One step geometrical calibration method for optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz Díaz, Jesús; Stritzel, Jenny; Rahlves, Maik; Majdani, Omid; Reithmeier, Eduard; Ortmaier, Tobias; Roth, Bernhard
2016-01-01
We present a novel one-step calibration methodology for geometrical distortion correction for optical coherence tomography (OCT). A calibration standard especially designed for OCT is introduced, which consists of an array of inverse pyramidal structures. The use of multiple landmarks situated on four different height levels on the pyramids allow performing a 3D geometrical calibration. The calibration procedure itself is based on a parametric model of the OCT beam propagation. It is validated by experimental results and enables the reduction of systematic errors by more than one order of magnitude. In future, our results can improve OCT image reconstruction and interpretation for medical applications such as real time monitoring of surgery.
A geometric calibration method for cone beam CT systems
Yang, Kai; Kwan, Alexander L. C.; Miller, DeWitt F.; Boone, John M.
2006-06-15
Cone beam CT systems are being deployed in large numbers for small animal imaging, dental imaging, and other specialty applications. A new high-precision method for cone beam CT system calibration is presented in this paper. It uses multiple projection images acquired from rotating point-like objects (metal ball bearings) and the angle information generated from the rotating gantry system is also used. It is assumed that the whole system has a mechanically stable rotation center and that the detector does not have severe out-of-plane rotation (<2 deg.). Simple geometrical relationships between the orbital paths of individual BBs and five system parameters were derived. Computer simulations were employed to validate the accuracy of this method in the presence of noise. Equal or higher accuracy was achieved compared with previous methods. This method was implemented for the geometrical calibration of both a micro CT scanner and a breast CT scanner. The reconstructed tomographic images demonstrated that the proposed method is robust and easy to implement with high precision.
Li Xinhua; Zhang Da; Liu, Bob
2011-01-15
Purpose: To study the sensitivity of a geometric calibration method using projection matrices for digital tomosynthesis systems. Methods: A generic geometric calibration method for tomographic imaging systems has been presented in our previous work. The method involves a scan of a calibration phantom with multiple markers. Their locations in projection images are detected and are associated with their 3D coordinates to compute 3x4 projection matrices, which can be used in subsequent image reconstruction. The accuracy of geometric calibration may be affected by errors in the input data of marker positions. The effects of errors may depend on the number of markers and the volume surrounded by them in 3D space. This work analyzed the sensitivity of the calibration method to the above factors. A 6 cm CIRS breast research phantom and a prototype breast tomosynthesis system were used for our tests. A high contrast ring and two small speck groups were reconstructed in various testing cases for comparison. To achieve quantitative assessment, a 15x15 point detection mask was adopted for detecting signals and for computing changes between testing cases and the regular geometric calibration. Results: When 3D coordinates and 2D projections of markers were accurate, all tested numbers of markers, 6-44, provided similar high quality reconstructions of the ring and the two speck groups. Errors in marker positions resulted in image degradations and signal changes, which increased with fewer markers and smaller volume surrounded by markers in the 3D object space. Signal changes of small specks were more significant than those of the ring. Errors in marker projections produced drastic image degradations. Coplanar marker placement caused a failure in projection matrix computation. Conclusions: For practical geometric calibration phantom design, ample markers are desired. They need to have a large volumetric coverage in the 3D space and be far from being coplanar. Precise
PLEIADES-HR 1A&1B image quality commissioning: innovative geometric calibration methods and results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greslou, Daniel; de Lussy, Françoise; Amberg, Virginie; Dechoz, Cécile; Lenoir, Florie; Delvit, Jean-Marc; Lebègue, Laurent
2013-09-01
PLEIADES earth observing system consists of two satellites designed to provide optical 70cm resolution images to civilian and defense users. The first Pleiades satellite 1A was launched on December 2011 while the second satellite Pleiades 1B was placed on orbit, one year after, on December 2012. The calibration operations and the assessment of the image of the two satellites have been performed by CNES Image Quality team during the called commissioning phase which took place after each launch and lasted each time less than 6 months. The geometric commissioning activities consist in assessing and improving the geometric quality of the images in order to meet very demanding requirements. This paper deals with the means used and methods applied, mainly the innovative ones, in order to manage these activities. It describes both their accuracy and their operational interest. Finally it gives the main results for geometric image quality performances of the PHR system.
A geometric calibration method for inverse geometry computed tomography using P-matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slagowski, Jordan M.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Hatt, Charles R.; Speidel, Michael A.
2016-03-01
Accurate and artifact free reconstruction of tomographic images requires precise knowledge of the imaging system geometry. This work proposes a novel projection matrix (P-matrix) based calibration method to enable C-arm inverse geometry CT (IGCT). The method is evaluated for scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX), a C-arm mounted inverse geometry fluoroscopic technology. A helical configuration of fiducials is imaged at each gantry angle in a rotational acquisition. For each gantry angle, digital tomosynthesis is performed at multiple planes and a composite image analogous to a cone-beam projection is generated from the plane stack. The geometry of the C-arm, source array, and detector array is determined at each angle by constructing a parameterized 3D-to-2D projection matrix that minimizes the sum-of-squared deviations between measured and projected fiducial coordinates. Simulations were used to evaluate calibration performance with translations and rotations of the source and detector. In a geometry with 1 mm translation of the central ray relative to the axis-of-rotation and 1 degree yaw of the detector and source arrays, the maximum error in the recovered translational parameters was 0.4 mm and maximum error in the rotation parameter was 0.02 degrees. The relative rootmean- square error in a reconstruction of a numerical thorax phantom was 0.4% using the calibration method, versus 7.7% without calibration. Changes in source-detector-distance were the most challenging to estimate. Reconstruction of experimental SBDX data using the proposed method eliminated double contour artifacts present in a non-calibrated reconstruction. The proposed IGCT geometric calibration method reduces image artifacts when uncertainties exist in system geometry.
An optimization-based method for geometrical calibration in cone-beam CT without dedicated phantoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panetta, D.; Belcari, N.; DelGuerra, A.; Moehrs, S.
2008-07-01
In this paper we present a new method for the determination of geometrical misalignments in cone-beam CT scanners, from the analysis of the projection data of a generic object. No a priori knowledge of the object shape and positioning is required. We show that a cost function, which depends on the misalignment parameters, can be defined using the projection data and that such a cost function has a local minimum in correspondence to the actual parameters of the system. Hence, the calibration of the scanner can be carried out by minimizing the cost function using standard optimization techniques. The method is developed for a particular class of 3D object functions, for which the redundancy of the fan beam sinogram in the transaxial midplane can be extended to cone-beam projection data, even at wide cone angles. The method has an approximated validity for objects which do not belong to that class; in that case, a suitable subset of the projection data can be selected in order to compute the cost function. We show by numerical simulations that our method is capable to determine with high accuracy the most critical misalignment parameters of the scanner, i.e., the transversal shift and the skew of the detector. Additionally, the detector slant can be determined. Other parameters such as the detector tilt, the longitudinal shift and the error in the source-detector distance cannot be determined with our method, as the proposed cost function has a very weak dependence on them. However, due to the negligible influence of these latter parameters in the reconstructed image quality, they can be kept fixed at estimated values in both calibration and reconstruction processes without compromising the final result. A trade-off between computational cost and calibration accuracy must be considered when choosing the data subset used for the computation of the cost function. Results on real data of a mouse femur as obtained with a small animal micro-CT are shown as well, proving
Advanced geometric camera calibration for machine vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vo, Minh; Wang, Zhaoyang; Luu, Long; Ma, Jun
2011-11-01
In many machine vision applications, a crucial step is to accurately determine the relation between the image of the object and its physical dimension by performing a calibration process. Over time, various calibration techniques have been developed. Nevertheless, the existing methods cannot satisfy the ever-increasing demands for higher accuracy performance. In this letter, an advanced geometric camera calibration technique which employs a frontal image concept and a hyper-precise control point detection scheme with digital image correlation is presented. Simulation and real experimental results have successfully demonstrated the superior of the proposed technique.
Flexible geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection 3D measurement.
Xiao, Yong-Liang; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing
2012-02-15
System geometrical calibration is a challenging task in fringe-reflection 3D measurement because the fringe displayed on the LCD screen does not lie within the camera's field of view. Commonly, a flat mirror with markers can accomplish system geometrical calibration. However, the position of the markers must be precisely located by photogrammetry in advance. In this Letter, we introduce a calibration method by use of a markerless flat mirror. Experiments in phase measuring deflectometry demonstrate that the proposed method is simple and flexible. PMID:22344126
Geometric error detection and calibration in laser trackers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zili; Lao, Dabao; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu
2015-08-01
Geometric errors in laser trackers such as light offset and transit tilt have essential influence on the system measurement errors. Thus error detection and calibration are very important for producers and customers to execute error compensation. Different methods are developed to detect and calibrate errors. However, the commonly used methods such as length measurement and two-face measurement are sensitive to several misalignments which cannot calibrate errors directly and separately. In this paper a series of methods for detecting and calibrating geometric errors such as mirror tilt, beam tilt and transit tilt were presented which can calibrate geometric errors individually and precisely. The mirror tilt could be detected with the help of two autocollimators and one polygon. Then the beam tilt and offset errors were calibrated using a CCD camera and condenser lenses. Finally the transit tilt error was calibrated using a gradient and a vertical plane. Experiments and error assessment were executed to show that the accuracy of the calibration methods can meet the user's demand.
Geometrical calibration of photographic cameras against test objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruchkouskaya, Sviatlana I.; Belajev, Boris I.; Katkovskij, Leonid V.
2013-04-01
In view of constantly growing application of aerospace remote research techniques of the Earth to study and monitor natural and technogenic objects, imaging systems are required to demonstrate high metric accuracy of the picture which can be provided through preliminary geometrical calibration of photographic cameras. Being defined as a result of the geometrical calibration, parameters of internal and external orientation of the cameras are needed while solving such problems of image processing, as orthotransformation, geometrical correction, geographical coordinate fixing, scale adjustment and image registration from various channels and cameras, creation of image mosaics of filmed territories, and determination of geometrical characteristics of objects in the images. The geometrical calibration also helps to eliminate image deformations arising due to manufacturing defects and errors in installation of camera elements and photo receiving matrices as well as those resulted from lens distortions. Designing calibration test objects and elaborating methods of the geometrical calibration is a necessary stage in the process of creating and operating systems of remote sounding of the Earth. In research institute of applied physical problems of Belarus State University, a complex of the geometrical calibration of aerospace remote sounding instrumentation with a three-dimensional calibration scene, having dimensions 3,2x2,0x1,5 m and containing more than 200 point markers in the scene volume, is currently devised. To determine space resolution and modulation transfer function of image systems, the corresponding test patterns, arranged within the scene, are being constructed. Furthermore, images of special test patterns will be formed by an optical collimator of the complex in the focal plane of a system undergoing calibration. The procedure of photogrammetric calibration is based on test object filming (the three-dimensional scene of the complex with markers location
MERTIS: using diffractive optical elements for geometrical calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, M.; Griessbach, D.; Säuberlich, T.; Scheele, M.; Schischmanow, A.
2010-09-01
Geometrical sensor calibration is essential for space applications based on high accuracy optical measurements, in this case for MERTIS. The goal is the determination of interiour sensor parameters. A conventional method is to measure the line of sight for a subset of pixels by single pixel illumination with collimated light. To adjust angles which define the line of sight of a pixel a manipulator construction is used. A new method for geometrical sensor calibration is presented using Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) in connection with laser beam equipment. This method is especially used for 2D-sensor array systems but can also be applied to the thermal infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer MERTIS. Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are optical microstructures which are used to split an incoming laser beam with a dedicated wavelength into a number of beams with well-known propagation directions. As the virtual sources of the diffracted beams are points at infinity, the object to be imaged is similar to the starry sky which gives an image invariant against translation. This particular feature allows a complete geometrical sensor calibration with one image avoiding complex adjustment procedures which means a significant reduction of calibration effort.
X-ray CT geometrical calibration via locally linear embedding.
Chen, Mianyi; Xi, Yan; Cong, Wenxiang; Liu, Baodong; Wei, Biao; Wang, Ge
2016-03-14
For X-ray computed tomography (CT), geometric calibration and rigid patient motion compensation are inter-related issues for optimization of image reconstruction quality. Non-calibrated system geometry and patient movement during a CT scan will result in streak-like, blurring and other artifacts in reconstructed images. In this paper, we propose a locally linear embedding based calibration approach to address this challenge under a rigid 2D object assumption and a more general way than what has been reported before. In this method, projections are linearly represented by up-sampled neighbors via locally linear embedding, and CT system parameters are iteratively estimated from projection data themselves. Numerical and experimental studies show that images reconstructed with calibrated parameters are in excellent agreement with the counterparts reconstructed with the true parameters. PMID:27002904
D Catenary Curve Fitting for Geometric Calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, T.-O.; Lichti, D. D.
2011-09-01
In modern road surveys, hanging power cables are among the most commonly-found geometric features. These cables are catenary curves that are conventionally modelled with three parameters in 2D Cartesian space. With the advent and popularity of the mobile mapping system (MMS), the 3D point clouds of hanging power cables can be captured within a short period of time. These point clouds, similarly to those of planar features, can be used for feature-based self-calibration of the system assembly errors of an MMS. However, to achieve this, a well-defined 3D equation for the catenary curve is needed. This paper proposes three 3D catenary curve models, each having different parameters. The models are examined by least squares fitting of simulated data and real data captured with an MMS. The outcome of the fitting is investigated in terms of the residuals and correlation matrices. Among the proposed models, one of them could estimate the parameters accurately and without any extreme correlation between the variables. This model can also be applied to those transmission lines captured by airborne laser scanning or any other hanging cable-like objects.
Linejitter and geometric calibration of CCD-cameras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beyer, Horst A.
Precise radiometric and geometric transmission of images from CCD-sensor to memory is a fundamental aspect of CCD-camera calibration. Linejitter and other degradation occurring during transmission are major limiting factors of the precision attainable with most current CCD-cameras and framegrabbers. The video signal, synchronisation signals and principal electronic components involved in synchronisation and transmission are analysed and their influence on linejitter discussed. A method for signal transmission with the elimination of linejitter and other degradations is shown. Methods for the determination and correction of linejitter are discussed.
Four years of Landsat-7 on-orbit geometric calibration and performance
Lee, D.S.; Storey, J.C.; Choate, M.J.; Hayes, R.W.
2004-01-01
Unlike its predecessors, Landsat-7 has undergone regular geometric and radiometric performance monitoring and calibration since launch in April 1999. This ongoing activity, which includes issuing quarterly updates to calibration parameters, has generated a wealth of geometric performance data over the four-year on-orbit period of operations. A suite of geometric characterization (measurement and evaluation procedures) and calibration (procedures to derive improved estimates of instrument parameters) methods are employed by the Landsat-7 Image Assessment System to maintain the geometric calibration and to track specific aspects of geometric performance. These include geodetic accuracy, band-to-band registration accuracy, and image-to-image registration accuracy. These characterization and calibration activities maintain image product geometric accuracy at a high level - by monitoring performance to determine when calibration is necessary, generating new calibration parameters, and verifying that new parameters achieve desired improvements in accuracy. Landsat-7 continues to meet and exceed all geometric accuracy requirements, although aging components have begun to affect performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mi; Fang, Chengcheng; Yang, Bo; Cheng, Yufeng
2016-06-01
The low frequency error is a key factor which has affected uncontrolled geometry processing accuracy of the high-resolution optical image. To guarantee the geometric quality of imagery, this paper presents an on-orbit calibration method for the low frequency error based on geometric calibration field. Firstly, we introduce the overall flow of low frequency error on-orbit analysis and calibration, which includes optical axis angle variation detection of star sensor, relative calibration among star sensors, multi-star sensor information fusion, low frequency error model construction and verification. Secondly, we use optical axis angle change detection method to analyze the law of low frequency error variation. Thirdly, we respectively use the method of relative calibration and information fusion among star sensors to realize the datum unity and high precision attitude output. Finally, we realize the low frequency error model construction and optimal estimation of model parameters based on DEM/DOM of geometric calibration field. To evaluate the performance of the proposed calibration method, a certain type satellite's real data is used. Test results demonstrate that the calibration model in this paper can well describe the law of the low frequency error variation. The uncontrolled geometric positioning accuracy of the high-resolution optical image in the WGS-84 Coordinate Systems is obviously improved after the step-wise calibration.
Calibration and verification of thermographic cameras for geometric measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lagüela, S.; González-Jorge, H.; Armesto, J.; Arias, P.
2011-03-01
Infrared thermography is a technique with an increasing degree of development and applications. Quality assessment in the measurements performed with the thermal cameras should be achieved through metrology calibration and verification. Infrared cameras acquire temperature and geometric information, although calibration and verification procedures are only usual for thermal data. Black bodies are used for these purposes. Moreover, the geometric information is important for many fields as architecture, civil engineering and industry. This work presents a calibration procedure that allows the photogrammetric restitution and a portable artefact to verify the geometric accuracy, repeatability and drift of thermographic cameras. These results allow the incorporation of this information into the quality control processes of the companies. A grid based on burning lamps is used for the geometric calibration of thermographic cameras. The artefact designed for the geometric verification consists of five delrin spheres and seven cubes of different sizes. Metrology traceability for the artefact is obtained from a coordinate measuring machine. Two sets of targets with different reflectivity are fixed to the spheres and cubes to make data processing and photogrammetric restitution possible. Reflectivity was the chosen material propriety due to the thermographic and visual cameras ability to detect it. Two thermographic cameras from Flir and Nec manufacturers, and one visible camera from Jai are calibrated, verified and compared using calibration grids and the standard artefact. The calibration system based on burning lamps shows its capability to perform the internal orientation of the thermal cameras. Verification results show repeatability better than 1 mm for all cases, being better than 0.5 mm for the visible one. As it must be expected, also accuracy appears higher in the visible camera, and the geometric comparison between thermographic cameras shows slightly better
Landsat 8 thermal infrared sensor geometric characterization and calibration
Storey, James C.; Choate, Michael J.; Moe, Donald
2014-01-01
The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying two imaging payloads: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The TIRS instrument employs a refractive telescope design that is opaque to visible wavelengths making prelaunch geometric characterization challenging. TIRS geometric calibration thus relied heavily on on-orbit measurements. Since the two Landsat 8 payloads are complementary and generate combined Level 1 data products, the TIRS geometric performance requirements emphasize the co-alignment of the OLI and TIRS instrument fields of view and the registration of the OLI reflective bands to the TIRS long-wave infrared emissive bands. The TIRS on-orbit calibration procedures include measuring the TIRS-to-OLI alignment, refining the alignment of the three TIRS sensor chips, and ensuring the alignment of the two TIRS spectral bands. The two key TIRS performance metrics are the OLI reflective to TIRS emissive band registration accuracy, and the registration accuracy between the TIRS thermal bands. The on-orbit calibration campaign conducted during the commissioning period provided an accurate TIRS geometric model that enabled TIRS Level 1 data to meet all geometric accuracy requirements. Seasonal variations in TIRS-to-OLI alignment have led to several small calibration parameter adjustments since commissioning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, M.; Baumbach, D.; Buder, M.; Börner, A.; Grießbach, D.; Peter, G.; Santier, E.; Säuberlich, T.; Schischmanow, A.; Schrader, S.; Walter, I.
2015-09-01
Geometrical sensor calibration is essential for space applications based on high accuracy optical measurements, in this case for the thermal infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer MERTIS. The goal is the determination of the interior sensor orientation. A conventional method is to measure the line of sight for a subset of pixels by single pixel illumination with collimated light. To adjust angles, which define the line of sight of a pixel, a manipulator construction is used. A new method for geometrical sensor calibration is using Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) in connection with laser beam equipment. Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are optical microstructures, which are used to split an incoming laser beam with a dedicated wavelength into a number of beams with well-known propagation directions. As the virtual sources of the diffracted beams are points at infinity, the resulting image is invariant against translation. This particular characteristic allows a complete geometrical sensor calibration with only one taken image avoiding complex adjustment procedures, resulting in a significant reduction of calibration effort. We present a new method for geometrical calibration of a thermal infrared optical system, including an thermal infrared test optics and the MERTIS spectrometer bolometer detector. The fundamentals of this new approach for geometrical infrared optical systems calibration by applying diffractive optical elements and the test equipment are shown.
Data filtering with support vector machines in geometric camera calibration.
Ergun, B; Kavzoglu, T; Colkesen, I; Sahin, C
2010-02-01
The use of non-metric digital cameras in close-range photogrammetric applications and machine vision has become a popular research agenda. Being an essential component of photogrammetric evaluation, camera calibration is a crucial stage for non-metric cameras. Therefore, accurate camera calibration and orientation procedures have become prerequisites for the extraction of precise and reliable 3D metric information from images. The lack of accurate inner orientation parameters can lead to unreliable results in the photogrammetric process. A camera can be well defined with its principal distance, principal point offset and lens distortion parameters. Different camera models have been formulated and used in close-range photogrammetry, but generally sensor orientation and calibration is performed with a perspective geometrical model by means of the bundle adjustment. In this study, support vector machines (SVMs) using radial basis function kernel is employed to model the distortions measured for Olympus Aspherical Zoom lens Olympus E10 camera system that are later used in the geometric calibration process. It is intended to introduce an alternative approach for the on-the-job photogrammetric calibration stage. Experimental results for DSLR camera with three focal length settings (9, 18 and 36 mm) were estimated using bundle adjustment with additional parameters, and analyses were conducted based on object point discrepancies and standard errors. Results show the robustness of the SVMs approach on the correction of image coordinates by modelling total distortions on-the-job calibration process using limited number of images. PMID:20174021
Performance Assessment and Geometric Calibration of RESOURCESAT-2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radhadevi, P. V.; Solanki, S. S.; Akilan, A.; Jyothi, M. V.; Nagasubramanian, V.
2016-06-01
Resourcesat-2 (RS-2) has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs). These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.
Leica Dmc III Calibration and Geometric Sensor Accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, C.; Neumann, K.
2016-03-01
As an evolution of the successful DMC II digital camera series, Leica Geosystems has introduced the Leica DMC III digital aerial camera using, for the first time in the industry, a large-format CMOS sensor as a panchromatic high-resolution camera head. This paper describes the Leica DMC III calibration and its quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures. It will explain how calibration was implemented within the production process for the Leica DMC III camera. Based on many years of experience with the DMC and DMC II camera series, it is know that the sensor flatness has a huge influence on the final achievable results. The Leica DMC III panchromatic CMOS sensor with its 100.3mm x 56.9mm size shows remaining errors in a range of 0.1 to 0.2μm for the root mean square and shows maximum values not higher that 1.0μm. The Leica DMC III is calibrated based on a 5cm Ground Sample Distance (GSD) grid pattern flight and evaluated with three different flying heights at 5cm, 8cm and 11cm GSD. The geometric QA/QC has been performed using the calibration field area, as well as using an independent test field. The geometric performance and accuracy is unique and gives ground accuracies far better than the flown GSD.
Practical geometric calibration for helical cone-beam industrial computed tomography.
Zhang, Feng; Yan, Bin; Li, Lei; Xi, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Hua
2014-01-01
In helical cone-beam industrial computed tomography (ICT), the reconstructed images may be interfered by geometry artifacts due to the presence of mechanical misalignments. To obtain artifact-free reconstruction images, a practical geometric calibration method for helical scan is investigated based on Noo's analytic geometric calibration method for circular scan. The presented method is implemented by first dividing the whole ascending path of helical scan into several pieces, then acquiring the projections of a dedicated calibration phantom in circular scan at each section point, of which geometry parameters are calculated using Noo's analytic method. At last, the geometry parameters of each projection in a piece can be calculated by those of the two end points of the piece. We performed numerical simulations and real data experiments to study the performance of the presented method. The experimental results indicated that the method can obtain high-precision geometry parameters of helical scan and give satisfactory reconstruction images. PMID:24463383
Flexible geometrical calibration for fringe-reflection optical three-dimensional shape measurement.
Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Feng; Tao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhou, Run
2015-11-01
Accurate geometrical calibration is the basis of a fringe-reflection testing system, especially the calibration of reflection ray directions. However, such a calibration procedure is challenging because of two reasons: first of all, the common method of reflection ray directions calibration, which is based on the pinhole camera imaging model, fails in the presence of the pupil imaging aberration. What's more, although using a camera lens with an external stop in front can remove the pupil imaging aberration, it is difficult to achieve the exact geometrical measurement of the camera pinhole and the calibration of the reflection ray directions into the camera because of the low signal-to-noise ratio of images. In this paper, we introduce a new calibration method by finding the points on the liquid crystal display in front of the camera with different positions corresponding to the same camera pixels through correspondence matching. The calibration process and the results from the experiments on fringe-reflection testing demonstrate that the calibration method presented in this paper is simple, practical, and flexible. PMID:26560561
Accurate technique for complete geometric calibration of cone-beam computed tomography systems.
Cho, Youngbin; Moseley, Douglas J; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Jaffray, David A
2005-04-01
Cone-beam computed tomography systems have been developed to provide in situ imaging for the purpose of guiding radiation therapy. Clinical systems have been constructed using this approach, a clinical linear accelerator (Elekta Synergy RP) and an iso-centric C-arm. Geometric calibration involves the estimation of a set of parameters that describes the geometry of such systems, and is essential for accurate image reconstruction. We have developed a general analytic algorithm and corresponding calibration phantom for estimating these geometric parameters in cone-beam computed tomography (CT) systems. The performance of the calibration algorithm is evaluated and its application is discussed. The algorithm makes use of a calibration phantom to estimate the geometric parameters of the system. The phantom consists of 24 steel ball bearings (BBs) in a known geometry. Twelve BBs are spaced evenly at 30 deg in two plane-parallel circles separated by a given distance along the tube axis. The detector (e.g., a flat panel detector) is assumed to have no spatial distortion. The method estimates geometric parameters including the position of the x-ray source, position, and rotation of the detector, and gantry angle, and can describe complex source-detector trajectories. The accuracy and sensitivity of the calibration algorithm was analyzed. The calibration algorithm estimates geometric parameters in a high level of accuracy such that the quality of CT reconstruction is not degraded by the error of estimation. Sensitivity analysis shows uncertainty of 0.01 degrees (around beam direction) to 0.3 degrees (normal to the beam direction) in rotation, and 0.2 mm (orthogonal to the beam direction) to 4.9 mm (beam direction) in position for the medical linear accelerator geometry. Experimental measurements using a laboratory bench Cone-beam CT system of known geometry demonstrate the sensitivity of the method in detecting small changes in the imaging geometry with an uncertainty of 0
Simulation on Measurement Method of Geometric Distortion of Telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, F.; Ren, S. L.
2015-11-01
Measuring the geometric distortion is conducive to improve the astrometric accuracy of telescopes, which is meaningful for many disciplines of astronomy, such as stellar clusters, natural satellites, asteroids, comets, and the other celestial bodies in the solar system. For this reason, researchers have developed an iterative self-calibration method to measure the geometric distortion of telescopes by observing a dense star field in the dithering mode, and have achieved many good results. However, the previous work did not constrain the density of star field or the dithering number in the observing mode, but chose relative good conditions to observe, which took up much observing time. In order to explore the validity of self-calibration method, and optimize its observing conditions, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding simulation. Firstly, we introduce the self-calibration method in detail in the present work. By the simulation method, the effectiveness of self-calibration method to give the geometric distortion is proved, and the observing conditions, such as the density of star field and dithering number, are optimized to give the geometric distortion with a high accuracy. Considering the practical application for correcting the geometric distortion, we also analyze the relation between the number of reference stars in the field of view and the astrometric accuracy by virtue of the simulation method.
Geometric Calibration and Validation of Ultracam Aerial Sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruber, Michael; Schachinger, Bernhard; Muick, Marc; Neuner, Christian; Tschemmernegg, Helfried
2016-03-01
We present details of the calibration and validation procedure of UltraCam Aerial Camera systems. Results from the laboratory calibration and from validation flights are presented for both, the large format nadir cameras and the oblique cameras as well. Thus in this contribution we show results from the UltraCam Eagle and the UltraCam Falcon, both nadir mapping cameras, and the UltraCam Osprey, our oblique camera system. This sensor offers a mapping grade nadir component together with the four oblique camera heads. The geometric processing after the flight mission is being covered by the UltraMap software product. Thus we present details about the workflow as well. The first part consists of the initial post-processing which combines image information as well as camera parameters derived from the laboratory calibration. The second part, the traditional automated aerial triangulation (AAT) is the step from single images to blocks and enables an additional optimization process. We also present some special features of our software, which are designed to better support the operator to analyze large blocks of aerial images and to judge the quality of the photogrammetric set-up.
Iterative optimization calibration method for stereo deflectometry.
