern hemisphere with the general direction, given by geocentric axis OP directed to pole P with coordinates 700N, 10403 E[1]. The another generalized model represents a system of two material points with masses m2 and m1, located on surface of the Earth at poles of geocentric axis OP. Masses are linearly changed in the time with velocities [2]: ṁ2 = 0.179 × 1015kg/yrand ṁ1 = 0.043 × 1015kg/yr. A reduction of fluid masses of the appropriate thin spherical layer of the Earth correspond to secular increasing of masses of model points. The specified model has allowed to explain values of fundamental geodynamic parameters observably and determined during decades: a direction and velocity of drift of a pole of the Earth; value of non-tidal acceleration of axial rotation; to explain a secular variations of coefficients of the second, third, fourth, sixth and eighth zonal harmonics of a geopotential; coefficients of secular changes of a surface of ocean for the last approximately 150 years; a direction of secular drift of a geocenter and other planetary phenomena [3]. The role of the angular momentum of redistributed masses of the Earth in rotation of the Earth appeared not essential at the given stage of researches. On the essence the offered model has semi-empirical character as it bases on values of velocities of change of masses of points and the given position of axis OP. For their determination and estimations the part of the observant data was used, and other parameters were designed under analytical formulas. The obtained results have precisely confirmed competency and affectivity of geodynamic model [4] about existence of secular drift of a liquid core along radial direction OP with velocity about 2.6 cm/yr in the

  14. Using the moon to probe the geomagnetic tail lobe plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

    1975-01-01

    We have detected the presence of plasma in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail from observations of magnetic induction in the moon forced by time variations of the earth's magnetotail lobe field. The magnitude of the moon's tangential electromagnetic transfer function when the moon is in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail is less than that when the moon is in the solar wind or geomagnetic tail plasma sheet. The tangential transfer function when the moon is in the magnetotail lobes decreases at frequencies above about 8 mHz due to finite wavelength effects. This shows that the waves in the magnetotail lobes which drive the lunar magnetic induction must have speeds far less than the speed of light and wavelengths comparable to the size of the moon.

  15. Geomagnetic observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Maule, C.F.; Pedersen, L.W.; Berarducci, A.M.; Macmillan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? 05' S, 12?? 18' W, is therefore of crucial importance. We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions (Kp 2o or less) in 2004. The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models. Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to geomagnetic satellite data. Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission (2011-2014).

  16. Palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic properties of travertine: Its potential as a recorder of geomagnetic palaeosecular variation, environmental change and earthquake activity in the Sıcak Çermik geothermal field, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, John D. A.; Mesci, Levent B.; Gürsoy, Halil; Tatar, Orhan; Davies, Ceri J.

    2007-04-01

    Travertine, the product of incremental growth of inorganic carbonate, is potentially a high-resolution recorder of geomagnetic palaeosecular variation (PSV) when it incorporates small amounts of ferromagnetic material. It grows most regularly in regions of neotectonic activity where geothermal waters feed into extensional fissures and deposit successive layers of carbonate as fissure travertine. The same waters spill out onto the surface to deposit bedded travertine which may incorporate wind blown dust including ferromagnetic particles. Tectonic travertine deposits are linked to earthquake activity because the geothermal reservoirs are reset and activated by earthquake fracturing but tend to become sealed up by carbonate deposition between events. This study investigates whether sequential deposition can identify cycles of PSV and provide a means of estimating rates of travertine growth and earthquake frequency. The palaeomagnetic record in three travertine fissures from the Sıcak Çermik geothermal field in Central Anatolia and nearby bedded travertines dated up to 360,000 years in age (U-Th) are investigated to evaluate magnetic properties and relate the geomagnetic signature to earthquake-induced layering. Sequential sampling of bedded travertine from the margins (earliest deposition) to centres of fissures (last deposition) identifies directional migrations reminiscent of PSV. Thermal demagnetisation shows that goethite pigment is not a significant remanence carrier; instead hematite, and more rarely magnetite, is the carrier. Magnetic susceptibility of fissure travertine is proportional to the calcite:aragonite ratio. Two-frequency susceptibility analysis identifies a ferromagnetic content in bedded travertine dominated by fine superparamagnetic grain sizes whereas the fissure travertine has mostly single and multidomain grain sizes, a difference interpreted to reflect contrasting energies of the two environments plus atmospheric input in the bedded

