MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming.
Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua
2014-02-01
This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates. PMID:24634545
MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming
Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua
2013-01-01
This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates. PMID:24634545
A geometrical perspective for the bargaining problem.
Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong
2010-01-01
A new treatment to determine the Pareto-optimal outcome for a non-zero-sum game is presented. An equilibrium point for any game is defined here as a set of strategy choices for the players, such that no change in the choice of any single player will increase the overall payoff of all the players. Determining equilibrium for multi-player games is a complex problem. An intuitive conceptual tool for reducing the complexity, via the idea of spatially representing strategy options in the bargaining problem is proposed. Based on this geometry, an equilibrium condition is established such that the product of their gains over what each receives is maximal. The geometrical analysis of a cooperative bargaining game provides an example for solving multi-player and non-zero-sum games efficiently. PMID:20436675
The Pentagon Problem: Geometric Reasoning with Technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zbiek, Rose Mary
1996-01-01
Presents an activity, involving pentagons and using a figure manipulator such as The Geometer's Sketchpad, that requires students to reason geometrically without making unsubstantiated assumptions based on diagrams. (MKR)
Topological rewriting and the geometrization of programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giavitto, Jean-Louis; Spicher, Antoine
2008-07-01
Spatial computing is an emerging field that recognizes the importance of explicitly handling spatial relationships at three levels: computer architectures, programming languages and applications. In this context, we present MGS, an experimental programming language where data structures are fields on abstract spaces. In MGS, fields are transformed using rules. We show that this approach is able to unify, at least for programming purposes, several computational models like Lindenmayer systems and cellular automata. The MGS notions of topological collection and transformation are formalized using concepts developed in algebraic topology. We propose to use transformations in order to implement a discrete version of some differential operators. These transformations satisfy a Stokes-like theorem. This result constitutes a geometric view of programming where data are handled like fields in physics. The relevance of this approach for the design of autonomic software systems is discussed in the conclusion.
Geometrical aspects on the dark matter problem
Capistrano, A.J.S.; Cabral, L.A.
2014-09-15
In the present paper we apply Nash’s theory of perturbative geometry to the study of dark matter gravity in a higher-dimensional space–time. It is shown that the dark matter gravitational perturbations at local scale can be explained by the extrinsic curvature of the standard cosmology. In order to test our model, we use a spherically symmetric metric embedded in a five-dimensional bulk. As a result, considering a sample of 10 low surface brightness and 6 high surface brightness galaxies, we find a very good agreement with the observed rotation curves of smooth hybrid alpha-HI measurements. - Highlights: • The metric perturbation and the embedding lead naturally to a “brane-world”-like higher dimensional structure. • Nash’s theorem as a cornerstone of the formation of geometrical structures. • The dark matter gravitational perturbations at local scale can be explained by the extrinsic curvature. • A good agreement was found with the observed rotation curves of smooth hybrid alpha-HI measurements.
Bounding solutions of geometrically nonlinear viscoelastic problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stubstad, J. M.; Simitses, G. J.
1986-01-01
Integral transform techniques, such as the Laplace transform, provide simple and direct methods for solving viscoelastic problems formulated within a context of linear material response and using linear measures for deformation. Application of the transform operator reduces the governing linear integro-differential equations to a set of algebraic relations between the transforms of the unknown functions, the viscoelastic operators, and the initial and boundary conditions. Inversion either directly or through the use of the appropriate convolution theorem, provides the time domain response once the unknown functions have been expressed in terms of sums, products or ratios of known transforms. When exact inversion is not possible approximate techniques may provide accurate results. The overall problem becomes substantially more complex when nonlinear effects must be included. Situations where a linear material constitutive law can still be productively employed but where the magnitude of the resulting time dependent deformations warrants the use of a nonlinear kinematic analysis are considered. The governing equations will be nonlinear integro-differential equations for this class of problems. Thus traditional as well as approximate techniques, such as cited above, cannot be employed since the transform of a nonlinear function is not explicitly expressible.
Bounding solutions of geometrically nonlinear viscoelastic problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stubstad, J. M.; Simitses, G. J.
1985-01-01
Integral transform techniques, such as the Laplace transform, provide simple and direct methods for solving viscoelastic problems formulated within a context of linear material response and using linear measures for deformation. Application of the transform operator reduces the governing linear integro-differential equations to a set of algebraic relations between the transforms of the unknown functions, the viscoelastic operators, and the initial and boundary conditions. Inversion either directly or through the use of the appropriate convolution theorem, provides the time domain response once the unknown functions have been expressed in terms of sums, products or ratios of known transforms. When exact inversion is not possible approximate techniques may provide accurate results. The overall problem becomes substantially more complex when nonlinear effects must be included. Situations where a linear material constitutive law can still be productively employed but where the magnitude of the resulting time dependent deformations warrants the use of a nonlinear kinematic analysis are considered. The governing equations will be nonlinear integro-differential equations for this class of problems. Thus traditional as well as approximate techniques, such as cited above, cannot be employed since the transform of a nonlinear function is not explicitly expressible.
Iso-geometric analysis for neutron diffusion problems
Hall, S. K.; Eaton, M. D.; Williams, M. M. R.
2012-07-01
Iso-geometric analysis can be viewed as a generalisation of the finite element method. It permits the exact representation of a wider range of geometries including conic sections. This is possible due to the use of concepts employed in computer-aided design. The underlying mathematical representations from computer-aided design are used to capture both the geometry and approximate the solution. In this paper the neutron diffusion equation is solved using iso-geometric analysis. The practical advantages are highlighted by looking at the problem of a circular fuel pin in a square moderator. For this problem the finite element method requires the geometry to be approximated. This leads to errors in the shape and size of the interface between the fuel and the moderator. In contrast to this iso-geometric analysis allows the interface to be represented exactly. It is found that, due to a cancellation of errors, the finite element method converges more quickly than iso-geometric analysis for this problem. A fuel pin in a vacuum was then considered as this problem is highly sensitive to the leakage across the interface. In this case iso-geometric analysis greatly outperforms the finite element method. Due to the improvement in the representation of the geometry iso-geometric analysis can outperform traditional finite element methods. It is proposed that the use of iso-geometric analysis on neutron transport problems will allow deterministic solutions to be obtained for exact geometries. Something that is only currently possible with Monte Carlo techniques. (authors)
The lawnmower problem and other geometric path covering problems
Fekete, S.; Arkin, E.; Mitchell, J.
1994-12-31
We discuss the Lawnmower Problem: Given a polygonal region, find the shortest closed path along which we have to move a given object (typically a square or a circle), such that any point of the region will be covered by the object for some position of it movement. In another version of the problem, known as the Milling Problem, the object has to stay within the region at all times. Practical motivations for considering the Lawnmower Problem come from manufacturing (spray painting, quality control), geography (aerial surveys), optimization (tour planning for a large number of clients with limited mobility), and gardening. The Milling Problem has gained attention by its importance for NC pocket machining. We show that both problems are NP-hard and discuss approximation methods for various versions of the problem.
Geometric programming prediction of design trends for OMV protective structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mog, R. A.; Horn, J. R.
1990-01-01
The global optimization trends of protective honeycomb structural designs for spacecraft subject to hypervelocity meteroid and space debris are presented. This nonlinear problem is first formulated for weight minimization of the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) using a generic monomial predictor. Five problem formulations are considered, each dependent on the selection of independent design variables. Each case is optimized by considering the dual geometric programming problem. The dual variables are solved for in terms of the generic estimated exponents of the monomial predictor. The primal variables are then solved for by conversion. Finally, parametric design trends are developed for ranges of the estimated regression parameters. Results specify nonmonotonic relationships for the optimal first and second sheet mass per unit areas in terms of the estimated exponents.
Study of Historical Geometric Problems by Means of CAS and DGS
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hašek, Roman; Zahradník, Jan
2015-01-01
The use of the dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra to solve geometric problems on conics and loci from an 18th century textbook will be presented. In particular, examples will be shown of how the use of this program helped the authors to understand the method that our predecessors used to deal with conic sections together with solving loci…
Geometric differential evolution for combinatorial and programs spaces.
Moraglio, A; Togelius, J; Silva, S
2013-01-01
Geometric differential evolution (GDE) is a recently introduced formal generalization of traditional differential evolution (DE) that can be used to derive specific differential evolution algorithms for both continuous and combinatorial spaces retaining the same geometric interpretation of the dynamics of the DE search across representations. In this article, we first review the theory behind the GDE algorithm, then, we use this framework to formally derive specific GDE for search spaces associated with binary strings, permutations, vectors of permutations and genetic programs. The resulting algorithms are representation-specific differential evolution algorithms searching the target spaces by acting directly on their underlying representations. We present experimental results for each of the new algorithms on a number of well-known problems comprising NK-landscapes, TSP, and Sudoku, for binary strings, permutations, and vectors of permutations. We also present results for the regression, artificial ant, parity, and multiplexer problems within the genetic programming domain. Experiments show that overall the new DE algorithms are competitive with well-tuned standard search algorithms. PMID:23270388
Geometric programming, chemical equilibrium, and the anti-entropy function.
Duffin, R J; Zener, C
1969-07-01
THE CULMINATION OF THIS PAPER IS THE FOLLOWING DUALITY PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS: maximum S = minimum S(*). (1) The left side of relation (1) is the classical characterization of equilibrium. It says to maximize the entropy function S with respect to extensive variables which are subject to certain constraints. The right side of (1) is a new characterization of equilibrium and concerns minimization of an anti-entropy function S(*) with respect to intensive variables. Relation (1) is applied to the chemical equilibrium of a mixture of gases at constant temperature and volume. Then (1) specializes to minimum F = maximum F(*), (2) where F is the Helmholtz function for free energy and F(*) is an anti-Helmholtz function. The right-side of (2) is an unconstrained maximization problem and gives a simplified practical procedure for calculating equilibrium concentrations. We also give a direct proof of (2) by the duality theorem of geometric programming. The duality theorem of geometric programming states that minimum cost = maximum anti-cost. (30). PMID:16591769
Complexity and Approximation of a Geometric Local Robot Assignment Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonorden, Olaf; Degener, Bastian; Kempkes, Barbara; Pietrzyk, Peter
We introduce a geometric multi-robot assignment problem. Robots positioned in a Euclidean space have to be assigned to treasures in such a way that their joint strength is sufficient to unearth a treasure with a given weight. The robots have a limited range and thus can only be assigned to treasures in their proximity. The objective is to unearth as many treasures as possible. We investigate the complexity of several variants of this problem and show whether they are in {mathcal P} or are mathcal{ NP}-complete. Furthermore, we provide a distributed and local constant-factor approximation algorithm using constant-factor resource augmentation for the two-dimensional setting with {mathcal O}(log^*n) communication rounds.
Failure of geometric electromagnetism in the adiabatic vector Kepler problem
Anglin, J.R.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2004-02-01
The magnetic moment of a particle orbiting a straight current-carrying wire may precess rapidly enough in the wire's magnetic field to justify an adiabatic approximation, eliminating the rapid time dependence of the magnetic moment and leaving only the particle position as a slow degree of freedom. To zeroth order in the adiabatic expansion, the orbits of the particle in the plane perpendicular to the wire are Keplerian ellipses. Higher-order postadiabatic corrections make the orbits precess, but recent analysis of this 'vector Kepler problem' has shown that the effective Hamiltonian incorporating a postadiabatic scalar potential ('geometric electromagnetism') fails to predict the precession correctly, while a heuristic alternative succeeds. In this paper we resolve the apparent failure of the postadiabatic approximation, by pointing out that the correct second-order analysis produces a third Hamiltonian, in which geometric electromagnetism is supplemented by a tensor potential. The heuristic Hamiltonian of Schmiedmayer and Scrinzi is then shown to be a canonical transformation of the correct adiabatic Hamiltonian, to second order. The transformation has the important advantage of removing a 1/r{sup 3} singularity which is an artifact of the adiabatic approximation.
Logo Programming and Geometric Understanding: An In-Depth Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olive, John
1991-01-01
The LOGO programing of 30 ninth graders was analyzed from 3 theoretical perspectives: the van Hiele levels, the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes taxonomy, and Skemp's model of mathematical understanding. Results indicate that success in LOGO programing appears necessary but insufficient for success with the geometric aspects of the analyzed…
Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyer, Jim
1993-01-01
Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)
A solution to the surface intersection problem. [Boolean functions in geometric modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Timer, H. G.
1977-01-01
An application-independent geometric model within a data base framework should support the use of Boolean operators which allow the user to construct a complex model by appropriately combining a series of simple models. The use of these operators leads to the concept of implicitly and explicitly defined surfaces. With an explicitly defined model, the surface area may be computed by simply summing the surface areas of the bounding surfaces. For an implicitly defined model, the surface area computation must deal with active and inactive regions. Because the surface intersection problem involves four unknowns and its solution is a space curve, the parametric coordinates of each surface must be determined as a function of the arc length. Various subproblems involved in the general intersection problem are discussed, and the mathematical basis for their solution is presented along with a program written in FORTRAN IV for implementation on the IBM 370 TSO system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soury-Lavergne, Sophie; Maschietto, Michela
2015-01-01
Our paper focuses on the relationship between spatial and geometrical knowledge in problem solving situations at primary school. We have created tasks that involve three different spaces: physical space, graphical space and geometrical space. We aim to study the specific role of graphical space as a bridge between the other two spaces using paper…
Computer modeling of electromagnetic problems using the geometrical theory of diffraction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burnside, W. D.
1976-01-01
Some applications of the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), a high frequency ray optical solution to electromagnetic problems, are presented. GTD extends geometric optics, which does not take into account the diffractions occurring at edges, vertices, and various other discontinuities. Diffraction solutions, analysis of basic structures, construction of more complex structures, and coupling using GTD are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalgiri, P. D.; Prabhakaran, R.
1986-01-01
An algorithm for vectorized computation of stiffness matrices of an 8 noded isoparametric hexahedron element for geometric nonlinear analysis was developed. This was used in conjunction with the earlier 2-D program GAMNAS to develop the new program NAS3D for geometric nonlinear analysis. A conventional, modified Newton-Raphson process is used for the nonlinear analysis. New schemes for the computation of stiffness and strain energy release rates is presented. The organization the program is explained and some results on four sample problems are given. The study of CPU times showed that savings by a factor of 11 to 13 were achieved when vectorized computation was used for the stiffness instead of the conventional scalar one. Finally, the scheme of inputting data is explained.
Developing Shift Problems to Foster Geometrical Proof and Understanding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palha, Sonia; Dekker, Rijkje; Gravemeijer, Koeno; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette
2013-01-01
Meaningful learning of formal mathematics in regular classrooms remains a problem in mathematics education. Research shows that instructional approaches in which students work collaboratively on tasks that are tailored to problem solving and reflection can improve students' learning in experimental classrooms. However, these sequences involve…
Geometric Series: A New Solution to the Dog Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dion, Peter; Ho, Anthony
2013-01-01
This article describes what is often referred to as the dog, beetle, mice, ant, or turtle problem. Solutions to this problem exist, some being variations of each other, which involve mathematics of a wide range of complexity. Herein, the authors describe the intuitive solution and the calculus solution and then offer a completely new solution…
Geometric projection filter: an efficient solution to the SLAM problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Paul M.; Durrant-Whyte, Hugh F.
2001-10-01
This paper is concerned with the simultaneous localization and map building (SLAM) problem. The SLAM problem asks if it is possible for an autonomous vehicle to start in an unknown location in an unknown environment and then to incrementally build a map of this environment while simultaneously using this map to compute absolute vehicle location. Conventional approaches to this problem are plagued with a prohibitively large increase in computation with the size of the environment. This paper offers a new solution to the SLAM problem that is both consistent and computationally feasible. The proposed algorithm builds a map expressing the relationships between landmarks which is then transformed into landmark locations. Experimental results are presented employing the new algorithm on a subsea vehicle using a scanning sonar sensor.
Effects of geometric uncertainty on the inverse EEG problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinstein, David M.; Johnson, Christopher R.
1997-12-01
A standard method for noninvasively computing neurocortical potentials from potentials measured on the scalp surface is to solve the problem on a generalized geometry and map the results back to the true model. This solution to the inverse EEG problem has been employed using spherical and, more recently, generic cranial models as templates. In the case of the most complex spherical models, the patient's skin, bone, cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter and white matter surfaces are mapped onto concentric spheres. The simplicity of the spherical domain allows for an analytic solution to the surface mapping inverse problem; however, the inaccuracy of such a solution challenges its clinical value. Similarly, solving the problem on a predefined generic model also holds computational allure--the generic model can be hand-picked to reduce the ill-conditioning of the problem. However, we suggest that such results from generic models are still not sufficiently accurate to be of general clinical use. In our paper, we evaluate the impact of varying both model accuracy and model complexity on the inverse cortical mapping. Small modeling perturbations (as might be introduced from noisy or under-sampled data) are shown to have large and detrimental effects on the quality of the solution.
Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vodola, Thomas M.
As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…
Geometric tools for solving the FDI problem for linear periodic discrete-time systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, Sauro; Monteriù, Andrea
2013-07-01
This paper studies the problem of detecting and isolating faults in linear periodic discrete-time systems. The aim is to design an observer-based residual generator where each residual is sensitive to one fault, whilst remaining insensitive to the other faults that can affect the system. Making use of the geometric tools, and in particular of the outer observable subspace notion, the Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) problem is formulated and necessary and solvability conditions are given. An algorithmic procedure is described to determine the solution of the FDI problem.
Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.