Ren, Hongyu; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian
2015-08-24
An accurate system calibration method is presented in this paper to calibrate stereo deflectometry. A corresponding iterative optimization algorithm is also proposed to improve the system calibration accuracy. This merges CCD parameters and geometrical relation between CCDs and the LCD into one cost function. In this calibration technique, an optical flat acts as a reference mirror and simultaneously reflect sinusoidal fringe patterns into the two CCDs. The normal vector of the reference mirror is used as an intermediate variable to implement this iterative optimization algorithm until the root mean square of the reprojection errors converge to a minimum. The experiment demonstrates that this method can optimize all the calibration parameters and can effectively reduce reprojection error, which correspondingly improves the final reconstruction accuracy. PMID:26368180
Calibration method for an omnidirectional multicamera system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Sei; Sato, Tomokazu; Yokoya, Naokazu
2003-05-01
Telepresence systems using an omnidirectional image sensor enable us to experience remote site. A omnidirectional multi-camera system is more useful to acquire outdoor scenes than a monocular camera system, because the multi-camera system can easily capture high-resolution omnidirectional images. However, exact calibration of the camera system is necessary to virtualize the real world accurately. In this paper, we describe a geometric and photometric camera calibration and a panorama movie generation method for the omnidirectional multi-camera system. In the geometric calibration, intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera are estimated using a calibration board and a laser measurement system called total station. In the photometric calibration, the limb darkening and color balances among the cameras are corrected. The result of the calibration is used in the panorama movie generation. In experiments, we have actually calibrated the multi-camera system and have generated spherical panorama movies by using the estimated camera parameters. A telepresence system was prototyped in order to confirm that the panorama movie can be used for telepresence well. In addition, we have evaluated the discontinuity in generated panoramic images.
Inspection system calibration methods
Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.
2004-12-28
An inspection system calibration method includes producing two sideband signals of a first wavefront; interfering the two sideband signals in a photorefractive material, producing an output signal therefrom having a frequency and a magnitude; and producing a phase modulated operational signal having a frequency different from the output signal frequency, a magnitude, and a phase modulation amplitude. The method includes determining a ratio of the operational signal magnitude to the output signal magnitude, determining a ratio of a 1st order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude to a 0th order Bessel function of the operational signal phase modulation amplitude, and comparing the magnitude ratio to the Bessel function ratio.
View-dependent geometric calibration for offset flat-panel cone beam computed tomography systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Van-Giang
2016-04-01
Geometric parameters that define the geometry of imaging systems are crucial for image reconstruction and image quality in x-ray computed tomography (CT). The problem of determining geometric parameters for an offset flat-panel cone beam CT (CBCT) system, a recently introduced modality with a large field of view, with the assumption of an unstable mechanism and geometric parameters that vary in each view, is considered. To accurately and rapidly find the geometric parameters for each projection view, we use the projection matrix method and design a dedicated phantom that is partially visible in all projection views. The phantom consists of balls distributed symmetrically in a cylinder to ensure the inclusion of the phantom in all views, and a large portion of the phantom is covered in the projection image. To efficiently use calibrated geometric information in the reconstruction process and get rid of approximation errors, instead of decomposing the projection matrix into actual geometric parameters that are manually corrected before being used in reconstruction, as in conventional methods, we directly use the projection matrix and its pseudo-inverse in projection and backprojection operations of reconstruction algorithms. The experiments illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method with a real offset flat-panel CBCT system in dental imaging.
On-Orbit Geometric Calibration Approach for High-Resolution Geostationary Optical Satellite GaoFen-4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mi; Cheng, Yufeng; Long, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Bo
2016-06-01
The GaoFen-4 (GF-4) remote sensing satellite is China's first civilian high-resolution geostationary optical satellite, which has been launched at the end of December 2015. To guarantee the geometric quality of imagery, this paper presents an on-orbit geometric calibration method for the area-array camera of GF-4. Firstly, we introduce the imaging features of area-array camera of GF-4 and construct a rigorous imaging model based on the analysis of the major error sources from three aspects: attitude measurement error, orbit measurement error and camera distortion. Secondly, we construct an on-orbit geometric calibration model by selecting and optimizing parameters of the rigorous geometric imaging model. On this basis, the calibration parameters are divided into two groups: external and internal calibration parameters. The external parameters are installation angles between the area-array camera and the star tracker, and we propose a two-dimensional direction angle model as internal parameters to describe the distortion of the areaarray camera. Thirdly, we propose a stepwise parameters estimation method that external parameters are estimated firstly, then internal parameters are estimated based on the generalized camera frame determined by external parameters. Experiments based on the real data of GF-4 shows that after on-orbit geometric calibration, the geometric accuracy of the images without ground control points is significantly improved.
Habib, Ayman F.; Kersting, Ana P.; Shaker, Ahmed; Yan, Wai-Yeung
2011-01-01
LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) systems are capable of providing 3D positional and spectral information (in the utilized spectrum range) of the mapped surface. Due to systematic errors in the system parameters and measurements, LiDAR systems require geometric calibration and radiometric correction of the intensity data in order to maximize the benefit from the collected positional and spectral information. This paper presents a practical approach for the geometric calibration of LiDAR systems and radiometric correction of collected intensity data while investigating their impact on the quality of the derived products. The proposed approach includes the use of a quasi-rigorous geometric calibration and the radar equation for the radiometric correction of intensity data. The proposed quasi-rigorous calibration procedure requires time-tagged point cloud and trajectory position data, which are available to most of the data users. The paper presents a methodology for evaluating the impact of the geometric calibration on the relative and absolute accuracy of the LiDAR point cloud. Furthermore, the impact of the geometric calibration and radiometric correction on land cover classification accuracy is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed methods and their impact on the derived products are demonstrated through experimental results using real data. PMID:22164121
Habib, Ayman F; Kersting, Ana P; Shaker, Ahmed; Yan, Wai-Yeung
2011-01-01
LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) systems are capable of providing 3D positional and spectral information (in the utilized spectrum range) of the mapped surface. Due to systematic errors in the system parameters and measurements, LiDAR systems require geometric calibration and radiometric correction of the intensity data in order to maximize the benefit from the collected positional and spectral information. This paper presents a practical approach for the geometric calibration of LiDAR systems and radiometric correction of collected intensity data while investigating their impact on the quality of the derived products. The proposed approach includes the use of a quasi-rigorous geometric calibration and the radar equation for the radiometric correction of intensity data. The proposed quasi-rigorous calibration procedure requires time-tagged point cloud and trajectory position data, which are available to most of the data users. The paper presents a methodology for evaluating the impact of the geometric calibration on the relative and absolute accuracy of the LiDAR point cloud. Furthermore, the impact of the geometric calibration and radiometric correction on land cover classification accuracy is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed methods and their impact on the derived products are demonstrated through experimental results using real data. PMID:22164121
Rigorous geometric self-calibrating bundle adjustment for a dual fluoroscopic imaging system.
Lichti, Derek D; Sharma, Gulshan B; Kuntze, Gregor; Mund, Braden; Beveridge, Jillian E; Ronsky, Janet L
2015-02-01
High-speed dual fluoroscopy is a noninvasive imaging technology for three-dimensional skeletal kinematics analysis that finds numerous biomechanical applications. Accurate reconstruction of bone translations and rotations from dual-fluoroscopic data requires accurate calibration of the imaging geometry and the many imaging distortions that corrupt the data. Direct linear transformation methods are commonly applied for performing calibration using a two-step process that suffers from a number of potential shortcomings including that each X-ray source and corresponding camera must be calibrated separately. Consequently, the true imaging set-up and the constraints it presents are not incorporated during calibration. A method to overcome such drawbacks is the single-step self-calibrating bundle adjustment method. This procedure, based on the collinearity principle augmented with imaging distortion models and geometric constraints, has been developed and is reported herein. Its efficacy is shown with a carefully controlled experiment comprising 300 image pairs with 48 507 image points. Application of all geometric constraints and a 31 parameter distortion model resulted in up to 91% improvement in terms of precision (model fit) and up to 71% improvement in terms of 3-D point reconstruction accuracy (0.3-0.4 mm). The accuracy of distance reconstruction was improved from 0.3±2.0 mm to 0.2 ±1.1 mm and angle reconstruction accuracy was improved from -0.03±0.55(°) to 0.01±0.06(°). Such positioning accuracy will allow for the accurate quantification of in vivo arthrokinematics crucial for skeletal biomechanics investigations. PMID:25330483
Geometric in-flight calibration of the stereoscopic line-CCD scanner MOMS-2P
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornus, Wolfgang; Lehner, Manfred; Schroeder, Manfred
This paper describes the geometric in-flight calibration of the Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner MOMS-2P, which has collected digital multispectral and threefold along-track stereoscopic imagery of the earth's surface from the PRIRODA module of the Russian space station MIR from October 1996 to August 1999. The goal is the verification and, if necessary, the update of the calibration data, which were estimated from the geometric laboratory calibration. The paper is subdivided into two parts, describing two different procedures of geometric in-flight calibration. The first method is based on DLR matching software and is restricted to nadir looking channels, which are read out simultaneously. From a high number of individual point matches between the images of the same area taken by the different CCD arrays, the most reliable ones are selected and used to calculate shifts with components in and across flight direction between the CCD arrays. These actual shifts are compared to the nominal shifts, derived from the results of the laboratory calibration, and parameters of the valid camera model are estimated from both data sets by least squares adjustment. A special case of band-to-band registration are the two optically combined CCD-arrays of the nadir high-resolution channel. They are read out simultaneously with a nominal 10 pixel overlap in stereoscopic imaging mode A. The DLR matching software is applied to calculate the displacement vector between the two CCD-arrays. The second method is based on combined photogrammetric bundle adjustment using an adapted functional model for the reconstruction of the interior orientation. It requires precise and reliable ground control information as well as navigation data of the navigation-package MOMS-NAV. Nine contiguous image scenes of MOMS-2P data-take T083C building an about 550-km-long strip over southern Germany and Austria taken in March 1997 were evaluated. From both procedures calibration data are
Geometric Parameters Estimation and Calibration in Cone-Beam Micro-CT.
Zhao, Jintao; Hu, Xiaodong; Zou, Jing; Hu, Xiaotang
2015-01-01
The quality of Computed Tomography (CT) images crucially depends on the precise knowledge of the scanner geometry. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate and calibrate the misalignments before image acquisition. In this paper, a Two-Piece-Ball (TPB) phantom is used to estimate a set of parameters that describe the geometry of a cone-beam CT system. Only multiple projections of the TPB phantom at one position are required, which can avoid the rotation errors when acquiring multi-angle projections. Also, a corresponding algorithm is derived. The performance of the method is evaluated through simulation and experimental data. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is valid and easy to implement. Furthermore, the experimental results from the Micro-CT system demonstrate the ability to reduce artifacts and improve image quality through geometric parameter calibration. PMID:26371008
Geometric Parameters Estimation and Calibration in Cone-Beam Micro-CT
Zhao, Jintao; Hu, Xiaodong; Zou, Jing; Hu, Xiaotang
2015-01-01
The quality of Computed Tomography (CT) images crucially depends on the precise knowledge of the scanner geometry. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate and calibrate the misalignments before image acquisition. In this paper, a Two-Piece-Ball (TPB) phantom is used to estimate a set of parameters that describe the geometry of a cone-beam CT system. Only multiple projections of the TPB phantom at one position are required, which can avoid the rotation errors when acquiring multi-angle projections. Also, a corresponding algorithm is derived. The performance of the method is evaluated through simulation and experimental data. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is valid and easy to implement. Furthermore, the experimental results from the Micro-CT system demonstrate the ability to reduce artifacts and improve image quality through geometric parameter calibration. PMID:26371008
Development and calibration of self-centring probes for assessing geometrical errors of machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yagüe, J. A.; Velázquez, J.; Albajez, J. A.; Aguilar, J. J.; Lope, M. A.; Santolaria, J.
2009-11-01
A new type of probe for calibration, verification or interim checking of machine tools as well as robots or parallel-kinematics machine tools is presented in this paper. This probe is part of a ball-artefact-based method to assess the geometrical errors of linear and angular axes in a quick and reliable way. The discussion about the best design concept for the self-centring probe, the mathematical modelling and design process of one of those concepts and the development of three different prototypes are shown. Different sensors and design options were developed to optimize the size and cost of the probe. The calibration of the probe prototypes by way of a kinematically coupled reference device to allow on-machine tests is shown. The uncertainties obtained were around 1 µm for one of the prototypes and below 5 µm for the other two. Finally, results of a geometrical verification of a machine tool are demonstrated, with values similar to the ones achieved using other methods, such as laser interferometry. Compared to those other methods, the new technique was shown to be less time consuming.
Geometric Calibration of ZIYUAN-3 Three-Line Cameras Combining Ground Control Points and Lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Jinshan; Yuan, Xiuxiao; Gong, Jianya
2016-06-01
Due to the large biases between the laboratory-calibrated values of the orientation parameters and their in-orbit true values, the initial direct georeferencing accuracy of the Ziyuan-3 (ZY-3) three-line camera (TLC) images can only reach the kilometre level. In this paper, a point-based geometric calibration model of the ZY-3 TLCs is firstly established by using the collinearity constraint, and then a line-based geometric calibration model is established by using the coplanarity constraint. With the help of both the point-based and the line-based models, a feasible in-orbit geometric calibration approach for the ZY-3 TLCs combining ground control points (GCPs) and ground control lines (GCLs) is presented. Experimental results show that like GCPs, GCLs can also provide effective ground control information for the geometric calibration of the ZY-3 TLCs. The calibration accuracy of the look angles of charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors achieved by using the presented approach reached up to about 1.0''. After the geometric calibration, the direct georeferencing accuracy of the ZY-3 TLC images without ground controls was significantly improved from the kilometre level to better than 11 m in planimetry and 9 m in height. A more satisfactory georeferencing accuracy of better than 3.5 m in planimetry and 3.0 m in height was achieved after the block adjustment with four GCPs.
Landsat 8 operational land imager on-orbit geometric calibration and performance
Storey, James C.; Choate, Michael J.; Lee, Kenton
2014-01-01
The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying the Operational Land Imager (OLI) payload for moderate resolution imaging in the visible, near infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands. During the 90-day commissioning period following launch, several on-orbit geometric calibration activities were performed to refine the prelaunch calibration parameters. The results of these calibration activities were subsequently used to measure geometric performance characteristics in order to verify the OLI geometric requirements. Three types of geometric calibrations were performed including: (1) updating the OLI-to-spacecraft alignment knowledge; (2) refining the alignment of the sub-images from the multiple OLI sensor chips; and (3) refining the alignment of the OLI spectral bands. The aspects of geometric performance that were measured and verified included: (1) geolocation accuracy with terrain correction, but without ground control (L1Gt); (2) Level 1 product accuracy with terrain correction and ground control (L1T); (3) band-to-band registration accuracy; and (4) multi-temporal image-to-image registration accuracy. Using the results of the on-orbit calibration update, all aspects of geometric performance were shown to meet or exceed system requirements.
Method for calibrating mass spectrometers
Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA
2002-12-24
A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.
Camera self-calibration method based on two vanishing points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Shaoli; Zang, Huaping; Xu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Xiaofang; Gong, Qiaoxia; Tian, Yongzhi; Liang, Erjun; Liu, Xiaomin
2015-10-01
Camera calibration is one of the indispensable processes to obtain 3D depth information from 2D images in the field of computer vision. Camera self-calibration is more convenient and flexible, especially in the application of large depth of fields, wide fields of view, and scene conversion, as well as other occasions like zooms. In this paper, a self-calibration method based on two vanishing points is proposed, the geometric characteristic of disappear points formed by two groups of orthogonal parallel lines is applied to camera self-calibration. By using the vectors' orthogonal properties of connection optical centers and the vanishing points, the constraint equations on the camera intrinsic parameters are established. By this method, four internal parameters of the camera can be solved though only four images taken from different viewpoints in a scene. Compared with the two other self-calibration methods with absolute quadric and calibration plate, the method based on two vanishing points does not require calibration objects, camera movement, the information on the size and location of parallel lines, without strict experimental equipment, and having convenient calibration process and simple algorithm. Compared with the experimental results of the method based on calibration plate, self-calibration method by using machine vision software Halcon, the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed method in this paper is verified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, M.; Müller, R.; Krawzcyk, H.; Bachmann, M.; Storch, T.; Mogulsky, V.; Hofer, S.
2012-07-01
The German Aerospace Center DLR - namely the Earth Observation Center EOC and the German Space Operations Center GSOC - is responsible for the establishment of the ground segment of the future German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program). The Earth Observation Center has long lasting experiences with air- and spaceborne acquisition, processing, and analysis of hyperspectral image data. In the first part of this paper, an overview of the radiometric in-flight calibration concept including dark value measurements, deep space measurements, internal lamps measurements and sun measurements is presented. Complemented by pre-launch calibration and characterization these analyses will deliver a detailed and quantitative assessment of possible changes of spectral and radiometric characteristics of the hyperspectral instrument, e.g. due to degradation of single elements. A geometric accuracy of 100 m, which will be improved to 30 m with respect to a used reference image, if it exists, will be achieved by ground processing. Therfore, and for the required co-registration accuracy between SWIR and VNIR channels, additional to the radiometric calibration, also a geometric calibration is necessary. In the second part of this paper, the concept of the geometric calibration is presented in detail. The geometric processing of EnMAP scenes will be based on laboratory calibration results. During repeated passes over selected calibration areas images will be acquired. The update of geometric camera model parameters will be done by an adjustment using ground control points, which will be extracted by automatic image matching. In the adjustment, the improvements of the attitude angles (boresight angles), the improvements of the interior orientation (view vector) and the improvements of the position data are estimated. In this paper, the improvement of the boresight angles is presented in detail as an example. The other values and combinations
Calibration method for spectroscopic systems
Sandison, David R.
1998-01-01
Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.
Calibration method for spectroscopic systems
Sandison, D.R.
1998-11-17
Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.
Geometrical Calibration of the Photo-Spectral System and Digital Maps Retrieval
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruchkouskaya, S.; Skachkova, A.; Katkovski, L.; Martinov, A.
2013-12-01
Imaging systems for remote sensing of the Earth are required to demonstrate high metric accuracy of the picture which can be provided through preliminary geometrical calibration of optical systems. Being defined as a result of the geometrical calibration, parameters of internal and external orientation of the cameras are needed while solving such problems of image processing, as orthotransformation, geometrical correction, geographical coordinate fixing, scale adjustment and image registration from various channels and cameras, creation of image mosaics of filmed territories, and determination of geometrical characteristics of objects in the images. The geometrical calibration also helps to eliminate image deformations arising due to manufacturing defects and errors in installation of camera elements and photo receiving matrices as well as those resulted from lens distortions. A Photo-Spectral System (PhSS), which is intended for registering reflected radiation spectra of underlying surfaces in a wavelength range from 350 nm to 1050 nm and recording images of high spatial resolution, has been developed at the A.N. Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems of the Belarusian State University. The PhSS has undergone flight tests over the territory of Belarus onboard the Antonov AN-2 aircraft with the aim to obtain visible range images of the underlying surface. Then we performed the geometrical calibration of the PhSS and carried out the correction of images obtained during the flight tests. Furthermore, we have plotted digital maps of the terrain using the stereo pairs of images acquired from the PhSS and evaluated the accuracy of the created maps. Having obtained the calibration parameters, we apply them for correction of the images from another identical PhSS device, which is located at the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station (ROS ISS), aiming to retrieve digital maps of the terrain with higher accuracy.
Wang, Mi; Fan, Chengcheng; Yang, Bo; Jin, Shuying; Pan, Jun
2016-01-01
Satellite attitude accuracy is an important factor affecting the geometric processing accuracy of high-resolution optical satellite imagery. To address the problem whereby the accuracy of the Yaogan-24 remote sensing satellite's on-board attitude data processing is not high enough and thus cannot meet its image geometry processing requirements, we developed an approach involving on-ground attitude data processing and digital orthophoto (DOM) and the digital elevation model (DEM) verification of a geometric calibration field. The approach focuses on three modules: on-ground processing based on bidirectional filter, overall weighted smoothing and fitting, and evaluation in the geometric calibration field. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed on-ground processing method is both robust and feasible, which ensures the reliability of the observation data quality, convergence and stability of the parameter estimation model. In addition, both the Euler angle and quaternion could be used to build a mathematical fitting model, while the orthogonal polynomial fitting model is more suitable for modeling the attitude parameter. Furthermore, compared to the image geometric processing results based on on-board attitude data, the image uncontrolled and relative geometric positioning result accuracy can be increased by about 50%. PMID:27483287
A new phantom for image quality, geometric destortion, and HU calibration in MSCT and CBCT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voigt, Johannes M.; Blendl, Christian; Selbach, Markus; Uphoff, Clemens; Fiebich, Martin
2012-03-01
Flat panel cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is developing to the state-of-the-art technique in several medical disciplines such as dental and otorhinolaryngological imaging. Dental and otorhinolaryngological CBCT systems offer a variety of different field-of-view sizes from 6.0 to 17.0 cm. Standard phantoms are only designed for the use in multi-slices CT (MSCT) and there is no phantom which provides detail structures for all common characteristic values and Hounsfield calibration. In this study we present a new phantom specially designed for use with MSCT and CBCT systems providing detail structures for MTF, 3D MTF, NPS, SNR, geometric distortion and HU calibration. With this phantom you'll only need one acquisition for image quality investigation and assurance. Materials and methods: The phantom design is shown in figure 1. To investigate the practicability, the phantom was scanned using dedicated MSCT-scanners, 3D C-arms und digital volume tomographs. The acquired axial image stacks were analyzed using a dedicated computer program, which is provided as an ImageJ plugin. The MTF was compared to other methodologies such as a thin wire, a sphere or noise response [10, 13, 14]. The HU values were also computed using other common methods. Results: These results are similar to the results of others studies [10, 13, 14]. The method has proven to be stable and delivers comparable results to other methodologies such as using a thin wire. The NPS was calculated for all materials. Furthermore, CT numbers for all materials were computed and compared to the desired values. The measurement of geometric deformation has proven to be accurate. Conclusion: A unique feature of this phantom is to compute the geometric deformation of the 3D-volume image. This offers the chance to improve accuracy, e.g. in dental implant planning. Another convenient feature is that the phantom needs to be scanned only once with otorhinolaryngological volume tomographs to be fully displayed. It is
Image Sensor Model Using Geometric Algebra: From Calibration to Motion Estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debaecker, Thibaud; Benosman, Ryad; Ieng, Sio H.
In computer vision image sensors have universally been defined as the nonparametric association of projection rays in the 3D world to pixels in the images. If the pixels' physical topology can be often neglected in the case of perspective cameras, this approximation is no longer valid in the case of variant scale sensors, which are now widely used in robotics. Neglecting the nonnull pixel area and then the pixel volumic field of view implies that geometric reconstruction problems are solved by minimizing a cost function that combines the reprojection errors in the 2D images. This paper provides a complete and realistic cone-pixel camera model that equally fits constant or variant scale resolution together with a protocol to calibrate such a sensor. The proposed model involves a new characterization of pixel correspondences with 3D-cone intersections computed using convex hull and twists in Conformal Geometric Algebra. Simulated experiments show that standard methods and especially Bundle Adjustment are sometimes unable to reach the correct motion, because of their ray-pixel approach and the choice of reprojection error as a cost function which does not particularly fit the physical reality. This problem can be solved using a nonprojective cone intersection cost function as introduced below.
Bothe, Thorsten; Li Wansong; Schulte, Michael; von Kopylow, Christoph; Bergmann, Ralf B.; Jueptner, Werner P. O.
2010-10-20
Exact geometric calibration of optical devices like projectors or cameras is the basis for utilizing them in quantitative metrological applications. The common state-of-the-art photogrammetric pinhole-imaging-based models with supplemental polynomial corrections fail in the presence of nonsymmetric or high-spatial-frequency distortions and in describing caustics efficiently. These problems are solved by our vision ray calibration (VRC), which is proposed in this paper. The VRC takes an optical mapping system modeled as a black box and directly delivers corresponding vision rays for each mapped pixel. The underlying model, the calibration process, and examples are visualized and reviewed, demonstrating the potential of the VRC.
A proposed standard method for polarimetric calibration and calibration verification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Persons, Christopher M.; Jones, Michael W.; Farlow, Craig A.; Morell, L. Denise; Gulley, Michael G.; Spradley, Kevin D.
2007-09-01
Accurate calibration of polarimetric sensors is critical to reducing and analyzing phenomenology data, producing uniform polarimetric imagery for deployable sensors, and ensuring predictable performance of polarimetric algorithms. It is desirable to develop a standard calibration method, including verification reporting, in order to increase credibility with customers and foster communication and understanding within the polarimetric community. This paper seeks to facilitate discussions within the community on arriving at such standards. Both the calibration and verification methods presented here are performed easily with common polarimetric equipment, and are applicable to visible and infrared systems with either partial Stokes or full Stokes sensitivity. The calibration procedure has been used on infrared and visible polarimetric imagers over a six year period, and resulting imagery has been presented previously at conferences and workshops. The proposed calibration method involves the familiar calculation of the polarimetric data reduction matrix by measuring the polarimeter's response to a set of input Stokes vectors. With this method, however, linear combinations of Stokes vectors are used to generate highly accurate input states. This allows the direct measurement of all system effects, in contrast with fitting modeled calibration parameters to measured data. This direct measurement of the data reduction matrix allows higher order effects that are difficult to model to be discovered and corrected for in calibration. This paper begins with a detailed tutorial on the proposed calibration and verification reporting methods. Example results are then presented for a LWIR rotating half-wave retarder polarimeter.
Geometrical calibration television measuring systems with solid state photodetectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matiouchenko, V. G.; Strakhov, V. V.; Zhirkov, A. O.
2000-11-01
The various optical measuring methods for deriving information about the size and form of objects are now used in difference branches- mechanical engineering, medicine, art, criminalistics. Measuring by means of the digital television systems is one of these methods. The development of this direction is promoted by occurrence on the market of various types and costs small-sized television cameras and frame grabbers. There are many television measuring systems using the expensive cameras, but accuracy performances of low cost cameras are also interested for the system developers. For this reason inexpensive mountingless camera SK1004CP (format 1/3', cost up to 40$) and frame grabber Aver2000 were used in experiments.
Pleiades HR in Flight Geometrical Calibration : Location and Mapping of the Focal Plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Lussy, F.; Greslou, D.; Dechoz, C.; Amberg, V.; Delvit, J. M.; Lebegue, L.; Blanchet, G.; Fourest, S.
2012-07-01
The Pleiades system, ORFEO system optical component (Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation) consists of a constellation of two satellites for very High Resolution panchromatic and multispectral optical observation of the Earth. Its mission is to cover all European civilian needs (mapping, tracking floods and fires) and defence in the category of metric resolution: 0.7m Nadir. The first Pleiades satellite was launched at the end of last year. One of the key objectives of the Pleiades HR (PHR) project is to achieve a location accuracy that will allow the use of images in GIS (Geographical Information System) without geometrical model improvement by refining on ground control points. The image location without refined model was specified with the precision of the most commonly used tool ie the civil GPS. So the location accuracy has been specified at less than 12m for 90% of the images on a nominal satellite configuration. Very special care has been taken all along the PHR project realization to achieve this very good location accuracy. The final touch is given during the in-orbit commissioning phase which lasts until June 2012. The geometric quality implies to tune the parameters involved in the geolocation model (geometric calibration): besides attitude and orbit restitution tuning (not considered here), it consists in estimating the biases between the instrument orientation and the AOCS reference frame, and also the sight line of each detector in the focal plane. This is called static geometrical model. The analysis of dynamic perturbations outside of the model are the second most important image quality objective of in-flight commissioning, not described in this paper. Finally "image quality assessment" consists in evaluating the image quality obtained in the final products. For geolocation model, it is quantified by the absolute geolocation and the pointing accuracies, and it is a main contributor in length alteration and planimetric and altimetric
A practical method for sensor absolute calibration.
Meisenholder, G W
1966-04-01
This paper describes a method of performing sensor calibrations using an NBS standard of spectral irradiance. The method shown, among others, was used for calibration of the Mariner IV Canopus sensor. Agreement of inflight response to preflight calibrations performed by this technique has been found to be well within 10%. PMID:20048890
On-ground characterization of Rosetta/VIRTIS-M. I. Spectral and geometrical calibrations
Ammannito, E.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Piccioni, G.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Dami, M.; Barbis, A.
2006-09-15
The complete characterization of complex imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS-M (visual infrared thermal imaging spectrometer) aboard the Rosetta mission, requires a detailed and prolonged activity starting with the instrument integration and continuing during the entire operational life of the experiment. In this article we report the main experimental activities realized during the on-ground characterizations to evaluate the spectral and geometric performances in order to check the conformance with the technical requirements derived from the scientific goals of the experiment. Spectral calibrations allow to confirm instrumental spectral range, resolution, and sampling; geometric calibrations are necessary to estimate the pixel and slit functions, field of view extension, and possible optical aberrations. Two separate sections are dedicated to each one of these subjects, including the strategy followed to prepare measurements, a basic description of the on-ground experimental setups, and the analysis of the collected data.
