NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stojanović, Vladimir
2015-11-01
Geometrically nonlinear vibrations of a Timoshenko beam resting on a nonlinear Winkler and Pasternak elastic foundation with variable discontinuity are investigated in this paper. A p-version finite element method is developed for geometric nonlinear vibrations of a shear deformable beam resting on a nonlinear foundation with discontinuity. The elastic foundation has cubic nonlinearity with the shearing layer. In the study the p-element which comes from the use of explored special displacement shape functions for damaged beams is used and applied to a model with nonlinear foundation. The novelty of the present study lies in the easy generalisation of the approach of natural frequencies, general mode shapes (transverse and rotations of cross sections), and maximal deflections in nonlinear steady state vibrations of the shear deformable beam for any size and location of discontinuity of the nonlinear elastic support. A new set of nonlinear partial differential equations is developed, and they are solved in the time domain using the Newmark method for obtaining the amplitudes and deformed shapes of a beam in the steady state forced vibration regime. The present work consists of the comparison of the results with various stiffnesses of nonlinear elastic supports of the Winkler and Pasternak type.
Effects of geometric nonlinearities on the response of optimized box beam structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ragon, S.; Gurdal, Z.
1993-01-01
The present minimum-mass designs for a two-spar rectangular box beam were derived on the basis of linear-buckling FEM analysis constraints. In order to ascertain the effects of any geometric nonlinearities on these designs, each was subjected to a geometrically nonlinear FEM analysis. In all cases, the structure collapses below the design load, and does so in a mode which differs from that of linear theory. This discrepancy is attributable to such nonlinear panel-interaction mechanisms as rib-crusing loads. The optimized design is highly sensitive to crushing loads, relative to the nonoptimal design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmouni, A.; Beidouri, Z.; Benamar, R.
2013-09-01
The purpose of the present paper was the development of a physically discrete model for geometrically nonlinear free transverse constrained vibrations of beams, which may replace, if sufficient degrees of freedom are used, the previously developed continuous nonlinear beam constrained vibration models. The discrete model proposed is an N-Degrees of Freedom (N-dof) system made of N masses placed at the ends of solid bars connected by torsional springs, presenting the beam flexural rigidity. The large transverse displacements of the bar ends induce a variation in their lengths giving rise to axial forces modelled by longitudinal springs. The calculations made allowed application of the semi-analytical model developed previously for nonlinear structural vibration involving three tensors, namely the mass tensor mij, the linear rigidity tensor kij and the nonlinearity tensor bijkl. By application of Hamilton's principle and spectral analysis, the nonlinear vibration problem is reduced to a nonlinear algebraic system, examined for increasing numbers of dof. The results obtained by the physically discrete model showed a good agreement and a quick convergence to the equivalent continuous beam model, for various fixed boundary conditions, for both the linear frequencies and the nonlinear backbone curves, and also for the corresponding mode shapes. The model, validated here for the simply supported and clamped ends, may be used in further works to present the flexural linear and nonlinear constrained vibrations of beams with various types of discontinuities in the mass or in the elasticity distributions. The development of an adequate discrete model including the effect of the axial strains induced by large displacement amplitudes, which is predominant in geometrically nonlinear transverse constrained vibrations of beams [1]. The investigation of the results such a discrete model may lead to in the case of nonlinear free vibrations. The development of the analogy between the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczyński, Paweł; Kravtsov, Yury A.; Żeglinski, Grzegorz
2008-09-01
The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam diffraction in arbitrary smoothly inhomogeneous media, including lens-like waveguides. By way of an example, the known analytical solution for Gaussian beam diffraction in free space is presented. Paraxial CGO reduces the problem of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations, which can be readily solved numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media as compared to the numerical methods of wave optics. For the paraxial on-axis Gaussian beam propagation in lens-like waveguide, we compare CGO solutions with numerical results for finite differences beam propagation method (FD-BPM). The CGO method is shown to provide 50-times higher rate of calculation then FD-BPM at comparable accuracy. Besides, paraxial eikonal-based complex geometrical optics is generalized for nonlinear Kerr type medium. This paper presents CGO analytical solutions for cylindrically symmetric Gaussian beam in Kerr type nonlinear medium and effective numerical solutions for the self-focusing effect of Gaussian beam with elliptic cross section. Both analytical and numerical solutions are shown to be in a good agreement with previous results, obtained by other methods.
System level simulation of a micro resonant accelerometer with geometric nonlinear beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wenlong, Jiao; Weizheng, Yuan; Honglong, Chang
2015-10-01
Geometric nonlinear behaviors of micro resonators have attracted extensive attention of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) researchers, and MEMS transducers utilizing these behaviors have been widely researched and used due to the advantages of essentially digital output. Currently, the design of transducers with nonlinear behaviors is mainly performed by numerical method and rarely by system level design method. In this paper, the geometric nonlinear beam structure was modeled and established as a reusable library component by system level modeling and simulation method MuPEN (multi port element network). A resonant accelerometer was constructed and simulated using this model together with MuPEN reusable library. The AC (alternating current) analysis results of MuPEN model agreed well with the results of architect model and the experiment results shown in the existing reference. Therefore, we are convinced that the beam component based on MuPEN method is valid, and MEMS system level design method and related libraries can effectively model and simulate transducers with geometric nonlinear behaviors if appropriate system level components are available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torabizadeh, Mohammad Amin
2013-07-01
A new method is developed to derive equilibrium equations of Metal-Ceramic beams based on first order shear deformation plate theory which is named first order shear deformation beam theory2(FSDBT2). Equilibrium equations obtained from conventional method (FSDBT1) is compared with FSDBT2 and the case of cylindrical bending of Metal-Ceramic composite plates for non-linear thermomechanical deformations and various loadings and boundary conditions. These equations are solved by using three different methods (analytical, perturbation technique and finite element solution). The through-thickness variation of the volume fraction of the ceramic phase in a Metal-Ceramic beam is assumed to be given by a power-law type function. The non-linear strain-displacement relations in the von-Kármán sense are used to study the effect of geometric non-linearity. Also, four other representative averaging estimation methods, the linear rule, Mori-Tanaka, Self-Consistent and Wakashima-Tsukamoto schemes, by comparing with the power-law type function are also investigated. Temperature distribution through the thickness of the beams in thermal loadings is obtained by solving the one-dimensional heat transfer equation. Finally it is concluded that for Metal-Ceramic composites, these two theories result in identical static responses. Also the displacement field and equilibrium equations in the case of cylindrical bending of Metal-Ceramic plates are the same as those supposed in FSDBT2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarangi, S. K.; Ray, M. C.
2010-07-01
This paper deals with the analysis of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations of laminated composite beams using vertically reinforced 1-3 piezoelectric composite material as the material of the constraining layer of the ACLD treatment. A nonlinear finite element model has been developed for analyzing the ACLD of laminated symmetric and antisymmetric cross-ply and angle-ply composite beams integrated with such ACLD treatment. The von Kármán-type nonlinear strain-displacement relations and the first-order shear deformation theory are used for deriving this coupled electromechanical nonlinear finite element model. The Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method has been used to model the constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment in the time domain. The backbone curves of such a class of nonlinear systems are plotted to determine the excitation levels for causing geometrical nonlinearity. The numerical results reveal that the ACLD treatment significantly improves the damping characteristics of the cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply beams for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations of the beams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Qaisia, A. A.; Hamdan, M. N.
2013-09-01
This work presents an investigation on the effect of an initial geometric imperfection wavelength, amplitude and degree of localization on the in-plane nonlinear natural frequencies veering and mode localization of an elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on a Winkler elastic foundation. The beam is assumed to be pinned-pinned with a linear torsional spring at one end. The effect of the axial force induced by mid-plane stretching is accounted for in the derivation of the mathematical model, due to its known importance and significant effect on the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the beam, as it was proved and presented in earlier investigations. The governing partial differential equation is discretized using the assumed mode method and the resulting nonlinear temporal equation was solved using the harmonic balance method to obtain results for the nonlinear natural frequencies and mode shapes. The results are presented in the form of characteristic curves which show the variations of the nonlinear natural frequencies of the first three modes of vibration, for a selected range of physical parameters like; torsional spring constant, elastic foundation stiffness and amplitude and wavelength of a localized and non-localized initial slack.
Information geometric nonlinear filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newton, Nigel J.
2015-06-01
This paper develops information geometric representations for nonlinear filters in continuous time. The posterior distribution associated with an abstract nonlinear filtering problem is shown to satisfy a stochastic differential equation on a Hilbert information manifold. This supports the Fisher metric as a pseudo-Riemannian metric. Flows of Shannon information are shown to be connected with the quadratic variation of the process of posterior distributions in this metric. Apart from providing a suitable setting in which to study such information-theoretic properties, the Hilbert manifold has an appropriate topology from the point of view of multi-objective filter approximations. A general class of finite-dimensional exponential filters is shown to fit within this framework, and an intrinsic evolution equation, involving Amari's -1-covariant derivative, is developed for such filters. Three example systems, one of infinite dimension, are developed in detail.
Complex geometrical optics of nonlinear inhomogeneous fibres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, Pawel
2011-03-01
This paper analyses the Gaussian beam (GB) evolution in nonlinear fibres with special attention given to the influence of the initial curvature of the wavefront and to the fibres' permittivity profile. The analysis is performed in the framework of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO). This method reduces the problem of GB evolution in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the solution of ordinary differential equations, which can be easily solved either analytically or numerically. It is shown that the PCGO approach radically simplifies modelling of nonlinear phenomena in fibres as compared with standard methods of nonlinear optics such as the variational method approach and the method of moments. It is shown that the PCGO method readily supplies the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) for a self-focusing fibre with a focusing permittivity profile and provides a number of new results. The discussion on the interplay between the nonlinear (self-focusing and self-defocusing) and linear (focusing and defocusing) components of the total permittivity demonstrates the new possibilities to limit the collapse phenomenon in nonlinear fibres of Kerr type taking into account the effect of initial beam divergence.
Modal Substructuring of Geometrically Nonlinear Finite-Element Models
Kuether, Robert J.; Allen, Matthew S.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.
2016-02-01
The efficiency of a modal substructuring method depends on the component modes used to reduce each subcomponent model. Methods such as Craig–Bampton have been used extensively to reduce linear finite-element models with thousands or even millions of degrees of freedom down orders of magnitude while maintaining acceptable accuracy. A novel reduction method is proposed here for geometrically nonlinear finite-element models using the fixed-interface and constraint modes of the linearized system to reduce each subcomponent model. The geometric nonlinearity requires an additional cubic and quadratic polynomial function in the modal equations, and the nonlinear stiffness coefficients are determined by applying amore » series of static loads and using the finite-element code to compute the response. The geometrically nonlinear, reduced modal equations for each subcomponent are then coupled by satisfying compatibility and force equilibrium. This modal substructuring approach is an extension of the Craig–Bampton method and is readily applied to geometrically nonlinear models built directly within commercial finite-element packages. The efficiency of this new approach is demonstrated on two example problems: one that couples two geometrically nonlinear beams at a shared rotational degree of freedom, and another that couples an axial spring element to the axial degree of freedom of a geometrically nonlinear beam. The nonlinear normal modes of the assembled models are compared with those of a truth model to assess the accuracy of the novel modal substructuring approach.« less
Complex geometrical optics of inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, Pawel
2013-05-01
The method of complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media. CGO method reduces the problem of Gaussian beam propagation in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the other methods of nonlinear optics such as: variational method approach, method of moments and beam propagation method. The power of CGO method is presented on the example of the evolution of beam intensity and wave front cross-section along curvilinear central ray with torsion in weakly absorptive and nonlinear saturable graded-index fiber, where the effect of initial beam ellipticity is included into our description.
Stationary nonlinear Airy beams
Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.
2011-08-15
We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.
Geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric laminated plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabinovitch, Oded
2005-08-01
The geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezo-laminated plates actuated with isotropic or anisotropic piezoelectric layers is analytically investigated. The analytical model is derived using the variational principle of virtual work along with the lamination and plate theories, the von Karman large displacement and moderate rotation kinematic relations, and the anisotropic piezoelectric constitutive laws. A solution strategy that combines the approach of the method of lines, the advantages of the finite element concept, and the variational formulation is developed. This approach yields a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, which are solved using the multiple-shooting method. Convergence and verification of the model are examined through comparison with linear and nonlinear results of other approximation methods. The nonlinear response of two active plate structures is investigated numerically. The first plate is actuated in bending using monolithic piezoceramic layers and the second one is actuated in twist using macro-fiber composites. The results quantitatively reveal the complicated in-plane stress state associated with the piezoelectric actuation and the geometrically nonlinear coupling of the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the plate. The influence of the nonlinear effects ranges from significant stiffening in certain combinations of electrical loads and boundary conditions to amplifications of the induced deflections in others. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions.
Complex geometrical optics of Kerr type nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Sukhorukov, A. P.
2010-03-01
The paper generalizes paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) for Gaussian beam (GB) propagation in nonlinear media of Kerr type. Ordinary differential equations for the beam amplitude and for complex curvature of the wave front are derived, which describe the evolution of axially symmetric GB in a Kerr type nonlinear medium. It is shown that PCGO readily provides the solutions of NLS equation obtained earlier from diffraction theory on the basis of the aberration-free approach. Besides reproducing classical results of self-focusing PCGO readily describes an influence of the initial curvature of the wave front on the beam evolution in a medium of Kerr type including a nonlinear graded-index fiber. The range of applicability of the PCGO theory is discussed as well which is helpful for avoiding nonphysical solutions.
Geometrically nonlinear analysis of adhesively bonded joints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dattaguru, B.; Everett, R. A., Jr.; Whitcomb, J. D.; Johnson, W. S.
1982-01-01
A geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis of cohesive failure in typical joints is presented. Cracked-lap-shear joints were chosen for analysis. Results obtained from linear and nonlinear analysis show that nonlinear effects, due to large rotations, significantly affect the calculated mode 1, crack opening, and mode 2, inplane shear, strain-energy-release rates. The ratio of the mode 1 to mode 2 strain-energy-relase rates (G1/G2) was found to be strongly affected by he adhesive modulus and the adherend thickness. The ratios between 0.2 and 0.8 can be obtained by varying adherend thickness and using either a single or double cracked-lap-shear specimen configuration. Debond growth rate data, together with the analysis, indicate that mode 1 strain-energy-release rate governs debond growth. Results from the present analysis agree well with experimentally measured joint opening displacements.
Precise formation of geometrically focused ion beams
Davydenko, V.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Korepanov, S.A.; Kotelnikov, I.A.
2006-03-15
Geometrically focused intense neutral beams for plasma diagnostic consist of many elementary beams formed by a multiaperture ion-optical system and aimed at the focal point. In real conditions, some of the elementary beams may have increased angular divergence and/or deviate from the intended direction, thus diminishing the neutral beam density at the focus. Several improvements to the geometrical focusing are considered in the article including flattening of the plasma profile across the emission surface, using of quasi-Pierce electrodes at the beam periphery, and minimizing the deviation of the electrodes from the spherical form. Application of these measures to the neutral beam Russian diagnostic injector developed in Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics allows an increase of neutral beam current density in the focus by {approx}50%.
Geometric non-linear hexahedral elements with rotational DOFs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meftah, Kamel; Zouari, Wajdi; Sedira, Lakhdar; Ayad, Rezak
2016-01-01
This paper presents an extension of two recently published conforming and non conforming eight-node hexahedral finite elements, presenting rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the classical displacement ones, to analyze geometric nonlinear problems. Their formulations are based on the so-called space fiber rotation concept that considers virtual rotations of a nodal fiber within the element which enhances the displacement vector approximation. To demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed finite elements, several beam and shell nonlinear assessment tests are presented and the obtained results are principally compared with the classical first-order and second-order hexahedral elements responses as well as other advanced elements from the literature. In particular, it is shown that the proposed elements allow a correct prediction of the studied structures nonlinear behaviors including snap-through and snap-back instabilities and the accuracy of the non conforming element is close to the classical 20-node hexahedral element.
A Geometric Theory of Nonlinear Morphoelastic Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadik, Souhayl; Angoshtari, Arzhang; Goriely, Alain; Yavari, Arash
2016-08-01
Many thin three-dimensional elastic bodies can be reduced to elastic shells: two-dimensional elastic bodies whose reference shape is not necessarily flat. More generally, morphoelastic shells are elastic shells that can remodel and grow in time. These idealized objects are suitable models for many physical, engineering, and biological systems. Here, we formulate a general geometric theory of nonlinear morphoelastic shells that describes both the evolution of the body shape, viewed as an orientable surface, as well as its intrinsic material properties such as its reference curvatures. In this geometric theory, bulk growth is modeled using an evolving referential configuration for the shell, the so-called material manifold. Geometric quantities attached to the surface, such as the first and second fundamental forms, are obtained from the metric of the three-dimensional body and its evolution. The governing dynamical equations for the body are obtained from variational consideration by assuming that both fundamental forms on the material manifold are dynamical variables in a Lagrangian field theory. In the case where growth can be modeled by a Rayleigh potential, we also obtain the governing equations for growth in the form of kinetic equations coupling the evolution of the first and the second fundamental forms with the state of stress of the shell. We apply these ideas to obtain stress-free growth fields of a planar sheet, the time evolution of a morphoelastic circular cylindrical shell subject to time-dependent internal pressure, and the residual stress of a morphoelastic planar circular shell.
Nonlinearity of Pancharatnam's geometric phase in polarizing interferometers.
Hils, B; Dultz, W; Martienssen, W
1999-08-01
Earlier investigations show a time-variable nonlinear shift of the fringe pattern in a polarizing interferometer while rotating a polarizer at the exit. This effect was identified as Pancharatnam's geometrical phase and proposed for applications in interferometry and fast optical switching devices. A heterodyne analysis attributes moving fringes to a frequency difference between the interfering beams; thus changing fringe velocities point to a dynamic frequency development within the period of the uniformly rotating analyzer. This explanation offends the intuition and we undertake an experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect to solve the paradox. We determine, e.g., the complete frequency and mode spectrum of an arbitrary state of polarization P0 behind a rotating linear analyzer and behind a rotating arbitrary linear birefringent plate. We find that, in spite of a fast changing phase in the interferometer, no other (higher) frequency components appear in the spectral distribution of the intensity at the exit than the double of the rotary frequency of the analyzer: phase nonlinearities are compensated for by intensity changes. Only a phase-sensitive detector like an array of photodetectors is able to observe the nonlinearity of Pancharatnam's geometrical phase. A single detector only finds a sinusoidal intensity variation. Our insight into these relations leads us to two new applications of Pancharatnam's phase: supersensitivity of a polarizing double beam interferometer with a video camera acting as a phase detector and external tuning of a Fizeau interferometer. PMID:11970029
Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang
2013-10-01
This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.
Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang
2013-09-01
This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.
Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes
Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.
2015-09-15
Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinear normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.
Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes
Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.
2015-09-15
Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinearmore » normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.« less
Nonlinear combining of laser beams.
