A geometric deformable model for echocardiographic image segmentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hang, X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Thomas, J. D.
2002-01-01
Gradient vector flow (GVF), an elegant external force for parametric deformable models, can capture object boundaries from both sides. A new geometric deformable model is proposed that combines GVF and the geodesic active contour model. The level set method is used as the numerical method of this model. The model is applied for echocardiographic image segmentation.
Water flow based geometric active deformable model for road network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leninisha, Shanmugam; Vani, Kaliaperumal
2015-04-01
A width and color based geometric active deformable model is proposed for road network extraction from remote sensing images with minimal human interception. Orientation and width of road are computed from a single manual seed point, from which the propagation starts both right and left hand directions of the starting point, which extracts the interconnected road network from the aerial or high spatial resolution satellite image automatically. Here the propagation (like water flow in canal with defined boundary) is restricted with color and width of the road. Road extraction is done for linear, curvilinear (U shape and S shape) roads first, irrespective of width and color. Then, this algorithm is improved to extract road with junctions in a shape of L, T and X along with center line. Roads with small break or disconnected roads are also extracts by a modified version of this same algorithm. This methodology is tested and evaluated with various remote sensing images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient and extracting roads accurately with less computation time. However, in complex urban areas, the identification accuracy declines due to the various sizes of obstacles, over bridges, multilane etc.
Deformations of Geometric Structures in Topological Sigma Models
Bytsenko, A. A.
2010-11-25
We study a Lie algebra of formal vector fields W{sub n} with it application to the perturbative deformed holomorphic symplectic structure in the A-model, and a Calabi-Yau manifold with boundaries in the B-model. We show that equivalent classes of deformations are described by a Hochschild cohomology of the DG-algebra A = (A,Q), Q = {partial_derivative}-bar+{partial_derivative}{sub deform,} which is defined to be the cohomology of (-1){sup n}Q+d{sub Hoch}. Here {partial_derivative}-bar is the initial non-deformed BRST operator while {partial_derivative}{sub deform} is the deformed part whose algebra is a Lie algebra of linear vector fields gl{sub n}.
Research on geometrical model and mechanism for metal deformation based on plastic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, H. P.; Rui, Z. Y.; Li, X.
2015-12-01
Starting with general conditions of metal plastic deformation, it analyses the relation between the percentage spread and geometric parameters of a forming body with typical machining process are studied. A geometrical model of deforming metal is set up according to the characteristic of a flowing metal particle. Starting from experimental results, the effect of technological parameters and friction between workpiece and dies on plastic deformation of a material were studied and a slippage deformation model of mass points within the material was proposed. Finally, the computing methods for strain and deformation energy and temperature rise are derived from homogeneous deformation. The results can be used to select technical parameters and compute physical quantities such as strain, deformation energy, and temperature rise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philippon, Mélody; Le Carlier de Veslud, Christian; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Caumon, Guillaume
2015-09-01
Superposed to ductile syn-metamorphic deformations, post-foliation deformations affect metamorphic units during their exhumation. Understanding the role of such deformations in the structuration of metamorphic units is key for understanding the tectonic evolution of convergence zones. We characterize post-foliations deformations using 3D modelling which is a first-order tool to describe complex geological structures, but a challenging task where based only on surface data. We propose a modelling procedure that combines fast draft models (interpolation of orientation data), with more complex ones where the structural context is better understood (implicit modelling), allowing us to build a 3D geometrical model of Syros Island blueschists (Cyclades), based on field data. With our approach, the 3D model is able to capture the complex present-day geometry of the island, mainly controlled by the superposition of three types of post-metamorphic deformations affecting the original metamorphic pile: i) a top-to-South ramp-flat extensional system that dominates the overall island structure, ii) large-scale folding of the metamorphic units associated with ramp-flat extensional system, and iii) steeply-dipping normal faults trending dominantly NNW-SSE and EW. The 3D surfaces produced by this method match outcrop data, are geologically consistent, and provide reasonable estimates of geological structures in poorly constrained areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azimi, Maryam
Radiation therapy has been used in the treatment of cancer tumors for several years and many cancer patients receive radiotherapy. It may be used as primary therapy or with a combination of surgery or other kinds of therapy such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy or some mixture of the three. The treatment objective is to destroy cancer cells or shrink the tumor by planning an adequate radiation dose to the desired target without damaging the normal tissues. By using the pre-treatment Computer Tomography (CT) images, most of the radiotherapy planning systems design the target and assume that the size of the tumor will not change throughout the treatment course, which takes 5 to 7 weeks. Based on this assumption, the total amount of radiation is planned and fractionated for the daily dose required to be delivered to the patient's body. However, this assumption is flawed because the patients receiving radiotherapy have marked changes in tumor geometry during the treatment period. Therefore, there is a critical need to understand the changes of the tumor shape and size over time during the course of radiotherapy in order to prevent significant effects of inaccuracy in the planning. In this research, a methodology is proposed in order to monitor and predict daily (fraction day) tumor volume and surface changes of head and neck cancer tumors during the entire treatment period. In the proposed method, geometrical modeling and data mining techniques will be used rather than repetitive CT scans data to predict the tumor deformation for radiation planning. Clinical patient data were obtained from the University of Texas-MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). In the first step, by using CT scan data, the tumor's progressive geometric changes during the treatment period are quantified. The next step relates to using regression analysis in order to develop predictive models for tumor geometry based on the geometric analysis results and the patients' selected attributes (age, weight
Multiple-object geometric deformable model for segmentation of macular OCT
Carass, Aaron; Lang, Andrew; Hauser, Matthew; Calabresi, Peter A.; Ying, Howard S.; Prince, Jerry L.
2014-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the de facto standard imaging modality for ophthalmological assessment of retinal eye disease, and is of increasing importance in the study of neurological disorders. Quantification of the thicknesses of various retinal layers within the macular cube provides unique diagnostic insights for many diseases, but the capability for automatic segmentation and quantification remains quite limited. While manual segmentation has been used for many scientific studies, it is extremely time consuming and is subject to intra- and inter-rater variation. This paper presents a new computational domain, referred to as flat space, and a segmentation method for specific retinal layers in the macular cube using a recently developed deformable model approach for multiple objects. The framework maintains object relationships and topology while preventing overlaps and gaps. The algorithm segments eight retinal layers over the whole macular cube, where each boundary is defined with subvoxel precision. Evaluation of the method on single-eye OCT scans from 37 subjects, each with manual ground truth, shows improvement over a state-of-the-art method. PMID:24761289
The minimal geometric deformation approach extended
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão
2015-11-01
The minimal geometric deformation approach was introduced in order to study the exterior spacetime around spherically symmetric self-gravitating systems, such as stars or similar astrophysical objects, in the Randall-Sundrum brane-world framework. A consistent extension of this approach is developed here, which contains modifications of both the time component and the radial component of a spherically symmetric metric. A modified Schwarzschild geometry is obtained as an example of its simplest application, and a new solution that is potentially useful to describe stars in the brane-world is also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derez, T.; Pennock, G.; Drury, M. R.; Sintubin, M.
2013-12-01
Although quartz is one of the most studied minerals in the Earth's crust when it comes to its rheology, the interpretation of intracrystalline deformation microstructures with respect to deformation conditions and mechanisms, remains highly contentious. Moreover, inconsistent use of terminology for both deformation microstructures and mechanisms makes a correct assessment of observations and interpretations in published material very difficult. With respect to low-temperature intracrystalline deformation microstructures in quartz, different conflicting genetic models have been proposed. Most probably, the lack of consensus means that there is no unique interpretation for these microstructures, primarily because their initiation and development depend on many ambient conditions. We extensively studied these intracrystalline deformation microstructures by means of optical microscopy, Hot-Cathodoluminescence, SEM-Cathodoluminescence and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Orientation Imaging, in vein quartz of the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, France, Luxemburg, Germany), (de)formed in a low-temperature regime. Firstly, we propose a new, purely descriptive terminology for the low-temperature intracrystalline deformation microstructures in naturally deformed quartz: fine extinction bands (FEB), wide extinction bands (WEB) and strings. The strings can be further subdivided into blocky (BS), straight (SS) and recrystallised (RS) morphological types. FEBs have consistently been called deformation lamellae in quartz and planar slip bands in metals. WEBs have been called deformation bands, prismatic kink bands or type II kink bands. Strings have formerly been called shear bands, deformation bands or type I kink bands. No distinction between blocky and straight morphological string types had ever been made. Secondly, a survey of the pre-recrystallisation stages in the history of the intracrystalline deformation microstructures reveals that the different types of low
Descriptive Geometry and Geometric Modeling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, J. Alan
1988-01-01
Describes experiences for engineering students to develop spatial awareness and reasoning capability. Describes geometric modeling, basic geometric concepts, operations, surface modeling, and conclusions. (YP)
The effect of electron beam geometric deformation errors on the small-signal characteristic of ECRM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yongjian, Yu
1993-08-01
In this paper is studied the effect of electron beam geometric deformation errors on the small — signal characteristics of the TE{mn/o} mode Electron Cyclotron Resonance Maser (ECRM), based on the elliptically cross—sectional e—beam deformation model. As an example, the effect of small geometric deformation errors on the TE{01/o} mode fundamental ECRM coupling coefficient is quantitatively shown.
Pragmatic geometric model evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pamer, Robert
2015-04-01
Quantification of subsurface model reliability is mathematically and technically demanding as there are many different sources of uncertainty and some of the factors can be assessed merely in a subjective way. For many practical applications in industry or risk assessment (e. g. geothermal drilling) a quantitative estimation of possible geometric variations in depth unit is preferred over relative numbers because of cost calculations for different scenarios. The talk gives an overview of several factors that affect the geometry of structural subsurface models that are based upon typical geological survey organization (GSO) data like geological maps, borehole data and conceptually driven construction of subsurface elements (e. g. fault network). Within the context of the trans-European project "GeoMol" uncertainty analysis has to be very pragmatic also because of different data rights, data policies and modelling software between the project partners. In a case study a two-step evaluation methodology for geometric subsurface model uncertainty is being developed. In a first step several models of the same volume of interest have been calculated by omitting successively more and more input data types (seismic constraints, fault network, outcrop data). The positions of the various horizon surfaces are then compared. The procedure is equivalent to comparing data of various levels of detail and therefore structural complexity. This gives a measure of the structural significance of each data set in space and as a consequence areas of geometric complexity are identified. These areas are usually very data sensitive hence geometric variability in between individual data points in these areas is higher than in areas of low structural complexity. Instead of calculating a multitude of different models by varying some input data or parameters as it is done by Monte-Carlo-simulations, the aim of the second step of the evaluation procedure (which is part of the ongoing work) is to
Iris-based medical analysis by geometric deformation features.
Ma, Lin; Zhang, D; Li, Naimin; Cai, Yan; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanguan
2013-01-01
Iris analysis studies the relationship between human health and changes in the anatomy of the iris. Apart from the fact that iris recognition focuses on modeling the overall structure of the iris, iris diagnosis emphasizes the detecting and analyzing of local variations in the characteristics of irises. This paper focuses on studying the geometrical structure changes in irises that are caused by gastrointestinal diseases, and on measuring the observable deformations in the geometrical structures of irises that are related to roundness, diameter and other geometric forms of the pupil and the collarette. Pupil and collarette based features are defined and extracted. A series of experiments are implemented on our experimental pathological iris database, including manual clustering of both normal and pathological iris images, manual classification by non-specialists, manual classification by individuals with a medical background, classification ability verification for the proposed features, and disease recognition by applying the proposed features. The results prove the effectiveness and clinical diagnostic significance of the proposed features and a reliable recognition performance for automatic disease diagnosis. Our research results offer a novel systematic perspective for iridology studies and promote the progress of both theoretical and practical work in iris diagnosis. PMID:23144041
Ye, Chuyang; Yang, Zhen; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.
2016-01-01
The cerebellar peduncles, comprising the superior cerebellar peduncles (SCPs), the middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP), and the inferior cerebellar peduncles (ICPs), are white matter tracts that connect the cerebellum to other parts of the central nervous system. Methods for automatic segmentation and quantification of the cerebellar peduncles are needed for objectively and efficiently studying their structure and function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides key information to support this goal, but it remains challenging because the tensors change dramatically in the decussation of the SCPs (dSCP), the region where the SCPs cross. This paper presents an automatic method for segmenting the cerebellar peduncles, including the dSCP. The method uses volumetric segmentation concepts based on extracted DTI features. The dSCP and noncrossing portions of the peduncles are modeled as separate objects, and are initially classified using a random forest classifier together with the DTI features. To obtain geometrically correct results, a multi-object geometric deformable model is used to refine the random forest classification. The method was evaluated using a leave-one-out cross-validation on five control subjects and four patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). It was then used to evaluate group differences in the peduncles in a population of 32 controls and 11 SCA6 patients. In the SCA6 group, we have observed significant decreases in the volumes of the dSCP and the ICPs and significant increases in the mean diffusivity in the noncrossing SCPs, the MCP, and the ICPs. These results are consistent with a degeneration of the cerebellar peduncles in SCA6 patients. PMID:25749985
Extending the geometric deformation: New black hole solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovalle, Jorge
2016-03-01
By using the extension of the Minimal Geometric Deformation approach, recently developed to investigate the exterior spacetime of a self-gravitating system in the Braneworld, we identified a master solution for the deformation undergone by the radial metric component when time deformations are produced by bulk gravitons. A specific form for the temporal deformation is used to generate a new exterior solution with a tidal charge Q. The main feature of this solution is the presence of higher-order terms in the tidal charge, thus generalizing the well known tidally charged solution. The horizon of the black hole lies inside the Schwarzschild radius, h < rs = 2ℳ, indicating that extra-dimensional effects weaken the gravitational field.
Geometrical modelling of textile reinforcements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pastore, Christopher M.; Birger, Alexander B.; Clyburn, Eugene
1995-01-01
The mechanical properties of textile composites are dictated by the arrangement of yarns contained with the material. Thus to develop a comprehensive understanding of the performance of these materials, it is necessary to develop a geometrical model of the fabric structure. This task is quite complex, as the fabric is made form highly flexible yarn systems which experience a certain degree of compressability. Furthermore there are tremendous forces acting on the fabric during densification typically resulting in yarn displacement and misorientation. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for characterizing the geometry of yarns within a fabric structure including experimental techniques for evaluating these models. Furthermore, some applications of these geometric results to mechanical prediction models are demonstrated. Although more costly than its predecessors, the present analysis is based on the detailed architecture developed by one of the authors and his colleagues and accounts for many of the geometric complexities that other analyses ignore.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nika, G. Gerald; Parameswaran, R.
1997-01-01
Describes a visual approach for explaining the filling of electrons in the shells, subshells, and orbitals of the chemical elements. Enables students to apply the principles of atomic electron configuration while using manipulatives to model the building up of electron configurations as the atomic numbers of elements increase on the periodic…
Geometrical modelling of textile reinforcements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pastore, Christopher M.; Birger, Alexander B.; Clyburn, Eugene
1995-01-01
The mechanical properties of textile composites are dictated by the arrangement of yarns contained within the material. Thus, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the performance of these materials, it is necessary to develop a geometrical model of the fabric structure. This task is quite complex, as the fabric is made from highly flexible yarn systems which experience a certain degree of compressibility. Furthermore there are tremendous forces acting on the fabric during densification typically resulting in yarn displacement and misorientation. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for characterizing the geometry of yarns within a fabric structure including experimental techniques for evaluating these models. Furthermore, some applications of these geometric results to mechanical property predictions models are demonstrated.
Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.
2014-06-01
Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Librescu, L.; Stein, M.
1990-01-01
The effects of initial geometrical imperfections on the postbuckling response of flat laminated composite panels to uniaxial and biaxial compressive loading are investigated analytically. The derivation of the mathematical model on the basis of first-order transverse shear deformation theory is outlined, and numerical results for perfect and imperfect, single-layer and three-layer square plates with free-free, clamped-clamped, or free-clamped edges are presented in graphs and briefly characterized. The present approach is shown to be more accurate than analyses based on the classical Kirchhoff plate model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pallozzi Lavorante, Luca; Dirk Ebert, Hans
2008-07-01
Tensor3D is a geometric modeling program with the capacity to simulate and visualize in real-time the deformation, specified through a tensor matrix and applied to triangulated models representing geological bodies. 3D visualization allows the study of deformational processes that are traditionally conducted in 2D, such as simple and pure shears. Besides geometric objects that are immediately available in the program window, the program can read other models from disk, thus being able to import objects created with different open-source or proprietary programs. A strain ellipsoid and a bounding box are simultaneously shown and instantly deformed with the main object. The principal axes of strain are visualized as well to provide graphical information about the orientation of the tensor's normal components. The deformed models can also be saved, retrieved later and deformed again, in order to study different steps of progressive strain, or to make this data available to other programs. The shape of stress ellipsoids and the corresponding Mohr circles defined by any stress tensor can also be represented. The application was written using the Visualization ToolKit, a powerful scientific visualization library in the public domain. This development choice, allied to the use of the Tcl/Tk programming language, which is independent on the host computational platform, makes the program a useful tool for the study of geometric deformations directly in three dimensions in teaching as well as research activities.
Compensation of geometrical deformations for watermark extraction in digital cinema application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delannay, Damien; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Barlaud, Michel
2001-08-01
In this paper, we investigate the restoration of geometrically altered digital images with the aim of recovering an embedded watermark information. More precisely, we focus on the distorsion taking place by the camera acquisition of an image. Indeed, in the cinema industry, a large part of early movie piracy comes from copies made in the theater itself with a camera. The evolution towards digital cinema broadcast enables watermark based fingerprinting protection systems. The first step for fingerprint extraction of a counterfeit material is the compensation of the geometrical deformation inherent to the acquisition process. In order to compensate the deformations, we use a modified 12-parameters bilinear transformation model which closely matches the deformations taking place by an analog acquisition process. The estimation of the parameters can either be global, either vary across regions within the image. Our approach consist in the estimation of the displacement of a number of of pixels via a modified block-matching technique followed by a minimum mean square error optimization of the parameters on basis of those estimated displacement-vectors. The estimated transformation is applied to the candidate image to get a reconstruction as close as possible to the original image. Classical watermark extraction procedure can follow.
Phenomenological modeling of geometric metasurfaces.
Ye, Weimin; Guo, Qinghua; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Fan, Dianyuan; Zhang, Shuang
2016-04-01
Metasurfaces, with their superior capability in manipulating the optical wavefront at the subwavelength scale and low manufacturing complexity, have shown great potential for planar photonics and novel optical devices. However, vector field simulation of metasurfaces is so far limited to periodic-structured metasurfaces containing a small number of meta-atoms in the unit cell by using full-wave numerical methods. Here, focusing on achiral meta-atoms only with electric polarizability and thickness far less than the wavelength of light, and ignoring the coupling between meta-atoms, we propose a general phenomenological method to analytically model the metasurfaces based on the assumption that the meta-atoms possess localized resonances with Lorentz-Drude forms, whose exact form can be retrieved from the full wave simulation of a single element. Applied to phase modulated geometric metasurfaces constituted by identical meta-atoms with different orientations, our analytical results show good agreement with full-wave numerical simulations. The proposed theory provides an efficient method to model and design optical devices based on metasurfaces. PMID:27137005
Black strings from minimal geometric deformation in a variable tension brane-world
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão
2014-02-01
We study brane-world models with variable brane tension and compute corrections to the horizon of a black string along the extra dimension. The four-dimensional geometry of the black string on the brane is obtained by means of the minimal geometric deformation approach, and the bulk corrections are then encoded in additional terms involving the covariant derivatives of the variable brane tension. Our investigation shows that the variable brane tension strongly affects the shape and evolution of the black string horizon along the extra dimension, at least in a near-brane expansion. In particular, we apply our general analysis to a model motivated by the Eötvös branes, where the variable brane tension is related to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker brane-world cosmology. We show that for some stages in the evolution of the universe, the black string warped horizon collapses to a point and the black string has correspondingly finite extent along the extra dimension. Furthermore, we show that in the minimal geometric deformation of a black hole on the variable tension brane, the black string has a throat along the extra dimension, whose area tends to zero as time goes to infinity.
Kuprat, A.; George, D.
1998-12-01
When modeling deformation of geometrically complex regions, unstructured tetrahedral meshes provide the flexibility necessary to track interfaces as they change geometrically and topologically. In the class of time-dependent simulations considered in this paper, multimaterial interfaces are represented by sets of triangular facets, and motion of the interfaces is controlled by physical considerations. The motion of interior points in the conforming tetrahedral mesh (i.e., points not on interfaces) is arbitrary and may be chosen to produce good element shapes. In the context of specified boundary motion driven by physical considerations, they have found that a rather large glossary of mesh changes is required to allow the simulation to survive all the transitions of interface geometry and topology that occur during time evolution. This paper will describe mesh changes required to maintain good element quality as the geometry evolves, as well as mesh changes required to capture changes i n topology that occur when material regions collapse or pinch off. This paper will present a detailed description of mesh changes necessary for capturing the aforementioned geometrical and topological changes, as implemented in the code GRAIN3D, and will provide examples from a metallic grain growth simulation in which the normal velocity of the grain boundary is proportional to mean curvature.
Geometric effects in the electronic transport of deformed nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Fernando; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Moraes, Fernando
2016-04-01
Quasi-two-dimensional systems may exibit curvature, which adds three-dimensional influence to their internal properties. As shown by da Costa (1981 Phys. Rev. A 23 1982-7), charged particles moving on a curved surface experience a curvature-dependent potential which greatly influence their dynamics. In this paper, we study the electronic ballistic transport in deformed nanotubes. The one-electron Schrödinger equation with open boundary conditions is solved numerically with a flexible MAPLE code made available as supplementary data. We find that the curvature of the deformations indeed has strong effects on the electron dynamics, suggesting its use in the design of nanotube-based electronic devices.
Geometric effects in the electronic transport of deformed nanotubes.
Santos, Fernando; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Moraes, Fernando
2016-04-01
Quasi-two-dimensional systems may exibit curvature, which adds three-dimensional influence to their internal properties. As shown by da Costa (1981 Phys. Rev. A 23 1982-7), charged particles moving on a curved surface experience a curvature-dependent potential which greatly influence their dynamics. In this paper, we study the electronic ballistic transport in deformed nanotubes. The one-electron Schrödinger equation with open boundary conditions is solved numerically with a flexible MAPLE code made available as supplementary data. We find that the curvature of the deformations indeed has strong effects on the electron dynamics, suggesting its use in the design of nanotube-based electronic devices. PMID:26900666
Geometrical analysis of deformation band lozenges and their scaling relationships to fault lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Awdal, Abdullah; Healy, David; Alsop, G. Ian
2014-09-01
Deformation bands can influence fluid flow in sandstone hydrocarbon reservoirs and therefore, understanding the geometrical attributes of individual bands and their patterns is a critical step in quantifying their connectivity. We present a geometrical study of deformation band lozenges, which are rock volumes contained between deformation bands, and fault lenses, which are rock volumes bounded by slip surfaces in fault cores. We investigate the statistical trends among data sets for deformation band lozenges and fault lenses in sandstones from the Moray Firth (Scotland) and southeastern Utah (USA), and explore their potential correlation to other attributes of the fracture pattern and petrophysical properties. The aspect ratio of lozenges, that represents the ratio of length or height to the maximum thickness of a lozenge, displays an oblate-shaped geometry in relation to fault-zone orientation. The length-thickness scaling relationships of lozenges are statistically similar to lenses. The scaling relationships show a slope break between lozenges bounded by deformation bands and lenses bounded by slip surfaces in the fault core. This break is inferred to mark the boundary between the lozenge domain and lens domain, and is likely due to a deformation transition from distributed strain for deformation bands to localised strain for slip surfaces. Furthermore, the integration of geometrical analysis with an understanding of scaling properties can help to make better predictions of fractures and fault properties in subsurface reservoirs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Zhipeng; Lei, Lin; Zhou, Shilin
2015-10-01
Automatic image registration is a vital yet challenging task, particularly for non-rigid deformation images which are more complicated and common in remote sensing images, such as distorted UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) images or scanning imaging images caused by flutter. Traditional non-rigid image registration methods are based on the correctly matched corresponding landmarks, which usually needs artificial markers. It is a rather challenging task to locate the accurate position of the points and get accurate homonymy point sets. In this paper, we proposed an automatic non-rigid image registration algorithm which mainly consists of three steps: To begin with, we introduce an automatic feature point extraction method based on non-linear scale space and uniform distribution strategy to extract the points which are uniform distributed along the edge of the image. Next, we propose a hybrid point matching algorithm using DaLI (Deformation and Light Invariant) descriptor and local affine invariant geometric constraint based on triangulation which is constructed by K-nearest neighbor algorithm. Based on the accurate homonymy point sets, the two images are registrated by the model of TPS (Thin Plate Spline). Our method is demonstrated by three deliberately designed experiments. The first two experiments are designed to evaluate the distribution of point set and the correctly matching rate on synthetic data and real data respectively. The last experiment is designed on the non-rigid deformation remote sensing images and the three experimental results demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of the proposed algorithm compared with other traditional methods.
Geometric interpretation of Planck-scale-deformed co-products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobo, Iarley P.; Palmisano, Giovanni
2016-03-01
For theories formulated with a maximally symmetric momentum space we propose a general characterization for the description of interactions in terms of the isometry group of the momentum space. The well known cases of κ-Poincaré-inspired and (2+1)-dimensional gravity-inspired composition laws both satisfy our condition. Future applications might include the proposal of a class of models based on momenta spaces with anti-de Sitter geometry.
Uncertainty estimation in reconstructed deformable models
Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; McKee, R.
1996-12-31
One of the hallmarks of the Bayesian approach to modeling is the posterior probability, which summarizes all uncertainties regarding the analysis. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, it is possible to generate a sequence of objects that represent random samples drawn from the posterior distribution. We demonstrate this technique for reconstructions of two-dimensional objects from noisy projections taken from two directions. The reconstructed object is modeled in terms of a deformable geometrically-defined boundary with a constant interior density yielding a nonlinear reconstruction problem. We show how an MCMC sequence can be used to estimate uncertainties in the location of the edge of the reconstructed object.
Geometric Models for Collaborative Search and Filtering
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bitton, Ephrat
2011-01-01
This dissertation explores the use of geometric and graphical models for a variety of information search and filtering applications. These models serve to provide an intuitive understanding of the problem domains and as well as computational efficiencies to our solution approaches. We begin by considering a search and rescue scenario where both…
Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu
2001-01-01
The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.
Geometric simplification of analysis models
Watterberg, P.A.
1999-12-01
Analysis programs have been having to deal with more and more complex objects as the capability to model fine detail increases. This can make them unacceptably slow. This project attempts to find heuristics for removing features from models in an automatic fashion in order to reduce polygon count. The approach is not one of theoretical completeness but rather one of trying to achieve useful results with scattered practical ideas. By removing a few simple things such as screw holes, slots, chambers, and fillets, large gains can be realized. Results varied but a reduction in the number of polygons by a factor of 10 is not unusual.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Qinghua
2014-06-01
The geometric phase analysis (GPA), an important image-based deformation measurement method, has been used at both micro- and nano-scale. However, when a deformed image has apparent distortion, non-ignorable error in the obtained deformation field could occur by using this method. In this paper, the geometric phase analysis based on the windowed Fourier transform (WFT) is proposed to solve the above-mentioned issue, defined as the WFT-GPA method. In WFT-GPA, instead of the Fourier transform (FT), the WFT is utilized to extract the phase field block by block, and therefore more accurate local phase information can be acquired. The simulation tests, which include detailed discussion of influence factors for measurement accuracy such as window size and image noise, are conducted with digital deformed grids. The results verify that the WFT-GPA method not only keeps all advantages of traditional GPA method, but also owns a better accuracy for deformation measurement. Finally, the WFT-GPA method is applied to measure the machining distortion incurred in soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) process. The successful measurement shows the feasibility of this method and offers a full-field way for characterizing the replication quality of UV-NIL process.
Symmetries and deformations in the spherical shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Isacker, P.; Pittel, S.