  17. Human Values in a Secular World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostol, Robert Z.

    The lectures of five contemporary philosophers, charged with addressing themselves to important moral issues of contemporary society with an eye to highlighting those values that are at the base of human life today, are presented in this volume. Louis Dupre is concerned with the issue of making religion intelligible in Religion in a Secular World.…

  18. Psychotherapy as a Rhetoric for Secular Grace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makay, John J.

    The argument of this paper is that psychotherapy is essentially a rhetorical process that, as an alternative to or substitute for religious rhetoric, seeks to lead people to a secular state of grace. The paper first acknowledges the work of four scholars who have written about the rhetoric of psychotherapy: Erling Eng, Pedro Lain Entralgo, Lloyd…

  19. Secularization and Religious Change among Elite Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Park, Jerry Z.; Veliz, Phil Todd

    2008-01-01

    Sociologists of religion have often connected secularization to science, but have rarely examined the role of religion in the lives of scientists or how the sciences have changed religiously over time. Here we address this shortcoming by comparing religiosity between two samples of elite academic natural and social scientists, one in 1969 and one…

  20. Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

  1. Supporting Muslim Students in Secular Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlein, Candace; Chan, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of a study examining the challenges and opportunities of supporting Muslim students in secular public schools. Education is explored as a multifaceted interplay between home and family life, community resources, school programs and policies, and classroom lessons to investigate the curricular experiences of…

  2. Nonresident Enrollment at Religious and Secular Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterweich, Douglas; Baryla, Edward A., Jr.; Rochelle, Carolyn F.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional characteristics and regional economic data are used to determine if religious private colleges have a higher percentage of nonresident students than do secular colleges. A test of means and a two-stage least squares regression are used on a data set of 827 private higher education institutions to present evidence on the differences…

  3. Religion, Education, and Secularism in International Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy; Marshall, Katherine; Nelson, Matthew J.; Andreescu, Liviu; Kwayu, Aikande C.; Wexler, Philip; Hotam, Yotam; Fischer, Shlomo; El Bilawi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    During the interwar years of the early twentieth century, and through at least the 1980s, education was seen by scholars, state leaders, and international agency representatives alike as a way to modernize and secularize underdeveloped communities. Arguments about the modernizing power of education did not erase or discount the presence of…

  4. a Millennium of Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, David P.

    2002-11-01

    The history of geomagnetism began around the year 1000 with the discovery in China of the magnetic compass. Methodical studies of the Earth's field started in 1600 with William Gilbert's De Magnete [Gilbert, 1600] and continued with the work of (among others) Edmond Halley, Charles Augustin de Coulomb, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Edward Sabine. The discovery of electromagnetism by Hans Christian Oersted and André-Marie Ampére led Michael Faraday to the notion of fluid dynamos, and the observation of sunspot magnetism by George Ellery Hale led Sir Joseph Larmor in 1919 to the idea that such dynamos could sustain themselves naturally in convecting conducting fluids. From that came modern dynamo theory, of both the solar and terrestrial magnetic fields. Paleomagnetic studies revealed that the Earth's dipole had undergone reversals in the distant past, and these became the critical evidence in establishing plate tectonics. Finally, the recent availability of scientific spacecraft has demonstrated the intricacy of the Earth's distant magnetic field, as well as the existence of magnetic fields associated with other planets and with satellites in our solar system.

  5. The contribution of L'Aquila (Italy) Geomagnetic Observatory to MAGDAS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepidi, S.; Meloni, A.; Palangio, P.; Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    The geomagnetic Observatory of L'Aquila (Italy) was founded by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in 1958, on the occasion of the International Geophysical Year. It is the main Italian geomagnetic observatory. Since 1999 L'Aquila Observatory belongs to the Intermagnet system, an International network grouping worldwide geomagnetic observatories able to provide Earth's magnetic field measurements according to precise quality standards. Geomagnetic field measurements in L'Aquila are used to study the variations of the Earth's geomagnetic field, both of internal and external origin. In November 2008 a new magnetometer was installed in L'Aquila within the MAGDAS project, coordinated by SERC. The location of this installation can be useful to complete the MAGDAS monitoring system to study solar-terrestrial events.