Lushnikov, Pavel M; Vladimirova, Natalia
2014-06-15
We propose to combine multiple laser beams into a single diffraction-limited beam by beam self-focusing (collapse) in a Kerr medium. Beams with total power above critical are first combined in the near field and then propagated in the optical fiber/waveguide with Kerr nonlinearity. Random fluctuations during propagation eventually trigger a strong self-focusing event and produce a diffraction-limited beam carrying the critical power. PMID:24978503
Gaussian beam evolution in nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Tikhonchuk
2014-04-01
The method of nonlinear complex geometrical optics (NCGO) is proposed in this paper for description of the evolution of a spatially narrow Gaussian beam (GB) in an inhomogeneous nonlinear plasma. NCGO method deals with first-order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude and for second-order ordinary differential equation for GB width. Thus, NCGO simplifies the description of GB diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the known methods of plasma physics and this way it can be assumed to be attractive and comprehensive approach in problems of plasma heating by electromagnetic waves. Moreover, we demonstrate in this paper some regularity for nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma in the framework of which central ray of a GB is not subjected to nonlinear refraction within NCGO method boundary applicability. On the contrary, the beam width, wave front curvature, and GB amplitude are modified by diffraction and self-focusing processes. General properties of the beam propagation are illustrated with results of numerical modeling for two particular cases: GB diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory with torsion in axially symmetric plasma column and GB reflection from nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma layer. We prove in this paper that NCGO is new effective method of plasma physics, which can be applied for improvement of ray tracing techniques and plasma diagnostics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Yiming; Chen, Yang; Zhong, Jun
2014-10-01
The nonlinear dynamic response problems of fiber-metal laminated beams with delamination are studied in this paper. Basing on the Timoshenko beam theory, and considering geometric nonlinearity, transverse shear deformation, temperature effect and contact effect, the nonlinear governing equations of motion for fiber-metal laminated beams under unsteady temperature field are established, which are solved by the differential quadrature method, Nermark-β method and iterative method. In numerical examples, the effects of delamination length, delamination depth, temperature field, geometric nonlinearity and transverse shear deformation on the nonlinear dynamic response of the glass reinforced aluminum laminated beam with delamination are discussed in details.
Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous and logarithmically saturable nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, Pawel
2012-08-01
The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media of cylindrical symmetry. PCGO reduces the problem of Gaussian beam diffraction in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, PCGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media as compared to the numerical and analytical methods of nonlinear optics. The power of PCGO method is presented on the example of Gaussian beam evolution in logarithmically saturable medium with either focusing and defocusing refractive profile. Besides, the influence of initial curvature of the wave front on GB evolution in nonlinear saturable medium is discussed in this paper.
Bounding solutions of geometrically nonlinear viscoelastic problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stubstad, J. M.; Simitses, G. J.
1986-01-01
Integral transform techniques, such as the Laplace transform, provide simple and direct methods for solving viscoelastic problems formulated within a context of linear material response and using linear measures for deformation. Application of the transform operator reduces the governing linear integro-differential equations to a set of algebraic relations between the transforms of the unknown functions, the viscoelastic operators, and the initial and boundary conditions. Inversion either directly or through the use of the appropriate convolution theorem, provides the time domain response once the unknown functions have been expressed in terms of sums, products or ratios of known transforms. When exact inversion is not possible approximate techniques may provide accurate results. The overall problem becomes substantially more complex when nonlinear effects must be included. Situations where a linear material constitutive law can still be productively employed but where the magnitude of the resulting time dependent deformations warrants the use of a nonlinear kinematic analysis are considered. The governing equations will be nonlinear integro-differential equations for this class of problems. Thus traditional as well as approximate techniques, such as cited above, cannot be employed since the transform of a nonlinear function is not explicitly expressible.
Bounding solutions of geometrically nonlinear viscoelastic problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stubstad, J. M.; Simitses, G. J.
1985-01-01
Integral transform techniques, such as the Laplace transform, provide simple and direct methods for solving viscoelastic problems formulated within a context of linear material response and using linear measures for deformation. Application of the transform operator reduces the governing linear integro-differential equations to a set of algebraic relations between the transforms of the unknown functions, the viscoelastic operators, and the initial and boundary conditions. Inversion either directly or through the use of the appropriate convolution theorem, provides the time domain response once the unknown functions have been expressed in terms of sums, products or ratios of known transforms. When exact inversion is not possible approximate techniques may provide accurate results. The overall problem becomes substantially more complex when nonlinear effects must be included. Situations where a linear material constitutive law can still be productively employed but where the magnitude of the resulting time dependent deformations warrants the use of a nonlinear kinematic analysis are considered. The governing equations will be nonlinear integro-differential equations for this class of problems. Thus traditional as well as approximate techniques, such as cited above, cannot be employed since the transform of a nonlinear function is not explicitly expressible.
Influence of geometric nonlinearities on skin-stiffener interface stresses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, D.; Hyer, M. W.
1988-01-01
A method for computing skin-stiffener interface stresses in stiffened composite panels is developed. Both geometrically linear and nonlinear analyses are considered. Particular attention is given to the flange termination region where stresses are expected to exhibit unbounded characteristics. The method is based on a finite-element analysis and an elasticity solution. The results indicate that the inclusion of geometric nonlinearities is very important for an accurate determination of the interface stresses. Membrane flattening of the panel tends to reduce the tendency of the stiffener to separate.
Geometric and material nonlinear analysis of tensegrity structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Hoang Chi; Lee, Jaehong
2011-12-01
A numerical method is presented for the large deflection in elastic analysis of tensegrity structures including both geometric and material nonlinearities. The geometric nonlinearity is considered based on both total Lagrangian and updated Lagrangian formulations, while the material nonlinearity is treated through elastoplastic stress-strain relationship. The nonlinear equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative scheme in conjunction with the modified Newton-Raphson method. A computer program is developed to predict the mechanical responses of tensegrity systems under tensile, compressive and flexural loadings. Numerical results obtained are compared with those reported in the literature to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed program. The flexural behavior of the double layer quadruplex tensegrity grid is sufficiently good for lightweight large-span structural applications. On the other hand, its bending strength capacity is not sensitive to the self-stress level.
Geometrically nonlinear analysis of laminated elastic structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, J. N.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Chao, W. C.
1993-01-01
This final technical report contains three parts: Part 1 deals with the 2-D shell theory and its element formulation and applications. Part 2 deals with the 3-D degenerated element. These two parts constitute the two major tasks that were completed under the grant. Another related topic that was initiated during the present investigation is the development of a nonlinear material model. This topic is briefly discussed in Part 3. To make each part self-contained, conclusions and references are included in each part. In the interest of brevity, the discussions presented are relatively brief. The details and additional topics are described in the references cited.
User's manual for GAMNAS: Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, J. D.; Dattaguru, B.
1984-01-01
GAMNAS (Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Structures) is a two dimensional finite-element stress analysis program. Options include linear, geometric nonlinear, material nonlinear, and combined geometric and material nonlinear analysis. The theory, organization, and use of GAMNAS are described. Required input data and results for several sample problems are included.
Auto-focusing accelerating hyper-geometric laser beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalev, A. A.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Porfirev, A. P.
2016-02-01
We derive a new solution to the paraxial wave equation that defines a two-parameter family of three-dimensional structurally stable vortex annular auto-focusing hyper-geometric (AH) beams, with their complex amplitude expressed via a degenerate hyper-geometric function. The AH beams are found to carry an orbital angular momentum and be auto-focusing, propagating on an accelerating path toward a focus, where the annular intensity pattern is ‘sharply’ reduced in diameter. An explicit expression for the complex amplitude of vortex annular auto-focusing hyper-geometric-Gaussian beams is derived. The experiment has been shown to be in good agreement with theory.
Geometrically Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of a Composite Space Reflector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Kee-Joo; Leet, Sung W.; Clark, Greg; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Lightweight aerospace structures, such as low areal density composite space reflectors, are highly flexible and may undergo large deflection under applied loading, especially during the launch phase. Accordingly, geometrically nonlinear analysis that takes into account the effect of finite rotation may be needed to determine the deformed shape for a clearance check and the stress and strain state to ensure structural integrity. In this study, deformation of the space reflector is determined under static conditions using a geometrically nonlinear solid shell finite element model. For the solid shell element formulation, the kinematics of deformation is described by six variables that are purely vector components. Because rotational angles are not used, this approach is free of the limitations of small angle increments. This also allows easy connections between substructures and large load increments with respect to the conventional shell formulation using rotational parameters. Geometrically nonlinear analyses were carried out for three cases of static point loads applied at selected points. A chart shows results for a case when the load is applied at the center point of the reflector dish. The computed results capture the nonlinear behavior of the composite reflector as the applied load increases. Also, they are in good agreement with the data obtained by experiments.
Harnessing geometric and magnetic nonlinearities in phononic meta-plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilal, Osama; Foehr, Andre; Daraio, Chiara
Owing to their physical realization, locally resonant metamaterials retain narrow subwavelength band gaps. Moreover, the fixed geometry and dimensions of the unit cell set a hardbound on the central frequency of the operational bandwidth. Real-time tunable metamaterials extend the range of applications and further enable the realization of new sensors, filters, and switches. Our work harnesses the interaction between geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear magnetic potentials to engineer frequency-agile subwavelength band gaps. The concept is general and applicable to various metamaterials systems. Both numerical simulations and experimental realization of the proposed concept will be presented.
Radiometric versus geometric, linear, and nonlinear vignetting coefficient.
Duma, Virgil-Florin
2009-11-10
We analyze the vignetting phenomenon both for optical systems with objects placed at finite distances and for systems with objects at infinity. Four of the possible definitions of the vignetting coefficient k, only two of them existing in the literature, are discussed. We propose two new definitions, i.e., a nonlinear geometric coefficient that is, in part, an analytical model of the vignetting characterization using optical software and a radiometric vignetting coefficient. The object space of each type of optical systems is studied first, defining its characteristic light circles and cones. Several simplifying assumptions are made for each of the two cases considered to derive analytical equations of the vignetting coefficient and thus to determine the best definition to be used. A geometric vignetting coefficient with two expressions, a linear classical and easy-to-use one and a nonlinear, that we propose for both types of systems is obtained. This nonlinear geometric vignetting coefficient proves to be more adequate in modeling the phenomenon, but it does not entirely fit the physical reality. We finally demonstrate that the radiometric vignetting coefficient we define and derive as a view factor for both types of optical systems is the most appropriate one. The half vignetting level, necessary in most optical design procedures to obtain a satisfactory illumination level in the image plane, is also discussed. PMID:19904336
Exact and geometrical optics energy trajectories in twisted beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, M. V.; McDonald, K. T.
2008-03-01
Energy trajectories, that is, integral curves of the Poynting (current) vector, are calculated for scalar Bessel and Laguerre-Gauss beams carrying orbital angular momentum. The trajectories for the exact waves are helices, winding on cylinders for Bessel beams and hyperboloidal surfaces for Laguerre-Gauss beams. In the geometrical optics approximations, the trajectories for both types of beam are overlapping families of straight skew rays lying on hyperboloidal surfaces; the envelopes of the hyperboloids are the caustics: a cylinder for Bessel beams and two hyperboloids for Laguerre-Gauss beams.
NASTRAN nonlinear vibration analysis of beam and frame structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, C.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.
1975-01-01
A capability for the nonlinear vibration analysis of beam and frame structures suitable for use with NASTRAN level 15.5 is described. The nonlinearity considered is due to the presence of axial loads induced by longitudinal end restraints and lateral displacements that are large compared to the beam height. A brief discussion is included of the mathematical analysis and the geometrical stiffness matrix for a prismatic beam (BAR) element. Also included are a brief discussion of the equivalent linearization iterative process used to determine the nonlinear frequency, the required modifications to subroutines DBAR and XMPLBD of the NASTRAN code, and the appropriate vibration capability, four example problems are presented. Comparisons with existing experimental and analytical results show that excellent accuracy is achieved with NASTRAN in all cases.
Vector algorithms for geometrically nonlinear 3D finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, John D.
1989-01-01
Algorithms for geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis are presented which exploit the vector processing capability of the VPS-32, which is closely related to the CYBER 205. By manipulating vectors (which are long lists of numbers) rather than individual numbers, very high processing speeds are obtained. Long vector lengths are obtained without extensive replication or reordering by storage of intermediate results in strategic patterns at all stages of the computations. Comparisons of execution times with those from programs using either scalar or other vector programming techniques indicate that the algorithms presented are quite efficient.
Geometrically nonlinear analysis of layered composite plates and shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, W. C.; Reddy, J. N.
1983-01-01
A degenerated three dimensional finite element, based on the incremental total Lagrangian formulation of a three dimensional layered anisotropic medium was developed. Its use in the geometrically nonlinear, static and dynamic, analysis of layered composite plates and shells is demonstrated. A two dimenisonal finite element based on the Sanders shell theory with the von Karman (nonlinear) strains was developed. It is shown that the deflections obtained by the 2D shell element deviate from those obtained by the more accurate 3D element for deep shells. The 3D degenerated element can be used to model general shells that are not necessarily doubly curved. The 3D degenerated element is computationally more demanding than the 2D shell theory element for a given problem. It is found that the 3D element is an efficient element for the analysis of layered composite plates and shells undergoing large displacements and transient motion.
Numerical treatment of a geometrically nonlinear planar Cosserat shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sander, Oliver; Neff, Patrizio; Bîrsan, Mircea
2016-05-01
We present a new way to discretize a geometrically nonlinear elastic planar Cosserat shell. The kinematical model is similar to the general six-parameter resultant shell model with drilling rotations. The discretization uses geodesic finite elements (GFEs), which leads to an objective discrete model which naturally allows arbitrarily large rotations. GFEs of any approximation order can be constructed. The resulting algebraic problem is a minimization problem posed on a nonlinear finite-dimensional Riemannian manifold. We solve this problem using a Riemannian trust-region method, which is a generalization of Newton's method that converges globally without intermediate loading steps. We present the continuous model and the discretization, discuss the properties of the discrete model, and show several numerical examples, including wrinkling of thin elastic sheets in shear.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, Pawel
2013-12-01
In this paper complex geometrical optics (CGO) is applied to spatiotemporal evolution of 2D Gaussian wavepackets in nonlinear media of Kerr type. Instead of solving the commonly accepted nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS), we propose equations of geometrical optics: a complex eikonal equation and a complex transport equation. The eikonal equation lets us derive immediately the ordinary differential equations for spatial and temporal widths, omitting in this way the complicated variational process used in nonlinear optics. Moreover, the obtained CGO equations for actual spatial and temporal widths happen to be identical to those obtained by the variational method approach. From the transport equation we obtain the first order ordinary differential equation for complex amplitude evolution and the conservation principle for energy flux in the packet cross-section. For the combined effect of diffraction, anomalous dispersion and nonlinear refraction, we observe three types of solution for temporal and spatial widths of the packet propagating in a nonlinear medium of Kerr type: the diffraction/dispersion widening, the stationary solution and the solution under the effect of the spatiotemporal collapse. Moreover, we discuss the evolution of the 2D Gaussian wavepacket in a nonlinear inhomogeneous waveguide and we present conditions for stable propagation without the collapse effect. Under these conditions the wavepacket asymptotically approaches stationary solutions when the parameters of the waveguide change over the propagation distance. The paper also discusses the influence of initial spatial and temporal chirps on Gaussian wavepacket evolution in nonlinear media of Kerr type and in nonlinear inhomogeneous waveguides. Moreover, we notice that the equations for temporal and spatial widths of the 2D wavepacket have the same structure as the equations for the evolution of the elliptical Gaussian beam. Thus, the description of the 2D spatiotemporal wavepacket can be
A survey of the core-congruential formulation for geometrically nonlinear TL finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Felippa, Carlos A.; Crivelli, Luis A.; Haugen, Bjorn
1994-01-01
This article presents a survey of the core-congruential formulation (CCF) for geometrically nonlinear mechanical finite elements based on the total Lagrangian (TL) kinematic description. Although the key ideas behind the CCF can be traced back to Rajasekaran and Murray in 1973, it has not subsequently received serious attention. The CCF is distinguished by a two-phase development of the finite element stiffness equations. The initial phase developed equations for individual particles. These equations are expressed in terms of displacement gradients as degrees of freedom. The second phase involves congruential-type transformations that eventually binds the element particles of an individual element in terms of its node-displacement degrees of freedom. Two versions of the CCF, labeled direct and generalized, are distinguished. The direct CCF (DCCF) is first described in general form and then applied to the derivation of geometrically nonlinear bar, and plane stress elements using the Green-Lagrange strain measure. The more complex generalized CCF (GCCF) is described and applied to the derivation of 2D and 3D Timoshenko beam elements. Several advantages of the CCF, notably the physically clean separation of material and geometric stiffnesses, and its independence with respect to the ultimate choice of shape functions and element degrees of freedom, are noted. Application examples involving very large motions solved with the 3D beam element display the range of applicability of this formulation, which transcends the kinematic limitations commonly attributed to the TL description.
Nonlinear flap-lag axial equations of a rotating beam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaza, K. R. V.; Kvaternik, R. G.
1977-01-01
It is possible to identify essentially four approaches by which analysts have established either the linear or nonlinear governing equations of motion for a particular problem related to the dynamics of rotating elastic bodies. The approaches include the effective applied load artifice in combination with a variational principle and the use of Newton's second law, written as D'Alembert's principle, applied to the deformed configuration. A third approach is a variational method in which nonlinear strain-displacement relations and a first-degree displacement field are used. The method introduced by Vigneron (1975) for deriving the linear flap-lag equations of a rotating beam constitutes the fourth approach. The reported investigation shows that all four approaches make use of the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity. An alternative method for deriving the nonlinear coupled flap-lag-axial equations of motion is also discussed.