Geometric calibration and accuracy assessment of a multispectral imager on UAVs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Fengjie; Yu, Tao; Chen, Xingfeng; Chen, Jiping; Yuan, Guoti
2012-11-01
The increasing developments in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) platforms and associated sensing technologies have widely promoted UAVs remote sensing application. UAVs, especially low-cost UAVs, limit the sensor payload in weight and dimension. Mostly, cameras on UAVs are panoramic, fisheye lens, small-format CCD planar array camera, unknown intrinsic parameters and lens optical distortion will cause serious image aberrations, even leading a few meters or tens of meters errors in ground per pixel. However, the characteristic of high spatial resolution make accurate geolocation more critical to UAV quantitative remote sensing research. A method for MCC4-12F Multispectral Imager designed to load on UAVs has been developed and implemented. Using multi-image space resection algorithm to assess geometric calibration parameters of random position and different photogrammetric altitudes in 3D test field, which is suitable for multispectral cameras. Both theoretical and practical accuracy assessments were selected. The results of theoretical strategy, resolving object space and image point coordinate differences by space intersection, showed that object space RMSE were 0.2 and 0.14 pixels in X direction and in Y direction, image space RMSE were superior to 0.5 pixels. In order to verify the accuracy and reliability of the calibration parameters，practical study was carried out in Tianjin UAV flight experiments, the corrected accuracy validated by ground checkpoints was less than 0.3m. Typical surface reflectance retrieved on the basis of geo-rectified data was compared with ground ASD measurement resulting 4% discrepancy. Hence, the approach presented here was suitable for UAV multispectral imager.
A depth estimation method based on geometric transformation for stereo light microscope.
Fan, Shengli; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yigang; Jiang, Gangyi
2014-01-01
Stereo light microscopes (SLM) with narrow vision and shallow depth of field are widely used in micro-domain research. In this paper, we propose a depth estimation method of micro objects based on geometric transformation. By analyzing the optical imaging geometry, the definition of geometric transformation distance is given and the depth-distance relation express is obtained. The parameters of geometric transformation and express are calibrated with calibration board images captured in aid of precise motorized stage. The depth of micro object can be estimated by calculating the geometric transformation distance. The proposed depth-distance relation express is verified using an experiment in which the depth map of an Olanzapine tablet surface is reconstructed. PMID:25226979
Geometric Calibration of the Orion Optical Navigation Camera using Star Field Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christian, John A.; Benhacine, Lylia; Hikes, Jacob; D'Souza, Christopher
2016-07-01
The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle will be capable of autonomously navigating in cislunar space using images of the Earth and Moon. Optical navigation systems, such as the one proposed for Orion, require the ability to precisely relate the observed location of an object in a 2D digital image with the true corresponding line-of-sight direction in the camera's sensor frame. This relationship is governed by the camera's geometric calibration parameters — typically described by a set of five intrinsic parameters and five lens distortion parameters. While pre-flight estimations of these parameters will exist, environmental conditions often necessitate on-orbit recalibration. This calibration will be performed for Orion using an ensemble of star field images. This manuscript provides a detailed treatment of the theory and mathematics that will form the foundation of Orion's on-orbit camera calibration. Numerical results and examples are also presented.
Geometric methods for the design of mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stokes, Ann Westagard
1993-01-01
Challenges posed by the process of designing robotic mechanisms have provided a new impetus to research in the classical subjects of kinematics, elastic analysis, and multibody dynamics. Historically, mechanism designers have considered these areas of analysis to be generally separate and distinct sciences. However, there are significant classes of problems which require a combination of these methods to arrive at a satisfactory solution. For example, both the compliance and the inertia distribution strongly influence the performance of a robotic manipulator. In this thesis, geometric methods are applied to the analysis of mechanisms where kinematics, elasticity, and dynamics play fundamental and interactive roles. Tools for the mathematical analysis, design, and optimization of a class of holonomic and nonholonomic mechanisms are developed. Specific contributions of this thesis include a network theory for elasto-kinematic systems. The applicability of the network theory is demonstrated by employing it to calculate the optimal distribution of joint compliance in a serial manipulator. In addition, the advantage of applying Lie group theoretic approaches to mechanisms requiring specific dynamic properties is demonstrated by extending Brockett's product of exponentials formula to the domain of dynamics. Conditions for the design of manipulators having inertia matrices which are constant in joint angle coordinates are developed. Finally, analysis and design techniques are developed for a class of mechanisms which rectify oscillations into secular motions. These techniques are applied to the analysis of free-floating chains that can reorient themselves in zero angular momentum processes and to the analysis of rattleback tops.
Design Method and Calibration of Moulinet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, Hirokazu; Yamada, Hirokazu; Udagawa, Sinsuke
The formula for obtaining the absorption horsepower of a Moulinet was rewritten, and the physical meaning of the constant in the formula was clarified. Based on this study, the design method of the Moulinet and the calibration method of the Moulinet that was performed after manufacture were verified experimentally. Consequently, the following was clarified; (1) If the propeller power coefficient was taken to be the proportionality constant, the absorption horsepower of the Moulinet was proportional to the cube of the revolution speed, and the fifth power of the Moulinet diameter. (2) If the Moulinet design was geometrically similar to the standard dimensions of the Aviation Technical Research Center's type-6 Moulinet, the proportionality constant C1 given in the reference could be used, and the absorption horsepower of the Moulinet was proportional to the cube of the revolution speed, the cube of the Moulinet diameter, and the side projection area of the Moulinet. (3) The proportionality constant C1 was proportional to the propeller power coefficient CP.
An incremental target-adapted strategy for active geometric calibration of projector-camera systems.
Chen, Chia-Yen; Chien, Hsiang-Jen
2013-01-01
The calibration of a projector-camera system is an essential step toward accurate 3-D measurement and environment-aware data projection applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper we present a two-stage easy-to-deploy strategy for robust calibration of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a projector. Two key components of the system are the automatic generation of projected light patterns and the incremental calibration process. Based on the incremental strategy, the calibration process first establishes a set of initial parameters, and then it upgrades these parameters incrementally using the projection and captured images of dynamically-generated calibration patterns. The scene-driven light patterns allow the system to adapt itself to the pose of the calibration target, such that the difficulty in feature detection is greatly lowered. The strategy forms a closed-loop system that performs self-correction as more and more observations become available. Compared to the conventional method, which requires a time-consuming process for the acquisition of dense pixel correspondences, the proposed method deploys a homography-based coordinate computation, allowing the calibration time to be dramatically reduced. The experimental results indicate that an improvement of 70% in reprojection errors is achievable and 95% of the calibration time can be saved. PMID:23435056
An Incremental Target-Adapted Strategy for Active Geometric Calibration of Projector-Camera Systems
Chen, Chia-Yen; Chien, Hsiang-Jen
2013-01-01
The calibration of a projector-camera system is an essential step toward accurate 3-D measurement and environment-aware data projection applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper we present a two-stage easy-to-deploy strategy for robust calibration of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a projector. Two key components of the system are the automatic generation of projected light patterns and the incremental calibration process. Based on the incremental strategy, the calibration process first establishes a set of initial parameters, and then it upgrades these parameters incrementally using the projection and captured images of dynamically-generated calibration patterns. The scene-driven light patterns allow the system to adapt itself to the pose of the calibration target, such that the difficulty in feature detection is greatly lowered. The strategy forms a closed-loop system that performs self-correction as more and more observations become available. Compared to the conventional method, which requires a time-consuming process for the acquisition of dense pixel correspondences, the proposed method deploys a homography-based coordinate computation, allowing the calibration time to be dramatically reduced. The experimental results indicate that an improvement of 70% in reprojection errors is achievable and 95% of the calibration time can be saved. PMID:23435056
An Accurate Projector Calibration Method Based on Polynomial Distortion Representation
Liu, Miao; Sun, Changku; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua
2015-01-01
In structure light measurement systems or 3D printing systems, the errors caused by optical distortion of a digital projector always affect the precision performance and cannot be ignored. Existing methods to calibrate the projection distortion rely on calibration plate and photogrammetry, so the calibration performance is largely affected by the quality of the plate and the imaging system. This paper proposes a new projector calibration approach that makes use of photodiodes to directly detect the light emitted from a digital projector. By analyzing the output sequence of the photoelectric module, the pixel coordinates can be accurately obtained by the curve fitting method. A polynomial distortion representation is employed to reduce the residuals of the traditional distortion representation model. Experimental results and performance evaluation show that the proposed calibration method is able to avoid most of the disadvantages in traditional methods and achieves a higher accuracy. This proposed method is also practically applicable to evaluate the geometric optical performance of other optical projection system. PMID:26492247
High-Precision Calibration of the WFC3/UVIS Geometric Distortion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riess, Adam
2014-10-01
The geometric distortion solution for WFC3/UVIS is known in most filters to better than 0.01 pixels from the analysis of pointed data. Astrometric data taken with spatial scans suggest that residuals from this solution have typical magitudes of 0.003-0.005 pixels, and correlate on scales of 50-100 pixels. These deviations also appear to be stable in time, and therefore can be calibrated using apropriate data. This proposal aims at improving the calibration of local deviations from astrometric solution via spatial scans. The observations target two regions with high density of bright stars at several different large-scale dithers to obtain a dense coverage of high S/N trails over the majority of the detector. The data will be used to obtain a static correction to the distortion solution that can be used to improve the geometric distortion solution. The open clusters M 67 and M 48 have been selected to provide the highest density of stars of the right brightness for F606W (M 67) and F621M and F673N (M 48); these are the recommended filters for optimal extraction of astrometric information, depending on the brightness of the target.
Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.
2004-04-01
This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lerma, J. L.; García-San-Miguel, D.
2014-05-01
Systematic errors are present in laser scanning system observations due to manufacturer imperfections, wearing over time, vibrations, changing environmental conditions and, last but not least, involuntary hits. To achieve maximum quality and rigorous measurements from terrestrial laser scanners, a least squares estimation of additional calibration parameters can be used to model the a priori unknown systematic errors and therefore improve output observations. The selection of the right set of additional parameters is not trivial and requires laborious statistical analysis. Based on this requirement, this article presents an approach to determine the best set of additional parameters which provides the best mathematical solution based on a dimensionless quality index. The best set of additional parameters is the one which provides the maximum quality index (i.e. minimum value) for the group of observables, exterior orientation parameters and reference points. Calibration performance is tested using both a phase shift continuous wave scanner, FARO PHOTON 880, and a pulse-based time-of-flight system, Leica HDS3000. The improvement achieved after the geometric calibration is 30% for the former and 70% for the latter.
Two highly accurate methods for pitch calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kniel, K.; Härtig, F.; Osawa, S.; Sato, O.
2009-11-01
Among profiles, helix and tooth thickness pitch is one of the most important parameters of an involute gear measurement evaluation. In principle, coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and CNC-controlled gear measuring machines as a variant of a CMM are suited for these kinds of gear measurements. Now the Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) and the German national metrology institute the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have each developed independently highly accurate pitch calibration methods applicable to CMM or gear measuring machines. Both calibration methods are based on the so-called closure technique which allows the separation of the systematic errors of the measurement device and the errors of the gear. For the verification of both calibration methods, NMIJ/AIST and PTB performed measurements on a specially designed pitch artifact. The comparison of the results shows that both methods can be used for highly accurate calibrations of pitch standards.
Automatic camera calibration method based on dashed lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiuhua; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo
2013-10-01
We present a new method for full-automatic calibration of traffic cameras using the end points on dashed lines. Our approach uses the improved RANSAC method with the help of pixels transverse projection to detect the dashed lines and end points on them. Then combining analysis of the geometric relationship between the camera and road coordinate systems, we construct a road model to fit the end points. Finally using two-dimension calibration method we can convert pixels in image to meters along the ground truth lane. On a large number of experiments exhibiting a variety of conditions, our approach performs well, achieving less than 5% error in measuring test lengths in all cases.
Accurate camera calibration method specialized for virtual studios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okubo, Hidehiko; Yamanouchi, Yuko; Mitsumine, Hideki; Fukaya, Takashi; Inoue, Seiki
2008-02-01
Virtual studio is a popular technology for TV programs, that makes possible to synchronize computer graphics (CG) to realshot image in camera motion. Normally, the geometrical matching accuracy between CG and realshot image is not expected so much on real-time system, we sometimes compromise on directions, not to come out the problem. So we developed the hybrid camera calibration method and CG generating system to achieve the accurate geometrical matching of CG and realshot on virtual studio. Our calibration method is intended for the camera system on platform and tripod with rotary encoder, that can measure pan/tilt angles. To solve the camera model and initial pose, we enhanced the bundle adjustment algorithm to fit the camera model, using pan/tilt data as known parameters, and optimizing all other parameters invariant against pan/tilt value. This initialization yields high accurate camera position and orientation consistent with any pan/tilt values. Also we created CG generator implemented the lens distortion function with GPU programming. By applying the lens distortion parameters obtained by camera calibration process, we could get fair compositing results.
Method of Calibrating a Force Balance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Peter A. (Inventor); Rhew, Ray D. (Inventor); Johnson, Thomas H. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A calibration system and method utilizes acceleration of a mass to generate a force on the mass. An expected value of the force is calculated based on the magnitude and acceleration of the mass. A fixture is utilized to mount the mass to a force balance, and the force balance is calibrated to provide a reading consistent with the expected force determined for a given acceleration. The acceleration can be varied to provide different expected forces, and the force balance can be calibrated for different applied forces. The acceleration may result from linear acceleration of the mass or rotational movement of the mass.
Pre-flight and On-orbit Geometric Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speyerer, E. J.; Wagner, R. V.; Robinson, M. S.; Licht, A.; Thomas, P. C.; Becker, K.; Anderson, J.; Brylow, S. M.; Humm, D. C.; Tschimmel, M.
2016-04-01
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) consists of two imaging systems that provide multispectral and high resolution imaging of the lunar surface. The Wide Angle Camera (WAC) is a seven color push-frame imager with a 90∘ field of view in monochrome mode and 60∘ field of view in color mode. From the nominal 50 km polar orbit, the WAC acquires images with a nadir ground sampling distance of 75 m for each of the five visible bands and 384 m for the two ultraviolet bands. The Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) consists of two identical cameras capable of acquiring images with a ground sampling distance of 0.5 m from an altitude of 50 km. The LROC team geometrically calibrated each camera before launch at Malin Space Science Systems in San Diego, California and the resulting measurements enabled the generation of a detailed camera model for all three cameras. The cameras were mounted and subsequently launched on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) on 18 June 2009. Using a subset of the over 793000 NAC and 207000 WAC images of illuminated terrain collected between 30 June 2009 and 15 December 2013, we improved the interior and exterior orientation parameters for each camera, including the addition of a wavelength dependent radial distortion model for the multispectral WAC. These geometric refinements, along with refined ephemeris, enable seamless projections of NAC image pairs with a geodetic accuracy better than 20 meters and sub-pixel precision and accuracy when orthorectifying WAC images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haruyama, J.; Ohtake, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Morota, T.; Yokota, Y.; Honda, C.; Hirata, N.; Demura, H.; Iwasaki, A.; Nakamura, R.; Kodama, S.; LISM Working Group
2008-07-01
Surface relief maps have a significant role in the investigation of the solid planets. A 10 m resolution stereoscopic push-broom imager called the Terrain Camera (TC) will be installed on the Selenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE), a Japanese lunar polar orbiter to be launched in 2007, to acquire lunar global topographic data from which lunar relief maps will be produced. Appropriate radiometric calibration and geometric correction (RGC) processing is required to construct reliable surface maps. An RGC processing system has already been installed in the SELENE Operation and Analysis Center (SOAC) of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The main tasks of the RGC processing system for TC data are dark-level correction, flat-field correction, photometric calibration, conversion of radiance to reflectance, and map projection. The several TC RGC-processed products in a scene size are superimposed, mosaicked, and stored in the SELENE level-2 database (L2DB) system as a relief map product. Relief maps of the entire Moon are scheduled for completion 1 year after the end of the SELENE nominal mission. Since a global 10 m resolution lunar relief map has never been produced before, the maps from the TC data will be valuable for lunar sciences and future exploration.
New Method for Calibration for Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, Robert; Olive, Dan; ONeal, Duane; Schere, Chris; Nixon, Thomas; May, Chengye; Ryan, Jim; Stanley, Tom; Witcher, Kern
1999-01-01
A new, easy-to-implement approach for achieving highly accurate spectral and radiometric calibration of array-based, hyperspectral pushbroom imagers is presented in this paper. The equivalence of the plane of the exit port of an integrating sphere to a Lambertian surface is utilized to provide a field-filling radiance source for the imager. Several different continuous wave lasers of various wavelengths and a quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp internally illuminate the sphere. The imager is positioned to "stare" into the port, and the resultant data cube is analyzed to determine wavelength calibrations, spectral widths of channels, radiometric characteristics, and signal-to-noise ratio, as well as an estimate of signal-to-noise performance in the field. The "smile" (geometric distortion of spectra) of the system can be quickly ascertained using this method. As the price and availability of solid state laser sources improve, this technique could gain wide acceptance.
On-Orbit Geometric Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speyerer, E. J.; Wagner, R.; Robinson, M. S.
2013-12-01
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is equipped with a single Wide Angle Camera (WAC) [1] designed to collect monochromatic and multispectral observations of the lunar surface. Cartographically accurate image mosaics and stereo image based terrain models requires the position of each pixel in a given image be known to a corresponding point on the lunar surface with a high degree of accuracy and precision. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) team initially characterized the WAC geometry prior to launch at the Malin Space Science Systems calibration facility. After lunar orbit insertion, the LROC team recognized spatially varying geometric offsets between color bands. These misregistrations made analysis of the color data problematic and showed that refinements to the pre-launch geometric analysis were necessary. The geometric parameters that define the WAC optical system were characterized from statistics gathered from co-registering over 84,000 image pairs. For each pair, we registered all five visible WAC bands to a precisely rectified Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image (accuracy <15 m) [2] to compute key geometric parameters. In total, we registered 2,896 monochrome and 1,079 color WAC observations to nearly 34,000 NAC observations and collected over 13.7 million data points across the visible portion of the WAC CCD. Using the collected statistics, we refined the relative pointing (yaw, pitch and roll), effective focal length, principal point coordinates, and radial distortion coefficients. This large dataset also revealed spatial offsets between bands after orthorectification due to chromatic aberrations in the optical system. As white light enters the optical system, the light bends at different magnitudes as a function of wavelength, causing a single incident ray to disperse in a spectral spread of color [3,4]. This lateral chromatic aberration effect, also known as 'chromatic difference in magnification' [5] introduces variation to the effective focal
MODIS Radiometric Calibration Program, Methods and Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Guenther, Bruce; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian
2012-01-01
As a key instrument for NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has made significant contributions to the remote sensing community with its unprecedented amount of data products continuously generated from its observations and freely distributed to users worldwide. MODIS observations, covering spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), have enabled a broad range of research activities and applications for studies of the earth s interactive system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. In addition to extensive pre-launch measurements, developed to characterize sensor performance, MODIS carries a set of on-board calibrators (OBC) that can be used to track on-orbit changes of various sensor characteristics. Most importantly, dedicated and continuous calibration efforts have been made to maintain sensor data quality. This paper provides an overview of the MODIS calibration program, on-orbit calibration activities, methods, and performance. Key calibration results and lessons learned from the MODIS calibration effort are also presented in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archer, Cristina; Ghaisas, Niranjan
2015-04-01
The energy generation at a wind farm is controlled primarily by the average wind speed at hub height. However, two other factors impact wind farm performance: 1) the layout of the wind turbines, in terms of spacing between turbines along and across the prevailing wind direction; staggering or aligning consecutive rows; angles between rows, columns, and prevailing wind direction); and 2) atmospheric stability, which is a measure of whether vertical motion is enhanced (unstable), suppressed (stable), or neither (neutral). Studying both factors and their complex interplay with Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is a valid approach because it produces high-resolution, 3D, turbulent fields, such as wind velocity, temperature, and momentum and heat fluxes, and it properly accounts for the interactions between wind turbine blades and the surrounding atmospheric and near-surface properties. However, LES are computationally expensive and simulating all the possible combinations of wind directions, atmospheric stabilities, and turbine layouts to identify the optimal wind farm configuration is practically unfeasible today. A new, geometry-based method is proposed that is computationally inexpensive and that combines simple geometric quantities with a minimal number of LES simulations to identify the optimal wind turbine layout, taking into account not only the actual frequency distribution of wind directions (i.e., wind rose) at the site of interest, but also atmospheric stability. The geometry-based method is calibrated with LES of the Lillgrund wind farm conducted with the Software for Offshore/onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA), based on the open-access OpenFOAM libraries. The geometric quantities that offer the best correlations (>0.93) with the LES results are the blockage ratio, defined as the fraction of the swept area of a wind turbine that is blocked by an upstream turbine, and the blockage distance, the weighted distance from a given turbine to all upstream turbines
New Method of Calibrating IRT Models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jiang, Hai; Tang, K. Linda
This discussion of new methods for calibrating item response theory (IRT) models looks into new optimization procedures, such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA) to improve on the use of the Newton-Raphson procedure. The advantages of using a global optimization procedure like GA is that this kind of procedure is not easily affected by local optima and…
Automatic calibration method for plenoptic camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luan, Yinsen; He, Xing; Xu, Bing; Yang, Ping; Tang, Guomao
2016-04-01
An automatic calibration method is proposed for a microlens-based plenoptic camera. First, all microlens images on the white image are searched and recognized automatically based on digital morphology. Then, the center points of microlens images are rearranged according to their relative position relationships. Consequently, the microlens images are located, i.e., the plenoptic camera is calibrated without the prior knowledge of camera parameters. Furthermore, this method is appropriate for all types of microlens-based plenoptic cameras, even the multifocus plenoptic camera, the plenoptic camera with arbitrarily arranged microlenses, or the plenoptic camera with different sizes of microlenses. Finally, we verify our method by the raw data of Lytro. The experiments show that our method has higher intelligence than the methods published before.
Calibration method for radiometric and wavelength calibration of a spectrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granger, Edward M.
1998-12-01
A new calibration target or Certified Reference Material (CRM) has been designed that uses violet, orange, green and cyan dyes ont cotton paper. This paper type was chosen because it has a relatively flat spectral response from 400 nm to 700 nm and good keeping properties. These specific dyes were chosen because the difference signal between the orange, cyan, green and purple dyes have certain characteristics that then a low the calibration of an instrument. The ratio between the difference readings is a direct function of the center wavelength of a given spectral band. Therefore, the radiometric and spectral calibration can be determined simultaneously from the physical properties of the reference materials.
Image processing method for multicore fiber geometric parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chuanbiao; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Li, Chao; Ma, Shaoshuo
2016-05-01
An image processing method has been developed to obtain multicore fiber geometric parameters. According to the characteristics of multicore fiber, we using MATLAB to processing the sectional view of the multicore fiber (MCF), and the algorithm mainly concludes the following steps: filter out image noise, edge detection, use an appropriate threshold for boundary extraction and an improved curve-fitting algorithm for reconstruction the cross section, then we get the relative geometric parameters of the MCF in pixels. We also compares different edge detection operator and analyzes each detection results, which can provide a meaningful reference for edge detection.
Camera calibration method for dimensional measurement of heavy forging in large scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Hu, Chunhai; Song, Xiaoxue; Zhao, Zhenqing
2009-07-01
Camera calibration method plays an important role in the stereovision system to resolve the problems of dimensional measurement of heavy forging. Due to the intensive vibrating, the camera parameters must be calibrated every time after the action of the water press. This paper presents a method using the scene geometry to calibrate cameras. In the context of heavy machinery environments, the constraints which can be used are parallelism and orthogonality. These constraints lead to geometrically intuitive methods to calibrate the cameras. The huge forging equipment such as water press belongs to geometrically constrained object and insusceptible to vibrating, which gives natural prior knowledge and constraint conditions for 3-D reconstruction. The method focuses on the calibration of the extrinsic parameters which are subject to change since the effects of the workspace factors. The intrinsic parameters were calibrated in advance by an off-line method and were assumed as invariable. The results of simulation experiments demonstrate that the camera parameters could be calibrated effectively and achieve the real time need.
a Method for Self-Calibration in Satellite with High Precision of Space Linear Array Camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Qian, Fangming; Miao, Yuzhe; Wang, Rongjian
2016-06-01
At present, the on-orbit calibration of the geometric parameters of a space surveying camera is usually processed by data from a ground calibration field after capturing the images. The entire process is very complicated and lengthy and cannot monitor and calibrate the geometric parameters in real time. On the basis of a large number of on-orbit calibrations, we found that owing to the influence of many factors, e.g., weather, it is often difficult to capture images of the ground calibration field. Thus, regular calibration using field data cannot be ensured. This article proposes a real time self-calibration method for a space linear array camera on a satellite using the optical auto collimation principle. A collimating light source and small matrix array CCD devices are installed inside the load system of the satellite; these use the same light path as the linear array camera. We can extract the location changes of the cross marks in the matrix array CCD to determine the real-time variations in the focal length and angle parameters of the linear array camera. The on-orbit status of the camera is rapidly obtained using this method. On one hand, the camera's change regulation can be mastered accurately and the camera's attitude can be adjusted in a timely manner to ensure optimal photography; in contrast, self-calibration of the camera aboard the satellite can be realized quickly, which improves the efficiency and reliability of photogrammetric processing.
Methods for manufacturing geometric multi-crystalline cast materials
Stoddard, Nathan G
2013-11-26
Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semi-conductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a geometrically ordered multi-crystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm.
A geometric design method for side-stream distillation columns
Rooks, R.E.; Malone, M.F.; Doherty, M.F.
1996-10-01
A side-stream distillation column may replace two simple columns for some applications, sometimes at considerable savings in energy and investment. This paper describes a geometric method for the design of side-stream columns; the method provides rapid estimates of equipment size and utility requirements. Unlike previous approaches, the geometric method is applicable to nonideal and azeotropic mixtures. Several example problems for both ideal and nonideal mixtures, including azeotropic mixtures containing distillation boundaries, are given. The authors make use of the fact that azeotropes or pure components whose classification in the residue curve map is a saddle can be removed as side-stream products. Significant process simplifications are found among some alternatives in example problems, leading to flow sheets with fewer units and a substantial savings in vapor rate.
To develop a geometric matching method for precision mold alignment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chun-Jen; Chang, Chun-Li; Jywe, Wenyuh
2014-09-01
In order to develop a high accuracy optical alignment system for precision molding machine, a geometric matching method was developed in this paper. The alignment system includes 4 high magnification lenses, 4 CCD cameras and 4 LED light sources. In the precision molding machine, a bottom metal mold and a top glass mold are used to produce a micro lens. The two molds combination does not use any pin or alignment part. They only use the optical alignment system to alignment. In this optical alignment system, the off-axis alignment method was used. The alignment accuracy of the alignment system is about 0.5 μm. There are 2 cross marks on the top glass mold and 2 cross marks on the bottom metal mod. In this paper did not use edge detection to recognize the mask center because the mask easy wears when the combination times increased. Therefore, this paper develops a geometric matching method to recognize mask center.
Research on calibration method of relative infrared radiometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei
2016-02-01
The Relative Infrared Radiometer (RIR) is commonly used to measure the irradiance of the Infrared Target Simulator (ITS), and the calibration of the RIR is central for the measurement accuracy. RIR calibration is conventionally performed using the Radiance Based (RB) calibration method or Irradiance Based (IB) calibration method, and the relationship between the radiation of standard source and the response of RIR is determined by curve fitting. One limitation existing in the calibration of RIR is the undesirable calibration voltage fluctuation in single measurement or in the reproducibility measurement, which reduces the calibration reproducibility and irradiance measurement accuracy. To address this limitation, the Equivalent Blackbody Temperature Based (EBTB) calibration method is proposed for the calibration of RIR. The purpose of this study is to compare the proposed EBTB calibration method with conventional RB and IB calibration methods. The comparison and experiment results have shown that the EBTB calibration method is not only able to provide comparable correlation between radiation and response to other calibration methods (IB and RB) in the irradiance measurement but also reduces the influence of calibration voltage fluctuation on the irradiance measurement result, which improves the calibration reproducibility and irradiance measurement accuracy.
Accurate wavelength calibration method for flat-field grating spectrometers.
Du, Xuewei; Li, Chaoyang; Xu, Zhe; Wang, Qiuping
2011-09-01
A portable spectrometer prototype is built to study wavelength calibration for flat-field grating spectrometers. An accurate calibration method called parameter fitting is presented. Both optical and structural parameters of the spectrometer are included in the wavelength calibration model, which accurately describes the relationship between wavelength and pixel position. Along with higher calibration accuracy, the proposed calibration method can provide information about errors in the installation of the optical components, which will be helpful for spectrometer alignment. PMID:21929865
A webcam photogrammetric method for robot calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sargeant, Ben; Hosseininaveh, Ali A.; Erfani, Tohid; Robson, Stuart; Boehm, Jan
2013-04-01
This paper describes a strategy for accurate robot calibration using close range photogrammetry. A 5-DoF robot has been designed for placement of two web cameras relative to an object. To ensure correct camera positioning, the robot is calibrated using the following strategy. First, a Denavit-Hartenberg method is used to generate a general kinematic robot model. A set of reference frames are defined relative to each joint and each of the cameras, transformation matrices are then produced to represent change in position and orientation between frames in terms of joint positions and unknown parameters. The complete model is extracted by multiplying these matrices. Second, photogrammetry is used to estimate the postures of both cameras. A set of images are captured of a calibration fixture from different robot poses. The camera postures are then estimated using bundle adjustment. Third, the kinematic parameters are estimated using weighted least squares. For each pose a set of equations are extracted from the model and the unknown parameters are estimated in an iterative procedure. Finally these values are substituted back into the original model. This final model is tested using forward kinematics by comparing the model's predicted camera postures for given joint positions to the values obtained through photogrammetry. Inverse kinematics is performed using both least squares and particle swarm optimisation and these techniques are contrasted. Results demonstrate that this photogrammetry approach produces a reliable and accurate model of the robot that can be used with both least squares and particle swarm optimisation for robot control.