  6. The observational signature of modelled torsional waves and comparison to geomagnetic jerks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, G. A.; Livermore, P. W.; Mound, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Torsional Alfvén waves involve the interaction of zonal fluid flow and the ambient magnetic field in the core. Consequently, they perturb the background magnetic field and induce a secondary magnetic field. Using a steady background magnetic field from observationally constrained field models and azimuthal velocities from torsional wave forward models, we solve an induction equation for the wave-induced secular variation (SV). We construct time series and maps of wave-induced SV and investigate how previously identified propagation characteristics manifest in the magnetic signals, and whether our modelled travelling torsional waves are capable of producing signals that resemble jerks in terms of amplitude and timescale. Fast torsional waves with amplitudes and timescales consistent with a recent study of the 6 yr Δ LOD signal induce very rapid, small (maximum ∼ 2 nT/yr at Earth's surface) SV signals that would likely be difficult to be resolve in observations of Earth's SV. Slow torsional waves with amplitudes and timescales consistent with other studies produce larger SV signals that reach amplitudes of ∼ 20 nT/yr at Earth's surface. We applied a two-part linear regression jerk detection method to the SV induced by slow torsional waves, using the same parameters as used on real SV, which identified several synthetic jerk events. As the local magnetic field morphology dictates which regions are sensitive to zonal core flow, and not all regions are sensitive at the same time, the modelled waves generally produce synthetic jerks that are observed on regional scales and occur in a single SV component. However, high wave amplitudes during reflection from the stress-free CMB induce large-scale SV signals in all components, which results in a global contemporaneous jerk event such as that observed in 1969. In general, the identified events are periodic due to waves passing beneath locations at fixed intervals and the SV signals are smoothly varying. These smooth

  7. Ocean-generated magnetic field study based on satellite geomagnetic measurements: 2. Signal inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, Yury

    2012-09-01

    The work presented here is the second part of an ocean-generated magnetic field study and provides a procedure for inferring the ocean-generated magnetic field from satellite geomagnetic measurements. The procedure was first tested on synthetic data. The simulation employed a hypothetical satellite measuring the magnetic field at an altitude of 400 km. The “measurements” (generated by the CM4 and CHAOS models) included the core field, the lithospheric field, the ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, the secular variation, and the ocean-generated magnetic field. The search algorithm, as proposed in part 1, converts irregular measurements into fields on a regular grid. The filtration procedure is based on the Savitzky-Golay algorithm. The procedure includes four steps providing seven unknown filter parameters. Parameter values were obtained by solving the problem of minimizing the spatially averaged squared residuals between the inferred field and the model field. Then, the parameters were used in the filter to infer the ocean-generated magnetic field that was initially added to the “measurements.” The inferred signal, although spatially corrupted and having a smaller magnitude (60% of the magnitude of the initial signal), indicated the presence of magnetic anomalies within the Southern Ocean. The technique was then applied to CHAMP geomagnetic measurements. The result of filtering was clear magnetic anomalies within the Southern Ocean with a spatial character that were close to what models of the ocean-generated magnetic field provided. The magnitude of the inferring signal was 5 nT, the corrected values were 7-8 nT, 1-2 nT larger than the modeled field magnitude. To compare the temporal variability of the inferred field with the variability of sea surface height, ten 10° by 10° areas were selected within the Southern Ocean and the root-mean-square of both SSH and the magnetic field were computed for each area. A comparison of the results indicated a

  8. Stochastic resonance in geomagnetic polarity reversals.

    PubMed

    Consolini, Giuseppe; De Michelis, Paola

    2003-02-01

    Among noise-induced cooperative phenomena a peculiar relevance is played by stochastic resonance. In this paper we offer evidence that geomagnetic polarity reversals may be due to a stochastic resonance process. In detail, analyzing the distribution function P(tau) of polarity residence times (chrons), we found the evidence of a stochastic synchronization process, i.e., a series of peaks in the P(tau) at T(n) approximately (2n+1)T(Omega)/2 with n=0,1,...,j and T(omega) approximately 0.1 Myr. This result is discussed in connection with both the typical time scale of Earth's orbit eccentricity variation and the recent results on the typical time scale of climatic long-term variation. PMID:12633403