Unified nonlinear analysis for nonhomogeneous anisotropic beams with closed cross sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atilgan, Ali R.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1991-01-01
A unified methodology for geometrically nonlinear analysis of nonhomogeneous, anisotropic beams is presented. A 2D cross-sectional analysis and a nonlinear 1D global deformation analysis are derived from the common framework of a 3D, geometrically nonlinear theory of elasticity. The only restrictions are that the strain and local rotation are small compared to unity and that warping displacements are small relative to the cross-sectional dimensions. It is concluded that the warping solutions can be affected by large deformation and that this could alter the incremental stiffnes of the section. It is shown that sectional constants derived from the published, linear analysis can be used in the present nonlinear, 1D analysis governing the global deformation of the beam, which is based on intrinsic equations for nonlinear beam behavior. Excellent correlation is obtained with published experimental results for both isotropic and anisotropic beams undergoing large deflections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Zhan; Zheng, Gangtie
2016-08-01
A combined analysis method is developed in the present paper for studying the dynamic properties of a type of geometrically nonlinear vibration isolator, which is composed of push-pull configuration rings. This method combines the geometrically nonlinear theory of curved beams and the Harmonic Balance Method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the vibration and vibration transmissibility under large deformations of the ring structure. Using the proposed method, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of this isolator, such as the lock situation due to the coulomb damping and the usual jump resulting from the nonlinear stiffness, can be investigated. Numerical solutions based on the primary harmonic balance are first verified by direct integration results. Then, the whole procedure of this combined analysis method is demonstrated and validated by slowly sinusoidal sweeping experiments with different amplitudes of the base excitation. Both numerical and experimental results indicate that this type of isolator behaves as a hardening spring with increasing amplitude of the base excitation, which makes it suitable for isolating both steady-state vibrations and transient shocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dongwei
Recent research and development of adaptive materials, smart structures and structronic systems have opened a new era to aerospace and structural engineering. Effective control of these intelligent structures and systems using piezoelectric materials can enhance operation precision, accuracy and reliability. This research is to investigate the dynamics, vibration sensing and control of the geometrically nonlinear distributed piezothermoelastic structures subjected to the combined mechanical, electrical, and thermal excitations by the finite element method. Based on the layerwise constant shear angle theory, the curved hexahedral and triangular piezothermoelastic shell elements are proposed. The generic finite element formulations for vibration sensing and control analysis of nonlinear piezothermoelastic shell structures are derived based on the total Lagrangian virtual work principle. Dynamic system equations, equations of electric potential outputs, and feedback control forces are derived and discussed. The modified Newton-Raphson method is used for efficient dynamic analysis of the nonlinear piezothermoelastic structural systems. Different control algorithms are implemented. The feedback control forces generated from the distributed actuator can effectively enhance system damping and suppress system vibration via proper feedback control techniques. Comprehensive case studies are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the newly developed piezothermoelastic shell elements and to validate the finite element code. Dynamics and vibration sensing/control of nonlinear piezothermoelastic beam and plate systems are analyzed. Distributed piezoelectric films placed on the beam and plate structures respectively serving as sensor and actuators are discussed. The effect of geometric nonlinearity is to stiffen the beam and plate structures and the control effect becomes worse when geometric nonlinearity becomes significant. It shows that negative velocity control scheme is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Pengchao
Recent studies of the occurrence of post-flutter limit cycle oscillations (LCO) of the F-16 have provided good support to the long-standing hypothesis that this phenomenon involves a nonlinear structural damping. A potential mechanism for the appearance of nonlinearity in the damping are the nonlinear geometric effects that arise when the deformations become large enough to exceed the linear regime. In this light, the focus of this investigation is first on extending nonlinear reduced order modeling (ROM) methods to include viscoelasticity which is introduced here through a linear Kelvin-Voigt model in the undeformed configuration. Proceeding with a Galerkin approach, the ROM governing equations of motion are obtained and are found to be of a generalized van der Pol-Duffing form with parameters depending on the structure and the chosen basis functions. An identification approach of the nonlinear damping parameters is next proposed which is applicable to structures modeled within commercial finite element software. The effects of this nonlinear damping mechanism on the post-flutter response is next analyzed on the Goland wing through time-marching of the aeroelastic equations comprising a rational fraction approximation of the linear aerodynamic forces. It is indeed found that the nonlinearity in the damping can stabilize the unstable aerodynamics and lead to finite amplitude limit cycle oscillations even when the stiffness related nonlinear geometric effects are neglected. The incorporation of these latter effects in the model is found to further decrease the amplitude of LCO even though the dominant bending motions do not seem to stiffen as the level of displacements is increased in static analyses.
Nonlinear instability and reliability analysis of composite laminated beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fereidooni, Alireza
The wide range of high performance engineering applications of composite laminated structures demands a proper understanding of their dynamics performance. Due to the complexity and nonlinear behaviour of such structures, developing a mathematical model to determine the dynamic instability boundaries is indispensable and challenging. The aim of this research is to investigate the dynamic behaviour of shear deformable composite laminated beams subjected to varying time conservative and nonconservative loads. The dynamic instability behaviour of non-conservative and conservative system are dissimilar. In case of conservative loading, the instability region intersects the loading axis, but in case of non-conservative loads the region will be increased with loading increases. The extended Hamilton's principle and the first order shear deformation theory are employed in this investigation to establish the integral form of the equation of motion of the beam. A five node beam model is presented to descritize the integral form of the governing equations. The model has the capability to capture the dynamic effects of the transverse shear stress, warping, and bending-twisting, bending-stretching, and stretching-twisting couplings. Also, the geometric and loading nonlinearities are included in the equation of system. The beam model incorporates, in a full form, the non-classical effects of warping on stability and dynamic response of symmetrical and unsymmetrical composite beams. In case of nonlinear elasticity, the resonance curves are bent toward the increasing exciting frequencies. The response of the stable beam is pure periodic and follow the loading frequency. When the beam is asymptotically stable the response of the beam is aperiodic and does not follow the loading frequency. In unstable state of the beam response frequency increases with time and is higher than the loading frequency, also the amplitude of the beam will increases, end to beam failure. The amplitude of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muravyov, Alexander A.; Turner, Travis L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Rizzi, Stephen A.
1999-01-01
In this paper, the problem of random vibration of geometrically nonlinear MDOF structures is considered. The solutions obtained by application of two different versions of a stochastic linearization method are compared with exact (F-P-K) solutions. The formulation of a relatively new version of the stochastic linearization method (energy-based version) is generalized to the MDOF system case. Also, a new method for determination of nonlinear sti ness coefficients for MDOF structures is demonstrated. This method in combination with the equivalent linearization technique is implemented in a new computer program. Results in terms of root-mean-square (RMS) displacements obtained by using the new program and an existing in-house code are compared for two examples of beam-like structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J.; Yan, T.
2010-06-01
This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic frequency response of a Timoshenko beam made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) with an open edge crack. The beam is clamped and subjected to an axial parametric excitation consisting of a static compressive force and a harmonic excitation force. Theoretical formulations are based on Timoshenko shear deformable beam theory, von Karman type geometric nonlinearity and rotational spring model. Hamilton's principle is used to derive the nonlinear partial differential equations which are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equation by using the Least Squares method and Galerkin technique. The nonlinear natural frequencies and excitation frequency-amplitude response curves are obtained by employing Runge-Kutta method and multiple scale method, respectively. A parametric study is conducted to study the effects of material property distribution, crack depth, crack location, excitation frequency, and slenderness ratio on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of parametrically excited, cracked FGM Timoshenko beams.
gpICA: A Novel Nonlinear ICA Algorithm Using Geometric Linearization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Thang Viet; Patra, Jagdish Chandra; Emmanuel, Sabu
2006-12-01
A new geometric approach for nonlinear independent component analysis (ICA) is presented in this paper. Nonlinear environment is modeled by the popular post nonlinear (PNL) scheme. To eliminate the nonlinearity in the observed signals, a novel linearizing method named as geometric post nonlinear ICA (gpICA) is introduced. Thereafter, a basic linear ICA is applied on these linearized signals to estimate the unknown sources. The proposed method is motivated by the fact that in a multidimensional space, a nonlinear mixture is represented by a nonlinear surface while a linear mixture is represented by a plane, a special form of the surface. Therefore, by geometrically transforming the surface representing a nonlinear mixture into a plane, the mixture can be linearized. Through simulations on different data sets, superior performance of gpICA algorithm has been shown with respect to other algorithms.
Beams on nonlinear elastic foundation
Lukkassen, Dag; Meidell, Annette
2014-12-10
In order to determination vertical deflections and rail bending moments the Winkler model (1867) is often used. This linear model neglects several conditions. For example, by using experimental results, it has been observed that there is a substantial increase in the maximum rail deflection and rail bending moment when considering the nonlinearity of the track support system. A deeper mathematical analysis of the models is necessary in order to obtain better methods for more accurate numerical solutions in the determination of deflections and rail bending moments. This paper is intended to be a small step in this direction.
Thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling of piezoelectric FG-CNTRC beams with geometric imperfections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Helong; Kitipornchai, Sritawat; Yang, Jie
2016-09-01
This paper presents thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling analysis of geometrically imperfect functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) hybrid beams that are integrated with surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators. The material properties of FG-CNTRCs are assumed to be temperature-dependent and graded in the thickness direction. By using a generic imperfection function, various possible imperfections with different shapes and locations in the beam are considered. The theoretical formulations are based on the first-order shear deformation beam theory with von-Kármán nonlinearity. A differential quadrature approximation based iteration process is employed to obtain the postbuckling equilibrium path of piezoelectric FG-CNTRC hybrid beams under thermo-electro-mechanical loading. Parametric studies are conducted to examine the effect of geometric imperfection, distribution pattern and volume fraction of carbon nanotubes, temperature rise, actuator voltage, beam geometry and boundary conditions on the thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling behaviour. The results show that the thermo-electro-mechanical postbuckling is considerably affected by the imperfection mode, half-wave number, location and amplitude, as well as the temperature rise and boundary conditions. The effect of applied actuator voltage is much less pronounced but tends to be relatively more noticeable as the slenderness ratio increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
HARRAS, B.; BENAMAR, R.; WHITE, R. G.
2002-04-01
The geometrically non-linear free vibration of thin composite laminated plates is investigated by using a theoretical model based on Hamilton's principle and spectral analysis previously applied to obtain the non-linear mode shapes and resonance frequencies of thin straight structures, such as beams, plates and shells (Benamar et al. 1991Journal of Sound and Vibration149 , 179-195; 1993, 164, 295-316; 1990 Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics, Southampton; Moussaoui et al. 2000 Journal of Sound and Vibration232, 917-943 [1-4]). The von Kármán non-linear strain-displacement relationships have been employed. In the formulation, the transverse displacement W of the plate mid-plane has been taken into account and the in-plane displacements U and V have been neglected in the non-linear strain energy expressions. This assumption, quite often made in the literature has been adopted in reference [2] and (El Kadiri et al. 1999 Journal of Sound and Vibration228, 333-358 [5]), in the isotropic case and has been mentioned here because the results obtained have been found to be in very good agreement with those based on the hierarchical finite element method (HFEM). In a previous study, it was assumed, based on the analogy with the isotropic case, that the fundamental carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate non-linear mode shape could be well estimated, by using nine plate functions, obtained as products of clamped-clamped beam functions in the x and y directions, symmetric in both the length U001and width directions [3]. In the present work, a convergence study has been performed and has shown that, although such an assumption may yield a good estimate for the non-linear resonance frequency, 18 plate functions should be taken into account instead of nine in the first non-linear mode shape and associated bending stress patterns calculations. This allows the anisotropy induced by the fibre orientations to be taken
A geometric calibration method for cone beam CT systems
Yang, Kai; Kwan, Alexander L. C.; Miller, DeWitt F.; Boone, John M.
2006-06-15
Cone beam CT systems are being deployed in large numbers for small animal imaging, dental imaging, and other specialty applications. A new high-precision method for cone beam CT system calibration is presented in this paper. It uses multiple projection images acquired from rotating point-like objects (metal ball bearings) and the angle information generated from the rotating gantry system is also used. It is assumed that the whole system has a mechanically stable rotation center and that the detector does not have severe out-of-plane rotation (<2 deg.). Simple geometrical relationships between the orbital paths of individual BBs and five system parameters were derived. Computer simulations were employed to validate the accuracy of this method in the presence of noise. Equal or higher accuracy was achieved compared with previous methods. This method was implemented for the geometrical calibration of both a micro CT scanner and a breast CT scanner. The reconstructed tomographic images demonstrated that the proposed method is robust and easy to implement with high precision.
Active suppression of nonlinear composite beam vibrations by selected control algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warminski, Jerzy; Bochenski, Marcin; Jarzyna, Wojciech; Filipek, Piotr; Augustyniak, Michal
2011-05-01
This paper is focused on application of different control algorithms for a flexible, geometrically nonlinear beam-like structure with Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator. Based on the mathematical model of a geometrically nonlinear beam, analytical solutions for Nonlinear Saturation Controller (NSC) are obtained using Multiple Scale Method. Effectiveness of different control strategies is evaluated by numerical simulations in Matlab-Simulink software. Then, the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) controller and selected control algorithms are implemented to the physical system to compare numerical and experimental results. Detailed analysis for the NSC system is carried out, especially for high level of amplitude and wide range of frequencies of excitation. Finally, the efficiency of the considered controllers is tested experimentally for a more complex autoparametric " L-shape" beam system.
Beam-Plasma Interaction and Nonlinear Effects
Yoon, Peter H.
2009-11-10
This paper presents a survey of perturbative nonlinear plasma theory known as the weak turbulence theory. After the basic concepts and methodology of the weak turbulence theory are outlined in sufficient detail, numerical solutions of the weak turbulence theory obtained in the context of the beam-plasma interaction are compared against particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that theory and PIC simulation are in excellent agreement.
Nonlinear wave scattering and electron beam relaxation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muschietti, L.; Dum, C. T.
1991-01-01
The role played by nonlinear scattering during the relaxation of a warm electron beam is investigated through a numerical code based on kinetic equations. The code encompasses the quasi-linear wave-electron interaction and wave-wave scattering off ion clouds. Ions with velocities 2 nu sub i (nu sub i being the ion thermal velocity) are found to be the most efficient for scattering the Langmuir waves off their polarization clouds. The transfer rate of the spectrum out of resonance with the beam is larger by a factor 3 compared to usual estimates. The changes produced in the dispersion relation by the presence of the beam electrons dramatically alter the characteristics of the secondary spectrum. In a late phase the classic condensate K of about 0 is depleted, with the formation of a new condensate in resonance with the flat-topped beam distribution, which follows from the fact that the mere presence of the beam electrons creates a minimum in the frequency-wave-number relation. For strong and slow beams, the predictions of the code are found to be in excellent agreement with the results of the particle simulation if a dispersion relation that includes the beam is used.
Nonlinear bending models for beams and plates
Antipov, Y. A.
2014-01-01
A new nonlinear model for large deflections of a beam is proposed. It comprises the Euler–Bernoulli boundary value problem for the deflection and a nonlinear integral condition. When bending does not alter the beam length, this condition guarantees that the deflected beam has the original length and fixes the horizontal displacement of the free end. The numerical results are in good agreement with the ones provided by the elastica model. Dynamic and two-dimensional generalizations of this nonlinear one-dimensional static model are also discussed. The model problem for an inextensible rectangular Kirchhoff plate, when one side is clamped, the opposite one is subjected to a shear force, and the others are free of moments and forces, is reduced to a singular integral equation with two fixed singularities. The singularities of the unknown function are examined, and a series-form solution is derived by the collocation method in terms of the associated Jacobi polynomials. The procedure requires solving an infinite system of linear algebraic equations for the expansion coefficients subject to the inextensibility condition. PMID:25294960
Geometric beam coupling impedance of LHC secondary collimators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frasciello, Oscar; Tomassini, Sandro; Zobov, Mikhail; Salvant, Benoit; Grudiev, Alexej; Mounet, Nicolas
2016-02-01
The High Luminosity LHC project is aimed at increasing the LHC luminosity by an order of magnitude. One of the key ingredients to achieve the luminosity goal is the beam intensity increase. In order to keep beam instabilities under control and to avoid excessive power losses a careful design of new vacuum chamber components and an improvement of the present LHC impedance model are required. Collimators are among the major impedance contributors. Measurements with beam have revealed that the betatron coherent tune shifts were higher by about a factor of 2 with respect to the theoretical predictions based on the LHC impedance model up to 2012. In that model the resistive wall impedance has been considered as the dominating impedance contribution for collimators. By carefully simulating also their geometric impedance we have contributed to the update of the LHC impedance model, reaching also a better agreement between the measured and simulated betatron tune shifts. During the just ended LHC Long Shutdown I (LSI), TCS/TCT collimators were replaced by new devices embedding BPMs and TT2-111R ferrite blocks. We present here preliminary estimations of their broad-band impedance, showing that an increase of about 20% is expected in the kick factors with respect to previous collimators without BPMs.
Geometric phase in cavity QED containing a nonlinear optical medium and a quantum well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, A.-B. A.; Eleuch, H.
2015-11-01
The geometric phase (GP) in cavity QED filled with a nonlinear medium and containing a quantum well is analyzed. We observe collapses and revivals. The optical nonlinearity leads to high frequency oscillations of the GP. The GP is very sensitive not only to the dissipation rates but also to the amplitude of the laser pump.
The beam equation with nonlinear memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Abbicco, Marcello; Lucente, Sandra
2016-06-01
In this paper, we study the critical exponent for the beam equation with nonlinear memory, i.e., {u_{tt}+Δ^2u = F(t, u)}, where F = intlimits0tf(t - s)N(u)(s, x) {d}s, quad N(u)≈ |u|^p. For suitable f and p, we prove the existence of local-in-time solutions and small data global solutions to the Cauchy problem, in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Sobolev spaces. In some cases, we prove that the local solution cannot be extended to a global one. We also consider the limit case of power nonlinearity, i.e., {F = N(u)}.
A computational framework for polyconvex large strain elasticity for geometrically exact beam theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortigosa, Rogelio; Gil, Antonio J.; Bonet, Javier; Hesch, Christian
2016-02-01
In this paper, a new computational framework is presented for the analysis of nonlinear beam finite elements subjected to large strains. Specifically, the methodology recently introduced in Bonet et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 283:1061-1094, 2015) in the context of three dimensional polyconvex elasticity is extended to the geometrically exact beam model of Simo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 49:55-70, 1985), the starting point of so many other finite element beam type formulations. This new variational framework can be viewed as a continuum degenerate formulation which, moreover, is enhanced by three key novelties. First, in order to facilitate the implementation of the sophisticated polyconvex constitutive laws particularly associated with beams undergoing large strains, a novel tensor cross product algebra by Bonet et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 283:1061-1094, 2015) is adopted, leading to an elegant and physically meaningful representation of an otherwise complex computational framework. Second, the paper shows how the novel algebra facilitates the re-expression of any invariant of the deformation gradient, its cofactor and its determinant in terms of the classical beam strain measures. The latter being very useful whenever a classical beam implementation is preferred. This is particularised for the case of a Mooney-Rivlin model although the technique can be straightforwardly generalised to other more complex isotropic and anisotropic polyconvex models. Third, the connection between the two most accepted restrictions for the definition of constitutive models in three dimensional elasticity and beams is shown, bridging the gap between the continuum and its degenerate beam description. This is carried out via a novel insightful representation of the tangent operator.
Beam stability & nonlinear dynamics. Formal report
Parsa, Z.
1996-12-31
his Report includes copies of transparencies and notes from the presentations made at the Symposium on Beam Stability and Nonlinear Dynamics, December 3-5, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara California, that was made available by the authors. Editing, reduction and changes to the authors contributions were made only to fulfill the printing and publication requirements. We would like to take this opportunity and thank the speakers for their informative presentations and for providing copies of their transparencies and notes for inclusion in this Report.
Nonlinear equations for dynamics of pretwisted beams undergoing small strains and large rotations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, D. H.