1981-01-01
The term 'trajectory problem' is taken to include problems that can arise, for instance, in connection with contour plotting, or in the application of continuation methods, or during phase-plane analysis. Geometrical techniques are used to construct difference methods for these problems to produce in turn explicit and implicit circularly exact formulae. Based on these formulae, a predictor-corrector method is derived which, when compared with a closely related standard method, shows improved performance. It is found that this latter method produces spurious limit cycles, and this behavior is partly analyzed. Finally, a simple variable-step algorithm is constructed and tested.
Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.
1982-01-01
An initial value problem for the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations dy/dt = f(y), where y is a vector, is considered. In a number of practical applications the interest lies in obtaining the curve traced by the solution y. These applications include the computation of trajectories in mechanical problems. The term 'trajectory problem' is employed to refer to these cases. Lambert and McLeod (1979) have introduced a method involving local rotation of the axes in the y-plane for the two-dimensional case. The present investigation continues the study of difference schemes specifically derived for trajectory problems. A simple geometrical way of constructing such methods is presented, and the local accuracy of the schemes is investigated. A circularly exact, fixed-step predictor-corrector algorithm is defined, and a variable-step version of a circularly exact algorithm is presented.
Measurement problem in PROGRAM UNIVERSE
Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.
1984-12-01
We present a discrete theory that meets the measurement problem in a new way. We generate a growing universe of bit strings, labeled by 2/sup 127/ + 136 strings organized by some representation of the closed, four level, combinatorial hierarchy, of bit-length N/sub 139/ greater than or equal to 139. The rest of the strings for each label, which grow in both length and number, are called addresses. The generating algorithm, called PROGRAM UNIVERSE, starts from a random choice between the two symbols ''0'' and ''1'' and grows (a) by discriminating between two randomly chosen strings and adjoining a novel result to the universe, or when the string so generated is not novel, by (b) adjoining a randomly chosen bit at the growing end of each string. We obtain, by appropriate definitions and interpretations, stable ''particles'' which satisfy the usual relativistic kinematics and quantized angular momentum without being localizable in a continuum space-time. The labeling scheme is congruent with the ''standard model'' of quarks and leptons with three generations, but for the problem at hand, the implementation of this aspect of the theory is unimportant. What matters most is that (a) these complicated ''particles'' have the periodicities familiar from relativistic ''deBroglie waves'' and resolve in a discrete way the ''wave-particle dualism'' and (b) can be ''touched'' by our discrete equivalent of ''soft photons'' in such a way as to follow, macroscopically, the usual Rutherford scattering trajectories with the associated bound states. Thus our theory could provide a discrete description of ''measurement'' in a way that allows no conceptual barrier between the ''micro'' and the ''macro'' worlds, if we are willing to base our physics on counting and exclude the ambiguities associated with the unobservable ''continuum''. 27 refs.
A general analytical solution to the geometrical problem of field matching in radiotherapy
Hernandez, V.; Arenas, M.; Pons, F.; Sempau, J.
2009-09-15
Purpose: Several authors studied the problem of geometrical matching of fields produced by medical linear accelerators. However, a general solution has yet to be published. Currently available solutions are based on parallelism arguments. This study provides a general solution, considering not only parallelism but also field sizes. Methods: A fixed field with arbitrary field size, gantry, collimator, and couch angle is considered, and another field with a fixed gantry angle is matched to it. A single reference system attached to the treatment couch is used, and two approaches are followed. In the first approach, fixed field sizes are assumed and parallelism of the adjacent field-side planes is imposed. In the second approach, fixed isocenter positions are considered and both parallelism and coincidence between field-side planes are required. Results: When fixed field sizes are assumed, rotation angles are obtained; however, the isocenters may need to be shifted to make side planes coincident and therefore achieve a proper match. When fixed isocenter positions are considered, solutions for all parameters, including the field size, are obtained and an exact geometrical match is achieved. Conclusions: General expressions to the field-matching problem are found for the two approaches followed, fixed field sizes, and fixed isocenter positions. These results can be applied to any treatment technique and can easily be implemented in modern treatment planning systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reilly, J. R.; Schwarz, C. R.; Whiting, M. C.
1972-01-01
A computer program, OSUGOP, developed for adjusting ground station coordinates from observations made to satellites by stations observing from the ground is outlined. The observations can be optical or ranges, and the adjustments can be performed in either the geometric or orbital mode. The program was developed in such a way that certain specific tasks can be performed without resorting to a complete solution.
Geometric structure in seismic data, sampling and computational inverse problems (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Hoop, M. V.; Andersson, F.; Tricoche, X.; Xia, J.; Yeh, R.
2013-12-01
In (nonlinear) seismic inverse problems one requires data from available large arrays acquired for many events. These data, naturally, contain information about Earth's interior over a large range of scales. From the viewpoint of detecting broadband wavefields, however, sampling often remains a challenge. We discuss various concepts and techniques which aid in analyzing and partitioning (or decomposing) such data, including compression with a novel, multi-scale, frame of Gaussian wavepackets, graph cuts and (extended) structure tensors. We emphasize the underlying geometric structure both in the physical embedding and in the associated space where the data find a natural representation. We consider several dimensionality reduction approaches including manifold learning, and develop possible notions of distance. These enable the development of methods of comparing data, for example, within and between arrays, and comparing observed with simulated data for inverse problems and regularization. Within the context of inverse problems we briefly mention the synthesis of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map from the data, randomized sampling and direct structured solvers of the direct problem using hierarchically semi-separable (HSS) matrices in a multi-frequency formulation enabling an efficient workflow with a large number of events.
A New Program for Detecting the Geometrical Core of a Set of Structures of Macromolecular Complexes.
Vakulenko, Yu A; Nagaev, B E; Alexeevski, A V; Karyagina, A S; Spirin, S A
2016-04-01
Comparison of structures of homological proteins often helps to understand functionally significant features of these structures. This concerns not only structures of separate protein chains, but also structures of macromolecular complexes. In particular, a comparison of complexes of homologous proteins with DNA is significant for analysis of the recognition of DNA by proteins. We present program LCore for detecting geometrical cores of a family of structures; a geometrical core is a set of amino acid residues and nucleotides that disposed similarly in all structures of the family. We describe the algorithm of the program, its web interface, and an example of its application to analysis of complexes of homeodomains with DNA. PMID:27293101
Geometric problem solving related to differences in sex and mathematical interests.
Luchins, A S; Luchins, E H
1979-06-01
Sex differences in Einstellung Effects were confounded by attitudinal factors. Hypothesizing that this was the case for spatial visualization and restructurization, we compared male and female college students' solutions of three elementary geometric problems. Used by Max Wertheimer to study productive thinking, they call for a Gestalt, spatial approach. In group administration to 86 calculus students, males did somewhat better than females, but the reverse held in classes where most women majored in mathematics. Individual administration to 200 Ss, balanced for sex and major, showed that female mathematics majors had more solutions than other females: e.g., 51 percent more compared to 26 percent sex differences. Four hints were available for restructuring each problem. The percentage needing all four hints was highest for male nonmathematics major and next highest for female mathematics majors (e.g., 75 and 23 percent, respectively). Embarrassment at needing hints in such "easy problems" and ego-involvement were factors. Thus, sex differences were less pronounced than differences related to mathematical abilities and interests and to task-and ego-concerns. PMID:469505
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kynigos, Chronis
1993-01-01
Used 2 12-year-old children to investigate deductive and inductive reasoning in plane geometry. A LOGO microworld was programmed to measure distances and turns relative to points on the plane. Learning environments like this may enhance formation of inductive geometrical understandings. (Contains 44 references.) (LDR)
Program Budgeting: Promise and Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huff, Robert A.
Planning, Programming, and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) are increasingly mentioned as effective means for improving the management of educational resources in institutions of higher education. PPBS has several advantages over conventional accounting systems, which still would be needed for day to day operations. First, it relates cost to output;…
Dynamic programming in applied optimization problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavalishchin, Dmitry
2015-11-01
Features of the use dynamic programming in applied problems are investigated. In practice such problems as finding the critical paths in network planning and control, finding the optimal supply plan in transportation problem, objects territorial distribution are traditionally solved by special methods of operations research. It should be noted that the dynamic programming is not provided computational advantages, but facilitates changes and modifications of tasks. This follows from the Bellman's optimality principle. The features of the multistage decision processes construction in applied problems are provided.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Widder, Mirela; Gorsky, Paul
2013-01-01
In schools, learning spatial geometry is usually dependent upon a student's ability to visualize three dimensional geometric configurations from two dimensional drawings. Such a process, however, often creates visual obstacles which are unique to spatial geometry. Useful software programs which realistically depict three dimensional geometric…
Problem Solving. Workplace Education Program Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burkhart, Jennifer
The BUILD Program (Businesses United to Increase Literacy Development) was conducted from June 1991 through December 1992 as a cooperative workplace literacy program joining Arapahoe Community College and four companies in Littleton, Colorado. This document consists of three modules for the problem-solving and computer learning systems classes of…
Geometric and algebraic multigrid techniques for fluid dynamics problems on unstructured grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, K. N.; Emel'yanov, V. N.; Teterina, I. V.
2016-02-01
Issues concerning the implementation and practical application of geometric and algebraic multigrid techniques for solving systems of difference equations generated by the finite volume discretization of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids are studied. The construction of prolongation and interpolation operators, as well as grid levels of various resolutions, is discussed. The results of the application of geometric and algebraic multigrid techniques for the simulation of inviscid and viscous compressible fluid flows over an airfoil are compared. Numerical results show that geometric methods ensure faster convergence and weakly depend on the method parameters, while the efficiency of algebraic methods considerably depends on the input parameters.
Hybrid evolutionary programming for heavily constrained problems.
Myung, H; Kim, J H
1996-01-01
A hybrid of evolutionary programming (EP) and a deterministic optimization procedure is applied to a series of non-linear and quadratic optimization problems. The hybrid scheme is compared with other existing schemes such as EP alone, two-phase (TP) optimization, and EP with a non-stationary penalty function (NS-EP). The results indicate that the hybrid method can outperform the other methods when addressing heavily constrained optimization problems in terms of computational efficiency and solution accuracy. PMID:8833746
Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana
2008-10-01
We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.
Program Helps Decompose Complicated Design Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, James L., Jr.
1993-01-01
Time saved by intelligent decomposition into smaller, interrelated problems. DeMAID is knowledge-based software system for ordering sequence of modules and identifying possible multilevel structure for design problem. Displays modules in N x N matrix format. Requires investment of time to generate and refine list of modules for input, it saves considerable amount of money and time in total design process, particularly new design problems in which ordering of modules has not been defined. Program also implemented to examine assembly-line process or ordering of tasks and milestones.
Employee assistance program treats personal problems.
Bednarek, R J; Featherston, H J
1984-03-01
Though the concept of employee assistance programs (EAPs) is widely accepted throughout business and industry, few hospitals have established similar channels for dealing with workers whose personal problems cause work-related problems. Among the reasons for the health care profession's lack of involvement in this area are: lack of information about costs and benefits of EAPs; the hospital's multidisciplinary environment in which standards of employee competence and behavior are set by persons from many disciplines; hospital working hours; and health care workers' attitudes about their vulnerability to illness. St. Benedict's Hospital, Ogden, UT, however, has confronted the question of how to demonstrate Christian concern for its employees. St. Benedict's EAP, the Helping Hand, which was created in 1979, combines progressive disciplinary action with the opportunity for early intervention in and treatment of employees' personal problems. When a worker with personal problems is referred to the EAP coordinator, he or she is matched with the appropriate community or hospital resource for treatment. Supervisors are trained to identify employee problems and to focus on employee job performance rather than on attempting to diagnose the problem. St. Benedict's records during the program's first three years illustrate the human benefits as well as the cost savings of an EAP. Of 92 hospital employees who took part in the EAP, 72 improved their situations or resolved their problems. The hospital's turnover rates declined from 36 percent to 20 percent, and approximately $40,800 in turnover and replacement costs were saved. PMID:10317423
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali
2014-08-01
Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.
Bouchard, Bruno Vu, Thanh Nam
2010-04-15
We provide an obstacle version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle of Soner and Touzi (J. Eur. Math. Soc. 4:201-236, 2002) for stochastic target problems. This opens the doors to a wide range of applications, particularly in risk control in finance and insurance, in which a controlled stochastic process has to be maintained in a given set on a time interval [0,T]. As an example of application, we show how it can be used to provide a viscosity characterization of the super-hedging cost of American options under portfolio constraints, without appealing to the standard dual formulation from mathematical finance. In particular, we allow for a degenerate volatility, a case which does not seem to have been studied so far in this context.
VLSI architectures for geometrical mapping problems in high-definition image processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, K.; Lee, J.
1991-01-01
This paper explores a VLSI architecture for geometrical mapping address computation. The geometric transformation is discussed in the context of plane projective geometry, which invokes a set of basic transformations to be implemented for the general image processing. The homogeneous and 2-dimensional cartesian coordinates are employed to represent the transformations, each of which is implemented via an augmented CORDIC as a processing element. A specific scheme for a processor, which utilizes full-pipelining at the macro-level and parallel constant-factor-redundant arithmetic and full-pipelining at the micro-level, is assessed to produce a single VLSI chip for HDTV applications using state-of-art MOS technology.
VLSI architectures for geometrical mapping problems in high-definition image processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, K.; Lee, J.
This paper explores a VLSI architecture for geometrical mapping address computation. The geometric transformation is discussed in the context of plane projective geometry, which invokes a set of basic transformations to be implemented for the general image processing. The homogeneous and 2-dimensional cartesian coordinates are employed to represent the transformations, each of which is implemented via an augmented CORDIC as a processing element. A specific scheme for a processor, which utilizes full-pipelining at the macro-level and parallel constant-factor-redundant arithmetic and full-pipelining at the micro-level, is assessed to produce a single VLSI chip for HDTV applications using state-of-art MOS technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daher, Wajeeh M.
2014-04-01
Mathematical learning and teaching are increasingly seen as a multimodal experience involved in cultural and social semiotic registers and means, and as such social-cultural semiotic analysis is expected to shed light on learning and teaching processes occurring in the mathematics classroom. In this research, three social-cultural semiotic frameworks were utilised to analyse elementary school students' learning of a geometric relation: the semiotic bundle, the space of action, production and communication and the theoretical framework of attention, awareness and objectification. Educational mathematical situations are described, in addition to semiotic sets, registers and means emerging in the different mathematical situations and that are relevant to the three social-cultural semiotic frameworks which the current research utilizes. Further, the students, as a consequence of (1) their multimodal experience, (2) their connecting between the different mathematical situations and semiotic registers, and (3) the teacher's questions and tasks, could objectify the geometric relation between the lengths of the triangle's edges.
Menu-Driven Solver Of Linear-Programming Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viterna, L. A.; Ferencz, D.
1992-01-01
Program assists inexperienced user in formulating linear-programming problems. A Linear Program Solver (ALPS) computer program is full-featured LP analysis program. Solves plain linear-programming problems as well as more-complicated mixed-integer and pure-integer programs. Also contains efficient technique for solution of purely binary linear-programming problems. Written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC software, Version 1.01. Packed program contains licensed material, property of IBM (copyright 1988, all rights reserved).
An alternative method on quadratic programming problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dasril, Y.; Mohd, I. B.; Mustaffa, I.; Aminuddin, MMM.
2015-05-01
In this paper we proposed an alternative approach to find the optimum solution of quadratic programming problems (QPP) in its original form without additional information such as slack variable, surplus variable or artificial variable as done in other favourite methods. This approached is based on the violated constraints by the unconstrained optimum. The optimal solution of QPP obtained by searching from initial point to another point alongside of feasible region.
An aftercare program for problem patients.
Wasylenki, D A; Plummer, E; Littmann, S
1981-07-01
The high readmission rates of discharged psychiatric patients have forced mental health professionals to play closer attention to aftercare planning. A program was developed at a psychiatric hospital in Ontario in 1977 to deal with "problem patients"--those who were deemed difficult to place in the community by the referral person or department. The program was characterized by shared institutional-community staffing, systematic aftercare assessment and planning, a crisis intervention approach to discharge, the use of a transitional staff member with patients, and the development of close relationships with community agencies. Study data show that the program was effective in limiting the number of readmissions during its first two years to 20 per cent. PMID:6263785
A Prefiltered Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Geometric Operators for Solving Sudoku Problems
Crawford, Broderick; Galleguillos, Cristian; Paredes, Fernando
2014-01-01
The Sudoku is a famous logic-placement game, originally popularized in Japan and today widely employed as pastime and as testbed for search algorithms. The classic Sudoku consists in filling a 9 × 9 grid, divided into nine 3 × 3 regions, so that each column, row, and region contains different digits from 1 to 9. This game is known to be NP-complete, with existing various complete and incomplete search algorithms able to solve different instances of it. In this paper, we present a new cuckoo search algorithm for solving Sudoku puzzles combining prefiltering phases and geometric operations. The geometric operators allow one to correctly move toward promising regions of the combinatorial space, while the prefiltering phases are able to previously delete from domains the values that do not conduct to any feasible solution. This integration leads to a more efficient domain filtering and as a consequence to a faster solving process. We illustrate encouraging experimental results where our approach noticeably competes with the best approximate methods reported in the literature. PMID:24707205
A prefiltered cuckoo search algorithm with geometric operators for solving Sudoku problems.