  9. On the slow time geomagnetic field modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpala, Kingsley

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic rays of galactic origin are modulated by both heliospheric and geomagnetic conditions. The mutual (and mutually exclusive) contribution of both heliospheric and geomagnetic conditions to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) modulation is still an open question. While the rapid-time association of the galactic cosmic ray variation with different heliophysical and geophysical phenomena has been well studied, not so much attention has been paid to slow-time variations especially with regards to local effects. In this work, we employed monthly means of cosmic ray count rates from two mid latitude (Hermanus and Rome), and two higher latitude (Inuvik and Oulu) neutron monitors (NM), and compared their variability with geomagnetic stations that are in close proximity to the NMs. The data spans 1966 to 2008 and covers four (4) solar cycles. The difference (DeltaCR)between the mean count rate of all days and the mean of the five quietest days for each month was compared with the Dst-related disturbance (DeltaH) derived from the nearby geomagnetic stations. Zeroth- and First- correlation between the cosmic ray parameters and geomagnetic parameters was performed to ascertain statistical association and test for spurious association. Our results show that solar activity is generally strongly correlated (>0.75) with mean strength of GCR count rate and geomagnetic field during individual solar cycles. The correlation between mean strength of cosmic ray intensity and Geomagnetic field strength is spurious and is basically moderated by the solar activity. The signature of convection driven disturbances at high latitude geomagnetic stations was evident during the declining phase of the solar cycles close to the solar minimum. The absence of this feature in the slow-time varying cosmic ray count rates in all stations, and especially in the mid latitude geomagnetic stations suggest that the local geomagnetic disturbance contributes much less in modulating the cosmic ray flux.

  10. Mid-latitude Geomagnetic Field Analysis Using BOH Magnetometer: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jun-Ga; Choi, Kyu-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Jin; Park, Young-Deuk; Ha, Dong-Hun

    2011-09-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Mt. Bohyun Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. We, in 2007, installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C) to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we provide the preliminary and the first statistical analysis using the BOH magnetometer installed at Mt. Bohyun Observatory. By superposed analysis, we find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency, that is, about 30 minutes before the meridian (11:28) a minimum appears and the time after about 3 hours and 30 minutes (15:28) a maximum appears. Also, a quiet interval start time (19:06) is near the sunset time, and a quiet interval end time (06:40) is near the sunrise time. From the sunset to the sunrise, the value of H has a nearly constant interval, that is, the sun affects the changes in H values. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the sun. Local time variations show that noon region has the biggest variations and midnight region has the smallest variations. We compare the correlations between geomagnetic variations and activity indices as we expect the geomagnetic variation would contain the effects of geomagnetic activity variations. As a result, the correlation coefficient between H and Dst is the highest (r = 0.947), and other AL, AE, AU index and showed a high correlation. Therefore, the effects of geomagnetic storms and geomagnetic substorms might contribute to the geomagnetic changes significantly.

  11. Dominant modes of relationship between U.S. temperature and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prohaska, J. T.; Willett, H. C.

    1983-01-01

    Eigen-analysis is applied to a matrix of cross-correlation coefficients between the geomagnetic aa-index for 0 to 23-yr lag and the monthly mean temperature at 32 United States stations. About 75 percent of the relationship between the two fields is contained in three dominant modes. A secular trend (about 90 yr) and two 11-yr cycles dominate the mode time series. The month-to-month changes in the temperature anomaly patterns indicate a slow eddy-like motion to the east of the Continental Divide for all three dominant modes.

  12. Analytical Study of Geomagnetic and Solar Activities During Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. A.

    The data of amplitude and phase of most common indicators of geomagnetic activities (especially aa index, A? index) have been analyzed and compared with the solar ac- tivities in the time of solar cycle 23(started from 1996 to 2007). The data taken from NOAA space environment center (SES), USA. during the period starting April 1996 Until Dec. 2001, have been analyzed by power spectrum method. The prediction until year 2007 of geomagnetic activities were studied according to the whole of behavior of solar cycle 23. The results show a good indication of the effects of solar activities on changes of earth climate and weather forecasting. The results are important to various techniques including the operation of low earth orbiting satellites. The climatologi- cal approach makes use of the secular trend since year 1900 until now, by about 15 nanotesla. This indication was recorded too, in solar activity changes during the last century.