1985-01-01
Nonlinear beam kinematics are developed and applied to the dynamic analysis of a pretwisted, rotating beam element. The common practice of assuming moderate rotations caused by structural deformation in geometric nonlinear analyses of rotating beams was abandoned in the present analysis. The kinematic relations that described the orientation of the cross section during deformation are simplified by systematically ignoring the extensional strain compared to unity in those relations. Open cross section effects such as warping rigidity and dynamics are ignored, but other influences of warp are retained. The beam cross section is not allowed to deform in its own plane. Various means of implementation are discussed, including a finite element formulation. Numerical results obtained for nonlinear static problems show remarkable agreement with experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, R.; Faraji Oskouie, M.; Gholami, R.
2016-01-01
In recent decades, mathematical modeling and engineering applications of fractional-order calculus have been extensively utilized to provide efficient simulation tools in the field of solid mechanics. In this paper, a nonlinear fractional nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam model is established using the concept of fractional derivative and nonlocal elasticity theory to investigate the size-dependent geometrically nonlinear free vibration of fractional viscoelastic nanobeams. The non-classical fractional integro-differential Euler-Bernoulli beam model contains the nonlocal parameter, viscoelasticity coefficient and order of the fractional derivative to interpret the size effect, viscoelastic material and fractional behavior in the nanoscale fractional viscoelastic structures, respectively. In the solution procedure, the Galerkin method is employed to reduce the fractional integro-partial differential governing equation to a fractional ordinary differential equation in the time domain. Afterwards, the predictor-corrector method is used to solve the nonlinear fractional time-dependent equation. Finally, the influences of nonlocal parameter, order of fractional derivative and viscoelasticity coefficient on the nonlinear time response of fractional viscoelastic nanobeams are discussed in detail. Moreover, comparisons are made between the time responses of linear and nonlinear models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.
1985-01-01
The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the natural frequencies, steady state deflections and mode shapes of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The governing coupled equations of flap lag extensional motion are derived including the effects of large precone and retaining geometric nonlinearities up to second degree. The Galerkin method, with nonrotating normal modes, is used for the solution of both steady state nonlinear equations and linear perturbation equations. Parametric indicating the individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the steady state deflection, natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating blades are presented. It is indicated that the second degree geometric nonlinear terms, which vanish for zero precone, can produce frequency changes of engineering significance. Further confirmation of the validity of including those generated by MSC NASTRAN. It is indicated that the linear and nonlinear Coriolis effects must be included in analyzing thick blades. The Coriolis effects are significant on the first flatwise and the first edgewise modes.
Nonlinear dynamics of magnetically coupled beams for multi-modal vibration energy harvesting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abed, I.; Kacem, N.; Bouhaddi, N.; Bouazizi, M. L.
2016-04-01
We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of magnetically coupled beams for multi-modal vibration energy harvesting. A multi-physics model for the proposed device is developed taking into account geometric and magnetic nonlinearities. The coupled nonlinear equations of motion are solved using the Galerkin discretization coupled with the harmonic balance method and the asymptotic numerical method. Several numerical simulations have been performed showing that the expected performances of the proposed vibration energy harvester are significantly promising with up to 130 % in term of bandwidth and up to 60 μWcm-3g-2 in term of normalized harvested power.
Geometrically Nonlinear Static Analysis of 3D Trusses Using the Arc-Length Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hrinda, Glenn A.
2006-01-01
Rigorous analysis of geometrically nonlinear structures demands creating mathematical models that accurately include loading and support conditions and, more importantly, model the stiffness and response of the structure. Nonlinear geometric structures often contain critical points with snap-through behavior during the response to large loads. Studying the post buckling behavior during a portion of a structure's unstable load history may be necessary. Primary structures made from ductile materials will stretch enough prior to failure for loads to redistribute producing sudden and often catastrophic collapses that are difficult to predict. The responses and redistribution of the internal loads during collapses and possible sharp snap-back of structures have frequently caused numerical difficulties in analysis procedures. The presence of critical stability points and unstable equilibrium paths are major difficulties that numerical solutions must pass to fully capture the nonlinear response. Some hurdles still exist in finding nonlinear responses of structures under large geometric changes. Predicting snap-through and snap-back of certain structures has been difficult and time consuming. Also difficult is finding how much load a structure may still carry safely. Highly geometrically nonlinear responses of structures exhibiting complex snap-back behavior are presented and analyzed with a finite element approach. The arc-length method will be reviewed and shown to predict the proper response and follow the nonlinear equilibrium path through limit points.
Overview of magnetic nonlinear beam dynamics in the RHIC
Luo,Y.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bengtsson, J.; Calaga, R.; Fischer, W.; Jain, A.; Pilat, f.; Ptitsyn, V.; Malitsky, N.; Robert-Demolaize, g.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tomas, R.; Trbojevic, D.
2009-05-04
In this article we review our studies of nonlinear beam dynamics due to the nonlinear magnetic field errors in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Nonlinear magnetic field errors, including magnetic field errors in interaction regions (IRs), chromatic sextupoles, and sextupole components from arc main dipoles are discussed. Their effects on beam dynamics and beam dynamic aperture are evaluated. The online methods to measure and correct the IR nonlinear field errors, second order chromaticities, and horizontal third order resonance are presented. The overall strategy for nonlinear corrections in RHIC is discussed.
An integrated approach to the synthesis of geometrically non-linear structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smaoui, H.; Schmit, L. A.
1988-01-01
An integrated approach to the minimum weight design of geometrically nonlinear three-dimensional truss structures with geometric imperfections, subject to inequality constraints on static displacements, stresses, local buckling and cross sectional areas, is investigated. The integrated structural synthesis problem involves design and response quantities as independent variables and equilibrium equations, describing the finite element model, as equality constraints. The nonlinear structural analysis and the optimization are thus merged together into a single process. A computer program developed to compute the constraint values and analytical gradients is coupled with a generalized reduced gradient algorithm to solve the integrated problem. Numerical results for a geometrically nonlinear shallow dome example problem are presented for various types of imperfections. Furthermore, it is found that the algorithm is capable of detecting and guarding against system as well as element elastic instability using equilibrium information only, that is, without imposing system and local buckling inequality constraints.
Geometrically nonlinear bending analysis of laminated composite plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dash, Padmanav; Singh, B. N.
2010-10-01
In this work, a transverse bending of shear deformable laminated composite plates in Green-Lagrange sense accounting for the transverse shear and large rotations are presented. Governing equations are developed in the framework of higher order shear deformation theory. All higher order terms arising from nonlinear strain-displacement relations are included in the formulation. The present plate theory satisfies zero transverse shear strains conditions at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate in von-Karman sense. A C0 isoparametric finite element is developed for the present nonlinear model. Numerical results for the laminated composite plates of orthotropic materials with different system parameters and boundary conditions are found out. The results are also compared with those available in the literature. Some new results with different parameters are also presented.
Geometrically nonlinear vibrations of rectangular plates carrying a concentrated mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amabili, M.
2010-10-01
Nonlinear forced vibrations of rectangular plates carrying a central concentrated mass are studied. The plate is assumed to have immovable edges and rotational springs; numerical results are presented for clamped plates. The Von Kármán nonlinear plate theory is used, but in-plane inertia in both the plate and the mass is retrained. The problem is discretized into a multi-degree-of-freedom (dof) system by using an energy approach and Lagrange equations taking damping into account. A pseudo-arclength continuation method is used in order to obtain numerical solutions. Results are presented as both (i) frequency-amplitude curves and (ii) time domain responses. The effect of gravity and the effect of the consequent initial plate deflection are also investigated.
Focused optical and acoustic beams in media with nonlinear absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudenko, O. V.; Sukhorukov, A. A.
1996-11-01
Optical and acoustic beams are known to be useful for medical and biological applications, such as diagnostics, surgery, etc. At high intensities both nonlinear lens effects and nonlinear absorption can be significant for the beams. The nonlinear absorption arises due to two-photon optical processes or acoustic shock wave formation. The present work is devoted to the theoretical description of nonlinear beam propagation and focal spot formation taking into account the competition between focusing, diffraction and absorption. We derived a new nonlinear integro- differential equation describing the spatial evolution of the beam width. The general analytical solution of this equation is obtained for arbitrary boundary conditions. The simple formulas are derived for the angle divergence in the far field, as well as for beam width at nonlinear waist. The results of the analysis of these key parameters in different situations are presented.
Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis of Composite Structures by Zigzag Theory—A Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirbhate, N. J.; Tungikar, V. B.
2010-10-01
Advances in manufacturing technologies of composites leads to its uses as main load carrying structures which essentially need to be thick structures. Thus it is becoming increasingly important to predict accurately interlaminar variations of stresses and displacements along thickness of the composites. A review of the recent development of finite element methods for geometrical nonlinear analysis of composite structures specifically using zigzag theory is presented in this paper. The literature review is devoted to the recently developed finite elements, theories based on zigzag function for carrying out geometrical nonlinear analysis of composite structures. The future research is summarized finally.
Donko, Z.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D.
2009-03-30
At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies.
Multiple-mode nonlinear free and forced vibrations of beams using finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Decha-Umphai, Kamolphan
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear free and forced vibration of a beam is analyzed by the finite element method. The geometric nonlinearity is investigated. Inplane displacement and inertia (IDI) are also considered in the formulation. Harmonic force matrix is derived and explained. Nonlinear free vibration can be simply treated as a special case of the general forced vibration by setting the harmonic force matrix equal to zero. The effect of the higher modes is more pronouced for the clamped supported beam than the simply supported one. Beams without IDI yield more effect of the higher modes than the one with IDI. The effects of IDI are to reduce nonlinearity. For beams with end supports restrained from axial movement (immovable cases), only the hardening type nonlinearity is observed. However, beams of small slenderness ratio (L/R = 20) with movable end supports, the softening type nonlinearity is found. The concentrated force case yields a more severe response than the uniformly distributed force case. Finite element results are in good agreement with the solution of simple elliptic response, harmonic balance method, and Runge-Kutte method and experiment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.
2002-01-01
Two new equivalent linearization implementations for geometrically nonlinear random vibrations are presented. Both implementations are based upon a novel approach for evaluating the nonlinear stiffness within commercial finite element codes and are suitable for use with any finite element code having geometrically nonlinear static analysis capabilities. The formulation includes a traditional force-error minimization approach and a relatively new version of a potential energy-error minimization approach, which has been generalized for multiple degree-of-freedom systems. Results for a simply supported plate under random acoustic excitation are presented and comparisons of the displacement root-mean-square values and power spectral densities are made with results from a nonlinear time domain numerical simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mareishi, Soraya; Kalhori, Hamed; Rafiee, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyedeh Marzieh
2015-01-01
This paper presents an analytical solution for nonlinear free and forced vibration response of smart laminated nano-composite beams resting on nonlinear elastic foundation and under external harmonic excitation. The structure is under a temperature change and an electric excitation through the piezoelectric layers. Different distribution patterns of the single walled aligned and straight carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through the thickness of the beam are considered. The beam complies with Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. The nonlinearity is due to the mid-plane stretching of the beam and the nonlinear stiffness of the elastic foundation. The Multiple Time Scales perturbation scheme is used to perform the nonlinear dynamical analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced beams. Analytical expressions of the nonlinear natural frequencies, nonlinear dynamic response and frequency response of the system in the case of primary resonance have been presented. The effects of different parameters including applied voltage, temperature change, beam geometry, the volume fraction and distribution pattern of the carbon nanotubes on the nonlinear natural frequencies and frequency-response curves are presented. It is found that the volume fractions of SWCNTs as well as their distribution pattern significantly change the behavior of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanda, Namita; Bandyopadhyay, J. N.
2009-08-01
The nonlinear transient response of composite shells with/without cutouts and initial geometric imperfection is investigated using the finite element method. The present formulation considers doubly curved shells incorporating von Kármán type nonlinear strains into the first order shear deformation theory. The analysis is carried out using quadratic C0 eight-noded isoparametric element. The governing nonlinear equations are solved by using the Newmark average acceleration method in the time integration in conjunction with modified Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. The validity of the model is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. Parametric studies are carried out varying the radius of curvature to width ratio and amplitude of initial geometric imperfection of laminated composite cylindrical, spherical and hyperbolic paraboloid shells with/without cutouts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalgiri, P. D.; Prabhakaran, R.
1986-01-01
An algorithm for vectorized computation of stiffness matrices of an 8 noded isoparametric hexahedron element for geometric nonlinear analysis was developed. This was used in conjunction with the earlier 2-D program GAMNAS to develop the new program NAS3D for geometric nonlinear analysis. A conventional, modified Newton-Raphson process is used for the nonlinear analysis. New schemes for the computation of stiffness and strain energy release rates is presented. The organization the program is explained and some results on four sample problems are given. The study of CPU times showed that savings by a factor of 11 to 13 were achieved when vectorized computation was used for the stiffness instead of the conventional scalar one. Finally, the scheme of inputting data is explained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collin, E.; Bunkov, Yu. M.; Godfrin, H.
2010-12-01
We report on low-temperature measurements performed on microelectromechanical systems driven deeply into the nonlinear regime. The materials are kept in their elastic domain while the observed nonlinearity is purely of geometrical origin. Two techniques are used, harmonic drive and free decay. For each case, we present an analytic theory fitting the data. The harmonic drive is fit with a modified Lorentzian line shape obtained from an extended version of Landau and Lifshitz’s nonlinear theory. The evolution in the time domain is fit with an amplitude-dependent frequency decaying function derived from the Lindstedt-Poincaré theory of nonlinear differential equations. The technique is perfectly generic and can be straightforwardly adapted to any mechanical device made of ideally elastic constituents, and which can be reduced to a single degree of freedom, for an experimental definition of its nonlinear dynamics equation.
Necklace beam generation in nonlinear colloidal engineered media.
Silahli, Salih Z; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M
2015-12-15
Modulational instability is a phenomenon that reveals itself as the exponential growth of weak perturbations in the presence of an intense pump beam propagating in a nonlinear medium. It plays a key role in such nonlinear optical processes as supercontinuum generation, light filamentation, rogue waves, and ring (or necklace) beam formation. To date, a majority of studies of these phenomena have focused on light-matter interactions in self-focusing Kerr media existing in nature. However, a large and tunable nonlinear response of a colloidal suspension can be tailored at will by judiciously engineering the optical polarizability. Here, we analytically and numerically show the possibility of necklace beam generation originating from spatial modulational instability of vortex beams in engineered soft-matter nonlinear media with different types of exponential nonlinearity. PMID:26670494
Nonlinear plasma and beam physics in plasma wake-fields
Rosenzweig, J.B.
1990-02-12
In experimental studies of the Plasma Wake-field Accelerator performed to date at the Argonne Advanced Accelerator Test Facility, significant nonlinearities in both plasma and beam behavior have been observed. The plasma waves driven in the wake of the intense driving beam in these experiments exhibit three-dimensional nonlinear behavior which has as yet no quantitative theoretical explanation. This nonlinearity is due in part to the self-pinching of the driving beam in the plasma, as the denser self-focused beam can excite larger amplitude plasma waves. The self-pinching is a process with interesting nonlinear aspects: the initial evolution of the beam envelope and the subsequent approach to Bennett equilibrium through phase mixing. 35 refs., 10 figs.
The effect of electron beam geometric deformation errors on the small-signal characteristic of ECRM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yongjian, Yu
1993-08-01
In this paper is studied the effect of electron beam geometric deformation errors on the small — signal characteristics of the TE{mn/o} mode Electron Cyclotron Resonance Maser (ECRM), based on the elliptically cross—sectional e—beam deformation model. As an example, the effect of small geometric deformation errors on the TE{01/o} mode fundamental ECRM coupling coefficient is quantitatively shown.
Nonlinear system identification of frictional effects in a beam with a bolted joint connection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eriten, Melih; Kurt, Mehmet; Luo, Guanyang; Michael McFarland, D.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.
2013-08-01
We perform nonlinear system identification (NSI) of the effects of frictional connections in the dynamics of a bolted beam assembly. The methodology utilized in this work combines experimental measurements with slow-flow dynamic analysis and empirical mode decomposition, and reconstructs the dynamics through reduced-order models. These are in the form of single-degree-of-freedom linear oscillators (termed intrinsic modal oscillators—IMOs) with forcing terms derived directly from the experimental measurements through slow-flow analysis. The derived reduced order models are capable of reproducing the measured dynamics, whereas the forcing terms provide important information about nonlinear damping effects. The NSI methodology is applied to model nonlinear friction effects in a bolted beam assembly. A 'monolithic' beam with identical geometric and material properties is also tested for comparison. Three different forcing (energy) levels were considered in the tests in order to study the energy-dependencies of the damping nonlinearities induced in the beam from the bolted joint. In all cases, the NSI methodology employed was successful in identifying the damping nonlinearities, their spatial distributions and their effects of the vibration modes of the structural component.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari, M. R.; Nimafar, M.; Ganji, D. D.; Akbarzade, M. M.
2014-12-01
The kinematic assumptions upon which the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is founded allow it to be extended to more advanced analysis. Simple superposition allows for three-dimensional transverse loading. Using alternative constitutive equations can allow for viscoelastic or plastic beam deformation. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory can also be extended to the analysis of curved beams, beam buckling, composite beams and geometrically nonlinear beam deflection. In this study, solving the nonlinear differential equation governing the calculation of the large rotation deviation of the beam (or column) has been discussed. Previously to calculate the rotational deviation of the beam, the assumption is made that the angular deviation of the beam is small. By considering the small slope in the linearization of the governing differential equation, the solving is easy. The result of this simplification in some cases will lead to an excessive error. In this paper nonlinear differential equations governing on this system are solved analytically by Akbari-Ganji's method (AGM). Moreover, in AGM by solving a set of algebraic equations, complicated nonlinear equations can easily be solved and without any mathematical operations such as integration solving. The solution of the problem can be obtained very simply and easily. Furthermore, to enhance the accuracy of the results, the Taylor expansion is not needed in most cases via AGM manner. Also, comparisons are made between AGM and numerical method (Runge-Kutta 4th). The results reveal that this method is very effective and simple, and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinnant, Howard E.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1987-01-01
The General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP) was developed to analyze the steady-state and linearized dynamic behavior of rotorcraft in hovering and axial flight conditions. Because of the nature of problems GRASP was created to solve, the geometrically nonlinear behavior of beams is one area in which the program must perform well in order to be of any value. Numerical results obtained from GRASP are compared to both static and dynamic experimental data obtained for a cantilever beam undergoing large displacements and rotations caused by deformation. The correlation is excellent in all cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinnant, Howard E.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1987-01-01
The General Rotorcraft Aeromechanical Stability Program (GRASP) was developed to analyse the steady-state and linearized dynamic behavior of rotorcraft in hovering and axial flight conditions. Because of the nature of problems GRASP was created to solve, the geometrically nonlinear behavior of beams is one area in which the program must perform well in order to be of any value. Numerical results obtained from GRASP are compared to both static and dynamic experimental data obtained for a cantilever beam undergoing large displacements and rotations caused by deformations. The correlation is excellent in all cases.
Nonlinear dynamics of inhomogeneous mismatched charged particle beams
Nunes, R. P.; Rizzato, F. B.