Soto, Ricardo; Crawford, Broderick; Galleguillos, Cristian; Monfroy, Eric; Paredes, Fernando
2014-01-01
The Sudoku is a famous logic-placement game, originally popularized in Japan and today widely employed as pastime and as testbed for search algorithms. The classic Sudoku consists in filling a 9 × 9 grid, divided into nine 3 × 3 regions, so that each column, row, and region contains different digits from 1 to 9. This game is known to be NP-complete, with existing various complete and incomplete search algorithms able to solve different instances of it. In this paper, we present a new cuckoo search algorithm for solving Sudoku puzzles combining prefiltering phases and geometric operations. The geometric operators allow one to correctly move toward promising regions of the combinatorial space, while the prefiltering phases are able to previously delete from domains the values that do not conduct to any feasible solution. This integration leads to a more efficient domain filtering and as a consequence to a faster solving process. We illustrate encouraging experimental results where our approach noticeably competes with the best approximate methods reported in the literature. PMID:24707205
Borghero, Francesco; Demontis, Francesco
2016-09-01
In the framework of geometrical optics, we consider the following inverse problem: given a two-parameter family of curves (congruence) (i.e., f(x,y,z)=c_{1},g(x,y,z)=c_{2}), construct the refractive-index distribution function n=n(x,y,z) of a 3D continuous transparent inhomogeneous isotropic medium, allowing for the creation of the given congruence as a family of monochromatic light rays. We solve this problem by following two different procedures: 1. By applying Fermat's principle, we establish a system of two first-order linear nonhomogeneous PDEs in the unique unknown function n=n(x,y,z) relating the assigned congruence of rays with all possible refractive-index profiles compatible with this family. Moreover, we furnish analytical proof that the family of rays must be a normal congruence. 2. By applying the eikonal equation, we establish a second system of two first-order linear homogeneous PDEs whose solutions give the equation S(x,y,z)=const. of the geometric wavefronts and, consequently, all pertinent refractive-index distribution functions n=n(x,y,z). Finally, we make a comparison between the two procedures described above, discussing appropriate examples having exact solutions. PMID:27607492
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroni, Giovanni; Syam, Wahyudin P.; Petrò, Stefano
2014-08-01
Product quality is a main concern today in manufacturing; it drives competition between companies. To ensure high quality, a dimensional inspection to verify the geometric properties of a product must be carried out. High-speed non-contact scanners help with this task, by both speeding up acquisition speed and increasing accuracy through a more complete description of the surface. The algorithms for the management of the measurement data play a critical role in ensuring both the measurement accuracy and speed of the device. One of the most fundamental parts of the algorithm is the procedure for fitting the substitute geometry to a cloud of points. This article addresses this challenge. Three relevant geometries are selected as case studies: a non-linear least-squares fitting of a circle, sphere and cylinder. These geometries are chosen in consideration of their common use in practice; for example the sphere is often adopted as a reference artifact for performance verification of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a cylinder is the most relevant geometry for a pin-hole relation as an assembly feature to construct a complete functioning product. In this article, an improvement of the initial point guess for the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm by employing a chaos optimization (CO) method is proposed. This causes a performance improvement in the optimization of a non-linear function fitting the three geometries. The results show that, with this combination, a higher quality of fitting results a smaller norm of the residuals can be obtained while preserving the computational cost. Fitting an ‘incomplete-point-cloud’, which is a situation where the point cloud does not cover a complete feature e.g. from half of the total part surface, is also investigated. Finally, a case study of fitting a hemisphere is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasyev, An. N.; Uralov, A. M.; Grechnev, V. V.
2011-12-01
Propagation of shock related Moreton and EUV waves in the solar atmosphere is simulated by the nonlinear geometrical acoustics method. This method is based on the ray approximation and takes account of nonlinear wave features: dependence of the wave velocity on its amplitude, nonlinear dissipation of wave energy in the shock front, and the increase in its duration with time. The paper describes ways of applying this method to solve the propagation problem of a blast magnetohydrodynamic shock wave. Results of analytical modeling of EUV and Moreton waves in the spherically symmetric and isothermal solar corona are also presented. The calculations demonstrate deceleration of these waves and an increase in their duration. The calculation results of the kinematics of the EUV wave observed on the Sun on January 17, 2010 are presented as an example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pallozzi Lavorante, Luca; Dirk Ebert, Hans
2008-07-01
Tensor3D is a geometric modeling program with the capacity to simulate and visualize in real-time the deformation, specified through a tensor matrix and applied to triangulated models representing geological bodies. 3D visualization allows the study of deformational processes that are traditionally conducted in 2D, such as simple and pure shears. Besides geometric objects that are immediately available in the program window, the program can read other models from disk, thus being able to import objects created with different open-source or proprietary programs. A strain ellipsoid and a bounding box are simultaneously shown and instantly deformed with the main object. The principal axes of strain are visualized as well to provide graphical information about the orientation of the tensor's normal components. The deformed models can also be saved, retrieved later and deformed again, in order to study different steps of progressive strain, or to make this data available to other programs. The shape of stress ellipsoids and the corresponding Mohr circles defined by any stress tensor can also be represented. The application was written using the Visualization ToolKit, a powerful scientific visualization library in the public domain. This development choice, allied to the use of the Tcl/Tk programming language, which is independent on the host computational platform, makes the program a useful tool for the study of geometric deformations directly in three dimensions in teaching as well as research activities.
Fifth SIAM conference on geometric design 97: Final program and abstracts. Final technical report
1997-12-31
The meeting was divided into the following sessions: (1) CAD/CAM; (2) Curve/Surface Design; (3) Geometric Algorithms; (4) Multiresolution Methods; (5) Robotics; (6) Solid Modeling; and (7) Visualization. This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the meeting. Proceding the conference there was a short course entitled ``Wavelets for Geometric Modeling and Computer Graphics``.
Research program with no ''measurement problem''
Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.
1985-07-01
The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenarda, P.; Paggi, M.
2016-02-01
A comprehensive computational framework based on the finite element method for the simulation of coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical problems in photovoltaic laminates is herein proposed. While the thermo-mechanical problem takes place in the three-dimensional space of the laminate, moisture diffusion occurs in a two-dimensional domain represented by the polymeric layers and by the vertical channel cracks in the solar cells. Therefore, a geometrical multi-scale solution strategy is pursued by solving the partial differential equations governing heat transfer and thermo-elasticity in the three-dimensional space, and the partial differential equation for moisture diffusion in the two dimensional domains. By exploiting a staggered scheme, the thermo-mechanical problem is solved first via a fully implicit solution scheme in space and time, with a specific treatment of the polymeric layers as zero-thickness interfaces whose constitutive response is governed by a novel thermo-visco-elastic cohesive zone model based on fractional calculus. Temperature and relative displacements along the domains where moisture diffusion takes place are then projected to the finite element model of diffusion, coupled with the thermo-mechanical problem by the temperature and crack opening dependent diffusion coefficient. The application of the proposed method to photovoltaic modules pinpoints two important physical aspects: (i) moisture diffusion in humidity freeze tests with a temperature dependent diffusivity is a much slower process than in the case of a constant diffusion coefficient; (ii) channel cracks through Silicon solar cells significantly enhance moisture diffusion and electric degradation, as confirmed by experimental tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenarda, P.; Paggi, M.
2016-06-01
A comprehensive computational framework based on the finite element method for the simulation of coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical problems in photovoltaic laminates is herein proposed. While the thermo-mechanical problem takes place in the three-dimensional space of the laminate, moisture diffusion occurs in a two-dimensional domain represented by the polymeric layers and by the vertical channel cracks in the solar cells. Therefore, a geometrical multi-scale solution strategy is pursued by solving the partial differential equations governing heat transfer and thermo-elasticity in the three-dimensional space, and the partial differential equation for moisture diffusion in the two dimensional domains. By exploiting a staggered scheme, the thermo-mechanical problem is solved first via a fully implicit solution scheme in space and time, with a specific treatment of the polymeric layers as zero-thickness interfaces whose constitutive response is governed by a novel thermo-visco-elastic cohesive zone model based on fractional calculus. Temperature and relative displacements along the domains where moisture diffusion takes place are then projected to the finite element model of diffusion, coupled with the thermo-mechanical problem by the temperature and crack opening dependent diffusion coefficient. The application of the proposed method to photovoltaic modules pinpoints two important physical aspects: (i) moisture diffusion in humidity freeze tests with a temperature dependent diffusivity is a much slower process than in the case of a constant diffusion coefficient; (ii) channel cracks through Silicon solar cells significantly enhance moisture diffusion and electric degradation, as confirmed by experimental tests.
Correlates of Problem-Solving in Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chung, Choi-man
1988-01-01
Examines some correlates of programing ability that can predict the computer programing performance of students. Finds that students who score high on mathematics and spatial tests will score high on programing ability tests. Finds that boys perform significantly better than girls in programing ability, as do those who possess home computers. (KO)
Study Abroad Programs: Probleme und Loesungsvorschlage (Problems and Suggested Solutions)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schild, Kurt W.
1977-01-01
Describes an apparently very successful study program for Americans, conducted by Michigan State University in Mayen, Rheinland-Pfalz. The small (pop. 22,000) non-university city offered many advantages, including relatively low living costs. All students lived with German families. Various contacts are described, including weekend trips. (Text is…
Conflict Management: A Premarital Training Program in Mutual Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridley, Carl A.; And Others
1981-01-01
Evaluated the effectiveness of a structured educational program to train premarital couples in communication and mutual problem-solving skills. Couples (N=26) participated in a problem-solving training program, while similar couples (N=28) participated in a relationship discussion group. The problem-solving group showed a greater increase in…
Anatomically Based Geometric Modelling Using Medical Image Data: Methods and Programs
Wang, Monan; Sun, Lei; Liu, Yuming
2015-01-01
The human organs geometric modeling software which can achieve two-dimensional medical image browsing, pretreatment and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction in this paper is designed. This software implements medical image segmentation using the method combining the region growing and the interactive segmentation. Also, the MC surface reconstruction algorithm is utilized to achieve the three-dimensional reconstruction. Furthermore, the software is projected by Visual C++. And then, to legitimately express the structural information of skeleton and muscle, the software is employed to obtain the geometric model using the segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction for data of skeleton and muscle medical images of the object of study. PMID:26089991
Bilingual Program Management: A Problem Solving Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De George, George P., Ed.
A collection of essays on the management of bilingual education programs is organized in three units: managing in a culturally diverse setting, balancing critical interactions, and special issues. The following papers are included: "Recruiting and Retaining Competent Personnel for Bilingual Education Programs" (Joan E. Friedenberg, Curtis H.…
Preschool-Based Programs for Externalizing Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arnold, David H.; Brown, Sharice A.; Meagher, Susan; Baker, Courtney N.; Dobbs, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.
2006-01-01
Few mental health initiatives for young children have used classroom programs. Preschool-based efforts targeting externalizing behavior could help prevent conduct disorders. Additional benefits may include improved academic achievement and reduced risk for other mental health difficulties. Pro-grams that target multiple developmental domains are…
Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.
New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Almond, J. C.
1966-01-01
Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhat, Charbel; Geuzaine, Philippe; Grandmont, Céline
2001-12-01
Discrete geometric conservation laws (DGCLs) govern the geometric parameters of numerical schemes designed for the solution of unsteady flow problems on moving grids. A DGCL requires that these geometric parameters, which include among others grid positions and velocities, be computed so that the corresponding numerical scheme reproduces exactly a constant solution. Sometimes, this requirement affects the intrinsic design of an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solution method. In this paper, we show for sample ALE schemes that satisfying the corresponding DGCL is a necessary and sufficient condition for a numerical scheme to preserve the nonlinear stability of its fixed grid counterpart. We also highlight the impact of this theoretical result on practical applications of computational fluid dynamics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, SugHee; Chung, KwangSik; Yu, HeonChang
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to propose a training program for creative problem solving based on computer programming. The proposed program will encourage students to solve real-life problems through a creative thinking spiral related to cognitive skills with computer programming. With the goal of enhancing digital fluency through this proposed…
User's manual for GAMNAS: Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, J. D.; Dattaguru, B.
1984-01-01
GAMNAS (Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Structures) is a two dimensional finite-element stress analysis program. Options include linear, geometric nonlinear, material nonlinear, and combined geometric and material nonlinear analysis. The theory, organization, and use of GAMNAS are described. Required input data and results for several sample problems are included.
Solving Integer Programming Problems by Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akay, Bahriye; Karaboga, Dervis
This paper presents a study that applies the Artificial Bee Colony algorithm to integer programming problems and compares its performance with those of Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm variants and Branch and Bound technique presented to the literature. In order to cope with integer programming problems, in neighbour solution production unit, solutions are truncated to the nearest integer values. The experimental results show that Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can handle integer programming problems efficiently and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can be considered to be very robust by the statistics calculated such as mean, median, standard deviation.
Measurement problem in Program Universe. Revision
Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.
1985-07-01
The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is in our view an artifact of its philosophical and mathematical underpinnings. We describe a new philosophical view of theory formation, rooted in Wittgenstein, and Bishop's and Martin-Loef's constructivity, which obviates such discussions. We present an unfinished, but very encouraging, theory which is compatible with this philosophical framework. The theory is based on the concepts of counting and combinatorics in the framework provided by the combinatorial hierarchy, a unique hierarchy of bit strings which interact by an operation called discrimination. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact. 15 refs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tapan, Menekse Seden; Arslan, Cigdem
2009-01-01
The main purpose of this research is to determine to what extent preservice teachers use visual elements and mathematical properties when they are dealing with a geometrical construction activity. The axiomatic structure of the Euclidian geometry forms a coherent field of objects and relations of a theoretical nature; and thus it constitutes a…
Promising Parenting Programs for Reducing Adolescent Problem Behaviors
Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn-Wright, Anne; Klima, Tali
2013-01-01
Purpose Adolescent problem behaviors (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policymakers and practitioners that are interested in preventing these problem behaviors are faced with many programming options. In this review, we discuss two criteria for selecting relevant parenting programs, and provide five examples of such programs. Design/methodology/approach The first criterion for program selection is theory based. Well-supported theories, such as the social development model, have laid out key family-based risk and protective factors for problem behavior. Programs that target these risk and protective factors are more likely to be effective. Second, programs should have demonstrated efficacy; these interventions have been called “evidence-based programs” (EBP). This review highlights the importance of evidence from rigorous research designs, such as randomized clinical trials, in order to establish program efficacy. Findings Nurse-Family Partnership, The Incredible Years, Positive Parenting Program, Strengthening Families 10–14, and Staying Connected with Your Teen are examined. The unique features of each program are briefly presented. Evidence showing impact on family risk and protective factors, as well as long-term problem behaviors, is reviewed. Finally, a measure of cost effectiveness of each program is provided. Originality/value We propose that not all programs are of equal value, and suggest two simple criteria for selecting a parenting program with a high likelihood for positive outcomes. Furthermore, although this review is not exhaustive, the five examples of EBPs offer a good start for policymakers and practitioners seeking to implement effective programs in their communities. Thus, this paper offers practical suggestions for those grappling with investments in child and adolescent programs on the ground. PMID:24416068
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ball, R. E.
1972-01-01
A digital computer program known as SATANS (static and transient analysis, nonlinear, shells) for the geometrically nonlinear static and dynamic response of arbitrarily loaded shells of revolution is presented. Instructions for the preparation of the input data cards and other information necessary for the operation of the program are described in detail and two sample problems are included. The governing partial differential equations are based upon Sanders' nonlinear thin shell theory for the conditions of small strains and moderately small rotations. The governing equations are reduced to uncoupled sets of four linear, second order, partial differential equations in the meridional and time coordinates by expanding the dependent variables in a Fourier sine or cosine series in the circumferential coordinate and treating the nonlinear modal coupling terms as pseudo loads. The derivatives with respect to the meridional coordinate are approximated by central finite differences, and the displacement accelerations are approximated by the implicit Houbolt backward difference scheme with a constant time interval. The boundaries of the shell may be closed, free, fixed, or elastically restrained. The program is coded in the FORTRAN 4 language and is dimensioned to allow a maximum of 10 arbitrary Fourier harmonics and a maximum product of the total number of meridional stations and the total number of Fourier harmonics of 200. The program requires 155,000 bytes of core storage.
Experiences in Rural Mental Health. VIII: Programming and Administrative Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hollister, William G.; And Others
Based on a North Carolina Feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this guide deals with programming and administrative problems in Vance and Franklin counties. Describing those problems believed to be most likely to occur in rural areas, this booklet…
Problem Solving Variations in an Online Programming Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebrahimi, Alireza
2007-01-01
An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving…
Problems in Choosing Tools and Methods for Teaching Programming
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vitkute-Adžgauskiene, Davia; Vidžiunas, Antanas
2012-01-01
The paper analyses the problems in selecting and integrating tools for delivering basic programming knowledge at the university level. Discussion and analysis of teaching the programming disciplines, the main principles of study programme design, requirements for teaching tools, methods and corresponding languages is presented, based on literature…
LENS* 4: a program for calculation of geometric optics of the human eye
Doss, J.D.
1982-10-01
A computer program (LENS* 4) has been written that may be used for ray-trace calculations of human or animal eyes. The user enters all relevant eye specifications, and the program calculates ray segments from a (specified) external object. From the ray calculations, the program yields data on image location, image distance from the retina, retinal spot size, and effective pupil diameter. The program also allows entry of simple corrective lens systems that simulate a contact lens or ordinary spectacles. Graphics output illustrating the eye cross section, corrective lens, and rays is provided either on the CRT, thermal printer, or graphics plotter. Although the program is written in BASIC, many of the statements (particularly in the graphics section) are peculiar to the Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer.