  13. Linking geomagnetic activity and polar surface air temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppala, Annika

    ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level air temperature (SAT) data sets from 1957 to 2006 were used to examine polar temperature variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the Ap index. Previous modelling work has suggested that NOx produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in polar SATs. We find that during winter months, ERA-40 and ECMWF polar SATs in years with high Ap index are different than in years with low Ap index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, de-pending on location. The temperature differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings are excluded. Solar irradiance variations were taken into account in the analysis. Although using the re-analysis and operational data sets it was not possible to conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating polar wintertime surface air temperature patterns. The SAT results were tested against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode n (SAM). The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and we could not robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface temperature (SST) variability and geomagnetic activity. Examining the physical link between geomagnetic activity and polar surface temperature variability patterns using atmospheric models is an ongoing task.

  14. Satellite Vulnerability To Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, R. B.; Freemen, M. P.; Riley, D.; Daws, M.; Rutten, K.

    There are several examples where satellites on orbit have failed or partially failed during geomagnetic storms resulting in large insurance claims. Whether the storm is directly responsible for the failures is very controversial, commercially sensitive, and difficult to prove conclusively since there are so few examples. However, there are many non-fatal errors, or anomalies, that occur during the lifetime of spacecraft that enable a statistical analysis. Here we present an analysis of over 5000 satellite anomalies that shows for the first time a statistically significant link between satellite anomalies and geomagnetic storms. We find that the period of highest risk lasts for six days after the start of a magnetic storm. Approximately 40% of anomalies could be due to a random occurrence, but in addition there are between 0 and 35% of satellite anomalies that we attribute as being directly related to geomagnetic storms. We show that the risk depends on satellite prime contractor, orbit type, and age of satellite.

  15. Geomagnetic activity influences the melatonin secretion at latitude 70 degrees N.

    PubMed

    Weydahl, A; Sothern, R B; Cornélissen, G; Wetterberg, L

    2001-01-01

    Factors other than light may affect variations in melatonin, including disturbances in the geomagnetic field. Such a possibility was tested in Alta, Norway, located at latitude 70 degrees N, where the aurora borealis is a result of large changes in the horizontal component (H) of the geomagnetic field. Geomagnetic disturbances are felt more strongly closer to the pole than at lower latitudes. Also noteworthy in Alta is the fact that the sun does not rise above the horizon for several weeks during the winter. To examine whether changes in geomagnetic activity influence the secretion of melatonin, saliva was collected from 25 healthy subjects in Alta several times during the day-night and at different times of the year. Single cosinor analyses yielded individual estimates of.the circadian amplitude and MESOR of melatonin. A 3-hour mean value for the local geomagnetic activity index, K, was used for approximately the same 24-hour span. A circadian rhythm was found to characterize both melatonin and K, the peak in K (23:24) preceding that of melatonin (06:08). During the span of investigation, a circannual variation also characterized both variables. Correlation analyses suggest that changes in geomagnetic activity had to be of a certain magnitude to affect the circadian amplitude of melatonin. If large enough (> 80 nT/3 h), changes in geomagnetic activity also significantly decreased salivary melatonin concentration. PMID:11774869

  16. Science education in a secular age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David E.

    2013-03-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

  17. Diurnal lower ionosphere electron density variations observed in the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly and sub-Antarctic region during the occurrence of the major PCA event of 4 August 1972

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A. Mendes da; Piazza, L. Rizzo

    1992-08-01

    VLF phase and amplitude signals simultaneously received in Atibaia and Curitiba, both in Brazil, were analysed during the occurrence of the major proton flare event of 4 August 1972. Phase advances recorded in Stockholm (Sweden) and Inubo (Japan) were also included for comparison purposes. Particular attention was devoted to the NWC (Australia)-Atibaia (Brazil) propagation-path which passes through disturbed regions (geomagnetically), namely the sub-Antarctic region and the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly (SAGA), and which propagates completely in the southern hemisphere. Following the current mechanisms that allow charged particles to precipitate at low altitudes in the ionosphere ( Dregion), four regions were defined based on the most significant ' L' value involved. By means of successive comparisons with low and mid latitude propagation paths, some parameters typical of the lower ionosphere were deduced for the southern hemisphere in association with PCA events detected in the polar caps. Fitting exponential models to the data analysed, daytime electron density profiles were obtained for different ' L' values throughout the disturbed period.