2012-08-13
This work analyzes the transversal dynamics of an inhomogeneous and mismatched charged particle beam. The beam is azimuthally symmetric, initially cold, and evolves in a linear channel permeated by an external constant magnetic field. Based on a Lagrangian approach, a low-dimensional model for the description of the beam dynamics has been obtained. The small set of nonlinear dynamical equations provided results that are in reasonable agreement with that ones observed in full self-consistent N-particle beam numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, P.
2013-09-01
The method of complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear Kerr type and saturable fibres. CGO reduces the problem of Gaussian beam evolution in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to other methods of nonlinear optics such as variational method approach, method of moments and beam propagation method. The power of CGO method is presented on the example of Gaussian beam propagation in saturable fibres with either focusing and defocusing refractive profiles. Besides, the influence of initial curvature of the wave front, phenomenon of weak absorption and effect of either transverse and longitudinal inhomogeneity on GB propagation in nonlinear fibres is discussed in this paper.
Beam width evolution of astigmatic hollow Gaussian beams in highly nonlocal nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhen-Feng; Jiang, Xue-Song; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Li, Jian-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Min
We investigate the beam width evolution of astigmatic hollow Gaussian beams propagating in highly nonlocal nonlinear media. The input-power-induced different evolutions of the beam width are illustrated: (i) the beam widths in two transverse directions are compressed or broadened at the same time; (ii) the beam width in one transverse direction keeps invariant, and the other is compressed or broadened; (iii) furthermore, the beam width in one transverse direction is compressed, whereas it in the other transverse direction is broadened.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasanyan, Davresh; Librescu, Liviu; Qin, Zhanming; Ambur, Damodar R.
2006-01-01
A fully coupled magneto-thermo-elastokinetic model of laminated composite, finitely electroconductive plates incorporating geometrical nonlinearities and subjected to a combination of magnetic and thermal fields, as well as carrying an electrical current is developed, In this context. the first-order transversely shearable plate theory in conjunction with von-Karman geometrically nonlinear strain concept is adopted. Related to the distribution of electric and magnetic field disturbances within the plate, the assumptions proposed by Ambartsumyan and his collaborators are adopted. Based on the electromagnetic equations (i.e. the ones by Faraday, Ampere, Ohm, Maxwell and Lorentz), the modified Fourier's law of heat conduction and on the elastokinetic field equations, the 3-D coupled problem is reduced to an equivalent 2- D one. The theory developed herein provides a foundation for the investigation, both analytical and numerical, of the interacting effects among the magnetic, thermal and elastic fields in multi-layered thin plates made of anisotropic materials.
Dynamics of elastic nonlinear rotating composite beams with embedded actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghorashi, Mehrdaad
2009-08-01
A comprehensive study of the nonlinear dynamics of composite beams is presented. The study consists of static and dynamic solutions with and without active elements. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Numerical solutions for the steady state and transient responses have been obtained. It is shown that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. The effect of perturbing the steady state solution has also been calculated and the results are shown to be compatible with those of the accelerating beam analysis. Next, the coupled flap-lag rigid body dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and subjected to aerodynamic forces is formulated. The solution to this rigid-body problem is then used, together with the finite difference method, in order to produce the nonlinear elasto-dynamic solution of an accelerating articulated beam. Next, the static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded Anisotropic Piezo-composite Actuators (APA) are presented. The effect of activating actuators at various directions on the steady state force and moments generated in a rotating composite beam has been presented. With similar results for the transient response, this analysis can be used in controlling the response of adaptive rotating beams.
Nonlinear analysis of cantilever shape memory alloy beams of variable cross section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashiqur Rahman, Muhammad; Arefin Kowser, Muhammad
2007-04-01
Cantilever beams, made of shape memory alloy (SMA), undergo much larger deflection in comparison to those made of other materials. Again, cantilever beams with reducing cross section along the span show much larger deflections compared to those of constant cross section beams. Analysis was conducted for such a cantilever beam with reducing cross-sectional area made of SMA, taking into account its highly nonlinear stress-strain curves. A computer code in C has been developed using the Runge-Kutta technique for the purpose of simulation. For rigorous analysis, the true stress-strain curves in tension as well as in compression have been used for the study. Moment-curvature and reduced modulus-curvature relations are obtained from the nonlinear stress-strain relations for different sections of the beam and used in the simulation. It is seen that load-deflection curves are initially linear but nonlinear and convex upward at a high load. Furthermore, the compressive stress in the beam is significantly higher than the tensile stress because of asymmetry. Interestingly, for the different cases considered, it is found that part of the SMA beam material may remain in the parent austenite phase, mixed phase or in the stress-induced martensitic phase. Importantly, it is found that more material can be removed from an SMA beam of uniform strength, originally designed without considering geometric nonlinearity and the effect of end-shortening. Comparison of the numerical results with the available theory shows very good agreement, verifying the soundness of the entire numerical simulation scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.
2016-06-01
This paper analyses the modal interactions in the nonlinear, size-dependent dynamics of geometrically imperfect microplates. Based on the modified couple stress theory, the equations of motion for the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are obtained employing the von Kármán plate theory as well as Kirchhoff's hypotheses by means of the Lagrange equations. The equations of motions are solved using the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and direct time-integration method. The system parameters are tuned to the values associated with modal interactions, and then nonlinear resonant responses and energy transfer are analysed. Nonlinear motion characteristics are shown in the form of frequency-response and force-response curves, time histories, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.
2015-12-01
This paper analyses the modal interactions in the nonlinear, size-dependent dynamics of geometrically imperfect microplates. Based on the modified couple stress theory, the equations of motion for the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are obtained employing the von Kármán plate theory as well as Kirchhoff's hypotheses by means of the Lagrange equations. The equations of motions are solved using the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and direct time-integration method. The system parameters are tuned to the values associated with modal interactions, and then nonlinear resonant responses and energy transfer are analysed. Nonlinear motion characteristics are shown in the form of frequency-response and force-response curves, time histories, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms.
Geometrically Nonlinear Shell Analysis of Wrinkled Thin-Film Membranes with Stress Concentrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, Alexander; Sleight, David W.
2006-01-01
Geometrically nonlinear shell finite element analysis has recently been applied to solar-sail membrane problems in order to model the out-of-plane deformations due to structural wrinkling. Whereas certain problems lend themselves to achieving converged nonlinear solutions that compare favorably with experimental observations, solutions to tensioned membranes exhibiting high stress concentrations have been difficult to obtain even with the best nonlinear finite element codes and advanced shell element technology. In this paper, two numerical studies are presented that pave the way to improving the modeling of this class of nonlinear problems. The studies address the issues of mesh refinement and stress-concentration alleviation, and the effects of these modeling strategies on the ability to attain converged nonlinear deformations due to wrinkling. The numerical studies demonstrate that excessive mesh refinement in the regions of stress concentration may be disadvantageous to achieving wrinkled equilibrium states, causing the nonlinear solution to lock in the membrane response mode, while totally discarding the very low-energy bending response that is necessary to cause wrinkling deformation patterns.
Geometrically non-linear vibration of spinning structures by finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, A. Y. T.; Fung, T. C.
1990-05-01
The geometrically non-linear steady state vibration of spinning structures is studied. Full flap-lag-torsional gyroscopic coupling effects are considered. The non-linearity arises mainly from the non-linear axial strain-displacement relation. The equations of motion are derived from Lagrangian equations. Spatial discretization is achieved by the finite element method and steady state nodal displacements are expanded into Fourier series. The harmonic balance method gives a set of non-linear algebraic equations with the Fourier coefficients of the nodal displacements as unknowns. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved by a Newtonian algorithm iteratively. The importance of the conditions of completeness and balanceability in choosing the number of harmonic terms to be used is discussed. General frame structures with arbitrary orientation in a rotating frame can be investigated by the present method. Rotating blades and shafts are treated as special cases. Examples of a rotating ring with different orientations are given. The non-linear amplitude-frequency relation can be constructed parametrically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neto, Alfredo Gay; Martins, Clóvis A.; Pimenta, Paulo M.
2014-01-01
In offshore applications there are elements that can be modeled as long beams, such as umbilical cables, flexible and rigid pipes and hoses, immersed in the sea water, suspended from the floating unit to the seabed. The suspended part of these elements is named "riser" and is subjected to the ocean environment loads, such as waves and sea current. This work presents a structural geometrically-exact 3D beam model, discretized using the finite element method for riser modeling. An updated Lagrangian framework for the rotation parameterization has been used for the description of the exact kinematics. The goal is to perform a complete static analysis, considering the oceanic loads and the unilateral contact with the seabed, extending the current standard analysis for situations in which very large rotations occurs, in particular, large torsion. Details of the nonlinear 3D model and loads from oceanic environment are discussed, including the contact unilateral constraint.
Nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of beam structures using fully intrinsic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotoudeh, Zahra
2011-07-01
Beams are structural members with one dimension much larger than the other two. Examples of beams include propeller blades, helicopter rotor blades, and high aspect-ratio aircraft wings in aerospace engineering; shafts and wind turbine blades in mechanical engineering; towers, highways and bridges in civil engineering; and DNA modeling in biomedical engineering. Beam analysis includes two sets of equations: a generally linear two-dimensional problem over the cross-sectional plane and a nonlinear, global one-dimensional analysis. This research work deals with a relatively new set of equations for one-dimensional beam analysis, namely the so-called fully intrinsic equations. Fully intrinsic equations comprise a set of geometrically exact, nonlinear, first-order partial differential equations that is suitable for analyzing initially curved and twisted anisotropic beams. A fully intrinsic formulation is devoid of displacement and rotation variables, making it especially attractive because of the absence of singularities, infinite-degree nonlinearities, and other undesirable features associated with finite rotation variables. In spite of the advantages of these equations, using them with certain boundary conditions presents significant challenges. This research work will take a broad look at these challenges of modeling various boundary conditions when using the fully intrinsic equations. Hopefully it will clear the path for wider and easier use of the fully intrinsic equations in future research. This work also includes application of fully intrinsic equations in structural analysis of joined-wing aircraft, different rotor blade configuration and LCO analysis of HALE aircraft.
Heidari, Mohammad; Heidari, Ali; Homaei, Hadi
2014-01-01
The static pull-in instability of beam-type microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is theoretically investigated. Two engineering cases including cantilever and double cantilever microbeam are considered. Considering the midplane stretching as the source of the nonlinearity in the beam behavior, a nonlinear size-dependent Euler-Bernoulli beam model is used based on a modified couple stress theory, capable of capturing the size effect. By selecting a range of geometric parameters such as beam lengths, width, thickness, gaps, and size effect, we identify the static pull-in instability voltage. A MAPLE package is employed to solve the nonlinear differential governing equations to obtain the static pull-in instability voltage of microbeams. Radial basis function artificial neural network with two functions has been used for modeling the static pull-in instability of microcantilever beam. The network has four inputs of length, width, gap, and the ratio of height to scale parameter of beam as the independent process variables, and the output is static pull-in voltage of microbeam. Numerical data, employed for training the network, and capabilities of the model have been verified in predicting the pull-in instability behavior. The output obtained from neural network model is compared with numerical results, and the amount of relative error has been calculated. Based on this verification error, it is shown that the radial basis function of neural network has the average error of 4.55% in predicting pull-in voltage of cantilever microbeam. Further analysis of pull-in instability of beam under different input conditions has been investigated and comparison results of modeling with numerical considerations shows a good agreement, which also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the adopted approach. The results reveal significant influences of size effect and geometric parameters on the static pull-in instability voltage of MEMS. PMID:24860602
Heidari, Mohammad; Heidari, Ali; Homaei, Hadi
2014-01-01
The static pull-in instability of beam-type microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is theoretically investigated. Two engineering cases including cantilever and double cantilever microbeam are considered. Considering the midplane stretching as the source of the nonlinearity in the beam behavior, a nonlinear size-dependent Euler-Bernoulli beam model is used based on a modified couple stress theory, capable of capturing the size effect. By selecting a range of geometric parameters such as beam lengths, width, thickness, gaps, and size effect, we identify the static pull-in instability voltage. A MAPLE package is employed to solve the nonlinear differential governing equations to obtain the static pull-in instability voltage of microbeams. Radial basis function artificial neural network with two functions has been used for modeling the static pull-in instability of microcantilever beam. The network has four inputs of length, width, gap, and the ratio of height to scale parameter of beam as the independent process variables, and the output is static pull-in voltage of microbeam. Numerical data, employed for training the network, and capabilities of the model have been verified in predicting the pull-in instability behavior. The output obtained from neural network model is compared with numerical results, and the amount of relative error has been calculated. Based on this verification error, it is shown that the radial basis function of neural network has the average error of 4.55% in predicting pull-in voltage of cantilever microbeam. Further analysis of pull-in instability of beam under different input conditions has been investigated and comparison results of modeling with numerical considerations shows a good agreement, which also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the adopted approach. The results reveal significant influences of size effect and geometric parameters on the static pull-in instability voltage of MEMS. PMID:24860602
Spatially varying geometric phase in classically entangled vector beams of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King-Smith, Andrew; Leary, Cody
We present theoretical results describing a spatially varying geometric (Pancharatnam) phase present in vector modes of light, in which the polarization and transverse spatial mode degrees of freedom exhibit classical entanglement. We propose an experimental setup capable of characterizing this effect, in which a vector mode propagates through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a birefringent phase retarder present in one arm. Since the polarization state of a classically entangled light beam exhibits spatial variation across the transverse mode profile, the phase retarder gives rise to a spatially varying geometric phase in the beam propagating through it. When recombined with the reference beam from the other interferometer arm, the presence of the geometric phase is exhibited in the resulting interference pattern. We acknowledge funding from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement by means of a Cottrell College Science Award.
Geometric spin Hall effect of light in tightly focused polarization-tailored light beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neugebauer, Martin; Banzer, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Orlov, Sergej; Lindlein, Norbert; Aiello, Andrea; Leuchs, Gerd
2014-01-01
Recently, it was shown that a nonzero transverse angular momentum manifests itself in a polarization-dependent intensity shift of the barycenter of a paraxial light beam [Aiello et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 100401 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.100401]. The underlying effect is phenomenologically similar to the spin Hall effect of light but does not depend on the specific light-matter interaction and can be interpreted as a purely geometric effect. Thus, it was named the geometric spin Hall effect of light. Here, we experimentally investigate the appearance of this effect in tightly focused vector beams. We use an experimental nanoprobing technique in combination with a reconstruction algorithm to verify the relative shifts of the components of the electric energy density and the shift of the intensity in the focal plane. By that, we experimentally demonstrate the geometric spin Hall effect of light in a highly nonparaxial beam.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoll, Frederick; Gurdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.
1991-01-01
A method was developed for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of the static response of thin-walled stiffened composite structures loaded in uniaxial or biaxial compression. The method is applicable to arbitrary prismatic configurations composed of linked plate strips, such as stiffened panels and thin-walled columns. The longitudinal ends of the structure are assumed to be simply supported, and geometric shape imperfections can be modeled. The method can predict the nonlinear phenomena of postbuckling strength and imperfection sensitivity which are exhibited by some buckling-dominated structures. The method is computer-based and is semi-analytic in nature, making it computationally economical in comparison to finite element methods. The method uses a perturbation approach based on the use of a series of buckling mode shapes to represent displacement contributions associated with nonlinear response. Displacement contributions which are of second order in the model amplitudes are incorported in addition to the buckling mode shapes. The principle of virtual work is applied using a finite basis of buckling modes, and terms through the third order in the model amplitudes are retained. A set of cubic nonlinear algebraic equations are obtained, from which approximate equilibrium solutions are determined. Buckling mode shapes for the general class of structure are obtained using the VIPASA analysis code within the PASCO stiffened-panel design code. Thus, subject to some additional restrictions in loading and plate anisotropy, structures which can be modeled with respect to buckling behavior by VIPASA can be analyzed with respect to nonlinear response using the new method. Results obtained using the method are compared with both experimental and analytical results in the literature. The configurations investigated include several different unstiffened and blade-stiffening panel configurations, featuring both homogeneous, isotropic materials, and laminated composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Qin, Zhanming; Hasanyan, Davresh; Librescu, Liviu; Ambur, Damodar R.
2005-01-01
In Part 1 of this paper, the governing equations of geometrically nonlinear, anisotropic composite plates incorporating magneto-thermo-elastic effects have been derived. In order to gain insight into the implications of a number of geometrical and physical features of the system. three special cases are investigated: (i) free vibration of a plate strip immersed in a transversal magnetic field; (ii) free vibration of the plate strip immersed in an axial magnetic field; (iii) magneto-elastic wave propagations of an infinite plate. Within each of these cases, a prescribed uniform thermal field is considered. Special coupling characteristics between the magnetic and elastic fields are put into evidence. Extensive numerical investigations are conducted and pertinent conclusions which highlight the various effects induced by the magneto-elastic couplings and the finite electroconductivity, are outlined.
Nonlinear free vibrations of centrifugally stiffened uniform beams at high angular velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekhoucha, F.; Rechak, S.; Duigou, L.; Cadou, J. M.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we study the bending nonlinear free vibrations of a centrifugally stiffened beam with uniform cross-section and constant angular velocity. The nonlinear intrinsic equations of motion used here are geometrically exact and specific to beams exhibiting large amplitude displacements and rotations associated with small strains. Based on the Timoshenko beam model, these equations are derived from Hamilton's principle, in which the warping is considered. All coupling terms are considered including Coriolis terms. The studied beams are isotropic with clamped-free boundary conditions. By combining the Galerkin method with the harmonic balance method, the equations of motion are converted into a quadratic function treated with a continuation method: the Asymptotic Numerical Method, where the generalized displacement vector is presented as a series expansion. While analysing the effect of the angular velocity, we determine the amplitude versus frequency variations which are plotted as backbone curves. Considering the first lagging and flapping modes, the changes in beam behaviour from hardening to softening are investigated and identified as a function of the angular velocity and the effect of shear. Particular attention is paid to high angular velocities for both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams and the natural frequencies so obtained are compared with the results available in the literature.
Geredeli, Pelin G.; Webster, Justin T.
2013-12-15
We analyze the convergence to equilibrium of solutions to the nonlinear Berger plate evolution equation in the presence of localized interior damping (also referred to as geometrically constrained damping). Utilizing the results in (Geredeli et al. in J. Differ. Equ. 254:1193–1229, 2013), we have that any trajectory converges to the set of stationary points N . Employing standard assumptions from the theory of nonlinear unstable dynamics on the set N , we obtain the rate of convergence to an equilibrium. The critical issue in the proof of convergence to equilibria is a unique continuation property (which we prove for the Berger evolution) that provides a gradient structure for the dynamics. We also consider the more involved von Karman evolution, and show that the same results hold assuming a unique continuation property for solutions, which is presently a challenging open problem.
Geometrical representation of Gaussian beams propagating through complex paraxial optical systems.