2016-02-01
We discuss symmetries of the spherical shell model that make contact with the geometric collective model of Bohr and Mottelson. The most celebrated symmetry of this kind is SU(3), which is the basis of Elliott’s model of rotation. It corresponds to a deformed mean field induced by a quadrupole interaction in a single major oscillator shell N and can be generalized to include several major shells. As such, Elliott’s SU(3) model establishes the link between the spherical shell model and the (quadrupole component of the) geometric collective model. We introduce the analogue symmetry induced by an octupole interaction in two major oscillator shells N-1 and N, leading to an octupole-deformed solution of the spherical shell model. We show that in the limit of large oscillator shells, N\\to ∞ , the algebraic octupole interaction tends to that of the geometric collective model.
Yang-Mills generalization of the geometrical collective model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosensteel, George; Sparks, Nick
2015-04-01
The geometrical or Bohr-Mottelson model is generalized and recast as a Yang-Mills theory. The gauge symmetry determines conservation of Kelvin circulation. The circulation commutes with the Hamiltonian when it is the sum of the kinetic energy and a potential that depends only on deformation. The conventional Bohr-Mottelson model is the special case of circulation zero, and wave functions are complex-valued. In the generalization, any quantized value of the circulation is allowed, and the wave functions are vector-valued. The Yang-Mills formulation introduces a new coupling between the geometrical and intrinsic degrees of freedom. The coupling appears in the covariant derivative term of the collective kinetic energy. This kind of coupling is sometimes called ``magnetic'' because of the analogy with electrodynamics.
Brane-world stars from minimal geometric deformation, and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Ovalle, Jorge
2014-02-01
Using the effective four-dimensional Einstein field equations, we build analytical models of spherically symmetric stars in the brane-world, in which the external space-time contains both an ADM mass and a tidal charge. In order to determine the interior geometry, we apply the principle of minimal geometric deformation, which allows one to map general relativistic solutions to solutions of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations. We further restrict our analysis to stars with a radius linearly related to the total general relativistic mass, and obtain a general relation between the latter, the brane-world ADM mass and the tidal charge. In these models, the value of the star's radius can then be taken to zero smoothly, thus obtaining brane-world black hole metrics with a tidal charge solely determined by the mass of the source and the brane tension. We find configurations which entail a partial screening of the gravitational mass, and general conclusions regarding the minimum mass for semiclassical black holes are also drawn.
Classical tests of general relativity: Brane-world Sun from minimal geometric deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão
2015-05-01
We consider a solution of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations, obtained from the general relativistic Schwarzschild metric via the principle of minimal geometric deformation, and investigate the corresponding signatures stemming from the possible existence of a warped extra-dimension. In particular, we derive bounds on an extra-dimensional parameter, closely related with the fundamental gravitational length, from the experimental results of the classical tests of general relativity in the Solar system.
Model-based vision using geometric hashing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akerman, Alexander, III; Patton, Ronald
1991-04-01
The Geometric Hashing technique developed by the NYU Courant Institute has been applied to various automatic target recognition applications. In particular, I-MATH has extended the hashing algorithm to perform automatic target recognition ofsynthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. For this application, the hashing is performed upon the geometric locations of dominant scatterers. In addition to being a robust model-based matching algorithm -- invariant under translation, scale, and 3D rotations of the target -- hashing is of particular utility because it can still perform effective matching when the target is partially obscured. Moreover, hashing is very amenable to a SIMD parallel processing architecture, and thus potentially realtime implementable.
Modelling magnetically deformed neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haskell, B.; Samuelsson, L.; Glampedakis, K.; Andersson, N.
2008-03-01
Rotating deformed neutron stars are important potential sources for ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as LIGO, GEO600 and VIRGO. One mechanism that may lead to significant non-asymmetries is the internal magnetic field. It is well known that a magnetic star will not be spherical and, if the magnetic axis is not aligned with the spin axis, the deformation will lead to the emission of gravitational waves. The aim of this paper is to develop a formalism that would allow us to model magnetically deformed stars, using both realistic equations of state and field configurations. As a first step, we consider a set of simplified model problems. Focusing on dipolar fields, we determine the internal magnetic field which is consistent with a given neutron star model and calculate the associated deformation. We discuss the relevance of our results for current gravitational wave detectors and future prospects.
Geometrical geodesy techniques in Goddard earth models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.
1974-01-01
The method for combining geometrical data with satellite dynamical and gravimetry data for the solution of geopotential and station location parameters is discussed. Geometrical tracking data (simultaneous events) from the global network of BC-4 stations are currently being processed in a solution that will greatly enhance of geodetic world system of stations. Previously the stations in Goddard earth models have been derived only from dynamical tracking data. A linear regression model is formulated from combining the data, based upon the statistical technique of weighted least squares. Reduced normal equations, independent of satellite and instrumental parameters, are derived for the solution of the geodetic parameters. Exterior standards for the evaluation of the solution and for the scale of the earth's figure are discussed.
Geometric modeling for computer aided design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwing, James L.
1993-01-01
Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.
Ground and Structure Deformation 3d Modelling with a Tin Based Property Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
TIAN, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.
2013-12-01
With the development of 3D( three-dimensional) modeling and visualization, more and more 3D tectonics are used to assist the daily work in Engineering Survey, in which the prediction of deformation field in strata and structure induced by underground construction is an essential part. In this research we developed a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) based property model for the 3D (three dimensional) visualization of ground deformation filed. By record deformation vector for each nodes, the new model can express the deformation with geometric-deformation-style by drawing each node in its new position and deformation-attribute-distribution-style by drawing each node in the color correspond with its deformation attribute at the same time. Comparing with the volume model based property model, this new property model can provide a more precise geometrical shape for structure objects. Furthermore, by recording only the deformation data of the user-interested 3d surface- such as the ground surface or the underground digging surface, the new property model can save a lot of space, which makes it possible to build the deformation filed model of a much more large scale. To construct the models of deformation filed based on TIN model, the refinement of the network is needed to increase the nodes number, which is necessary to express the deformation filed with a certain resolution. The TIN model refinement is a process of sampling the 3D deformation field values on points on the TIN surface, for which we developed a self-adapting TIN refinement method. By set the parameter of the attribute resolution, this self-adapting method refines the input geometric-expressing TIN model by adding more vertexes and triangles where the 3D deformation filed changing faster. Comparing with the even refinement method, the self-adapting method can generate a refined TIN model with nodes counted less by two thirds. Efficiency Comparison between Self-adapting Refinement Method and Even
Non-geometric fluxes, quasi-Hopf twist deformations, and nonassociative quantum mechanics
Mylonas, Dionysios Szabo, Richard J.; Schupp, Peter
2014-12-15
We analyse the symmetries underlying nonassociative deformations of geometry in non-geometric R-flux compactifications which arise via T-duality from closed strings with constant geometric fluxes. Starting from the non-abelian Lie algebra of translations and Bopp shifts in phase space, together with a suitable cochain twist, we construct the quasi-Hopf algebra of symmetries that deforms the algebra of functions and the exterior differential calculus in the phase space description of nonassociative R-space. In this setting, nonassociativity is characterised by the associator 3-cocycle which controls non-coassociativity of the quasi-Hopf algebra. We use abelian 2-cocycle twists to construct maps between the dynamical nonassociative star product and a family of associative star products parametrized by constant momentum surfaces in phase space. We define a suitable integration on these nonassociative spaces and find that the usual cyclicity of associative noncommutative deformations is replaced by weaker notions of 2-cyclicity and 3-cyclicity. Using this star product quantization on phase space together with 3-cyclicity, we formulate a consistent version of nonassociative quantum mechanics, in which we calculate the expectation values of area and volume operators, and find coarse-graining of the string background due to the R-flux.
Overview of geometrical room acoustic modeling techniques.
Savioja, Lauri; Svensson, U Peter
2015-08-01
Computerized room acoustics modeling has been practiced for almost 50 years up to date. These modeling techniques play an important role in room acoustic design nowadays, often including auralization, but can also help in the construction of virtual environments for such applications as computer games, cognitive research, and training. This overview describes the main principles, landmarks in the development, and state-of-the-art for techniques that are based on geometrical acoustics principles. A focus is given to their capabilities to model the different aspects of sound propagation: specular vs diffuse reflections, and diffraction. PMID:26328688
Validation of geometric models for fisheye lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, D.; Schwalbe, E.; Maas, H.-G.
The paper focuses on the photogrammetric investigation of geometric models for different types of optical fisheye constructions (equidistant, equisolid-angle, sterographic and orthographic projection). These models were implemented and thoroughly tested in a spatial resection and a self-calibrating bundle adjustment. For this purpose, fisheye images were taken with a Nikkor 8 mm fisheye lens on a Kodak DSC 14n Pro digital camera in a hemispherical calibration room. Both, the spatial resection and the bundle adjustment resulted in a standard deviation of unit weight of 1/10 pixel with a suitable set of simultaneous calibration parameters introduced into the camera model. The camera-lens combination was treated with all of the four basic models mentioned above. Using the same set of additional lens distortion parameters, the differences between the models can largely be compensated, delivering almost the same precision parameters. The relative object space precision obtained from the bundle adjustment was ca. 1:10 000 of the object dimensions. This value can be considered as a very satisfying result, as fisheye images generally have a lower geometric resolution as a consequence of their large field of view and also have a inferior imaging quality in comparison to most central perspective lenses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Fei; Ye, Zhengyin
2015-12-01
Despite significant progress in recent computational techniques, the accurate numerical simulations, such as direct-numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation, are still challenging. For accurate calculations, the high-order finite difference method (FDM) is usually adopted with coordinate transformation from body-fitted grid to Cartesian grid. But this transformation might lead to failure in freestream preservation with the geometric conservation law (GCL) violated, particularly in high-order computations. GCL identities, including surface conservation law (SCL) and volume conservation law (VCL), are very important in discretization of high-order FDM. To satisfy GCL, various efforts have been made. An early and successful approach was developed by Thomas and Lombard [6] who used the conservative form of metrics to cancel out metric terms to further satisfy SCL. Visbal and Gaitonde [7] adopted this conservative form of metrics for SCL identities and satisfied VCL identity through invoking VCL equation to acquire the derivative of Jacobian in computation on moving and deforming grids with central compact schemes derived by Lele [5]. Later, using the metric technique from Visbal and Gaitonde [7], Nonomura et al. [8] investigated the freestream and vortex preservation properties of high-order WENO and WCNS on stationary curvilinear grids. A conservative metric method (CMM) was further developed by Deng et al. [9] with stationary grids, and detailed discussion about the innermost difference operator of CMM was shown with proof and corresponding numerical test cases. Noticing that metrics of CMM is asymmetrical without coordinate-invariant property, Deng et al. proposed a symmetrical CMM (SCMM) [12] by using the symmetric forms of metrics derived by Vinokur and Yee [10] to further eliminate asymmetric metric errors with stationary grids considered only. The research from Abe et al. [11] presented new asymmetric and symmetric conservative forms of time metrics and
Improved geometrical model of fringe projection profilometry.
Huang, Zhengrong; Xi, Jiangtao; Yu, Yanguang; Guo, Qinghua; Song, Limei
2014-12-29
The accuracy performance of fringe projection profilometry (FPP) depends on accurate phase-to-height (PTH) mapping and system calibration. The existing PTH mapping is derived based on the condition that the plane formed by axes of camera and projector is perpendicular to the reference plane, and measurement error occurs when the condition is not met. In this paper, a new geometric model for FPP is presented to lift the condition, resulting in a new PTH mapping relationship. The new model involves seven parameters, and a new system calibration method is proposed to determine their values. Experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed technique, showing a noticeable improvement in the accuracy of 3D shape measurement. PMID:25607188
Deformation quantization of cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cordero, Rubén; García-Compeán, Hugo; Turrubiates, Francisco J.
2011-06-01
The Weyl-Wigner-Groenewold-Moyal formalism of deformation quantization is applied to cosmological models in the minisuperspace. The quantization procedure is performed explicitly for quantum cosmology in a flat minisuperspace. The de Sitter cosmological model is worked out in detail and the computation of the Wigner functions for the Hartle-Hawking, Vilenkin and Linde wave functions are done numerically. The Wigner function is analytically calculated for the Kantowski-Sachs model in (non)commutative quantum cosmology and for string cosmology with dilaton exponential potential. Finally, baby universes solutions are described in this context and the Wigner function is obtained.
Geometric Model of a Coronal Cavity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kucera, Therese A.; Gibson, S. E.; Ratawicki, D.; Dove, J.; deToma, G.; Hao, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Marque, C.; McIntosh, P. S.; Reeves, K. K.; Schmidt, D. J.; Sterling, A. C.; Tripathi, D. K.; Williams, D. R.; Zhang, M.
2010-01-01
We observed a coronal cavity from August 8-18 2007 during a multi-instrument observing campaign organized under the auspices of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY). Here we present initial efforts to model the cavity with a geometrical streamer-cavity model. The model is based the white-light streamer mode] of Gibson et a]. (2003 ), which has been enhanced by the addition of a cavity and the capability to model EUV and X-ray emission. The cavity is modeled with an elliptical cross-section and Gaussian fall-off in length and width inside the streamer. Density and temperature can be varied in the streamer and cavity and constrained via comparison with data. Although this model is purely morphological, it allows for three-dimensional, multi-temperature analysis and characterization of the data, which can then provide constraints for future physical modeling. Initial comparisons to STEREO/EUVI images of the cavity and streamer show that the model can provide a good fit to the data. This work is part of the effort of the International Space Science Institute International Team on Prominence Cavities
Geometrical basis for the Standard Model
Potter, F. )
1994-02-01
The robust character of the Standard Model is confirmed. Examination of its geometrical basis in three equivalent internal symmetry spaces - the unitary plane C[sup 2], the quaternion space Q, and the real space R[sup 4] - as well as the real space R[sup 3] uncovers mathematical properties that predict the physical properties of leptons and quarks. The finite rotational subgroups of the gauge group SU(2)[sub L] [times] U(1)[sub Y] generate exactly three lepton families and four quark families and reveal how quarks and leptons are related. Among the physical properties explained are the mass ratios of the six leptons and eight quarks, the origin of the left-handed preference by the weak interaction, the geometrical source of color symmetry, and the zero neutrino masses. The (u,d) and (c,s) quark families team together to satisfy the triangle anomaly cancellation with the electron family, while the other families pair one-to-one for cancellation. The spontaneously broken symmetry is discrete and needs no Higgs mechanism. Predictions include all massless neutrinos, the top quark at 160 GeV/c[sup 2], the b[prime] quark at 80 GeV/c[sup 2], and the t[prime] quark at 2600 GeV/c[sup 2].
Geometrical model of the Baltic artesian basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sennikovs, J.; Virbulis, J.; Bethers, U.
2012-04-01
Baltic artesian basin (BAB) is a multi-layer sedimentary basin spanning around 480'000 km2. BAB is located in the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus and large area of the Baltic Sea, including island of Gotland. The thickness of sedimentary cover is about 5000 m in the south-western part. Crystalline bedding reaches the surface in the northern and north-western parts. The aim of the present work is development of the model of geometric structure and three dimensional finite element mesh for the hydrogeological model of the whole BAB. The information that is used to build the geometrical structure includes: (1) Stratigraphic information from boreholes in Latvia and Estonia (2) Maps of height isolines of geological layers for Latvia and Lithuania (3) Maps of sub-quaternary deposits in Latvia and Lithuania (4) Maps of fault lines on the crystalline basement surface in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (5) Buried valley data from Latvia and Estonia (6) Earth topography data (7) Baltic sea depth data (8) Data from published geological cross-sections, information from books and other sources. Unification of the heterogeneous information from different sources, which are employed for building of the geometrical structure of the model are performed. Special algorithms are developed for this purpose considering the priority, importance and plausibility of each of the data sources. Pre-processing of the borehole information to screen out the outlying borehole data has been performed. Model of geological structure contains 42 layers. It includes aquifers and aquitards from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. Fault displacements are incorporated into the model taking into account data from the published structural maps. Four reconstructed regional erosion surfaces (upper Ordovician, Devonian, Permian and Quaternary) are included into the model Three dimensional mesh of the geological structure is constructed layer-wise. The triangular
Nuclear deformability and telomere dynamics are regulated by cell geometric constraints
Makhija, Ekta; Jokhun, D. S.; Shivashankar, G. V.
2016-01-01
Forces generated by the cytoskeleton can be transmitted to the nucleus and chromatin via physical links on the nuclear envelope and the lamin meshwork. Although the role of these active forces in modulating prestressed nuclear morphology has been well studied, the effect on nuclear and chromatin dynamics remains to be explored. To understand the regulation of nuclear deformability by these active forces, we created different cytoskeletal states in mouse fibroblasts using micropatterned substrates. We observed that constrained and isotropic cells, which lack long actin stress fibers, have more deformable nuclei than elongated and polarized cells. This nuclear deformability altered in response to actin, myosin, formin perturbations, or a transcriptional down-regulation of lamin A/C levels in the constrained and isotropic geometry. Furthermore, to probe the effect of active cytoskeletal forces on chromatin dynamics, we tracked the spatiotemporal dynamics of heterochromatin foci and telomeres. We observed increased dynamics and decreased correlation of the heterochromatin foci and telomere trajectories in constrained and isotropic cell geometry. The observed enhanced dynamics upon treatment with actin depolymerizing reagents in elongated and polarized geometry were regained once the reagent was washed off, suggesting an inherent structural memory in chromatin organization. We conclude that active forces from the cytoskeleton and rigidity from lamin A/C nucleoskeleton can together regulate nuclear and chromatin dynamics. Because chromatin remodeling is a necessary step in transcription control and its memory, genome integrity, and cellular deformability during migration, our results highlight the importance of cell geometric constraints as critical regulators in cell behavior. PMID:26699462
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhevlakov, A. P.; Zatsepina, M. E.; Kirillovskii, V. K.
2014-06-01
The principles of transformation of a Foucault shadowgram into a quantitative map of wave-front deformation based on creation of a system of isophotes are unveiled. The presented studies and their results prove that there is a high degree of correspondence between a Foucault shadowgram and the geometrical model of a shear interferogram with respect to displaying wave-front deformations.
Geometrically engineering the standard model: Locally unfolding three families out of E{sub 8}
Bourjaily, Jacob L.
2007-08-15
This paper extends and builds upon the results of [J. L. Bourjaily, arXiv:0704.0444.], in which we described how to use the tools of geometrical engineering to deform geometrically engineered grand unified models into ones with lower symmetry. This top-down unfolding has the advantage that the relative positions of singularities giving rise to the many 'low-energy' matter fields are related by only a few parameters which deform the geometry of the unified model. And because the relative positions of singularities are necessary to compute the superpotential, for example, this is a framework in which the arbitrariness of geometrically engineered models can be greatly reduced. In [J. L. Bourjaily, arXiv:0704.0444.], this picture was made concrete for the case of deforming the representations of an SU{sub 5} model into their standard model content. In this paper we continue that discussion to show how a geometrically engineered 16 of SO{sub 10} can be unfolded into the standard model, and how the three families of the standard model uniquely emerge from the unfolding of a single, isolated E{sub 8} singularity.
Geometric Modeling of Inclusions as Ellipsoids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonacuse, Peter J.
2008-01-01
Nonmetallic inclusions in gas turbine disk alloys can have a significant detrimental impact on fatigue life. Because large inclusions that lead to anomalously low lives occur infrequently, probabilistic approaches can be utilized to avoid the excessively conservative assumption of lifing to a large inclusion in a high stress location. A prerequisite to modeling the impact of inclusions on the fatigue life distribution is a characterization of the inclusion occurrence rate and size distribution. To help facilitate this process, a geometric simulation of the inclusions was devised. To make the simulation problem tractable, the irregularly sized and shaped inclusions were modeled as arbitrarily oriented, three independent dimensioned, ellipsoids. Random orientation of the ellipsoid is accomplished through a series of three orthogonal rotations of axes. In this report, a set of mathematical models for the following parameters are described: the intercepted area of a randomly sectioned ellipsoid, the dimensions and orientation of the intercepted ellipse, the area of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, the depth and width of a randomly oriented sectioned ellipse, and the projected area of a randomly oriented ellipsoid. These parameters are necessary to determine an inclusion s potential to develop a propagating fatigue crack. Without these mathematical models, computationally expensive search algorithms would be required to compute these parameters.
Deformable human body model development
Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.
A non-geometrically similar model for predicting the wake field of full-scale ships
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Chunyu; Zhang, Qi; Shen, Yu
2015-07-01
The scale effect leads to large discrepancies between the wake fields of model-scale and actual ships, and causes differences in cavitation performance and exciting forces tests in predicting the performance of actual ships. Therefore, when test data from ship models are directly applied to predict the performance of actual ships, test results must be subjected to empirical corrections. This study proposes a method for the reverse design of the hull model. Compared to a geometrically similar hull model, the wake field generated by the modified model is closer to that of an actual ship. A non- geometrically similar model of a Korean Research Institute of Ship and Ocean Engineering (KRISO)'s container ship (KCS) was designed. Numerical simulations were performed using this model, and its results were compared with full-scale calculation results. The deformation method of getting the wake field of full-scale ships by the non-geometrically similar model is applied to the KCS successfully.
A geometric model of defensive peripersonal space.
Bufacchi, R J; Liang, M; Griffin, L D; Iannetti, G D
2016-01-01
Potentially harmful stimuli occurring within the defensive peripersonal space (DPPS), a protective area surrounding the body, elicit stronger defensive reactions. The spatial features of the DPPS are poorly defined and limited to descriptive estimates of its extent along a single dimension. Here we postulated a family of geometric models of the DPPS, to address two important questions with respect to its spatial features: What is its fine-grained topography? How does the nervous system represent the body area to be defended? As a measure of the DPPS, we used the strength of the defensive blink reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the hand (hand-blink reflex, HBR), which is reliably modulated by the position of the stimulated hand in egocentric coordinates. We tested the goodness of fit of the postulated models to HBR data from six experiments in which we systematically explored the HBR modulation by hand position in both head-centered and body-centered coordinates. The best-fitting model indicated that 1) the nervous system's representation of the body area defended by the HBR can be approximated by a half-ellipsoid centered on the face and 2) the DPPS extending from this area has the shape of a bubble elongated along the vertical axis. Finally, the empirical observation that the HBR is modulated by hand position in head-centered coordinates indicates that the DPPS is anchored to the face. The modeling approach described in this article can be generalized to describe the spatial modulation of any defensive response. PMID:26510762
A geometric model of defensive peripersonal space
Bufacchi, R. J.; Liang, M.; Griffin, L. D.
2015-01-01
Potentially harmful stimuli occurring within the defensive peripersonal space (DPPS), a protective area surrounding the body, elicit stronger defensive reactions. The spatial features of the DPPS are poorly defined and limited to descriptive estimates of its extent along a single dimension. Here we postulated a family of geometric models of the DPPS, to address two important questions with respect to its spatial features: What is its fine-grained topography? How does the nervous system represent the body area to be defended? As a measure of the DPPS, we used the strength of the defensive blink reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the hand (hand-blink reflex, HBR), which is reliably modulated by the position of the stimulated hand in egocentric coordinates. We tested the goodness of fit of the postulated models to HBR data from six experiments in which we systematically explored the HBR modulation by hand position in both head-centered and body-centered coordinates. The best-fitting model indicated that 1) the nervous system's representation of the body area defended by the HBR can be approximated by a half-ellipsoid centered on the face and 2) the DPPS extending from this area has the shape of a bubble elongated along the vertical axis. Finally, the empirical observation that the HBR is modulated by hand position in head-centered coordinates indicates that the DPPS is anchored to the face. The modeling approach described in this article can be generalized to describe the spatial modulation of any defensive response. PMID:26510762
Geometric modeling for computer aided design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen
1995-01-01
The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottosson, W.; Lykkegaard Andersen, J. A.; Borrisova, S.; Mellemgaard, A.; Behrens, C. F.
2014-03-01
Respiration and anatomical variation during radiotherapy (RT) of lung cancer yield dosimetric uncertainties of the delivered dose, possibly affecting the clinical outcome if not corrected for. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART), based on deformable image registration (DIR) and Deep-Inspiration-Breath-Hold (DIBH) gating can potentially improve the accuracy of RT. Purpose: The objective was to investigate the performance of contour propagation on repeated CT and Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images in DIBH compared to images acquired in free breathing (FB), using a recently released DIR software. Method: Three locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients were included, each with a planning-, midterm- and final CT (pCT, mCT, fCT) and 7 CBCTs acquired weekly and on the same day as the mCT and fCT. All imaging were performed in both FB and DIBH, using Varian RPM system for respiratory tracking. Delineations of anatomical structures were performed on each image set. The CT images were retrospective rigidly and deformable registered to all obtained images using the Varian Smart Adapt v. 11.0. The registered images were analysed for volume change and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Result: Geometrical similarities were found between propagated and manually delineated structures, with a slightly favour of FB imaging. Special notice should be taken to registrations where image artefacts or low tissue contrast are present. Conclusion: This study does not support the hypothesis that DIBH images perform better image registration than FB images. However DIR is a feasible tool for ART of lung cancer.
Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi
2015-09-01
Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.
Uncertainties in tomographic reconstructions based on deformable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, Kenneth M.; Cunningham, Gregory S.; McKee, Robert J.
1997-04-01
Deformable geometric models fit very naturally into the context of Bayesian analysis. The prior probability of boundary shapes is taken to proportional to the negative exponential of the deformation energy used to control the boundary. This probabilistic interpretation is demonstrated using a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) technique, which permits one to generate configurations that populate the prior. One of may uses for deformable models is to solve ill-posed tomographic reconstruction problems, which we demonstrate by reconstructing a two-dimensional object from two orthogonal noisy projections. We show how MCMC samples drawn from the posterior can be used to estimate uncertainties in the location of the edge of the reconstructed object.
Modal Substructuring of Geometrically Nonlinear Finite-Element Models
Kuether, Robert J.; Allen, Matthew S.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.
2016-02-01
The efficiency of a modal substructuring method depends on the component modes used to reduce each subcomponent model. Methods such as Craig–Bampton have been used extensively to reduce linear finite-element models with thousands or even millions of degrees of freedom down orders of magnitude while maintaining acceptable accuracy. A novel reduction method is proposed here for geometrically nonlinear finite-element models using the fixed-interface and constraint modes of the linearized system to reduce each subcomponent model. The geometric nonlinearity requires an additional cubic and quadratic polynomial function in the modal equations, and the nonlinear stiffness coefficients are determined by applying amore » series of static loads and using the finite-element code to compute the response. The geometrically nonlinear, reduced modal equations for each subcomponent are then coupled by satisfying compatibility and force equilibrium. This modal substructuring approach is an extension of the Craig–Bampton method and is readily applied to geometrically nonlinear models built directly within commercial finite-element packages. The efficiency of this new approach is demonstrated on two example problems: one that couples two geometrically nonlinear beams at a shared rotational degree of freedom, and another that couples an axial spring element to the axial degree of freedom of a geometrically nonlinear beam. The nonlinear normal modes of the assembled models are compared with those of a truth model to assess the accuracy of the novel modal substructuring approach.« less
Integration of geometric modeling and advanced finite element preprocessing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shephard, Mark S.; Finnigan, Peter M.
1987-01-01
The structure to a geometry based finite element preprocessing system is presented. The key features of the system are the use of geometric operators to support all geometric calculations required for analysis model generation, and the use of a hierarchic boundary based data structure for the major data sets within the system. The approach presented can support the finite element modeling procedures used today as well as the fully automated procedures under development.
Analytical volcano deformation source models
Lisowski, Michael
2007-01-01
Primary volcanic landforms are created by the ascent and eruption of magma. The ascending magma displaces and interacts with surrounding rock and fluids as it creates new pathways, flows through cracks or conduits, vesiculates, and accumulates in underground reservoirs. The formation of new pathways and pressure changes within existing conduits and reservoirs stress and deform the surrounding rock. Eruption products load the crust. The pattern and rate of surface deformation around volcanoes reflect the tectonic and volcanic processes transmitted to the surface through the mechanical properties of the crust.