Geometric estimation method for x-ray digital intraoral tomosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Liang; Yang, Yao; Chen, Zhiqiang
2016-06-01
It is essential for accurate image reconstruction to obtain a set of parameters that describes the x-ray scanning geometry. A geometric estimation method is presented for x-ray digital intraoral tomosynthesis (DIT) in which the detector remains stationary while the x-ray source rotates. The main idea is to estimate the three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of each shot position using at least two small opaque balls adhering to the detector surface as the positioning markers. From the radiographs containing these balls, the position of each x-ray focal spot can be calculated independently relative to the detector center no matter what kind of scanning trajectory is used. A 3-D phantom which roughly simulates DIT was designed to evaluate the performance of this method both quantitatively and qualitatively in the sense of mean square error and structural similarity. Results are also presented for real data acquired with a DIT experimental system. These results prove the validity of this geometric estimation method.
A dynamic calibration method for the pressure transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhuoran; Li, Qiang
2016-01-01
Pressure transducer is widely used in the field of industry. A calibrated pressure transducer can increase the performance of precision instruments in the closed mechanical relationship. Calibration is the key to ensure the pressure transducer with a high precision and dynamic characteristic. Unfortunately, the current calibration method can usually be used in the laboratory with a good condition and only one pressure transducer can be calibrated at each time. Therefore the calibration efficiency is hard to meet the requirement of modern industry with high efficiency. A dynamic and fast calibration technology with a calibration device and a corresponding data processing method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the pressure transducer to be calibrated is placed in the small cavity chamber. The calibration process only contains a single loop. The outputs of each calibrated transducer are recorded automatically by the control terminal. Secondly, LabView programming is used for the information acquisition and data processing. The performance of the repeatability and nonlinear indicators can be figured out directly. At last the pressure transducers are calibrated simultaneously in the experiment to verify the suggested calibration technology. The experimental result shows this method can be used to calibrate the pressure transducer in the practical engineering measurement.
A detector response function design in pinhole SPECT including geometrical calibration
El Bitar, Z; Huesman, R H; Buchko, R; Bekaert, Virgile; Brasse, David; Gullberg, G T
2014-01-01
Clinical single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) equipped with pinhole collimators have a magnification factor that results in high spatial resolution images for small animal imaging. Using Monte Carlo simulations to model the acquisition process and the propagation of the photons from their point of emission to their detection point then integrating the model into an iterative reconstruction algorithm improves the signal-to-noise ratio, the contrast and the spatial resolution in the reconstructed images. However, pinhole SPECT systems are known to be very sensitive to geometrical misalignments. Geometrical misalignments are defined as the radial or axial shift of the collimator pinhole and/or twist and tilt of the detector heads and are introduced in the system each time the collimation device is changed (pinhole to parallel holes or vice versa). In this work, we present a flexible detector response function table (DRFT) design that takes into account the geometrical misalignments and avoids performing new Monte Carlo simulations for each exam in order to calculate a geometrical study-dependent system matrix. The utilization of the DRFT for the calculation of the system matrix speeds up its computation time by two orders of magnitude making it acceptable for preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:23492938
Method for calibration of plutonium NDA
Lemming, J.F.; Campbell, A.R.; Rodenburg, W.W.
1980-01-01
Calibration materials characterized by calorimetric assay can be a practical alternative to synthetic standards for the calibration of plutonium nondestructive assay. Calorimetric assay is an effective measurement system for the characterization because: it can give an absolute assay from first principles when the isotopic composition is known, it is insensitive to most matrix effects, and its traceability to international measurement systems has been demonstrated.
Methods for Geometric Data Validation of 3d City Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, D.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.
2015-12-01
Geometric quality of 3D city models is crucial for data analysis and simulation tasks, which are part of modern applications of the data (e.g. potential heating energy consumption of city quarters, solar potential, etc.). Geometric quality in these contexts is however a different concept as it is for 2D maps. In the latter case, aspects such as positional or temporal accuracy and correctness represent typical quality metrics of the data. They are defined in ISO 19157 and should be mentioned as part of the metadata. 3D data has a far wider range of aspects which influence their quality, plus the idea of quality itself is application dependent. Thus, concepts for definition of quality are needed, including methods to validate these definitions. Quality on this sense means internal validation and detection of inconsistent or wrong geometry according to a predefined set of rules. A useful starting point would be to have correct geometry in accordance with ISO 19107. A valid solid should consist of planar faces which touch their neighbours exclusively in defined corner points and edges. No gaps between them are allowed, and the whole feature must be 2-manifold. In this paper, we present methods to validate common geometric requirements for building geometry. Different checks based on several algorithms have been implemented to validate a set of rules derived from the solid definition mentioned above (e.g. water tightness of the solid or planarity of its polygons), as they were developed for the software tool CityDoctor. The method of each check is specified, with a special focus on the discussion of tolerance values where they are necessary. The checks include polygon level checks to validate the correctness of each polygon, i.e. closeness of the bounding linear ring and planarity. On the solid level, which is only validated if the polygons have passed validation, correct polygon orientation is checked, after self-intersections outside of defined corner points and edges
Pulsed Electric Propulsion Thrust Stand Calibration Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Andrea R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Pearson, J. Boise
2011-01-01
The evaluation of the performance of any propulsion device requires the accurate measurement of thrust. While chemical rocket thrust is typically measured using a load cell, the low thrust levels associated with electric propulsion (EP) systems necessitate the use of much more sensitive measurement techniques. The design and development of electric propulsion thrust stands that employ a conventional hanging pendulum arm connected to a balance mechanism consisting of a secondary arm and variable linkage have been reported in recent publications by Polzin et al. These works focused on performing steady-state thrust measurements and employed a static analysis of the thrust stand response. In the present work, we present a calibration method and data that will permit pulsed thrust measurements using the Variable Amplitude Hanging Pendulum with Extended Range (VAHPER) thrust stand. Pulsed thrust measurements are challenging in general because the pulsed thrust (impulse bit) occurs over a short timescale (typically 1 micros to 1 millisecond) and cannot be resolved directly. Consequently, the imparted impulse bit must be inferred through observation of the change in thrust stand motion effected by the pulse. Pulsed thrust measurements have typically only consisted of single-shot operation. In the present work, we discuss repetition-rate pulsed thruster operation and describe a method to perform these measurements. The thrust stand response can be modeled as a spring-mass-damper system with a repetitive delta forcing function to represent the impulsive action of the thruster.
Geometrical distortions in two-dimensional gels: applicable correction methods.
Aittokallio, T; Salmi, J; Nyman, T A; Nevalainen, O S
2005-02-01
Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) provides a rapid means for separating thousands of proteins from cell and tissue samples in one run. Although this powerful research tool has been enthusiastically applied in many fields of biomedical research, accurate analysis and interpretation of the data have provided many challenges. Several analysis steps are needed to convert the large amount of noisy data obtained with 2-DE into reliable and interpretable biological information. The goals of such analysis steps include accurate protein detection and quantification, as well as the identification of differentially expressed proteins between samples run on different gels. To achieve these goals, systematic errors such as geometric distortions between the gels must be corrected by using computer-assisted methods. A wide range of computer software has been developed, but no general consensus exists as standard for 2-DE data analysis protocol. The choice of analysis approach is an important element depending both on the data and on the goals of the experiment. Therefore, basic understanding of the algorithms behind the software is required for optimal results. This review highlights some of the common themes in 2-DE data analysis, including protein spot detection and geometric image warping using both spot- and pixel-based approaches. Several computational strategies are overviewed and their relative merits and potential pitfalls discussed. Finally, we offer our own personal view of future trends and developments in large-scale proteome research. PMID:15652796
A Comparison of Two Balance Calibration Model Building Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeLoach, Richard; Ulbrich, Norbert
2007-01-01
Simulated strain-gage balance calibration data is used to compare the accuracy of two balance calibration model building methods for different noise environments and calibration experiment designs. The first building method obtains a math model for the analysis of balance calibration data after applying a candidate math model search algorithm to the calibration data set. The second building method uses stepwise regression analysis in order to construct a model for the analysis. Four balance calibration data sets were simulated in order to compare the accuracy of the two math model building methods. The simulated data sets were prepared using the traditional One Factor At a Time (OFAT) technique and the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) approach. Random and systematic errors were introduced in the simulated calibration data sets in order to study their influence on the math model building methods. Residuals of the fitted calibration responses and other statistical metrics were compared in order to evaluate the calibration models developed with different combinations of noise environment, experiment design, and model building method. Overall, predicted math models and residuals of both math model building methods show very good agreement. Significant differences in model quality were attributable to noise environment, experiment design, and their interaction. Generally, the addition of systematic error significantly degraded the quality of calibration models developed from OFAT data by either method, but MDOE experiment designs were more robust with respect to the introduction of a systematic component of the unexplained variance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkening, Günter; Koenders, Ludger
2005-08-01
The quantitative determination of the properties of micro- and nanostructures is essential in research and development. It is also a prerequisite in process control and quality assurance in industry. The knowledge of the geometrical dimensions of structures in most cases is the base, to which other physical and chemical properties are linked. Quantitative measurements require reliable and stable instruments, suitable measurement procedures as well as appropriate calibration artefacts and methods. The seminar "NanoScale 2004" (6th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy and 2nd Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods) at the National Metrology Institute (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB), Braunschweig, Germany, continues the series of seminars on Quantitative Microscopy. The series stimulates the exchange of information between manufacturers of relevant hard- and software and the users in science and industry. Topics addressed in these proceedings are a) the application of quantitative measurements and measurement problems in: microelectronics, microsystems technology, nano/quantum/molecular electronics, chemistry, biology, medicine, environmental technology, materials science, surface processing b) calibration & correction methods: calibration methods, calibration standards, calibration procedures, traceable measurements, standardization, uncertainty of measurements c) instrumentation and methods: novel/improved instruments and methods, reproducible probe/sample positioning, position-measuring systems, novel/improved probe/detector systems, linearization methods, image processing
A Study for Efficient Methods of System Calibration between Optical and Range Sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, W.; Kim, C.; Kim, Y.
2015-06-01
Recently, interests in 3D indoor modeling and positioning have been growing. Data fusion by using different sensors data is one of the 3D model producing methods. For a data fusion between two kinds of sensors, precise system calibration is essential. If relative geometric location of each sensor can be accurately measured with a system-calibration, it is possible to locate a pixel that corresponds to the same object in two different images, and thus, produce a more precise data-fusion. Purpose of this study is finding more efficient method of system calibration between optical and range sensor. For this purpose, experiment was designed by considering following variables, i) system calibration method, ii) testbed type, iii) and distance data(whether use it or not). So, In this study, test-bed for system calibration was designed by considering the characteristics of sensors. Also, precise simulation was done to find efficient method of system calibration, and its results were reflected in real experiment. Results of simulation show that the bundle adjustment method is more efficient than single photo resection in system calibration between range and optical sensors. And the most efficient case was when using i) the bundle adjustment with ii) the simulated data set which were obtained between 2m to 4m away from the test-bed. These results of simulation were reflected in real system calibration. Finally, real system calibration were performed and its results were compared to results of simulation. And accuracy of system calibration was evaluated by producing fusion data between range and optical sensors.
Geometrical MTF computation method based on the irradiance model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, P.-D.; Liu, C.-S.
2011-01-01
The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is a measure of an optical system's ability to transfer contrast from the specimen to the image plane at a specific resolution. It can be computed either numerically by geometrical optics or measured experimentally by imaging a knife edge or a bar-target pattern of varying spatial frequency. Previously, MTF accuracy was generally affected by the size of the mesh on the image plane. This paper presents a new MTF computation method based on the irradiance model, without counting the number of rays hitting each grid. To verify the method, the MTF in the sagittal and meridional directions of an axis-symmetrical optical system is computed by both the ray-counting and the proposed methods. It is found that the grid size meshed on the image plane significantly affects the MTF of the ray-counting method, sometimes with significantly negative results. The proposed irradiance method is immune to issues of grid size. The CPU computation time for the two methods is approximately the same.
A study of geometric phase topology using Fourier transform method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samlan, C. T.; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.
2016-07-01
Topological aspect of the geometric phase (GP) due to pure polarization projection is studied using the 2D Fourier transform (2D-FT) method. Projection of orthogonal polarization state results in a phase singularity in the 2D parameter space of ellipticity and orientation of polarization ellipse. Projection of its surrounding states results in an accumulation of GP in different amount that form a spiral structure. A half wave plate–quarter wave plate combination is used to generate different polarization states which are projected using a polarizer. The accumulated phase for each orientation of the wave plate is extracted from 2D-FT of the interferogram, obtained by interfering it with a reference beam in a Mach–Zehnder like interferometer.
Geometric multigrid for an implicit-time immersed boundary method
Guy, Robert D.; Philip, Bobby; Griffith, Boyce E.
2014-10-12
The immersed boundary (IB) method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses Lagrangian variables to describe the deformations and resulting forces of the structure and Eulerian variables to describe the motion and forces of the fluid. Explicit time stepping schemes for the IB method require solvers only for Eulerian equations, for which fast Cartesian grid solution methods are available. Such methods are relatively straightforward to develop and are widely used in practice but often require very small time steps to maintain stability. Implicit-time IB methods permit the stable use of large time steps, but efficient implementations of such methods require significantly more complex solvers that effectively treat both Lagrangian and Eulerian variables simultaneously. Moreover, several different approaches to solving the coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian equations have been proposed, but a complete understanding of this problem is still emerging. This paper presents a geometric multigrid method for an implicit-time discretization of the IB equations. This multigrid scheme uses a generalization of box relaxation that is shown to handle problems in which the physical stiffness of the structure is very large. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithms described herein. Finally, these tests show that using multigrid as a preconditioner for a Krylov method yields improvements in both robustness and efficiency as compared to using multigrid as a solver. They also demonstrate that with a time step 100–1000 times larger than that permitted by an explicit IB method, the multigrid-preconditioned implicit IB method is approximately 50–200 times more efficient than the explicit method.
Calibration methods for rotating shadowband irradiometers and evaluation of calibration duration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jessen, W.; Wilbert, S.; Nouri, B.; Geuder, N.; Fritz, H.
2015-10-01
Resource assessment for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) needs accurate Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) measurements. An option for such measurement campaigns are Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers (RSIs) with a thorough calibration. Calibration of RSIs and Si-sensors in general is complex because of the inhomogeneous spectral response of such sensors and incorporates the use of several correction functions. A calibration for a given atmospheric condition and air mass might not work well for a different condition. This paper covers procedures and requirements for two calibration methods for the calibration of Rotating Shadowband Irradiometers. The necessary duration of acquisition of test measurements is examined in regard to the site specific conditions at Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. Data sets of several long-term calibration periods from PSA are used to evaluate the deviation of results from calibrations with varying duration from the long-term result. The findings show that seasonal changes of environmental conditions are causing small but noticeable fluctuation of calibration results. Certain periods (i.e. November to January and April to May) show a higher likelihood of particularly adverse calibration results. These effects can partially be compensated by increasing the inclusions of measurements from outside these periods. Consequently, the duration of calibrations at PSA can now be selected depending on the time of the year in which measurements are commenced.
Stoddard, Nathan G
2015-02-10
Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of geometrically ordered multi-crystalline silicon may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm is provided.
Geometric multigrid for an implicit-time immersed boundary method
Guy, Robert D.; Philip, Bobby; Griffith, Boyce E.
2014-10-12
The immersed boundary (IB) method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses Lagrangian variables to describe the deformations and resulting forces of the structure and Eulerian variables to describe the motion and forces of the fluid. Explicit time stepping schemes for the IB method require solvers only for Eulerian equations, for which fast Cartesian grid solution methods are available. Such methods are relatively straightforward to develop and are widely used in practice but often require very small time steps to maintain stability. Implicit-time IB methods permit the stable use of large time steps, but efficient implementations of such methodsmore » require significantly more complex solvers that effectively treat both Lagrangian and Eulerian variables simultaneously. Moreover, several different approaches to solving the coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian equations have been proposed, but a complete understanding of this problem is still emerging. This paper presents a geometric multigrid method for an implicit-time discretization of the IB equations. This multigrid scheme uses a generalization of box relaxation that is shown to handle problems in which the physical stiffness of the structure is very large. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithms described herein. Finally, these tests show that using multigrid as a preconditioner for a Krylov method yields improvements in both robustness and efficiency as compared to using multigrid as a solver. They also demonstrate that with a time step 100–1000 times larger than that permitted by an explicit IB method, the multigrid-preconditioned implicit IB method is approximately 50–200 times more efficient than the explicit method.« less
Altazimuth mount based dynamic calibration method for GNSS attitude measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Nan; He, Tao; Sun, Shaohua; Gu, Qing
2015-02-01
As the key process to ensure the test accuracy and quality, the dynamic calibration of the GNSS attitude measuring instrument is often embarrassed by the lack of the rigid enough test platform and an accurate enough calibration reference. To solve the problems, a novel dynamic calibration method for GNSS attitude measurement based on altazimuth mount is put forward in this paper. The principle and implementation of this method are presented, and then the feasibility and usability of the method are analyzed in detail involving the applicability of the mount, calibrating precision, calibrating range, base line rigidity and the satellite signal involved factors. Furthermore, to verify and test the method, a confirmatory experiment is carried out with the survey ship GPS attitude measuring instrument, and the experimental results prove that it is a feasible way to the dynamic calibration for GNSS attitude measurement.
Chiu, Tsuicheng D; Yan, Yulong; Foster, Ryan; Mao, Weihua
2015-01-01
Geometric or mechanical accuracy of kV and MV imaging systems of two Varian TrueBeam linacs have been monitored by two geomertirc calibration systems, Varian IsoCal geometric calibration system and home-developed gQA system. Results of both systems are cross-checked and the long-term geometric stabilities of linacs are evaluated. Two geometric calibration methodologies have been used to assess kV and MV imaging systems and their coincidence periodically on two TrueBeam linacs for about one year. Both systems analyze kV or MV projection images of special designed phantoms to retrieve geometric parameters of the imaging systems. The isocenters — laser isocenter and centers of rotations of kV imager and EPID — are then calculated, based on results of multiple projections from different angles. Long-term calibration results from both systems are compared for cross-checking. There are 24 sessions of side-by-side calibrations performed by both systems on two TrueBeam linacs. All the disagreements of isocenters between two calibrations systems are less than 1 mm with ± 0.1 mm SD. Most of the large disagreements occurred in vertical direction (AP direction), with an averaged disagreement of 0.45 mm. The average disagreements of isocenters are 0.09 mm in other directions. Additional to long-term calibration monitoring, for the accuracy test, special tests were performed by misaligning QA phantoms on purpose (5 mm away from setup isocenter in AP, SI, and lateral directions) to test the liability performance of both systems with the known deviations. The errors are within 0.5 mm. Both geometric calibration systems, IsoCal and gQA, are capable of detecting geometric deviations of kV and MV imaging systems of linacs. The long-term evaluation also shows that the deviations of geometric parameters and the geometric accuracies of both linacs are small and very consistent during the one-year study period. PMID:26218992
Geometric optimization of helical tail designs to calibrate swimming velocities of microswimmers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demir, Ebru; Yesilyurt, Serhat
2014-11-01
Artificial microswimmers present both a solution and a challenge as alternative tools to be used in medical applications, namely, drug delivery and minimally invasive surgeries. Achieving desired amount of controlled displacement of microswimmers at desired velocities plays an important role in determining the success of such applications. In this study, a non-dimensionalised CFD model is utilised to investigate the effects of various geometrical parameters on swimming velocities of microswimmers with helical tails in cylindrical confinements, such as helix wavelength, helical body thickness, and diameter. To this end, a ``one wavelength long'' helical tail is placed inside a cylindrical channel of the same length with periodic boundary conditions applied to both ends, constituting an infinite helix model. As the channel diameter is kept constant, a parametric study of abovementioned geometric identities is conducted to observe the change in the swimming velocities. Furthermore, effects of helix-channel eccentricity and helix rotation about the longitudinal axis on swimming velocity of a dimensionally optimized helix are investigated to reveal near wall effects. The results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical models existing in the literature.
Research radiometric calibration quantitative transfer methods between internal and external
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ju Guang; Ma, Yong hui; Zhang, Guang; Yang, Zhi hui
2015-10-01
This paper puts forward a method by realizing the internal and external radiation calibration transfer for infrared radiation characteristics quantitative measuring system. Through technological innovation and innovation application to establish a theoretical model of the corresponding radiated transfer method. This method can be well in engineering application for technology conversion process of radiometric calibration that with relatively simple and effective calibration in the half light path radiation instead of complex difficult whole optical path radiometric calibration. At the same time, it also will provide the basis of effective support to further carry out the target radiated characteristics quantitative measurement and application for ground type infrared radiated quantitative measuring system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Fang-Jenq
1997-01-01
Flow visualization produces data in the form of two-dimensional images. If the optical components of a camera system are perfect, the transformation equations between the two-dimensional image and the three-dimensional object space are linear and easy to solve. However, real camera lenses introduce nonlinear distortions that affect the accuracy of transformation unless proper corrections are applied. An iterative least-squares adjustment algorithm is developed to solve the nonlinear transformation equations incorporated with distortion corrections. Experimental applications demonstrate that a relative precision on the order of 40,000 is achievable without tedious laboratory calibrations of the camera.
Calibration methods for rotating shadowband irradiometers and optimizing the calibration duration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jessen, Wilko; Wilbert, Stefan; Nouri, Bijan; Geuder, Norbert; Fritz, Holger
2016-04-01
Resource assessment for concentrated solar power (CSP) needs accurate direct normal irradiance (DNI) measurements. An option for such measurement campaigns is the use of thoroughly calibrated rotating shadowband irradiometers (RSIs). Calibration of RSIs and Si-sensors is complex because of the inhomogeneous spectral response of these sensors and incorporates the use of several correction functions. One calibration for a given atmospheric condition and air mass might not be suitable under different conditions. This paper covers procedures and requirements of two calibration methods for the calibration of rotating shadowband irradiometers. The necessary duration of acquisition of test measurements is examined with regard to the site-specific conditions at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Spain. Seven data sets of long-term test measurements were collected. For each data set, calibration results of varying durations were compared to its respective long-term result. Our findings show that seasonal changes of environmental conditions are causing small but noticeable fluctuation of calibration results. Calibration results within certain periods (i.e. November to January and April to May) show a higher likelihood of deviation. These effects can partially be attenuated by including more measurements from outside these periods. Consequently, the duration of calibrations at PSA can now be selected depending on the time of year in which measurements commence.
Simultaneous multi-headed imager geometry calibration method
Tran, Vi-Hoa; Meikle, Steven Richard; Smith, Mark Frederick
2008-02-19
A method for calibrating multi-headed high sensitivity and high spatial resolution dynamic imaging systems, especially those useful in the acquisition of tomographic images of small animals. The method of the present invention comprises: simultaneously calibrating two or more detectors to the same coordinate system; and functionally correcting for unwanted detector movement due to gantry flexing.
Improvements to and comparison of static terrestrial LiDAR self-calibration methods.
Chow, Jacky C K; Lichti, Derek D; Glennie, Craig; Hartzell, Preston
2013-01-01
Terrestrial laser scanners are sophisticated instruments that operate much like high-speed total stations. It has previously been shown that unmodelled systematic errors can exist in modern terrestrial laser scanners that deteriorate their geometric measurement precision and accuracy. Typically, signalised targets are used in point-based self-calibrations to identify and model the systematic errors. Although this method has proven its effectiveness, a large quantity of signalised targets is required and is therefore labour-intensive and limits its practicality. In recent years, feature-based self-calibration of aerial, mobile terrestrial, and static terrestrial laser scanning systems has been demonstrated. In this paper, the commonalities and differences between point-based and plane-based self-calibration (in terms of model identification and parameter correlation) are explored. The results of this research indicate that much of the knowledge from point-based self-calibration can be directly transferred to plane-based calibration and that the two calibration approaches are nearly equivalent. New network configurations, such as the inclusion of tilted scans, were also studied and prove to be an effective means for strengthening the self-calibration solution, and improved recoverability of the horizontal collimation axis error for hybrid scanners, which has always posed a challenge in the past. PMID:23727956
Improvements to and Comparison of Static Terrestrial LiDAR Self-Calibration Methods
Chow, Jacky C. K.; Lichti, Derek D.; Glennie, Craig; Hartzell, Preston
2013-01-01
Terrestrial laser scanners are sophisticated instruments that operate much like high-speed total stations. It has previously been shown that unmodelled systematic errors can exist in modern terrestrial laser scanners that deteriorate their geometric measurement precision and accuracy. Typically, signalised targets are used in point-based self-calibrations to identify and model the systematic errors. Although this method has proven its effectiveness, a large quantity of signalised targets is required and is therefore labour-intensive and limits its practicality. In recent years, feature-based self-calibration of aerial, mobile terrestrial, and static terrestrial laser scanning systems has been demonstrated. In this paper, the commonalities and differences between point-based and plane-based self-calibration (in terms of model identification and parameter correlation) are explored. The results of this research indicate that much of the knowledge from point-based self-calibration can be directly transferred to plane-based calibration and that the two calibration approaches are nearly equivalent. New network configurations, such as the inclusion of tilted scans, were also studied and prove to be an effective means for strengthening the self-calibration solution, and improved recoverability of the horizontal collimation axis error for hybrid scanners, which has always posed a challenge in the past. PMID:23727956
Study on self-calibration angle encoder using simulation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yan; Xue, Zi; Huang, Yao; Wang, Xiaona
2016-01-01
The angle measurement technology is very important in precision manufacture, optical industry, aerospace, aviation and navigation, etc. Further, the angle encoder, which uses concept `subdivision of full circle (2π rad=360°)' and transforms the angle into number of electronic pulse, is the most common instrument for angle measurement. To improve the accuracy of the angle encoder, a novel self-calibration method was proposed that enables the angle encoder to calibrate itself without angle reference. An angle deviation curve among 0° to 360° was simulated with equal weights Fourier components for the study of the self-calibration method. In addition, a self-calibration algorithm was used in the process of this deviation curve. The simulation result shows the relationship between the arrangement of multi-reading heads and the Fourier components distribution of angle encoder deviation curve. Besides, an actual self-calibration angle encoder was calibrated by polygon angle standard in national institute of metrology, China. The experiment result indicates the actual self-calibration effect on the Fourier components distribution of angle encoder deviation curve. In the end, the comparison, which is between the simulation self-calibration result and the experiment self-calibration result, reflects good consistency and proves the reliability of the self-calibration angle encoder.
Comparison of TLD calibration methods for 192Ir dosimetry.
Haworth, Annette; Butler, Duncan J; Wilfert, Lisa; Ebert, Martin A; Todd, Stephen P; Hayton, Anna J M; Kron, Tomas
2013-01-01
For the purpose of dose measurement using a high-dose rate (192)Ir source, four methods of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) calibration were investigated. Three of the four calibration methods used the (192)Ir source. Dwell times were calculated to deliver 1 Gy to the TLDs irradiated either in air or water. Dwell time calculations were confirmed by direct measurement using an ionization chamber. The fourth method of calibration used 6 MV photons from a medical linear accelerator, and an energy correction factor was applied to account for the difference in sensitivity of the TLDs in (192)Ir and 6 MV. The results of the four TLD calibration methods are presented in terms of the results of a brachytherapy audit where seven Australian centers irradiated three sets of TLDs in a water phantom. The results were in agreement within estimated uncertainties when the TLDs were calibrated with the (192)Ir source. Calibrating TLDs in a phantom similar to that used for the audit proved to be the most practical method and provided the greatest confidence in measured dose. When calibrated using 6 MV photons, the TLD results were consistently higher than the (192)Ir-calibrated TLDs, suggesting this method does not fully correct for the response of the TLDs when irradiated in the audit phantom. PMID:23318392
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping
1999-01-01
Statistical tools, previously developed for nonlinear least-squares estimation of multivariate sensor calibration parameters and the associated calibration uncertainty analysis, have been applied to single- and multiple-axis inertial model attitude sensors used in wind tunnel testing to measure angle of attack and roll angle. The analysis provides confidence and prediction intervals of calibrated sensor measurement uncertainty as functions of applied input pitch and roll angles. A comparative performance study of various experimental designs for inertial sensor calibration is presented along with corroborating experimental data. The importance of replicated calibrations over extended time periods has been emphasized; replication provides independent estimates of calibration precision and bias uncertainties, statistical tests for calibration or modeling bias uncertainty, and statistical tests for sensor parameter drift over time. A set of recommendations for a new standardized model attitude sensor calibration method and usage procedures is included. The statistical information provided by these procedures is necessary for the uncertainty analysis of aerospace test results now required by users of industrial wind tunnel test facilities.
A geometric method for optimal design of color filter arrays.