Parallel solution of sparse one-dimensional dynamic programming problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicol, David M.
1989-01-01
Parallel computation offers the potential for quickly solving large computational problems. However, it is often a non-trivial task to effectively use parallel computers. Solution methods must sometimes be reformulated to exploit parallelism; the reformulations are often more complex than their slower serial counterparts. We illustrate these points by studying the parallelization of sparse one-dimensional dynamic programming problems, those which do not obviously admit substantial parallelization. We propose a new method for parallelizing such problems, develop analytic models which help us to identify problems which parallelize well, and compare the performance of our algorithm with existing algorithms on a multiprocessor.
Geometric intrinsic symmetries
Gozdz, A. Szulerecka, A.; Pedrak, A.
2013-08-15
The problem of geometric symmetries in the intrinsic frame of a many-body system (nucleus) is considered. An importance of symmetrization group notion is discussed. Ageneral structure of the intrinsic symmetry group structure is determined.
Multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with inexact probability distribution
Hamadameen, Abdulqader Othman; Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati
2014-06-19
This study deals with multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with uncertainty probability distribution which are defined as fuzzy assertions by ambiguous experts. The problem formulation has been presented and the two solutions strategies are; the fuzzy transformation via ranking function and the stochastic transformation when α{sup –}. cut technique and linguistic hedges are used in the uncertainty probability distribution. The development of Sen’s method is employed to find a compromise solution, supported by illustrative numerical example.
Multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with inexact probability distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamadameen, Abdulqader Othman; Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati
2014-06-01
This study deals with multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with uncertainty probability distribution which are defined as fuzzy assertions by ambiguous experts. The problem formulation has been presented and the two solutions strategies are; the fuzzy transformation via ranking function and the stochastic transformation when α-. cut technique and linguistic hedges are used in the uncertainty probability distribution. The development of Sen's method is employed to find a compromise solution, supported by illustrative numerical example.
Experience with two parallel programs solving the traveling salesman problem
Mohan, J.
1983-01-01
The traveling salesman problem is solved on CM*, a multiprocessor system, using two parallel search programs based on the branch and bound algorithm of Little, Murty, Sweeny and Karel. One of these programs is synchronous and has a master-slave process structure, while the other is asynchronous and has an egalitarian structure. The absolute execution times and the speedups of the two programs differ significantly. Their execution times differ because of the difference in their process structure. Their speedups differ because they require different amounts of computation to solve the same problem. This difference in the amount of computation is explained by their different heuristic granularities. The difference between the speedup of the asynchronous second program and linear speedup is attributed to processors idling owing to resource contention. 6 references.
Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.
"Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in this…
Gold, Maria Eugenia Leone; Brochu, Christopher A.; Norell, Mark A.
2014-01-01
The phylogenetic position of the Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is disputed - morphological characters place Gavialis as the sister to all other extant crocodylians, whereas molecular and combined analyses find Gavialis and the false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) to be sister taxa. Geometric morphometric techniques have only begun to be applied to this issue, but most of these studies have focused on the exterior of the skull. The braincase has provided useful phylogenetic information for basal crurotarsans, but has not been explored for the crown group. The Eustachian system is thought to vary phylogenetically in Crocodylia, but has not been analytically tested. To determine if gross morphology of the crocodylian braincase proves informative to the relationships of Gavialis and Tomistoma, we used two- and three-dimensional geometric morphometric approaches. Internal braincase images were obtained using high-resolution computerized tomography scans. A principal components analysis identified that the first component axis was primarily associated with size and did not show groupings that divide the specimens by phylogenetic affinity. Sliding semi-landmarks and a relative warp analysis indicate that a unique Eustachian morphology separates Gavialis from other extant members of Crocodylia. Ontogenetic expansion of the braincase results in a more dorsoventrally elongate median Eustachian canal. Changes in the shape of the Eustachian system do provide phylogenetic distinctions between major crocodylian clades. Each morphometric dataset, consisting of continuous morphological characters, was added independently to a combined cladistic analysis of discrete morphological and molecular characters. The braincase data alone produced a clade that included crocodylids and Gavialis, whereas the Eustachian data resulted in Gavialis being considered a basally divergent lineage. When each morphometric dataset was used in a combined analysis with discrete morphological and
EARLY DETECTION AND PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MCGAHAN, F.E.
THE GALENA PARK SPECIAL PROGRAM IS AN EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION TO DETECT, AT THE EARLIEST TIME, ANY STUDENT PROBLEM WHICH MAY LEAD TO DIFFICULTIES IN SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT. ALL PHASES OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES ARE PLACED UNDER ONE COORDINATOR TO EXPEDITE SERVICES TO THE CHILD IN DIFFICULTY. EARLY DETECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM…
An Interdisciplinary Program in Technical Communications: Problems Encountered.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eckman, Martha
The need for experts in technical communication is growing significantly while the number of college graduates in the field accounts for less than one percent of the need. Three major types of problems should be considered in trying to establish a technical communication program: those involving society's need for better technical communicators,…
Tsichlaki, Elina; FitzHarris, Greg
2016-01-01
Maintaining appropriate nucleus size is important for cell health, but the mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. Controlling nucleus size is a particular challenge in early development, where the nucleus must downscale in size with progressive reductive cell divisions. Here we use live and fixed imaging, micromanipulation approaches, and small molecule analyses during preimplantation mouse development to probe the mechanisms by which nucleus size is determined. We find a close correlation between cell and nuclear size at any given developmental stage, and show that experimental cytoplasmic reduction can alter nuclear size, together indicating that cell size helps dictate nuclear proportions. Additionally, however, by creating embryos with over-sized blastomeres we present evidence of a developmental program that drives nuclear downscaling independently of cell size. We show that this developmental program does not correspond with nuclear import rates, but provide evidence that PKC activity may contribute to this mechanism. We propose a model in which nuclear size regulation during early development is a multi-mode process wherein nucleus size is set by cytoplasmic factors, and fine-tuned on a cell-by-cell basis according to cell size. PMID:27320842
Tsichlaki, Elina; FitzHarris, Greg
2016-01-01
Maintaining appropriate nucleus size is important for cell health, but the mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. Controlling nucleus size is a particular challenge in early development, where the nucleus must downscale in size with progressive reductive cell divisions. Here we use live and fixed imaging, micromanipulation approaches, and small molecule analyses during preimplantation mouse development to probe the mechanisms by which nucleus size is determined. We find a close correlation between cell and nuclear size at any given developmental stage, and show that experimental cytoplasmic reduction can alter nuclear size, together indicating that cell size helps dictate nuclear proportions. Additionally, however, by creating embryos with over-sized blastomeres we present evidence of a developmental program that drives nuclear downscaling independently of cell size. We show that this developmental program does not correspond with nuclear import rates, but provide evidence that PKC activity may contribute to this mechanism. We propose a model in which nuclear size regulation during early development is a multi-mode process wherein nucleus size is set by cytoplasmic factors, and fine-tuned on a cell-by-cell basis according to cell size. PMID:27320842
Solution of mathematical programming formulations of subgame perfect equilibrium problems
Macal, C.M.; Hurter, A.P.
1992-02-12
Mathematical programming models have been developed to represent imperfectly competitive (oligopolistic) market structures and the interdependencies of decision-making units in establishing prices and production levels. The solution of these models represents an economic equilibrium. A subgame perfect equilibrium formulation explicitly considers that each agent`s strategies depend on the current state of the system; the state depends solely on previous decisions made by the economic agents. The structure of an industry-wide model that is formulated as a subgame perfect equilibrium problem is a matrix of simultaneous mathematical programming problems, where the rows represent time periods and the columns represent agents. This paper formally defines the subgame perfect equilibrium problem that includes mathematical programs for agent decision problems, and it characterizes the feasible space in a way that is conducive to the solution of the problem. The existence of equilibrium solutions on convex subspaces of the feasible region is proved, and this set is shown to contain the subgame perfect equilibrium solutions. A procedure for computing equilibrium solutions and systematically searching the subspaces is illustrated by a numerical example.
The toxic waste dump problem and a suggested insurance program
Fisher, A.
1980-01-01
The extent of the hazardous waste problem in the U.S. is explored. To emphasize the enormous scope of the problem, several recent cases involving hazardous waste disasters, including the Love Canal incident, are reviewed. Legislation related to toxic waste disposal is discussed. A Nat'l Hazardous Waste Insurance Program, based on the policies of the Nat'l Flood Insurance Program, is proposed. The rationale for government involvement in insurance provision is examined. The cost to taxpayers of this toxic waste insurance program will depend on several factors, including: the types of coverage available/ upper limits on each type of coverage/ the premium rates charged for each type of coverage/ the number and size of potential impact acres/ the number of people who would actually buy the insurance/ the actual incidence of hazardous waste damages/ and the time frame chosen for mapping all potential impact areas. (138 references)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Longuski, James M.; Mcronald, Angus D.
1988-01-01
In previous work the problem of injecting the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft from low earth orbit into their respective interplanetary trajectories has been discussed for the single stage (Centaur) vehicle. The central issue, in the event of spherically distributed injection errors, is what happens to the vehicle? The difficulties addressed in this paper involve the multi-stage problem since both Galileo and Ulysses will be utilizing the two-stage IUS system. Ulysses will also include a third stage: the PAM-S. The solution is expressed in terms of probabilities for total percentage of escape, orbit decay and reentry trajectories. Analytic solutions are found for Hill's Equations of Relative Motion (more recently called Clohessy-Wiltshire Equations) for multi-stage injections. These solutions are interpreted geometrically on the injection sphere. The analytic-geometric models compare well with numerical solutions, provide insight into the behavior of trajectories mapped on the injection sphere and simplify the numerical two-dimensional search for trajectory families.
Bayro-Corrochano, E J
2001-01-01
This paper shows the analysis and design of feedforward neural networks using the coordinate-free system of Clifford or geometric algebra. It is shown that real-, complex-, and quaternion-valued neural networks are simply particular cases of the geometric algebra multidimensional neural networks and that some of them can also be generated using support multivector machines (SMVMs). Particularly, the generation of radial basis function for neurocomputing in geometric algebra is easier using the SMVM, which allows one to find automatically the optimal parameters. The use of support vector machines in the geometric algebra framework expands its sphere of applicability for multidimensional learning. Interesting examples of nonlinear problems show the effect of the use of an adequate Clifford geometric algebra which alleviate the training of neural networks and that of SMVMs. PMID:18249926
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lachhwani, Kailash; Nehra, Suresh
2015-09-01
In this paper, we present modified fuzzy goal programming (FGP) approach and generalized MATLAB program for solving multi-level linear fractional programming problems (ML-LFPPs) based on with some major modifications in earlier FGP algorithms. In proposed modified FGP approach, solution preferences by the decision makers at each level are not considered and fuzzy goal for the decision vectors is defined using individual best solutions. The proposed modified algorithm as well as MATLAB program simplifies the earlier algorithm on ML-LFPP by eliminating solution preferences by the decision makers at each level, thereby avoiding difficulties associate with multi-level programming problems and decision deadlock situation. The proposed modified technique is simple, efficient and requires less computational efforts in comparison of earlier FGP techniques. Also, the proposed coding of generalized MATLAB program based on this modified approach for solving ML-LFPPs is the unique programming tool toward dealing with such complex mathematical problems with MATLAB. This software based program is useful and user can directly obtain compromise optimal solution of ML-LFPPs with it. The aim of this paper is to present modified FGP technique and generalized MATLAB program to obtain compromise optimal solution of ML-LFP problems in simple and efficient manner. A comparative analysis is also carried out with numerical example in order to show efficiency of proposed modified approach and to demonstrate functionality of MATLAB program.
Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling
Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.
2012-09-26
One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.
Behavior problems and group-based parent education programs.
Barlow, J; Stewart-Brown, S
2000-10-01
Behavior problems in children are an important social, educational, and health issue. The prevalence of these problems, their stability over time, their poor prognosis, and their costs to both individuals and the society, all point to the need for primary prevention and early effective interventions. A systematic review examined the effectiveness of group parent education programs that aimed to improve behavior problems in 3- to 10-year-old children. The phrase "parent education program" is used here to refer to group-based programs with a standardized format aimed at enhancing parenting skills. The term "behavior problems" is used to refer to children exhibiting externalizing problems such as temper tantrums, aggression, and noncompliance. It does not include children diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This review focused explicitly on measures of child behavioral outcomes, which are only small, albeit important, outcomes of parent education programs. Reviews focusing on other clinically relevant outcomes are also needed, including parental well-being and attitudes towards parenting. Other reviews are also needed to collate evidence concerning the effectiveness of parent education programs with other age-groups, i.e., preschoolers and adolescents, and in improving other aspects of child well-being. The review included published studies only and as such may have been influenced by a "publication bias." Inclusion criteria comprised the use of a waiting list, a no-treatment or placebo control group, and at least one standardized measure assessing the child's behavior. Only studies published after 1970 that included at least one "group-based" parent education program were included. A total of 255 primary studies were identified, but only 16 of these and 2 follow-up studies met all of the specified inclusion criteria. Critical appraisal of these 16 studies revealed considerable heterogeneity in the interventions, the populations studied, and
A convergence theory for a class of nonlinear programming problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rauch, S. W.
1973-01-01
A recent convergence theory of Elkin concerning methods for unconstrained minimization is extended to a certain class of nonlinear programming problems. As in Elkin's original approach, the analysis of a variety of step-length algorithms is treated entirely separately from that of several direction algorithms. This allows for their combination into many different methods for solving the constrained problem. These include some of the methods of Rosen and Zoutendijk. We also extend the results of Topkis and Veinott to nonconvex sets and drop their requirement of the uniform feasibility of a subsequence of the search directions.
A Hybrid Constraint Programming Approach for Nurse Rostering Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Rong; He, Fang
Due to the complexity of nurse rostering problems (NRPs), Constraint Programming (CP) approaches on their own have shown to be ineffective in solving these highly constrained problems. We investigate a two-stage hybrid CP approach on real world benchmark NRPs. In the first stage, a constraint satisfaction model is used to generate weekly rosters consist of high quality shift sequences satisfying a subset of constraints. An iterative forward search is then adapted to extend them to build complete feasible solutions. Variable and value selection heuristics are employed to improve the efficiency. In the second stage, a simple Variable Neighborhood Search is used to quickly improve the solution obtained. The basic idea of the hybrid approach is based on the observations that high quality nurse rosters consist of high quality shift sequences. By decomposing the problems into solvable sub-problems for CP, the search space of the original problems are significantly reduced. The results on benchmark problems demonstrate the efficiency of this hybrid CP approach when compared to the state-of-the-art approaches in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindlein, Norbert; Leuchs, Gerd
This chapter shall discuss the basics and the applications of geometrical optical methods in modern optics. Geometrical optics has a long tradition and some ideas are many centuries old. Nevertheless, the invention of modern personal computers which can perform several million floating-point operations in a second also revolutionized the methods of geometrical optics and so several analytical methods lost importance whereas numerical methods such as ray tracing became very important. Therefore, the emphasis in this chapter is also on modern numerical methods such as ray tracing and some other systematic methods such as the paraxial matrix theory.
Dynamic Programming for Structured Continuous Markov Decision Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Richard; Feng, Zhengzhu
2004-01-01
We describe an approach for exploiting structure in Markov Decision Processes with continuous state variables. At each step of the dynamic programming, the state space is dynamically partitioned into regions where the value function is the same throughout the region. We first describe the algorithm for piecewise constant representations. We then extend it to piecewise linear representations, using techniques from POMDPs to represent and reason about linear surfaces efficiently. We show that for complex, structured problems, our approach exploits the natural structure so that optimal solutions can be computed efficiently.
NEWBOX: A computer program for parameter estimation in diffusion problems
Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Godbee, H.W.; Joy, D.S. )
1989-01-01
In the analysis of experiments to determine amounts of material transferred form 1 medium to another (e.g., the escape of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials from solids), there are at least 3 important considerations. These are (1) is the transport amenable to treatment by established mass transport theory; (2) do methods exist to find estimates of the parameters which will give a best fit, in some sense, to the experimental data; and (3) what computational procedures are available for evaluating the theoretical expressions. The authors have made the assumption that established mass transport theory is an adequate model for the situations under study. Since the solutions of the diffusion equation are usually nonlinear in some parameters (diffusion coefficient, reaction rate constants, etc.), use of a method of parameter adjustment involving first partial derivatives can be complicated and prone to errors in the computation of the derivatives. In addition, the parameters must satisfy certain constraints; for example, the diffusion coefficient must remain positive. For these reasons, a variant of the constrained simplex method of M. J. Box has been used to estimate parameters. It is similar, but not identical, to the downhill simplex method of Nelder and Mead. In general, they calculate the fraction of material transferred as a function of time from expressions obtained by the inversion of the Laplace transform of the fraction transferred, rather than by taking derivatives of a calculated concentration profile. With the above approaches to the 3 considerations listed at the outset, they developed a computer program NEWBOX, usable on a personal computer, to calculate the fractional release of material from 4 different geometrical shapes (semi-infinite medium, finite slab, finite circular cylinder, and sphere), accounting for several different boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiti, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Sankar Kumar
2016-05-01
In this paper, a Multi-Choice Stochastic Bi-Level Programming Problem (MCSBLPP) is considered where all the parameters of constraints are followed by normal distribution. The cost coefficients of the objective functions are multi-choice types. At first, all the probabilistic constraints are transformed into deterministic constraints using stochastic programming approach. Further, a general transformation technique with the help of binary variables is used to transform the multi-choice type cost coefficients of the objective functions of Decision Makers(DMs). Then the transformed problem is considered as a deterministic multi-choice bi-level programming problem. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the usefulness of the paper.