Sigma models for genuinely non-geometric backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; Jonke, Larisa; Lechtenfeld, Olaf
2015-11-01
The existence of genuinely non-geometric backgrounds, i.e. ones without geometric dual, is an important question in string theory. In this paper we examine this question from a sigma model perspective. First we construct a particular class of Courant algebroids as protobialgebroids with all types of geometric and non-geometric fluxes. For such structures we apply the mathematical result that any Courant algebroid gives rise to a 3D topological sigma model of the AKSZ type and we discuss the corresponding 2D field theories. It is found that these models are always geometric, even when both 2-form and 2-vector fields are neither vanishing nor inverse of one another. Taking a further step, we suggest an extended class of 3D sigma models, whose world volume is embedded in phase space, which allow for genuinely non-geometric backgrounds. Adopting the doubled formalism such models can be related to double field theory, albeit from a world sheet perspective.
3D geometric modelling of hand-woven textile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Conroy, D. Wood
2008-02-01
Geometric modeling and haptic rendering of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. A haptic representation is created by adding the physical properties of an object to its geometric configuration. While research has been conducted into geometric modeling of fabric, current systems require time-consuming manual recognition of textile specifications and data entry. The development of a generic approach for construction of the 3D geometric model of a woven textile is pursued in this work. The geometric model would be superimposed by a haptic model in the future work. The focus at this stage is on hand-woven textile artifacts for display in museums. A fuzzy rule based algorithm is applied to the still images of the artifacts to generate the 3D model. The derived model is exported as a 3D VRML model of the textile for visual representation and haptic rendering. An overview of the approach is provided and the developed algorithm is described. The approach is validated by applying the algorithm to different textile samples and comparing the produced models with the actual structure and pattern of the samples.
Models of the Dynamic Deformations of Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merzhievsky, Lev; Voronin, Mihail; Korchagina, Anna
2013-06-01
In the process of deformation under the influence of external loading polymeric mediums show the complicated behavior connected with features of their structure. For amorphous polymers distinguish three physical conditions - glasslike, highlyelastic and viscoplastic. To each of the listed conditions there corresponds to mikro - meso- and macrostructural mechanisms of irreversible deformation. In the report the review of results of construction of models for the description of dynamic and shock-wave deformation of the polymers which are based on developed authors representations about mechanisms of irreversible deformation is made. Models include the formulation of the equations of conservation laws, considering effect of a relaxation of shear stresses in the process of deformation. For closing of models the equations of states with nonspherical tensor of deformations and relation for time of a relaxation of shear stresses are constructed. With using of the formulated models a number of problems of dynamic and shock wave deformations has been solved. The results are compared with corresponding experimental date. Development of the used approach are in summary discussed. To taking into account memory and fractal properties of real polymers is supposed of derivatives and integrals of a fractional order to use. Examples of constitutive equations with derivatives of a fractional order are presented. This work is supported by the Integration project of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science 64 and grant RFBR 12-01-00726.
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules II: Lagrangian representation
Feng, Xin; Xia, Kelin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei
2013-01-01
Geometric modeling of biomolecules plays an essential role in the conceptualization of biolmolecular structure, function, dynamics and transport. Qualitatively, geometric modeling offers a basis for molecular visualization, which is crucial for the understanding of molecular structure and interactions. Quantitatively, geometric modeling bridges the gap between molecular information, such as that from X-ray, NMR and cryo-EM, and theoretical/mathematical models, such as molecular dynamics, the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Nernst-Planck equation. In this work, we present a family of variational multiscale geometric models for macromolecular systems. Our models are able to combine multiresolution geometric modeling with multiscale electrostatic modeling in a unified variational framework. We discuss a suite of techniques for molecular surface generation, molecular surface meshing, molecular volumetric meshing, and the estimation of Hadwiger’s functionals. Emphasis is given to the multiresolution representations of biomolecules and the associated multiscale electrostatic analyses as well as multiresolution curvature characterizations. The resulting fine resolution representations of a biomolecular system enable the detailed analysis of solvent-solute interaction, and ion channel dynamics, while our coarse resolution representations highlight the compatibility of protein-ligand bindings and possibility of protein-protein interactions. PMID:23813599
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules II: Lagrangian representation.
Feng, Xin; Xia, Kelin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei
2013-09-15
Geometric modeling of biomolecules plays an essential role in the conceptualization of biolmolecular structure, function, dynamics, and transport. Qualitatively, geometric modeling offers a basis for molecular visualization, which is crucial for the understanding of molecular structure and interactions. Quantitatively, geometric modeling bridges the gap between molecular information, such as that from X-ray, NMR, and cryo-electron microscopy, and theoretical/mathematical models, such as molecular dynamics, the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and the Nernst-Planck equation. In this work, we present a family of variational multiscale geometric models for macromolecular systems. Our models are able to combine multiresolution geometric modeling with multiscale electrostatic modeling in a unified variational framework. We discuss a suite of techniques for molecular surface generation, molecular surface meshing, molecular volumetric meshing, and the estimation of Hadwiger's functionals. Emphasis is given to the multiresolution representations of biomolecules and the associated multiscale electrostatic analyses as well as multiresolution curvature characterizations. The resulting fine resolution representations of a biomolecular system enable the detailed analysis of solvent-solute interaction, and ion channel dynamics, whereas our coarse resolution representations highlight the compatibility of protein-ligand bindings and possibility of protein-protein interactions. PMID:23813599
Geometrical model for non-zero θ13
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jun-Mou; Wang, Bin; Li, Xue-Qian
2011-10-01
Based on Friedberg and Lee’s geometric picture by which the tribimaximal Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakawaga-Sakata leptonic mixing matrix is constructed, namely, corresponding mixing angles correspond to the geometric angles among the sides of a cube. We suggest that the three realistic mixing angles, which slightly deviate from the values determined for the cube, are due to a viable deformation from the perfectly cubic shape. Taking the best-fitted results of θ12 and θ23 as inputs, we determine the central value of sin22θ13 should be 0.0238, with a relatively large error tolerance; this value lies in the range of measurement precision of the Daya Bay experiment and is consistent with recent results from the T2K Collaboration.
Geometrical model for non-zero {theta}{sub 13}
Chen Junmou; Wang Bin; Li Xueqian
2011-10-01
Based on Friedberg and Lee's geometric picture by which the tribimaximal Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakawaga-Sakata leptonic mixing matrix is constructed, namely, corresponding mixing angles correspond to the geometric angles among the sides of a cube. We suggest that the three realistic mixing angles, which slightly deviate from the values determined for the cube, are due to a viable deformation from the perfectly cubic shape. Taking the best-fitted results of {theta}{sub 12} and {theta}{sub 23} as inputs, we determine the central value of sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} should be 0.0238, with a relatively large error tolerance; this value lies in the range of measurement precision of the Daya Bay experiment and is consistent with recent results from the T2K Collaboration.
MOEMS Modeling Using the Geometrical Matrix Toolbox
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.
2005-01-01
New technologies such as MicroOptoElectro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) require new modeling tools. These tools must simultaneously model the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains and the interactions between these domains. To facilitate rapid prototyping of these new technologies an optical toolbox has been developed for modeling MOEMS devices. The toolbox models are constructed using MATLAB's dynamical simulator, Simulink. Modeling toolboxes will allow users to focus their efforts on system design and analysis as opposed to developing component models. This toolbox was developed to facilitate rapid modeling and design of a MOEMS based laser ultrasonic receiver system.
Geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes
Feng, Xin; Xia, Kelin; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei
2013-01-01
SUMMARY Recently, the structure, function, stability, and dynamics of subcellular structures, organelles, and multi-protein complexes have emerged as a leading interest in structural biology. Geometric modeling not only provides visualizations of shapes for large biomolecular complexes but also fills the gap between structural information and theoretical modeling, and enables the understanding of function, stability, and dynamics. This paper introduces a suite of computational tools for volumetric data processing, information extraction, surface mesh rendering, geometric measurement, and curvature estimation of biomolecular complexes. Particular emphasis is given to the modeling of cryo-electron microscopy data. Lagrangian-triangle meshes are employed for the surface presentation. On the basis of this representation, algorithms are developed for surface area and surface-enclosed volume calculation, and curvature estimation. Methods for volumetric meshing have also been presented. Because the technological development in computer science and mathematics has led to multiple choices at each stage of the geometric modeling, we discuss the rationales in the design and selection of various algorithms. Analytical models are designed to test the computational accuracy and convergence of proposed algorithms. Finally, we select a set of six cryo-electron microscopy data representing typical subcellular complexes to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithms in handling biomolecular surfaces and explore their capability of geometric characterization of binding targets. This paper offers a comprehensive protocol for the geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes. PMID:23212797
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Librescu, L.; Souza, M. A.
1993-01-01
The static post-buckling of simply-supported flat panels exposed to a stationary nonuniform temperature field and subjected to a system of subcritical in-plane compressive edge loads is investigated. The study is performed within a refined theory of composite laminated plates incorporating the effect of transverse shear and the geometric nonlinearities. The influence played by a number of effects, among them transverse shear deformation, initial geometric imperfections, the character of the in-plane boundary conditions and thickness ratio are studied and a series of conclusions are outlined. The influence played by the complete temperature field (i.e., the uniform through thickness and thickness-wise gradient) as compared to the one induced by only the uniform one, is discussed and the peculiarities of the resulting post-buckling behaviors are enlightened.
Decoherence of spin-deformed bosonic model
Dehdashti, Sh.; Mahdifar, A.; Bagheri Harouni, M.; Roknizadeh, R.
2013-07-15
The decoherence rate and some parameters affecting it are investigated for the generalized spin-boson model. We consider the spin-bosonic model when the bosonic environment is modeled by the deformed harmonic oscillators. We show that the state of the environment approaches a non-linear coherent state. Then, we obtain the decoherence rate of a two-level system which is in contact with a deformed bosonic environment which is either in thermal equilibrium or in the ground state. By using some recent realization of f-deformed oscillators, we show that some physical parameters strongly affect the decoherence rate of a two-level system. -- Highlights: •Decoherence of the generalized spin-boson model is considered. •In this model the environment consists of f-oscillators. •Via the interaction, the state of the environment approaches non-linear coherent states. •Effective parameters on decoherence are considered.
3-D Geometric Modeling for the 21st Century.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ault, Holly K.
1999-01-01
Describes new geometric computer models used in contemporary computer-aided design (CAD) software including wire frame, surface, solid, and parametric models. Reviews their use in engineering design and discusses the impact of these new technologies on the engineering design graphics curriculum. (Author/CCM)
Digital deformation model for fisheye image rectification.
Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue; Qin, Nannan; Lai, Xudong
2012-09-24
Fisheye lens can provide a wide view over 180°. It then has prominence advantages in three dimensional reconstruction and machine vision applications. However, the serious deformation in the image limits fisheye lens's usage. To overcome this obstacle, a new rectification method named DDM (Digital Deformation Model) is developed based on two dimensional perspective transformation. DDM is a type of digital grid representation of the deformation of each pixel on CCD chip which is built by interpolating the difference between the actual image coordinate and pseudo-ideal coordinate of each mark on a control panel. This method obtains the pseudo-ideal coordinate according to two dimensional perspective transformation by setting four mark's deformations on image. The main advantages are that this method does not rely on the optical principle of fisheye lens and has relatively less computation. In applications, equivalent pinhole images can be obtained after correcting fisheye lens images using DDM. PMID:23037373
Geometrical Scaling of Hall Thruster Particle Model
Taccogna, Francesco; Longo, Savino; Capitelli, Mario; Schneider, Ralf
2005-05-16
Non-Maxwellian behaviour and plasma-wall interaction are key processes in the physics of Hall thrusters. For this purpose, a 2D{l_brace}r,z{r_brace}-3V axisymmetric fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) model of the acceleration channel including the process of secondary electron emission (SEE) from the dielectric walls has been developed. In order to make the simulation possible with regard to the computational time, a reduction of the thruster dimension was done. This was derived from a new physics-based scaling law. This model has demonstrated its outstanding capability in improving the physics insight into the processes in Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) and in reproducing accurately well experimental data.
Model the Deformation and Failure of Solids
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2001-10-19
EMU models the deformation and failure of solids based on a reformulated theory of continuum mechanics known as the Peridynamic model. This approach allows dynamic fracture and other failure mechanisms to be simulated with a minimum of mesh effeces and without a need for supplementary kinetic relations for crack growth. Penetration by a rigid projectile is also included in the code.
Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers
Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John
2015-01-22
The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.
Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John
2015-01-01
The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.
Geometric modeling for computer aided design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwing, James L.
1992-01-01
The goal was the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. Several packages and design studies were completed, including two software tools currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) and the Environment for Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and additionally provides initial mass property analysis. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand alone analysis codes that result in the streamlining of the exchange of data between programs, reducing errors and improving efficiency.
Geometric Modeling, Radiation Simulation, Rendering, Analysis Package
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1995-01-17
RADIANCE is intended to aid lighting designers and architects by predicting the light levels and appearance of a space prior to construction. The package includes programs for modeling and translating scene geometry, luminaire data and material properties, all of which are needed as input to the simulation. The lighting simulation itself uses ray tracing techniques to compute radiance values (ie. the quantity of light passing through a specific point in a specific direction), which aremore » typically arranged to form a photographic quality image. The resulting image may be analyzed, displayed and manipulated within the package, and converted to other popular image file formats for export to other packages, facilitating the production of hard copy output.« less
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-01-01
This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace-Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation
Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-01-15
This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace–Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation.
Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo Wei
2014-01-01
This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace-Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the
Multiscale geometric modeling of macromolecules I: Cartesian representation
Xia, Kelin; Feng, Xin; Chen, Zhan; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo Wei
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the geometric modeling and computational algorithm development of biomolecular structures from two data sources: Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) in the Eulerian (or Cartesian) representation. Molecular surface (MS) contains non-smooth geometric singularities, such as cusps, tips and self-intersecting facets, which often lead to computational instabilities in molecular simulations, and violate the physical principle of surface free energy minimization. Variational multiscale surface definitions are proposed based on geometric flows and solvation analysis of biomolecular systems. Our approach leads to geometric and potential driven Laplace-Beltrami flows for biomolecular surface evolution and formation. The resulting surfaces are free of geometric singularities and minimize the total free energy of the biomolecular system. High order partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear filters are employed for EMDB data processing. We show the efficacy of this approach in feature-preserving noise reduction. After the construction of protein multiresolution surfaces, we explore the analysis and characterization of surface morphology by using a variety of curvature definitions. Apart from the classical Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, shape index, and curvedness are also applied to macromolecular surface analysis for the first time. Our curvature analysis is uniquely coupled to the analysis of electrostatic surface potential, which is a by-product of our variational multiscale solvation models. As an expository investigation, we particularly emphasize the numerical algorithms and computational protocols for practical applications of the above multiscale geometric models. Such information may otherwise be scattered over the vast literature on this topic. Based on the curvature and electrostatic analysis from our multiresolution surfaces, we introduce a new concept, the
Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model
Khapalov, A. Y.
2008-02-15
We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids.
Three dimensional geometric modeling of processing-tomatoes
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Characterizing tomato geometries with different shapes and sizes would facilitate the design of tomato processing equipments and promote computer-based engineering simulations. This research sought to develop a three-dimensional geometric model that can describe the morphological attributes of proce...
From Prototypes to Caricatures: Geometrical Models for Concept Typicality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert
2006-01-01
In three studies, we investigated to what extent a geometrical representation in a psychological space succeeds in predicting typicality in animal, natural food and artifact concepts and whether contrast categories contribute to the prediction. In Study 1, we compared the predictive value of a family resemblance-based prototype model with a…
Geometric model from microscopic theory for nuclear absorption
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
John, Sarah; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.
1993-01-01
A parameter-free geometric model for nuclear absorption is derived herein from microscopic theory. The expression for the absorption cross section in the eikonal approximation, taken in integral form, is separated into a geometric contribution that is described by an energy-dependent effective radius and two surface terms that cancel in an asymptotic series expansion. For collisions of light nuclei, an expression for the effective radius is derived from harmonic oscillator nuclear density functions. A direct extension to heavy nuclei with Woods-Saxon densities is made by identifying the equivalent half-density radius for the harmonic oscillator functions. Coulomb corrections are incorporated, and a simplified geometric form of the Bradt-Peters type is obtained. Results spanning the energy range from 1 MeV/nucleon to 1 GeV/nucleon are presented. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained.
Comparison and Analysis of Geometric Correction Models of Spaceborne SAR
Jiang, Weihao; Yu, Anxi; Dong, Zhen; Wang, Qingsong
2016-01-01
Following the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR), SAR images have become increasingly common. Many researchers have conducted large studies on geolocation models, but little work has been conducted on the available models for the geometric correction of SAR images of different terrain. To address the terrain issue, four different models were compared and are described in this paper: a rigorous range-doppler (RD) model, a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model, a revised polynomial (PM) model and an elevation derivation (EDM) model. The results of comparisons of the geolocation capabilities of the models show that a proper model for a SAR image of a specific terrain can be determined. A solution table was obtained to recommend a suitable model for users. Three TerraSAR-X images, two ALOS-PALSAR images and one Envisat-ASAR image were used for the experiment, including flat terrain and mountain terrain SAR images as well as two large area images. Geolocation accuracies of the models for different terrain SAR images were computed and analyzed. The comparisons of the models show that the RD model was accurate but was the least efficient; therefore, it is not the ideal model for real-time implementations. The RPC model is sufficiently accurate and efficient for the geometric correction of SAR images of flat terrain, whose precision is below 0.001 pixels. The EDM model is suitable for the geolocation of SAR images of mountainous terrain, and its precision can reach 0.007 pixels. Although the PM model does not produce results as precise as the other models, its efficiency is excellent and its potential should not be underestimated. With respect to the geometric correction of SAR images over large areas, the EDM model has higher accuracy under one pixel, whereas the RPC model consumes one third of the time of the EDM model. PMID:27347973
Comparison and Analysis of Geometric Correction Models of Spaceborne SAR.
Jiang, Weihao; Yu, Anxi; Dong, Zhen; Wang, Qingsong
2016-01-01
Following the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR), SAR images have become increasingly common. Many researchers have conducted large studies on geolocation models, but little work has been conducted on the available models for the geometric correction of SAR images of different terrain. To address the terrain issue, four different models were compared and are described in this paper: a rigorous range-doppler (RD) model, a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model, a revised polynomial (PM) model and an elevation derivation (EDM) model. The results of comparisons of the geolocation capabilities of the models show that a proper model for a SAR image of a specific terrain can be determined. A solution table was obtained to recommend a suitable model for users. Three TerraSAR-X images, two ALOS-PALSAR images and one Envisat-ASAR image were used for the experiment, including flat terrain and mountain terrain SAR images as well as two large area images. Geolocation accuracies of the models for different terrain SAR images were computed and analyzed. The comparisons of the models show that the RD model was accurate but was the least efficient; therefore, it is not the ideal model for real-time implementations. The RPC model is sufficiently accurate and efficient for the geometric correction of SAR images of flat terrain, whose precision is below 0.001 pixels. The EDM model is suitable for the geolocation of SAR images of mountainous terrain, and its precision can reach 0.007 pixels. Although the PM model does not produce results as precise as the other models, its efficiency is excellent and its potential should not be underestimated. With respect to the geometric correction of SAR images over large areas, the EDM model has higher accuracy under one pixel, whereas the RPC model consumes one third of the time of the EDM model. PMID:27347973
Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling
Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Brimacombe, J.K.
1994-12-31
The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.
A Geometric Crescent Model for Black Hole Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamruddin, Ayman Bin; Dexter, J.
2013-01-01
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimeter wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environment of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), have been interpreted in terms of unmotivated geometric models (e.g., a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations involving accretion onto a black hole. The latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated by relativistic effects around black holes, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description of the existing EHT data of Sgr A*, superior to the Gaussian. It also closely matches physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on our results, we make predictions for future observations for the accessibility of the black hole shadow, direct evidence for a black hole event horizon.
Geometric-optical Modeling of a Conifer Forest Canopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strahler, A. H. (Principal Investigator)
1985-01-01
The objective of this research is to explore how the geometry of trees in forest stands influences the reflectance of the forest as imaged from space. Most plant canopy modeling has viewed the canopy as an assemblage of plane-parallel layers on top of a soil surface. For these models, leaf angle distribution, leaf area index, and the angular transmittance and reflectance of leaves are the primary optical and geometric parameters. Such models are now sufficiently well developed to explain most of the variance in angular reflectance measurements observed from homogeneous plant canopies. However, forest canopies as imaged by airborne and spaceborne scanners exhibit considerable variance at quite a different scale. Brightness values vary strongly from one pixel to the next primarily as a function of the number of trees they contain. At this scale, the forest canopy is nonuniform and discontinuous. This research focuses on a discrete-element, geometric-optical view of the forest canopy.
Geometric and kinematic modelling of a human costal slice.
Minotti, P; Lexcellent, C
1991-01-01
More and more powerful calculation methods are being used in the modelization of the human thorax, and considering the progress made in the domain of numerical analysis, this modelization is naturally being oriented toward the utilization of finite element methods. However, thoracic models are usually based on extremely simple geometric hypotheses, due mostly to the lack of dependable experimental data. Hence, the exploitation of sophisticated software is far from optimal. This study is based on experimental observations which allow the capabilities of the current means of calculation to be exploited to a maximum. The objectives of the study are the geometric and kinematic representations of a typical costal slice. A precise topographical measurement, performed by a robot, allows description of the costal geometry. The exploitation of these measurements then allows the identification of the costo-vertebral articulation. PMID:2055910
Characterization and modeling of heterogeneous deformation in commercial purity titanium
Yang, Y; Wang, Leyun; Zambaldi, Dr C; Eisenlohr, P; Barabash, Rozaliya; Liu, W.; Stoudt, Dr M R; Crimp, Prof M A; Bieler, Prof T R
2011-01-01
Heterogeneous deformation, including local dislocation shear activity and lattice rotation, was analyzed in microstructure patches of polycrystalline commercial purity titanium specimens using three different experimental methods. The measurements were compared with crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations for the same region that incorporate a local phenomenological hardening constitutive model. The dislocation activity was measured using techniques associated with atomic force microscopy (AFM), confocal microscopy, three-dimensional-X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD), and nano-indentation. These measurements allow assessment and guidance for strategic improvement of the accuracy of CPFE model development. The CPFE model successfully predicted most types of active dislocation systems within grains at the correct magnitudes, but the simulation of spatial distribution of strain was not always similar to experimental observations. To obtain an accurate CPFE model, the critical resolved shear stresses for major deformation systems in -titanium were assessed using an optimization strategy with CPFE predictions of the measured pile-up topography surrounding axisymmetric nano-indentation. Only modest improvements were noted over the simulations done without such optimized parameters. This indicates that a major challenge for model development is to effectively predict conditions where slip transfer occurs, and where geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) accumulate.
A geometric crescent model for black hole images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamruddin, Ayman Bin; Dexter, Jason
2013-09-01
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimetre wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environments of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic centre black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), and M87 have been interpreted in terms of either geometric models (e.g. a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations of the appearance of black hole accretion flows. The former are not physically motivated, while the latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated by the dominant relativistic effects of Doppler beaming and gravitational lensing in many calculations, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description of the existing EHT data of Sgr A* and M87, superior to other geometric models for Sgr A*. It also qualitatively matches physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on our results, we make predictions for the detectability of the black hole shadow, a signature of strong gravity, in future observations.
Shekhar, Raj; Lei, Peng; Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Plishker, William L.; D'Souza, Warren D.
2007-07-15
Conventional radiotherapy is planned using free-breathing computed tomography (CT), ignoring the motion and deformation of the anatomy from respiration. New breath-hold-synchronized, gated, and four-dimensional (4D) CT acquisition strategies are enabling radiotherapy planning utilizing a set of CT scans belonging to different phases of the breathing cycle. Such 4D treatment planning relies on the availability of tumor and organ contours in all phases. The current practice of manual segmentation is impractical for 4D CT, because it is time consuming and tedious. A viable solution is registration-based segmentation, through which contours provided by an expert for a particular phase are propagated to all other phases while accounting for phase-to-phase motion and anatomical deformation. Deformable image registration is central to this task, and a free-form deformation-based nonrigid image registration algorithm will be presented. Compared with the original algorithm, this version uses novel, computationally simpler geometric constraints to preserve the topology of the dense control-point grid used to represent free-form deformation and prevent tissue fold-over. Using mean squared difference as an image similarity criterion, the inhale phase is registered to the exhale phase of lung CT scans of five patients and of characteristically low-contrast abdominal CT scans of four patients. In addition, using expert contours for the inhale phase, the corresponding contours were automatically generated for the exhale phase. The accuracy of the segmentation (and hence deformable image registration) was judged by comparing automatically segmented contours with expert contours traced directly in the exhale phase scan using three metrics: volume overlap index, root mean square distance, and Hausdorff distance. The accuracy of the segmentation (in terms of radial distance mismatch) was approximately 2 mm in the thorax and 3 mm in the abdomen, which compares favorably to the
Measurement of ship deformation based on ARX model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xianglu; Qin, Shiqiao; Wang, Xingshu; Hu, Feng; Wu, Wei; Zheng, JiaXing
2016-01-01
Ship deformation is the main error source of partial reference. Such deformation can be estimated by laser gyro units and Kalman filter technology. For Kalman filter, deformation was divide into two parts, dynamic deformation, and static deformation. Traditionally, dynamic deformation is treated as AR2 model .In this paper, dynamic deformation is taken as a kind of ARX model. Based on actual data measured by Yuanwang-3 Space Survey Ship, simulation experiments are studied. Results show that the novel model can improve the measurement precision.
Workshop on the Integration of Finite Element Modeling with Geometric Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wozny, Michael J.
1987-01-01
The workshop on the Integration of Finite Element Modeling with Geometric Modeling was held on 12 May 1987. It was held to discuss the geometric modeling requirements of the finite element modeling process and to better understand the technical aspects of the integration of these two areas. The 11 papers are presented except for one for which only the abstract is given.
Liquid ropes: a geometrical model for thin viscous jet instabilities.
Brun, P-T; Audoly, Basile; Ribe, Neil M; Eaves, T S; Lister, John R
2015-05-01
Thin, viscous fluid threads falling onto a moving belt behave in a way reminiscent of a sewing machine, generating a rich variety of periodic stitchlike patterns including meanders, W patterns, alternating loops, and translated coiling. These patterns form to accommodate the difference between the belt speed and the terminal velocity at which the falling thread strikes the belt. Using direct numerical simulations, we show that inertia is not required to produce the aforementioned patterns. We introduce a quasistatic geometrical model which captures the patterns, consisting of three coupled ordinary differential equations for the radial deflection, the orientation, and the curvature of the path of the thread's contact point with the belt. The geometrical model reproduces well the observed patterns and the order in which they appear as a function of the belt speed. PMID:25978238
Liquid Ropes: A Geometrical Model for Thin Viscous Jet Instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brun, P.-T.; Audoly, Basile; Ribe, Neil M.; Eaves, T. S.; Lister, John R.
2015-05-01
Thin, viscous fluid threads falling onto a moving belt behave in a way reminiscent of a sewing machine, generating a rich variety of periodic stitchlike patterns including meanders, W patterns, alternating loops, and translated coiling. These patterns form to accommodate the difference between the belt speed and the terminal velocity at which the falling thread strikes the belt. Using direct numerical simulations, we show that inertia is not required to produce the aforementioned patterns. We introduce a quasistatic geometrical model which captures the patterns, consisting of three coupled ordinary differential equations for the radial deflection, the orientation, and the curvature of the path of the thread's contact point with the belt. The geometrical model reproduces well the observed patterns and the order in which they appear as a function of the belt speed.
A simulation model for analysing brain structure deformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Bona, Sergio; Lutzemberger, Ludovico; Salvetti, Ovidio
2003-12-01
Recent developments of medical software applications—from the simulation to the planning of surgical operations—have revealed the need for modelling human tissues and organs, not only from a geometric point of view but also from a physical one, i.e. soft tissues, rigid body, viscoelasticity, etc. This has given rise to the term 'deformable objects', which refers to objects with a morphology, a physical and a mechanical behaviour of their own and that reflects their natural properties. In this paper, we propose a model, based upon physical laws, suitable for the realistic manipulation of geometric reconstructions of volumetric data taken from MR and CT scans. In particular, a physically based model of the brain is presented that is able to simulate the evolution of different nature pathological intra-cranial phenomena such as haemorrhages, neoplasm, haematoma, etc and to describe the consequences that are caused by their volume expansions and the influences they have on the anatomical and neuro-functional structures of the brain.