Hao, Pengwei; Li, Yan; Lin, Zhouchen; Dubois, Eric
2011-03-01
A color filter array (CFA) used in a digital camera is a mosaic of spectrally selective filters, which allows only one color component to be sensed at each pixel. The missing two components of each pixel have to be estimated by methods known as demosaicking. The demosaicking algorithm and the CFA design are crucial for the quality of the output images. In this paper, we present a CFA design methodology in the frequency domain. The frequency structure, which is shown to be just the symbolic DFT of the CFA pattern (one period of the CFA), is introduced to represent images sampled with any rectangular CFAs in the frequency domain. Based on the frequency structure, the CFA design involves the solution of a constrained optimization problem that aims at minimizing the demosaicking error. To decrease the number of parameters and speed up the parameter searching, the optimization problem is reformulated as the selection of geometric points on the boundary of a convex polygon or the surface of a convex polyhedron. Using our methodology, several new CFA patterns are found, which outperform the currently commercialized and published ones. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our CFA design methodology and the superiority of our new CFA patterns. PMID:20858581
Landmark-free geometric methods in biological shape analysis.
Koehl, Patrice; Hass, Joel
2015-12-01
In this paper, we propose a new approach for computing a distance between two shapes embedded in three-dimensional space. We take as input a pair of triangulated genus zero surfaces that are topologically equivalent to spheres with no holes or handles, and construct a discrete conformal map f between the surfaces. The conformal map is chosen to minimize a symmetric deformation energy Esd(f) which we introduce. This measures the distance of f from an isometry, i.e. a non-distorting correspondence. We show that the energy of the minimizing map gives a well-behaved metric on the space of genus zero surfaces. In contrast to most methods in this field, our approach does not rely on any assignment of landmarks on the two surfaces. We illustrate applications of our approach to geometric morphometrics using three datasets representing the bones and teeth of primates. Experiments on these datasets show that our approach performs remarkably well both in shape recognition and in identifying evolutionary patterns, with success rates similar to, and in some cases better than, those obtained by expert observers. PMID:26631331
Calibration method for video and radiation imagers
Cunningham, Mark F.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F.; Goddard, Jr., James S.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Ziock, Klaus-peter
2011-07-05
The relationship between the high energy radiation imager pixel (HERIP) coordinate and real-world x-coordinate is determined by a least square fit between the HERIP x-coordinate and the measured real-world x-coordinates of calibration markers that emit high energy radiation imager and reflect visible light. Upon calibration, a high energy radiation imager pixel position may be determined based on a real-world coordinate of a moving vehicle. Further, a scale parameter for said high energy radiation imager may be determined based on the real-world coordinate. The scale parameter depends on the y-coordinate of the moving vehicle as provided by a visible light camera. The high energy radiation imager may be employed to detect radiation from moving vehicles in multiple lanes, which correspondingly have different distances to the high energy radiation imager.
Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor
Flower, William L.; Renzi, Ronald F.
1998-07-07
The instant invention discloses method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, and sampling probes, in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream.
System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.
Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor
Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.
1998-07-07
The invention discloses a method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, sampling probes, and in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream. 6 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speyerer, E. J.; Wagner, R. V.; Robinson, M. S.
2016-06-01
The Clementine UVVIS camera returned over half a million images while in orbit around the Moon in 1994. Since the Clementine mission, our knowledge of lunar topography, gravity, and the location of features on the surface has vastly improved with the success of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission and ongoing Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. In particular, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has returned over a million images of the Moon since entering orbit in 2009. With the aid of improved ephemeris and on-orbit calibration, the LROC team created a series of precise and accurate global maps. With the updated reference frame, older lunar maps, such as those generated from Clementine UVVIS images, are misaligned making cross-mission analysis difficult. In this study, we use feature-based matching routines to refine and recalibrate the interior and exterior orientation parameters of the Clementine UVVIS camera. After applying these updates and rigorous orthorectification, we are able generate precise and accurate maps from UVVIS images to help support lunar science and future cross-mission investigations.
A novel calibration method of CCD camera for LAMOST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Yonggang; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao
2012-09-01
Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope - LAMOST, with a 1.75m-diameter focal plane on which 4000 optical fibers are arranged, is one of major scientific projects in China. During the surveying process of LAMOST, the optical imaging system makes the astrometric objects be imaged in the focal plane, and the optical fiber positioning system controls the 4000 fibers to be aligned with these objects and obtain their spectrum. In order to correct the positioning error of these optical fibers, the CCD camera is used to detect these fibers’ position in the way of close-range photogrammetry. As we all know, the calibration quality of the CCD camera is one of the most important factors for detection precision. However, the camera calibration has two following problems in the field work of LAMOST. First, the camera parameters are not stable due to the changes of on-site work environment and the vibration during movement. So, the CCD camera must be on-line calibrated. Second, a large-size high-precision calibration target is needed to calibrate the camera, for the focal plane is very big. Making such a calibration target, it is very difficult and costly. Meanwhile, the large calibration target is hard to be fixed on LAMOST because of the space constraint. In this paper, an improved bundle adjustment self-calibration method is proposed to solve the two problems above. The results of experiment indicate that this novel calibration method needs only a few control points while the traditional calibration methods need much more control points to get the same accuracy. So the method could realize the on-line high-precision calibration of CCD camera for LAMOST.
Method of Noncontact Calibration of the Robotic Ultrasonic Tomograph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borikov, V. N.; Galtseva, O. V.; Filippov, G. A.
2016-01-01
The method of calibration of robotic ultrasonic tomograph with the construction of the trajectory of movement of the robot-manipulator on the object of control by using 3D- scanner is described. This method can significantly accelerate the process of calibration of tomograph and prevent possible displacement of the object during calibration. The algorithm of transition from use of a contact method of calibration of the tomograph to noncontact calibration is offered. Experimental data of application of this algorithm show a positive result: the time of research of object considerably decreases. Results of researches prove the practical relevance of the presented work and high efficiency of application of robotic ultrasonic tomography for nondestructive testing of objects of different forms.
A curve fitting method for extrinsic camera calibration from a single image of a cylindrical object
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkler, A. W.; Zagar, B. G.
2013-08-01
An important step in the process of optical steel coil quality assurance is to measure the proportions of width and radius of steel coils as well as the relative position and orientation of the camera. This work attempts to estimate these extrinsic parameters from single images by using the cylindrical coil itself as the calibration target. Therefore, an adaptive least-squares algorithm is applied to fit parametrized curves to the detected true coil outline in the acquisition. The employed model allows for strictly separating the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters. Thus, the intrinsic camera parameters can be calibrated beforehand using available calibration software. Furthermore, a way to segment the true coil outline in the acquired images is motivated. The proposed optimization method yields highly accurate results and can be generalized even to measure other solids which cannot be characterized by the identification of simple geometric primitives.
Suomi NPP VIIRS prelaunch and on-orbit geometric calibration and characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna P.; Tilton, James C.; Isaacman, Alice R.
2013-10-01
Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor was launched 28 October 2011 on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. VIIRS has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 µm and 12.01 µm, including 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands) with a nominal spatial resolution of 750 m at nadir, five imaging resolution bands (I-bands) with a nominal spatial resolution of 375 m at nadir, and a day-night band (DNB) with a near-constant nominal 750 m spatial resolution throughout the scan. These bands are located in a visible and near-infrared focal plane assembly (FPA), a shortwave and midwave infrared FPA, and a long-wave infrared FPA. All bands, except the DNB, are coregistered for proper environmental data records retrievals. Observations from VIIRS instrument provide long-term measurements of biogeophysical variables for climate research and polar satellite data stream for the operational community's use in weather forecasting and disaster relief and other applications. Well Earth-located (geolocated) instrument data are important to retrieving accurate biogeophysical variables. This paper describes prelaunch pointing and alignment measurements, and the two sets of on-orbit correction of geolocation errors, the first of which corrected error from 1300 m to within 75 m (20% I-band pixel size) and the second of which fine-tuned scan-angle dependent errors, bringing VIIRS geolocation products to high maturity in one and a half years of the SNPP VIIRS on-orbit operations. Prelaunch calibration and the on-orbit characterization of sensor spatial impulse responses and band-to-band coregistration are also described.
Suomi NPP VIIRS Prelaunch and On-orbit Geometric Calibration and Characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna P.; Tilton, James C.; Isaacman, Alice R.
2013-01-01
The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor was launched 28 October 2011 on the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. VIIRS has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 m and 12.01 m, including 16 moderate resolution bands (M-bands) with a spatial resolution of 750 m at nadir, 5 imaging resolution bands (I-bands) with a spatial resolution of 375 m at nadir, and 1 day-night band (DNB) with a near-constant 750 m spatial resolution throughout the scan. These bands are located in a visible and near infrared (VisNIR) focal plane assembly (FPA), a short- and mid-wave infrared (SWMWIR) FPA and a long-wave infrared (LWIR) FPA. All bands, except the DNB, are co-registered for proper environmental data records (EDRs) retrievals. Observations from VIIRS instrument provide long-term measurements of biogeophysical variables for climate research and polar satellite data stream for the operational communitys use in weather forecasting and disaster relief and other applications. Well Earth-located (geolocated) instrument data is important to retrieving accurate biogeophysical variables. This paper describes prelaunch pointing and alignment measurements, and the two sets of on-orbit correction of geolocation errors, the first of which corrected error from 1,300 m to within 75 m (20 I-band pixel size), and the second of which fine tuned scan angle dependent errors, bringing VIIRS geolocation products to high maturity in one and a half years of the SNPP VIIRS on-orbit operations. Prelaunch calibration and the on-orbit characterization of sensor spatial impulse responses and band-to-band co-registration (BBR) are also described.
[High Precision Spectral Calibration Method of Fourier Interferometric Spectrometer].
Lin, Jun; Shao, Jun; Song, Chao-yu; Li, Yun-wei; Lei, Yu-fei
2015-12-01
The Fourier interferometric spectrometer (FIS) acquires the interference data information of the spectrum and during the spectrum data processing, a series of spectrum reconstruction will be performed on the interference information to obtain the final spectrum information data. The spectral calibration is the key step to spectrum reconstruction of FIS, which directly determines accuracy and availability of the spectrum results. This paper introduces the basic ideas and calibration accuracy about the spectral calibration for the FIS and puts forward a new spectral calibration method based on calculating the precise value of the total optical path difference (TOPD). The TOPD of FIS is difficult to be precisely measured, but it is the core and key to the spectral calibration. In order to calculate the precise TOPD, this paper proposes the idea how to traverse the TOPD and analyzes the spectrum drift. During the calibration, all the possible values of the TOPD participate in the spectrum reconstruction flow to carry out spectrum recovery and analysis. Ultimately the TOPD with the minimum spectrum drift will be achieved, namely solution value of the TOPD. This method can accurately resolve the TOPD of the FIS and then calibrate the spectrum with high accuracy. In addition, the paper introduces the detailed and complete spectral calibration flow and obtains the center wavelength value of every band and wavenumber resolution. Moreover, the paper designs the main parameters of the typical FIS and generates its simulation interference data. Using the above method to calibrate the simulation data, the analysis and verification of the spectral calibration results proves that the calibration precision of wavenumber resolution achieves 0.000 25 cm⁻¹ or above. PMID:26964245
New method for calibration of a computer controlled CRT: feedback calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jingping; Zhu, Zhengfang; Zhao, Dazun
1994-08-01
There are many formulas to describe the input and output relationship of CRT. As the radiant output of CRT submits to the statistical distribution, the prediction of the colorimetry from these formulas is not good. Some deviation of the brightness are as high as 50%. There is a need to find a new method to calibrate CRT. We have set up an automatic measurement and calibration system with PHOTO 1980B, IEEE 4888 interface board, CRT and a computer.
Vanishing feature constraints calibration method for binocular vision sensor.
Wei, Zhenzhong; Liu, Xiaokun
2015-07-27
Based on analyzing the measurement model of binocular vision sensor, we proposed a new flexible calibration method for binocular vision sensor using a planar target with several parallel lines. It only requires the sensor to observe the planar target at a few (at least two) different orientations. Relying on vanishing feature constraints and spacing constraints of parallel lines, linear method and nonlinear optimization are combined to estimate the structure parameters of binocular vision sensor. Linear method achieves the separation of the rotation matrix and translation vector which reduces the complexity of computation; Nonlinear algorithm ensures the calibration results for the global optimization. Towards the factors that affect the accuracy of the calibration, theoretical analysis and computer simulation are carried out respectively consequence in qualitative analysis and quantitative result. Real data shows that the accuracy of the proposed calibration method is about 0.040mm with the working distance of 800mm and the view field of 300 × 300mm. The comparison with Bougust toolbox and the method based on known length indicates that the proposed calibration method is precise and is efficient and convenient as its simple calculation and easy operation, especially for onsite calibration and self-calibration. PMID:26367553
Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardona, Alexander; Contreras, Iván.; Reyes-Lega, Andrés. F.
2013-05-01
Introduction; 1. A brief introduction to Dirac manifolds Henrique Bursztyn; 2. Differential geometry of holomorphic vector bundles on a curve Florent Schaffhauser; 3. Paths towards an extension of Chern-Weil calculus to a class of infinite dimensional vector bundles Sylvie Paycha; 4. Introduction to Feynman integrals Stefan Weinzierl; 5. Iterated integrals in quantum field theory Francis Brown; 6. Geometric issues in quantum field theory and string theory Luis J. Boya; 7. Geometric aspects of the standard model and the mysteries of matter Florian Scheck; 8. Absence of singular continuous spectrum for some geometric Laplacians Leonardo A. Cano García; 9. Models for formal groupoids Iván Contreras; 10. Elliptic PDEs and smoothness of weakly Einstein metrics of Hölder regularity Andrés Vargas; 11. Regularized traces and the index formula for manifolds with boundary Alexander Cardona and César Del Corral; Index.
Scatterometer-Calibrated Stability Verification Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McWatters, Dalia A.; Cheetham, Craig M.; Huang, Shouhua; Fischman, Mark A.; CHu, Anhua J.; Freedman, Adam P.
2011-01-01
The requirement for scatterometer-combined transmit-receive gain variation knowledge is typically addressed by sampling a portion of the transmit signal, attenuating it with a known-stable attenuation, and coupling it into the receiver chain. This way, the gain variations of the transmit and receive chains are represented by this loop-back calibration signal, and can be subtracted from the received remote radar echo. Certain challenges are presented by this process, such as transmit and receive components that are outside of this loop-back path and are not included in this calibration, as well as the impracticality for measuring the transmit and receive chains stability and post fabrication separately, without the resulting measurement errors from the test set up exceeding the requirement for the flight instrument. To cover the RF stability design challenge, the portions of the scatterometer that are not calibrated by the loop-back, (e.g., attenuators, switches, diplexers, couplers, and coaxial cables) are tightly thermally controlled, and have been characterized over temperature to contribute less than 0.05 dB of calibration error over worst-case thermal variation. To address the verification challenge, including the components that are not calibrated by the loop-back, a stable fiber optic delay line (FODL) was used to delay the transmitted pulse, and to route it into the receiver. In this way, the internal loopback signal amplitude variations can be compared to the full transmit/receive external path, while the flight hardware is in the worst-case thermal environment. The practical delay for implementing the FODL is 100 s. The scatterometer pulse width is 1 ms so a test mode was incorporated early in the design phase to scale the 1 ms pulse at 100-Hz pulse repetition interval (PRI), by a factor of 18, to be a 55 s pulse with 556 s PRI. This scaling maintains the duty cycle, thus maintaining a representative thermal state for the RF components. The FODL consists
Methods and apparatuses for signaling with geometric constellations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barsoum, Maged F. (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
Communication systems are described that use signal constellations, which have unequally spaced (i.e. geometrically shaped) points. In many embodiments, the communication systems use specific geometric constellations that are capacity optimized at a specific SNR. In addition, ranges within which the constellation points of a capacity optimized constellation can be perturbed and are still likely to achieve a given percentage of the optimal capacity increase compared to a constellation that maximizes d.sub.min, are also described. Capacity measures that are used in the selection of the location of constellation points include, but are not limited to, parallel decode (PD) capacity and joint capacity.
New methods of measuring and calibrating robots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janocha, Hartmut; Diewald, Bernd
1995-10-01
ISO 9283 and RIA R15.05 define industrial robot parameters which are applied to compare the efficiency of different robots. Hitherto, however, no suitable measurement systems have been available. ICAROS is a system which combines photogrammetrical procedures with an inertial navigation system. For the first time, this combination allows the high-precision static and dynamic measurement of the position as well as of the orientation of the robot endeffector. Thus, not only the measuring data for the determination of all industrial robot parameters can be acquired. By integration of a new over-all-calibration procedure, ICAROS also allows the reduction of the absolute robot pose errors to the range of its repeatability. The integration of both system components as well as measurement and calibration results are presented in this paper, using a six-axes robot as example. A further approach also presented here takes into consideration not only the individual robot errors but also the tolerances of workpieces. This allows the adjustment of off-line programs of robots based on inexact or idealized CAD data in any pose. Thus the robot position which is defined relative to the workpiece to be processed, is achieved as required. This includes the possibility to transfer teached robot programs to other devices without additional expenditure. The adjustment is based on the measurement of the robot position using two miniaturized CCD cameras mounted near the endeffector which are carried along by the robot during the correction phase. In the area viewed by both cameras, the robot position is determined in relation to prominent geometry elements, e.g. lines or holes. The scheduled data to be compared therewith can either be calculated in modern off-line programming systems during robot programming, or they can be determined at the so-called master robot if a transfer of the robot program is desired.
Evaluation of two gas-dilution methods for instrument calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, A., Jr.
1977-01-01
Two gas dilution methods were evaluated for use in the calibration of analytical instruments used in air pollution studies. A dual isotope fluorescence carbon monoxide analyzer was used as the transfer standard. The methods are not new but some modifications are described. The rotary injection gas dilution method was found to be more accurate than the closed loop method. Results by the two methods differed by 5 percent. This could not be accounted for by the random errors in the measurements. The methods avoid the problems associated with pressurized cylinders. Both methods have merit and have found a place in instrument calibration work.
Interferometric SAR phase difference calibration: Methods and results
Bickel, D.L.; Hensley, W.H.
1993-12-31
This paper addresses the steps necessary to determine and maintain the phase calibration of a two-channel interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR). The method, setup, and accuracy of four different calibration techniques are compared. The most novel technique involves pointing the interferometric baseline at nadir and imaging a lake surface. The other techniques include measuring various flat surfaces in traditional side-looking IFSAR maps, in-flight closed-loop calibration path measurements, and static laboratory measurements. Initial results indicate that, using combinations of these measurements, it is possible to maintain the interferometric phase calibration of Sandia National Laboratories` K{sub U} Band IFSAR to better than 3 degrees. The time variability of various parts of the calibration and requirements for recalibration are also discussed.
Method calibration of the model 13145 infrared target projectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jianxia; Gao, Yuan; Han, Ying
2014-11-01
The SBIR Model 13145 Infrared Target Projectors ( The following abbreviation Evaluation Unit ) used for characterizing the performances of infrared imaging system. Test items: SiTF, MTF, NETD, MRTD, MDTD, NPS. Infrared target projectors includes two area blackbodies, a 12 position target wheel, all reflective collimator. It provide high spatial frequency differential targets, Precision differential targets imaged by infrared imaging system. And by photoelectricity convert on simulate signal or digital signal. Applications software (IR Windows TM 2001) evaluate characterizing the performances of infrared imaging system. With regards to as a whole calibration, first differently calibration for distributed component , According to calibration specification for area blackbody to calibration area blackbody, by means of to amend error factor to calibration of all reflective collimator, radiance calibration of an infrared target projectors using the SR5000 spectral radiometer, and to analyze systematic error. With regards to as parameter of infrared imaging system, need to integrate evaluation method. According to regulation with -GJB2340-1995 General specification for military thermal imaging sets -testing parameters of infrared imaging system, the results compare with results from Optical Calibration Testing Laboratory . As a goal to real calibration performances of the Evaluation Unit.
Method for Accurately Calibrating a Spectrometer Using Broadband Light
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simmons, Stephen; Youngquist, Robert
2011-01-01
A novel method has been developed for performing very fine calibration of a spectrometer. This process is particularly useful for modern miniature charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometers where a typical factory wavelength calibration has been performed and a finer, more accurate calibration is desired. Typically, the factory calibration is done with a spectral line source that generates light at known wavelengths, allowing specific pixels in the CCD array to be assigned wavelength values. This method is good to about 1 nm across the spectrometer s wavelength range. This new method appears to be accurate to about 0.1 nm, a factor of ten improvement. White light is passed through an unbalanced Michelson interferometer, producing an optical signal with significant spectral variation. A simple theory can be developed to describe this spectral pattern, so by comparing the actual spectrometer output against this predicted pattern, errors in the wavelength assignment made by the spectrometer can be determined.
Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie
2015-01-01
The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40-180 km h-1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology.
A New Online Calibration Method for Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing.
Chen, Ping; Wang, Chun
2016-09-01
Multidimensional-Method A (M-Method A) has been proposed as an efficient and effective online calibration method for multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) (Chen & Xin, Paper presented at the 78th Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Arnhem, The Netherlands, 2013). However, a key assumption of M-Method A is that it treats person parameter estimates as their true values, thus this method might yield erroneous item calibration when person parameter estimates contain non-ignorable measurement errors. To improve the performance of M-Method A, this paper proposes a new MCAT online calibration method, namely, the full functional MLE-M-Method A (FFMLE-M-Method A). This new method combines the full functional MLE (Jones & Jin in Psychometrika 59:59-75, 1994; Stefanski & Carroll in Annals of Statistics 13:1335-1351, 1985) with the original M-Method A in an effort to correct for the estimation error of ability vector that might otherwise adversely affect the precision of item calibration. Two correction schemes are also proposed when implementing the new method. A simulation study was conducted to show that the new method generated more accurate item parameter estimation than the original M-Method A in almost all conditions. PMID:26608960
Method to calibrate fission chambers in Campbelling mode
Benoit Geslot; Troy C. Unruh; Philippe Filliatre; Christian Jammes; Jacques Di Salvo; Stéphane Bréaud; Jean-François Villard
2011-06-01
Fission chambers are neutron detectors which are widely used to instrument experimental reactors such as material testing reactors or zero power reactors. In the presence of a high level mixed gamma and neutron flux, fission chambers can be operated in Campbelling mode (also known as 'fluctuation mode' or 'mean square voltage mode') to provide reliable and precise neutron related measurements. Fission chamber calibration in Campbelling mode (in terms of neutron flux) is usually done empirically using a calibrated reference detector. A major drawback of this method is that calibration measurements have to be performed in a neutron environment very similar to the one in which the calibrated detector will be used afterwards. What we propose here is a different approach based on characterizing the fission chamber response in terms of fission rate. This way, the detector calibration coefficient is independent from the neutron spectrum and can be determined prior to the experiment. The fissile deposit response to the neutron spectrum can then be assessed independently by other means (experimental or numerical). In this paper, the response of CEA made miniature fission chambers in Campbelling mode is studied. We use a theoretical model of the signal to calculate the calibration coefficient. Input parameters of the model come from statistical distribution of individual pulses. Supporting measurements have been made in the CEA Cadarache zero power reactor MINERVE. Results are compared to an empirical Campbelling mode calibration.
Method of calibrating an interferometer and reducing its systematic noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammer, Philip D. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
Methods of operation and data analysis for an interferometer so as to eliminate the errors contributed by non-responsive or unstable pixels, interpixel gain variations that drift over time, and spurious noise that would otherwise degrade the operation of the interferometer are disclosed. The methods provide for either online or post-processing calibration. The methods apply prescribed reversible transformations that exploit the physical properties of interferograms obtained from said interferometer to derive a calibration reference signal for subsequent treatment of said interferograms for interpixel gain variations. A self-consistent approach for treating bad pixels is incorporated into the methods.
Site characterization for calibration of radiometric sensors using vicarious method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parihar, Shailesh; Rathore, L. S.; Mohapatra, M.; Sharma, A. K.; Mitra, A. K.; Bhatla, R.; Singh, R. S.; Desai, Yogdeep; Srivastava, Shailendra S.
2016-05-01
Radiometric performances of earth observation satellite/sensors vary from ground pre-launch calibration campaign to post launch period extended to lifetime of the satellite due to launching vibrations. Therefore calibration is carried out worldwide through various methods throughout satellite lifetime. In India Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) calibrates the sensor of Resourcesat-2 satellite by vicarious method. One of these vicarious calibration methods is the reflectance-based approach that is applied in this study for radiometric calibration of sensors on-board Resouresat-2 satellite. The results of ground-based measurement of atmospheric conditions and surface reflectance are made at Bap, Rajasthan Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) site. Cal/Val observations at site were carried out with hyper-spectral Spectroradiometer covering spectral range of 350nm- 2500nm for radiometric characterization of the site. The Sunphotometer/Ozonometer for measuring the atmospheric parameters has also been used. The calibrated radiance is converted to absolute at-sensor spectral reflectance and Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiance. TOA radiance was computed using radiative transfer model `Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum' (6S), which can accurately simulate the problems introduced by the presence of the atmosphere along the path from Sun to target (surface) to Sensor. The methodology for band averaged reflectance retrieval and spectral reflectance fitting process are described. Then the spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters are put into 6S code to predict TOA radiance which compare with Resourcesat-2 radiance. Spectral signature and its reflectance ratio indicate the uniformity of the site. Thus the study proves that the selected site is suitable for vicarious calibration of sensor of Resourcesat-2. Further the study demonstrates the procedure for similar exercise for site selection for Cal/Val analysis of other satellite over India
Coscia, Gianluca; Vaccara, Elena; Corvisiero, Roberta; Cavazzani, Paolo; Ruggieri, Filippo Grillo; Taccini, Gianni
2009-07-15
In the authors' hospital, stereotactic radiotherapy treatments are performed with a Varian Clinac 600C equipped with a BrainLAB m3 micro-multileaf-collimator generally using the dynamic conformal arc technique. Patient immobilization during the treatment is achieved with a fixation mask supplied by BrainLAB, made with two reinforced thermoplastic sheets fitting the patient's head. With this work the authors propose a method to evaluate treatment geometric accuracy and, consequently, to determine the amount of the margin to keep in the CTV-PTV expansion during the treatment planning. The reproducibility of the isocenter position was tested by simulating a complete treatment on the anthropomorphic phantom Alderson Rando, inserting in between two phantom slices a high sensitivity Gafchromic EBT film, properly prepared and calibrated, and repeating several treatment sessions, each time removing the fixing mask and replacing the film inside the phantom. The comparison between the dose distributions measured on films and computed by TPS, after a precise image registration procedure performed by a commercial piece of software (FILMQA, 3cognition LLC (Division of ISP), Wayne, NJ), allowed the authors to measure the repositioning errors, obtaining about 0.5 mm in case of central spherical PTV and about 1.5 mm in case of peripheral irregular PTV. Moreover, an evaluation of the errors in the registration procedure was performed, giving negligible values with respect to the quantities to be measured. The above intrinsic two-dimensional estimate of treatment accuracy has to be increased for the error in the third dimension, but the 2 mm margin the authors generally use for the CTV-PTV expansion seems adequate anyway. Using the same EBT films, a dosimetric verification of the treatment planning system was done. Measured dose values are larger or smaller than the nominal ones depending on geometric irradiation conditions, but, in the authors' experimental conditions, always
Coscia, Gianluca; Vaccara, Elena; Corvisiero, Roberta; Cavazzani, Paolo; Ruggieri, Filippo Grillo; Taccini, Gianni
2009-07-01
In the authors' hospital, stereotactic radiotherapy treatments are performed with a Varian Clinac 600C equipped with a BrainLAB m3 micro-multileaf-collimator generally using the dynamic conformal arc technique. Patient immobilization during the treatment is achieved with a fixation mask supplied by BrainLAB, made with two reinforced thermoplastic sheets fitting the patient's head. With this work the authors propose a method to evaluate treatment geometric accuracy and, consequently, to determine the amount of the margin to keep in the CTV-PTV expansion during the treatment planning. The reproducibility of the isocenter position was tested by simulating a complete treatment on the anthropomorphic phantom Alderson Rando, inserting in between two phantom slices a high sensitivity Gafchromic EBT film, properly prepared and calibrated, and repeating several treatment sessions, each time removing the fixing mask and replacing the film inside the phantom. The comparison between the dose distributions measured on films and computed by TPS, after a precise image registration procedure performed by a commercial piece of software (FILMQA, 3cognition LLC (Division of ISP), Wayne, NJ), allowed the authors to measure the repositioning errors, obtaining about 0.5 mm in case of central spherical PTV and about 1.5 mm in case of peripheral irregular PTV. Moreover, an evaluation of the errors in the registration procedure was performed, giving negligible values with respect to the quantities to be measured. The above intrinsic two-dimensional estimate of treatment accuracy has to be increased for the error in the third dimension, but the 2 mm margin the authors generally use for the CTV-PTV expansion seems adequate anyway. Using the same EBT films, a dosimetric verification of the treatment planning system was done. Measured dose values are larger or smaller than the nominal ones depending on geometric irradiation conditions, but, in the authors' experimental conditions, always
Method and Appartus for Calibrating a Linear Variable Differential Transformer
Pokrywka, Robert J.