Andrews, L C; Miller, W B; Ricklin, J C
1993-10-20
Geometric relations are used to study the propagation environment of a Gaussian beam wave propagating through a complex paraxial optical system characterized by an ABCD ray matrix in two naturally linked complex planes. In the plane defined by beam transmitter parameters Ω(o) and Ω, the propagation path is described by a ray line similar to the ray line in the y? diagram method, whereas the path in the plane of beam receiver parameters θ and Λ is described by a circular arc. In either plane the amplitude, phase, spot size, and radius of curvature of the Gaussian beam are directly related to the modulus and argument of the complex number designating a particular transverse plane along the propagation path. These beam parameters also lead to simple geometric relations for locating the beam waist, Rayleigh range, focal plane, and sister planes, which share the same radius of curvature but have opposite signs. Combined with the paraxial wave propagation technique based on a Huygens-Fresnel integral and complex ABCD ay matrices, this geometric approach provides a new and powerful method for the analysis and design of laser systems. PMID:20856413
Finite rotation and nonlinear beam kinematics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Dewey H.
1987-01-01
Standard means of representing finite rotation in rigid-body kinematics, including orientation angles, Euler parameters, and Rodrigues parameters, are reviewed and compared. General kinematical relations for a beam theory that treats arbitrarily large rotation are then presented. The standard methods of representing finite rotations are applied to these kinematical expressions, and comparison is made among the standard methods and additional methods found in the literature, such as quasi-coordinates and linear combinations of projection angles. The method of Rodrigues parameters is shown to stand out for both its simplicity and generality when applied to beam kinematics, a result that is really missing from the literature.
Ion beam analysis based on cellular nonlinear networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senger, V.; Tetzlaff, R.; Reichau, H.; Ratzinger, U.
2011-07-01
The development of a non- destructive measurement method for ion beam parameters has been treated in various projects. Although results are promising, the high complexity of beam dynamics has made it impossible to implement a real time process control up to now. In this paper we will propose analysing methods based on the dynamics of Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) that can be implemented on pixel parallel CNN based architectures and yield satisfying results even at low resolutions.
On Flexible Tubes Conveying Fluid: Geometric Nonlinear Theory, Stability and Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang
2015-08-01
We derive a fully three-dimensional, geometrically exact theory for flexible tubes conveying fluid. The theory also incorporates the change of the cross section available to the fluid motion during the dynamics. Our approach is based on the symmetry-reduced, exact geometric description for elastic rods, coupled with the fluid transport and subject to the volume conservation constraint for the fluid. We first derive the equations of motion directly, by using an Euler-Poincaré variational principle. We then justify this derivation with a more general theory elucidating the interesting mathematical concepts appearing in this problem, such as partial left (elastic) and right (fluid) invariance of the system, with the added holonomic constraint (volume). We analyze the fully nonlinear behavior of the model when the axis of the tube remains straight. We then proceed to the linear stability analysis and show that our theory introduces important corrections to previously derived results, both in the consistency at all wavelength and in the effects arising from the dynamical change of the cross section. Finally, we derive and analyze several analytical, fully nonlinear solutions of traveling wave type in two dimensions.
A nonlinear theory for spinning anisotropic beams using restrained warping functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ie, C. A.; Kosmatka, J. B.
1993-01-01
A geometrically nonlinear theory is developed for spinning anisotropic beams having arbitrary cross sections. An assumed displacement field is developed using the standard 3D kinematics relations to describe the global beam behavior supplemented with an additional field that represents the local deformation within the cross section and warping out of the cross section plane. It is assumed that the magnitude of this additional field is directly proportional to the local stress resultants. In order to take into account the effects of boundary conditions, a restraining function is introduced. This function plays the role of reducing the amount of free warping deformation throughout the field due to the restraint of the cross section(s) at the end(s) of the beam, e.g., in the case of a cantilever beam. Using a developed ordering scheme, the nonlinear strains are calculated to the third order. The FEM is developed using the weak form variational formulation. Preliminary interesting numerical results have been obtained that indicate the role of the restraining function in the case of a cantilever beam with circular cross section. These results are for the cases of a tip displacement (static) and free vibration studies for both isotropic and anisotropic materials with varied fiber orientations.
Generation of equal-intensity coherent optical beams by binary geometrical phase on metasurface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zheng-Han; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xiong, Xiang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu
2016-06-01
We report here the design and realization of a broadband, equal-intensity optical beam splitter with a dispersion-free binary geometric phase on a metasurface with unit cell consisting of two mirror-symmetric elements. We demonstrate experimentally that two identical beams can be efficiently generated with incidence of any polarization. The efficiency of the device reaches 80% at 1120 nm and keeps larger than 70% in the range of 1000-1400 nm. We suggest that this approach for generating identical, coherent beams have wide applications in diffraction optics and in entangled photon light source for quantum communication.
Accurate technique for complete geometric calibration of cone-beam computed tomography systems.
Cho, Youngbin; Moseley, Douglas J; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Jaffray, David A
2005-04-01
Cone-beam computed tomography systems have been developed to provide in situ imaging for the purpose of guiding radiation therapy. Clinical systems have been constructed using this approach, a clinical linear accelerator (Elekta Synergy RP) and an iso-centric C-arm. Geometric calibration involves the estimation of a set of parameters that describes the geometry of such systems, and is essential for accurate image reconstruction. We have developed a general analytic algorithm and corresponding calibration phantom for estimating these geometric parameters in cone-beam computed tomography (CT) systems. The performance of the calibration algorithm is evaluated and its application is discussed. The algorithm makes use of a calibration phantom to estimate the geometric parameters of the system. The phantom consists of 24 steel ball bearings (BBs) in a known geometry. Twelve BBs are spaced evenly at 30 deg in two plane-parallel circles separated by a given distance along the tube axis. The detector (e.g., a flat panel detector) is assumed to have no spatial distortion. The method estimates geometric parameters including the position of the x-ray source, position, and rotation of the detector, and gantry angle, and can describe complex source-detector trajectories. The accuracy and sensitivity of the calibration algorithm was analyzed. The calibration algorithm estimates geometric parameters in a high level of accuracy such that the quality of CT reconstruction is not degraded by the error of estimation. Sensitivity analysis shows uncertainty of 0.01 degrees (around beam direction) to 0.3 degrees (normal to the beam direction) in rotation, and 0.2 mm (orthogonal to the beam direction) to 4.9 mm (beam direction) in position for the medical linear accelerator geometry. Experimental measurements using a laboratory bench Cone-beam CT system of known geometry demonstrate the sensitivity of the method in detecting small changes in the imaging geometry with an uncertainty of 0
Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media: solution in frame of complex geometrical optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Berczynski, P.
2005-09-01
The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics is presented to describe Gaussian beam diffraction in arbitrary smoothly inhomogeneous media, including lens-like media. The method modifies and specifies the results by Babic' (1968), Kirpichnikova (1971), Cerveny, Popov, Psencik (1982), Cerveny (1983, 2001), Timofeev (1995) and Pereverzev (1996) as applied to the optical problems. The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics reduces the problem of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media to the solution of the system of the ordinary differential equations of first order, which can be readily calculated numerically by the Runge-Kutta method. Thereby the paraxial complex geometrical optics radically simplifies description of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media as compared to the numerical methods of wave optics. By the way of example the known analytical solution for Gaussianbeam diffraction both in a free space and in lens-like medium (Bornatici, Maj 2003) are presented. It is pointed out, that the method of paraxial complex geometrical optics turns out to be equivalent to the solutions of the abridged parabolic wave equation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norwood, D. S.; Shuart, Mark J.; Herakovich, Carl T.
1991-01-01
An analytical study of interlaminar stresses in unsymmetrically laminated plates is presented. The study examines the linear elastic, large deflection response of square laminated composite plates subjected to uniform thermal loading. Both cross-ply and angle-ply, symmetric and unsymmetric, laminates are examined to evaluate the effects of mismatch between adjacent layers in elastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion. A geometrically nonlinear kinematic description is used to predict the large out-of-plane (transverse) deflections. The nonlinear, three-dimensional boundary value problems are formulated from elasticity theory and approximate solutions are determined using the finite element method. A global/local analysis procedure is used to obtain improved free edge stress predictions. For the laminates and loading conditions considered, the results indicate that the out-of-plane deflections of the unsymmetric laminates reduce interlaminar shear stresses. These deflections also reduce interlaminar normal stresses in some laminates and increase these stresses for others. The results indicate that as the out-of-plane deflections become large, the differences in interlaminar stress predictions between linear and nonlinear theory can become quite large.
Multi-direction vibration isolation with quasi-zero stiffness by employing geometrical nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xiuting; Jing, Xingjian
2015-10-01
The study proposes a novel vibration isolator with 3D quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) property. The remarkable feature of the proposed system is to apply symmetrically scissor-like structures (SLS) in the horizontal directions, together with a traditional spring-mass-damper system assembled vertically with positive stiffness. With the mathematical modeling of the proposed system, it is shown that the stiffness and damping properties are nonlinear due to nonlinear geometric relations within the SLSs and both can be adjusted via structural parameters of the system. Theoretical analysis with the harmonic balance method reveals that the system can demonstrate QZS property in 3 directions, and can achieve much better 3D vibration isolation performance, including high-static and quasi-zero-dynamic stiffness, and much larger displacement range around equilibrium, compared with an existing QZS system in the literature. The results provide a novel and significant multi-direction vibration isolation method using structural nonlinearity with noticeable performance but using only passive elements.
Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang, Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Allen-Flowers, Jordan; Shiffler, Don
2012-12-01
Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.
Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver.
French, David M; Hoff, Brad W; Tang, Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Allen-Flowers, Jordan; Shiffler, Don
2012-12-01
Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique. PMID:23277977
Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver
French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don; Allen-Flowers, Jordan
2012-12-15
Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.
Nonlinear dynamics of optical absorption of intense beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corbett, D.; van Oosten, C. L.; Warner, M.
2008-07-01
On traversing materials with absorbing dyes, weak optical beams decay exponentially (a Beer profile), while intense beams develop in time a profile that is spatially linear until at great depth it becomes spatially exponential. This anomalous, deep penetration, due to photobleaching of surface layers, is important for heavy dye loading and intense beams, for instance in photo-actuation. We address the problem of the evolution in time from initial Beer’s Law to a finally deeply-penetrating optical profile in dyes. Our largely analytic solution of the coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations governing the spatiotemporal decay of the Poynting flux and the nonlinear population dynamics of the photo-active molecules under intense irradiation has application to optomechanical devices.
Nonlinear transient neutralization theory of ion beams with dissipation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilhelm, H. E.
1975-01-01
An analytical theory of nonlinear neutralization waves generated by injection of electrons from a grid in the direction of a homogeneous ion beam of uniform velocity and infinite extension is presented. The electrons are assumed to interact with the ions through the self-consistent space charge field and by strong collective interactions. The associated nonlinear boundary-value problem is solved in closed form by means of a von Mises transformation. It is shown that the electron gas moves into the ion space in the form of a discontinuous neutralization wave. This periodic wave structure is damped out by intercomponent momentum transfer, i.e., after a few relaxation lengths a quasi-neutral beam results. The relaxation scale in space agrees with neutralization experiments of rarefied ion beams, if the collective momentum transfer between the electron and ion streams is assumed to be of the Buneman type.
View-dependent geometric calibration for offset flat-panel cone beam computed tomography systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Van-Giang
2016-04-01
Geometric parameters that define the geometry of imaging systems are crucial for image reconstruction and image quality in x-ray computed tomography (CT). The problem of determining geometric parameters for an offset flat-panel cone beam CT (CBCT) system, a recently introduced modality with a large field of view, with the assumption of an unstable mechanism and geometric parameters that vary in each view, is considered. To accurately and rapidly find the geometric parameters for each projection view, we use the projection matrix method and design a dedicated phantom that is partially visible in all projection views. The phantom consists of balls distributed symmetrically in a cylinder to ensure the inclusion of the phantom in all views, and a large portion of the phantom is covered in the projection image. To efficiently use calibrated geometric information in the reconstruction process and get rid of approximation errors, instead of decomposing the projection matrix into actual geometric parameters that are manually corrected before being used in reconstruction, as in conventional methods, we directly use the projection matrix and its pseudo-inverse in projection and backprojection operations of reconstruction algorithms. The experiments illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method with a real offset flat-panel CBCT system in dental imaging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passalacqua, Paola; Do Trung, Tien; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Sapiro, Guillermo; Dietrich, William E.
2010-03-01
A geometric framework for the automatic extraction of channels and channel networks from high-resolution digital elevation data is introduced in this paper. The proposed approach incorporates nonlinear diffusion for the preprocessing of the data, both to remove noise and to enhance features that are critical to the network extraction. Following this preprocessing, channels are defined as curves of minimal effort, or geodesics, where the effort is measured on the basis of fundamental geomorphological characteristics such as flow accumulation area and isoheight contours curvature. The merits of the proposed methodology, and especially the computational efficiency and accurate localization of the extracted channels, are demonstrated using light detection and ranging (lidar) data of the Skunk Creek, a tributary of the South Fork Eel River basin in northern California.
Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Self-Anchored Cable-Stayed Suspension Bridges
Hui-Li, Wang; Yan-Bin, Tan; Si-Feng, Qin; Zhe, Zhang
2013-01-01
Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed. PMID:24282388
Geometric nonlinear analysis of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges.
Hui-Li, Wang; Yan-Bin, Tan; Si-Feng, Qin; Zhe, Zhang
2013-01-01
Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed. PMID:24282388
A higher-order theory for geometrically nonlinear analysis of composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, J. N.; Liu, C. F.
1987-01-01
A third-order shear deformation theory of laminated composite plates and shells is developed, the Navier solutions are derived, and its finite element models are developed. The theory allows parabolic description of the transverse shear stresses, and therefore the shear correction factors of the usual shear deformation theory are not required in the present theory. The theory also accounts for the von Karman nonlinear strains. Closed-form solutions of the theory for rectangular cross-ply and angle-ply plates and cross-ply shells are developed. The finite element model is based on independent approximations of the displacements and bending moments (i.e., mixed finite element model), and therefore, only C sup o -approximation is required. The finite element model is used to analyze cross-ply and angle-ply laminated plates and shells for bending and natural vibration. Many of the numerical results presented here should serve as references for future investigations. Three major conclusions resulted from the research: First, for thick laminates, shear deformation theories predict deflections, stresses and vibration frequencies significantly different from those predicted by classical theories. Second, even for thin laminates, shear deformation effects are significant in dynamic and geometrically nonlinear analyses. Third, the present third-order theory is more accurate compared to the classical and firt-order theories in predicting static and dynamic response of laminated plates and shells made of high-modulus composite materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoll, Frederick
1993-01-01
The NLPAN computer code uses a finite-strip approach to the analysis of thin-walled prismatic composite structures such as stiffened panels. The code can model in-plane axial loading, transverse pressure loading, and constant through-the-thickness thermal loading, and can account for shape imperfections. The NLPAN code represents an attempt to extend the buckling analysis of the VIPASA computer code into the geometrically nonlinear regime. Buckling mode shapes generated using VIPASA are used in NLPAN as global functions for representing displacements in the nonlinear regime. While the NLPAN analysis is approximate in nature, it is computationally economical in comparison with finite-element analysis, and is thus suitable for use in preliminary design and design optimization. A comprehensive description of the theoretical approach of NLPAN is provided. A discussion of some operational considerations for the NLPAN code is included. NLPAN is applied to several test problems in order to demonstrate new program capabilities, and to assess the accuracy of the code in modeling various types of loading and response. User instructions for the NLPAN computer program are provided, including a detailed description of the input requirements and example input files for two stiffened-panel configurations.
Douglas, David R.
2012-01-10
A method of using off-axis particle beam injection in energy-recovering linear accelerators that increases operational efficiency while eliminating the need to merge the high energy re-circulating beam with an injected low energy beam. In this arrangement, the high energy re-circulating beam and the low energy beam are manipulated such that they are within a predetermined distance from one another and then the two immerged beams are injected into the linac and propagated through the system. The configuration permits injection without geometric beam merging as well as decelerated beam extraction without the use of typical beamline elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekhoucha, Ferhat; Rechak, Said; Duigou, Laëtitia; Cadou, Jean-Marc
2015-05-01
This paper deals with the computation of backbone curves bifurcated from a Hopf bifurcation point in the framework of nonlinear free vibrations of a rotating flexible beams. The intrinsic and geometrical equations of motion for anisotropic beams subjected to large displacements are used and transformed with Galerkin and harmonic balance methods to one quadratic algebraic equation involving one parameter, the pulsation. The latter is treated with the asymptotic numerical method using Padé approximants. An algorithm, equivalent to the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction is proposed, to compute the bifurcated branches accurately from a Hopf bifurcation point, with singularity of co-rank 2, related to a conservative and gyroscopic dynamical system steady state, toward a nonlinear periodic state. Numerical tests dealing with clamped, isotropic and composite, rotating beams show the reliability of the proposed method reinforced by accurate results.
Stancari, Giulio
2014-09-11
Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles. At Fermilab, we are planning to install an electron lens in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA, a 40-m ring for 150-MeV electrons) as one of the proof-of-principle implementations of nonlinear integrable optics to achieve large tune spreads and more stable beams without loss of dynamic aperture.
Nonlinear flap-lag-axial equations of a rotating beam with arbitrary precone angle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kvaternik, R. G.; White, W. F., Jr.; Kaza, K. R. V.
1978-01-01
In an attempt both to unify and extend the analytical basis of several aspects of the dynamic behavior of flexible rotating beams, the second-degree nonlinear equations of motion for the coupled flapwise bending, lagwise bending, and axial extension of an untwisted, torsionally rigid, nonuniform, rotating beam having an arbitrary angle of precone with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation are derived using Hamilton's principle. The derivation of the equations is based on the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity and the resulting equations are consistent with the assumption that the strains are negligible compared to unity. No restrictions are imposed on the relative displacements or angular rotations of the cross sections of the beam other than those implied by the assumption of small strains. Illustrative numerical results, obtained by using an integrating matrix as the basis for the method of solution, are presented both for the purpose of validating the present method of solution and indicating the range of applicability of the equations of motion and the method of solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Łuczko, J.
2002-08-01
A geometrically non-linear model of the rotating shaft is introduced, which includes Kárman non-linearity, non-linear curvature effects, large displacements and rotations as well as gyroscopic effects. Through applying Timoshenko-type assumptions, the shear effects are also included in the model. Convenient matrix descriptions are used in order to facilitate the analysis based on Galerkin and continuation methods. The model is used to analyze the phenomenon of internal resonance. The influence of some of the system's parameters on the amplitude and frequency of self-excited vibration is investigated.