Unified Model Deformation and Flow Transition Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, Alpheus W.; Liu, Tianshu; Garg, Sanjay; Bell, James H.; Morgan, Daniel G.
1999-01-01
The number of optical techniques that may potentially be used during a given wind tunnel test is continually growing. These include parameter sensitive paints that are sensitive to temperature or pressure, several different types of off-body and on-body flow visualization techniques, optical angle-of-attack (AoA), optical measurement of model deformation, optical techniques for determining density or velocity, and spectroscopic techniques for determining various flow field parameters. Often in the past the various optical techniques were developed independently of each other, with little or no consideration for other techniques that might also be used during a given test. Recently two optical techniques have been increasingly requested for production measurements in NASA wind tunnels. These are the video photogrammetric (or videogrammetric) technique for measuring model deformation known as the video model deformation (VMD) technique, and the parameter sensitive paints for making global pressure and temperature measurements. Considerations for, and initial attempts at, simultaneous measurements with the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and the videogrammetric techniques have been implemented. Temperature sensitive paint (TSP) has been found to be useful for boundary-layer transition detection since turbulent boundary layers convect heat at higher rates than laminar boundary layers of comparable thickness. Transition is marked by a characteristic surface temperature change wherever there is a difference between model and flow temperatures. Recently, additional capabilities have been implemented in the target-tracking videogrammetric measurement system. These capabilities have permitted practical simultaneous measurements using parameter sensitive paint and video model deformation measurements that led to the first successful unified test with TSP for transition detection in a large production wind tunnel.
Geometric assortative growth model for small-world networks.
Shang, Yilun
2014-01-01
It has been shown that both humanly constructed and natural networks are often characterized by small-world phenomenon and assortative mixing. In this paper, we propose a geometrically growing model for small-world networks. The model displays both tunable small-world phenomenon and tunable assortativity. We obtain analytical solutions of relevant topological properties such as order, size, degree distribution, degree correlation, clustering, transitivity, and diameter. It is also worth noting that the model can be viewed as a generalization for an iterative construction of Farey graphs. PMID:24578661
Assessment of a Model-Based Deformable Image Registration Approach for Radiation Therapy Planning
Kaus, Michael R. . E-mail: Michael.kaus@philips.com; Brock, Kristy K.; Pekar, Vladimir; Dawson, Laura A.; Nichol, Alan M.; Jaffray, David A.
2007-06-01
Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop a surface-based deformable image registration strategy and to assess the accuracy of the system for the integration of multimodality imaging, image-guided radiation therapy, and assessment of geometrical change during and after therapy. Methods and Materials: A surface-model-based deformable image registration system has been developed that enables quantitative description of geometrical change in multimodal images with high computational efficiency. Based on the deformation of organ surfaces, a volumetric deformation field is derived using different volumetric elasticity models as alternatives to finite-element modeling. Results: The accuracy of the system was assessed both visually and quantitatively by tracking naturally occurring landmarks (bronchial bifurcations in the lung, vessel bifurcations in the liver, implanted gold markers in the prostate). The maximum displacements for lung, liver and prostate were 5.3 cm, 3.2 cm, and 0.6 cm respectively. The largest registration error (direction, mean {+-} SD) for lung, liver and prostate were (inferior-superior, -0.21 {+-} 0.38 cm) (anterior-posterior, -0.09 {+-} 0.34 cm), and (left-right, 0.04 {+-} 0.38 cm) respectively, which was within the image resolution regardless of the deformation model. The computation time (2.7 GHz Intel Xeon) was on the order of seconds (e.g., 10 s for 2 prostate datasets), and deformed axial images could be viewed at interactive speed (less than 1 s for 512 x 512 voxels). Conclusions: Surface-based deformable image registration enables the quantification of geometrical change in normal tissue and tumor with acceptable accuracy and speed.
Geometrical measurement of cardiac wavelength in reaction-diffusion models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupraz, Marie; Jacquemet, Vincent
2014-09-01
The dynamics of reentrant arrhythmias often consists in multiple wavelets propagating throughout an excitable medium. An arrhythmia can be sustained only if these reentrant waves have a sufficiently short wavelength defined as the distance traveled by the excitation wave during its refractory period. In a uniform medium, wavelength may be estimated as the product of propagation velocity and refractory period (electrophysiological wavelength). In order to accurately measure wavelength in more general substrates relevant to atrial arrhythmias (heterogeneous and anisotropic), we developed a mathematical framework to define geometrical wavelength at each time instant based on the length of streamlines following the propagation velocity field within refractory regions. Two computational methods were implemented: a Lagrangian approach in which a set of streamlines were integrated, and an Eulerian approach in which wavelength was the solution of a partial differential equation. These methods were compared in 1D/2D tissues and in a model of the left atrium. An advantage of geometrical definition of wavelength is that the wavelength of a wavelet can be tracked over time with high temporal resolution and smaller temporal variability in an anisotropic and heterogeneous medium. The results showed that the average electrophysiological wavelength was consistent with geometrical measurements of wavelength. Wavelets were however often shorter than the electrophysiological wavelength due to interactions with boundaries and other wavelets. These tools may help to assess more accurately the relation between substrate properties and wavelet dynamics in computer models.
Geometrical measurement of cardiac wavelength in reaction-diffusion models.
Dupraz, Marie; Jacquemet, Vincent
2014-09-01
The dynamics of reentrant arrhythmias often consists in multiple wavelets propagating throughout an excitable medium. An arrhythmia can be sustained only if these reentrant waves have a sufficiently short wavelength defined as the distance traveled by the excitation wave during its refractory period. In a uniform medium, wavelength may be estimated as the product of propagation velocity and refractory period (electrophysiological wavelength). In order to accurately measure wavelength in more general substrates relevant to atrial arrhythmias (heterogeneous and anisotropic), we developed a mathematical framework to define geometrical wavelength at each time instant based on the length of streamlines following the propagation velocity field within refractory regions. Two computational methods were implemented: a Lagrangian approach in which a set of streamlines were integrated, and an Eulerian approach in which wavelength was the solution of a partial differential equation. These methods were compared in 1D/2D tissues and in a model of the left atrium. An advantage of geometrical definition of wavelength is that the wavelength of a wavelet can be tracked over time with high temporal resolution and smaller temporal variability in an anisotropic and heterogeneous medium. The results showed that the average electrophysiological wavelength was consistent with geometrical measurements of wavelength. Wavelets were however often shorter than the electrophysiological wavelength due to interactions with boundaries and other wavelets. These tools may help to assess more accurately the relation between substrate properties and wavelet dynamics in computer models. PMID:25273213
Multiple representation approach to geometric model construction from range data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koivunen, Visa; Vezien, Jean-Marc; Bajcsy, Ruzena
1995-04-01
A method is presented for constructing geometric design data from noisy 3-D sensor measurements of physical parts. In early processing phase, RLTS regression filters stemming from robust estimation theory are used for separating the desired part of the signal in contaminated sensor data from undesired part. Strategies for producing a complete 3-D data set from partial views are studied. Surface triangulation, NURBS, and superellipsoids are employed in model construction to be able to represent efficiently polygonal shapes, free form surfaces and standard primitive solids. Multiple representations are used because there is no single representation that would be most appropriate in all situations. The size of the required control point mesh for spline description is estimated using a surface characterization process. Surfaces of arbitrary topology are modeled using triangulation and trimmed NURBS. A user given tolerance value is driving refinement of the obtained surface model. The resulting model description is a procedural CAD model which can convey structural information in addition to low level geometric primitives. The model is translated to IGES standard product data exchange format to enable data sharing with other processes in concurrent engineering environment. Preliminary results on view registration and integration using simulated data are shown. Examples of model construction using both real and simulated data are also given.
Adaptive deformable model for mouth boundary detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirhosseini, Ali R.; Yan, Hong; Lam, Kin-Man
1998-03-01
A new generalized algorithm is proposed to automatically extract a mouth boundary model form human face images. Such an algorithm can contribute to human face recognition and lip-reading-assisted speech recognition systems, in particular, and multimodal human computer interaction system, in general. The new model is an iterative algorithm based on a hierarchical model adaptation scheme using deformable templates, as a generalization of some of the previous works. The role of prior knowledge is essential for perceptual organization in the algorithm. The prior knowledge about the mouth shape is used to define and initialize a primary deformable mode. Each primary boundary curve of a mouth is formed on three control points, including two mouth corners, whose locations are optimized using a primary energy functional. This energy functional essentially captures the knowledge of the mouth shape to perceptually organize image information. The primary model is finely tuned in the second stage of optimization algorithm using a generalized secondary energy functional. Basically each boundary curve is finely tuned using more control points. The primary model is replaced by an adapted model if there is an increase in the secondary energy functional. The results indicate that the new model adaptation technique satisfactorily generalizes the mouth boundary model extraction in an automated fashion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badami, Devavrat V.; Jahed, Zeinab; Seo, Brandon B.; Burek, Michael J.; Tsui, Ting Y.
2016-03-01
The effects of microstructure, sample dimensions, and cross-sectional geometry on the deformation characteristics of electroplated nanocrystalline copper sub-micron pillars are investigated. Nanocrystalline copper pillars were produced with four types of geometry—solid core, hollow, c-shaped, and x-shaped—with outer diameters of ~1000 or 220 nm and three different average grain sizes (between 5.1 and 49.3 nm). Flow stress results from uniaxial compression tests of 1000- and 220-nm-outer-diameter pillars, with average grain sizes in the range between ~32 and 50 nm, revealed there are no observable strength dependences with the pillar cross-sectional geometries. This suggests that they behave with bulk-like character: mechanical properties independent of size and sample geometry. All of the pillar specimens examined exhibit an increase in mechanical strength with reduction of grain sizes, but soften as the crystalline dimensions are smaller than 10 to 20 nm threshold limits. Interestingly, pillars with outer diameters of 220 nm are distinctively softer than the 1000-nm-diameter samples when their grain size is at and below this threshold limit. These results indicate a strength specimen size effect exists for such fine grain copper pillars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Protaziuk, Elżbieta
2016-06-01
Satellite measurements become competitive in many tasks of engineering surveys, however, in many requiring applications possibilities to apply such solutions are still limited. The possibility to widely apply satellite technologies for displacements measurements is related with new challenges; the most important of them relate to increasing requirements concerning the accuracy, reliability and continuity of results of position determination. One of the solutions is a ground augmentation of satellite network, which intention is to improve precision of positioning, ensure comparable accuracy of coordinates and reduce precision fluctuations over time. The need for augmentation of GNSS is particularly significant in situations: where the visibility of satellites is poor because of terrain obstacles, when the determined position is not precise enough or a satellites constellation does not allow for reliable positioning. Ground based source/sources of satellite signal placed at a ground, called pseudosatellites, or pseudolites were intensively investigated during the last two decades and finally were developed into groundbased, time-synchronized transceivers, that can transmit and receive a proprietary positioning signal. The paper presents geometric aspects of the ground based augmentation of the satellite networks using various quality measures of positioning geometry, which depends on access to the constellation of satellites and the conditions of the observation environment. The issue of minimizing these measures is the key problem that allows to obtain the position with high accuracy. For this purpose, the use of an error ellipsoid is proposed and compared with an error ellipse. The paper also describes the results of preliminary accuracy analysis obtained at test area and a comparison of various measures of the quality of positioning geometry.
Modelling highly deformable metal extrusion using SPH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prakash, Mahesh; Cleary, Paul W.
2015-05-01
Computational modelling is often used to reduce trial extrusions through accurate defect prediction. Traditionally, metal extrusion is modelled using mesh based finite element methods. However, large plastic deformations can lead to heavy re-meshing and numerical diffusion. Here we use the mesh-less smoothed particle hydrodynamics method since it allows simulation of large deformations without re-meshing and the tracking of history dependent properties such as plastic strain making it suitable for defect prediction. The variation in plastic strain and deformation for aluminium alloy in a cylindrical 3D geometry with extrusion ratio and die angle is evaluated. The extrusion process is found to have three distinct phases consisting of an initial sharp rise in extrusion force, a steady phase requiring constant force and terminating in a sharp decline in force as metal is completely extruded. Deformation and plastic strain increased significantly with extrusion ratio but only moderately with die angle. Extrusion force increased by 150 % as the extrusion ratio increased from 2:1 to 4:1 but had only a marginal change with die angle. A low strain zone in the centre of the extruded product was found to be a function of extrusion ratio but was persistent and did not vary with die angle. Simulation of a complex 3D building industry component showed large variations in plastic strain along the length of the product at two scales. These were due to change in metal behaviour as extrusion progressed from phase 1 to phase 2. A stagnation zone at the back of the die was predicted that could lead to the "funnel" or "pipe" defect.
Subjective surfaces: a geometric model for boundary completion
Sarti, Alessandro; Malladi, Ravi; Sethian, J.A.
2000-06-01
We present a geometric model and a computational method for segmentation of images with missing boundaries. In many situations, the human visual system fills in missing gaps in edges and boundaries, building and completing information that is not present. Boundary completion presents a considerable challenge in computer vision, since most algorithms attempt to exploit existing data. A large body of work concerns completion models, which postulate how to construct missing data; these models are often trained and specific to particular images. In this paper, we take the following, alternative perspective: we consider a reference point within an image as given, and then develop an algorithm which tries to build missing information on the basis of the given point of view and the available information as boundary data to the algorithm. Starting from this point of view, a surface is constructed. It is then evolved with the mean curvature flow in the metric induced by the image until a piecewise constant solution is reached. We test the computational model on modal completion, amodal completion, texture, photo and medical images. We extend the geometric model and the algorithm to 3D in order to extract shapes from low signal/noise ratio medical volumes. Results in 3D echocardiography and 3D fetal echography are presented.
Tracking of object deformations in color and depth video: deformation models and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordt, Andreas; Reinhold, Stefan; Koch, Reinhard
2015-05-01
The research on deformation tracking based on color image data has continuously gained a wide interest in the last 15 years. In addition, using depth sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect, allows to mitigate the ambiguity problems that arise when trying to solve the deformation tracking tasks on color images only, by adding depth information. However, the fusion of color and depth data is not straight forward, and the deformation tracking task is still ill-posed due to the lack of a general deformation model. The problem is usually circumvented by providing special deformation functions for the task at hand, e.g., skeleton-based for reconstructing people or triangle-based for tracking planar surfaces. In this article we summarize the Analysis by Synthesis (AbS) approach for deformation tracking in depth and color video and show some successful applications of specialized deformation functions. To overcome the issues with NURBS based deformation tracking we propose a new geodesic RBF-based deformation model, which can adapt to any surface topology and shape, while keeping the number of deformation parameters low. Example deformations for objects of different topologies are given, showing the versatility and efficiency of the proposed model.
Numerical treatment of a geometrically nonlinear planar Cosserat shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sander, Oliver; Neff, Patrizio; Bîrsan, Mircea
2016-05-01
We present a new way to discretize a geometrically nonlinear elastic planar Cosserat shell. The kinematical model is similar to the general six-parameter resultant shell model with drilling rotations. The discretization uses geodesic finite elements (GFEs), which leads to an objective discrete model which naturally allows arbitrarily large rotations. GFEs of any approximation order can be constructed. The resulting algebraic problem is a minimization problem posed on a nonlinear finite-dimensional Riemannian manifold. We solve this problem using a Riemannian trust-region method, which is a generalization of Newton's method that converges globally without intermediate loading steps. We present the continuous model and the discretization, discuss the properties of the discrete model, and show several numerical examples, including wrinkling of thin elastic sheets in shear.
Geometric modeling of the temporal bone for cochlea implant simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todd, Catherine A.; Naghdy, Fazel; O'Leary, Stephen
2004-05-01
The first stage in the development of a clinically valid surgical simulator for training otologic surgeons in performing cochlea implantation is presented. For this purpose, a geometric model of the temporal bone has been derived from a cadaver specimen using the biomedical image processing software package Analyze (AnalyzeDirect, Inc) and its three-dimensional reconstruction is examined. Simulator construction begins with registration and processing of a Computer Tomography (CT) medical image sequence. Important anatomical structures of the middle and inner ear are identified and segmented from each scan in a semi-automated threshold-based approach. Linear interpolation between image slices produces a three-dimensional volume dataset: the geometrical model. Artefacts are effectively eliminated using a semi-automatic seeded region-growing algorithm and unnecessary bony structures are removed. Once validated by an Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) specialist, the model may be imported into the Reachin Application Programming Interface (API) (Reachin Technologies AB) for visual and haptic rendering associated with a virtual mastoidectomy. Interaction with the model is realized with haptics interfacing, providing the user with accurate torque and force feedback. Electrode array insertion into the cochlea will be introduced in the final stage of design.
High-fidelity geometric modeling for biomedical applications
Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael J.; Andrew McCammon, J.
2008-07-01
We describe a combination of algorithms for high fidelity geometric modeling and mesh generation. Although our methods and implementations are application-neutral, our primary target application is multiscale biomedical models that range in scales across the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Our software toolchain implementing these algorithms is general in the sense that it can take as input a molecule in PDB/PQR forms, a 3D scalar volume, or a user-defined triangular surface mesh that may have very low quality. The main goal of our work presented is to generate high quality and smooth surface triangulations from the aforementioned inputs, and to reduce the mesh sizes by mesh coarsening. Tetrahedral meshes are also generated for finite element analysis in biomedical applications. Experiments on a number of bio-structures are demonstrated, showing that our approach possesses several desirable properties: feature-preservation, local adaptivity, high quality, and smoothness (for surface meshes). The availability of this software toolchain will give researchers in computational biomedicine and other modeling areas access to higher-fidelity geometric models.
The geometrical optics approach to atmospheric propagation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doss-Hammel, Stephen M.
2003-04-01
An accurate model for the propagation of infrared and optical frequencies through the atmosphere is a requirement for a number of important communications and surveillance systems. These systems operate over long nearly-horizontal paths that are close to the land or sea surface. There can be strong heat and mass flux gradients near the surface which make accurate transmission predictions difficult. The development and utility of geometrical optics, or ray-trace, methods for the EOSTAR and IRWarp models will be addressed. Both models are driven by bulk meteorological models to provide the environmental fields that can subsequently be used to define the refractivity field. The ray-trace algorithm uses the refractivity field to generate a transfer map. The transfer map provides precise information concerning the number, location, and orientation of the images of a source point. One application of this information is the geometric gain, or the refractive propagation factor, which is an output consisting of a vertical signal intensity profile at a given range. A second application is a passive ranging capability for sub-refractive conditions. The ranging calculation uses the existence of an inferior mirage image to deduce the target range and height.
A tumor growth model with deformable ECM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciumè, G.; Santagiuliana, R.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B. A.
2014-12-01
Existing tumor growth models based on fluid analogy for the cells do not generally include the extracellular matrix (ECM), or if present, take it as rigid. The three-fluid model originally proposed by the authors and comprising tumor cells (TC), host cells (HC), interstitial fluid (IF) and an ECM, considered up to now only a rigid ECM in the applications. This limitation is here relaxed and the deformability of the ECM is investigated in detail. The ECM is modeled as a porous solid matrix with Green-elastic and elasto-visco-plastic material behavior within a large strain approach. Jauman and Truesdell objective stress measures are adopted together with the deformation rate tensor. Numerical results are first compared with those of a reference experiment of a multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) growing in vitro, then three different tumor cases are studied: growth of an MTS in a decellularized ECM, growth of a spheroid in the presence of host cells and growth of a melanoma. The influence of the stiffness of the ECM is evidenced and comparison with the case of a rigid ECM is made. The processes in a deformable ECM are more rapid than in a rigid ECM and the obtained growth pattern differs. The reasons for this are due to the changes in porosity induced by the tumor growth. These changes are inhibited in a rigid ECM. This enhanced computational model emphasizes the importance of properly characterizing the biomechanical behavior of the malignant mass in all its components to correctly predict its temporal and spatial pattern evolution.
A tumor growth model with deformable ECM
Sciumè, G; Santagiuliana, R; Ferrari, M; Decuzzi, P; Schrefler, B A
2015-01-01
Existing tumor growth models based on fluid analogy for the cells do not generally include the extracellular matrix (ECM), or if present, take it as rigid. The three-fluid model originally proposed by the authors and comprising tumor cells (TC), host cells (HC), interstitial fluid (IF) and an ECM, considered up to now only a rigid ECM in the applications. This limitation is here relaxed and the deformability of the ECM is investigated in detail. The ECM is modeled as a porous solid matrix with Green-elastic and elasto-visco-plastic material behavior within a large strain approach. Jauman and Truesdell objective stress measures are adopted together with the deformation rate tensor. Numerical results are first compared with those of a reference experiment of a multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) growing in vitro, then three different tumor cases are studied: growth of an MTS in a decellularized ECM, growth of a spheroid in the presence of host cells and growth of a melanoma. The influence of the stiffness of the ECM is evidenced and comparison with the case of a rigid ECM is made. The processes in a deformable ECM are more rapid than in a rigid ECM and the obtained growth pattern differs. The reasons for this are due to the changes in porosity induced by the tumor growth. These changes are inhibited in a rigid ECM. This enhanced computational model emphasizes the importance of properly characterizing the biomechanical behavior of the malignant mass in all its components to correctly predict its temporal and spatial pattern evolution. PMID:25427284
Geometric modeling of inflatable structures for lunar base.
Nowak, P S; Sadeh, W Z; Morroni, L A
1992-07-01
A modular inflatable structure consisting of thin, composite membranes is presented for use in a lunar base. Results from a linear elastic analysis of the structure indicate that it is feasible in the lunar environment. Further analysis requires solving nonlinear equations and accurately specifying the geometries of the structural members. A computerized geometric modeling technique, using bicubic Bezier surfaces to generate the geometries of the inflatable structure, was conducted. Simulated results are used to create three-dimensional wire frames and solid renderings of the individual components of the inflatable structure. The component geometries are connected into modules, which are then assembled based upon the desired architecture of the structure. PMID:11537646
A geometric snake model for segmentation of medical imagery.
Yezzi, A; Kichenassamy, S; Kumar, A; Olver, P; Tannenbaum, A
1997-04-01
In this note, we employ the new geometric active contour models formulated in [25] and [26] for edge detection and segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound medical imagery. Our method is based on defining feature-based metrics on a given image which in turn leads to a novel snake paradigm in which the feature of interest may be considered to lie at the bottom of a potential well. Thus, the snake is attracted very quickly and efficiently to the desired feature. PMID:9101329
Solar UV geometric conversion factors: horizontal plane to cylinder model.
Pope, Stanley J; Godar, Dianne E
2010-01-01
Most solar UV measurements are relative to the horizontal plane. However, problems arise when one uses those UV measurements to perform risk or benefit assessments because they do not yield the actual doses people get while they are outdoors. To better estimate the UV doses people actually get while outdoors, scientists need geometric conversion factors (GCF) that change horizontal plane irradiances to average irradiances on the human body. Here we describe a simple geometric method that changes unweighted, erythemally weighted and previtamin D(3)-weighted UV irradiances on the horizontal plane to full cylinder and semicylinder irradiances. Scientists can use the full cylinder model to represent the complete human body, while they can use the semicylinder model to represent the face, shoulders, tops of hands and feet. We present daily, monthly and seasonally calculated averages of the GCF for these cylinder models every 5 degrees from 20 to 70 degrees N so that scientists can now get realistic UV doses for people who are outdoors doing a variety of different activities. The GCF show that people actually get less than half their annual erythemally weighted, and consequently half their previtamin D(3)-weighted, UV doses relative to the horizontal plane. Thus, scientists can now perform realistic UV risk and benefit assessments. PMID:20059727
Mask roughness induced LER: geometric model at long correlation lengths
McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.
2011-02-11
Collective understanding of how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER has made significant advances. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which mask surface roughness couples to image plane LER as a function of illumination conditions, NA, and defocus. Recently, progress has been made in formulating a simplified solution for mask roughness induced LER. Here, we investigate the LER behavior at long correlation lengths of surface roughness on the mask. We find that for correlation lengths greater than 3/NA in wafer dimensions and CDs greater than approximately 0.75/NA, the previously described simplified model, which remains based on physical optics, converges to a 'geometric regime' which is based on ray optics and is independent of partial coherence. In this 'geometric regime', the LER is proportional to the mask slope error as it propagates through focus, and provides a faster alternative to calculating LER in contrast to either full 2D aerial image simulation modeling or the newly proposed physical optics model. Data is presented for both an NA = 0.32 and an NA = 0.5 imaging system for CDs of 22-nm and 50-nm horizontal-line-dense structures.
Recent progress in modelling 3D lithospheric deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.
2012-04-01
Modelling 3D lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of 3D codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical model runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new 3D deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same model setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for modelling 3D lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of
Discrete element modelling of subglacial sediment deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, A. D.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S.
2012-04-01
Soft, deformable sediments are often present under glaciers. Subglacial sediments deform under the differential load of the ice, and this causes the overlying glacier to accelerate its motion. Understanding the rheology of subglacial sediment is therefore important for models of glacial dynamics. Previous studies of the mechanical behaviour of subglacial sediments have primarily relied on analytical considerations and laboratory shearing experiments. As a novel approach, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed that is exposed to stress conditions comparable to subglacial environments. The numerical approach allows close monitoring of the mechanical and rheological behaviour under a range of conditions. Of special interest is bed shear strength, strain distribution and -localization, mode of deformation, and role of effective normal pressure during shearing. As a calibration benchmark, results from laboratory ring-shear experiments on granular material are compared to similar numerical experiments. The continuously recorded stress dynamics in the laboratory shear experiments are compared to DEM experiments, and the micro-mechanical parameters in the contact model of the DEM code are calibrated to match the macroscopic Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria parameters, constrained from successive laboratory shear tests under a range of normal pressures. The data-parallel nature of the basic DEM formulation makes the problem ideal for utilizing the high arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia Cuda C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a soft-body contact model. Scene rendering is performed using a custom Cuda ray-tracing algorithm. Efforts on optimization of the particle algorithm are discussed, and future plans of expansion are presented.
A Geometrically Exact Model for Externally Loaded Concentric-Tube Continuum Robots.
Rucker, D Caleb; Jones, Bryan A; Webster, Robert J
2010-01-01
Continuum robots, which are composed of multiple concentric, precurved elastic tubes, can provide dexterity at diameters equivalent to standard surgical needles. Recent mechanics-based models of these "active cannulas" are able to accurately describe the curve of the robot in free space, given the preformed tube curves and the linear and angular positions of the tube bases. However, in practical applications, where the active cannula must interact with its environment or apply controlled forces, a model that accounts for deformation under external loading is required. In this paper, we apply geometrically exact rod theory to produce a forward kinematic model that accurately describes large deflections due to a general collection of externally applied point and/or distributed wrench loads. This model accommodates arbitrarily many tubes, with each having a general preshaped curve. It also describes the independent torsional deformation of the individual tubes. Experimental results are provided for both point and distributed loads. Average tip error under load was 2.91 mm (1.5%-3% of total robot length), which is similar to the accuracy of existing free-space models. PMID:21566688
Shen, Z; Greskovich, J; Xia, P; Bzdusek, K
2015-06-15
Purpose: To generate virtual phantoms with clinically relevant deformation and use them to objectively evaluate geometric and dosimetric uncertainties of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms. Methods: Ten lung cancer patients undergoing adaptive 3DCRT planning were selected. For each patient, a pair of planning CT (pCT) and replanning CT (rCT) were used as the basis for virtual phantom generation. Manually adjusted meshes were created for selected ROIs (e.g. PTV, lungs, spinal cord, esophagus, and heart) on pCT and rCT. The mesh vertices were input into a thin-plate spline algorithm to generate a reference displacement vector field (DVF). The reference DVF was used to deform pCT to generate a simulated replanning CT (srCT) that was closely matched to rCT. Three DIR algorithms (Demons, B-Spline, and intensity-based) were applied to these ten virtual phantoms. The images, ROIs, and doses were mapped from pCT to srCT using the DVFs computed by these three DIRs and compared to those mapped using the reference DVF. Results: The average Dice coefficients for selected ROIs were from 0.85 to 0.96 for Demons, from 0.86 to 0.97 for intensity-based, and from 0.76 to 0.95 for B-Spline. The average Hausdorff distances for selected ROIs were from 2.2 to 5.4 mm for Demons, from 2.3 to 6.8 mm for intensity-based, and from 2.4 to 11.4 mm for B-Spline. The average absolute dose errors for selected ROIs were from 0.2 to 0.6 Gy for Demons, from 0.1 to 0.5 Gy for intensity-based, and from 0.5 to 1.5 Gy for B-Spline. Conclusion: Virtual phantoms were modeled after patients with lung cancer and were clinically relevant for adaptive radiotherapy treatment replanning. Virtual phantoms with known DVFs serve as references and can provide a fair comparison when evaluating different DIRs. Demons and intensity-based DIRs were shown to have smaller geometric and dosimetric uncertainties than B-Spline. Z Shen: None; K Bzdusek: an employee of Philips Healthcare; J Greskovich: None; P Xia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Huaixi; Li, Chuanwei; Liu, Zhanwei; Wu, Lifu
2014-02-01
The geometric phase analysis (GPA) method based on the local high resolution discrete Fourier transform (LHR-DFT) for deformation measurement, defined as LHR-DFT GPA, is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy. In the general GPA method, the fundamental frequency of the image plays a crucial role. However, the fast Fourier transform, which is generally employed in the general GPA method, could make it difficult to locate the fundamental frequency accurately when the fundamental frequency is not located at an integer pixel position in the Fourier spectrum. This study focuses on this issue and presents a LHR-DFT algorithm that can locate the fundamental frequency with sub-pixel precision in a specific frequency region for the GPA method. An error analysis is offered and simulation is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method; both results show that the LHR-DFT algorithm can accurately locate the fundamental frequency and improve the measurement accuracy of the GPA method. Furthermore, typical tensile and bending tests are carried out and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafiee, M.; Liu, X. F.; He, X. Q.; Kitipornchai, S.