2005-01-18
A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.
Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer
Pokrywka, Robert J.
2005-01-18
A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.
A new full pose measurement method for robot calibration.
Nguyen, Hoai-Nhan; Zhou, Jian; Kang, Hee-Jun
2013-01-01
Identification of robot kinematic errors during the calibration process often requires accurate full pose measurements (position and orientation) of robot end-effectors in Cartesian space. This paper proposes a new method of full pose measurement of robot end-effectors for calibration. This method is based on an analysis of the features of a set of target points (placed on a rotating end-effector) on a circular trajectory. The accurate measurement is validated by computational simulation results from the Puma robot. Moreover, experimental calibration and validation results for the Hyundai HA-06 robot prove the effectiveness, correctness, and reliability of the proposed method. This method can be applied to robots that have entirely revolute joints or to robots for which only the last joint is revolute. PMID:23863856
A Comparative Study of IRT Fixed Parameter Calibration Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Seonghoon
2006-01-01
This article provides technical descriptions of five fixed parameter calibration (FPC) methods, which were based on marginal maximum likelihood estimation via the EM algorithm, and evaluates them through simulation. The five FPC methods described are distinguished from each other by how many times they update the prior ability distribution and by…
An improved method for determining force balance calibration accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferris, Alice T.
The results of an improved statistical method used at Langley Research Center for determining and stating the accuracy of a force balance calibration are presented. The application of the method for initial loads, initial load determination, auxiliary loads, primary loads, and proof loads is described. The data analysis is briefly addressed.
Comparison of methods for calibrating AVIRIS data to ground reflectance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg; Heidebrecht, Kathy; Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Green, Robert O.
1993-01-01
We are comparing three basic methods of calibrating AVIRIS data to ground reflectance: (1) atmospheric radiative transfer models with the solar flux can be used to calibrate AVIRIS radiance data (Specific methods include the University of Colorado CSES ARP and ATREM algorithms); (2) Robert Green's modified MODTRAN and AVIRIS radiance model (This method is similar to 1 but differs in that the solar radiance is bypassed, so any errors in the solar flux are canceled, too); and (3) ground calibration using known sites in the AVIRIS scene. We are using 1992AVIRIS data over Cuprite, Nevada, and Blackhawk Island, Wisconsin, as our test scenes. Both these sites have extensive field measurements. The Cuprite site had a very clear atmosphere, thus path radiance was dominated by Rayleigh scattering with little or no flux beyond 1 micron. The Blackhawk site has more aerosols, with significant path radiance flux beyond 2 micron.
Universal calculation formula and calibration method in Fourier transform profilometry
Wen Yongfu; Li Sikun; Cheng Haobo; Su Xianyu; Zhang Qican
2010-12-01
We propose a universal calculation formula of Fourier transform profilometry and give a strict theoretical analysis about the phase-height mapping relation. As the request on the experimental setup of the universal calculation formula is unconfined, the projector and the camera can be located arbitrarily to get better fringe information, which makes the operation flexible. The phase-height calibration method under the universal condition is proposed, which can avoid measuring the system parameters directly. It makes the system easy to manipulate and improves the measurement velocity. A computer simulation and experiment are conducted to verify its validity. The calculation formula and calibration method have been applied to measure an object of 22.00 mm maximal height. The relative error of the measurement result is only 0.59%. The experimental results prove that the three-dimensional shape of tested objects can be reconstructed exactly by using the calculation formula and calibration method, and the system has better universality.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, M. B.
1981-01-01
The determination and removal of instrument signature from Viking Lander camera geometric data are described. All tests conducted as well as a listing of the final database (calibration constants) used to remove instrument signature from Viking Lander flight images are included. The theory of the geometric aberrations inherent in the Viking Lander camera is explored.
Accurate projector calibration method by using an optical coaxial camera.
Huang, Shujun; Xie, Lili; Wang, Zhangying; Zhang, Zonghua; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian
2015-02-01
Digital light processing (DLP) projectors have been widely utilized to project digital structured-light patterns in 3D imaging systems. In order to obtain accurate 3D shape data, it is important to calibrate DLP projectors to obtain the internal parameters. The existing projector calibration methods have complicated procedures or low accuracy of the obtained parameters. This paper presents a novel method to accurately calibrate a DLP projector by using an optical coaxial camera. The optical coaxial geometry is realized by a plate beam splitter, so the DLP projector can be treated as a true inverse camera. A plate having discrete markers on the surface is used to calibrate the projector. The corresponding projector pixel coordinate of each marker on the plate is determined by projecting vertical and horizontal sinusoidal fringe patterns on the plate surface and calculating the absolute phase. The internal parameters of the DLP projector are obtained by the corresponding point pair between the projector pixel coordinate and the world coordinate of discrete markers. Experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately calibrate the internal parameters of a DLP projector. PMID:25967789
An Automated Method for Ozonesonde Calibration: New Insights
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidlin, F. J.; Hoegger, Bruno A.; Levrat, Gilbert; Baldwin, Tony
2008-01-01
An automated method for preparation of the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde is presented. Development of a computer-controlled system for preparation and calibration of the ECC is an improvement over the manual preparation method, and reduces subjectivity considerably. Preparation measurements in digital form aids analysis of the ECC before release and enhances post-flight data certification. Calibration of ozonesondes over a range of ozone concentrations between 0 mPA and 30 mPA is discussed. This presentation describes the automatic system, gives examples of calibrations. The automated system enables comparison of varying potassium iodide (KI) concentrations that should allow adjustment of earlier ozonesonde data obtained with different KT concentrations used since 1970, i.e., 2, 1.5, 1, and 0.5 percent. Preliminary results indicate ECC accuracy has a strong dependence on the electrolyte concentration and should not be considered linear with altitude.
An Expectation-Maximization Method for Calibrating Synchronous Machine Models
Meng, Da; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang
2013-07-21
The accuracy of a power system dynamic model is essential to its secure and efficient operation. Lower confidence in model accuracy usually leads to conservative operation and lowers asset usage. To improve model accuracy, this paper proposes an expectation-maximization (EM) method to calibrate the synchronous machine model using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. First, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied to estimate the dynamic states using measurement data. Then, the parameters are calculated based on the estimated states using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. The EM method iterates over the preceding two steps to improve estimation accuracy. The proposed EM method’s performance is evaluated using a single-machine infinite bus system and compared with a method where both state and parameters are estimated using an EKF method. Sensitivity studies of the parameter calibration using EM method are also presented to show the robustness of the proposed method for different levels of measurement noise and initial parameter uncertainty.
A stoichiometric calibration method for dual energy computed tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourque, Alexandra E.; Carrier, Jean-François; Bouchard, Hugo
2014-04-01
The accuracy of radiotherapy dose calculation relies crucially on patient composition data. The computed tomography (CT) calibration methods based on the stoichiometric calibration of Schneider et al (1996 Phys. Med. Biol. 41 111-24) are the most reliable to determine electron density (ED) with commercial single energy CT scanners. Along with the recent developments in dual energy CT (DECT) commercial scanners, several methods were published to determine ED and the effective atomic number (EAN) for polyenergetic beams without the need for CT calibration curves. This paper intends to show that with a rigorous definition of the EAN, the stoichiometric calibration method can be successfully adapted to DECT with significant accuracy improvements with respect to the literature without the need for spectrum measurements or empirical beam hardening corrections. Using a theoretical framework of ICRP human tissue compositions and the XCOM photon cross sections database, the revised stoichiometric calibration method yields Hounsfield unit (HU) predictions within less than ±1.3 HU of the theoretical HU calculated from XCOM data averaged over the spectra used (e.g., 80 kVp, 100 kVp, 140 kVp and 140/Sn kVp). A fit of mean excitation energy (I-value) data as a function of EAN is provided in order to determine the ion stopping power of human tissues from ED-EAN measurements. Analysis of the calibration phantom measurements with the Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash dual source CT scanner shows that the present formalism yields mean absolute errors of (0.3 ± 0.4)% and (1.6 ± 2.0)% on ED and EAN, respectively. For ion therapy, the mean absolute errors for calibrated I-values and proton stopping powers (216 MeV) are (4.1 ± 2.7)% and (0.5 ± 0.4)%, respectively. In all clinical situations studied, the uncertainties in ion ranges in water for therapeutic energies are found to be less than 1.3 mm, 0.7 mm and 0.5 mm for protons, helium and carbon ions respectively, using a generic
A stoichiometric calibration method for dual energy computed tomography.
Bourque, Alexandra E; Carrier, Jean-François; Bouchard, Hugo
2014-04-21
The accuracy of radiotherapy dose calculation relies crucially on patient composition data. The computed tomography (CT) calibration methods based on the stoichiometric calibration of Schneider et al (1996 Phys. Med. Biol. 41 111-24) are the most reliable to determine electron density (ED) with commercial single energy CT scanners. Along with the recent developments in dual energy CT (DECT) commercial scanners, several methods were published to determine ED and the effective atomic number (EAN) for polyenergetic beams without the need for CT calibration curves. This paper intends to show that with a rigorous definition of the EAN, the stoichiometric calibration method can be successfully adapted to DECT with significant accuracy improvements with respect to the literature without the need for spectrum measurements or empirical beam hardening corrections. Using a theoretical framework of ICRP human tissue compositions and the XCOM photon cross sections database, the revised stoichiometric calibration method yields Hounsfield unit (HU) predictions within less than ±1.3 HU of the theoretical HU calculated from XCOM data averaged over the spectra used (e.g., 80 kVp, 100 kVp, 140 kVp and 140/Sn kVp). A fit of mean excitation energy (I-value) data as a function of EAN is provided in order to determine the ion stopping power of human tissues from ED-EAN measurements. Analysis of the calibration phantom measurements with the Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash dual source CT scanner shows that the present formalism yields mean absolute errors of (0.3 ± 0.4)% and (1.6 ± 2.0)% on ED and EAN, respectively. For ion therapy, the mean absolute errors for calibrated I-values and proton stopping powers (216 MeV) are (4.1 ± 2.7)% and (0.5 ± 0.4)%, respectively. In all clinical situations studied, the uncertainties in ion ranges in water for therapeutic energies are found to be less than 1.3 mm, 0.7 mm and 0.5 mm for protons, helium and carbon ions respectively, using a
A Calibration Method for Wide-Field Multicolor Photometric Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xu; Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Zhaoji; Zheng, Zhongyuan; Zhu, Jin
1999-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a method to self-calibrate the spectral energy distribution (SED) of objects in a survey based on the fitting of a SED library to observed multicolor photometry. We adopt, for illustrative purposes, the Vilnius and Gunn & Stryker SED libraries. The self-calibration technique can improve the quality of observations which are not taken under perfectly photometric conditions. The more passbands used for the photometry, the better the results. This technique has been applied to the BATC 15 passband CCD survey.
A new continuous calibration method for inductively coupled plasma spectrometry.
Paredes, E; Maestre, S E; Todolí, J L
2006-01-01
A new calibration method was developed and applied to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. External calibration was performed as follows. A container was filled with a given volume of deionized (V(p)) water. Then a concentrated standard was introduced at a controlled rate (Q(e)) into the tank by means of a peristaltic pump. The resulting solution was stirred throughout the experiment. Simultaneously, the solution inside the tank was pumped from the vessel to the plasma at a given rate (Q(s)). The signal was continuously recorded. The variation of the concentration of the solution leaving the tank with time was determined by applying a basic equation of stirred tanks. The representation of the emission intensity versus the time and the further conversion of the time scale into a concentration scale gave rise to the calibration line. The best results in terms of linearity were achieved for V(p)=15 cm3, Q(e)=0.6-0.75 ml min(-1) and Q(s)=1-1.2 ml min(-1). Graphs with more than 40 standards were obtained within about 10 min. The results found were not statistically different from those afforded by the conventional calibration method. In addition, the new method was faster and supplied better linearity and precision than the conventional one. Another advantage of the stirred tank was that procedures such as dynamic calibration and standard additions could be easily and quickly applied, thus shortening the analysis time. A complete analysis following these procedures based on the measurement of 30 standards took about 5 min. Several synthetic as well as certified samples (i.e., bovine liver, mussel tissue and powdered milk) were analyzed with the stirred tank by applying four different calibration methodologies (i.e., external calibration, internal calibration, standard additions and a combination of internal standardization and standard additions), with the combination of internal standardization and standard additions being the method that provided
Calibration method for angular measurement of moiré patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Fan; Bai, Jian; Wang, Kaiwei; Hou, Xiyun; Yao, Jiang
2014-09-01
In this paper, a high-accuracy calibration method for angular measurement of deformed and curved Moiré patterns, based on template matching algorithm, is presented. We report a feasible and accurate method, based on Talbot interferometry and Moiré deflectometry, to measure long focal-length lenses. Theoretical analysis indicates that the precision of this method is mainly influenced by the angle of Moiré patterns. However, it's difficult to obtain high-accuracy angle of Moiré patterns, since the Moiré patterns derived from experiment are constantly deformed or curved. We demonstrate a method, based on template matching algorithm, to calibrate deformed and curved Moiré patterns, thus their angle can be calculated fast and accurately in sub-pixel domain. Numerical analysis and simulation prove that the method mentioned above demonstrates high precision and stability, and experiment results show that the accuracy of the long focal lengths measurement is improved obviously.
A Novel Gaze Tracking Method Based on the Generation of Virtual Calibration Points
Lee, Ji Woo; Heo, Hwan; Park, Kang Ryoung
2013-01-01
Most conventional gaze-tracking systems require that users look at many points during the initial calibration stage, which is inconvenient for them. To avoid this requirement, we propose a new gaze-tracking method with four important characteristics. First, our gaze-tracking system uses a large screen located at a distance from the user, who wears a lightweight device. Second, our system requires that users look at only four calibration points during the initial calibration stage, during which four pupil centers are noted. Third, five additional points (virtual pupil centers) are generated with a multilayer perceptron using the four actual points (detected pupil centers) as inputs. Fourth, when a user gazes at a large screen, the shape defined by the positions of the four pupil centers is a distorted quadrangle because of the nonlinear movement of the human eyeball. The gaze-detection accuracy is reduced if we map the pupil movement area onto the screen area using a single transform function. We overcame this problem by calculating the gaze position based on multi-geometric transforms using the five virtual points and the four actual points. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the proposed method is better than that of other methods. PMID:23959241
Histogram-Based Calibration Method for Pipeline ADCs.
Son, Hyeonuk; Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Heetae; Kang, Sungho
2015-01-01
Measurement and calibration of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using a histogram-based method requires a large volume of data and a long test duration, especially for a high resolution ADC. A fast and accurate calibration method for pipelined ADCs is proposed in this research. The proposed calibration method composes histograms through the outputs of each stage and calculates error sources. The digitized outputs of a stage are influenced directly by the operation of the prior stage, so the results of the histogram provide the information of errors in the prior stage. The composed histograms reduce the required samples and thus calibration time being implemented by simple modules. For 14-bit resolution pipelined ADC, the measured maximum integral non-linearity (INL) is improved from 6.78 to 0.52 LSB, and the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) are improved from 67.0 to 106.2dB and from 65.6 to 84.8dB, respectively. PMID:26070196
An MLC calibration method using a detector array
Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray
2009-10-15
Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw's leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf's position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 {+-}0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of {+-}0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration.
Gravimetric method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements.
Martinsen, Ørjan G; Grimnes, Sverre; Nilsen, Jon K; Tronstad, Christian; Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Hongsig; Shin, Kunsoo; Naderi, Majid; Thielmann, Frank
2008-02-01
A novel method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements is presented. The method combines gravimetric and electrical measurements and reveals an exponential dependency of measured electrical susceptance to absolute water content in the epidermal stratum corneum. The results also show that absorption of water into the stratum corneum exhibits three different phases with significant differences in absorption time constant. These phases probably correspond to bound, loosely bound, and bulk water. PMID:18270010
Airborne Linear Array Image Geometric Rectification Method Based on Unequal Segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J. M.; Li, C. R.; Zhou, M.; Hu, J.; Yang, C. M.
2016-06-01
As the linear array sensor such as multispectral and hyperspectral sensor has great potential in disaster monitoring and geological survey, the quality of the image geometric rectification should be guaranteed. Different from the geometric rectification of airborne planar array images or multi linear array images, exterior orientation elements need to be determined for each scan line of single linear array images. Internal distortion persists after applying GPS/IMU data directly to geometrical rectification. Straight lines may be curving and jagged. Straight line feature -based geometrical rectification algorithm was applied to solve this problem, whereby the exterior orientation elements were fitted by piecewise polynomial and evaluated with the straight line feature as constraint. However, atmospheric turbulence during the flight is unstable, equal piecewise can hardly provide good fitting, resulting in limited precision improvement of geometric rectification or, in a worse case, the iteration cannot converge. To solve this problem, drawing on dynamic programming ideas, unequal segmentation of line feature-based geometric rectification method is developed. The angle elements fitting error is minimized to determine the optimum boundary. Then the exterior orientation elements of each segment are fitted and evaluated with the straight line feature as constraint. The result indicates that the algorithm is effective in improving the precision of geometric rectification.
Efficient Calibration of Categorical Parameter Distributions using Subspace Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khambhammettu, P.; Renard, P.; Doherty, J.
2014-12-01
Categorical parameter distributions are common-place in hydrogeological systems consisting of rock-types / aquifer materials with distinct properties, eg: sand channels in a clay matrix. Model calibration is difficult in such systems because the inverse problem is hindered by the discontinuities in the parameter space. In this paper, we present two approaches based on sub-space methods to generate categorical parameter distributions of aquifer parameters that meet calibration constraints (eg:- measured water level data, gradients) while honoring prior geological constraints. In the first approach, the prior geological information and acceptable parameter distributions are encapsulated in a simple object-based model. In the second approach, a Multiple-Point Statistics simulator is used to represent the prior geological information. Sub-space methods in conjunction with dynamic pilot points are then employed to explore the parameter space and determine the parameter combinations that optimally honor geologic and calibration constraints. Using a simple aquifer system, we demonstrate that the new approach is capable of quickly generating multiple multiple parameter distributions that honor both geological and calibration constraints. We also explore the underlying parameter and predictive uncertainty using Null Space Monte Carlo techniques.
A method for small-animal PET/CT alignment calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascau, J.; Vaquero, J. J.; Chamorro-Servent, J.; Rodríguez-Ruano, A.; Desco, M.
2012-06-01
Small-animal positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners provide anatomical and molecular imaging, which enables the joint visualization and analysis of both types of data. A proper alignment calibration procedure is essential for small-animal imaging since resolution is much higher than that in human devices. This work presents an alignment phantom and two different calibration methods that provide a reliable and repeatable measurement of the spatial geometrical alignment between the PET and the CT subsystems of a hybrid scanner. The phantom can be built using laboratory materials, and it is meant to estimate the rigid spatial transformation that aligns both modalities. It consists of three glass capillaries filled with a positron-emitter solution and positioned in a non-coplanar triangular geometry inside the system field of view. The calibration methods proposed are both based on automatic line detection, but with different approaches to calculate the transformation of the lines between both modalities. Our results show an average accuracy of the alignment estimation of 0.39 mm over the whole field of view.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunze, Hans-Joachim
Commercial spectrographic systems are usually supplied with some wave-length calibration, but it is essential that the experimenter performs his own calibration for reliable measurements. A number of sources emitting well-known emission lines are available, and the best values of their wavelengths may be taken from data banks accessible on the internet. Data have been critically evaluated for many decades by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the USA [13], see also p. 3. Special data bases have been established by the astronomy and fusion communities (Appendix B).
A calibration method of the multi-channel imaging lidar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Weiming; Liu, Jun; Shu, Rong
2014-06-01
We design a kind of imaging LiDAR with sixteen channels, which consists of a fiber laser source, dual scanning galvanometers, range measurement circuits and information processing circuits etc. The image LiDAR provides sixteen range measurements for one laser shot and the distance accuracy of each channel is about 4cm. This paper provides a calibrate method to correct point cloud images captured with the multi-channel LiDAR. The method needs to construct different slanted planes to cover the imaging field, and establish precise plane equations in the known ground coordinates, then fit planes with point clouds data and calculate correction parameters of all channels through the error model. The image accuracy is better than 5cm processed by this calibration method.
a Modified Method for Polarimetric SAR Calibration Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, L.; Li, P.; Yang, J.
2013-07-01
Present fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems often update calibration techniques to further enhance the accuracy to the polarimetric data. In this paper, we propose a modified method to estimate the value of crosstalk based on the corrected observed value. Since Ainsworth calibration algorithm firstly set the value of k to be one. And the value of k relates to the copolarization channel imbalance .We consider the effects of value of k and analyze it. Through comparison to crosstalk results between the stimulated parameters and the estimated parameters, we assume high co-polarization channel imbalance will be obviously to affect crosstalk results. Then, used covariance observation value of the initial value of k rewrites the model to solve related parameters. And crosstalk parameter is calculated by the same iterative method. To verify the effect of the modified calibration method, this letter compares the accuracy of the two methods using the simulated polarimetric SAR data and Chinese airborne X-band polarimetric SAR data. The results confirm that the modified method tends to get more accurate crosstalk results.
Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia
2016-01-01
Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203
Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia
2016-01-01
Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203
Geometric method for forming periodic orbits in the Lorenz system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicholson, S. B.; Kim, Eun-jin
2016-04-01
Many systems in nature are out of equilibrium and irreversible. The non-detailed balance observable representation (NOR) provides a useful methodology for understanding the evolution of such non-equilibrium complex systems, by mapping out the correlation between two states to a metric space where a small distance represents a strong correlation [1]. In this paper, we present the first application of the NOR to a continuous system and demonstrate its utility in controlling chaos. Specifically, we consider the evolution of a continuous system governed by the Lorenz equation and calculate the NOR by following a sufficient number of trajectories. We then show how to control chaos by converting chaotic orbits to periodic orbits by utilizing the NOR. We further discuss the implications of our method for potential applications given the key advantage that this method makes no assumptions of the underlying equations of motion and is thus extremely general.
Method of locating related items in a geometric space for data mining
Hendrickson, B.A.
1999-07-27
A method for locating related items in a geometric space transforms relationships among items to geometric locations. The method locates items in the geometric space so that the distance between items corresponds to the degree of relatedness. The method facilitates communication of the structure of the relationships among the items. The method is especially beneficial for communicating databases with many items, and with non-regular relationship patterns. Examples of such databases include databases containing items such as scientific papers or patents, related by citations or keywords. A computer system adapted for practice of the present invention can include a processor, a storage subsystem, a display device, and computer software to direct the location and display of the entities. The method comprises assigning numeric values as a measure of similarity between each pairing of items. A matrix is constructed, based on the numeric values. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix are determined. Each item is located in the geometric space at coordinates determined from the eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Proper construction of the matrix and proper determination of coordinates from eigenvectors can ensure that distance between items in the geometric space is representative of the numeric value measure of the items' similarity. 12 figs.
Method of locating related items in a geometric space for data mining
Hendrickson, Bruce A.
1999-01-01
A method for locating related items in a geometric space transforms relationships among items to geometric locations. The method locates items in the geometric space so that the distance between items corresponds to the degree of relatedness. The method facilitates communication of the structure of the relationships among the items. The method is especially beneficial for communicating databases with many items, and with non-regular relationship patterns. Examples of such databases include databases containing items such as scientific papers or patents, related by citations or keywords. A computer system adapted for practice of the present invention can include a processor, a storage subsystem, a display device, and computer software to direct the location and display of the entities. The method comprises assigning numeric values as a measure of similarity between each pairing of items. A matrix is constructed, based on the numeric values. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix are determined. Each item is located in the geometric space at coordinates determined from the eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Proper construction of the matrix and proper determination of coordinates from eigenvectors can ensure that distance between items in the geometric space is representative of the numeric value measure of the items' similarity.
A New Method for Geometric Quality Evaluation of Remote Sensing Image Based on Information Entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, W.; Long, T.; Yang, G.; He, G.
2014-11-01
Geometric accuracy of the remote sensing rectified image is usually evaluated by the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of the ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs). These discrete geometric accuracy index data represent only on a local quality of the image with statistical methods. In addition, the traditional methods only evaluate the difference between the rectified image and reference image, ignoring the degree of the original image distortion. A new method of geometric quality evaluation of remote sensing image based on the information entropy is proposed in this paper. The information entropy, the amount of information and the uncertainty interval of the image before and after rectification are deduced according to the information theory. Four kind of rectification model and seven situations of GCP distribution are applied on the remotely sensed imagery in the experiments. The effective factors of the geometrical accuracy are analysed and the geometric qualities of the image are evaluated in various situations. Results show that the proposed method can be used to evaluate the rectification model, the distribution model of GCPs and the uncertainty of the remotely sensed imagery, and is an effective and objective assessment method.
AVIRIS calibration using the cloud-shadow method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carder, K. L.; Reinersman, P.; Chen, R. F.
1993-01-01
More than 90 percent of the signal at an ocean-viewing, satellite sensor is due to the atmosphere, so a 5 percent sensor-calibration error viewing a target that contributes but 10 percent of the signal received at the sensor may result in a target-reflectance error of more than 50 percent. Since prelaunch calibration accuracies of 5 percent are typical of space-sensor requirements, recalibration of the sensor using ground-base methods is required for low-signal target. Known target reflectance or water-leaving radiance spectra and atmospheric correction parameters are required. In this article we describe an atmospheric-correction method that uses cloud shadowed pixels in combination with pixels in a neighborhood region of similar optical properties to remove atmospheric effects from ocean scenes. These neighboring pixels can then be used as known reflectance targets for validation of the sensor calibration and atmospheric correction. The method uses the difference between water-leaving radiance values for these two regions. This allows nearly identical optical contributions to the two signals (e.g., path radiance and Fresnel-reflected skylight) to be removed, leaving mostly solar photons backscattered from beneath the sea to dominate the residual signal. Normalization by incident solar irradiance reaching the sea surface provides the remote-sensing reflectance of the ocean at the location of the neighbor region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Carlos Manuel
The contribution of this research work to the body of existing knowledge is a novel design (inverse) method to compute the distribution of fields when electromagnetic waves interact with surfaces. If given a desired distribution of electromagnetic fields (radiation pattern), the design (inverse) method developed will rapidly allow a designer to determine a unique geometric solution which will provide the desired radiation pattern, which is an inverse problem. The method developed can also be used as an analysis tool to analyze radiating or receiving structures with simple and complex non-linear geometric features. In the extensive literature search provided in this work, others have used analytical methods for computing the distribution of electromagnetic fields when waves propagate and interact with structures. This requires a mathematical framework to be developed using time-harmonic and magnetic fields to solve boundary value problems using closed-form mathematical relationships that only have closed-form solutions for a few simple geometrical shapes. When the geometrical features of a structure contain arbitrary shapes with irregular geometries, finite element methods can also be used as analysis tools to handle any type of geometrical features, however, both of these methods are used to perform analysis of these types of problems and are very time consuming and not suited as design tools to rapidly provide design information on the geometry features that provide a desired electric field distribution. This revolutionary methodology provides a design tool which currently does not exist in the reviewed published literature. It overcomes deficiencies presented by current analysis tools, such as theoretical, analytical and numerical methods which are capable of analyzing wave propagation and interaction problems, but are not suited to rapidly design geometrical features of radiating or receiving structures.
An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors
Quirk, T.J.; Vehar, D.W.
2011-07-01
Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because it
Self-calibration method of two-dimensional grid plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Guoqing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Lihua; Lei, Lihua; Li, Yuan
2011-12-01
A two-dimensional grid plate can offer an X-Y position standard where grids are aligned orthogonal to each other. It is important to ensure the positional accuracy of the grid plate when the grid plate is used to calibrate planar movement systems, such as vision measuring machines and scanning probe microscopes. Existing algorithms for self-calibration employ the discrete Fourier transform, which is complicated and has poor noise suppression capability. We have developed an algorithm that can achieve exact self-calibration for a two-dimensional grid plate using the least squares method when there is no random noise. In the presence of random noise, the algorithm still presents an excellent capability for noise suppression. As an extension of the classic three-location measurement, the algorithm can be applied to four- or five-location measurements, which reduce measurement uncertainties. The error propagation characteristic of the random errors has been investigated in the case of different measurement strategies. According to the simulation results, the mean error propagation ratios are less than 1 when the array size of the grid plate is less than 32×32. Finally, the influence of the scale errors of the planar movement system is discussed.
Method of Calibration for a Large Cathetometer System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toland, Ronald
2004-01-01
A method of calibration has been devised for a pair of mutually orthogonal two-axis cathetometers that, when used together, yield measurements of three-dimensional positions of objects mounted on an optical bench. Each cathetometer has a horizontal travel of 1.8 m and a vertical travel of 1.2 m. The cathetometers are required to measure X, Y, and Z coordinates (see figure) to within plus or minus 0.005 in. (plus or minus 0.127 mm). Each cathetometer consists of an alignment telescope on a platform mounted on a two-dimensional translation stage. The knowledge required for calibration of each cathetometer is (1) the two-dimensional position of the cathetometer platform as a function of the electronic readouts of position encoders on the translation stage and (2) the amount of any angular misalignment (roll, pitch, and/or yaw) of the cathetometer platform as a function of the two-dimensional coordinates or the position-encoder readouts. By use of three equations derived from the applicable trigonometric relationships, the calibrated X, Y, and Z coordinates can be computed from the raw encoder readouts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindlein, Norbert; Leuchs, Gerd
This chapter shall discuss the basics and the applications of geometrical optical methods in modern optics. Geometrical optics has a long tradition and some ideas are many centuries old. Nevertheless, the invention of modern personal computers which can perform several million floating-point operations in a second also revolutionized the methods of geometrical optics and so several analytical methods lost importance whereas numerical methods such as ray tracing became very important. Therefore, the emphasis in this chapter is also on modern numerical methods such as ray tracing and some other systematic methods such as the paraxial matrix theory.