Electromagnetic and geometric characterization of accelerated ion beams by laser ablation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nassisi, V.; Velardi, L.; Side, D. Delle
2013-05-01
Laser ion sources offer the possibility to get ion beam useful to improve particle accelerators. Pulsed lasers at intensities of the order of 108 W/cm2 and of ns pulse duration, interacting with solid matter in vacuum, produce plasma of high temperature and density. The charge state distribution of the plasma generates high electric fields which accelerate ions along the normal to the target surface. The energy of emitted ions has a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution which depends on the ion charge state. To increase the ion energy, a post-acceleration system can be employed by means of high voltage power supplies of about 100 kV. The post acceleration system results to be a good method to obtain high ion currents by a not expensive system and the final ion beams find interesting applications in the field of the ion implantation, scientific applications and industrial use. In this work we compare the electromagnetic and geometric properties, like emittance, of the beams delivered by pure Cu, Y and Ag targets. The characterization of the plasma was performed by a Faraday cup for the electromagnetic characteristics, whereas a pepper pot system was used for the geometric ones. At 60 kV accelerating voltage the three examined ion bunches get a current peak of 5.5, 7.3 and 15 mA, with a normalized beam emittance of 0.22, 0.12 and 0.09 π mm mrad for the targets of Cu, Y, and Ag, respectively.
A geometrical model for the Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam linac.
Rodriguez, M; Sempau, J; Fogliata, A; Cozzi, L; Sauerwein, W; Brualla, L
2015-06-01
Monte Carlo simulation of linear accelerators (linacs) depends on the accurate geometrical description of the linac head. The geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac is not available to researchers. Instead, the company distributes phase-space files of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams tallied at a plane located just upstream of the jaws. Yet, Monte Carlo simulations based on third-party tallied phase spaces are subject to limitations. In this work, an experimentally based geometry developed for the simulation of the FFF beams of the Varian TrueBeam linac is presented. The Monte Carlo geometrical model of the TrueBeam linac uses information provided by Varian that reveals large similarities between the TrueBeam machine and the Clinac 2100 downstream of the jaws. Thus, the upper part of the TrueBeam linac was modeled by introducing modifications to the Varian Clinac 2100 linac geometry. The most important of these modifications is the replacement of the standard flattening filters by ad hoc thin filters. These filters were modeled by comparing dose measurements and simulations. The experimental dose profiles for the 6 MV and 10 MV FFF beams were obtained from the Varian Golden Data Set and from in-house measurements performed with a diode detector for radiation fields ranging from 3 × 3 to 40 × 40 cm(2) at depths of maximum dose of 5 and 10 cm. Indicators of agreement between the experimental data and the simulation results obtained with the proposed geometrical model were the dose differences, the root-mean-square error and the gamma index. The same comparisons were performed for dose profiles obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using the phase-space files distributed by Varian for the TrueBeam linac as the sources of particles. Results of comparisons show a good agreement of the dose for the ansatz geometry similar to that obtained for the simulations with the TrueBeam phase-space files for all fields and depths considered, except for
A geometrical model for the Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam linac
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, M.; Sempau, J.; Fogliata, A.; Cozzi, L.; Sauerwein, W.; Brualla, L.
2015-06-01
Monte Carlo simulation of linear accelerators (linacs) depends on the accurate geometrical description of the linac head. The geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac is not available to researchers. Instead, the company distributes phase-space files of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams tallied at a plane located just upstream of the jaws. Yet, Monte Carlo simulations based on third-party tallied phase spaces are subject to limitations. In this work, an experimentally based geometry developed for the simulation of the FFF beams of the Varian TrueBeam linac is presented. The Monte Carlo geometrical model of the TrueBeam linac uses information provided by Varian that reveals large similarities between the TrueBeam machine and the Clinac 2100 downstream of the jaws. Thus, the upper part of the TrueBeam linac was modeled by introducing modifications to the Varian Clinac 2100 linac geometry. The most important of these modifications is the replacement of the standard flattening filters by ad hoc thin filters. These filters were modeled by comparing dose measurements and simulations. The experimental dose profiles for the 6 MV and 10 MV FFF beams were obtained from the Varian Golden Data Set and from in-house measurements performed with a diode detector for radiation fields ranging from 3 × 3 to 40 × 40 cm2 at depths of maximum dose of 5 and 10 cm. Indicators of agreement between the experimental data and the simulation results obtained with the proposed geometrical model were the dose differences, the root-mean-square error and the gamma index. The same comparisons were performed for dose profiles obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using the phase-space files distributed by Varian for the TrueBeam linac as the sources of particles. Results of comparisons show a good agreement of the dose for the ansatz geometry similar to that obtained for the simulations with the TrueBeam phase-space files for all fields and depths considered, except for the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Borovoi, Anatoli G.
2015-10-01
The open-source beam-splitting code is described which implements the geometric-optics approximation to light scattering by convex faceted particles. This code is written in C++ as a library which can be easy applied to a particular light scattering problem. The code uses only standard components, that makes it to be a cross-platform solution and provides its compatibility to popular Integrated Development Environments (IDE's). The included example of solving the light scattering by a randomly oriented ice crystal is written using Qt 5.1, consequently it is a cross-platform solution, too. Both physical and computational aspects of the beam-splitting algorithm are discussed. Computational speed of the beam-splitting code is obviously higher compared to the conventional ray-tracing codes. A comparison of the phase matrix as computed by our code with the ray-tracing code by A. Macke shows excellent agreement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.
1986-01-01
The governing coupled flapwise bending, edgewise bending, and torsional equations are derived including third-degree geometric nonlinear elastic terms by making use of the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. These equations are specialized for blades of doubly symmetric cross section with linear variation of pretwist over the blade length. The nonlinear steady state equations and the linearized perturbation equations are solved by using the Galerkin method, and by utilizing the nonrotating normal modes for the shape functions. Parametric results obtained for various cases of rotating blades from the present theoretical formulation are compared to those produced from the finite element code MSC/NASTRAN, and also to those produced from an in-house experimental test rig. It is shown that the spurious instabilities, observed for thin, rotating blades when second degree geometric nonlinearities are used, can be eliminated by including the third-degree elastic nonlinear terms. Furthermore, inclusion of third degree terms improves the correlation between the theory and experiment.
A Nonlinear Elastic Beam System with Inelastic Contact Constraints
Russell, D.L. White, L.W.
2002-12-19
In this paper we study freely propagating inertial, i.e., unforced, waves, in an elastic beam constrained so that all motion takes place above and on a flat, rigid support surface, subject to a gravitational force and a compressive longitudinal load. Contact between the beam and the support surface is assumed to be completely inelastic. A nonlinear beam model is used, incorporating a quartic extension of the familiar quadratic potential energy functional for the standard Euler-Bernoulli model. After briefly reviewing the rationale for the model and some of its properties, as developed in earlier articles, we present existence and uniqueness results for the constrained system obtained with the use of a 'penalty function' approach involving the addition of a 'uni-directional friction' dissipative term, active only when the constraint is violated, to the unconstrained system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroni, Giovanni; Syam, Wahyudin P.; Petrò, Stefano
2014-08-01
Product quality is a main concern today in manufacturing; it drives competition between companies. To ensure high quality, a dimensional inspection to verify the geometric properties of a product must be carried out. High-speed non-contact scanners help with this task, by both speeding up acquisition speed and increasing accuracy through a more complete description of the surface. The algorithms for the management of the measurement data play a critical role in ensuring both the measurement accuracy and speed of the device. One of the most fundamental parts of the algorithm is the procedure for fitting the substitute geometry to a cloud of points. This article addresses this challenge. Three relevant geometries are selected as case studies: a non-linear least-squares fitting of a circle, sphere and cylinder. These geometries are chosen in consideration of their common use in practice; for example the sphere is often adopted as a reference artifact for performance verification of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a cylinder is the most relevant geometry for a pin-hole relation as an assembly feature to construct a complete functioning product. In this article, an improvement of the initial point guess for the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm by employing a chaos optimization (CO) method is proposed. This causes a performance improvement in the optimization of a non-linear function fitting the three geometries. The results show that, with this combination, a higher quality of fitting results a smaller norm of the residuals can be obtained while preserving the computational cost. Fitting an ‘incomplete-point-cloud’, which is a situation where the point cloud does not cover a complete feature e.g. from half of the total part surface, is also investigated. Finally, a case study of fitting a hemisphere is presented.
Practical geometric calibration for helical cone-beam industrial computed tomography.
Zhang, Feng; Yan, Bin; Li, Lei; Xi, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Hua
2014-01-01
In helical cone-beam industrial computed tomography (ICT), the reconstructed images may be interfered by geometry artifacts due to the presence of mechanical misalignments. To obtain artifact-free reconstruction images, a practical geometric calibration method for helical scan is investigated based on Noo's analytic geometric calibration method for circular scan. The presented method is implemented by first dividing the whole ascending path of helical scan into several pieces, then acquiring the projections of a dedicated calibration phantom in circular scan at each section point, of which geometry parameters are calculated using Noo's analytic method. At last, the geometry parameters of each projection in a piece can be calculated by those of the two end points of the piece. We performed numerical simulations and real data experiments to study the performance of the presented method. The experimental results indicated that the method can obtain high-precision geometry parameters of helical scan and give satisfactory reconstruction images. PMID:24463383
Focused ion beam techniques for fabricating geometrically-complex components and devices.
Mayer, Thomas Michael; Adams, David Price; Hodges, V. Carter; Vasile, Michael J.
2004-03-01
We have researched several new focused ion beam (FIB) micro-fabrication techniques that offer control of feature shape and the ability to accurately define features onto nonplanar substrates. These FIB-based processes are considered useful for prototyping, reverse engineering, and small-lot manufacturing. Ion beam-based techniques have been developed for defining features in miniature, nonplanar substrates. We demonstrate helices in cylindrical substrates having diameters from 100 {micro}m to 3 mm. Ion beam lathe processes sputter-define 10-{micro}m wide features in cylindrical substrates and tubes. For larger substrates, we combine focused ion beam milling with ultra-precision lathe turning techniques to accurately define 25-100 {micro}m features over many meters of path length. In several cases, we combine the feature defining capability of focused ion beam bombardment with additive techniques such as evaporation, sputter deposition and electroplating in order to build geometrically-complex, functionally-simple devices. Damascene methods that fabricate bound, metal microcoils have been developed for cylindrical substrates. Effects of focused ion milling on surface morphology are also highlighted in a study of ion-milled diamond.
Online optimization of storage ring nonlinear beam dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James
2015-08-01
We propose to optimize the nonlinear beam dynamics of existing and future storage rings with direct online optimization techniques. This approach may have crucial importance for the implementation of diffraction limited storage rings. In this paper considerations and algorithms for the online optimization approach are discussed. We have applied this approach to experimentally improve the dynamic aperture of the SPEAR3 storage ring with the robust conjugate direction search method and the particle swarm optimization method. The dynamic aperture was improved by more than 5 mm within a short period of time. Experimental setup and results are presented.
High-efficiency beam manipulation combining geometric phase with anisotropic Huygens surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Wenyu; Jiang, Huan; Liu, Bingyi; Song, Jie; Jiang, Yongyuan
2016-05-01
Conventional geometric metasurfaces relying on space-variant metal antennas for beam manipulation suffer from strong Ohmic loss and incomplete polarization conversion. The efficiency is often limited to rather small values, especially when operating in transmission mode. Here, we tackle this challenge by deliberately constructing an equivalent sheet with anisotropic surface electric and magnetic polarizabilities using cross-shaped dielectric antennas. An incident circularly polarized light can be almost fully converted to a transmitted light of opposite helicity with an unprecedented efficiency up to 98%. Such a transmissive metasurface possessing the merits of high-efficiency, non-dispersion, and robust against variations can serve as an outstanding candidate for flat optics, such as anomalous refraction and beam focusing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hrinda, Glenn A.; Nguyen, Duc T.
2008-01-01
A technique for the optimization of stability constrained geometrically nonlinear shallow trusses with snap through behavior is demonstrated using the arc length method and a strain energy density approach within a discrete finite element formulation. The optimization method uses an iterative scheme that evaluates the design variables' performance and then updates them according to a recursive formula controlled by the arc length method. A minimum weight design is achieved when a uniform nonlinear strain energy density is found in all members. This minimal condition places the design load just below the critical limit load causing snap through of the structure. The optimization scheme is programmed into a nonlinear finite element algorithm to find the large strain energy at critical limit loads. Examples of highly nonlinear trusses found in literature are presented to verify the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharin, Nikolay A.
2001-05-01
The novel solution of the KZK equation for acoustic pressure of the second harmonic in slightly focused beam of a circular transducer was obtained in a closed form for moderately nonlinear absorbing media (Gol'dberg numbers ~ 1). The solution is based on the method of slowly changing wave profile in combination with the method of successive approximations. Two pairs of transducers (Valpey-Fisher Corp.) Were compared to investigate the influence of focusing on the applicability of the moderate nonlinearity approach. The first pair was of 0.25' diameter and the second was of 0.5' diameter. Both pairs has one transducer with flat surface and the other geometrically focused at 4'. The central frequency for all transducers was 5 MHz. Measurements were undertaken in the blood-mimicking solution of water and glycerine. The results demonstrated that for slightly focused transducers with circular apertures, the moderate nonlinearity approach is still valid, as it was proved for flat sources with the same source level, despite the higher pressures in the focal region. The peak pressure for the weakly focused system occurs at a shorter range than focal length.
Geometrical correction of the e-beam proximity effect for raster scan systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas
1999-06-01
Increasing demands on pattern fidelity and CD accuracy in e- beam lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The new needs are mainly coming from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography. The e-beam proximity limits the achievable resolution and affects neighboring structures causing under- or over-exposion depending on the local pattern densities and process settings. Methods to compensate for this unequilibrated does distribution usually use a dose modulation or multiple passes. In general raster scan systems are not able to apply variable doses in order to compensate for the proximity effect. For system of this kind a geometrical modulation of the original pattern offers a solution for compensation of line edge deviations due to the proximity effect. In this paper a new method for the fast correction of the e-beam proximity effect via geometrical pattern optimization is described. The method consists of two steps. In a first step the pattern dependent dose distribution caused by back scattering is calculated by convolution of the pattern with the long range part of the proximity function. The restriction to the long range part result in a quadratic sped gain in computing time for the transformation. The influence of the short range part coming from forward scattering is not pattern dependent and can therefore be determined separately in a second step. The second calculation yields the dose curve at the border of a written structure. The finite gradient of this curve leads to an edge displacement depending on the amount of underground dosage at the observed position which was previously determined in the pattern dependent step. This unintended edge displacement is corrected by splitting the line into segments and shifting them by multiples of the writers address grid to the opposite direction.
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of FRP Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasmal, S.; Kalidoss, S.; Srinivas, V.
2012-12-01
This paper focuses on nonlinear analysis of parent and fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beam using general purpose finite element software, ANSYS. Further, it is aimed to investigate the suitability of different elements available in ANSYS library to represent FRP, epoxy and interface. 3-D structural RC solid element has been used to model concrete and truss element is employed for modeling the reinforcements. FRP has been modelled using 3-D membrane element and layered element with number of layers, epoxy is modelled using eight node brick element, and eight node layered solid shell is used to mathematically represent the concrete-FRP interface behavior. Initially, the validation of the numerical model for the efficacy of different elements (SOLID65 for concrete and LINK8 for reinforcement) and material models is carried out on the experimental beam reported in literature. The validated model, elements and material properties is used to evaluate the load-displacement and load-strain response behavior and crack patterns of the FRP strengthened RC beams. The numerical results indicated that significant improvement in the displacement in the strengthened RC beams with the advancement of cracks. The study shows that FRP with shell elements is recommended when single layer of FRP is used. When multi layered FRP is used, solid layered element can be a reasonably good choice whereas the epoxy matrix with linear solid element does not need further complicated model. Interfacial element makes the analysis minimally improved at the cost of complicated modeling issues and considerable computation time. Hence, for nonlinear analysis of usual strengthened structures, unless it is specifically required for, interface element may not be required and a full contact can be assumed at interface.
Lie Algebraic Treatment of Linear and Nonlinear Beam Dynamics
Alex J. Dragt; Filippo Neri; Govindan Rangarajan; David Douglas; Liam M. Healy; Robert D. Ryne
1988-12-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of new methods, employing Lie algebraic tools, for characterizing beam dynamics in charged-particle optical systems. These methods are applicable to accelerator design, charged-particle beam transport, electron microscopes, and also light optics. The new methods represent the action of each separate element of a compound optical system, including all departures from paraxial optics, by a certain operator. The operators for the various elements can then be concatenated, following well-defined rules, to obtain a resultant operator that characterizes the entire system. This paper deals mostly with accelerator design and charged-particle beam transport. The application of Lie algebraic methods to light optics and electron microscopes is described elsewhere (1, see also 44). To keep its scope within reasonable bounds, they restrict their treatment of accelerator design and charged-particle beam transport primarily to the use of Lie algebraic methods for the description of particle orbits in terms of transfer maps. There are other Lie algebraic or related approaches to accelerator problems that the reader may find of interest (2). For a general discussion of linear and nonlinear problems in accelerator physics see (3).
A new pre-loaded beam geometric stiffness matrix with full rigid body capabilities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.
1992-01-01
Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. The authors have previously shown that the grounding phenomenon is caused by a lack of rigid body rotational capability, and is typical in beam geometric stiffness matrices formulated by others, including those which contain higher order effects. The cause of the problem was identified as the force imbalance inherent in the formulations. In this paper, the authors develop a beam geometric stiffness matrix for a directed force problem, and show that the resultant global stiffness matrix contains complete rigid body mode capabilities, and performs very well in the diagonalization methodology customarily used in dynamic analysis.
Direct determination of geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners.
Mennessier, C; Clackdoyle, R; Noo, F
2009-03-21
This paper describes a comprehensive method for determining the geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners (often called calibrating the scanners or performing geometric calibration). The method is applicable to x-ray scanners using area detectors, or to SPECT systems using pinholes or cone-beam converging collimators. Images of an alignment test object (calibration phantom) fixed in the field of view of the scanner are processed to determine the nine geometric parameters for each view. The parameter values are found directly using formulae applied to the projected positions of the test object marker points onto the detector. Each view is treated independently, and no restrictions are made on the position of the cone vertex, or on the position or orientation of the detector. The proposed test object consists of 14 small point-like objects arranged with four points on each of three orthogonal lines, and two points on a diagonal line. This test object is shown to provide unique solutions for all possible scanner geometries, even when partial measurement information is lost by points superimposing in the calibration scan. For the many situations where the cone vertex stays reasonably close to a central plane (for circular, planar, or near-planar trajectories), a simpler version of the test object is appropriate. The simpler object consists of six points, two per orthogonal line, but with some restrictions on the positioning of the test object. This paper focuses on the principles and mathematical justifications for the method. Numerical simulations of the calibration process and reconstructions using estimated parameters are also presented to validate the method and to provide evidence of the robustness of the technique. PMID:19242049
Direct determination of geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners
Mennessier, C; Clackdoyle, R; Noo, F
2009-01-01
This paper describes a comprehensive method for determining the geometric alignment parameters for cone-beam scanners (often called calibrating the scanners or performing geometric calibration). The method is applicable to x-ray scanners using area detectors, or to SPECT systems using pinholes or cone-beam converging collimators. Images of an alignment test object (calibration phantom) fixed in the field of view of the scanner are processed to determine the nine geometric parameters for each view. The parameter values are found directly using formulae applied to the projected positions of the test object marker points onto the detector. Each view is treated independently, and no restrictions are made on the position of the cone vertex, or on the position or orientation of the detector. The proposed test object consists of 14 small point-like objects arranged with four points on each of three orthogonal lines, and two points on a diagonal line. This test object is shown to provide unique solutions for all possible scanner geometries, even when partial measurement information is lost by points superimposing in the calibration scan. For the many situations where the cone vertex stays reasonably close to a central plane (for circular, planar, or near-planar trajectories), a simpler version of the test object is appropriate. The simpler object consists of six points, two per orthogonal line, but with some restrictions on the positioning of the test object. This paper focuses on the principles and mathematical justifications for the method. Numerical simulations of the calibration process and reconstructions using estimated parameters are also presented to validate the method and to provide evidence of the robustness of the technique. PMID:19242049
Beam heat load due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance in COLDDIAG
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casalbuoni, S.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Spataro, B.