2014-07-01
The nonlinear free vibration of carbon nanotubes/fiber/polymer composite (CNTFPC) multi-scale plates with surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is studied in this paper. The governing equations of the piezoelectric nanotubes/fiber/polymer multiscale laminated composite plates are derived based on first-order shear deformation plate theory (FSDT) and von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity. Halpin-Tsai equations and fiber micromechanics are used in hierarchy to predict the bulk material properties of the multiscale composite. The carbon nanotubes are assumed to be uniformly distributed and randomly oriented through the epoxy resin matrix. A perturbation scheme of multiple time scales is employed to determine the nonlinear vibration response and the nonlinear natural frequencies of the plates with immovable simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of the applied constant voltage, plate geometry, volume fraction of fibers and weight percentage of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the linear and nonlinear natural frequencies of the piezoelectric nanotubes/fiber/polymer multiscale composite plate are investigated through a detailed parametric study.
Modeling Connectionist Networks: Categorical, Geometric Aspects (Towards ``Homomorphic Learning'')
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfalzgraf, Jochen
2004-08-01
Work in interdisciplinary fields is very interesting and always a great challenge. We present work on applications of mathematical methods to modeling problems arising in the area of artificial neural networks (ANN). We concentrate on modeling network structures that are motivated and based on knowledge about net structures coming from neurophysiology. In past years such insights have been exploited already in computer based ANN-simulations which are well suited for industrial applications. In the analysis of network structures, considering assemblies of cells (neurons) in biological nets, from a geometric point of view one can indentify and interpret, locally, what is called a geometric configuration. Following notions from algebraic topology, we are speaking about simplicial configurations (e.g. triangular, tetrahedral configurations, etc.). It turns out that category theory, geometry, algebra (group theory), graph theory (more general, net theory) come together, in a natural interdisciplinary way. Simplices are of basic importance.The interpretation of a learning step as a morphism in categorical terms suggests the opening of a systematic theory of learning (we call it "Homomorphic Learning").
Modelling Polymer Deformation during 3D Printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter
Three-dimensional printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The fused deposition modelling technique involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion to fabricate an object. The key to ensuring strength at the weld between layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, prior to welding, both the extrusion process and the cooling temperature profile can significantly deform the polymer micro-structure and, consequently, how well the polymers are able to ``re-entangle'' across the weld. In particular, polymer alignment in the flow can cause de-bonding of the layers and create defects. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal extrusion process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and material rheology have on the conformation of a polymer melt. In particular, we incorporate both stretch and orientation using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine the melt structure as it flows through the nozzle, the subsequent alignment with the build plate and the resulting deformation due to the fixed nozzle height, which is typically less than the nozzle radius.
Estimation of radiative heat transfer using a geometric human model.
Kakuta, N; Yokoyama, S; Nakamura, M; Mabuchi, K
2001-03-01
In order to provide a detailed estimate of radiative heat transfer between a human body and its surrounding environment, we have developed a geometric model of a human form and an algorithm. The model closely resembles the actual shape of a human body and is composed of small quadrilateral surfaces. Dealing with an object or a space with an arbitrary shape, the developed algorithm can judge efficiently whether there is an obstruction between a pair of surfaces. As a result, the angle factors between a pair of surfaces that only occur during radiative heat transfer can be defined. The distribution of the radiative heat transfer rates shows the characteristics of body shape and variations in posture. PMID:11327500
Rule-based spatial modeling with diffusing, geometrically constrained molecules
2010-01-01
Background We suggest a new type of modeling approach for the coarse grained, particle-based spatial simulation of combinatorially complex chemical reaction systems. In our approach molecules possess a location in the reactor as well as an orientation and geometry, while the reactions are carried out according to a list of implicitly specified reaction rules. Because the reaction rules can contain patterns for molecules, a combinatorially complex or even infinitely sized reaction network can be defined. For our implementation (based on LAMMPS), we have chosen an already existing formalism (BioNetGen) for the implicit specification of the reaction network. This compatibility allows to import existing models easily, i.e., only additional geometry data files have to be provided. Results Our simulations show that the obtained dynamics can be fundamentally different from those simulations that use classical reaction-diffusion approaches like Partial Differential Equations or Gillespie-type spatial stochastic simulation. We show, for example, that the combination of combinatorial complexity and geometric effects leads to the emergence of complex self-assemblies and transportation phenomena happening faster than diffusion (using a model of molecular walkers on microtubules). When the mentioned classical simulation approaches are applied, these aspects of modeled systems cannot be observed without very special treatment. Further more, we show that the geometric information can even change the organizational structure of the reaction system. That is, a set of chemical species that can in principle form a stationary state in a Differential Equation formalism, is potentially unstable when geometry is considered, and vice versa. Conclusions We conclude that our approach provides a new general framework filling a gap in between approaches with no or rigid spatial representation like Partial Differential Equations and specialized coarse-grained spatial simulation systems like
Cox, P G; Fagan, M J; Rayfield, E J; Jeffery, N
2011-01-01
Rodents are defined by a uniquely specialized dentition and a highly complex arrangement of jaw-closing muscles. Finite element analysis (FEA) is an ideal technique to investigate the biomechanical implications of these specializations, but it is essential to understand fully the degree of influence of the different input parameters of the FE model to have confidence in the model's predictions. This study evaluates the sensitivity of FE models of rodent crania to elastic properties of the materials, loading direction, and the location and orientation of the models’ constraints. Three FE models were constructed of squirrel, guinea pig and rat skulls. Each was loaded to simulate biting on the incisors, and the first and the third molars, with the angle of the incisal bite varied over a range of 45°. The Young's moduli of the bone and teeth components were varied between limits defined by findings from our own and previously published tests of material properties. Geometric morphometrics (GMM) was used to analyse the resulting skull deformations. Bone stiffness was found to have the strongest influence on the results in all three rodents, followed by bite position, and then bite angle and muscle orientation. Tooth material properties were shown to have little effect on the deformation of the skull. The effect of bite position varied between species, with the mesiodistal position of the biting tooth being most important in squirrels and guinea pigs, whereas bilateral vs. unilateral biting had the greatest influence in rats. A GMM analysis of isolated incisor deformations showed that, for all rodents, bite angle is the most important parameter, followed by elastic properties of the tooth. The results here elucidate which input parameters are most important when defining the FE models, but also provide interesting glimpses of the biomechanical differences between the three skulls, which will be fully explored in future publications. PMID:21974720
Geometrical model for DBMS: an experimental DBMS using IBM solid modeling
Ali, D.E.D.L.
1985-01-01
This research presents a new model for data base management systems (DBMS). The new model, Geometrical DBMS, is based on using solid modelling technology in designing and implementing DBMS. The Geometrical DBMS is implemented using the IBM solid modelling Geometric Design Processor (GDP). Built basically on computer-graphics concepts, Geometrical DBMS is indeed a unique model. Traditionally, researchers start with one of the existent DBMS models and then put a graphical front end on it. In Geometrical DBMS, the graphical aspect of the model is not an alien concept tailored to the model but is, as a matter of fact, the atom around which the model is designed. The main idea in Geometrical DBMS is to allow the user and the system to refer to and manipulate data items as a solid object in 3D space, and representing a record as a group of logically related solid objects. In Geometical DBMS, hierarchical structure is used to present the data relations and the user sees the data as a group of arrays; yet, for the user and the system together, the data structure is a multidimensional tree.
Geometric algorithms for electromagnetic modeling of large scale structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pingenot, James
With the rapid increase in the speed and complexity of integrated circuit designs, 3D full wave and time domain simulation of chip, package, and board systems becomes more and more important for the engineering of modern designs. Much effort has been applied to the problem of electromagnetic (EM) simulation of such systems in recent years. Major advances in boundary element EM simulations have led to O(n log n) simulations using iterative methods and advanced Fast. Fourier Transform (FFT), Multi-Level Fast Multi-pole Methods (MLFMM), and low-rank matrix compression techniques. These advances have been augmented with an explosion of multi-core and distributed computing technologies, however, realization of the full scale of these capabilities has been hindered by cumbersome and inefficient geometric processing. Anecdotal evidence from industry suggests that users may spend around 80% of turn-around time manipulating the geometric model and mesh. This dissertation addresses this problem by developing fast and efficient data structures and algorithms for 3D modeling of chips, packages, and boards. The methods proposed here harness the regular, layered 2D nature of the models (often referred to as "2.5D") to optimize these systems for large geometries. First, an architecture is developed for efficient storage and manipulation of 2.5D models. The architecture gives special attention to native representation of structures across various input models and special issues particular to 3D modeling. The 2.5D structure is then used to optimize the mesh systems First, circuit/EM co-simulation techniques are extended to provide electrical connectivity between objects. This concept is used to connect independently meshed layers, allowing simple and efficient 2D mesh algorithms to be used in creating a 3D mesh. Here, adaptive meshing is used to ensure that the mesh accurately models the physical unknowns (current and charge). Utilizing the regularized nature of 2.5D objects and
Methods for Geometric Data Validation of 3d City Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, D.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.
2015-12-01
Geometric quality of 3D city models is crucial for data analysis and simulation tasks, which are part of modern applications of the data (e.g. potential heating energy consumption of city quarters, solar potential, etc.). Geometric quality in these contexts is however a different concept as it is for 2D maps. In the latter case, aspects such as positional or temporal accuracy and correctness represent typical quality metrics of the data. They are defined in ISO 19157 and should be mentioned as part of the metadata. 3D data has a far wider range of aspects which influence their quality, plus the idea of quality itself is application dependent. Thus, concepts for definition of quality are needed, including methods to validate these definitions. Quality on this sense means internal validation and detection of inconsistent or wrong geometry according to a predefined set of rules. A useful starting point would be to have correct geometry in accordance with ISO 19107. A valid solid should consist of planar faces which touch their neighbours exclusively in defined corner points and edges. No gaps between them are allowed, and the whole feature must be 2-manifold. In this paper, we present methods to validate common geometric requirements for building geometry. Different checks based on several algorithms have been implemented to validate a set of rules derived from the solid definition mentioned above (e.g. water tightness of the solid or planarity of its polygons), as they were developed for the software tool CityDoctor. The method of each check is specified, with a special focus on the discussion of tolerance values where they are necessary. The checks include polygon level checks to validate the correctness of each polygon, i.e. closeness of the bounding linear ring and planarity. On the solid level, which is only validated if the polygons have passed validation, correct polygon orientation is checked, after self-intersections outside of defined corner points and edges
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David L.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Tylmann, Karol
2013-12-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used in this study to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. Complementary to analog experiments, the numerical approach allows a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and the shear zone development during progressive shear strain. The geometry of the heterogeneous stress network is visible in the form of force-carrying grain bridges and adjacent, volumetrically dominant, inactive zones. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation depend on the level of normal (overburden) stress, and we show how high normal stress can mobilize material to great depths. The particle rotational axes tend to align with progressive shear strain, with rotations both along and reverse to the shear direction. The results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments on simple granular materials are compared to results from similar numerical experiments. The simulated DEM material and all tested laboratory materials deform by an elastoplastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress. These results demonstrate that the DEM is a viable alternative to continuum models for small-scale analysis of sediment deformation. It can be used to simulate the macromechanical behavior of simple granular sediments, and it provides an opportunity to study how microstructures in subglacial sediments are formed during progressive shear strain.
A geometric model of anorexia and its treatment.
Callahan, J
1982-04-01
Anorexia is a severe psychological disorder in which a person's dieting turns into compulsive fasting. Some victims develop, after a time, a bulimic phase; their fasting is interrupted at intervals by bouts of indiscriminate gorging. One successful treatment makes use of a naturally occurring trance state, in which the anorexic's obsession with food recedes temporarily, to offer reassurance and rebuild a personality free of the obsession. The proposed model is catastrophe-theoretic. It assumes (a) that the bifurcation of eating attitudes typical of anorexia can be modeled by a cusp whose controls are hunger and eating regimen; and (b) that the normal cycle of falling asleep and waking up can be modeled by a hysteresis loop controlled by alertness. Catastrophe theory predicts two additional controls, and a larger model organized by the E6 singularity. The new controls are identified with loss of self-control and insecurity, and anorexia is correlated with high insecurity. The model makes the following predictions. First, under moderate levels of self-control and eating regimen, an anorexic has access to balanced, nonobsessive attitudes toward food at a reduced level of wakefulness. This is the trance state. Second, a healthy individual has two distinct sleep modes, dominated by cerebral and somatic elements, respectively. Third, with increasing insecurity the distinct modes fuse together, so that an anorexic's sleep patterns are abnormal. The model is geometric because the connection between behavior and controlling factors is made by graphs of certain standard form. PMID:7092772
The genetics of speciation: Insights from Fisher's geometric model.
Fraïsse, Christelle; Gunnarsson, P Alexander; Roze, Denis; Bierne, Nicolas; Welch, John J
2016-07-01
Research in speciation genetics has uncovered many robust patterns in intrinsic reproductive isolation, and fitness landscape models have been useful in interpreting these patterns. Here, we examine fitness landscapes based on Fisher's geometric model. Such landscapes are analogous to models of optimizing selection acting on quantitative traits, and have been widely used to study adaptation and the distribution of mutational effects. We show that, with a few modifications, Fisher's model can generate all of the major findings of introgression studies (including "speciation genes" with strong deleterious effects, complex epistasis and asymmetry), and the major patterns in overall hybrid fitnesses (including Haldane's Rule, the speciation clock, heterosis, hybrid breakdown, and male-female asymmetry in the F1). We compare our approach to alternative modeling frameworks that assign fitnesses to genotypes by identifying combinations of incompatible alleles. In some cases, the predictions are importantly different. For example, Fisher's model can explain conflicting empirical results about the rate at which incompatibilities accumulate with genetic divergence. In other cases, the predictions are identical. For example, the quality of reproductive isolation is little affected by the manner in which populations diverge. PMID:27252049
Geometric and colour data fusion for outdoor 3D models.
Merchán, Pilar; Adán, Antonio; Salamanca, Santiago; Domínguez, Vicente; Chacón, Ricardo
2012-01-01
This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera) and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination) conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture), we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields. PMID:22969327
Modeling Secular Deformation of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinnett, D. K.; Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Casu, F.; Segall, P.; Fukushima, Y.; Miklius, A.; Poland, M. P.
2010-12-01
Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, is a dynamic volcanic and tectonic system that hosts rift intrusions and eruptions, summit inflation/deflation and eruptions, flank earthquakes and slow slip events, as well as quasi-steady flank motion. We seek to identify and characterize the actively deforming structures on Kilauea and study their interactions using a combination of GPS, InSAR, and seismic data. In addition we examine whether the change from summit subsidence to inflation in 2003, led to changes elsewhere in the volcano. We begin by modeling velocities of 16 continuous GPS and 28 campaign GPS sites and mean velocities from three ENVISAT tracks (T93 ascending: 10 acquisitions from 20030120 to 20041115; T200 descending: 13 acquisitions from 20030127 to 20041122, T429 descending: 10 acquisitions from 20030212 to 20041103) between 2003 and 2004, a period lacking major episodic events. We use triangular dislocations to mesh the curving rift zones and décollement. The southwest and east rift zones are continuous through the summit caldera area, where we also include a point center of dilatation beneath the southwest caldera. A décollement beginning about 12 km offshore at seven km depth dips approximately eight degrees northwest to achieving a depth of nine kilometers beneath the summit/rift zone. The décollement mesh continues at a shallower dip beneath the north flank of Kilauea reaching a final depth of 9.5 km beneath the north flank of Kilauea/south flank of Mauna Loa. Kinematic constraints enforce that opening at the base of the rift equal the differential décollement slip across the rift. Future modeling will include tests of Koae and Hilina fault geometries as well as time-dependent modeling of the deformation field.
Fast Geometric Consensus Approach for Protein Model Quality Assessment
Adamczak, Rafal; Pillardy, Jaroslaw; Vallat, Brinda K.
2011-01-01
Abstract Model quality assessment (MQA) is an integral part of protein structure prediction methods that typically generate multiple candidate models. The challenge lies in ranking and selecting the best models using a variety of physical, knowledge-based, and geometric consensus (GC)-based scoring functions. In particular, 3D-Jury and related GC methods assume that well-predicted (sub-)structures are more likely to occur frequently in a population of candidate models, compared to incorrectly folded fragments. While this approach is very successful in the context of diversified sets of models, identifying similar substructures is computationally expensive since all pairs of models need to be superimposed using MaxSub or related heuristics for structure-to-structure alignment. Here, we consider a fast alternative, in which structural similarity is assessed using 1D profiles, e.g., consisting of relative solvent accessibilities and secondary structures of equivalent amino acid residues in the respective models. We show that the new approach, dubbed 1D-Jury, allows to implicitly compare and rank N models in O(N) time, as opposed to quadratic complexity of 3D-Jury and related clustering-based methods. In addition, 1D-Jury avoids computationally expensive 3D superposition of pairs of models. At the same time, structural similarity scores based on 1D profiles are shown to correlate strongly with those obtained using MaxSub. In terms of the ability to select the best models as top candidates 1D-Jury performs on par with other GC methods. Other potential applications of the new approach, including fast clustering of large numbers of intermediate structures generated by folding simulations, are discussed as well. PMID:21244273
Geometrical Custom Modeling of Human Cornea In Vivo and Its Use for the Diagnosis of Corneal Ectasia
Cavas-Martínez, Francisco; Fernández-Pacheco, Daniel G.; De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Nieto Martínez, José; Fernández Cañavate, Francisco J.; Vega-Estrada, Alfredo; Plaza-Puche, Ana B.; Alió, Jorge L.
2014-01-01
Aim To establish a new procedure for 3D geometric reconstruction of the human cornea to obtain a solid model that represents a personalized and in vivo morphology of both the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. This model is later analyzed to obtain geometric variables enabling the characterization of the corneal geometry and establishing a new clinical diagnostic criterion in order to distinguish between healthy corneas and corneas with keratoconus. Method The method for the geometric reconstruction of the cornea consists of the following steps: capture and preprocessing of the spatial point clouds provided by the Sirius topographer that represent both anterior and posterior corneal surfaces, reconstruction of the corneal geometric surfaces and generation of the solid model. Later, geometric variables are extracted from the model obtained and statistically analyzed to detect deformations of the cornea. Results The variables that achieved the best results in the diagnosis of keratoconus were anterior corneal surface area (ROC area: 0.847, p<0.000, std. error: 0.038, 95% CI: 0.777 to 0.925), posterior corneal surface area (ROC area: 0.807, p<0.000, std. error: 0.042, 95% CI: 0,726 to 0,889), anterior apex deviation (ROC area: 0.735, p<0.000, std. error: 0.053, 95% CI: 0.630 to 0.840) and posterior apex deviation (ROC area: 0.891, p<0.000, std. error: 0.039, 95% CI: 0.8146 to 0.9672). Conclusion Geometric modeling enables accurate characterization of the human cornea. Also, from a clinical point of view, the procedure described has established a new approach for the study of eye-related diseases. PMID:25329896
Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement System User's Manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dismond, Harriett R.
2002-01-01
The purpose of this manual is to provide the user of the NASA VMD system, running the MDef software, Version 1.10, all information required to operate the system. The NASA Videogrammetric Model Deformation system consists of an automated videogrammetric technique used to measure the change in wing twist and bending under aerodynamic load in a wind tunnel. The basic instrumentation consists of a single CCD video camera and a frame grabber interfaced to a computer. The technique is based upon a single view photogrammetric determination of two-dimensional coordinates of wing targets with fixed (and known) third dimensional coordinate, namely the span-wise location. The major consideration in the development of the measurement system was that productivity must not be appreciably reduced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibkov, A. A.; Zolotov, A. E.; Zheltov, M. A.; Denisov, A. A.; Gasanov, M. F.; Kochegarov, S. S.
2016-05-01
The effect of holes on the band formation and the serrated deformation in planar specimens of aluminum-magnesium alloys AlMg5 and AlMg6 is studied by high-speed video filming of moving deformation bands. It is found that the concentration of an elastic field near a hole causes early nucleation of macrolocalized deformation bands and decreases the critical deformation of the first stress drop. Differences between the spatial-temporal patterns of deformation bands near holes under various deformation conditions are revealed.
Nonlinear modeling and estimation of slew induced structural deformations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwyer, T. A. W., III; Karray, F.
1988-01-01
A model of the nonlinear dynamics of a deformable maneuvering multibody system is described, whereby elastic deformation are modeled by restoring forces and dissipative forces at point mass appendages. This model is brought into bilinear form. Estimation of deformations occasioned by rapid slewing maneuvers is carried out by a filter based on a globally equivalent linear model of the bilinear dynamics, and is shown to be an improvement over the extended Kalman filter. To further alleviate the computational burden, the estimated deformation state is propagated between observations by a low dimensional operator spline interpolator of bilinear system Volterra series, which is easily implemented.
Generalised geometrical CP violation in a T ' lepton flavour model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girardi, Ivan; Meroni, Aurora; Petcov, S. T.; Spinrath, Martin
2014-02-01
We analyse the interplay of generalised CP transformations and the non-Abelian discrete group T ' and use the semi-direct product G f = T ' ⋊ H CP, as family symmetry acting in the lepton sector. The family symmetry is shown to be spontaneously broken in a geometrical manner. In the resulting flavour model, naturally small Majorana neutrino masses for the light active neutrinos are obtained through the type I see-saw mechanism. The known masses of the charged leptons, lepton mixing angles and the two neutrino mass squared differences are reproduced by the model with a good accuracy. The model allows for two neutrino mass spectra with normal ordering (NO) and one with inverted ordering (IO). For each of the three spectra the absolute scale of neutrino masses is predicted with relatively small uncertainty. The value of the Dirac CP violation (CPV) phase δ in the lepton mixing matrix is predicted to be δ = π/2 or 3 π/2. Thus, the CP violating effects in neutrino oscillations are predicted to be maximal (given the values of the neutrino mixing angles) and experimentally observable. We present also predictions for the sum of the neutrino masses, for the Majorana CPV phases and for the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay. The predictions of the model can be tested in a variety of ongoing and future planned neutrino experiments.
Rapid world modeling: Fitting range data to geometric primitives
Feddema, J.; Little, C.
1996-12-31
For the past seven years, Sandia National Laboratories has been active in the development of robotic systems to help remediate DOE`s waste sites and decommissioned facilities. Some of these facilities have high levels of radioactivity which prevent manual clean-up. Tele-operated and autonomous robotic systems have been envisioned as the only suitable means of removing the radioactive elements. World modeling is defined as the process of creating a numerical geometric model of a real world environment or workspace. This model is often used in robotics to plan robot motions which perform a task while avoiding obstacles. In many applications where the world model does not exist ahead of time, structured lighting, laser range finders, and even acoustical sensors have been used to create three dimensional maps of the environment. These maps consist of thousands of range points which are difficult to handle and interpret. This paper presents a least squares technique for fitting range data to planar and quadric surfaces, including cylinders and ellipsoids. Once fit to these primitive surfaces, the amount of data associated with a surface is greatly reduced up to three orders of magnitude, thus allowing for more rapid handling and analysis of world data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashani, Rojano
External beam radiation therapy is an effective method for treating cancer in many body sites. Highly conformal plans can be created to provide good target coverage while sparing the surrounding normal tissue. A fundamental problem in delivering these conformal plans is the inter- and intra-fractional variations in patient geometry, which result in deviation of the delivered dose from the planned dose, thus reducing the probability of tumor control or increasing the risk of normal tissue toxicity. To address this problem, various motion management strategies have been implemented in the clinic, and several others are under investigation. While the technique employed for management of geometric variation can change depending on the type and source of the variation (set up error, respiratory-induced motion and deformation, or tumor shrinkage or tissue loss in response to treatment) as well as other clinical factors, all these techniques have one thing in common and that is the fact that they are not perfect. This work investigates the uncertainties associated with the measurement and management of motion and deformation, and evaluates the impact of these uncertainties on the accuracy of geometry and dose tracking for treatment adaptation. This research quantified the magnitude and distribution of error in deformable image registration for aligning image volumes acquired at different breathing states. It further explored the potential of reducing the registration error in deforming lung geometry, by applying a method from multivariate statistics (principal component analysis) to identify the significant modes of variation in this geometry. It also demonstrated the potential for tracking respiratory induced deformation in various regions in the lung, using a few surrogates such as implanted markers. In addition to the evaluation of registration error for thoracic geometry affected by respiratory motion, this work also investigates the accuracy of deformable image
Geometrical model for malaria parasite migration in structured environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, Anna; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Schwarz, Ulrich S.
2014-10-01
Malaria is transmitted to vertebrates via a mosquito bite, during which rodlike and crescent-shaped parasites, called sporozoites, are injected into the skin of the host. Searching for a blood capillary to penetrate, sporozoites move quickly in locally helical trajectories, that are frequently perturbed by interactions with the extracellular environment. Here we present a theoretical analysis of the active motility of sporozoites in a structured environment. The sporozoite is modelled as a self-propelled rod with spontaneous curvature and bending rigidity. It interacts with hard obstacles through collision rules inferred from experimental observation of two-dimensional sporozoite movement in pillar arrays. Our model shows that complex motion patterns arise from the geometrical shape of the parasite and that its mechanical flexibility is crucial for stable migration patterns. Extending the model to three dimensions reveals that a bent and twisted rod can associate to cylindrical obstacles in a manner reminiscent of the association of sporozoites to blood capillaries, supporting the notion of a prominent role of cell shape during malaria transmission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaden, R.; Kolbe, T. H.
2012-07-01
Virtual 3D city models are integrated complex compositions of spatial data of different themes, origin, quality, scale, and dimensions. Within this paper, we address the problem of spatial compatibility of geodata aiming to provide support for ad-hoc integration of virtual 3D city models including geodata of different sources and themes like buildings, terrain, and city furniture. In contrast to related work which is dealing with the integration of redundant geodata structured according to different data models and ontologies, we focus on the integration of complex 3D models of the same representation (here: CityGML) but regarding to the geometric-topological consistent matching of non-homologous objects, e.g. a building is connected to a road, and their geometric homogenisation. Therefore, we present an approach including a data model for a Geodata Join and the general concept of an integration procedure using the join information. The Geodata Join aims to bridge the lack of information between fragmented geodata by describing the relationship between adjacent objects from different datasets. The join information includes the geometrical representation of those parts of an object, which have a specific/known topological or geometrical relationship to another object. This part is referred to as a Connector and is either described by points, lines, or surfaces of the existing object geometry or by additional join geometry. In addition, the join information includes the specification of the connected object in the other dataset and the description of the topological and geometrical relationship between both objects, which is used to aid the matching process. Furthermore, the Geodata Join contains object-related information like accuracy values and restrictions of movement and deformation which are used to optimize the integration process. Based on these parameters, a functional model including a matching algorithm, transformation methods, and conditioned adjustment
dMODELS: A software package for modeling volcanic deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battaglia, M.