  18. Atlas of Secular Light Curves of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, Ignacio

    2007-12-01

    We have completed work on the secular light curves of 30 periodic and non-periodic comets. The objectives and approach of this project has been explained in Ferrin (Icarus, 178, 493-516, 2005). Each comet requires 2 plots. The time plot shows the reduced (to Δ = 1 AU) magnitude of the comet as a function of time, thus displaying the brightness history of the object. The log plot is a reflected double log plot. The reflection takes place at R=1 AU, to allow the determination of the absolute magnitude by extrapolation. 22 photometric parameters are measured from the plots, most of them new. The plots have been collected in a document that constitutes "The Atlas". We have defined a photometric age, P-AGE, that attempts to measure the age of a comet based on its activity. P-AGE has been scaled to human ages to help in its interpretation. We find that comets Hale-Bopp and 29P/SW 1, are baby comets (P-AGE < 3 comet years), while 107P, 162P and 169P are methuselah comets (P-AGE > 100 cy). The secular light curve of 9P/Tempel 1 exhibits sublimation due to H2O and due to CO. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimento to be visited by the Rossetta spacecraft in 2014 exhibits a photometric anomaly. Comet 65P/Gunn exhibits a lag in maximum brightness of LAG = + 254 days after perihelion. We suggest that the pole is pointing to the sun at that time. The secular light curves will be presented and a preliminary interpretation will be advanced. The secular light curves present complexity beyond current understanding. The observations described in this work were carried out at the National Observatory of Venezuela (ONV), managed by the Center for Research in Astronomy (CIDA), for the Ministry of Science and Technology (MinCyT).

  19. Large geomagnetic storms of extreme solar event periods in solar cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruiguang

    During extreme solar events such as big flares or/and energetic coronal mass ejections (CMEs) high energy particles are accelerated by the shocks formed in front of fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). The ICMEs (and their sheaths) also give rise to large geomagnetic storms which have significant effects on the Earth's environment and human life. Around 14 solar cosmic ray ground level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23 we examined the cosmic ray variation, solar wind speed, ions density, interplanetary magnetic field, and geomagnetic disturbance storm time index ( Dst). We found that all but one of GLEs are always followed by a geomagnetic storm with Dst ⩽ -50 nT within 1-5 days later. Most(10/14) geomagnetic storms have Dst index ⩽ -100 nT therefore generally belong to strong geomagnetic storms. This suggests that GLE event prediction of geomagnetic storms is 93% for moderate storms and 71% for large storms when geomagnetic storms preceded by GLEs. All Dst depressions are associated with cosmic ray decreases which occur nearly simultaneously with geomagnetic storms. We also investigated the interplanetary plasma features. Most geomagnetic storm correspond significant periods of southward Bz and in close to 80% of the cases that the Bz was first northward then turning southward after storm sudden commencement (SSC). Plasma flow speed, ion number density and interplanetary plasma temperature near 1 AU also have a peak at interplanetary shock arrival. Solar cause and energetic particle signatures of large geomagnetic storms and a possible prediction scheme are discussed.

  20. A decrease in solar and geomagnetic activity from cycle 19 to cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvishiani, A. D.; Starostenko, V. I.; Sumaruk, Yu. P.; Soloviev, A. A.; Legostaeva, O. V.

    2015-05-01

    Variations in the solar and geomagnetic activity from cycle 19 to cycle 24 were considered based on data from the magnetic observatories of the Russian-Ukrainian INTERMAGNET segment and international centers of data on solar-terrestrial physics. It has been indicated that activity decreases over the course of time. This is especially evident during the cycle 24 growth phase. The possible causes and consequences of a decrease in geomagnetic activity were analyzed.

  1. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay

    2015-07-01

    We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs), and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  2. Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.

    2014-10-20

    Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass-loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass loss and mass transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass loss and mass transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital changes due to mass-loss and/or mass-transfer processes can effectively transfer a triple system from one dynamical regime to another. In particular, mass loss/transfer can both induce and quench high-amplitude (Lidov-Kozai) variations in the eccentricity and inclination of the inner binaries of evolving triples. They can also change the system dynamics from an orderly periodic behavior to a chaotic one, and vice versa.