Solving Fractional Programming Problems based on Swarm Intelligence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.
2014-04-01
This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myers-Breslin, Linda
Addressing the issues and problems faced by writing program administrators (WPAs) and writing center directors (WCDs), and how they can most effectively resolve the political, pedagogical, and financial questions that arise, this book presents essays from experienced WPAs and WCDs at a wide variety of institutions that offer scenarios and case…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasant, P.; Ganesan, T.; Elamvazuthi, I.
2012-11-01
A fairly reasonable result was obtained for non-linear engineering problems using the optimization techniques such as neural network, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy logic independently in the past. Increasingly, hybrid techniques are being used to solve the non-linear problems to obtain better output. This paper discusses the use of neuro-genetic hybrid technique to optimize the geological structure mapping which is known as seismic survey. It involves the minimization of objective function subject to the requirement of geophysical and operational constraints. In this work, the optimization was initially performed using genetic programming, and followed by hybrid neuro-genetic programming approaches. Comparative studies and analysis were then carried out on the optimized results. The results indicate that the hybrid neuro-genetic hybrid technique produced better results compared to the stand-alone genetic programming method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paraschiv, Irina; Olley, J. Gregory
This paper describes the "Problem Solving for Life" training program which trains adolescents and adults with mental retardation in skills for solving social problems. The program requires group participants to solve social problems by practicing two prerequisite skills (relaxation and positive self-statements) and four problem solving steps: (1)…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lachhwani, Kailash; Poonia, Mahaveer Prasad
2012-08-01
In this paper, we show a procedure for solving multilevel fractional programming problems in a large hierarchical decentralized organization using fuzzy goal programming approach. In the proposed method, the tolerance membership functions for the fuzzily described numerator and denominator part of the objective functions of all levels as well as the control vectors of the higher level decision makers are respectively defined by determining individual optimal solutions of each of the level decision makers. A possible relaxation of the higher level decision is considered for avoiding decision deadlock due to the conflicting nature of objective functions. Then, fuzzy goal programming approach is used for achieving the highest degree of each of the membership goal by minimizing negative deviational variables. We also provide sensitivity analysis with variation of tolerance values on decision vectors to show how the solution is sensitive to the change of tolerance values with the help of a numerical example.
Symbolic programming language in molecular multicenter integral problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safouhi, Hassan; Bouferguene, Ahmed
It is well known that in any ab initio molecular orbital (MO) calculation, the major task involves the computation of molecular integrals, among which the computation of three-center nuclear attraction and Coulomb integrals is the most frequently encountered. As the molecular system becomes larger, computation of these integrals becomes one of the most laborious and time-consuming steps in molecular systems calculation. Improvement of the computational methods of molecular integrals would be indispensable to further development in computational studies of large molecular systems. To develop fast and accurate algorithms for the numerical evaluation of these integrals over B functions, we used nonlinear transformations for improving convergence of highly oscillatory integrals. These methods form the basis of new methods for solving various problems that were unsolvable otherwise and have many applications as well. To apply these nonlinear transformations, the integrands should satisfy linear differential equations with coefficients having asymptotic power series in the sense of Poincaré, which in their turn should satisfy some limit conditions. These differential equations are very difficult to obtain explicitly. In the case of molecular integrals, we used a symbolic programming language (MAPLE) to demonstrate that all the conditions required to apply these nonlinear transformation methods are satisfied. Differential equations are obtained explicitly, allowing us to demonstrate that the limit conditions are also satisfied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grebowsky, G. J.
1982-01-01
Present LANDSAT data formats are reviewed to clarify how the geodetic location and registration capabilities were defined for P-tape products and RBV data. Since there is only one geometric model used in the master data processor, geometric location accuracy of P-tape products depends on the absolute accuracy of the model and registration accuracy is determined by the stability of the model. Due primarily to inaccuracies in data provided by the LANDSAT attitude management system, desired accuracies are obtained only by using ground control points and a correlation process. The verification of system performance with regards to geodetic location requires the capability to determine pixel positions of map points in a P-tape array. Verification of registration performance requires the capability to determine pixel positions of common points (not necessarily map points) in 2 or more P-tape arrays for a given world reference system scene. Techniques for registration verification can be more varied and automated since map data are not required. The verification of LACIE extractions is used as an example.
Teaching Introductory Programming to IS Students: Java Problems and Pitfalls
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pendergast, Mark O.
2006-01-01
This paper examines the impact the use of the Java programming language has had on the way our students learn to program and the success they achieve. The importance of a properly constructed first course in programming cannot be overstated. A course well experienced will leave students with good programming habits, the ability to learn on their…
LP-DIT interchange tool for linear programming problems
Makowski, M.
1994-12-31
LP-DIT is a small library that provides an easy handling of LP problem data between a problem generator, solver and other modules (problem modification, generation of multi-criteria problem, report writers, etc). So far LP-DIT has been implemented with 4 LP (including one MIP) solvers and is being used as a module for model-based Decision Support System. LP-DIT will be released as a public domain soft-ware in the coming weeks.
Difficulty in Establishing Problem Solving Programs within Regular Curriculums.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bogue, Carole
Many students are not skilled "thinkers" or "problem solvers." Extensive research has been conducted to describe the mental processes involved in problem solving in the hope of establishing a theoretical basis for training students to become more adept at reasoning. Certain problems become evident, however, when reviewing literature for designing…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artem'eva, L. A.
2014-12-01
The parametric problem of equilibrium programming is examined. The mathematical programming problem, the search for a saddle-point, the multicriteria search for a Pareto point, etc. are particular cases of this parametric problem. The primal and dual variants of the extragradient method are proposed as a tool for searching for equilibrium points. The convergence of both variants is analyzed.
Finding Trustworthy Experts to Help Problem Solving on the Programming Learning Forum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng
2010-01-01
The most important thing for learners in Programming Language subject is problem solving. During the practical programming project, various problems may occur and learners usually need consultation from the senior programmers (i.e. the experts) to assist them in solving the problems. Thus, the inquiry-based learning with learning forum is applied…
Hinker, P.; Hansen, C.
1993-09-01
An algorithm is presented which describes an application independent method for reducing the number of polygonal primitives required to faithfully represent an object. Reducing polygon count without a corresponding reduction in object detail is important for: achieving interactive frame rates in scientific visualization, reducing mass storage requirements, and facilitating the transmission of large, multi-timestep geometric data sets. This paper shows how coplanar and nearly coplanar polygons can be merged into larger complex polygons and re-triangulated into fewer simple polygons than originally required. The notable contributions of this paper are: (1) a method for quickly grouping polygons into nearly coplanar sets, (2) a fast approach for merging coplanar polygon sets and, (3) a simple, robust triangulation method for polygons created by 1 and 2. The central idea of the algorithm is the notion of treating polygonal data as a collection of segments and removing redundant segments to quickly form polygon hulls which represent the merged coplanar sets.
COYOTE: a finite-element computer program for nonlinear heat-conduction problems
Gartling, D.K.
1982-10-01
COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.
This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…
Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang
2016-01-01
We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient. PMID:27547676
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frey, James S.
This review examines the various undergraduate study abroad programs and the problems involved in evaluating the programs for the granting of transfer credits. The five major factors influencing the credit evaluation decision are enumerated, and their importance is discussed. (MML)
Modern Problems: Sociology Units. An Experimental Program for Grade 12.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Marshall; Fennig, Lois
GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Sociology; modern problems. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide contains two units, one on the problems of minority groups and the other on social pathology. Sub-sections of unit 2 include crime and criminals, criminal investigation, gun control, U.S. criminal law, criminal procedure,…
Effects of Language Features, Templates, and Procedural Skills on Problem-Solving In Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kong, Siu Cheung; Chung, Choi Man
1989-01-01
Presents a study that investigates the knowledge and skills that relate to computer programing. Finds that knowledge and procedural skills are related to computer programing. Recommends that since instruction in computer programing facilitates problem-solving, computer programing courses should be augmented to include teaching template and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keating, Xiaofen Deng
2003-01-01
This paper aims to examine current nationwide youth fitness test programs, address problems embedded in the programs, and possible solutions. The current Fitnessgram, President's Challenge, and YMCA youth fitness test programs were selected to represent nationwide youth fitness test programs. Sponsors of the nationwide youth fitness test programs…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larmar, Stephen; Gatfield, Terry
2007-01-01
The Early Impact (EI) program is an early intervention and prevention program for reducing the incidence of conduct problems in pre-school aged children. The EI intervention framework is ecological in design and includes universal and indicated components. This paper delineates key principles and associated strategies that underpin the EI program.…
UNITE and Management Training Program for Workplace Communication & Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaufman, Sanda
This curriculum provides materials for a training program designed to enable front-line supervisors and union stewards to minimize production disruptions stemming from ongoing, unresolved conflicts among production workers. The program accomplishes this goal by giving participants the tools and confidence to design, implement, and run a process…
Special Concretes and Field Problems; Instructor's Guide; Pilot Program Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Portland Cement Association, Cleveland, OH.
This guide, prepared for a 2-year program in junior colleges and technical institutes, is designed for a national program to train persons for employment as technicians in the cement and concrete industries. Included are 48 session oultines divided into four units of study. Each unit contains session objectives and outlines, presentation outlines,…
Robust Programming Problems Based on the Mean-Variance Model Including Uncertainty Factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasuike, Takashi; Ishii, Hiroaki
2009-01-01
This paper considers robust programming problems based on the mean-variance model including uncertainty sets and fuzzy factors. Since these problems are not well-defined problems due to fuzzy factors, it is hard to solve them directly. Therefore, introducing chance constraints, fuzzy goals and possibility measures, the proposed models are transformed into the deterministic equivalent problems. Furthermore, in order to solve these equivalent problems efficiently, the solution method is constructed introducing the mean-absolute deviation and doing the equivalent transformations.
Developing Student Programming and Problem-Solving Skills with Visual Basic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegle, Del
2009-01-01
Although most computer users will never need to write a computer program, many students enjoy the challenge of creating one. Computer programming enhances students' problem solving by forcing students to break a problem into its component pieces and reassemble it in a generic format that can be understood by a nonsentient entity. It promotes…
The Effects of Computer Programming on Problem-Solving Skills and Attitudes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dalton, David W.; Goodrum, David A.
1991-01-01
Describes a study that investigated the effects of computer programing activities, supplemented with problem-solving strategy instruction, on programing skills and on learner attitudes toward computers and toward problem-solving skills. The instruction of elementary students in LOGO and junior high students in BASIC is described, and further…
Effects of Pascal and FORTRAN Programming on the Problem-Solving Abilities of College Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Choi, Won Sik; Repman, Judi
1993-01-01
Describes a study that was conducted to determine whether learning to program a computer in Pascal or FORTRAN improved problem-solving skills of college students when compared to a control group and to determine which programing language was more effective in the development of problem-solving abilities. (26 references) (LRW)
Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.
2010-01-01
School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills…
Documentation as Problem Solving for Literacy Outreach Programs
Girill, T R
2004-07-06
Age-appropriate technical writing lessons for underperforming high-school students can offer them an innovative, ''authentic'' way to improve how they read and write. Thus the techniques and principles of effective technical communication routinely applied at work also provide a positive response to one of today's great educational challenges. This workshop shows participants how to (1) introduce English and science teachers to the value of technical writing as a response to school literacy problems, (2) prepare plausible practice exercises to help students improve their basic literacy, and (3) recognize and respond to known literacy outreach pitfalls. Every effective literacy outreach project based on technical writing needs to address four key problems.
Application of the program package TURBO problem solver for some fluid dynamics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belotserkovskaya, M. S.; Pronina, A. P.; Fortova, S. V.; Shepelev, V. V.
2016-06-01
A technology for building parallel applications for numerical simulation based on hyperbolic partial differential equations is described. A formalization of problems and methods that makes it possible to describe new problems and methods for their solution by configuring the universal technology for specific cases is proposed. Results of numerical simulation of spatial flows in shear layers of a compressible inviscid perfect medium and of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are presented.
Modern Problems Economic Units. A Program for Grade Twelve.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Marshall; Hutton, Joseph
GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Modern problems, economic units. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material includes an outline of the Bloomington school philosophy, identification of main areas of modern economics, basic objectives, and techniques for evaluating objectives. The guide covers six units: a) importance…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Durst, Lincoln K., Ed.
This is Part III of the first volume of the proceedings of the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics (CUPM) Geometry Conference, held at Santa Barbara in June, 1967. The purpose of the conference was to consider the status of geometry in colleges at the undergraduate level. The conference, attended by undergraduate mathematics…
Proof test of the computer program BUCKY for plasticity problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, James P.
1994-01-01
A theoretical equation describing the elastic-plastic deformation of a cantilever beam subject to a constant pressure is developed. The theoretical result is compared numerically to the computer program BUCKY for the case of an elastic-perfectly plastic specimen. It is shown that the theoretical and numerical results compare favorably in the plastic range. Comparisons are made to another research code to further validate the BUCKY results. This paper serves as a quality test for the computer program BUCKY developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.
International health program: preventing health problems associated with living abroad.
Butcher, Carol A
2004-02-01
1. The components of the international health program consist of identifying health risks overseas, the availability of the medical resources, the assessment of the medical facility, primary care, as well as the pre-departure health evaluations. 2. The organization should develop and implement standards of care while working toward maintaining and improving those standards to achieve an innovative, effective international medical program. This should be linked by a top down commitment to insure success. 3. The implementation of the emergency response plan will help support employees and their family members while working abroad if a serious illness or injury should occur. PMID:14979618
Molecular solutions to the binary integer programming problem based on DNA computation.
Yeh, Chung-Wei; Chu, Chih-Ping; Wu, Kee-Rong
2006-01-01
Binary optimization is a widely investigated topic in integer linear programming. This study proposes a DNA-based computing algorithm for solving the significantly large binary integer programming (BIP) problem. The proposed approach is based upon Adleman and Lipton's DNA operations to solve the BIP problem. The potential of DNA computation for the BIP problem is promising given the operational time complexity of O(nxk). PMID:16229936
Higher order sensitivity of solutions to convex programming problems without strict complementarity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malanowski, Kazimierz
1988-01-01
Consideration is given to a family of convex programming problems which depend on a vector parameter. It is shown that the solutions of the problems and the associated Lagrange multipliers are arbitrarily many times directionally differentiable functions of the parameter, provided that the data of the problems are sufficiently regular. The characterizations of the respective derivatives are given.
Solving mixed integer nonlinear programming problems using spiral dynamics optimization algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kania, Adhe; Sidarto, Kuntjoro Adji
2016-02-01
Many engineering and practical problem can be modeled by mixed integer nonlinear programming. This paper proposes to solve the problem with modified spiral dynamics inspired optimization method of Tamura and Yasuda. Four test cases have been examined, including problem in engineering and sport. This method succeeds in obtaining the optimal result in all test cases.
Patterns of Problem Solving and Its Peer Teaching Program: An Interdisciplinary Innovation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manus, Lee Aura; Zipser, Dean
An interdisciplinary course in problem solving, entitled "patterns of problem solving," and its unique peer program offered at the University of California, Los Angeles, are described. The emphasis in the subject matter and approach is to expose the student to the wide range of alternative problem solving techniques and to enable the student to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lower, Stephen K.
A brief overview of CHEMEX--a problem-solving, tutorial style computer-assisted instructional course--is provided and sample problems are offered. In CHEMEX, students receive problems in advance and attempt to solve them before moving through the computer program, which assists them in overcoming difficulties and serves as a review mechanism.…
Prevention of ADHD Related Problems: A Universal Preschool Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christiansen, Hanna; Hirsch, Oliver; König, Anika; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Roehrle, Bernd
2015-01-01
Purpose: Early onset of behavioral disorders is predictive of long term adverse outcomes. There are some indicated and selective early prevention programs for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common behavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this paper is to present a universal preschool…
Step and Hip, Humanistic Programs for Problem Secondary Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Graduate School of Education.
Alternative programs in open education for student teachers in both the Department and the Graduate School of Education at the University of Utah are making substantial contributions to promoting growth in education students; genuine interpersonal relationships between themselves and their students; and humanistic values, attitudes, and behaviors.…
Reconstructing Program Theories: Methods Available and Problems To Be Solved.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leeuw, Frans L.
2003-01-01
Discusses methods for reconstructing theories underlying programs and policies, focusing on three approaches: (1) an empirical approach that focuses on interviews, documents, and argumentational analysis; (2) an approach based on strategic assessment, group dynamics, and dialogue; and (3) an approach based on cognitive and organizational…
PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING--PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
VALDMAN, ALBERT
THE RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED DURING THE PAST 6 YEARS IN SELF-INSTRUCTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES HAVE LED RESEARCHERS TO CONCLUDE THAT TOTAL PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION SEEMS PRODUCTIVE ONLY IN CASES WHERE THE TERMINAL BEHAVIOR TO BE ACHIEVED IS VERY LIMITED. EXPERIMENTS HAVE SHOWN THAT IT IS MOST USEFUL IN MODULES AT EARLY LEVELS FOR TEACHING…
Deviant Peer Influences in Programs for Youth Problems and Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.; Dishion, Thomas J., Ed.; Lansford, Jennifer E., Ed.