Vogelmann, James E.; Helder, Dennis; Morfitt, Ron; Choate, Michael J.; Merchant, James W.; Bulley, Henry
2001-01-01
The Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments onboard Landsats 4 and 5 provide high-quality imagery appropriate for many different applications, including land cover mapping, landscape ecology, and change detection. Precise calibration was considered to be critical to the success of the Landsat 7 mission and, thus, issues of calibration were given high priority during the development of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Data sets from the Landsat 5 TM are not routinely corrected for a number of radiometric and geometric artifacts, including memory effect, gain/bias, and interfocal plane misalignment. In the current investigation, the effects of correcting vs. not correcting these factors were investigated for several applications. Gain/bias calibrations were found to have a greater impact on most applications than did memory effect calibrations. Correcting interfocal plane offsets was found to have a moderate effect on applications. On June 2, 1999, Landsats 5 and 7 data were acquired nearly simultaneously over a study site in the Niobrara, NE area. Field radiometer data acquired at that site were used to facilitate crosscalibrations of Landsats 5 and 7 data. Current findings and results from previous investigations indicate that the internal calibrator of Landsat 5 TM tracked instrument gain well until 1988. After this, the internal calibrator diverged from the data derived from vicarious calibrations. Results from this study also indicate very good agreement between prelaunch measurements and vicarious calibration data for all Landsat 7 reflective bands except Band 4. Values are within about 3.5% of each other, except for Band 4, which differs by 10%. Coefficient of variation (CV) values derived from selected targets in the imagery were also analyzed. The Niobrara Landsat 7 imagery was found to have lower CV values than Landsat 5 data, implying that lower levels of noise characterize Landsat 7 data than current Landsat 5 data. It was also found that following
The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.
1992-07-01
The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xiaolei
2012-10-01
Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) is one of the non-destructive analysis technologies based on the principles of Emission Computed Tomography (ECT). Dedicated on imaging of the Gamma ray emission, TGS reveals radioactivity distributions for different radionuclides inside target objects such as nuclear waste barrels. Due to the special characteristics of TGS imaging geometry, namely, the relatively larger detector cell size and more remarkable view change in the imaging region, the line integral projection model widely used in ECT problems is no longer applicable for the radioactive intensity image reconstruction in TGS. The alternative Monte-Carlo based methods which calculate the detection efficiency at every detecting position for each voxel are effective and accurate, however time consuming. In this paper, we consider the geometrical detection efficiency of detector that is dependent on the detector-voxel relative position independently from the intrinsic detection efficiency. Further, a new geometrical correction method is proposed, where the voxel volume within the detector view is applied as the projection weight substituting the track length used in line integral model. And the geometrical detection efficiencies at different positions are analytically expressed by the volume integral on the voxel of geometrical point-source response function of the detector. Numerical simulations are taken and discussions are provided. The results show that the proposed method reduces the reconstruction errors compared to the line integral projection method while gaining better calculating efficiency and flexibility than former Monte-Carlo methods.
Various methods and developments for calibrating seismological sensors at EOST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
JUND, H.; Bès de Berc, M.; Thore, J.
2013-12-01
Calibrating seismic sensors is crucial for knowing the quality of the sensor and generating precise dataless files. We present here three calibration methods that we have developed for the short period and broad band sensors included in the temporary and permanent seismic networks in France. First, in the case of a short-period sensor with no electronics and calibration coil, we inject a sine wave signal into the signal coil. After locking the sensor mass, we first connect a voltage generator of signal waves and a series resistor to the coil. Then, a sinusoidal signal is sent to the sensor signal coil output. Both the voltage at the terminal of the resistor, which gives an image of the intensity entering the signal coil, and the voltage at the terminal of the signal coil are measured. The frequency of the generator then varies in order to find a phase shift between both signals of π/2. The output frequency of the generator corresponds to the image of the natural frequency of the sensor. Second, in the case of all types of sensors provided with a calibration coil, we inject different signals into the calibration coil. We usually apply two signals: a step signal and a sweep (or wobble) signal. A step signal into the calibration coil is equivalent to a Dirac excitation in derived acceleration. The response to this Dirac gives the transfer function of the signal coil, derived two times and without absolute gain. We developed a field-module allowing us to always apply the same excitation to various models of seismometers, in order to compare the results from several instruments previously installed on field. A wobble signal is a signal whose frequency varies. By varying the frequency of the input signal around the sensor's natural frequency, we obtain an immediate response of the sensor in acceleration. This method is particularly suitable in order to avoid any disturbances which may modify the signal of a permanent station. Finally, for the determination of absolute
Anatomically Based Geometric Modelling Using Medical Image Data: Methods and Programs
Wang, Monan; Sun, Lei; Liu, Yuming
2015-01-01
The human organs geometric modeling software which can achieve two-dimensional medical image browsing, pretreatment and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction in this paper is designed. This software implements medical image segmentation using the method combining the region growing and the interactive segmentation. Also, the MC surface reconstruction algorithm is utilized to achieve the three-dimensional reconstruction. Furthermore, the software is projected by Visual C++. And then, to legitimately express the structural information of skeleton and muscle, the software is employed to obtain the geometric model using the segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction for data of skeleton and muscle medical images of the object of study. PMID:26089991
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bieg, Bohdan; Chrzanowski, Janusz; Kravtsov, Yury A.; Orsitto, Francesco
Basic principles and recent findings of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of a geometrical optics method are presented in a compact manner. QIA was developed in 1969 to describe electromagnetic waves in weakly anisotropic media. QIA represents the wave field as a power series in two small parameters, one of which is a traditional geometrical optics parameter, equal to wavelength ratio to plasma characteristic scale, and the other one is the largest component of anisotropy tensor. As a result, "" QIA ideally suits to tokamak polarimetry/interferometry systems in submillimeter range, where plasma manifests properties of weakly anisotropic medium.
Accurate, efficient, and (iso)geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, Hector; Reali, Alessandro; Sangalli, Giancarlo
2014-04-01
We propose new collocation methods for phase-field models. Our algorithms are based on isogeometric analysis, a new technology that makes use of functions from computational geometry, such as, for example, Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). NURBS exhibit excellent approximability and controllable global smoothness, and can represent exactly most geometries encapsulated in Computer Aided Design (CAD) models. These attributes permitted us to derive accurate, efficient, and geometrically flexible collocation methods for phase-field models. The performance of our method is demonstrated by several numerical examples of phase separation modeled by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We feel that our method successfully combines the geometrical flexibility of finite elements with the accuracy and simplicity of pseudo-spectral collocation methods, and is a viable alternative to classical collocation methods.
Method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system is provided. A first response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) not in contact with a fluid of interest. A second response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) fully immersed in the fluid of interest. Using the first and second responses, a plurality of expected responses of the system's sensor(s) is (are) generated for a corresponding plurality of levels of immersion of the sensor(s) in the fluid of interest.
Method of making self-calibrated displacement measurements
Pedersen, Herbert N.
1977-01-01
A method for monitoring the displacement of an object having an acoustically reflective surface at least partially submerged in an acoustically conductive medium. The reflective surface is designed to have a stepped interface responsive to an incident acoustic pulse to provide separate discrete reflected pulses to a receiving transducer. The difference in the time of flight of the reflected acoustic signals corresponds to the known step height and the time of travel of the signals to the receiving transducer provides a measure of the displacement of the object. Accordingly, the reference step length enables simultaneous calibration of each displacement measurement.
A quick telemanipulator calibration and repeatability method with applications
Jansen, J.F.; Haley, D.C.
1994-09-01
This paper will present a methodology that was used to calibrate and measure the repeatability of two telemanipulators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The global accuracy of the method was 0.05 in. ({approx_equal} 1.3 mm), and the orientation accuracy was approximately 6 min ({approx_equal} 0.002 rads). For most teleoperator systems, these accuracies are more than adequate because of the construction of the mechanism and sensor capabilities (e.g., typically 12 bits of resolution). Although industrial robots require accuracies of about 0.05 mm or better, telemanipulators do not.
Spinning disk calibration method and apparatus for laser Doppler velocimeter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, P. K. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A method and apparatus for calibrating laser Doppler velocimeters having one or more intersecting beam pairs are described. These velocimeters measure fluid velocity by observing the light scattered by particles in the fluid stream. Moving fluid particulates are simulated by fine taut wires that are radially mounted on a disk that is rotated at a known velocity. The laser beam intersection locus is first aimed at the very center of the disk and then the disk is translated so that the locus is swept by the rotating wires. The radial distance traversed is precisely measured so that the velocity of the wires (pseudo particles) may be calculated.
Novel method of calibration with restrictive constraints for stereo-vision system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Jiashan; Huo, Ju; Yang, Ming
2016-05-01
Regarding the calibration of a stereo vision measurement system, this paper puts forward a new bundle adjustment algorithm based on the stereo vision camera calibration method. Multiple-view geometric constraints and a bundle adjustment algorithm are used to optimize the inner and outer parameters of the camera accurately. A fixed relative constraint relationship between cameras is introduced. We have improved the normal equation construction process of the traditional bundle adjustment method, so that each iteration process occurs just outside the parameters of two images that are taken by a camera that has been optimized to better integrate two cameras bound together as one camera. The relationship between the fixed relative constraints can effectively increase the number of superfluous observations of the adjustment system and optimize higher accuracy while reducing the dimension of the normal matrix; it means that each iteration will reduce the time required. Simulation and actual experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed approach in terms of robustness and accuracy, and our approach also can be extended to stereo-vision system with more than two cameras.
A Bionic Polarization Navigation Sensor and Its Calibration Method.
Zhao, Huijie; Xu, Wujian
2016-01-01
The polarization patterns of skylight which arise due to the scattering of sunlight in the atmosphere can be used by many insects for deriving compass information. Inspired by insects' polarized light compass, scientists have developed a new kind of navigation method. One of the key techniques in this method is the polarimetric sensor which is used to acquire direction information from skylight. In this paper, a polarization navigation sensor is proposed which imitates the working principles of the polarization vision systems of insects. We introduce the optical design and mathematical model of the sensor. In addition, a calibration method based on variable substitution and non-linear curve fitting is proposed. The results obtained from the outdoor experiments provide support for the feasibility and precision of the sensor. The sensor's signal processing can be well described using our mathematical model. A relatively high degree of accuracy in polarization measurement can be obtained without any error compensation. PMID:27527171
Waveform correlation methods for identifying populations of calibration events
Harris, D.B.
1997-07-01
An approach for systematically screening large volumes of continuous data for repetitive events identified as mining explosions on basis of temporal and amplitude population characteristics. The method extends event clustering through waveform correlation with a new source-region-specific detector. The new signal subspace detector generalizes the matched filter and can be used to increase the number of events associated with a given cluster, thereby increasing the reliability of diagnostic cluster population characteristics. The method can be applied to obtain bootstrap ground truth explosion waveforms for testing discriminants, where actual ground truth is absent. The same events, if associated with to a particular mine, may help calibrate velocity models. The method may also assist earthquake hazard risk assessment by providing what amounts to blasting logs for identified mines. The cluster event lists can be reconciled against earthquake catalogs to screen explosions, otherwise hard to identify from the catalogs.
Optoacoustic imaging quality enhancement based on geometrical super-resolution method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Hailong; Mandal, Subhamoy; Buehler, Andreas; Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis
2016-03-01
In optoacoustic imaging, the resolution and image quality in a certain imaging position usually cannot be enhanced without changing the imaging configuration. Post-reconstruction image processing methods offer a new possibility to improve image quality and resolution. We have developed a geometrical super-resolution (GSR) method which uses information from spatially separated frames to enhance resolution and contrast in optoacoustic images. The proposed method acquires several low resolution images from the same object located at different positions inside the imaging plane. Thereafter, it applies an iterative registration algorithm to integrate the information in the acquired set of images to generate a single high resolution image. Herein, we present the method and evaluate its performance in simulation and phantom experiments, and results show that geometrical super-resolution techniques can be a promising alternative to enhance resolution in optoacoustic imaging.
A method of calibrating wind velocity sensors with a modified gas flow calibrator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stump, H. P.
1978-01-01
A procedure was described for calibrating air velocity sensors in the exhaust flow of a gas flow calibrator. The average velocity in the test section located at the calibrator exhaust was verified from the mass flow rate accurately measured by the calibrator's precision sonic nozzles. Air at elevated pressures flowed through a series of screens, diameter changes, and flow straighteners, resulting in a smooth flow through the open test section. The modified system generated air velocities of 2 to 90 meters per second with an uncertainty of about two percent for speeds below 15 meters per second and four percent for the higher speeds. Wind tunnel data correlated well with that taken in the flow calibrator.
Calibration Methods for a 3D Triangulation Based Camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, Ulrike; Böhnke, Kay
A sensor in a camera takes a gray level image (1536 x 512 pixels), which is reflected by a reference body. The reference body is illuminated by a linear laser line. This gray level image can be used for a 3D calibration. The following paper describes how a calibration program calculates the calibration factors. The calibration factors serve to determine the size of an unknown reference body.
Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method
Rupert, M.G.
2001-01-01
Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.
A review of some radiometric calibration problems and methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slater, P. N.
1984-01-01
The in-flight radiometric calibration instrumentation and procedures of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the high-resolution visible-range instruments of SPOT are illustrated with drawings and diagrams, characterized, and compared. Problems encountered in the laboratory calibration process, minimizing the temporal instability of the systems, identifying anomalies in the electronics in flight, and rechecking the calibration are examined, and it is pointed out that the stability of the calibration systems is less than that of the instruments themselves. The use of carefully measured ground-site data and atmospheric parameters in combination with radiative-transfer models for periodic calibration is recommended.
Method for Ground-to-Satellite Laser Calibration System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.
Method for Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lukashin, Constantine (Inventor); Wielicki, Bruce A. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
The present invention comprises an approach for calibrating the sensitivity to polarization, optics degradation, spectral and stray light response functions of instruments on orbit. The concept is based on using an accurate ground-based laser system, Ground-to-Space Laser Calibration (GSLC), transmitting laser light to instrument on orbit during nighttime substantially clear-sky conditions. To minimize atmospheric contribution to the calibration uncertainty the calibration cycles should be performed in short time intervals, and all required measurements are designed to be relative. The calibration cycles involve ground operations with laser beam polarization and wavelength changes.
Advances in calibration methods for micro- and nanoscale surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leach, R. K.; Giusca, C. L.; Coupland, J. M.
2012-04-01
Optical surface topography measuring instrument manufacturers often quote accuracies of the order of nanometres and claim that the instruments can reliably measure a range of surfaces with structures on the micro- to nanoscale. However, for many years there has been debate about the interpretation of the data from optical surface topography measuring instruments. Optical artefacts in the output data and a lack of a calibration infrastructure mean that it can be difficult to get optical instruments to agree with contact stylus instruments. In this paper, the current situation with areal surface topography measurements is discussed along with the ISO specification standards that are in draft form. An infrastructure is discussed whereby the ISO-defined metrological characteristics of optical instruments can be determined, but these characteristics do not allow the instrument to measure complex surfaces. Current research into methods for determining the transfer function of optical instruments is reviewed, which will allow the calibration of optical instruments to measure complex surfaces, at least in the case of weak scattering. The ability of some optical instruments to measure outside the spatial bandwidth limitation of the numerical aperture is presented and some general outlook for future work given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming; Gong, Wei; Ma, Yingying; Wang, Lunche; Chen, Zhongyong
2016-03-01
Sun photometric measurements, which provide accurate and timely information on atmospheric components such as aerosols, clouds, and gases are important to climate research. For regions with heavy and variable aerosol loading, the traditional Langley plot method cannot be applied for Sun photometric instrument calibration, as almost no suitable prolonged periods with stable atmosphere and low-aerosol loading occurs. An improved calibration method, namely, the transmission and division of total optical depth method, is proposed in this study. Atmospheric total optical depth variation information obtained via other methods is transmitted, and period groups with similar atmospheric extinction effects are selected for Langley regression. This method is validated through calibration of a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer under heavy aerosol-loading conditions. The obtained aerosol optical depth (AOD) compares well with the interpolated AOD from a Cimel Sun-sky radiometer.
Geometrically Nonlinear Static Analysis of 3D Trusses Using the Arc-Length Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hrinda, Glenn A.
2006-01-01
Rigorous analysis of geometrically nonlinear structures demands creating mathematical models that accurately include loading and support conditions and, more importantly, model the stiffness and response of the structure. Nonlinear geometric structures often contain critical points with snap-through behavior during the response to large loads. Studying the post buckling behavior during a portion of a structure's unstable load history may be necessary. Primary structures made from ductile materials will stretch enough prior to failure for loads to redistribute producing sudden and often catastrophic collapses that are difficult to predict. The responses and redistribution of the internal loads during collapses and possible sharp snap-back of structures have frequently caused numerical difficulties in analysis procedures. The presence of critical stability points and unstable equilibrium paths are major difficulties that numerical solutions must pass to fully capture the nonlinear response. Some hurdles still exist in finding nonlinear responses of structures under large geometric changes. Predicting snap-through and snap-back of certain structures has been difficult and time consuming. Also difficult is finding how much load a structure may still carry safely. Highly geometrically nonlinear responses of structures exhibiting complex snap-back behavior are presented and analyzed with a finite element approach. The arc-length method will be reviewed and shown to predict the proper response and follow the nonlinear equilibrium path through limit points.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riveiro, B.; DeJong, M.; Conde, B.
2016-06-01
Despite the tremendous advantages of the laser scanning technology for the geometric characterization of built constructions, there are important limitations preventing more widespread implementation in the structural engineering domain. Even though the technology provides extensive and accurate information to perform structural assessment and health monitoring, many people are resistant to the technology due to the processing times involved. Thus, new methods that can automatically process LiDAR data and subsequently provide an automatic and organized interpretation are required. This paper presents a new method for fully automated point cloud segmentation of masonry arch bridges. The method efficiently creates segmented, spatially related and organized point clouds, which each contain the relevant geometric data for a particular component (pier, arch, spandrel wall, etc.) of the structure. The segmentation procedure comprises a heuristic approach for the separation of different vertical walls, and later image processing tools adapted to voxel structures allows the efficient segmentation of the main structural elements of the bridge. The proposed methodology provides the essential processed data required for structural assessment of masonry arch bridges based on geometric anomalies. The method is validated using a representative sample of masonry arch bridges in Spain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanda, Namita; Bandyopadhyay, J. N.
2009-08-01
The nonlinear transient response of composite shells with/without cutouts and initial geometric imperfection is investigated using the finite element method. The present formulation considers doubly curved shells incorporating von Kármán type nonlinear strains into the first order shear deformation theory. The analysis is carried out using quadratic C0 eight-noded isoparametric element. The governing nonlinear equations are solved by using the Newmark average acceleration method in the time integration in conjunction with modified Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. The validity of the model is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. Parametric studies are carried out varying the radius of curvature to width ratio and amplitude of initial geometric imperfection of laminated composite cylindrical, spherical and hyperbolic paraboloid shells with/without cutouts.
Geometric moire methods with enhanced sensitivity by optical/digital fringe multiplication
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, B.; Ifju, P.; Post, D.
1993-01-01
A robust fringe-shifting and image processing scheme is applied to geometric moire experiments. High quality contour maps of U, V and W displacement fields are obtained with sensitivity enhanced by a factor of ten. The method is compatible with complicated intensity distributions, variable bar-to-space ratios of gratings, and optical noise. It is applicable to large fields for both in-plane moire and shadow moire measurements.
Simple method for calibrating omnidirectional stereo with multiple cameras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Jong-Eun; Choi, I.-Sak
2011-04-01
Cameras can give useful information for the autonomous navigation of a mobile robot. Typically, one or two cameras are used for this task. Recently, an omnidirectional stereo vision system that can cover the whole surrounding environment of a mobile robot is adopted. They usually adopt a mirror that cannot offer uniform spatial resolution. In this paper, we deal with an omnidirectional stereo system which consists of eight cameras where each two vertical cameras constitute one stereo system. Camera calibration is the first necessary step to obtain 3D information. Calibration using a planar pattern requires many images acquired under different poses so it is a tedious step to calibrate all eight cameras. In this paper, we present a simple calibration procedure using a cubic-type calibration structure that surrounds the omnidirectional stereo system. We can calibrate all the cameras on an omnidirectional stereo system in just one shot.
Method for in-situ calibration of electrophoretic analysis systems
Liu, Changsheng; Zhao, Hequan
2005-05-08
An electrophoretic system having a plurality of separation lanes is provided with an automatic calibration feature in which each lane is separately calibrated. For each lane, the calibration coefficients map a spectrum of received channel intensities onto values reflective of the relative likelihood of each of a plurality of dyes being present. Individual peaks, reflective of the influence of a single dye, are isolated from among the various sets of detected light intensity spectra, and these can be used to both detect the number of dye components present, and also to establish exemplary vectors for the calibration coefficients which may then be clustered and further processed to arrive at a calibration matrix for the system. The system of the present invention thus permits one to use different dye sets to tag DNA nucleotides in samples which migrate in separate lanes, and also allows for in-situ calibration with new, previously unused dye sets.
A novel plane method to the calibration of the thermal camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xunsi; Huang, Wei; Nie, Qiu-hua; Xu, Tiefeng; Dai, Shixun; Shen, Xiang; Cheng, Weihai
2009-07-01
This paper provides an up-to-date review of research efforts in thermal camera and target object recognition techniques based on two-dimensional (2D) images in the infrared (IR) spectra (8-12μm). From the geometric point of view, a special target plate was constructed with a radiation source of lamp excited that allows all of these devices to be calibrated geometrically along a radiance-based approach. The calibration theory and actual experimental procedures were described, then an automated measurement of the circle targets by image centroid algorithm. The key parameters of IR camera were calibrated out with 3 inner and 6 outer of Tsai model in thermal imaging. The subsequent data processing and analysis were then outlined. The 3D model from the successful calibration of a representative sample of the infrared array camera was presented and discussed. They provide much new and easy way to the geometric characteristics of these imagers that can be used in car-night-vision, medical, industrial, military, and environmental applications.
Combined non-contact coordinate measurement system and calibration method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yiyan; Zhao, Bin
2015-07-01
A combined non-contact measurement system comprising attitude angle sensor, angle encoder, laser rangefinder, and total station is adopted to measure the spatial coordinate of the hidden zones in large-scale space. The laser from the total station is aimed at the optical system of the attitude angle sensor to obtain the spatial coordinate and the spatial attitude angles. Then, the angle encoder driven by a stepping motor is rotated to drive the laser rangefinder to direct at the measured point. This approach is used to obtain the distance from the rangefinder to the measured point and the angle of the angle encoder. Finally, the spatial coordinates of the measured point can be calculated by using these measured parameters. For the measurement system, we propose a weighted least squares (WLS) calibration method, in which weights are determined for the angular distribution density. Experimental results show that the measurement system could expand the scale and achieve reliable precision during combined measurement and the measurement error of the weighted least squares method is less than that of the ordinary least square (OLS) method.
Calibration Methods for Air Coupled Antennas - COST Action TU1208
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marecos, Vânia; Solla, Mercedes; Fontul, Simona; Pajewski, Lara
2016-04-01
This work focuses on the comparison of different methods for calibrating air coupled antennas: Coring, Surface Reflection Method (SRM) and Common Mid-Point (CMP) through the analysis of GPR data collected in a test site with different pavement solutions. Research activities have been carried out during a Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in December 2015. The use of GPR in transport infrastructures represents one of the most significant advances for obtaining continuous data along the road, with the advantage of operation at traffic speed and being a non-destructive technique. Its main application has been the evaluation of layer thickness. For the determination of layer thickness, it is necessary to know the velocity of the signal, which depends on the dielectric constant of the material, and the two-way travel time of the reflected signal that is recorded by the GPR system. The calculation of the dielectric value of the materials can be done using different approaches such as: using fixed values based on experience, laboratory determination of dielectric values, applying the SRM, performing back calculation from ground truth references such as cores and test pits, or using the CMP method. The problem with using ground truth is that it is time consuming, labour intensive and intrusive to traffic, in addition, a drill core is not necessarily representative of the whole surveyed area. Regarding the surface reflection technique, one of the problems is that it only measures the dielectric value from the layer surface and not from the whole layer. Recent works already started to address some of these challenges proposing new approaches for GPR layer thickness measurements using multiple antennas to calculate the average dielectric value of the asphalt layer, taking advantage of significant hardware improvements in GPR
A note on geometric method-based procedures to calculate the Hurst exponent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trinidad Segovia, J. E.; Fernández-Martínez, M.; Sánchez-Granero, M. A.
2012-03-01
Geometric method-based procedures, which we will call GM algorithms hereafter, were introduced in M.A. Sánchez-Granero, J.E. Trinidad Segovia, J. García Pérez, Some comments on Hurst exponent and the long memory processes on capital markets, Phys. A 387 (2008) 5543-5551, to calculate the Hurst exponent of a time series. The authors proved that GM algorithms, based on a geometrical approach, are more accurate than classical algorithms, especially with short length time series. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a mathematical background for the validity of these two algorithms to calculate the Hurst exponent H of random processes with stationary and self-affine increments. In particular, we show that these procedures are valid not only for exploring long memory in classical processes such as (fractional) Brownian motions, but also for estimating the Hurst exponent of (fractional) Lévy stable motions.
Error analysis of the articulated flexible arm CMM based on geometric method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xueying; Liu, Shugui; Zhang, Guoxiong; Wang, Bin
2006-11-01
In order to overcome the disadvantage of traditional CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), a new type of CMM with rotational joints and flexible arms named articulated arm flexible CMM is developed, in which linear measurements are substituted by angular ones. Firstly a quasi-spherical coordinate system is put forward, the ideal mathematical model of articulated arm flexible CMM is established. On the base of full analysis on the factors affecting the measurement accuracy, ideal mathematical model is modified to error model according to structural parameters and geometric errors. A geometric method is proposed to verify feasibility of error model, and the results convincingly show its validity. Position errors caused by different type of error sources are analyzed, and a theoretic base for introducing error compensation and improving the accuracy of articulated arm flexible CMM is established.
Canham, P B; Potter, R F; Woo, D
1984-01-01
The finer and more closely arrayed the capillaries are, the more efficiently oxygen will be transported to tissue because the same blood volume has greater contact area with the tissue and the diffusion distance for the oxygen is minimized. If these principles are actually governing microvascular structure, then the finest capillaries will be the narrowest channels which circulating erythrocytes can transit. Ascertaining the existence of this geometric limit requires quantitative data of demonstrated reliability on erythrocyte geometry and on capillary diameters. The study was done on Wistar rats. Constant flow perfusion of skeletal and cardiac muscle by a modified Batson's compound for anatomical casting made available rigid three-dimensional replicas of the microvasculature which shrank less than 1% when the tissue was digested with potassium hydroxide. Measurements of individual capillaries were made on high contrast scanning electron micrographs of the casts. Measurements on individual rat erythrocytes were done on photomicrographs of cells on edge. Reliability of these data was tested in three ways. First, repeatability of the tracing of the cell outline was tested by processing a duplicate set of photomicrographs. Secondly, correlations of the various parameters were found. Thirdly, results from other techniques of measuring erythrocytes were examined for areas of agreement and also for causes of possible error for areas in dispute. Because of known variability in erythrocyte sizes and shapes between species and between individuals within a species, we compared the data on erythrocyte geometry and capillary diameters for samples taken from the same individual rat. The data revealed a very positive indication that the lowest range of capillary diameters were at the limits of deformation of the circulating erythrocytes. Ninety-five per cent of the erythrocytes sampled could pass through a channel 2.9 micron in diameter. A small number of the capillaries
Optimal calibration method for water distribution water quality model.
Wu, Zheng Yi
2006-01-01
A water quality model is to predict water quality transport and fate throughout a water distribution system. The model is not only a promising alternative for analyzing disinfectant residuals in a cost-effective manner, but also a means of providing enormous engineering insights into the characteristics of water quality variation and constituent reactions. However, a water quality model is a reliable tool only if it predicts what a real system behaves. This paper presents a methodology that enables a modeler to efficiently calibrate a water quality model such that the field observed water quality values match with the model simulated values. The method is formulated to adjust the global water quality parameters and also the element-dependent water quality reaction rates for pipelines and tank storages. A genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the model parameters by minimizing the difference between the model-predicted values and the field-observed values. It is seamlessly integrated with a well-developed hydraulic and water quality modeling system. The approach has provided a generic tool and methodology for engineers to construct the sound water quality model in expedient manner. The method is applied to a real water system and demonstrated that a water quality model can be optimized for managing adequate water supply to public communities. PMID:16854809
Geometric correction method of rotary scanning hyperspectral image in agriculture application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Peng; Yang, Guijun; Xu, Bo; Feng, Haikuan; Yu, Haiyang
2015-04-01
In order to meet the demand of farmland plot experiments hyperspectral images acquisition, an equipment that incorporating an aerial lift vehicle with hyperspectral imager was proposed. In this manner, high spatial resolution (in millimeter) imageries were collected, which meets the need of spatial resolution on farm experiments, but also improves the efficiency of image acquisition. In allusion to the image circular geometric distortion which produced by telescopic arm rotation, an image rectification method that based on mounted position and orientation system was proposed. Experimental results shows that the image rectification method is effective.