  3. A mechanism for inducing climatic variations through ozone destruction: Screening of galactic cosmic rays by solar and terrestrial magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A perturbation analysis, allowing for temperature and opacity feedbacks, is developed to calculate depletions in the O3 abundance and reductions of stratospheric solar heating that result from increases in NOx concentration. A pair of perturbation coefficients give the reduction in O3 and temperature through the stratosphere for a specified NOx increase. This type of analysis illustrates the tendency for various levels to self-heal when a perturbation occurs. Physical arguments indicate that the expected sign of the climatic effect is correct, with colder surface temperatures produced by reduced magnetic shielding. In addition, four qualitative reasons are suggested for thinking that significant ozone reductions by cosmic ray influxes will lead to an increased terrestrial albedo from stratospheric condensation. In this view, long-term (approximately 10,000 years) climatic changes have resulted from secular geomagnetic variations while shorter (approximately 100 years) excursions are related to changes in solar activity.

  4. Mechanism of secular increasing of mean gravity in Northern hemisphere and secular decreasing of mean gravity in Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    phenomena as cyclicity and synchronism of planetary natural processes, inversion of activity of natural processes in opposite hemispheres. Numerous confirmations give the extensive data of every possible geophysical observations. The phenomenon of synchronism in annual variations of activity of various natural processes is rather brightly expressed - their phases are precisely synchronized, and the periods of extreme activity (or passivity) fall to February - March or August - September. In daily variations of natural processes similar laws are observed. Here we speak about modern processes, but similar laws take place in various time scales, including geological. In the given report we shall concentrate on the analysis of possible secular variations of a gravity at displacement of an external core (of its centre of mass) relatively to the elastic mantle. The analysis has shown, that gravitational influence of displaced superfluous mass of the core are a major factor of secular variations of a gravity. However the displaced core causes directed redistribution of atmospheric masses from a southern hemisphere in northern, and also complex slow redistribution of oceanic masses. Increase of loading of atmospheric and oceanic masses on an elastic crust of northern hemisphere results in its slow lowering. Return processes should observed in a southern hemisphere. All listed factors, certainly, directly influence variations of a gravity. In a more comprehensive sense redistribution of all fluid masses, including climatic character also result in changes of a gravity. Hemispheres mean secular trends of gravity. For an estimation of a role of factors of redistribution of air and fluid masses in variations of a gravity the point model of redistribution of masses of the Earth (Barkin, 2001), obtained very effective applications at studying of fundamental problems of geodynamics, has been used. Let's emphasize, that the Earth is active dynamic object at which activity in the certain

  5. Independently dated paleomagnetic secular variation records from the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberzettl, Torsten; Henkel, Karoline; Kasper, Thomas; Ahlborn, Marieke; Su, Youliang; Wang, Junbo; Appel, Erwin; St-Onge, Guillaume; Stoner, Joseph; Daut, Gerhard; Zhu, Liping; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostratigraphy has been serving as a valuable tool for dating and confirming chronologies of lacustrine sediments in many parts of the world. Suitable paleomagnetic records on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and adjacent areas are, however, extremely scarce. Here, we derive paleomagnetic records from independently radiocarbon-dated sediments from two lakes separated by 250 km on the southern central TP, Tangra Yumco and Taro Co. Studied through alternating field demagnetization of u-channel samples, characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions document similar inclination patterns in multiple sediment cores for the past 4000 years. Comparisons to an existing record from Nam Co, a lake 350 km east of Tangra Yumco, a varve-dated record from the Makran Accretionary Wedge, records from Lakes Issyk-Kul and Baikal, and a stack record from East Asia reveal many similarities in inclination. This regional similarity demonstrates the high potential of inclination to compare records over the Tibetan Plateau and eventually date other Tibetan records stratigraphically. PSV similarities over such a large area (>3000 km) suggest a large-scale core dynamic origin rather than small scale processes like drift of the non-dipole field often associated with PSV records.

  6. Cosmic ray secular variations in terrestrial records and aurorae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attolini, M. R.; Castagnoli, G. C.; Bonino, G.; Galli, M.; Nanni, T.