2006-01-01
Most interventions for at-risk youth are group based. Yet, emerging research indicates that young people often learn to become deviant by interacting with deviant peers. In this important volume, leading intervention and prevention experts from psychology, education, criminology, and related fields analyze how, and to what extent, programs that…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodbury, R. F.; Oppenheim, I. J.
1987-01-01
Cognitive robot systems are ones in which sensing and representation occur, from which task plans and tactics are determined. Such a robot system accomplishes a task after being told what to do, but determines for itself how to do it. Cognition is required when the work environment is uncontrolled, when contingencies are prevalent, or when task complexity is large; it is useful in any robotic mission. A number of distinguishing features can be associated with cognitive robotics, and one emphasized here is the role of artificial intelligence in knowledge representation and in planning. While space telerobotics may elude some of the problems driving cognitive robotics, it shares many of the same demands, and it can be assumed that capabilities developed for cognitive robotics can be employed advantageously for telerobotics in general. The top level problem is task planning, and it is appropriate to introduce a hierarchical view of control. Presented with certain mission objectives, the system must generate plans (typically) at the strategic, tactical, and reflexive levels. The structure by which knowledge is used to construct and update these plans endows the system with its cognitive attributes, and with the ability to deal with contingencies, changes, unknowns, and so on. Issues of representation and reasoning which are absolutely fundamental to robot manipulation, decisions based upon geometry, are discussed here, not AI task planning per se.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Kwang Sun; Choe, Kyu Sik; Choi, Seongwook; Park, Sang Yong; Park, Young-June
2013-01-01
This paper reports a study on the programming characteristics of the TANOS (Ti gate - Al2O3-Si3N4-SiO2-Si) device using a 3-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulation. The STI (Shallow Trench Isolation) structure is considered in TANOS device simulation. The program characteristics are investigated in various active space and gate dimensions (width and channel length) using numerical simulation. It is found from the simulation that the STI effect becomes more important as the device size is scaled down. Since the STI effect is dependent on the channel width, length, and STI width, the framework of 3D simulation is crucial for scaled TANOS device design.
A Program for Solving the Brain Ischemia Problem
DeGracia, Donald J.
2013-01-01
Our recently described nonlinear dynamical model of cell injury is here applied to the problems of brain ischemia and neuroprotection. We discuss measurement of global brain ischemia injury dynamics by time course analysis. Solutions to proposed experiments are simulated using hypothetical values for the model parameters. The solutions solve the global brain ischemia problem in terms of “master bifurcation diagrams” that show all possible outcomes for arbitrary durations of all lethal cerebral blood flow (CBF) decrements. The global ischemia master bifurcation diagrams: (1) can map to a single focal ischemia insult, and (2) reveal all CBF decrements susceptible to neuroprotection. We simulate measuring a neuroprotectant by time course analysis, which revealed emergent nonlinear effects that set dynamical limits on neuroprotection. Using over-simplified stroke geometry, we calculate a theoretical maximum protection of approximately 50% recovery. We also calculate what is likely to be obtained in practice and obtain 38% recovery; a number close to that often reported in the literature. The hypothetical examples studied here illustrate the use of the nonlinear cell injury model as a fresh avenue of approach that has the potential, not only to solve the brain ischemia problem, but also to advance the technology of neuroprotection. PMID:24961411
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaakob, Shamshul Bahar; Watada, Junzo
In this paper, a hybrid neural network approach to solve mixed integer quadratic bilevel programming problems is proposed. Bilevel programming problems arise when one optimization problem, the upper problem, is constrained by another optimization, the lower problem. The mixed integer quadratic bilevel programming problem is transformed into a double-layered neural network. The combination of a genetic algorithm (GA) and a meta-controlled Boltzmann machine (BM) enables us to formulate a hybrid neural network approach to solving bilevel programming problems. The GA is used to generate the feasible partial solutions of the upper level and to provide the parameters for the lower level. The meta-controlled BM is employed to cope with the lower level problem. The lower level solution is transmitted to the upper level. This procedure enables us to obtain the whole upper level solution. The iterative processes can converge on the complete solution of this problem to generate an optimal one. The proposed method leads the mixed integer quadratic bilevel programming problem to a global optimal solution. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the application of the method in a power system environment, which shows that the algorithm is feasible and advantageous.
The Child Development Program: Preventing and Remediating Learning Problems (with Appendix).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levine, Suzanne Sosna
The Child Development Program at John Adams School in North Brunswick, New Jersey, was designed to be an immediate intervention for children with learning problems in the early elementary grades. This two-volume guide describes the work done in the program and how the program can be replicated. The first book details characteristics of the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christober, C.; Rajan, Asir
2011-01-01
This paper presents a new approach to solve the short-term unit commitment problem using An Evolutionary Programming Based tabu search method with cooling and banking constraints. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by using the evolutionary programming method and other conventional methods like dynamic programming, lagrangian relaxation.
A Computer Program for the Management of Prescription-Based Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cotter, Patricia M.; Gumtow, Robert H.
1991-01-01
The Prescription Management Program, a software program using Apple's HyperCard on a MacIntosh, was developed to simplify the creation, storage, modification, and general management of prescription-based problems. Pharmacy instructors may customize the program to serve their individual teaching needs. (Author/DB)
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
How Does Early Feedback in an Online Programming Course Change Problem Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebrahimi, Alireza
2012-01-01
How does early feedback change the programming problem solving in an online environment and help students choose correct approaches? This study was conducted in a sample of students learning programming in an online course entitled Introduction to C++ and OOP (Object Oriented Programming) using the ANGEL learning management system platform. My…
Bellingham Bay action program: Initial data summaries and problem identification
Decker, D.S.; Sonnerup, R.; Greene, J.J.
1989-08-01
The report provides a synthesis of information describing the geographic extent and severity of estuarine contamination in Bellingham Bay within Puget Sound in Washington State. Summaries of existing data are provided for chemical contamination of sediment and biota, microbial contamination, eutrophication and contaminant sources. Original, summarized, tabulated, and mapped data are presented. The objective of the report is to provide a mechanism for comprehensively evaluating pollution problems in the more urbanized embayments and for providing a basis for prioritizing corrective actions. A decision making framework is presented for evaluating and prioritizing both sub-areas within Bellingham Bay and specific contaminant sources.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harder, Amy; Moore, Austen; Mazurkewicz, Melissa; Benge, Matt
2013-01-01
Needs assessments are an important tool for informing organizational development efforts in Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify problems faced by county units within UF/IFAS Extension during county program reviews. The findings were drawn from the reports created after five county units experienced program reviews in…
Helping solve Georgia's water problems - the USGS Cooperative Water Program
Clarke, John S.
2006-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) addresses a wide variety of water issues in the State of Georgia through the Cooperative Water Program (CWP). As the primary Federal science agency for water-resource information, the USGS monitors the quantity and quality of water in the Nation's rivers and aquifers, assesses the sources and fate of contaminants in aquatic systems, collects and analyzes data on aquatic ecosystems, develops tools to improve the application of hydrologic information, and ensures that its information and tools are available to all potential users. This broad, diverse mission cannot be accomplished effectively without the contributions of the CWP.
Carbon dioxide problem: DOE program and a general assessment
Abarbanel, H.; Chamberlain, J.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Nierenberg, W.; Ruderman, M.
1980-10-01
From the view of a potential national or international policy on CO/sub 2/, progress towards these goals is reported along with suggestions for additions to and implementation of the present work. After the introduction, conclusions and recommendations are presented. The third and fourth sections contain discussions of the present research programs on the carbon cycle and on climate modeling. The fifth section considers physical effects of CO/sub 2/-induced climate change that may be of social or economic importance. The last section considers some early warning signals for climate changes due to increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/.
Wos, L.; McCune, W.
1988-01-01
In this paper, we offer a set of problems for evaluating the power of automated theorem-proving programs and the potential of new ideas. Since the problems published in the proceedings of the first CADE conference proved to be so useful, and since researchers are now far more disposed to implementing and testing their ideas, a new set of problems to complement those that have been widely studied is in order. In general, the new problems provide a far greater challenge for an automated theorem-proving program than those in the first set do. Indeed, to our knowledge, five of the six problems we propose for study have never been proved with a theorem-proving program. For each problem, we give a set of statements that can easily be translated into a standard set of clauses. We also state each problem in its mathematical and logical form. In many cases, we also provide a proof of the theorem from which a problem is taken so that one can measure a program's progress in its attempt to solve the problem. Two of the theorems we discuss are of especial interest in that they answer questions that had been open concerning the constructibility of two types of combinator. We also include a brief description of a new strategy for restricting the application of paramodulation. All of the problems we propose for study emphasize the role of equality. This paper is tutorial in nature.
First results, problems of French deep gasification program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaussens, P.
1983-01-01
The development of a technology for the gasification of deep coal reserves that are technically and economically not exploitable by classic mining methods was investigated. The principal problem is the very low permeability of the deep coal which makes it necessary to create an artificial connection between the injection and production wells which is done of hydrofracturing method. The possibilities of an electrical connection are studied. Difficulties related to the spontaneous ignition of the coal and the creation of a backward combustion are revealed. Exploration of the factors that might limit the quality of the gas produced or the quantity of coal extracted by doublet is suggested which should lead to obtaining criteria for site selection. Knowledge of the natural conditions of a site is essential for the decision and the selection of the operating method. The characterization can be obtained by using exploration methods such as coring, logging, surface geophysics.
Identification of student misconceptions in genetics problem solving via computer program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Browning, Mark E.; Lehman, James D.
A genetics problem practice program and tutor on microcomputer was used by 135 undergraduate education majors enrolled in an introductory biology course at Purdue University. The program presented four genetics problems, two monohybrid and two dihybrid, and required the users to predict the number and type of each class of offspring. Student responses were recorded on diskette and analyzed for evidence of misconceptions and difficulties in the genetics problem-solving process. Three main areas of difficulty were identified: difficulties with computational skills, difficulties in the determination of gametes, and inappropriate application of previous learning to new problem situations.
Gartling, D.K.; Hogan, R.E.
1994-10-01
The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE II, is presented in detail. COYOTE II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems and other types of diffusion problems. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in COYOTE II are also outlined. Instructions for use of the code are documented in SAND94-1179; examples of problems analyzed with the code are provided in SAND94-1180.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elkins, John, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.
The conference papers in this collection are grouped under the following topics: behavior problems in context; interpersonal relationships; initiatives by systems and schools; and programs in special settings. Papers included are: (1) National Trends in Discipline Policy Development (Roger Slee); (2) Balancing: The Protocols of Discipline (William…
Goldberg, P.W.
1993-04-01
In this paper we consider the problem of learning the positions of spheres in metric spaces, given as data randomly drawn points classified according to whether they are internal or external to an unknown sphere. The particular metrics under consideration are geometrical shape metrics, and the results are intended to be applicable to the problem of learning to identify a shape from related shapes classified according to whether they resemble it visually. While it is typically NP-hard to locate a central point for a hypothesis sphere, we find that it is however often possible to obtain a non-spherical hypothesis which can accurately predict whether further random points lie within the unknown sphere. We exhibit algorithms which achieve this, and in the process indicate useful general techniques for computational learning. Finally we exhibit a natural shape metric and show that it defines a class of spheres not predictable in this sense, subject to standard cryptographic assumptions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapia, R. A.; Vanrooy, D. L.
1976-01-01
A quasi-Newton method is presented for minimizing a nonlinear function while constraining the variables to be nonnegative and sum to one. The nonnegativity constraints were eliminated by working with the squares of the variables and the resulting problem was solved using Tapia's general theory of quasi-Newton methods for constrained optimization. A user's guide for a computer program implementing this algorithm is provided.
A case study in programming a quantum annealer for hard operational planning problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Venturelli, Davide; O'Gorman, Bryan; Do, Minh B.; Prystay, Elicia M.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.
2015-01-01
We report on a case study in programming an early quantum annealer to attack optimization problems related to operational planning. While a number of studies have looked at the performance of quantum annealers on problems native to their architecture, and others have examined performance of select problems stemming from an application area, ours is one of the first studies of a quantum annealer's performance on parametrized families of hard problems from a practical domain. We explore two different general mappings of planning problems to quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems, and apply them to two parametrized families of planning problems, navigation-type and scheduling-type. We also examine two more compact, but problem-type specific, mappings to QUBO, one for the navigation-type planning problems and one for the scheduling-type planning problems. We study embedding properties and parameter setting and examine their effect on the efficiency with which the quantum annealer solves these problems. From these results, we derive insights useful for the programming and design of future quantum annealers: problem choice, the mapping used, the properties of the embedding, and the annealing profile all matter, each significantly affecting the performance.
Arithmetical Problem Solving: A Program Demonstration by Teachers of the Mentally Handicapped.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cawley, John F.; Goodman, John O.
The purposes of the study were to investigate the effects of the combination of a trained teacher and a planned program on the problem solving abilities of mentally handicapped children, to develop measures of verbal problem solving (IDES) and arithmetic understanding (PUT), and to analyze the interrelationships among primary mental abilities and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joachimsthaler, Erich A.; Stam, Antonie
1990-01-01
Mathematical programing formulas are introduced as new approaches to solve the classification problem in discriminant analysis. The research literature is reviewed, and an illustration using a real-world classification problem is provided. Issues relevant to potential uses of these formulations are discussed. (TJH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlundt, David G.; Flannery, Mary Ellen; Davis, Dianne L.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Pichert, James W.
1999-01-01
Examines a two-week summer program using problem-based learning and behavior therapy to help adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes improve their ability to cope with obstacles to dietary management. Improvements were observed in self-efficacy, problem-solving skills, and self-reported coping strategies. No significant changes were observed…
Learning Problem-Solving through Making Games at the Game Design and Learning Summer Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akcaoglu, Mete
2014-01-01
Today's complex and fast-evolving world necessitates young students to possess design and problem-solving skills more than ever. One alternative method of teaching children problem-solving or thinking skills has been using computer programming, and more recently, game-design tasks. In this pre-experimental study, a group of middle school…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reid, Barbara J., Ed.
This monograph presents nine articles that describe innovative programs within small special education teacher education programs at a variety of institutions of higher education. The papers are: (1) "Furman University: A Field-Based Model for Small Liberal Arts Teacher Education Programs" (Shirley A. Ritter and Lesley A. Quast); (2) "Providing a…
Developing a Pedagogical Problem Solving View for Mathematics Teachers with Two Reflection Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kramarski, Bracha
2009-01-01
The study investigated the effects of two reflection support programs on elementary school mathematics teachers' pedagogical problem solving view. Sixty-two teachers participated in a professional development program. Thirty teachers were assigned to the self-questioning (S_Q) training and thirty two teachers were assigned to the reflection…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm
2012-01-01
An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldhusen, John F.; And Others
1992-01-01
The COMET summer residential program at Purdue University (Indiana) offers gifted and talented youth in grades 4-6 a week of intensive study in a single content area. Courses stress specific problem-solving skills and development of a rich knowledge base. Extensive program evaluation by students, teachers, counselors, and parents was highly…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allinjawi, Arwa A.; Al-Nuaim, Hana A.; Krause, Paul
2014-01-01
Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newby, Michael; Nguyen, ThuyUyen H.
2010-01-01
This paper examines the effectiveness of a technique that first appeared as a Teaching Tip in the Journal of Information Systems Education. In this approach the same problem is used in every programming assignment within a course, but the students are required to use different programming techniques. This approach was used in an intermediate C++…
A Pilot Study of a Self-Voicing Computer Program for Prealgebra Math Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beal, Carole R.; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Smith, Derrick W.
2011-01-01
Fourteen students with visual impairments in Grades 5-12 participated in the field-testing of AnimalWatch-VI-Beta. This computer program delivered 12 prealgebra math problems and hints through a self-voicing audio feature. The students provided feedback about how the computer program can be improved and expanded to make it accessible to all users.…
RURAL YOUTH-WORK PROGRAMS--PROBLEMS OF SIZE AND SCOPE.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MUNK, MICHAEL
DEMOGRAPHIC AND GEOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS IN RURAL YOUTH EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY PROGRAMS ARE PRESENTED. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS INDICATES A HIGH PROPORTION OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DIRECTED IN SUBURBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF THE NATION. TRANSPORTATION, WORK SITE AVAILABILITY, AND EXISTING HUMAN RESOURCES ARE LISTED AS MAJOR PROBLEMS…
Averaging and Linear Programming in Some Singularly Perturbed Problems of Optimal Control
Gaitsgory, Vladimir; Rossomakhine, Sergey
2015-04-15
The paper aims at the development of an apparatus for analysis and construction of near optimal solutions of singularly perturbed (SP) optimal controls problems (that is, problems of optimal control of SP systems) considered on the infinite time horizon. We mostly focus on problems with time discounting criteria but a possibility of the extension of results to periodic optimization problems is discussed as well. Our consideration is based on earlier results on averaging of SP control systems and on linear programming formulations of optimal control problems. The idea that we exploit is to first asymptotically approximate a given problem of optimal control of the SP system by a certain averaged optimal control problem, then reformulate this averaged problem as an infinite-dimensional linear programming (LP) problem, and then approximate the latter by semi-infinite LP problems. We show that the optimal solution of these semi-infinite LP problems and their duals (that can be found with the help of a modification of an available LP software) allow one to construct near optimal controls of the SP system. We demonstrate the construction with two numerical examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jedrziewski, S.