2013-12-01
dMODELS is software package including the most common source models used to interpret deformation measurements near active volcanic centers. The emphasis is on estimating the parameters of analytical models of deformation by inverting data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), InSAR, tiltmeters and strainmeters. Source models include: (a) pressurized spherical, ellipsoidal and sill-like magma chambers in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space; and (b) pressurized spherical magma chamber with correction for the effect of topography (i.e., Williams and Wadge, 1998). All the expressions have been extended to include deformation and strain within the Earth's crust (as opposed to only the Earth's surface) and verified against finite element models. The software has been developed using Matlab but compiled versions that can be run using the free Matlab Compiler Runtime (MCR) are available for Linux, and Windows 7 (32bit and 64bit). The MATLAB scripts and compiled files are open source and intended for teaching and research. The software can be downloaded from the USGS web site pubs.usgs.gov/tm/13/b1/. Please e-mail the author at mbattaglia@usgs.gov if you would like to be included in the dMODELS mail list to get information about the release of software updates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Pengchao
Recent studies of the occurrence of post-flutter limit cycle oscillations (LCO) of the F-16 have provided good support to the long-standing hypothesis that this phenomenon involves a nonlinear structural damping. A potential mechanism for the appearance of nonlinearity in the damping are the nonlinear geometric effects that arise when the deformations become large enough to exceed the linear regime. In this light, the focus of this investigation is first on extending nonlinear reduced order modeling (ROM) methods to include viscoelasticity which is introduced here through a linear Kelvin-Voigt model in the undeformed configuration. Proceeding with a Galerkin approach, the ROM governing equations of motion are obtained and are found to be of a generalized van der Pol-Duffing form with parameters depending on the structure and the chosen basis functions. An identification approach of the nonlinear damping parameters is next proposed which is applicable to structures modeled within commercial finite element software. The effects of this nonlinear damping mechanism on the post-flutter response is next analyzed on the Goland wing through time-marching of the aeroelastic equations comprising a rational fraction approximation of the linear aerodynamic forces. It is indeed found that the nonlinearity in the damping can stabilize the unstable aerodynamics and lead to finite amplitude limit cycle oscillations even when the stiffness related nonlinear geometric effects are neglected. The incorporation of these latter effects in the model is found to further decrease the amplitude of LCO even though the dominant bending motions do not seem to stiffen as the level of displacements is increased in static analyses.
Content-Based Search on a Database of Geometric Models: Identifying Objects of Similar Shape
XAVIER, PATRICK G.; HENRY, TYSON R.; LAFARGE, ROBERT A.; MEIRANS, LILITA; RAY, LAWRENCE P.
2001-11-01
The Geometric Search Engine is a software system for storing and searching a database of geometric models. The database maybe searched for modeled objects similar in shape to a target model supplied by the user. The database models are generally from CAD models while the target model may be either a CAD model or a model generated from range data collected from a physical object. This document describes key generation, database layout, and search of the database.
Meshless Modeling of Deformable Shapes and their Motion
Adams, Bart; Ovsjanikov, Maks; Wand, Michael; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Guibas, Leonidas J.
2010-01-01
We present a new framework for interactive shape deformation modeling and key frame interpolation based on a meshless finite element formulation. Starting from a coarse nodal sampling of an object’s volume, we formulate rigidity and volume preservation constraints that are enforced to yield realistic shape deformations at interactive frame rates. Additionally, by specifying key frame poses of the deforming shape and optimizing the nodal displacements while targeting smooth interpolated motion, our algorithm extends to a motion planning framework for deformable objects. This allows reconstructing smooth and plausible deformable shape trajectories in the presence of possibly moving obstacles. The presented results illustrate that our framework can handle complex shapes at interactive rates and hence is a valuable tool for animators to realistically and efficiently model and interpolate deforming 3D shapes. PMID:24839614
Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Lipkens, Bart; Dallois, Laurent; Hamilton, Mark F; Blackstock, David T
2002-01-01
Sonic boom propagation can be affected by atmospheric turbulence. It has been shown that turbulence affects the perceived loudness of sonic booms, mainly by changing its peak pressure and rise time. The models reported here describe the nonlinear propagation of sound through turbulence. Turbulence is modeled as a set of individual realizations of a random temperature or velocity field. In the first model, linear geometrical acoustics is used to trace rays through each realization of the turbulent field. A nonlinear transport equation is then derived along each eigenray connecting the source and receiver. The transport equation is solved by a Pestorius algorithm. In the second model, the KZK equation is modified to account for the effect of a random temperature field and it is then solved numerically. Results from numerical experiments that simulate the propagation of spark-produced N waves through turbulence are presented. It is observed that turbulence decreases, on average, the peak pressure of the N waves and increases the rise time. Nonlinear distortion is less when turbulence is present than without it. The effects of random vector fields are stronger than those of random temperature fields. The location of the caustics and the deformation of the wave front are also presented. These observations confirm the results from the model experiment in which spark-produced N waves are used to simulate sonic boom propagation through a turbulent atmosphere. PMID:11837954
Geometrical MTF computation method based on the irradiance model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, P.-D.; Liu, C.-S.
2011-01-01
The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is a measure of an optical system's ability to transfer contrast from the specimen to the image plane at a specific resolution. It can be computed either numerically by geometrical optics or measured experimentally by imaging a knife edge or a bar-target pattern of varying spatial frequency. Previously, MTF accuracy was generally affected by the size of the mesh on the image plane. This paper presents a new MTF computation method based on the irradiance model, without counting the number of rays hitting each grid. To verify the method, the MTF in the sagittal and meridional directions of an axis-symmetrical optical system is computed by both the ray-counting and the proposed methods. It is found that the grid size meshed on the image plane significantly affects the MTF of the ray-counting method, sometimes with significantly negative results. The proposed irradiance method is immune to issues of grid size. The CPU computation time for the two methods is approximately the same.
A deformable model for hippocampus segmentation: Improvements and extension to 3D
Ghanei, A.; Soltanian-Zadeh, H. |; Windham, J.P.
1996-12-31
In this work, the application of a deformable model to the segmentation of hippocampus in brain MRI has been investigated. Common problems of the model in this case and similar cases have been discussed and solved. A new method for extracting discontinuous boundaries of an object with multiple unwanted edges has been developed. This method is based on detecting and following the edge by external forces. For improving the contour stability, its movement has been limited. Also, adaptive values for internal force weights have been used. In the next step, the model has been extended to 3D which is a Deformable Surface Model. A geometric structure used for this purpose. This helps in definition of normal vectors and internal forces. Finally, a method for generating the initial volume from individual initial polygons has been developed.
Deformation modeling and constitutive modeling for anisotropic superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milligan, Walter W.; Antolovich, Stephen D.
1989-01-01
A study of deformation mechanisms in the single crystal superalloy PWA 1480 was conducted. Monotonic and cyclic tests were conducted from 20 to 1093 C. Both (001) and near-(123) crystals were tested, at strain rates of 0.5 and 50 percent/minute. The deformation behavior could be grouped into two temperature regimes: low temperatures, below 760 C; and high temperatures, above 820 to 950 C depending on the strain rate. At low temperatures, the mechanical behavior was very anisotropic. An orientation dependent CRSS, a tension-compression asymmetry, and anisotropic strain hardening were all observed. The material was deformed by planar octahedral slip. The anisotropic properties were correlated with the ease of cube cross-slip, as well as the number of active slip systems. At high temperatures, the material was isotropic, and deformed by homogeneous gamma by-pass. It was found that the temperature dependence of the formation of superlattice-intrinsic stacking faults was responsible for the local minimum in the CRSS of this alloy at 400 C. It was proposed that the cube cross-slip process must be reversible. This was used to explain the reversible tension-compression asymmetry, and was used to study models of cross-slip. As a result, the cross-slip model proposed by Paidar, Pope and Vitek was found to be consistent with the proposed slip reversibility. The results were related to anisotropic viscoplastic constitutive models. The model proposed by Walter and Jordan was found to be capable of modeling all aspects of the material anisotropy. Temperature and strain rate boundaries for the model were proposed, and guidelines for numerical experiments were proposed.
Jordanian deformation of the open sℓ(2) Gaudin model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
António, N. Cirilo; Manojlović, N.; Nagy, Z.
2014-04-01
We derive a deformed sℓ( 2) Gaudin model with integrable boundaries. Starting from the Jordanian deformation of the SL( 2)-invariant Yang R-matrix and generic solutions of the associated reflection equation and the dual reflection equation, we obtain the corresponding inhomogeneous spin- 1/2 XXX chain. The semiclassical expansion of the transfer matrix yields the deformed sℓ( 2) Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strahler, Alan H.; Jupp, David L. B.
1990-01-01
Geometric-optical discrete-element mathematical models for forest canopies have been developed using the Boolean logic and models of Serra. The geometric-optical approach is considered to be particularly well suited to describing the bidirectional reflectance of forest woodland canopies, where the concentration of leaf material within crowns and the resulting between-tree gaps make plane-parallel, radiative-transfer models inappropriate. The approach leads to invertible formulations, in which the spatial and directional variance provides the means for remote estimation of tree crown size, shape, and total cover from remotedly sensed imagery.
HSR Model Deformation Measurements from Subsonic to Supersonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Erickson, G. E.; Goodman, W. L.; Fleming, G. A.
1999-01-01
This paper describes the video model deformation technique (VMD) used at five NASA facilities and the projection moire interferometry (PMI) technique used at two NASA facilities. Comparisons between the two techniques for model deformation measurements are provided. Facilities at NASA-Ames and NASA-Langley where deformation measurements have been made are presented. Examples of HSR model deformation measurements from the Langley Unitary Wind Tunnel, Langley 16-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel, and the Ames 12-foot Pressure Tunnel are presented. A study to improve and develop new targeting schemes at the National Transonic Facility is also described. The consideration of milled targets for future HSR models is recommended when deformation measurements are expected to be required. Finally, future development work for VMD and PMI is addressed.
Discrete element modeling of subglacial sediment deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Larsen, N. K.
2013-12-01
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to explore the highly nonlinear dynamics of a granular bed when exposed to stress conditions comparable to those at the bed of warm-based glaciers. In the DEM, the material is simulated on a grain-by-grain basis, and defining the micromechanical properties of the inter-particle contacts parameterizes the model. For validating the numerical approach, the macromechanical behavior of the numerical material is compared to the results from successive laboratory ring-shear experiments. Overall, there is a good agreement between the geotechnical behavior of the real granular materials and the numerical results. The materials deform by an elasto-plastic rheology under the applied effective normal stress and horizontal shearing. The peak and ultimate shear strengths depend linearly on the magnitude of the normal stress by the Mohr-Coulomb constitutive relationship. The numerical approach allows for a detailed analysis of the material dynamics and shear zone development during progressive shear strain. We demonstrate how the shear zone thickness and dilation increase with the magnitude of the normal stress. The stresses are distributed heterogeneously through the granular material along stress-carrying force chains. Between the force chains are the volumetrically dominant inactive zones. Overall, the force chain orientation is parallel to the maximum compressive stress. The data-parallel nature of the basic DEM formulation makes the problem ideal for utilizing the high arithmetic potential of modern general-purpose GPUs. Using the Nvidia CUDA C toolkit, the algorithm is formulated for spherical particles in three dimensions with a linear-elastic soft-body contact model. We have coupled the DEM model to a model for porewater flow, and we present early results of particle-porewater interactions. The two-way mechanical coupling is used to investigate pore-pressure feedbacks, which may be very important for the dynamics of soft
Dahmen, Karin A.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Uhl, Jonathan T.
2009-05-01
A basic micromechanical model for deformation of solids with only one tuning parameter (weakening {epsilon}) is introduced. The model can reproduce observed stress-strain curves, acoustic emissions and related power spectra, event statistics, and geometrical properties of slip, with a continuous phase transition from brittle to ductile behavior. Exact universal predictions are extracted using mean field theory and renormalization group tools. The results agree with recent experimental observations and simulations of related models for dislocation dynamics, material damage, and earthquake statistics.
Preliminary deformation model for National Seismic Hazard map of Indonesia
Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Sarsito, Dina; Prijatna, Kosasih; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Susilo,; Efendi, Joni
2015-04-24
Preliminary deformation model for the Indonesia’s National Seismic Hazard (NSH) map is constructed as the block rotation and strain accumulation function at the elastic half-space. Deformation due to rigid body motion is estimated by rotating six tectonic blocks in Indonesia. The interseismic deformation due to subduction is estimated by assuming coupling on subduction interface while deformation at active fault is calculated by assuming each of the fault‘s segment slips beneath a locking depth or in combination with creeping in a shallower part. This research shows that rigid body motion dominates the deformation pattern with magnitude more than 15 mm/year, except in the narrow area near subduction zones and active faults where significant deformation reach to 25 mm/year.
Modeling thermomechanical processes in shape memory polymers under finite deformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogovoi, A. A.; Stolbova, O. S.
2015-11-01
A model taking into account finite deformations is constructed for the behavior of a shape memory polymer which undergoes a transition from the highly elastic to the vitreous state and back during deformation and temperature change. The obtained relations are tested on problems which have experimental support.
A quantitative evaluation of models for Aegean crustal deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyst, M.; Thatcher, W.
2003-04-01
Modeling studies of eastern Mediterranean tectonics show that Aegean deformation is mainly determined by WSW directed expulsion of Anatolia and SW directed extension due to roll-back of African lithosphere along the Hellenic trench. How motion is transferred across the Aegean remains a subject of debate. The two most widely used hypotheses for Aegean tectonics assert fundamentally different mechanisms. The first model describes deformation as a result of opposing rotations of two rigid microplates separated by a zone of extension. In the second model most motion is accommodated by shear on a series of dextral faults and extension on graben systems. These models make different quantitative predictions for the crustal deformation field that can be tested by a new, spatially dense GPS velocity data set. To convert the GPS data into crustal deformation parameters we use different methods to model complementary aspects of crustal deformation. We parameterize the main fault and plate boundary structures of both models and produce representations for the crustal deformation field that range from purely rigid rotations of microplates, via interacting, elastically deforming blocks separated by crustal faults to a continuous velocity gradient field. Critical evaluation of these models indicates strengths and limitations of each and suggests new measurements for further refining understanding of present-day Aegean tectonics.
Geometric modeling and analysis of large latticed surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.
1980-01-01
The application of geometrical schemes, similar to geodesic domes, to large spherical antenna reflectors was investigated. The shape and size of flat segmented latticed surfaces which approximate general shells of revolution, and in particular spherical and paraboloidal reflective surfaces, were determined. The extensive mathematical and computational geometric analyses of the reflector resulted in the development of a general purpose computer program capable of generating the complete design parameters of the dish. The program also includes a graphical self contained subroutine for graphic display of the required design.
Deformable template models for emission tomography
Amit, Y. . Dept. of Statistics); Manbeck, K.M. . Div. of Applied Mathematics)
1993-06-01
The reconstruction of emission tomography data is an ill-posed inverse problem and, as such, requires some form of regularization. Previous efforts to regularize the restoration process have incorporated rather general assumptions about the isotope distribution within a patient's body. Here, the authors present a theoretical and algorithmic framework in which the notion of a deformable template can be used to identify and quantify brain tumors in pediatric patients. Patient data and computer simulation experiments are presented which illustrate the performance of the deformable template approach to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, S.; Hosaka, S.; Tamatsukuri, H.; Nakajima, T.; Mitsuda, S.; Prokeš, K.; Kiefer, K.
2014-08-01
We report neutron diffraction measurement results for an Ising antiferromagnet CoNb2O6 under uniaxial pressure along the geometrically frustrated isosceles-triangular-lattice direction. We find that an onset incommensurate wave number at the Néel temperature increases with pressure from 0.378 to 0.411 at 400 MPa. The observations suggest that the anisotropic deformation of the lattice by the uniaxial pressure significantly modifies the spin frustration, leading to an increase in the nearest-neighbor to next-nearest-neighbor interaction ratio from 1.33 to 1.81.
Pickup, Brian A; Thomson, Scott L
2011-04-01
Simplified models have been used to simulate and study the flow-induced vibrations of the human vocal folds. While it is clear that the models' responses are sensitive to geometry, it is not clear how and to what extent specific geometric features influence model motion. In this study geometric features that played significant roles in governing the motion of a two-layer (body-cover), two-dimensional, finite element vocal fold model were identified. The model was defined using a flow solver based on the viscous, unsteady, Navier-Stokes equations and a solid solver that allowed for large strain and deformation. A screening-type design-of-experiments approach was used to identify the relative importance of 13 geometric parameters. Five output measures were analyzed to assess the magnitude of each geometric parameter's effect on the model's motion. The measures related to frequency, glottal width, flow rate, intraglottal angle, and intraglottal phase delay. The most significant geometric parameters were those associated with the cover--primarily the pre-phonatory intraglottal angle--as well as the body inferior angle. Some models exhibited evidence of improved model motion, including mucosal wave-like motion and alternating convergent-divergent glottal profiles, although further improvements are still needed to more closely mimic human vocal fold motion. PMID:21476668
Modeling of regional earthquakes, aseismic deformation and fault patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyakhovsky, V.; Ben-Zion, Y.
2005-12-01
We study the coupled evolution of earthquakes and faults in a 3-D lithospheric model consisting of a weak sedimentary layer over a crystalline crust and upper mantle. The total strain tensor in each layer is the sum of (1) elastic strain, (2) damage-related inelastic strain, and (3) ductile strain. We use a visco-elastic damage rheology model (Lyakhovsky et al., 1997; Hamiel et al., 2004) to calculate elastic strain coupled with evolving material damage and damage-related inelastic strain accumulation. A thermodynamically based equation for damage evolution accounts for degradation and healing as a function of the elastic strain tensor and material properties (rate coefficients and ratio of strain invariants separating states of degradation and healing). Analyses of stress-strain, acoustic emission and frictional data provide constraints on the damage model parameters. The ductile strain in the sedimentary layer is governed by Newtonian viscosity, while power-law rheology is used for the ductile strain in the lower crust and upper mantle. Each mechanism of strain and damage evolution is associated with its own timescale. In our previous study of earthquakes and faults in a 2-D model with averaged stress distribution over the seismogenic zone (thin sheet approximation) we demonstrated effects associated with the ratio between time scales for damage healing and for tectonic loading. The results indicated that low ratio leads to the development of geometrically regular fault systems and the characteristic frequency-size earthquake statistics, while high ratio leads to the development of a network of disordered fault systems and the Gutenberg-Richter statistics. Stress relaxation through ductile creep and damage-related strain mechanisms is associated with two additional time scales. In contrast to the previous 2-D model, the thickness of the seismogenic zone is not prescribed by the model set-up, but is a function of the ratio between timescale of damage accumulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goren, L.; Castelltort, S.; Klinger, Y.
2014-12-01
The Dead Sea Fault System changes its orientation across Lebanon and forms a restraining bend. The oblique deformation along the Lebanese restraining bend is characterized by a complex suite of tectonic structures, among which, the Yammouneh Fault (YF), is believed to be the main strand that relays deformation from the southern section to the northern section of the Dead Sea Fault System. However, uncertainties regarding slip rates and strain partitioning in Lebanon still prevail. Here, we use morphometric analysis together with analytical and numerical models to constrain rates and modes of distributed and localized deformation along the Lebanese restraining bend.The rivers that drain the western flank of Mount Lebanon show a consistent counterclockwise rotation with respect to an expected orogen perpendicular orientation. Moreover, a pattern of divide disequilibrium in between these rivers emerges from an application of the χ mapping technique, which aims at estimating the degree of geometrical and topological disequilibrium in river networks. These geometrical patterns are compatible with simulation results using a landscape evolution model, which imposes a distributed velocity field along a domain that represents the western flank of Mount Lebanon. We further develop an analytical model that relates the river orientation to a set of kinematic parameters that represents a combined pure and simple shear strain field, and we find the parameters that best explain the present orientation of the western Lebanon rivers. Our results indicate that distributed deformation to the west of the YF takes as much as 30% of the relative Arabia-Sinai plate velocity since the late Miocene, and that the average slip rate along the YF during the same time interval has been 3.8-4.4 mm/yr. The theoretical model can further explain the inferred rotation from Paleomagnetic measurements.
Geometric models of folding at Loch Monar, Scotland, using computer simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watkinson, A. J.; Thiessen, R. L.
1988-06-01
Small-scale hand specimens were collected at Loch Monar, Scotland, one of the classic areas of fold interference patterns. From the analysis of these, the geometries of the F 1 and F 2 folds were derived. By computer simulation, the complex three-dimensional form of the fold interference shapes can then be reproduced very closely. F 2 fold shapes and motion directions derived from the small-scale structures, along with those derived from field observations of F 1 lineations deformed about F 2 folds, were then applied to an extrapolated pre-F 2 shape of the Loch Monar synform. This generated a map pattern strikingly similar to that mapped by Ramsay (1958). The geometric models provide useful information for mechanical hypotheses of the folding observed at Loch Monar. The simulation reveals an interesting problem that whereas many small-scale interference patterns reflect the map pattern of the major structure, there are exposures of interference patterns that do not. These are dome and basin (type 1) patterns found in an area where a major F 2 fold hinge crosses an F 1 fold hinge zone. By examining the deformed L 1 lineation patterns found in this area, along with the computed D 2 strain orientations and the field observations of F 2 fold geometries, we suggest that those patterns formed due to local variations in the displacement directions during the F 2 folding, perhaps due to the mechanical influence of relatively competent pegmatite veins on the small-scale F 2 folds. The very high D 2 strain has then amplified the dome and basin elements to very elongate cone and cylinder forms. This creates local type 1 patterns within a regional type 2 interference pattern structure.
Modeling concepts for communication of geometric shape data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, M. F.; Emnett, R. F.; Magedson, R. L.; Shu, H. H.
1984-01-01
ANSI5, an abbreviation for Section 5 of the American National Standard under Engineering Drawing and Related Documentation Practices (Committee Y14) on Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data (ANSI Y14.26M-1981), allows encoding of a broad range of geometric shapes to be communicated through digital channels. A brief review of its underlying concepts is presented. The intent of ANSI5 is to devise a unified set of concise language formats for transmission of data pertaining to five types of geometric entities in Euclidean 3 space (E(3)). These are regarded as point like, curve like, surface like, solid like, and a combination of these types. For the first four types, ANSI5 makes a distinction between the geometry and topology. Geometry is a description of the spatial occupancy of the entity, and topology discusses the interconnectedness of the entity's boundary components.
Deformation texture development in a model composite system
Poole, W.J.; MacEwen, S.; Kocks, U.F.; Embury, J.D.
1995-05-01
Model composites fabricated with a polycrystalline copper matrix and continuous tungsten fibres were deformed in plane strain compression with the fibres perpendicular to the loading axis and parallel to the direction of zero strain. The development of texture in the matrix due to deformation was measured using x-ray diffraction. It was observed that the macroscopic texture development in the composite was weaker than for unreinforced copper. The pattern of deformation in the matrix was quantified using experimental measurements and finite element method calculations. By carefully sectioning the composite after deformation, texture measurements were conducted for regions which exhibited characteristic types of deformation. These measurements showed that there is a variety of local textures (some weaker, some stronger than the texture in the unreinforced matrix) which when summed give the result of a weak global texture. This result is in agreement with the predictions from the computer simulations of Bolmaro et al.
Modeling and inversion of volcanic surface deformation based on Mogi model and McTigue model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srigutomo, Wahyu; Trimadona, Martakusumah, Rocky; Anwar, Hairil
2015-04-01
Surface deformation occurred in a volcano is related strongly to the magmatic deformation beneath it. In this work we calculate the surface vertical and horizontal displacements due to hydrostatic pressure change of magma cavity based on point pressure source (Mogi) model and finite spherical source (McTigue) model. We apply the Levenberg-Marquardt inversion scheme to estimate the physical parameters contributing to the deformation.
Droplet Deformation Prediction With the Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model (DDB)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vargas, Mario
2012-01-01
The Droplet Deformation and Breakup Model was used to predict deformation of droplets approaching the leading edge stagnation line of an airfoil. The quasi-steady model was solved for each position along the droplet path. A program was developed to solve the non-linear, second order, ordinary differential equation that governs the model. A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equation. Experimental slip velocities from droplet breakup studies were used as input to the model which required slip velocity along the particle path. The center of mass displacement predictions were compared to the experimental measurements from the droplet breakup studies for droplets with radii in the range of 200 to 700 mm approaching the airfoil at 50 and 90 m/sec. The model predictions were good for the displacement of the center of mass for small and medium sized droplets. For larger droplets the model predictions did not agree with the experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rincon, Marta; Marquez, Alvaro; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Herrera, Raquel; Granja Bruña, Jose Luis; Llanes, Pilar
2014-05-01
The morphology of volcanoes provides important information about edifice evolution. Volcanoes can deform by gravitational instability and intrusions. This deformation can compromise volcano structural stability, promoting flank collapse even at dormant edifices. Identification of past/active deformation processes is therefore important not only for the understanding of volcano evolution but also for volcanic hazards. Both deformation due to the flank spreading of a volcano over its weak core and due to the intrusion of a cryptodome in the volcano edifice can produce faulting and changes in the morphology of volcano flanks. These morpho-structural changes in the volcano open the possibility to identify potential deformed and unstable volcanoes using remote sensing techniques and DEMs. We have used analogue models of flank spreading and intrusion processes to make progress in the morpho-structural identification of deformation features which can provide criteria for distinguishing processes. We have geometrically and mechanically scaled two different sets of experiments using a sand-plaster mixture for volcano materials, silicone putty for weak core rocks and Golden Syrup for magma intrusions. For monitoring changes in the volcano morphology we have used a Kinect sensor (Microsoft), which provides us vertical displacements of volcano flanks several times per second with a 1 mm precision. We have synchronized the Kinect sensor with a digital camera for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of tectonic structures together with morphology. All experiments produce asymmetrical changes in volcano morphology, developing convex-concave geometries in the deformed flank. However, the spatial relationships of structures with changes in volcano flank curvature are different for the two processes, as noted by previous authors. The morphometric tools developed for analyzing volcano topography allow us to identify intrusion processes due to volcano volume increase. We have
On the impact of reducing global geophysical fluid model deformations in SLR data processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigelt, Matthias; Thaller, Daniela
2016-04-01
Mass redistributions in the atmosphere, oceans and the continental hydrology cause elastic loading deformations of the Earth's crust and thus systematically influence Earth-bound observation systems such as VLBI, GNSS or SLR. Causing non-linear station variations, these loading deformations have a direct impact on the estimated station coordinates and an indirect impact on other parameters of global space-geodetic solutions, e.g. Earth orientation parameters, geocenter coordinates, satellite orbits or troposphere parameters. Generally, the impact can be mitigated by co-parameterisation or by reducing deformations derived from global geophysical fluid models. Here, we focus on the latter approach. A number of data sets modelling the (non-tidal) loading deformations are generated by various groups. They show regionally and locally significant differences and consequently the impact on the space-geodetic solutions heavily depends on the available network geometry. We present and discuss the differences between these models and choose SLR as the speace-geodetic technique of interest in order to discuss the impact of atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological loading on the parameters of space-geodetic solutions when correcting for the global geophysical fluid models at the observation level. Special emphasis is given to a consistent usage of models for geometric and gravimetric corrections during the data processing. We quantify the impact of the different deformation models on the station coordinates and discuss the improvement in the Earth orientation parameters and the geocenter motion. We also show that a significant reduction in the RMS of the station coordinates can be achieved depending on the model of choice.
Modelling continental deformation within global plate tectonic reconstructions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, S.; Whittaker, J.; Heine, C.; Müller, P.