Partially Strong Transparency Conditions and a Singular Localization Method In Geometric Optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yong; Zhang, Zhifei
2016-03-01
This paper focuses on the stability analysis of WKB approximate solutions in geometric optics with the absence of strong transparency conditions under the terminology of Joly, Métivier and Rauch. We introduce a compatible condition and a singular localization method which allows us to prove the stability of WKB solutions over long time intervals. This compatible condition is weaker than the strong transparency condition. The singular localization method allows us to do delicate analysis near resonances. As an application, we show the long time approximation of Klein-Gordon equations by Schrödinger equations in the non-relativistic limit regime.
Jia, Zhenyuan; Yang, Jinghao; Liu, Wei; Wang, Fuji; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lingli; Fan, Chaonan; Zhao, Kai
2015-06-15
High-precision calibration of binocular vision systems plays an important role in accurate dimensional measurements. In this paper, an improved camera calibration method is proposed. First, an accurate intrinsic parameters calibration method based on active vision with perpendicularity compensation is developed. Compared to the previous work, this method eliminates the effect of non-perpendicularity of the camera motion on calibration accuracy. The principal point, scale factors, and distortion factors are calculated independently in this method, thereby allowing the strong coupling of these parameters to be eliminated. Second, an accurate global optimization method with only 5 images is presented. The results of calibration experiments show that the accuracy of the calibration method can reach 99.91%. PMID:26193503
Gietzelt, Matthias; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold
2013-07-01
Calibration of accelerometers can be reduced to 3D-ellipsoid fitting problems. Changing extrinsic factors like temperature, pressure or humidity, as well as intrinsic factors like the battery status, demand to calibrate the measurements permanently. Thus, there is a need for fast calibration algorithms, e.g. for online analyses. The primary aim of this paper is to propose a non-iterative calibration algorithm for accelerometers with the focus on minimal execution time and low memory consumption. The secondary aim is to benchmark existing calibration algorithms based on 3D-ellipsoid fitting methods. We compared the algorithms regarding the calibration quality and the execution time as well as the number of quasi-static measurements needed for a stable calibration. As evaluation criterion for the calibration, both the norm of calibrated real-life measurements during inactivity and simulation data was used. The algorithms showed a high calibration quality, but the execution time differed significantly. The calibration method proposed in this paper showed the shortest execution time and a very good performance regarding the number of measurements needed to produce stable results. Furthermore, this algorithm was successfully implemented on a sensor node and calibrates the measured data on-the-fly while continuously storing the measured data to a microSD-card. PMID:23566707
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhan; Zheng, Gangtie
2016-08-01
A combined analysis method is developed in the present paper for studying the dynamic properties of a type of geometrically nonlinear vibration isolator, which is composed of push-pull configuration rings. This method combines the geometrically nonlinear theory of curved beams and the Harmonic Balance Method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the vibration and vibration transmissibility under large deformations of the ring structure. Using the proposed method, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of this isolator, such as the lock situation due to the coulomb damping and the usual jump resulting from the nonlinear stiffness, can be investigated. Numerical solutions based on the primary harmonic balance are first verified by direct integration results. Then, the whole procedure of this combined analysis method is demonstrated and validated by slowly sinusoidal sweeping experiments with different amplitudes of the base excitation. Both numerical and experimental results indicate that this type of isolator behaves as a hardening spring with increasing amplitude of the base excitation, which makes it suitable for isolating both steady-state vibrations and transient shocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baatz, R.; Bogena, H. R.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Huisman, J. A.; Qu, W.; Montzka, C.; Vereecken, H.
2014-08-01
The objective of this work was to assess the accuracy of soil water content determination from neutron flux measured by cosmic-ray probes under humid climate conditions. Ten cosmic-ray probes were set up in the Rur catchment located in western Germany, and calibrated by gravimetric soil sampling campaigns. Aboveground biomass was estimated at the sites to investigate the role of vegetation cover on the neutron flux and the calibration procedure. Three parameterization methods were used to generate site-specific neutron flux - soil water content calibration curves: (i) the N0-method, (ii) the hydrogen molar fraction method (hmf-method), and (iii) the COSMIC-method. At five locations, calibration measurements were repeated to evaluate site-specific calibration parameters obtained in two different sampling campaigns. At two locations, soil water content determined by cosmic-ray probes was evaluated with horizontally and vertically weighted soil water content measurements of two distributed in situ soil water content sensor networks. All three methods were successfully calibrated to determine field scale soil water content continuously at the ten sites. The hmf-method and the COSMIC-method had more similar calibration curves than the N0-method. The three methods performed similarly well in the validation and errors were within the uncertainty of neutron flux measurements despite observed differences in the calibration curves and variable model complexity. In addition, we found that the obtained calibration parameters NCOSMIC, N0 and NS showed a strong correlation with aboveground biomass.
Real Time Calibration Method for Signal Conditioning Amplifiers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A signal conditioning amplifier receives an input signal from an input such as a transducer. The signal is amplified and processed through an analog to digital converter and sent to a processor. The processor estimates the input signal provided by the transducer to the amplifier via a multiplexer. The estimated input signal is provided as a calibration voltage to the amplifier immediately following the receipt of the amplified input signal. The calibration voltage is amplified by the amplifier and provided to the processor as an amplified calibration voltage. The amplified calibration voltage is compared to the amplified input signal, and if a significant error exists, the gain and/or offset of the amplifier may be adjusted as necessary.
Two-Step Camera Calibration Method Developed for Micro UAV'S
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gašparović, M.; Gajski, D.
2016-06-01
The development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and continuous price reduction of unmanned systems attracted us to this research. Professional measuring systems are dozens of times more expensive and often heavier than "amateur", non-metric UAVs. For this reason, we tested the DJI Phantom 2 Vision Plus UAV. Phantom's smaller mass and velocity can develop less kinetic energy in relation to the professional measurement platforms, which makes it potentially less dangerous for use in populated areas. In this research, we wanted to investigate the ability of such non-metric UAV and find the procedures under which this kind of UAV may be used for the photogrammetric survey. It is important to emphasize that UAV is equipped with an ultra wide-angle camera with 14MP sensor. Calibration of such cameras is a complex process. In the research, a new two-step process is presented and developed, and the results are compared with standard one-step camera calibration procedure. Two-step process involves initially removed distortion on all images, and then uses these images in the phototriangulation with self-calibration. The paper presents statistical indicators which proved that the proposed two-step process is better and more accurate procedure for calibrating those types of cameras than standard one-step calibration. Also, we suggest two-step calibration process as the standard for ultra-wideangle cameras for unmanned aircraft.
A simple and flexible calibration method of non-overlapping camera rig
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Banglei; Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng; Lei, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiaohu
2015-05-01
A simple and flexible method for non-overlapping camera rig calibration that includes camera calibration and relative poses calibration is presented. The proposed algorithm gives the solutions of the cameras parameters and the relative poses simultaneously by using nonlinear optimization. Firstly, the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera in the rig are estimated individually. Then, a linear solution derived from hand-eye calibration scheme is proposed to compute an initial estimate of the relative poses inside the camera rig. Finally, combined non-linear refinement of all parameters is performed, which optimizes the intrinsic parameters, the extrinsic parameters and relative poses of the coupled camera at the same time. We develop and test a novel approach for calibrating the parameters of non-overlapping camera rig using camera calibration and hand-eye calibration method. The method is designed inter alia for the purpose of deformation measurement using the calibrated rig. Compared the camera calibration with hand-eye calibration separately, our joint calibration is more convenient in practice application. Experimental data shows our algorithm is feasible and effective.
Research on method of geometry and spectral calibration of pushbroom dispersive hyperspectral imager
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zhiping; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu
2012-11-01
Development and application of airborne and aerospace hyperspectral imager press for high precision geometry and spectral calibration of pixels of image cube. The research of geometry and spectral calibration of pushbroom hyperspectral imager, its target is giving the coordinate of angle field of view and center wavelength of each detect unit in focal plane detector of hyperspectral imager, and achieves the high precision, full field of view, full channel geometry and spectral calibration. It is importance for imaging quantitative and deep application of hyperspectal imager. The paper takes the geometry and spectral calibration of pushbroom dispersive hyperspectral imager as case study, and research on the constitution and analysis of imaging mathematical model. Aimed especially at grating-dispersive hyperspectral imaging, the specialty of the imaging mode and dispersive method has been concretely analyzed. Based on the analysis, the theory and feasible method of geometry and spectral calibration of dispersive hyperspectral imager is set up. The key technique has been solved is As follows: 1). the imaging mathematical model and feasible method of geometry and spectral calibration for full pixels of image cube has been set up, the feasibility of the calibration method has been analyzed. 2). the engineering model and method of the geometry and spectral calibration of pushbroom dispersive hyperspectral imager has been set up and the calibration equipment has been constructed, and the calibration precision has been analyzed.
Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.
2015-01-01
While simulations of the measured biodynamic responses of the whole human body or body segments to vibration are conventionally interpreted as summaries of biodynamic measurements, and the resulting models are considered quantitative, this study looked at these simulations from a different angle: model calibration. The specific aims of this study are to review and clarify the theoretical basis for model calibration, to help formulate the criteria for calibration validation, and to help appropriately select and apply calibration methods. In addition to established vibration theory, a novel theorem of mechanical vibration is also used to enhance the understanding of the mathematical and physical principles of the calibration. Based on this enhanced understanding, a set of criteria was proposed and used to systematically examine the calibration methods. Besides theoretical analyses, a numerical testing method is also used in the examination. This study identified the basic requirements for each calibration method to obtain a unique calibration solution. This study also confirmed that the solution becomes more robust if more than sufficient calibration references are provided. Practically, however, as more references are used, more inconsistencies can arise among the measured data for representing the biodynamic properties. To help account for the relative reliabilities of the references, a baseline weighting scheme is proposed. The analyses suggest that the best choice of calibration method depends on the modeling purpose, the model structure, and the availability and reliability of representative reference data. PMID:26740726
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.
2015-11-01
While simulations of the measured biodynamic responses of the whole human body or body segments to vibration are conventionally interpreted as summaries of biodynamic measurements, and the resulting models are considered quantitative, this study looked at these simulations from a different angle: model calibration. The specific aims of this study are to review and clarify the theoretical basis for model calibration, to help formulate the criteria for calibration validation, and to help appropriately select and apply calibration methods. In addition to established vibration theory, a novel theorem of mechanical vibration is also used to enhance the understanding of the mathematical and physical principles of the calibration. Based on this enhanced understanding, a set of criteria was proposed and used to systematically examine the calibration methods. Besides theoretical analyses, a numerical testing method is also used in the examination. This study identified the basic requirements for each calibration method to obtain a unique calibration solution. This study also confirmed that the solution becomes more robust if more than sufficient calibration references are provided. Practically, however, as more references are used, more inconsistencies can arise among the measured data for representing the biodynamic properties. To help account for the relative reliabilities of the references, a baseline weighting scheme is proposed. The analyses suggest that the best choice of calibration method depends on the modeling purpose, the model structure, and the availability and reliability of representative reference data.
Optical geometry calibration method for free-form digital tomosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chtcheprov, Pavel; Hartman, Allison; Shan, Jing; Lee, Yueh Z.; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping
2016-03-01
Digital tomosynthesis is a type of limited angle tomography that allows 3D information to be reconstructed from a set of x-ray projection images taken at various angles using an x-ray tube, a mechanical arm to rotate the tube about the object, and a digital detector. Tomosynthesis reconstruction requires the precise location of the detector with respect to each x-ray source, forcing all current clinical tomosynthesis systems to use a physically coupled source and detector so the geometry is always known and is always the same. This limits the imaging geometries and its large size is impractical for mobile or field operations. To counter this, we have developed a free form tomosynthesis with a decoupled, free-moving source and detector that uses a novel optical method for accurate and real-time geometry calibration to allow for manual, hand-held tomosynthesis and even CT imaging. We accomplish this by using a camera, attached to the source, to track the motion of the source relative to the detector. Attached to the detector is an optical pattern and the image captured by the camera is then used to determine the relative camera/pattern position and orientation by analyzing the pattern distortion and calculating the source positions for each projection, necessary for 3D reconstruction. This allows for portable imaging in the field and also as an inexpensive upgrade to existing 2D systems, such as in developing countries, to provide 3D image data. Here we report the first feasibility demonstrations of free form digital tomosynthesis systems using the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masuda, Kazuhiko; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Sakai, Tetsu; Okamoto, Hajime
2016-06-01
Backscattering properties of ice crystal models (Voronoi aggregates (VA), hexagonal columns (COL), and six-branched bullet rosettes (BR6)) are calculated by using geometrical-opticsintegral-equation (GOIE) method. Characteristics of depolarization ratio (δ) and lidar ratio (L) of the crystal models are examined. δ (L) values are 0.2~0.3 (4~50), 0.3~0.4 (10~25), and 0.5~0.6 (50~100) for COL, BR6, and VA, respectively, at wavelength λ=0.532 μm. It is found that small deformation of COL model could produce significant changes in δ and L.
Hourdakis, Costas J; Büermann, Ludwig; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Csete, Istvan; Delis, Harry; Gomola, Igor; Persson, Linda; Novak, Leos; Petkov, Ivailo; Toroi, Paula
2016-01-01
A comparison of calibration results and procedures in terms of air kerma length product, PKL, and air kerma, K, was conducted between eight dosimetry laboratories. A pencil-type ionization chamber (IC), generally used for computed tomography dose measurements, was calibrated according to three calibration methods, while its residual signal and other characteristics (sensitivity profile, active length) were assessed. The results showed that the "partial irradiation method" is the preferred method for the pencil-type IC calibration in terms of PKL and it could be applied by the calibration laboratories successfully. Most of the participating laboratories achieved high level of agreement (>99%) for both dosimetry quantities (PKL and K). Estimated relative standard uncertainties of comparison results vary among laboratories from 0.34% to 2.32% depending on the quantity, beam quality and calibration method applied. Detailed analysis of the assigned uncertainties have been presented and discussed. PMID:26508013
Fast Geometric Method for Calculating Accurate Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOIDs)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiźniowski, T.; Rickman, H.
2013-06-01
We present a new method to compute Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOIDs) for arbitrary pairs of heliocentric orbits and compare it with Giovanni Gronchi's algebraic method. Our procedure is numerical and iterative, and the MOID configuration is found by geometric scanning and tuning. A basic element is the meridional plane, used for initial scanning, which contains one of the objects and is perpendicular to the orbital plane of the other. Our method also relies on an efficient tuning technique in order to zoom in on the MOID configuration, starting from the first approximation found by scanning. We work with high accuracy and take special care to avoid the risk of missing the MOID, which is inherent to our type of approach. We demonstrate that our method is both fast, reliable and flexible. It is freely available and its source Fortran code downloadable via our web page.
Geometrical force constraint method for vessel and x-ray angiogram simulation.
Song, Shuang; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Cong, Weijian; Ai, Danni; Zhao, Yitian; Wang, Yongtian
2016-01-01
This study proposes a novel geometrical force constraint method for 3-D vasculature modeling and angiographic image simulation. For this method, space filling force, gravitational force, and topological preserving force are proposed and combined for the optimization of the topology of the vascular structure. The surface covering force and surface adhesion force are constructed to drive the growth of the vasculature on any surface. According to the combination effects of the topological and surface adhering forces, a realistic vasculature can be effectively simulated on any surface. The image projection of the generated 3-D vascular structures is simulated according to the perspective projection and energy attenuation principles of X-rays. Finally, the simulated projection vasculature is fused with a predefined angiographic mask image to generate a realistic angiogram. The proposed method is evaluated on a CT image and three generally utilized surfaces. The results fully demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26890908
Geometric methods in computer vision; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 25, 26, 1991
Vemuri, B.C.
1991-01-01
Various papers on geometric methods in computer vision are presented. Individual topics addressed include: mathematical theories of shape and the modeling of perception, free-form shape representation and deformable surfaces, new method for sensor data fusion in machine vision, spatial and temporal surface interpolation using wavelet bases, differential properties from adaptive thin-plate splines, shape metrics from curvature-scale spaced and curvature-tuned smoothing, energy functions for regularization algorithms, direct method for reconstructing shape from shading, coupled depth-slope model based on augmented Lagrangian techniques, physically based and probabilistic models for computer vision, probabilistic modeling of surfaces. Also discussed are: recognition and positioning of rigid objects using algebraic moment invariants, contour estimation using global shape constraints and local forces, recognizing human eyes, face recognition based on depth maps and surface curvature, model-based surface classification, hierarchical decomposition and axial representation of shape, direct computation of geometric features from motion disparities and shading, invariant feature matching in parameter space with application to line features, spatiotemporal curvature measures for flowfield analysis, primary set of characteristic views for 3D objects, image representation by integrating curvatures and Delaunay triangulations, 3D reconstruction using virtual planes and horopters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Fei; Ye, Zhengyin
2015-12-01
Despite significant progress in recent computational techniques, the accurate numerical simulations, such as direct-numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation, are still challenging. For accurate calculations, the high-order finite difference method (FDM) is usually adopted with coordinate transformation from body-fitted grid to Cartesian grid. But this transformation might lead to failure in freestream preservation with the geometric conservation law (GCL) violated, particularly in high-order computations. GCL identities, including surface conservation law (SCL) and volume conservation law (VCL), are very important in discretization of high-order FDM. To satisfy GCL, various efforts have been made. An early and successful approach was developed by Thomas and Lombard [6] who used the conservative form of metrics to cancel out metric terms to further satisfy SCL. Visbal and Gaitonde [7] adopted this conservative form of metrics for SCL identities and satisfied VCL identity through invoking VCL equation to acquire the derivative of Jacobian in computation on moving and deforming grids with central compact schemes derived by Lele [5]. Later, using the metric technique from Visbal and Gaitonde [7], Nonomura et al. [8] investigated the freestream and vortex preservation properties of high-order WENO and WCNS on stationary curvilinear grids. A conservative metric method (CMM) was further developed by Deng et al. [9] with stationary grids, and detailed discussion about the innermost difference operator of CMM was shown with proof and corresponding numerical test cases. Noticing that metrics of CMM is asymmetrical without coordinate-invariant property, Deng et al. proposed a symmetrical CMM (SCMM) [12] by using the symmetric forms of metrics derived by Vinokur and Yee [10] to further eliminate asymmetric metric errors with stationary grids considered only. The research from Abe et al. [11] presented new asymmetric and symmetric conservative forms of time metrics and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoll, Frederick; Gurdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.
1991-01-01
A method was developed for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of the static response of thin-walled stiffened composite structures loaded in uniaxial or biaxial compression. The method is applicable to arbitrary prismatic configurations composed of linked plate strips, such as stiffened panels and thin-walled columns. The longitudinal ends of the structure are assumed to be simply supported, and geometric shape imperfections can be modeled. The method can predict the nonlinear phenomena of postbuckling strength and imperfection sensitivity which are exhibited by some buckling-dominated structures. The method is computer-based and is semi-analytic in nature, making it computationally economical in comparison to finite element methods. The method uses a perturbation approach based on the use of a series of buckling mode shapes to represent displacement contributions associated with nonlinear response. Displacement contributions which are of second order in the model amplitudes are incorported in addition to the buckling mode shapes. The principle of virtual work is applied using a finite basis of buckling modes, and terms through the third order in the model amplitudes are retained. A set of cubic nonlinear algebraic equations are obtained, from which approximate equilibrium solutions are determined. Buckling mode shapes for the general class of structure are obtained using the VIPASA analysis code within the PASCO stiffened-panel design code. Thus, subject to some additional restrictions in loading and plate anisotropy, structures which can be modeled with respect to buckling behavior by VIPASA can be analyzed with respect to nonlinear response using the new method. Results obtained using the method are compared with both experimental and analytical results in the literature. The configurations investigated include several different unstiffened and blade-stiffening panel configurations, featuring both homogeneous, isotropic materials, and laminated composite
A robust method for determining calibration coefficients for VIIRS reflective solar bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Qiang; McIntire, Jeffrey; Efremova, Boryana; Schwarting, Thomas; Oudrari, Hassan; Zeng, Jinan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong
2015-09-01
This paper presents a robust method for determining the calibration coefficients in polynomial calibration equations, and discusses the corresponding calibration uncertainties. An attenuator method that takes into account all measurements with and without an attenuator screen was used to restrict the impact of the absolute calibration of the light source. The originally proposed procedure attempts to simultaneously determine all unknowns nonlinearly using polynomial curve fitting. The newly proposed method divides the task into two simpler parts. For example, in the case of a quadratic calibration equation, the first part becomes a quadratic equation solely for the transmittance of attenuator, which has an analytical solution using three or four sets of measurements. Additionally, it is straightforward to determine the median value and the standard deviation of the transmittance from the solutions using all combinations of measured data points. In conjunction, the second part becomes a linear fit, with the ratio of the zeroth-order to first-order calibration coefficients as the intercept and the ratio of the second-order to first-order calibration coefficients as the slope. These ratios are unaffected by the absolute calibration of the light source and are then used in the calibration equation to calculate the first-order calibration coefficient. How the new method works is straightforward to visualize, which makes its results easier to verify. This is demonstrated using measurements from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) J1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective solar bands (RSB) pre-launch testing.
Model Robust Calibration: Method and Application to Electronically-Scanned Pressure Transducers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Eric L.; Starnes, B. Alden; Birch, Jeffery B.; Mays, James E.
2010-01-01
This article presents the application of a recently developed statistical regression method to the controlled instrument calibration problem. The statistical method of Model Robust Regression (MRR), developed by Mays, Birch, and Starnes, is shown to improve instrument calibration by reducing the reliance of the calibration on a predetermined parametric (e.g. polynomial, exponential, logarithmic) model. This is accomplished by allowing fits from the predetermined parametric model to be augmented by a certain portion of a fit to the residuals from the initial regression using a nonparametric (locally parametric) regression technique. The method is demonstrated for the absolute scale calibration of silicon-based pressure transducers.
Calibration of AVHRR sensors using the reflectance-based method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Leisso, Nathan P.
2007-09-01
The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has been active in the vicarious calibration of numerous sensors through the use of ground-based test sites. Recent efforts have included work to develop cross-calibration information between these sensors using the results from the reflectance-based approach. The current work extends the cross-calibration to the AVHRR series of sensors, specifically NOAA-17, and NOAA-18. The results include work done based on data collected by ground-based personnel nearly coincident with the sensor overpasses. The available number of calibrations for the AVHRR series is increased through a set of ground-based radiometers that are deployed without the need for on-site personnel and have been operating for more than three years at Railroad Valley Playa. The spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of the 1-km2 large-footprint site at Railroad Valley are well understood. It is therefore well suited for the radiometric calibration of AVHRR, which has a nadir-viewing footprint of 1.1 x 1.1 km. The at-sensor radiance is predicted via a radiative transfer code using atmospheric data from a fully-automated solar radiometer. The results for AVHRR show that errors are currently larger for the automated data sets, but results indicate that the AVHRR sensors studied in this work are consistent with the Aqua and Terra MODIS sensors to within the uncertainties of each sensor.
Indoor Calibration for Stereoscopic Camera STC, A New Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simioni, E.; Re, C.; Da Deppo, V.; Naletto, G.; Borrelli, D.; Dami, M.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Cremonese, G.
2014-10-01
In the framework of the ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, the global mapping of the planet will be performed by the on-board Stereo Camera (STC), part of the SIMBIO-SYS suite [1]. In this paper we propose a new technique for the validation of the 3D reconstruction of planetary surface from images acquired with a stereo camera. STC will provide a three-dimensional reconstruction of Mercury surface. The generation of a DTM of the observed features is based on the processing of the acquired images and on the knowledge of the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the optical system. The new stereo concept developed for STC needs a pre-flight verification of the actual capabilities to obtain elevation information from stereo couples: for this, a stereo validation setup to get an indoor reproduction of the flight observing condition of the instrument would give a much greater confidence to the developed instrument design. STC is the first stereo satellite camera with two optical channels converging in a unique sensor. Its optical model is based on a brand new concept to minimize mass and volume and to allow push-frame imaging. This model imposed to define a new calibration pipeline to test the reconstruction method in a controlled ambient. An ad-hoc indoor set-up has been realized for validating the instrument designed to operate in deep space, i.e. in-flight STC will have to deal with source/target essentially placed at infinity. This auxiliary indoor setup permits on one side to rescale the stereo reconstruction problem from the operative distance in-flight of 400 km to almost 1 meter in lab; on the other side it allows to replicate different viewing angles for the considered targets. Neglecting for sake of simplicity the Mercury curvature, the STC observing geometry of the same portion of the planet surface at periherm corresponds to a rotation of the spacecraft (SC) around the observed target by twice the 20Â° separation of each channel with respect to nadir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naughton, Denis; Brunn, Andreas; Czapla-Myers, Jeff; Douglass, Scott; Thiele, Michael; Weichelt, Horst; Oxfort, Michael
2011-01-01
RapidEye AG is a commercial provider of geospatial information products and customized solutions derived from Earth observation image data. The source of the data is the RapidEye constellation consisting of five low-earth-orbit imaging satellites. We describe the rationale, methods, and results of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration campaign that was conducted between April 2009 and May 2010 at Railroad Valley Playa and Ivanpah Playa to determine the on-orbit radiometric accuracy of the RapidEye sensor. In situ surface spectral reflectance measurements of known ground targets and an assessment of the atmospheric conditions above the sites were taken during spacecraft overpasses. The ground data are used as input to a radiative transfer code to compute a band-specific top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance. A comparison of these predicted values based on absolute physical data to the measured at-sensor spectral radiance provide the absolute calibration of the sensor. Initial assessments show that the RapidEye sensor response is within 8% of the predicted values. Outcomes from this campaign are then used to update the calibration parameters in the ground segment processing system. Subsequent verification events confirmed that the measured RapidEye response improved to within 4% of the predictions based on the vicarious calibration method.
Calibration of three rainfall simulators with automatic measurement methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roldan, Margarita
2010-05-01
CALIBRATION OF THREE RAINFALL SIMULATORS WITH AUTOMATIC MEASUREMENT METHODS M. Roldán (1), I. Martín (2), F. Martín (2), S. de Alba(3), M. Alcázar(3), F.I. Cermeño(3) 1 Grupo de Investigación Ecología y Gestión Forestal Sostenible. ECOGESFOR-Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. E.U.I.T. Forestal. Avda. Ramiro de Maeztu s/n. Ciudad Universitaria. 28040 Madrid. margarita.roldan@upm.es 2 E.U.I.T. Forestal. Avda. Ramiro de Maeztu s/n. Ciudad Universitaria. 28040 Madrid. 3 Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Ciudad Universitaria s/n. 28040 Madrid The rainfall erosivity is the potential ability of rain to cause erosion. It is function of the physical characteristics of rainfall (Hudson, 1971). Most expressions describing erosivity are related to kinetic energy or momentum and so with drop mass or size and fall velocity. Therefore, research on factors determining erosivity leds to the necessity to study the relation between fall height and fall velocity for different drop sizes, generated in a rainfall simulator (Epema G.F.and Riezebos H.Th, 1983) Rainfall simulators are one of the most used tools for erosion studies and are used to determine fall velocity and drop size. Rainfall simulators allow repeated and multiple measurements The main reason for use of rainfall simulation as a research tool is to reproduce in a controlled way the behaviour expected in the natural environment. But in many occasions when simulated rain is used in order to compare it with natural rain, there is a lack of correspondence between natural and simulated rain and this can introduce some doubt about validity of data because the characteristics of natural rain are not adequately represented in rainfall simulation research (Dunkerley D., 2008). Many times the rainfall simulations have high rain rates and they do not resemble natural rain events and these measures are not comparables. And besides the intensity is related to the kinetic energy which
Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers
Rich, Kyle T.; Mast, T. Douglas
2015-01-01
Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812
Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers.
Rich, Kyle T; Mast, T Douglas
2015-09-01
Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812
A method for intensity calibration of an electron spectrometer with multi-angle detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ábrók, Levente; Buhr, Ticia; Kövér, Ákos; Balog, Róbert; Hatvani, Dávid; Herczku, Péter; Kovács, Sándor; Ricz, Sándor
2016-02-01
A special electrostatic electron spectrometer designed for precise and unique experiments and an intensity calibration method for universal application in electron spectroscopy are presented. The upgrade of the analyzer enables the intensity calibration at arbitrary electron energies using elastically scattered electrons. In order to test the calibration procedure the double differential (in energy and angle) ionization cross sections (DDCS) of electrons ejected from 300 keV proton-argon collisions were measured and compared with the data of Rudd et al. [1]. The good agreement between the two data sets verifies the applicability of the calibration method.