1976-01-01
The emission problem or source points were defined and new materials, hardware, or operational procedures were developed to exercise the trends defined by the data collected. The programs to reduce the emission output of aircraft powerplants were listed. Continued establishment of baseline emissions for various engine models, continued characterization of effect of production tolerances on emissions, carbureted engine development and flight tests, and cylinder cooling/fin design programs were several of the programs investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji
2014-04-01
The typical behavior of the linear programming (LP) problem is studied as a relaxation of the minimum vertex cover problem, which is a type of integer programming (IP) problem. To deal with LP and IP using statistical mechanics, a lattice-gas model on the Erdös-Rényi random graphs is analyzed by a replica method. It is found that the LP optimal solution is typically equal to that given by IP below the critical average degree c*=e in the thermodynamic limit. The critical threshold for LP = IP extends the previous result c = 1, and coincides with the replica symmetry-breaking threshold of the IP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gartling, D. K.
1987-04-01
The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, NACHOS 2, is presented in detail. The NACHOS 2 code is designed for the two-dimensional analysis of viscous incompressible fluid flows, including the effects of heat transfer and/or other transport processes. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulations and the associated numerical methods used in the NACHOS 2 code are also outlined. Instructions for use of the program are documented in SAND-86-1817; examples of problems analyzed by the code are provided in SAND-86-1818.
Application of program generation technology in solving heat and flow problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Shui; Wu, Bangxian; Chen, Ningning
2007-05-01
Based on a new DIY concept for software development, an automatic program-generating technology attached on a software system called as Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG) provides a platform of developing programs, through which a scientific researcher can submit his special physico-mathematical problem to the system in a more direct and convenient way for solution. For solving flow and heat problems by using finite element method, the stabilization technologies and fraction-step methods are adopted to overcome the numerical difficulties caused mainly due to the dominated convection. A couple of benchmark problems are given in this paper as examples to illustrate the usage and the superiority of the automatic program generation technique, including the flow in a lid-driven cavity, the starting flow in a circular pipe, the natural convection in a square cavity, and the flow past a circular cylinder, etc. They are also shown as the verification of the algorithms.
An application of a linear programing technique to nonlinear minimax problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiess, J. R.
1973-01-01
A differential correction technique for solving nonlinear minimax problems is presented. The basis of the technique is a linear programing algorithm which solves the linear minimax problem. By linearizing the original nonlinear equations about a nominal solution, both nonlinear approximation and estimation problems using the minimax norm may be solved iteratively. Some consideration is also given to improving convergence and to the treatment of problems with more than one measured quantity. A sample problem is treated with this technique and with the least-squares differential correction method to illustrate the properties of the minimax solution. The results indicate that for the sample approximation problem, the minimax technique provides better estimates than the least-squares method if a sufficient amount of data is used. For the sample estimation problem, the minimax estimates are better if the mathematical model is incomplete.
Information geometric nonlinear filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newton, Nigel J.
2015-06-01
This paper develops information geometric representations for nonlinear filters in continuous time. The posterior distribution associated with an abstract nonlinear filtering problem is shown to satisfy a stochastic differential equation on a Hilbert information manifold. This supports the Fisher metric as a pseudo-Riemannian metric. Flows of Shannon information are shown to be connected with the quadratic variation of the process of posterior distributions in this metric. Apart from providing a suitable setting in which to study such information-theoretic properties, the Hilbert manifold has an appropriate topology from the point of view of multi-objective filter approximations. A general class of finite-dimensional exponential filters is shown to fit within this framework, and an intrinsic evolution equation, involving Amari's -1-covariant derivative, is developed for such filters. Three example systems, one of infinite dimension, are developed in detail.
A PROGRAMED PRIMER ON PROGRAMING. VOLUME II, PRACTICAL PROBLEMS. SECOND EDITION.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MARKLE, SUSAN MEYER
KEY CONCEPTS, TERMS, AND TECHNIQUES IN PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION ARE PRESENTED IN THIS PROGRAMED PRIMER, WHICH BEGINS BY DEMONSTRATING THE USE OF FORMAL AND THEMATIC PROMPTS IN THE UTILIZATION OF A STUDENT'S REPERTOIRE. NEW RESPONSES ARE INTRODUCED INTO THIS REPERTOIRE BY THE USE OF COPYING FRAMES, EMPHASIS PROMPTS, AND PANELS. THE DESIGN OF SEQUENCES…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reed, W. Michael; Liu, Min
This study compared the effectiveness of the BASIC programming language and the HyperCard authoring language on promoting problem-solving skills and the reduction of computer anxiety. Two groups of students participated in the study. One group (N=13) received instruction on BASIC and the other (N=8) on HyperCard. Students in both groups responded…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumin, M. I.
2014-01-01
A parametric convex programming problem with an operator equality constraint and a finite set of functional inequality constraints is considered in a Hilbert space. The instability of this problem and, as a consequence, the instability of the classical Lagrange principle for it is closely related to its regularity and the subdifferentiability properties of the value function in the optimization problem. A sequential Lagrange principle in nondifferential form is proved for the indicated convex programming problem. The principle is stable with respect to errors in the initial data and covers the normal, regular, and abnormal cases of the problem and the case where the classical Lagrange principle does not hold. It is shown that the classical Lagrange principle in this problem can be naturally treated as a limiting variant of its stable sequential counterpart. The possibility of using the stable sequential Lagrange principle for directly solving unstable optimal control problems and inverse problems is discussed. For two illustrative problems of these kinds, the corresponding stable Lagrange principles are formulated in sequential form.
IESIP - AN IMPROVED EXPLORATORY SEARCH TECHNIQUE FOR PURE INTEGER LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fogle, F. R.
1994-01-01
IESIP, an Improved Exploratory Search Technique for Pure Integer Linear Programming Problems, addresses the problem of optimizing an objective function of one or more variables subject to a set of confining functions or constraints by a method called discrete optimization or integer programming. Integer programming is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more difficult, integer programming is required for accuracy when modeling systems with small numbers of components such as the distribution of goods, machine scheduling, and production scheduling. IESIP establishes a new methodology for solving pure integer programming problems by utilizing a modified version of the univariate exploratory move developed by Robert Hooke and T.A. Jeeves. IESIP also takes some of its technique from the greedy procedure and the idea of unit neighborhoods. A rounding scheme uses the continuous solution found by traditional methods (simplex or other suitable technique) and creates a feasible integer starting point. The Hook and Jeeves exploratory search is modified to accommodate integers and constraints and is then employed to determine an optimal integer solution from the feasible starting solution. The user-friendly IESIP allows for rapid solution of problems up to 10 variables in size (limited by DOS allocation). Sample problems compare IESIP solutions with the traditional branch-and-bound approach. IESIP is written in Borland's TURBO Pascal for IBM PC series computers and compatibles running DOS. Source code and an executable are provided. The main memory requirement for execution is 25K. This program is available on a 5.25 inch 360K MS DOS format diskette. IESIP was developed in 1990. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines. TURBO Pascal is registered by Borland International.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crawford, J. L.; Rodney, G. A.
1989-01-01
This paper describes the NASA Space Shuttle Trend Analysis program. The four main areas of the program - problem/reliability, performance, supportability, and programmatic trending - are defined, along with motivation for these areas, the statistical methods used, and illustrative Space Shuttle applications. Also described is the NASA Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance (SRM&QA) Management Information Center, used to focus management attention on key near-term launch concerns and long-range mission trend issues. Finally, the computer data bases used to support the program and future program enhancements are discussed.
Airborne Linear Array Image Geometric Rectification Method Based on Unequal Segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J. M.; Li, C. R.; Zhou, M.; Hu, J.; Yang, C. M.
2016-06-01
As the linear array sensor such as multispectral and hyperspectral sensor has great potential in disaster monitoring and geological survey, the quality of the image geometric rectification should be guaranteed. Different from the geometric rectification of airborne planar array images or multi linear array images, exterior orientation elements need to be determined for each scan line of single linear array images. Internal distortion persists after applying GPS/IMU data directly to geometrical rectification. Straight lines may be curving and jagged. Straight line feature -based geometrical rectification algorithm was applied to solve this problem, whereby the exterior orientation elements were fitted by piecewise polynomial and evaluated with the straight line feature as constraint. However, atmospheric turbulence during the flight is unstable, equal piecewise can hardly provide good fitting, resulting in limited precision improvement of geometric rectification or, in a worse case, the iteration cannot converge. To solve this problem, drawing on dynamic programming ideas, unequal segmentation of line feature-based geometric rectification method is developed. The angle elements fitting error is minimized to determine the optimum boundary. Then the exterior orientation elements of each segment are fitted and evaluated with the straight line feature as constraint. The result indicates that the algorithm is effective in improving the precision of geometric rectification.
A strictly improving linear programming alorithm based on a series of Phase 1 problems
Leichner, S.A.; Dantzig, G.B.; Davis, J.W.
1992-04-01
When used on degenerate problems, the simplex method often takes a number of degenerate steps at a particular vertex before moving to the next. In theory (although rarely in practice), the simplex method can actually cycle at such a degenerate point. Instead of trying to modify the simplex method to avoid degenerate steps, we have developed a new linear programming algorithm that is completely impervious to degeneracy. This new method solves the Phase II problem of finding an optimal solution by solving a series of Phase I feasibility problems. Strict improvement is attained at each iteration in the Phase I algorithm, and the Phase II sequence of feasibility problems has linear convergence in the number of Phase I problems. When tested on the 30 smallest NETLIB linear programming test problems, the computational results for the new Phase II algorithm were over 15% faster than the simplex method; on some problems, it was almost two times faster, and on one problem it was four times faster.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lansing, F. L.
1979-01-01
A computer program which can distinguish between different receiver designs, and predict transient performance under variable solar flux, or ambient temperatures, etc. has a basic structure that fits a general heat transfer problem, but with specific features that are custom-made for solar receivers. The code is written in MBASIC computer language. The methodology followed in solving the heat transfer problem is explained. A program flow chart, an explanation of input and output tables, and an example of the simulation of a cavity-type solar receiver are included.
Solution of Mixed-Integer Programming Problems on the XT5
Hartman-Baker, Rebecca J; Busch, Ingrid Karin; Hilliard, Michael R; Middleton, Richard S; Schultze, Michael
2009-01-01
In this paper, we describe our experience with solving difficult mixed-integer linear programming problems (MILPs) on the petaflop Cray XT5 system at the National Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We describe the algorithmic, software, and hardware needs for solving MILPs and present the results of using PICO, an open-source, parallel, mixed-integer linear programming solver developed at Sandia National Laboratories, to solve canonical MILPs as well as problems of interest arising from the logistics and supply chain management field.
[Self-help program: a new tool to facilitate the access to treatment for problem gamblers].
Saeremans, M; Noël, X; Verbanck, P
2015-01-01
Shame, fear of stigmatization, denial, accessibility to and the cost of treatment program may explain why only a small proportion of problem gamblers sought clinical treatment. In the hope to overcome these barriers, the Gambling Clinic and Other Behavioral Addictions of C.H.U. Brugmann (Brussels) has developed its own self-help program for excessive gamblers. Our goals were to foster readiness to change gambling behaviors and when appropriate to facilitate the transition from self-help program to classical face-to-face clinical intervention. In a sample of 172 problem gamblers who participated, 40% had never sought help (e.g., clinical treatment) and/or never attempted quit gambling. Interestingly, for some, internet-based self-help treatment preceded their determination for seeking a traditional face-to-face therapeutic setting. Those results led us to discuss this program as a valid clinical tool within a broader health care setting in excessive gamblers. PMID:26164965
An integrated approach to the synthesis of geometrically non-linear structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smaoui, H.; Schmit, L. A.
1988-01-01
An integrated approach to the minimum weight design of geometrically nonlinear three-dimensional truss structures with geometric imperfections, subject to inequality constraints on static displacements, stresses, local buckling and cross sectional areas, is investigated. The integrated structural synthesis problem involves design and response quantities as independent variables and equilibrium equations, describing the finite element model, as equality constraints. The nonlinear structural analysis and the optimization are thus merged together into a single process. A computer program developed to compute the constraint values and analytical gradients is coupled with a generalized reduced gradient algorithm to solve the integrated problem. Numerical results for a geometrically nonlinear shallow dome example problem are presented for various types of imperfections. Furthermore, it is found that the algorithm is capable of detecting and guarding against system as well as element elastic instability using equilibrium information only, that is, without imposing system and local buckling inequality constraints.
Digital program for solving the linear stochastic optimal control and estimation problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geyser, L. C.; Lehtinen, B.
1975-01-01
A computer program is described which solves the linear stochastic optimal control and estimation (LSOCE) problem by using a time-domain formulation. The LSOCE problem is defined as that of designing controls for a linear time-invariant system which is disturbed by white noise in such a way as to minimize a performance index which is quadratic in state and control variables. The LSOCE problem and solution are outlined; brief descriptions are given of the solution algorithms, and complete descriptions of each subroutine, including usage information and digital listings, are provided. A test case is included, as well as information on the IBM 7090-7094 DCS time and storage requirements.
Facing the PA team growth problem in space programs: The Hermes approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernede, G.
1991-08-01
The increasing need for product assurance (PA) in space programs makes finding skilled and trained engineers willing to work in the PA field a top level difficulty. Few engineers are available and exchanging them from one project to another is not a solution. No reservoir of talent exists for the time being in Europe. Educational efforts have started in several countries to have product assurance techniques become part of basic engineering knowledge. These efforts will bring strong improvement compared to today's situation but not in time for programs such as Hermes. Peculiar solutions must be developed. Approaches used to solve this problem within the Hermes program are outlined.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila
2003-01-01
This article describes the Dina Dinosaur Social, Emotional and Problem Solving Child Training Program for young children with conduct problems. The program emphasizes training children in skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, and…
Universal algorithms and programs for calculating the motion parameters in the two-body problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhshiyan, B. T.; Sukhanov, A. A.
1979-01-01
The algorithms and FORTRAN programs for computing positions and velocities, orbital elements and first and second partial derivatives in the two-body problem are presented. The algorithms are applicable for any value of eccentricity and are convenient for computing various navigation parameters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brusco, Michael J.; Kohn, Hans-Friedrich; Stahl, Stephanie
2008-01-01
Dynamic programming methods for matrix permutation problems in combinatorial data analysis can produce globally-optimal solutions for matrices up to size 30x30, but are computationally infeasible for larger matrices because of enormous computer memory requirements. Branch-and-bound methods also guarantee globally-optimal solutions, but computation…
Problems of Management and Governance in a Mid-Career Fellowship Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muth, Rodney
This paper examines the problems of management and governance that developed during the course of the National Program for Educational Leadership (NPEL), an experimental four-year project that recruited and trained 62 noneducators for leadership positions in educational organizations. NPEL students were assigned to one of eight participating…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Kehoe, Christiane; Efron, Daryl; Prior, Margot R.
2013-01-01
This study evaluated a 6-session group parenting program, "Tuning into Kids" (TIK), as treatment for young children (aged 4.0-5.11 years) with behavior problems. TIK targets parent emotion socialization (parent emotion awareness, regulation and emotion coaching skills). Fifty-four parents, recruited via a child behavior clinic, were randomized…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
ALI KHAN, ANSAR
THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE NEED FOR FUNCTIONAL, SEQUENTIAL PROGRAMS OF LITERACY, VOCATIONAL, LIBERAL, POLITICAL, AND HUMAN RELATIONS EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES ARE SEEN IN THE OCCUPATIONAL CASTE SYSTEM, FAMILY STRUCTURES, ATTITUDES TOWARD THE EDUCATION OF BOYS AND GIRLS, POOR MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalelioglu, Filiz; Gülbahar, Yasemin
2014-01-01
Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these…
Enhancing Problem-Solving Capabilities Using Object-Oriented Programming Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Unuakhalu, Mike F.
2009-01-01
This study integrated object-oriented programming instruction with transfer training activities in everyday tasks, which might provide a mechanism that can be used for efficient problem solving. Specifically, a Visual BASIC embedded with everyday tasks group was compared to another group exposed to Visual BASIC instruction only. Subjects were 40…
Analysis of the Effect of a Social Problem-Solving Program on the Aggression of Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Secer, Zarife; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay
2011-01-01
The aim of this research was to establish the effect of a social problem-solving training program for 8th grade students. In the experimental group, 14 students were 14 years old and 1 student was 15 years old. In the control group, 13 students were 14 years old and 2 students were 15 years old. The Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) was administered…
A Summer Pre-Entry Program for Minority Students Incorporating Problem-Based Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pickell, Garfield C.; And Others
1991-01-01
The University of California, Davis, medical school's intensive summer preentry program for disadvantaged minority students, which previews the first year curriculum, has incorporated a problem-based learning component to augment and prolong its effects. Objective measures of course effectiveness are unavailable; however, self-esteem, study…
Use of the Rasch Model to Solve Data Problems Encountered by the California Assessment Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Richard K.
Four problems faced by the staff of the California Assessment Program (CAP) were solved by applying Rasch scaling techniques: (1) item cultural bias in the Entry Level Test (ELT) given to all first grade pupils; (2) nonlinear regression analysis of the third grade Reading Test scores; (3) comparison of school growth from grades two to three, using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Stanley H.; Gallagher, Jo D.; Elbaum, Leonard; Smith, Douglas H.
This study examined the perspectives of three graduates of a problem-based learning (PBL) physical therapy (PT) program about their clinical practice. Researchers used qualitative methods of observation, interview, and journaling to gather the data. Three sessions of audiotaped interviews and two observation sessions were conducted with the three…
Preventing Boys' Problems in Schools through Psychoeducational Programming: A Call to Action
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Neil, James M.; Lujan, Melissa L.