2010-12-01
A limitation of regional and global plate tectonic models is the way continental deformation is represented. Continental blocks are typically represented as rigid polygons - overlaps or gaps between adjacent continental blocks represent extension or compression respectively. Full-fit reconstructions of major ocean basins result in large overlaps between the conjugate continental plates, on the basis that the continental margins are highly extended compared to their pre-rift state. A fundamental challenge in generating more robust global-scale plate reconstructions is the incorporation of a more quantitative description of the kinematics within extended passive margins, based on observations. We have used the conjugate Southern Australia and Wilkes Land, Antarctica margins as a case study, and as part of this work have generated revised sediment thickness maps for these margins. These datasets are used to test different approaches for generating full-fit reconstructions in order to create a framework of methodologies that is globally applicable. One approach is to restore two conjugate continent-ocean boundaries (COBs) to their pre-rift configuration and then use the geometric fitting method of Hellinger (1981) and Royer and Chang (1991), used to generate fits of seafloor isochrons, to generate a “full-fit” Euler pole. To quantitatively restore the COBs to their palinspastic pre-rift configuration we integrate estimates of crustal thickness along small circle paths, defined by an initial estimate of the Euler stage pole describing plate motions during continental rifting. We then use the conjugate sets of restored COB’s as inputs to the geometric fitting method, treating them as isochrons, and so generate poles of rotation for the plate configuration prior to rifting. Two potential shortcomings of this methodology are that (1) the conjugate margins are treated independently, whereas in reality they were actually one continuous continental basin during rifting
Deformable models with sparsity constraints for cardiac motion analysis.
Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shaoting; Li, Kang; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2014-08-01
Deformable models integrate bottom-up information derived from image appearance cues and top-down priori knowledge of the shape. They have been widely used with success in medical image analysis. One limitation of traditional deformable models is that the information extracted from the image data may contain gross errors, which adversely affect the deformation accuracy. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a new family of deformable models that are inspired from the compressed sensing, a technique for accurate signal reconstruction by harnessing some sparseness priors. In this paper, we employ sparsity constraints to handle the outliers or gross errors, and integrate them seamlessly with deformable models. The proposed new formulation is applied to the analysis of cardiac motion using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI), where the automated tagging line tracking results are very noisy due to the poor image quality. Our new deformable models track the heart motion robustly, and the resulting strains are consistent with those calculated from manual labels. PMID:24721617
Battaglia, Maurizio; Cervelli; Peter, F.; Murray, Jessica R.
2013-01-01
This manual provides the physical and mathematical concepts for selected models used to interpret deformation measurements near active faults and volcanic centers. The emphasis is on analytical models of deformation that can be compared with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), leveling surveys, tiltmeters and strainmeters. Source models include pressurized spherical, ellipsoidal, and horizontal penny-shaped geometries in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. Vertical dikes and faults are described following the mathematical notation for rectangular dislocations in an elastic, homogeneous, flat half-space. All the analytical expressions were verified against numerical models developed by use of COMSOL Multyphics, a Finite Element Analysis software (http://www.comsol.com). In this way, typographical errors present were identified and corrected. Matlab scripts are also provided to facilitate the application of these models.
A geometric level set model for ultrasounds analysis
Sarti, A.; Malladi, R.
1999-10-01
We propose a partial differential equation (PDE) for filtering and segmentation of echocardiographic images based on a geometric-driven scheme. The method allows edge-preserving image smoothing and a semi-automatic segmentation of the heart chambers, that regularizes the shapes and improves edge fidelity especially in presence of distinct gaps in the edge map as is common in ultrasound imagery. A numerical scheme for solving the proposed PDE is borrowed from level set methods. Results on human in vivo acquired 2D, 2D+time,3D, 3D+time echocardiographic images are shown.
A fractal model for crustal deformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turcotte, D. L.
1986-01-01
It is hypothesized that crustal deformation occurs on a scale-invariant matrix of faults. For simplicity, a two-dimensional pattern of hexagons on which strike-slip faulting occurs is considered. The behavior of the system is controlled by a single parameter, the fractal dimension. Deformation occurs on all scales of faults. The fractal dimension determines the fraction of the total displacement that occurs on the first-order or primary faults. The value of the fractal dimension can be obtained from the frequency-magnitude relation for earthquakes. The results are applied to the San Andreas fault system in central California. Earthquake studies give D = 1.90. The main strand of the San Andreas fault is associated with the primary faults of the fractal system. It is predicted that the relative velocity across the main strand is 2.93 cm/yr. The remainder of the relative velocity of 5.5 cm/yr between the Pacific and North American plates occurs on higher-order faults. The predicted value is in reasonably good agreement with the value 3.39 + or - 0.29 cm/yr obtained from geological studies.
Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles
Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Kholodov, Yaroslav; Marx, Kenneth A.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.; Barsegov, Valeri
2016-01-01
The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams) modeling the particle structure. The beams’ deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F)-deformation (X) spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young’s moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams’ survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications. PMID:26821264
Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.
Kononova, Olga; Snijder, Joost; Kholodov, Yaroslav; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri
2016-01-01
The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams) modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F)-deformation (X) spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications. PMID:26821264
Effect of Shear Deformation and Continuity on Delamination Modelling with Plate Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glaessgen, E. H.; Riddell, W. T.; Raju, I. S.
1998-01-01
The effects of several critical assumptions and parameters on the computation of strain energy release rates for delamination and debond configurations modeled with plate elements have been quantified. The method of calculation is based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT), and models that model the upper and lower surface of the delamination or debond with two-dimensional (2D) plate elements rather than three-dimensional (3D) solid elements. The major advantages of the plate element modeling technique are a smaller model size and simpler geometric modeling. Specific issues that are discussed include: constraint of translational degrees of freedom, rotational degrees of freedom or both in the neighborhood of the crack tip; element order and assumed shear deformation; and continuity of material properties and section stiffness in the vicinity of the debond front, Where appropriate, the plate element analyses are compared with corresponding two-dimensional plane strain analyses.
Patient-specific liver deformation modeling for tumor tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Young-Taek; Hwang, Youngkyoo; Kim, Jung-Bae; Bang, Won-Chul; Kim, James D. K.; Kim, Chang Yeong
2013-03-01
We present a new method for patient-specific liver deformation modeling for tumor tracking. Our method focuses on deforming two main blood vessels of the liver - hepatic and portal vein - to utilize them as features. A novel centerline editing algorithm based on ellipse fitting is introduced for vessel deformation. Centerline-based blood vessel model and various interpolation methods are often used for generating a deformed model at the specific time t. However, it may introduce artifacts when models used in interpolation are not consistent. One of main reason of this inconsistency is the location of bifurcation points differs from each image. To solve this problem, our method generates a base model from one of patient's CT images. Next, we apply a rigid iterative closest point (ICP) method to the base model with centerlines of other images. Because the transformation is rigid, the length of each vessel's centerline is preserved while some part of the centerline is slightly deviated from centerlines of other images. We resolve this mismatch using our centerline editing algorithm. Finally, we interpolate three deformed models of liver, blood vessels, tumor using quadratic Bézier curves. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with the real patient data.
Performance Analysis of Tandem-L Mission for Modeling Volcanic and Seismic Deformation Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, Homa; Goel, Kanika; Parizzi, Alessandro; Sudhaus, Henriette; Adam, Nico; Eineder, Michael
2015-04-01
Although a great number of publications have focused on the application of InSAR in deformation source modeling as well as the development of different algorithms in this regard, little investigation has been dedicated to the sensitivity analysis of the InSAR in deformation source modeling. Our purpose is to address this issue by analyzing the reliability of InSAR in modeling the deformation sources due to landslides, seismic and volcanic activities, with special focus on the L band SAR measurements. The sensitivity analysis is considered for three commonly used geophysical models in case of subsidence, seismic and volcanic activities; namely, the Gaussian subsidence bowl, Okada and Mogi point source, respectively. In each of the cases, the InSAR sensitivity is analytically formulated and its performance is investigated using simulated SAR data. The investigations are carried out using stochastic error propagation approaches to infer the precision of the models' parameters as well as their mutual covariance. The limiting factors in SAR interferometry are categorized in two groups and investigated separately in sensitivity analysis; with the first dealing with the geometrical limits imposed by the side looking geometry of the SAR measurements and the second focusing on the InSAR stochastic characteristics in the L band.
Collaborative multi organ segmentation by integrating deformable and graphical models.
Uzunbaş, Mustafa Gökhan; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Shaoting; Poh, Kilian M; Li, Kang; Metaxas, Dimitris
2013-01-01
Organ segmentation is a challenging problem on which significant progress has been made. Deformable models (DM) and graphical models (GM) are two important categories of optimization based image segmentation methods. Efforts have been made on integrating two types of models into one framework. However, previous methods are not designed for segmenting multiple organs simultaneously and accurately. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multi organ segmentation approach by integrating DM and GM in a coupled optimization framework. Specifically, we show that region-based deformable models can be integrated with Markov Random Fields (MRF), such that multiple models' evolutions are driven by a maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference. It brings global and local deformation constraints into a unified framework for simultaneous segmentation of multiple objects in an image. We validate this proposed method on two challenging problems of multi organ segmentation, and the results are promising. PMID:24579136
Hippocampal Shape Modeling Based on a Progressive Template Surface Deformation and its Verification.
Kim, Jaeil; Valdes-Hernandez, Maria Del C; Royle, Natalie A; Park, Jinah
2015-06-01
Accurately recovering the hippocampal shapes against rough and noisy segmentations is as challenging as achieving good anatomical correspondence between the individual shapes. To address these issues, we propose a mesh-to-volume registration approach, characterized by a progressive model deformation. Our model implements flexible weighting scheme for model rigidity under a multi-level neighborhood for vertex connectivity. This method induces a large-to-small scale deformation of a template surface to build the pairwise correspondence by minimizing geometric distortion while robustly restoring the individuals' shape characteristics. We evaluated the proposed method's (1) accuracy and robustness in smooth surface reconstruction, (2) sensitivity in detecting significant shape differences between healthy control and disease groups (mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease), (3) robustness in constructing the anatomical correspondence between individual shape models, and (4) applicability in identifying subtle shape changes in relation to cognitive abilities in a healthy population. We compared the performance of the proposed method with other well-known methods--SPHARM-PDM, ShapeWorks and LDDMM volume registration with template injection--using various metrics of shape similarity, surface roughness, volume, and shape deformity. The experimental results showed that the proposed method generated smooth surfaces with less volume differences and better shape similarity to input volumes than others. The statistical analyses with clinical variables also showed that it was sensitive in detecting subtle shape changes of hippocampus. PMID:25532173
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkett, Michael; Clancy, Sean; Maudlin, Paul; Holian, Kathleen
2001-06-01
: Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength has been implemented in the three-dimensional CONEJO hydrodynamics code. CONEJO is an explicit, Eulerian continuum mechanics code that is utilized to predict formation processes associated with material deformation at elevated strain-rates and is a code development project under the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program. Some special features of CONEJO include a high-order advection algorithm, a material interface tracking scheme, and van Leer monotonic advection-limiting. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame using the theorem of polar decomposition to describe rigid body rotation. An Euler-Rodrigues description is used to quantify the rigid body rotations. Continuous quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure were utilized. Associative flow formulations incorporating these yield functions were solved using a geometric normal return method. Simple rectangular shear problems, "R-value" problems, and Taylor cylinder impact test data were utilized to verify and validate the implementation of the anisotropic model. A "stretching rod" problem (involving large strain and strain-rate deformation) was selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy for this deformation process. The rod necking rate and topology was compared for CONEJO simulations using several isotropic and anisotropic descriptions that utilized the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model.
Cheung, Y; Sawant, A
2014-06-15
Purpose: Most clinically-deployed strategies for respiratory motion management in lung radiotherapy (e.g., gating, tracking) use external markers that serve as surrogates for tumor motion. However, typical lung phantoms used to validate these strategies are rigid-exterior+rigid-interior or rigid-exterior+deformable-interior. Neither class adequately represents the human anatomy, which is deformable internally as well as externally. We describe the construction and experimental validation of a more realistic, externally- and internally-deformable, programmable lung phantom. Methods: The outer shell of a commercially-available lung phantom (RS- 1500, RSD Inc.) was used. The shell consists of a chest cavity with a flexible anterior surface, and embedded vertebrae, rib-cage and sternum. A 3-axis platform was programmed with sinusoidal and six patient-recorded lung tumor trajectories. The platform was used to drive a rigid foam ‘diaphragm’ that compressed/decompressed the phantom interior. Experimental characterization comprised of mapping the superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) trajectories of external and internal radioopaque markers with kV x-ray fluoroscopy and correlating these with optical surface monitoring using the in-room VisionRT system. Results: The phantom correctly reproduced the programmed motion as well as realistic effects such as hysteresis. The reproducibility of marker trajectories over multiple runs for sinusoidal as well as patient traces, as characterized by fluoroscopy, was within 0.4 mm RMS error for internal as well as external markers. The motion trajectories of internal and external markers as measured by fluoroscopy were found to be highly correlated (R=0.97). Furthermore, motion trajectories of arbitrary points on the deforming phantom surface, as recorded by the VisionRT system also showed a high correlation with respect to the fluoroscopically-measured trajectories of internal markers (R=0.92). Conclusion: We have
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svehla, Drazen; Rothacher, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs; Steigenberger, Peter; Ziebart, Marek
2014-05-01
Solar radiation pressure is the main source of errors in the precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites. All deficiencies in the modeling of Solar radiation pressure map into estimated terrestrial reference frame parameters as well as into derived gravity field coefficients and altimetry results when LEO orbits are determined using GPS. Here we introduce a new approach to geometrically map radial orbit perturbations of GNSS satellites using highly-performing clocks on board the first Galileo satellites. Only a linear model (time bias and time drift) needs to be removed from the estimated clock parameters and the remaining clock residuals map all radial orbit perturbations along the orbit. With the independent SLR measurements, we show that a Galileo clock is stable enough to map radial orbit perturbations continuously along the orbit with a negative sign in comparison to SLR residuals. Agreement between the SLR residuals and the clock residuals is at the 1 cm RMS for an orbit arc of 24 h. Looking at the clock parameters determined along one orbit revolution over a period of one year, we show that the so-called SLR bias in Galileo and GPS orbits can be explained by the translation of the determined orbit in the orbital plane towards the Sun. This orbit translation is due to thermal re-radiation and not accounting for the Sun elevation in the parameterization of the estimated Solar radiation pressure parameters. SLR ranging to GNSS satellites takes place typically at night, e.g. between 6 pm and 6 am local time when the Sun is in opposition to the satellite. Therefore, SLR observes only one part of the GNSS orbit with a negative radial orbit error that is mapped as an artificial bias in SLR observables. The Galileo clocks clearly show orbit translation for all Sun elevations: the radial orbit error is positive when the Sun is in conjuction (orbit noon) and negative when the Sun is in opposition (orbit midnight). The magnitude of this artificial negative SLR bias
Sparse deformable models with application to cardiac motion analysis.
Yu, Yang; Zhang, Shaoting; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2013-01-01
Deformable models have been widely used with success in medical image analysis. They combine bottom-up information derived from image appearance cues, with top-down shape-based constraints within a physics-based formulation. However, in many real world problems the observations extracted from the image data often contain gross errors, which adversely affect the deformation accuracy. To alleviate this issue, we introduce a new family of deformable models that are inspired from compressed sensing, a technique for efficiently reconstructing a signal based on its sparseness in some domain. In this problem, we employ sparsity to represent the outliers or gross errors, and combine it seamlessly with deformable models. The proposed new formulation is applied to the analysis of cardiac motion, using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI), where the automated tagging line tracking results are very noisy due to the poor image quality. Our new deformable models track the heart motion robustly, and the resulting strains are consistent with those calculated from manual labels. PMID:24683970
Computational model of deformable lenses actuated by dielectric elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Tongqing; Cai, Shengqiang; Wang, Huiming; Suo, Zhigang
2013-09-01
A recent design of deformable lens mimics the human eye, adjusting its focal length in response to muscle-like actuation. The artificial muscle is a membrane of a dielectric elastomer subject to a voltage. Here, we calculate the coupled and inhomogeneous deformation of the lens and the dielectric elastomer actuator by formulating a nonlinear boundary-value problem. We characterize the strain-stiffening elastomer with the Gent model and describe the voltage-induced deformation using the model of ideal dielectric elastomer. The computational predictions agree well with experimental data. We use the model to explore the space of parameters, including the prestretch of the membrane, the volume of the liquid in the lens, and the size of the dielectric elastomer actuator relative to the lens. We examine how various modes of failure limit the minimum radius of curvature.
Interpretation of postseismic deformation with a viscoelastic relaxation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahr, J.; Wyss, M.
1980-01-01
A viscoelastic relaxation model is used to interpret postseismic surface deformation for the large-magnitude Aleutian earthquakes of 1957 and 1965. The lithosphere and asthenosphere are modeled as elastic solids with an anomalous viscoelastic inclusion below the island arc volcanoes. It is found that the observed postseismic surface deformation is a corollary of the known island arc structure. A satisfactory fit to the uplift following the 1957 earthquake is found for a viscoelastic volume with 80-km width extending from a depth of 50 to 200 km.
Modeling Large-Strain, High-Rate Deformation in Metals
Lesuer, D R; Kay, G J; LeBlanc, M M
2001-07-20
The large strain deformation response of 6061-T6 and Ti-6Al-4V has been evaluated over a range in strain rates from 10{sup -4} s{sup -1} to over 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. The results have been used to critically evaluate the strength and damage components of the Johnson-Cook (JC) material model. A new model that addresses the shortcomings of the JC model was then developed and evaluated. The model is derived from the rate equations that represent deformation mechanisms active during moderate and high rate loading. Another model that accounts for the influence of void formation on yield and flow behavior of a ductile metal (the Gurson model) was also evaluated. The characteristics and predictive capabilities of these models are reviewed.
Matrix model description of baryonic deformations
Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu
2003-03-13
We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Dongmei; Wang, Fenfei; Kou, Tianyou; Chen, Shirong
2010-11-01
With the start tracker and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), SPOT5 satellite point positioning error is lower than 50m. In this paper, two terrains, mountainous areas and plain areas, are defined by terrain gradient. The ground check points are chosen on these terrains with the geometric error and the elevation error both lower than 1m. The coordinate in UTM of each point is calculated both in the Rigorous Sensor Model and the Simple Polynomial Direct Location Model, and the differences between the computed coordinates and the surveyed coordinates are discussed. According to the experiment results, the two models have their own advantage in different circumstances. In mountainous areas, the Rigorous Sensor Model can get higher location accuracy. In plain areas, the two models can locate with same accuracy, but the Simple Polynomial Direct Location Model performs better in the aspect of speed and the simplicity.
Wang, L.; Barabash, R. I.; Yang, Y.; Bieler, T. R.; Crimp, M. A.; Eisenlohr, P.; Liu, W.; Ice, G. E.
2011-03-01
Grain-level heterogeneous deformation was studied in a polycrystalline {alpha}-Ti specimen deformed by four-point bending. Dislocation slip activity in the microstructure was investigated by surface slip trace analysis. Three-dimensional-X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD) was used to investigate subsurface lattice rotations and to identify geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). The slip systems of local GNDs were analyzed by studying the streaking directions of reflections in corresponding Laue patterns. The analysis performed in one grain indicated that the subsurface GNDs were from the same slip system identified using slip trace analysis in backscattered electron images. A crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model was used to simulate deformation of the same microstructural region. The predictions of dislocation slip activity match the general aspects of the experimental observations, including the ability to simulate the activation of different slip systems in grains where multiple slip systems were activated. Prediction of local crystal rotations, however, was the least accurate aspect of the CPFE model.
Wang, Leyun; Barabash, Rozaliya; Yang, Y; Bieler, Prof T R; Crimp, Prof M A; Eisenlohr, P; Liu, W.; Ice, Gene E
2011-01-01
Grain-level heterogeneous deformation was studied in a polycrystalline {alpha}-Ti specimen deformed by four-point bending. Dislocation slip activity in the microstructure was investigated by surface slip trace analysis. Three-dimensional-X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD) was used to investigate subsurface lattice rotations and to identify geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). The slip systems of local GNDs were analyzed by studying the streaking directions of reflections in corresponding Laue patterns. The analysis performed in one grain indicated that the subsurface GNDs were from the same slip system identified using slip trace analysis in backscattered electron images. A crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model was used to simulate deformation of the same microstructural region. The predictions of dislocation slip activity match the general aspects of the experimental observations, including the ability to simulate the activation of different slip systems in grains where multiple slip systems were activated. Prediction of local crystal rotations, however, was the least accurate aspect of the CPFE model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlewska-Urban, Monika; Zombroń, Marek; Strzelecki, Tomasz
2016-03-01
The following study presents numerical calculations for establishing the impact of temperature changes on the process of distortion of bi-phase medium represented using Biot consolidation equations with Kelvin-Voigt rheological skeleton presented, on the example of thermo-consolidation of a pavement of expressway S17. We analyzed the behavior of the expressway under the action of its own weight, dynamic load caused by traffic and temperature gradient. This paper presents the application of the Biot consolidation model with the Kelvin-Voigt skeleton rheological characteristics and the influence of temperature on the deformation process is taken into account. A three-dimensional model of the medium was created describing the thermal consolidation of a porous medium. The 3D geometrical model of the area under investigation was based on data obtained from the land surveying and soil investigation of a 200 m long section of the expressway and its shoulders.
Modeling deformation behavior of the baseball.
Nicholls, Rochelle Llewelyn; Miller, Karol; Elliott, Bruce C
2005-02-01
Regulating ball response to impact is one way to control ball exit velocity in baseball. This is necessary to reduce injuries to defensive players and maintain the balance between offense and defense in the game. This paper presents a model for baseball velocity-dependent behavior. Force-displacement data were obtained using quasi-static compression tests to 50% of ball diameter (n = 70 baseballs). The force-displacement curves for a very stiff baseball (Model B) and a softer type (Model C) were characterized by a Mooney-Rivlin model using implicit finite element analysis (ANSYS software, version 6.1). Agreement between experimental and numerical results was excellent for both Model B (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 3.7e(6) Pa) and Model C (C(10) = 0, C(01) = 2.6e(6) Pa). However, this material model was not available in the ANSYS/LSDYNA explicit dynamic software (version 6.1) used to quantify the transient behavior of the ball. Therefore the modeling process was begun again using a linear viscoelastic material. G(infinity), the long-term shear modulus of the material, was determined by the same implicit FEA procedure. Explicit FEA was used to quantify the time-dependent response of each ball in terms of instantaneous shear modulus (G0) and a decay term (beta). The results were evaluated with respect to published experimental data for the ball coefficient of restitution at five velocities (13.4-40.2 ms(-1)) and were in agreement with the experimental values. The model forms the basis for future research on baseball response to impact with the bat. PMID:16131702
Target Recognition Using Neural Networks for Model Deformation Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, Richard W.; Hibler, David L.
1999-01-01
Optical measurements provide a non-invasive method for measuring deformation of wind tunnel models. Model deformation systems use targets mounted or painted on the surface of the model to identify known positions, and photogrammetric methods are used to calculate 3-D positions of the targets on the model from digital 2-D images. Under ideal conditions, the reflective targets are placed against a dark background and provide high-contrast images, aiding in target recognition. However, glints of light reflecting from the model surface, or reduced contrast caused by light source or model smoothness constraints, can compromise accurate target determination using current algorithmic methods. This paper describes a technique using a neural network and image processing technologies which increases the reliability of target recognition systems. Unlike algorithmic methods, the neural network can be trained to identify the characteristic patterns that distinguish targets from other objects of similar size and appearance and can adapt to changes in lighting and environmental conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Boben, Joseph; Kostov, Nikolay; Boswell, Cody; Buscher, Austin
2013-12-01
To increase aerodynamic performance, the geometric porosity of a ringsail spacecraft parachute canopy is sometimes increased, beyond the "rings" and "sails" with hundreds of "ring gaps" and "sail slits." This creates extra computational challenges for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling of clusters of such parachutes, beyond those created by the lightness of the canopy structure, geometric complexities of hundreds of gaps and slits, and the contact between the parachutes of the cluster. In FSI computation of parachutes with such "modified geometric porosity," the flow through the "windows" created by the removal of the panels and the wider gaps created by the removal of the sails cannot be accurately modeled with the Homogenized Modeling of Geometric Porosity (HMGP), which was introduced to deal with the hundreds of gaps and slits. The flow needs to be actually resolved. All these computational challenges need to be addressed simultaneously in FSI modeling of clusters of spacecraft parachutes with modified geometric porosity. The core numerical technology is the Stabilized Space-Time FSI (SSTFSI) technique, and the contact between the parachutes is handled with the Surface-Edge-Node Contact Tracking (SENCT) technique. In the computations reported here, in addition to the SSTFSI and SENCT techniques and HMGP, we use the special techniques we have developed for removing the numerical spinning component of the parachute motion and for restoring the mesh integrity without a remesh. We present results for 2- and 3-parachute clusters with two different payload models.
Geometrical Standard Model Enhancements to the Standard Model of Particle Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Ken; Duvernois, Michael
2011-10-01
The Standard Model (SM) is the triumph of our age. As experimentation at the LHC tracks particles for the Higgs phenomena, theoreticians and experimentalist struggle to close in on a cohesive theory. Both suffer greatly as expectation waivers those who seek to move beyond the SM and those who cannot do without. When it seems like there are no more good ideas enter Rate Change Graph Technology (RCGT). From the science of the rate change graph, a Geometrical Standard Model (GSM) is available for comprehensive modeling, giving rich new sources of data and pathways to those ultimate answers we punish ourselves to achieve. As a new addition to science, GSM is a tool that provides a structured discovery and analysis environment. By eliminating value and size, RCGT operates with the rules of RCGT mechanics creating solutions derived from geometry. The GSM rate change graph could be the ultimate validation of the Standard Model yet. In its own right, GSM is created from geometrical intersections and comes with RCGT mechanics, yet parallels the SM to offer critical enhancements. The Higgs Objects along with a host of new objects are introduced to the SM and their positions revealed in this proposed modification to the SM.
Human supervisory approach to modeling industrial scenes using geometric primitives
Luck, J.P.; Little, C.Q.; Roberts, R.S.
1997-11-19
A three-dimensional world model is crucial for many robotic tasks. Modeling techniques tend to be either fully manual or autonomous. Manual methods are extremely time consuming but also highly accurate and flexible. Autonomous techniques are fast but inflexible and, with real-world data, often inaccurate. The method presented in this paper combines the two, yielding a highly efficient, flexible, and accurate mapping tool. The segmentation and modeling algorithms that compose the method are specifically designed for industrial environments, and are described in detail. A mapping system based on these algorithms has been designed. It enables a human supervisor to quickly construct a fully defined world model from unfiltered and unsegmented real-world range imagery. Examples of how industrial scenes are modeled with the mapping system are provided.
Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique for Wind Tunnel Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrows, Danny A.
2006-01-01
Videogrammetric measurement technique developments at NASA Langley were driven largely by the need to quantify model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This paper summarizes recent wind tunnel applications and issues at the NTF and other NASA Langley facilities including the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel, 8-Ft high Temperature Tunnel, and the 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. In addition, several adaptations of wind tunnel techniques to non-wind tunnel applications are summarized. These applications include wing deformation measurements on vehicles in flight, determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements, measurements on ultra-lightweight and inflatable space structures, and the use of an object-to-image plane scaling technique to support NASA s Space Exploration program.
Deformable part models for object detection in medical images
2014-01-01
Background Object detection in 3-D medical images is often necessary for constraining a segmentation or registration task. It may be a task in its own right as well, when instances of a structure, e.g. the lymph nodes, are searched. Problems from occlusion, illumination and projection do not arise, making the problem simpler than object detection in photographies. However, objects of interest are often not well contrasted against the background. Influence from noise and other artifacts is much stronger and shape and appearance may vary substantially within a class. Methods Deformable models capture the characteristic shape of an anatomic object and use constrained deformation for hypothesing object boundaries in image regions of low or non-existing contrast. Learning these constraints requires a large sample data base. We show that training may be replaced by readily available user knowledge defining a prototypical deformable part model. If structures have a strong part-relationship, or if they may be found based on spatially related guiding structures, or if the deformation is rather restricted, the supporting data information suffices for solving the detection task. We use a finite element model to represent anatomic variation by elastic deformation. Complex shape variation may be represented by a hierarchical model with simpler part variation. The hierarchy may be represented explicitly as a hierarchy of sub-shapes, or implicitly by a single integrated model. Data support and model deformation of the complete model can be represented by an energy term, serving as quality-of-fit function for object detection. Results The model was applied to detection and segmentation tasks in various medical applications in 2- and 3-D scenes. It has been shown that model fitting and object detection can be carried out efficiently by a combination of a local and global search strategy using models that are parameterized for the different tasks. Conclusions A part-based elastic
A New Model for Episodic Caldera Deformation at Yellowstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cervelli, P. F.; Gervais, S. M.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Wicks, C. W.