    1985-01-01

    The rediscovery that the Sun and the solar wind can undergo important changes on historical time scales has brought into question the stability of the cyclic behavior of past time series of solar and solar-terrestrial origin. It was found by Vector Fourier analysis that the solar 11 year cycle is present in the series of 10Be, delta 180, in ice cores and of thermoluminescence (TL) in sea sediments during the last Millennia with a frequency modulation, related to the Sun behavior, as tested by comparison with the Sunspot number R sub z series. It was shown that the cyclogram of the series of yearly Aurorae from 1721 to 1979 linear-regression-corrected-for-R sub z is straight for the periodicity zeta=11,1y, which indicates that such periodicity is constant in time corresponding to the only line present in the 11y band. The maxima of this component appear at the same time together with the high speed solar wind streams taking place in coronal holes situated in high heliolatitudes. It is evidenced that the 11 year cycle has undergone frequency oscillations on a time scale of two centuries, although it is very difficult to determine the periodicities with high accuracy.

  7. Secular variations in sperm quality: fact or science fiction?

    PubMed

    Multigner, Luc; Oliva, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    The debate concerning the possible degradation in human sperm quality began in the 1970s, was revived at the beginning of the 1990s and has continued to mobilize the scientific community ever since. After the meta-analysis by Carlsen et al. (1992) showing a decline in human semen quality over the last 50 years, several groups investigated the sperm characteristics of more or less homogeneous groups of men who had provided semen at the same center for 10 to 20 years. A significant decrease in sperm concentration was reported in some studies, but not in others. Meanwhile, there is an increasing number of reports suggesting that physical and chemical factors introduced and spread by human activity in the environment may have contributed to sperm decline. At the end of the 20th century the debate on declining semen quality is not closed. The lack of certainty and the serious consequences that such a decline would have on the fertility of human populations make this an important public health issue at the start of the 21st century. For this reason, intensive research should be developed in both fundamental and epidemiological domains, particularly in South America, where industrial and agricultural pollution pose a serious threat to the population. PMID:11923881

  8. First results from the first Croatian geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandic, Igor; Herak, Davorka; Heilig, Balazs

    2013-04-01

    The first Croatian geomagnetic observatory was established in the area of the Nature Park Lonjsko Polje, after a century of sporadic efforts originating from the proposals of Andrija Mohorovicic. The location was chosen after exhaustive surveys of possible sites. It is located far enough from sources of civilization noise, and was found to be an area without magnetic anomalies and with a low field gradient. The construction of the observatory buildings was completed in the autumn of 2011. The furnishing and installation of instruments and test measurements were completed by the beginning of summer 2012, ever since we have continuous recordings of the geomagnetic elements. In the beginning of December 2012 the fluxgate magnetometer LEMI-035 (H,D,Z orientation) has been installed under the framework of the PLASMON project in cooperation with the Tihany Observatory (Hungary). Permanent data of high quality from our observatory will contribute to the monitoring of the Earth's magnetic field on the regional and global levels, thus enabling further development of geomagnetism in Croatia through collaboration with scientists from the other countries, participation in the international projects, eventual membership in the International Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), etc. The field elements for the epoch 2012,75 and the baselines are presented together with highlights of some recorded geomagnetic events so far. Furthermore, the comparison between the variation data recorded by the dIdD and the fluxgate LEMI-035 magnetometer is presented.

  9. Interplanetary field and plasma during initial phase of geomagnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, V. L.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-three geomagnetic storm events during 1966 to 1970 were studied by using simultaneous interplanetary magnetic field and plasma parameters. Explorer 33 and 35 field and plasma data were analyzed on large-scale (hourly) and small-scale (3 min.) during the time interval coincident with the initial phase of the geomagnetic storms. The solar-ecliptic Bz component turns southward at the end of the initial phase, thus triggering the main phase decrease in Dst geomagnetic field. The By component also shows large fluctuations along with Bz. When there are no clear changes in the Bz component, the By shows abrupt changes at the main phase onset. On the small-scale, behavior of the magnetic field and electric field were studied in detail for the three events; it is found that the field fluctuations in By, Bz and Ey and Ez are present in the initial phase. In the large-scale, the behavior field remains quiet because the small-scale variations are averaged out. It appears that large as well as small time scale fluctuations in the interplanetary field and plasma help to alter the internal electromagnetic state of the magnetosphere so that a ring current could causing a geomagnetic storm decrease.

  10. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surfa