2009-01-01
Controversy currently exists on whether boys are in crises and, if so, what to do about it. Research is reviewed that indicates that boys have problems that affect their emotional and interpersonal functioning. Psychoeducational and preventive programs for boys are recommended as a call to action in schools. Thematic areas for boys' programming…
Students' Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Tutorial Program for College Biology Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, H. S.; Prevost, L.; Lemons, P. P.
2015-01-01
The understanding of core concepts and processes of science in solving problems is important to successful learning in biology. We have designed and developed a Web-based, self-directed tutorial program, "SOLVEIT," that provides various scaffolds (e.g., prompts, expert models, visual guidance) to help college students enhance their…
Clinical Trail Outcomes of the Mexican American Problem Solving Program (MAPS)
Cowell, Julia Muennich; McNaughton, Diane; Ailey, Sarah; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis
2010-01-01
Depression among Mexican immigrant women and children exceeds national prevalence rates. Given the influence of maternal depression on children, a clinical trial testing the effects of the Mexican American Problem Solving (MAPS) program was designed to address depression symptoms of Mexican immigrant women and their fourth and fifth grade children (302 dyads) through a linked home visiting and after school program compared to peers in a control group. Schools were randomized to intervention and control groups. There were statistically significant improvements in the children’s health conceptions and family problem solving communication, factors predictive of mental health. Improvements in children’s depression symptoms in the intervention group approached statistical significance. These promising results suggest that refined school based nursing interventions be included in community strategies to address the serious mental health problems that Mexican immigrants face. PMID:20877438
Geometric Algebra for Physicists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doran, Chris; Lasenby, Anthony
2007-11-01
Preface; Notation; 1. Introduction; 2. Geometric algebra in two and three dimensions; 3. Classical mechanics; 4. Foundations of geometric algebra; 5. Relativity and spacetime; 6. Geometric calculus; 7. Classical electrodynamics; 8. Quantum theory and spinors; 9. Multiparticle states and quantum entanglement; 10. Geometry; 11. Further topics in calculus and group theory; 12. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques; 13. Symmetry and gauge theory; 14. Gravitation; Bibliography; Index.
The Strengthening Families Program 10–14: influence on parent and youth problem-solving skill
Semeniuk, Y.; Brown, R. L.; Riesch, S.K.; Zywicki, M.; Hopper, J.; Henriques, J.B.
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to report the results of a preliminary examination of the efficacy of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 in improving parent and youth problem-solving skill. The Hypotheses in this paper include: (1) youth and parents who participated in SFP would have lower mean scores immediately (T2) and 6 months (T3) post intervention on indicators of hostile and negative problem-solving strategies; (2) higher mean scores on positive problem-solving strategies; and (3) youth who participated in SFP would have higher mean scores at T2 and at T3 on indicators of individual problem solving and problem-solving efficacy than youth in the comparison group. The dyads were recruited from elementary schools that had been stratified for race and assigned randomly to intervention or comparison conditions. Mean age of youth was 11 years (SD = 1.04). Fifty-seven dyads (34-intervention & 23-control) were videotaped discussing a frequently occurring problem. The videotapes were analysed using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS) and data were analysed using Dyadic Assessment Intervention Model. Most mean scores on the IFIRS did not change. One score changed as predicted: youth hostility decreased at T3. Two scores changed contrary to prediction: parent hostility increased T3 and parent positive problem solving decreased at T2. SFP demonstrated questionable efficacy for problem-solving skill in this study. PMID:20584236
On the Performance of Different Genetic Programming Approaches for the SORTING Problem.
Wagner, Markus; Neumann, Frank; Urli, Tommaso
2015-01-01
In genetic programming, the size of a solution is typically not specified in advance, and solutions of larger size may have a larger benefit. The flexibility often comes at the cost of the so-called bloat problem: individuals grow without providing additional benefit to the quality of solutions, and the additional elements can block the optimization process. Consequently, problems that are relatively easy to optimize cannot be handled by variable-length evolutionary algorithms. In this article, we analyze different single- and multiobjective algorithms on the sorting problem, a problem that typically lacks independent and additive fitness structures. We complement the theoretical results with comprehensive experiments to indicate the tightness of existing bounds, and to indicate bounds where theoretical results are missing. PMID:25870929
Understanding change among multi-problem families: Learnings from a formative program assessment.
Millett, Lina Sapokaite; Ben-David, Vered; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Echele, Greg; Moussette, Pam; Atkins, Valerie
2016-10-01
This paper describes the implementation of a long-term voluntary intervention to prevent chronic maltreatment among multi-problem families with histories of child welfare involvement. A small formative evaluation included a limited number of interviews with program participants during the first year of program implementation (n=10), a retrospective case file review (n=17) of closed cases following the first three years of implementation, and notes from ongoing meetings and discussion with program staff. Findings regarding client engagement, long-term interaction between risk and services, and program refinement are discussed. Despite the program's voluntary nature, positive comments from families, and extensive engagement strategies, only about 22% of families remained engaged for the full two-year program. Material hardship was one of the most persistent risk factors from baseline to termination. In many cases, unforeseen negative events occurred that, at least partly, derailed progress. In all cases, progress made was not reflective of a consistent linear process used in the design of most child welfare programs. Implications for program theory and design are discussed. PMID:27419622
Stable computation of search directions for near-degenerate linear programming problems
Hough, P.D.
1997-03-01
In this paper, we examine stability issues that arise when computing search directions ({delta}x, {delta}y, {delta} s) for a primal-dual path-following interior point method for linear programming. The dual step {delta}y can be obtained by solving a weighted least-squares problem for which the weight matrix becomes extremely il conditioned near the boundary of the feasible region. Hough and Vavisis proposed using a type of complete orthogonal decomposition (the COD algorithm) to solve such a problem and presented stability results. The work presented here addresses the stable computation of the primal step {delta}x and the change in the dual slacks {delta}s. These directions can be obtained in a straight-forward manner, but near-degeneracy in the linear programming instance introduces ill-conditioning which can cause numerical problems in this approach. Therefore, we propose a new method of computing {delta}x and {delta}s. More specifically, this paper describes and orthogonal projection algorithm that extends the COD method. Unlike other algorithms, this method is stable for interior point methods without assuming nondegeneracy in the linear programming instance. Thus, it is more general than other algorithms on near-degenerate problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pesquies, P. C.; Milhaud, C.; Nogues, C.; Klein, M.; Cailler, B.; Bost, R.
The need to acquire a better knowledge of the main biological problems induced by microgravity implies—in addition to human experimentation—the use of animal models, and primates seem to be particularly well adapted to this type of research. The major areas of investigation to be considered are the phospho-calcium metabolism and the metabolism of supporting tissues, the hydroelectrolytic metabolism, the cardiovascular function, awakeness, sleep-awakeness cycles, the physiology of equilibrium and the pathophysiology of space sickness. Considering this program, the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Medecine Aerospatiale, under the sponsorship of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, developed both a program of research on restrained primates for the French-U.S. space cooperation (Spacelab program) and for the French-Soviet space cooperation (Bio-cosmos program), and simulation of the effects of microgravity by head-down bedrest. Its major characteristics are discussed in the study.
Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.
2010-03-01
The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems
Exploring New Geometric Worlds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nirode, Wayne
2015-01-01
When students work with a non-Euclidean distance formula, geometric objects such as circles and segment bisectors can look very different from their Euclidean counterparts. Students and even teachers can experience the thrill of creative discovery when investigating these differences among geometric worlds. In this article, the author describes a…
SAGUARO: A finite-element computer program for partially saturated porous flow problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Easton, R. R.; Gartling, D. K.; Larson, D. E.
1983-11-01
SAGUARO is finite element computer program designed to calculate two-dimensional flow of mass and energy through porous media. The media may be saturated or partially saturated. SAGUARO solves the parabolic time-dependent mass transport equation which accounts for the presence of partially saturated zones through the use of highly non-linear material characteristic curves. The energy equation accounts for the possibility of partially saturated regions by adjusting the thermal capacitances and thermal conductivities according to the volume fraction of water present in the local pores. Program capabilities, user instructions and a sample problem are presented in this manual.
White, Jeffry L; Altschuld, James W; Lee, Yi-Fang
2008-08-01
The retention rates for African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native-Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are lower than those of White or Asian college students. In response, the National Science Foundation formed statewide partnerships of universities to develop programs to address this disparity. The deliberations and experiences in evaluating one such partnership are retrospectively reviewed. Problems and issues encountered during conceptualization and implementation are presented. Lessons learned from this endeavor should generalize to similar situations and provide guidance for others new to or interested in evaluating STEM retention programs as well as those evaluating collaborative endeavors. PMID:18486208
Kim, D.; Ghanem, R.
1994-12-31
Multigrid solution technique to solve a material nonlinear problem in a visual programming environment using the finite element method is discussed. The nonlinear equation of equilibrium is linearized to incremental form using Newton-Rapson technique, then multigrid solution technique is used to solve linear equations at each Newton-Rapson step. In the process, adaptive mesh refinement, which is based on the bisection of a pair of triangles, is used to form grid hierarchy for multigrid iteration. The solution process is implemented in a visual programming environment with distributed computing capability, which enables more intuitive understanding of solution process, and more effective use of resources.
Mixed-integer programming methods for transportation and power generation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damci Kurt, Pelin
This dissertation conducts theoretical and computational research to solve challenging problems in application areas such as supply chain and power systems. The first part of the dissertation studies a transportation problem with market choice (TPMC) which is a variant of the classical transportation problem in which suppliers with limited capacities have a choice of which demands (markets) to satisfy. We show that TPMC is strongly NP-complete. We consider a version of the problem with a service level constraint on the maximum number of markets that can be rejected and show that if the original problem is polynomial, its cardinality-constrained version is also polynomial. We propose valid inequalities for mixed-integer cover and knapsack sets with variable upper bound constraints, which appear as substructures of TPMC and use them in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve this problem. The second part of this dissertation studies a unit commitment (UC) problem in which the goal is to minimize the operational cost of power generators over a time period subject to physical constraints while satisfying demand. We provide several exponential classes of multi-period ramping and multi-period variable upper bound inequalities. We prove the strength of these inequalities and describe polynomial-time separation algorithms. Computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed inequalities when used as cuts in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve the UC problem. The last part of this dissertation investigates the effects of uncertain wind power on the UC problem. A two-stage robust model and a three-stage stochastic program are compared.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1973-01-01
The results are reported of the NASA/Drexel research effort which was conducted in two separate phases. The initial phase stressed exploration of the problem from the point of view of three primary research areas and the building of a multidisciplinary team. The final phase consisted of a clinical demonstration program in which the research associates consulted with the County Executive of New Castle County, Delaware, to aid in solving actual problems confronting the County Government. The three primary research areas of the initial phase are identified as technology, management science, and behavioral science. Five specific projects which made up the research effort are treated separately. A final section contains the conclusions drawn from total research effort as well as from the specific projects.
An integer programming approach to the phase problem for centrosymmetric structures.
Vaia, Anastasia; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V
2003-09-01
The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of three-dimensional structures of centrosymmetric crystals from X-ray diffraction measurements. The 'minimal principle' that a certain quantity is minimized only by the crystal structure is employed to solve the phase problem. The mathematical formulation of the minimal principle is a nonconvex nonlinear optimization problem. To date, local optimization techniques and advanced computer architectures have been used to solve this problem, which may have a very large number of local optima. In this paper, the minimal principle model is reformulated for the case of centrosymmetric structures into an integer programming problem in terms of the missing phases. This formulation is solvable by well established combinatorial optimization techniques that are guaranteed to provide the global optimum in a finite number of steps without explicit enumeration of all possible combinations of phases. Computational experience with the proposed method on a number of structures of moderate complexity is provided and demonstrates that the approach yields a fast and reliable method that resolves the crystallographic phase problem for the case of centrosymmetric structures. PMID:12944609
Geometric Skewness in the Passive Tracer Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aminian, Manuchehr; Bernardi, Francesca; Camassa, Roberto; McLaughlin, Richard
2015-11-01
The classic work by G.I. Taylor describes the enhanced longitudinal diffusivity of a passive tracer in laminar pipe flow. Much work since then has gone into extending this result particularly in calculating the evolution of the scalar variance. However, less work has been done to describe the asymmetry of the distribution. We present the results from a modeling effort for the general picture of how the higher moments of the tracer distribution depend on geometry. We do this via analysis of ``channel-limiting'' geometries (rectangular ducts and elliptical pipes parameterized by their aspect ratio), using both new analytical tools and Monte-Carlo simulation, which have revealed a wealth of nontrivial behavior of the distributions at short and intermediate time. Funding from NSF grant Nos.: RTG DMS-0943851, CMG ARC-1025523, and DMS-1009750.
An integer programming model for gate assignment problem at airline terminals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chun, Chong Kok; Nordin, Syarifah Zyurina
2015-05-01
In this paper, we concentrate on a gate assignment problem (GAP) at the airlines terminal. Our problem is to assign an arrival plane to a suitable gate. There are two considerations needed to take. One of its is passenger walking distance from arrival gate to departure gate while another consideration is the transport baggage distance from one gate to another. Our objective is to minimize the total distance between the gates that related to assign the arrival plane to the suitable gates. An integer linear programming (ILP) model is proposed to solve this gate assignment problem. We also conduct a computational experiment using CPLEX 12.1 solver in AIMMS 3.10 software to analyze the performance of the model. Results of the computational experiments are presented. The efficiency of flights assignment is depends on the ratio of the weight for both total passenger traveling distances and total baggage transport distances.
Impossible Geometric Constructions: A Calculus Writing Project
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Awtrey, Chad
2013-01-01
This article discusses a writing project that offers students the opportunity to solve one of the most famous geometric problems of Greek antiquity; namely, the impossibility of trisecting the angle [pi]/3. Along the way, students study the history of Greek geometry problems as well as the life and achievements of Carl Friedrich Gauss. Included is…
A Two-Stage Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programming Approach to the Smart House Scheduling Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozoe, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Yoichi; Fukushima, Masao
A “Smart House” is a highly energy-optimized house equipped with photovoltaic systems (PV systems), electric battery systems, fuel cell cogeneration systems (FC systems), electric vehicles (EVs) and so on. Smart houses are attracting much attention recently thanks to their enhanced ability to save energy by making full use of renewable energy and by achieving power grid stability despite an increased power draw for installed PV systems. Yet running a smart house's power system, with its multiple power sources and power storages, is no simple task. In this paper, we consider the problem of power scheduling for a smart house with a PV system, an FC system and an EV. We formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming problem, and then extend it to a stochastic programming problem involving recourse costs to cope with uncertain electricity demand, heat demand and PV power generation. Using our method, we seek to achieve the optimal power schedule running at the minimum expected operation cost. We present some results of numerical experiments with data on real-life demands and PV power generation to show the effectiveness of our method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi
2011-05-01
Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.
Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.
2011-01-01
Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Solving seismological problems using SGRAPH program: I-source parameters and hypocentral location
Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.
2012-09-26
SGRAPH program is considered one of the seismological programs that maintain seismic data. SGRAPH is considered unique for being able to read a wide range of data formats and manipulate complementary tools in different seismological subjects in a stand-alone Windows-based application. SGRAPH efficiently performs the basic waveform analysis and solves advanced seismological problems. The graphical user interface (GUI) utilities and the Windows facilities such as, dialog boxes, menus, and toolbars simplified the user interaction with data. SGRAPH supported the common data formats like, SAC, SEED, GSE, ASCII, and Nanometrics Y-format, and others. It provides the facilities to solve many seismological problems with the built-in inversion and modeling tools. In this paper, I discuss some of the inversion tools built-in SGRAPH related to source parameters and hypocentral location estimation. Firstly, a description of the SGRAPH program is given discussing some of its features. Secondly, the inversion tools are applied to some selected events of the Dahshour earthquakes as an example of estimating the spectral and source parameters of local earthquakes. In addition, the hypocentral location of these events are estimated using the Hypoinverse 2000 program operated by SGRAPH.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
2008-01-01
Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing their strategic knowledge in combination with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snyder, Gerald; And Others
This manual was designed to provide school administrators, counselors, teachers, parent groups, and community members with a comprehensive school-based program for preventing alcohol problems. Detection and intervention before the onset of alcohol and drug problems is stressed. Modeled after employees' assistance programs used to identify and aid…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Graaf, Ireen; Speetjens, Paula; Smit, Filip; de Wolff, Marianne; Tavecchio, Louis
2008-01-01
The Triple P Positive Parenting Program is a multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions in the management of behavioral problems in children by pooling the…
Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korsmeryer, D. J.; Schreiner, J. A.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Programs Study of the Space Shuttle Programs (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were: to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The Study determined that the extant SSP PRACA systems accomplished a project level support capability through the use of a large pool of domain experts and a variety of distributed formal and informal database systems. This operational model is vulnerable to staff turnover and loss of the vast corporate knowledge that is not currently being captured by the PRACA system. A need for a Program-level PRACA system providing improved insight, unification, knowledge capture, and collaborative tools was defined in this study.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclain, A. G.; Rao, C. S. R.
1976-01-01
A hybrid chemical kinetic computer program was assembled which provides a rapid solution to problems involving flowing or static, chemically reacting, gas mixtures. The computer program uses existing subroutines for problem setup, initialization, and preliminary calculations and incorporates a stiff ordinary differential equation solution technique. A number of check cases were recomputed with the hybrid program and the results were almost identical to those previously obtained. The computational time saving was demonstrated with a propane-oxygen-argon shock tube combustion problem involving 31 chemical species and 64 reactions. Information is presented to enable potential users to prepare an input data deck for the calculation of a problem.