2012-12-01
For nearly 90 years, geodetic measurements at Yellowstone have shown recurring episodes of uplift and subsidence confined mostly to the caldera but also extending into the Norris Geyser Basin. The most recent such episode began in late 2004 with the onset of caldera-wide uplift that continued for about 5 years before switching to subsidence in late 2009. The physical mechanism driving the deformation is unknown, though several researchers have proposed kinematic models that can reproduce the observed data. The "Lake" earthquake swarm, which occurred in the northern part of Yellowstone Lake from December 2008 through January 2009, provides a new constraint on caldera deformation models. The timing of the swarm correlates with an abrupt change in local deformation, which preceded the gradual transition from uplift to subsidence in late 2009. Thus, caldera deformation, at least in the vicinity of Yellowstone Lake, consists of two (or more) distinct parts, implying the existence of two (or more) distinct deformation sources. This fresh information leads us to propose a new kinematic model for deformation at Yellowstone, which we develop from the last 15 years of continuous GPS and InSAR data. Our new model consists of three deformation sources: (1) a cauldron block source that is subject to a constant displacement at its base while its surrounding ring fault remains locked; (2) a pressurizing (or depressurizing) spherical cavity near the Norris Geyser Basin, which is known to deform separately from the caldera; and (3) a pressurizing (or depressurizing) spherical cavity at the Sour Creek Dome, which we infer from the abrupt change in deformation rate after the Lake Swarm. We use the GPS and InSAR data from the period of strongest signal, summer 2005 through summer 2007, to optimize the geometry of the three sources: the locations and depths of the spherical cavity, and the perimeter of the cauldron block. We then, while holding their geometry fixed, estimate the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raziperchikolaee, S.; Alvarado, V.; Yin, S.
2014-09-01
Studying rock joint deformation including both slippage and opening mechanisms provides an opportunity to investigate the connection between the permeability and seismic source mechanisms. A microscale fluid flow-geomechanics-seismicity model was built to evaluate the transport response and failure mechanism of microcracks developed along a joint in Berea sandstone samples during deformation. The modeling method considers comprehensive grain-cement interactions. Fluid flow behavior is obtained through a realistic network model of the pore space in the compacted assembly. The geometric description of the complex pore structure is characterized to predict permeability of the rock sample as a function of rock deformation by using a dynamic pore network model. As a result of microcracks development, forces and displacements in grains involved in bond breakage are measured to determine seismic moment tensor. Shear and nonshear displacements are applied to the joint samples to investigate their effects on permeability evolution and failure mechanism of microcracks during joint deformation. In addition, the effect of joint roughness is analyzed by performing numerical compression tests. We also investigate how confining pressure affects volumetric deformation leading to opening or closure of developed microcracks and permeability changes of samples with joints.
Finite element modelling of frictional instability between deformable rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, H. L.; Makinouchi, A.
2003-10-01
Earthquakes are recognized as resulting from a stick-slip frictional instability along faults. Based on the node-to-point contact element strategy (an arbitrarily shaped contact element strategy applied with the static-explicit algorithm for modelling non-linear frictional contact problems proposed by authors), a finite element code for modelling the 3-D non-linear friction contact between deformable bodies has been developed and extended here to analyse the non-linear stick-slip frictional instability between deformable rocks with a rate- and state-dependent friction law. A typical fault bend model is taken as an application example to be analysed here. The variations of the normal contact force, the frictional force, the transition of stick-slip instable state and the related relative slip velocity along the fault between the deformable rocks and the stress evolution in the total bodies during the different stages are investigated, respectively. The calculated results demonstrate the usefulness of this code for simulating the non-linear frictional instability between deformable rocks. Copyright
Analysis on sheet cyclic plastic deformation using mixed hardening model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qun; Jin, Miao; Yuxin, Zhu
2013-05-01
Treating the cyclic deformation problem of sheet flowing through drawbead as the object of the research, using HILL anisotropy yield criterion and mixed hardening model, the cyclic plastic deformation mechanism of sheet was studied, the deformation characteristics of sheet subjected to cyclic loads were revealed, and the influence of Bauschinger effect on stress-strain circulating relationship and the influence of bending neutral layer migration on the stress of sheet's intermediate integral point were analyzed as well. The effectiveness of the model was verified by experiments. The results of analysis were showed that the stress values influenced by Bauschinger effect were different at the yield point of reverse loading and the point of unloading during the cyclic deformation. The stress rate at the yield point of reverse loading and the point of unloading in different loading branches was also different. The stress-strain circulating relationship in different loading branches can be approximately treated as bilinear. The tangent modulus of each loading branch showed a significant downward trend as the times of the reverse loading increased. The tangent modulus calculated by the mixed hardening model after the second loading branch reduced to less than 21% of the first loading tangent modulus. Effected by the neutral layer migration, the stress-strain curve of integral point of sheet's intermediate layer showed alternating transition phenomenon of the tensile stress and compressive stress.
In-room breathing motion estimation from limited projection views using a sliding deformation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delmon, V.; Vandemeulebroucke, J.; Pinho, R.; Vila Oliva, M.; Sarrut, D.; Rit, S.
2014-03-01
Purpose: To estimate in-room breathing motion from a limited number of 2D cone-beam (CB) projection images by registering them to a phase of the 4D planning CT. Methods: Breathing motion was modelled using a piecewise continuous B-spline representation [1], allowing to preserve the sliding along the thoracic wall while limiting the degrees of freedom. The deformed target 3D image was subsequently used to generate Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR). The Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) between the measured projection images and the DRR was computed in the 2D projection space. However, the partial derivatives of the NCC relative to the transform parameters were backprojected into the 3D space, avoiding the projection of the transform Jacobian matrix which is computationally intractable [2]. Results: The method was quantitatively evaluated on 16 lung cancer patients. 40 CB projection images were simulated using the end-exhale phase of the 4D planning CT and the geometric parameters of a clinical CB protocol. The end-inhale phase was deformed to match these simulated projections. The Target Registration Error (TRE) decreased from 8.8 mm to 2.0 mm while the TRE obtained from the 3D/3D registration of the reconstructed CBCT was significantly worse (2.6 mm), due to view aliasing artefacts. We also provide the motion compensated image reconstructed from a real CB acquisition showing the quality improvement brought by the in-room deformation model compared to the planning motion model. Conclusions: We have developed a 2D/3D deformable registration algorithm that enables in-room breathing motion estimation from cone-beam projection images.
Models for determining the geometrical properties of halo coronal mass ejections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, X.; Liu, Y.
2005-12-01
To this day, the prediction of space weather effects near the Earth suffer from a fundamental problem: the necessary condition for determining whether or not and when a part of the huge interplanetary counterpart (ICME) of frontside halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is able to hit the Earth and generate goemagnetic storms, i.e., the real angular width, the propagation direction and speed of the CMEs, cannot be measured directly because of the unfavorable geometry. To inverse these geometrical and kinematical properties we have recently developed a few geometrical models, such as the cone model, the ice cream cone model, and the spherical cone model. The inversing solution of the cone model for the 12 may 1997 halo CME has been used as an input to the ENLIL model (a 3D MHD solar wind code) and successfully predicted the ICME near the Earth (Zhao, Plukett & Liu, 2002; Odstrcil, Riley & Zhao, 2004). After briefly describing the geometrical models this presentation will discuss: 1. What kind of halo CMEs can be inversed? 2. How to select the geometrical models given a specific halo CME? 3. Whether or not the inversing solution is unique?
Sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in additive manufacturing medical models.
Pinto, Jose Miguel; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge; Vargas, Alex; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian
2015-03-01
Additive manufacturing (AM) models are used in medical applications for surgical planning, prosthesis design and teaching. For these applications, the accuracy of the AM models is essential. Unfortunately, this accuracy is compromised due to errors introduced by each of the building steps: image acquisition, segmentation, triangulation, printing and infiltration. However, the contribution of each step to the final error remains unclear. We performed a sensitivity analysis comparing errors obtained from a reference with those obtained modifying parameters of each building step. Our analysis considered global indexes to evaluate the overall error, and local indexes to show how this error is distributed along the surface of the AM models. Our results show that the standard building process tends to overestimate the AM models, i.e. models are larger than the original structures. They also show that the triangulation resolution and the segmentation threshold are critical factors, and that the errors are concentrated at regions with high curvatures. Errors could be reduced choosing better triangulation and printing resolutions, but there is an important need for modifying some of the standard building processes, particularly the segmentation algorithms. PMID:25649961
Reappraisal of a model for deformed special relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João
2016-06-01
We revisit one of the earliest proposals for deformed dispersion relations in the light of recent results on dynamical dimensional reduction and production of cosmological fluctuations. Depending on the specification of the measure of integration and the addition rule in momentum space the model may be completed so as to merely deform Lorentz invariance, or so as to introduce a preferred frame. Models which violate Lorentz invariance have a negative UV asymptotic dimension and a very red spectrum of quantum vacuum fluctuations. Instead, models which preserve frame independence can exhibit running to a UV dimension of two, and a scale-invariant spectrum of fluctuations. The bispectrum of the fluctuations is another point of divergence between the two casings proposed here for the original model.
Evolution of Geometric Sensitivity Derivatives from Computer Aided Design Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, William T.; Lazzara, David; Haimes, Robert
2010-01-01
The generation of design parameter sensitivity derivatives is required for gradient-based optimization. Such sensitivity derivatives are elusive at best when working with geometry defined within the solid modeling context of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. Solid modeling CAD systems are often proprietary and always complex, thereby necessitating ad hoc procedures to infer parameter sensitivity. A new perspective is presented that makes direct use of the hierarchical associativity of CAD features to trace their evolution and thereby track design parameter sensitivity. In contrast to ad hoc methods, this method provides a more concise procedure following the model design intent and determining the sensitivity of CAD geometry directly to its respective defining parameters.
Fairing geometric modeling based on 4-point interpolatory subdivision scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Xiaonan; Liu, Ning; Gao, Chengying
2004-02-01
A 4-point interpolatory subdivision scheme with a tension parameter is analyzed, and the local property of 4-point interpolatory subdivision scheme and a kind of G1-continuity sufficient condition between surfaces as well as between curves are discussed. An efficient method of generating natural boundary points of 4-point interpolatory curve is presented, as well as a surface modeling method with the entire fairing property by combining energy optimization with subdivision scheme. The method has been applied in modeling 3D virtual garment surface.
Probabilistic Cross-matching of Radio Catalogs with Geometric Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, D.; Budavári, T.
2014-05-01
Cross-matching radio is different from that in the optical. Radio sources can have multiple corresponding detections, the core and its lobes, which makes identification and cross-identification to other catalogs much more difficult. Traditionally, these cases have been handled manually, with researchers looking at the possible candidates; this will not be possible for the upcoming radio ultimately leading to the Square Kilometer Array. We present a probabilistic method that can automatically associate radio sources by explicitly modeling their morphology. Our preliminary results based on a simple straight-line model seem to be on par with the manual associations.
Anatomically Based Geometric Modelling Using Medical Image Data: Methods and Programs
Wang, Monan; Sun, Lei; Liu, Yuming
2015-01-01
The human organs geometric modeling software which can achieve two-dimensional medical image browsing, pretreatment and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction in this paper is designed. This software implements medical image segmentation using the method combining the region growing and the interactive segmentation. Also, the MC surface reconstruction algorithm is utilized to achieve the three-dimensional reconstruction. Furthermore, the software is projected by Visual C++. And then, to legitimately express the structural information of skeleton and muscle, the software is employed to obtain the geometric model using the segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction for data of skeleton and muscle medical images of the object of study. PMID:26089991
Geometric phases and quantum correlations dynamics in spin-boson model
Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo
2014-01-28
We explore the dynamics of spin-boson model for the Ohmic bath by employing the master equation approach and obtain an explicit expression of reduced density matrix. We also calculate the geometric phases of the spin-boson model by making use of the analytical results and discuss how the dissipative bosonic environment affects geometric phases. Furthermore, we investigate the dynamics of quantum discord and entanglement of two qubits each locally interacting with its own independent bosonic environments. It is found that the decay properties of quantum discord and entanglement are sensitive to the choice of initial state's parameter and coupling strength between system and bath.
Quantitative comparisons of numerical models of brittle deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buiter, S.
2009-04-01
Numerical modelling of brittle deformation in the uppermost crust can be challenging owing to the requirement of an accurate pressure calculation, the ability to achieve post-yield deformation and localisation, and the choice of rheology (plasticity law). One way to approach these issues is to conduct model comparisons that can evaluate the effects of different implementations of brittle behaviour in crustal deformation models. We present a comparison of three brittle shortening experiments for fourteen different numerical codes, which use finite element, finite difference, boundary element and distinct element techniques. Our aim is to constrain and quantify the variability among models in order to improve our understanding of causes leading to differences between model results. Our first experiment of translation of a stable sand-like wedge serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions (e.g., taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work). The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge in a sandbox-like setup which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. All models accommodate shortening by in-sequence formation of forward shear zones. We analyse the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in detail as previous comparisons have shown that these can be highly variable in numerical and analogue models of crustal shortening and extension. We find that an accurate implementation of boundary friction is important for our models. Our results are encouraging in the overall agreement in their dynamic evolution, but show at the same time the effort that is needed to understand shear zone evolution. GeoMod2008 Team: Markus Albertz, Michele Cooke, Susan Ellis, Taras Gerya, Luke Hodkinson, Kristin Hughes, Katrin Huhn, Boris Kaus, Walter Landry, Bertrand Maillot, Christophe Pascal, Anton Popov, Guido Schreurs, Christopher Beaumont, Tony Crook, Mario Del Castello and Yves Leroy
A geometric modeler based on a dual-geometry representation polyhedra and rational b-splines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klosterman, A. L.
1984-01-01
For speed and data base reasons, solid geometric modeling of large complex practical systems is usually approximated by a polyhedra representation. Precise parametric surface and implicit algebraic modelers are available but it is not yet practical to model the same level of system complexity with these precise modelers. In response to this contrast the GEOMOD geometric modeling system was built so that a polyhedra abstraction of the geometry would be available for interactive modeling without losing the precise definition of the geometry. Part of the reason that polyhedra modelers are effective is that all bounded surfaces can be represented in a single canonical format (i.e., sets of planar polygons). This permits a very simple and compact data structure. Nonuniform rational B-splines are currently the best representation to describe a very large class of geometry precisely with one canonical format. The specific capabilities of the modeler are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ukass, J.; Saks, T.; Popovs, K.
2012-04-01
In present study we attempt to verify the 3D geological model, which has been built on a variety of heterogeneous data sources for the Baltic Basin (BB). Data describing the displacement along the faults and associated thickness changes of the syntectonic strata is sparse and reflects only regional relevance (Brangulis & Konsins 2002). Borehole logs provide most reliable and comprehensive data source for reconstructing the structural geology of the Latvia sedimentary cover as sufficient quality seismic data is available only for the local scale structures. Based on the thickness analysis of the boreholes rough resolution 3D geological tectonic block model was developed to deconstruct the geological structure of the Latvia Caledonian sedimentary sequence. MOSYS modeling system was used for the geological structure modeling, developed within the PUMA project (Sennikovs et al, 2011). Algorithmic genetic approach was applied to interpolate data of well logs as strata volume and sequentially to reconstruct the post-deformation situation. This approach allows modifying model construction in any step and all processes are fully documented and are repeatable. Geometrical model consists of 33 tectonic blocks bordered by the faults which were distributed by interpreting displacement amount of the blocks along the faults providing an opportunity to characterize common tectonic evolution. The study results indicate insignificant thickness change of the Ordovician and Silurian strata along the faults suggesting that major slip event along the faults occurred during the late Silurian and early Devonian, and some secondary fault reactivation during the middle Devonian Narva time. Uplift of the territory during this time is confirmed by the presence of the regional unconformity. Constructed rough resolution 3D geometrical model suggests shortening along the horizontal axis approximately 10 - 20% but most of the shortening has occurred in the central-west part of Latvia where it
A deformable model for tracking tumors across consecutive imaging studies
Nosher, John L.; Schneider, M. D. Benjamin; Foran, David J.
2009-01-01
Objective A deformable registration technique was developed and evaluated to track and quantify tumor response to radiofrequency ablation for patients with liver malignancies. Materials and methods The method uses the combined power of global and local alignment of pre- and post-treatment computed tomography image data sets. The strategy of the algorithm is to infer volumetric deformation based upon surface displacements using a linearly elastic finite element model (FEM). Using this framework, the major challenge for tracking tumor location is not the tissue mechanical properties for FEM modeling but rather the evaluation of boundary conditions. Three different methods were systematically investigated to automatically determine the boundary conditions defined by the correspondences on liver surfaces. Results Using both 2D synthetic phantoms and imaged 3D beef liver data we performed gold standard registration while measuring the accuracy of non-rigid deformation. The fact that the algorithms could support mean displacement error of tumor deformation up to 2 mm indicates that this technique may serve as a useful tool for surgical interventions. The method was further demonstrated and evaluated using consecutive imaging studies for three liver cancer patients. Conclusion The FEM-based surface registration technique provides accurate tracking and monitoring of tumor and surrounding tissue during the course of treatment and follow-up. PMID:19774096
Three-Dimensional Geometric Modeling for Anatomical Structures
Shani, Uri
1981-01-01
Computer analysis of images of anatomical structures can benefit from the use of a priori knowledge about the inspected domain. Even though the anatomy structure of humans is variable, it is far more organized than other domains which are commonly used for image understanding (e.g., outdoor scenes or even images of a boxes-and-cylinders world). This paper discusses an organization scheme for modeling the 3-D structure of the abdominal anatomy and its use for analyzing 3-D CAT (Computed Axial Tomography) scans of the abdomen. The discussion is divided into two major portions of the knowledge organization: a relational database for gross anatomy and a 3-D shape model for individual organs using generalized cylinders. The paper also includes an example of 3-D image analysis for the detection of the kidneys' 3-D shape from abdominal CAT scans.
Phenomenological model for transient deformation based on state variables
Jackson, M S; Cho, C W; Alexopoulos, P; Mughrabi, H; Li, C Y
1980-01-01
The state variable theory of Hart, while providing a unified description of plasticity-dominated deformation, exhibits deficiencies when it is applied to transient deformation phenomena at stresses below yield. It appears that the description of stored anelastic strain is oversimplified. Consideration of a simple physical picture based on continuum dislocation pileups suggests that the neglect of weak barriers to dislocation motion is the source of these inadequacies. An appropriately modified description incorporating such barriers then allows the construction of a macroscopic model including transient effects. Although the flow relations for the microplastic element required in the new theory are not known, tentative assignments may be made for such functions. The model then exhibits qualitatively correct behavior when tensile, loading-unloading, reverse loading, and load relaxation tests are simulated. Experimental procedures are described for determining the unknown parameters and functions in the new model.
Dynamic deformable models for 3D MRI heart segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhukov, Leonid; Bao, Zhaosheng; Gusikov, Igor; Wood, John; Breen, David E.
2002-05-01
Automated or semiautomated segmentation of medical images decreases interstudy variation, observer bias, and postprocessing time as well as providing clincally-relevant quantitative data. In this paper we present a new dynamic deformable modeling approach to 3D segmentation. It utilizes recently developed dynamic remeshing techniques and curvature estimation methods to produce high-quality meshes. The approach has been implemented in an interactive environment that allows a user to specify an initial model and identify key features in the data. These features act as hard constraints that the model must not pass through as it deforms. We have employed the method to perform semi-automatic segmentation of heart structures from cine MRI data.
Country neighborhood network on territory and its geometrical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xuan, Qi; Wu, Tie-Jun
2009-04-01
The country neighborhood network, where nodes represent countries and two nodes are considered linked if the corresponding countries are neighbors on territory, is created and its giant component, the Asia, Europe, and Africa (AEA) cluster, is carefully studied in this paper. It is found that, as common, the degree distribution and the clustering function of the AEA cluster are both compatible with scale-free property, besides, the AEA cluster presents a little disassortativity, and its near power-law country area-degree relationship with the exponent close to 1.7 may imply a fractal dimension close to 1.2 of country borderlines in the AEA continent. It is also revealed that the average difference of population density between two countries obeys an approximately increasing function of the shortest path length between them, which may suggest a gradual consensus of population density in the AEA cluster. A simple unity rule is then adopted to model the AEA cluster and such model explains the AEA cluster very well in most aspects, e.g., power-law domain area distribution and fractal domain borderlines, etc., except that the network derived by the model has stronger disassortativity, which may be explained by the fact that, in the evolution history of countries, unbalanced neighbors are more likely to be united as one than balanced neighbors. Additionally, the network evolving process can be divided into three periods, defined as formation period, growth period, and combination period, and there are indications that the AEA cluster is in its third period.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, Fabio; Romero, Eduardo; Dréan, Gaël; Simon, Antoine; Haigron, Pascal; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Acosta, Oscar
2014-03-01
Accurate segmentation of the prostate and organs at risk in computed tomography (CT) images is a crucial step for radiotherapy planning. Manual segmentation, as performed nowadays, is a time consuming process and prone to errors due to the a high intra- and inter-expert variability. This paper introduces a new automatic method for prostate, rectum and bladder segmentation in planning CT using a geometrical shape model under a Bayesian framework. A set of prior organ shapes are first built by applying principal component analysis to a population of manually delineated CT images. Then, for a given individual, the most similar shape is obtained by mapping a set of multi-scale edge observations to the space of organs with a customized likelihood function. Finally, the selected shape is locally deformed to adjust the edges of each organ. Experiments were performed with real data from a population of 116 patients treated for prostate cancer. The data set was split in training and test groups, with 30 and 86 patients, respectively. Results show that the method produces competitive segmentations w.r.t standard methods (averaged dice = 0.91 for prostate, 0.94 for bladder, 0.89 for rectum) and outperforms the majority-vote multi-atlas approaches (using rigid registration, free-form deformation and the demons algorithm).
Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.
Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)
2006-12-01
Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the
A complete VLBI delay model for deforming radio telescopes: the Effelsberg case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artz, T.; Springer, A.; Nothnagel, A.
2014-12-01
Deformations of radio telescopes used in geodetic and astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations belong to the class of systematic error sources which require correction in data analysis. In this paper we present a model for all path length variations in the geometrical optics of radio telescopes which are due to gravitational deformation. The Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Bonn, Germany, has been surveyed by various terrestrial methods. Thus, all necessary information that is needed to model the path length variations is available. Additionally, a ray tracing program has been developed which uses as input the parameters of the measured deformations to produce an independent check of the theoretical model. In this program as well as in the theoretical model, the illumination function plays an important role because it serves as the weighting function for the individual path lengths depending on the distance from the optical axis. For the Effelsberg telescope, the biggest contribution to the total path length variations is the bending of the main beam located along the elevation axis which partly carries the weight of the paraboloid at its vertex. The difference in total path length is almost 100 mm when comparing observations at 90 and at 0 elevation angle. The impact of the path length corrections is validated in a global VLBI analysis. The application of the correction model leads to a change in the vertical position of mm. This is more than the maximum path length, but the effect can be explained by the shape of the correction function.
Resurgence in η-deformed Principal Chiral Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demulder, Saskia; Dorigoni, Daniele; Thompson, Daniel C.
2016-07-01
We study the SU(2) Principal Chiral Model (PCM) in the presence of an integrable η-deformation. We put the theory on {R}× {S}^1 with twisted boundary conditions and then reduce the circle to obtain an effective quantum mechanics associated with the Whittaker-Hill equation. Using resurgent analysis we study the large order behaviour of perturbation theory and recover the fracton events responsible for IR renormalons. The fractons are modified from the standard PCM due to the presence of this η-deformation but they are still the constituents of uniton-like solutions in the deformed quantum field theory. We also find novel SL(2,{C}) saddles, thus strengthening the conjecture that the semi-classical expansion of the path integral gives rise to a resurgent transseries once written as a sum over Lefschetz thimbles living in a complexification of the field space. We conclude by connecting our quantum mechanics to a massive deformation of the {N} = 2 4-d gauge theory with gauge group SU(2) and N f = 2.
Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galland, Olivier
2012-02-01
Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this paper, I present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in the analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.
Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galland, O.
2012-04-01
Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this contribution, I will present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored in 3D. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vile, Douglas J.
In radiation therapy, interfraction organ motion introduces a level of geometric uncertainty into the planning process. Plans, which are typically based upon a single instance of anatomy, must be robust against daily anatomical variations. For this problem, a model of the magnitude, direction, and likelihood of deformation is useful. In this thesis, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to statistically model the 3D organ motion for 19 prostate cancer patients, each with 8-13 fractional computed tomography (CT) images. Deformable image registration and the resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) are used to quantify the interfraction systematic and random motion. By applying the PCA technique to the random DVFs, principal modes of random tissue deformation were determined for each patient, and a method for sampling synthetic random DVFs was developed. The PCA model was then extended to describe the principal modes of systematic and random organ motion for the population of patients. A leave-one-out study tested both the systematic and random motion model's ability to represent PCA training set DVFs. The random and systematic DVF PCA models allowed the reconstruction of these data with absolute mean errors between 0.5-0.9 mm and 1-2 mm, respectively. To the best of the author's knowledge, this study is the first successful effort to build a fully 3D statistical PCA model of systematic tissue deformation in a population of patients. By sampling synthetic systematic and random errors, organ occupancy maps were created for bony and prostate-centroid patient setup processes. By thresholding these maps, PCA-based planning target volume (PTV) was created and tested against conventional margin recipes (van Herk for bony alignment and 5 mm fixed [3 mm posterior] margin for centroid alignment) in a virtual clinical trial for low-risk prostate cancer. Deformably accumulated delivered dose served as a surrogate for clinical outcome. For the bony landmark setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Morishita, Yoshihiro
2014-11-01
In order to describe two-dimensionally packed cells in epithelial tissues both mathematically and physically, there have been developed several sorts of geometrical models, such as the vertex model, the finite element model, the cell-centered model, and the cellular Potts model. So far, in any case, pressures have not neatly been dealt with and the curvatures of the cell boundaries have been even omitted through their approximations. We focus on these quantities and formulate them in the vertex model. Thus, a model with the curvatures is constructed, and its algorithm for simulation is provided. The possible extensions and applications of this model are also discussed.
Dislocation models of interseismic deformation in the western United States
Pollitz, F.F.; McCrory, P.; Svarc, J.; Murray, J.
2008-01-01
The GPS-derived crustal velocity field of the western United States is used to construct dislocation models in a viscoelastic medium of interseismic crustal deformation. The interseismic velocity field is constrained by 1052 GPS velocity vectors spanning the ???2500-km-long plate boundary zone adjacent to the San Andreas fault and Cascadia subduction zone and extending ???1000 km into the plate interior. The GPS data set is compiled from U.S. Geological Survey campaign data, Plate Boundary Observatory data, and the Western U.S. Cordillera velocity field of Bennett et al. (1999). In the context of viscoelastic cycle models of postearthquake deformation, the interseismic velocity field is modeled with a combination of earthquake sources on ???100 known faults plus broadly distributed sources. Models that best explain the observed interseismic velocity field include the contributions of viscoelastic relaxation from faulting near the major plate margins, viscoelastic relaxation from distributed faulting in the plate interior, as well as lateral variations in depth-averaged rigidity in the elastic lithosphere. Resulting rigidity variations are consistent with reduced effective elastic plate thickness in a zone a few tens of kilometers wide surrounding the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. Primary deformation characteristics are captured along the entire SAF system, Eastern California Shear Zone, Walker Lane, the Mendocino triple junction, the Cascadia margin, and the plate interior up to ???1000 km from the major plate boundaries.