2012-11-01
One of the still open issues for the development of superconductive insertion devices is the understanding of the heat intake from the electron beam. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the underlying mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) was built. It is equipped with the following instrumentation: retarding field analyzers to measure the electron flux, temperature sensors to measure the beam heat load, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. Possible beam heat load sources are: synchrotron radiation, wakefield effects due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance and electron/ion bombardment. The flexibility of the engineering design will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG was first installed in the Diamond Light Source (DLS) in 2011. Due to a mechanical failure of the thermal transition of the cold liner, the cryostat had to be removed after one week of operation. After having implemented design changes in the thermal liner transition, COLDDIAG has been reinstalled in the DLS at the end of August 2012. In order to understand the beam heat load mechanism it is important to compare the measured COLDDIAG parameters with theoretical expectations. In this paper we report on the analytical and numerical computation of the COLDDIAG beam heat load due to coupling impedances deriving from unavoidable step transitions, ports used for pumping and diagnostics, surface roughness, and resistive wall. The results might have an important impact on future technological solutions to be applied to cold bore devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesnik, C. E. S.; Opoku, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.; Cheng, T.
2004-06-01
An active aeroelastic and aeroacoustic analysis of helicopter rotor systems is presented in this paper. It is a tightly coupled computational aeroelastic code that interfaces a particle-wake panel method code with an active nonlinear mixed variational intrinsic beam element code. In addition, a Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings equation-based acoustic component is incorporated to complete the numerical implementation. The theory behind each component is summarized here as well as the method for coupling the aerodynamic and structural components. Sample acoustic and aeroelastic results are given for different model-scale rotors. Comparisons with available (passive) results show very good agreement. Preliminary study with an active twist rotor is also shown.
Nonlinear Potential Model of Space-Charge Electron Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litz, Marc Stuart
1995-01-01
This body of work is new and comprises theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental investigations of the vircator, a tunable, compact, simply constructed, high power reflexing electron device that is used as a microwave source. A 1D theoretical model is formulated that is based on a time-varying, nonlinear potential to better understand the sensitivities of individual electron trajectories to macroscopic parameters of the system. Self -consistent 2D (space) and 3D(velocity) numerical PIC simulations are used to find common dynamical behavior that links the individual test-particle trajectories examined in the 1D nonlinear model with the experimental measurements of the final state of the electron trajectories. The experiment designed and built for these studies is unique and contrasts with other virtual cathode electron beam sources because it operates at lower voltage, and longer pulse width than previous forms of the device. The anode-cathode (AK) gap spacing is externally tunable expediting parametric studies. In addition, it is repetitively pulsed, which permits discrimination between single-shot anomalies and repeatable variation that often occurs in pulsed power experimental devices. These attributes distinguish this experimental apparatus from previous experimental platforms. This novel, repetitively pulsed device has particular relevance to the industrial and medical applications of rf. The approach followed in the present studies is (1) to investigate the dynamic behavior of individual test -particles in a simplified 1D, nonlinear, time-varying, potential; (2) utilize a 2D, self-consistent, electromagnetic PIC code to generate single particle trajectories subject to the collective effects of the electron beam; and (3) measure macroscopic quantities of voltage, current, electromagnetic fields, and electron flux in an experimental platform. Results of the 3D experiments are compared to predictions of the 1D and 2D models. Electron flux
Evaluation and Correction of the Non-linear Distortion of CEBAF Beam Position Monitors
M. Spata, T.L. Allison, K.E. Cole, J. Musson, J. Yan
2011-09-01
The beam position monitors at CEBAF have four antenna style pickups that are used to measure the location of the beam. There is a strong nonlinear response when the beam is far from the electrical center of the device. In order to conduct beam experiments at large orbit excitation we need to correct for this nonlinearity. The correction algorithm is presented and compared to measurements from our stretched wire BPM test stand.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasyev, An. N.; Uralov, A. M.; Grechnev, V. V.
2011-12-01
Propagation of shock related Moreton and EUV waves in the solar atmosphere is simulated by the nonlinear geometrical acoustics method. This method is based on the ray approximation and takes account of nonlinear wave features: dependence of the wave velocity on its amplitude, nonlinear dissipation of wave energy in the shock front, and the increase in its duration with time. The paper describes ways of applying this method to solve the propagation problem of a blast magnetohydrodynamic shock wave. Results of analytical modeling of EUV and Moreton waves in the spherically symmetric and isothermal solar corona are also presented. The calculations demonstrate deceleration of these waves and an increase in their duration. The calculation results of the kinematics of the EUV wave observed on the Sun on January 17, 2010 are presented as an example.
Geometric Parameters Estimation and Calibration in Cone-Beam Micro-CT.
Zhao, Jintao; Hu, Xiaodong; Zou, Jing; Hu, Xiaotang
2015-01-01
The quality of Computed Tomography (CT) images crucially depends on the precise knowledge of the scanner geometry. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate and calibrate the misalignments before image acquisition. In this paper, a Two-Piece-Ball (TPB) phantom is used to estimate a set of parameters that describe the geometry of a cone-beam CT system. Only multiple projections of the TPB phantom at one position are required, which can avoid the rotation errors when acquiring multi-angle projections. Also, a corresponding algorithm is derived. The performance of the method is evaluated through simulation and experimental data. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is valid and easy to implement. Furthermore, the experimental results from the Micro-CT system demonstrate the ability to reduce artifacts and improve image quality through geometric parameter calibration. PMID:26371008
Geometric Parameters Estimation and Calibration in Cone-Beam Micro-CT
Zhao, Jintao; Hu, Xiaodong; Zou, Jing; Hu, Xiaotang
2015-01-01
The quality of Computed Tomography (CT) images crucially depends on the precise knowledge of the scanner geometry. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate and calibrate the misalignments before image acquisition. In this paper, a Two-Piece-Ball (TPB) phantom is used to estimate a set of parameters that describe the geometry of a cone-beam CT system. Only multiple projections of the TPB phantom at one position are required, which can avoid the rotation errors when acquiring multi-angle projections. Also, a corresponding algorithm is derived. The performance of the method is evaluated through simulation and experimental data. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is valid and easy to implement. Furthermore, the experimental results from the Micro-CT system demonstrate the ability to reduce artifacts and improve image quality through geometric parameter calibration. PMID:26371008
Paradox of a nonlinear beam splitter and its resolution
Belinsky, A. V. Volkov, D. V.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shulman, M. Kh.
2013-11-15
A nonlinear beam splitter is shown to be an interesting object of investigation for the following reasons. First, the classical and quantum theories of its description give directly opposite behaviors of the phase fluctuations: according to the classical theory, the phase is unchanged; according to the quantum theory, the phase fluctuations increase or decrease, depending on the suppression or growth of amplitude fluctuations. The fundamental cause of these differences has been established. Second, the quantum fluctuations of the input mode can be separated into the amplitude and phase ones, so that the predominantly phase fluctuations are directed into one output mode, say, the reflected one, while the amplitude fluctuations are directed into the other (transmitted) mode.
Integrability and chaos in nonlinearly coupled optical beams
David, D.
1989-01-01
This paper presents a study, using dynamical systems methods, of the equations describing the polarization behavior of two nonlinearly coupled optical beams counterpropagating in a nonlinear medium. In the travelling-wave regime assumption, this system possesses a Lie-Poisson structure on the manifold C{sup 2} {times} C{sup 2}. In the case where the medium is assumed to be isotropic, this system exhibits invariance under the Hamiltonian action of two copies of the rotation group, S{sup 1}, and actually reduces to a lower-dimensional system on the two-sphere, S{sup 2}. We study the dynamics on the reduced space and examine the structure of the phase portrait by determining the fixed points and infinite-period homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits; we concentrate on presenting some exotic behaviour that occurs when some parameters are varied, and we also show special solutions associated with some of the above-mentioned orbits. Last, we demonstrate the existence of complex dynamics when the system is subject to certain classes of Hamiltonian perturbations. To this end, we make use of the Melnikov method to analytically show the occurrence of either horseshoe chaos, or Arnold diffusion. 19 refs.
Nonlinear Interaction of Elliptical Laser Beam with Collisional Plasma: Effect of Linear Absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshav, Walia; Sarabjit, Kaur
2016-01-01
In the present work, nonlinear interaction of elliptical laser beam with collisional plasma is studied by using paraxial ray approximation. Nonlinear differential equations for the beam width parameters of semi-major axis and semi-minor axis of elliptical laser beam have been set up and solved numerically to study the variation of beam width parameters with normalized distance of propagation. Effects of variation in absorption coefficient and plasma density on the beam width parameters are also analyzed. It is observed from the analysis that extent of self-focusing of beam increases with increase/decrease in plasma density/absorption coefficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Zheng; Li, Jiangning; Edwardson, Stuart; Perrie, Walter; Liu, Dun; Dearden, Geoff
2015-07-01
We have demonstrated an original ultrafast laser beam shaping technique for material processing using a spatial light modulator (SLM). Complicated and time-consuming diffraction far-field phase hologram calculations based on Fourier transformations are avoided, while simple and direct geometric masks are used to shape the incident beam at diffraction near-field. Various beam intensity shapes, such as square, triangle, ring and star, are obtained and then reconstructed at the imaging plane of an f-theta lens. The size of the shaped beam is approximately 20 μm, which is comparable to the beam waist at the focal plane. A polished stainless steel sample is machined by the shaped beam at the imaging plane. The shape of the ablation footprint well matches the beam shape.
Non-linear optical measurements using a scanned, Bessel beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.
2015-03-01
Oftentimes cells are removed from the body for disease diagnosis or cellular research. This typically requires fluorescent labeling followed by sorting with a flow cytometer; however, possible disruption of cellular function or even cell death due to the presence of the label can occur. This may be acceptable for ex vivo applications, but as cells are more frequently moving from the lab to the body, label-free methods of cell sorting are needed to eliminate these issues. This is especially true of the growing field of stem cell research where specialized cells are needed for treatments. Because differentiation processes are not completely efficient, cells must be sorted to eliminate any unwanted cells (i.e. un-differentiated or differentiated into an unwanted cell type). In order to perform label-free measurements, non-linear optics (NLO) have been increasingly utilized for single cell analysis because of their ability to not disrupt cellular function. An optical system was developed for the measurement of NLO in a microfluidic channel similar to a flow cytometer. In order to improve the excitation efficiency of NLO, a scanned Bessel beam was utilized to create a light-sheet across the channel. The system was tested by monitoring twophoton fluorescence from polystyrene microbeads of different sizes. Fluorescence intensity obtained from light-sheet measurements were significantly greater than measurements made using a static Gaussian beam. In addition, the increase in intensity from larger sized beads was more evident for the light-sheet system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafiee, M.; Liu, X. F.; He, X. Q.; Kitipornchai, S.
2014-07-01
The nonlinear free vibration of carbon nanotubes/fiber/polymer composite (CNTFPC) multi-scale plates with surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is studied in this paper. The governing equations of the piezoelectric nanotubes/fiber/polymer multiscale laminated composite plates are derived based on first-order shear deformation plate theory (FSDT) and von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity. Halpin-Tsai equations and fiber micromechanics are used in hierarchy to predict the bulk material properties of the multiscale composite. The carbon nanotubes are assumed to be uniformly distributed and randomly oriented through the epoxy resin matrix. A perturbation scheme of multiple time scales is employed to determine the nonlinear vibration response and the nonlinear natural frequencies of the plates with immovable simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of the applied constant voltage, plate geometry, volume fraction of fibers and weight percentage of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the linear and nonlinear natural frequencies of the piezoelectric nanotubes/fiber/polymer multiscale composite plate are investigated through a detailed parametric study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Bing; Liu, Dahui; Wu, Jia-Lu; He, Jun; Cui, Yiping
2014-12-01
We present the Z-scan technique using azimuthal-variant vector beams for characterizing the nonlinear refractive index of an isotropic nonlinear medium. Compared with the conventional Z-scan measurements, the reliability of the vector beam Z-scan is improved because the focused azimuthal-variant vector beam exhibits a uniform-intensity focal ring instead of a focal spot. Experimentally, our investigation demonstrates that the Z-scan using radially polarized beams is a preferable technique for characterizing the optical nonlinearity of an imperfect sample.
Near-field dynamics of ultrashort pulsed Bessel beams in media with Kerr nonlinearity.
Polesana, P; Dubietis, A; Porras, M A; Kucinskas, E; Faccio, D; Couairon, A; Di Trapani, P
2006-05-01
The near-field dynamics of a femtosecond Bessel beam propagating in a Kerr nonlinear medium (fused silica) is investigated both numerically and experimentally. We demonstrate that the input Bessel beam experiences strong nonlinear reshaping. Due to the combined action of self-focusing and nonlinear losses the reshaped beam exhibits a radial compression and reduced visibility of the Bessel oscillations. Moreover, we show that the reshaping process starts from the intense central core and gradually replaces the Bessel beam profile during propagation, highlighting the conical geometry of the energy flow. PMID:16803062
A three-dimensional nonlinear Timoshenko beam based on the core-congruential formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crivelli, Luis A.; Felippa, Carlos A.
1992-01-01
A three-dimensional, geometrically nonlinear two-node Timoshenkoo beam element based on the total Larangrian description is derived. The element behavior is assumed to be linear elastic, but no restrictions are placed on magnitude of finite rotations. The resulting element has twelve degrees of freedom: six translational components and six rotational-vector components. The formulation uses the Green-Lagrange strains and second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses as energy-conjugate variables and accounts for the bending-stretching and bending-torsional coupling effects without special provisions. The core-congruential formulation (CCF) is used to derived the discrete equations in a staged manner. Core equations involving the internal force vector and tangent stiffness matrix are developed at the particle level. A sequence of matrix transformations carries these equations to beam cross-sections and finally to the element nodal degrees of freedom. The choice of finite rotation measure is made in the next-to-last transformation stage, and the choice of over-the-element interpolation in the last one. The tangent stiffness matrix is found to retain symmetry if the rotational vector is chosen to measure finite rotations. An extensive set of numerical examples is presented to test and validate the present element.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauter, N.; Lammering, R.
2015-04-01
In order to detect micro-structural damages accurately new methods are currently developed. A promising tool is the generation of higher harmonic wave modes caused by the nonlinear Lamb wave propagation in plate like structures. Due to the very small amplitudes a cumulative effect is used. To get a better overview of this inspection method numerical simulations are essential. Previous studies have developed the analytical description of this phenomenon which is based on the five-constant nonlinear elastic theory. The analytical solution has been approved by numerical simulations. In this work first the nonlinear cumulative wave propagation is simulated and analyzed considering micro-structural cracks in thin linear elastic isotropic plates. It is shown that there is a cumulative effect considering the S1-S2 mode pair. Furthermore the sensitivity of the relative acoustical nonlinearity parameter regarding those damages is validated. Furthermore, an influence of the crack size and orientation on the nonlinear wave propagation behavior is observed. In a second step the micro-structural cracks are replaced by a nonlinear material model. Instead of the five-constant nonlinear elastic theory hyperelastic material models that are implemented in commonly used FEM software are used to simulate the cumulative effect of the higher harmonic Lamb wave generation. The cumulative effect as well as the different nonlinear behavior of the S1-S2 and S2-S4 mode pairs are found by using these hyperelastic material models. It is shown that, both numerical simulations, which take into account micro-structural cracks on the one hand and nonlinear material on the other hand, lead to comparable results. Furthermore, in comparison to the five-constant nonlinear elastic theory the use of the well established hyperelastic material models like Neo-Hooke and Mooney-Rivlin are a suitable alternative to simulate the cumulative higher harmonic generation.
Ronald C. Davidson; W. Wei-li Lee; Hong Qin; Edward Startsev
2001-11-08
This paper develops a clear procedure for solving the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations for a one-component intense charged particle beam or finite-length charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical conducting pipe (radius r = r(subscript)w = const.), and confined by an applied focusing force. In particular, the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations are Lorentz-transformed to the beam frame ('primed' variables) moving with axial velocity relative to the laboratory. In the beam frame, the particle motions are nonrelativistic for the applications of practical interest, already a major simplification. Then, in the beam frame, we make the electrostatic approximation which fully incorporates beam space-charge effects, but neglects any fast electromagnetic processes with transverse polarization (e.g., light waves). The resulting Vlasov-Maxwell equations are then Lorentz-transformed back to the laboratory frame, and properties of the self-generated fields and resulting nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the laboratory frame are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stricklin, J. A.; Haisler, W. E.; Von Riesemann, W. A.
1972-01-01
This paper presents an assessment of the solution procedures available for the analysis of inelastic and/or large deflection structural behavior. A literature survey is given which summarized the contribution of other researchers in the analysis of structural problems exhibiting material nonlinearities and combined geometric-material nonlinearities. Attention is focused at evaluating the available computation and solution techniques. Each of the solution techniques is developed from a common equation of equilibrium in terms of pseudo forces. The solution procedures are applied to circular plates and shells of revolution in an attempt to compare and evaluate each with respect to computational accuracy, economy, and efficiency. Based on the numerical studies, observations and comments are made with regard to the accuracy and economy of each solution technique.
Suppression of space charge induced beam halo in nonlinear focusing channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batygin, Yuri K.; Scheinker, Alexander; Kurennoy, Sergey; Li, Chao
2016-04-01
An intense non-uniform particle beam exhibits strong emittance growth and halo formation in focusing channels due to nonlinear space charge forces of the beam. This phenomenon limits beam brightness and results in particle losses. The problem is connected with irreversible distortion of phase space volume of the beam in conventional focusing structures due to filamentation in phase space. Emittance growth is accompanied by halo formation in real space, which results in inevitable particle losses. A new approach for solving a self-consistent problem for a matched non-uniform beam in two-dimensional geometry is discussed. The resulting solution is applied to the problem of beam transport, while avoiding emittance growth and halo formation by the use of nonlinear focusing field. Conservation of a beam distribution function is demonstrated analytically and by particle-in-cell simulation for a beam with a realistic beam distribution.
An optimization-based method for geometrical calibration in cone-beam CT without dedicated phantoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panetta, D.; Belcari, N.; DelGuerra, A.; Moehrs, S.
2008-07-01
In this paper we present a new method for the determination of geometrical misalignments in cone-beam CT scanners, from the analysis of the projection data of a generic object. No a priori knowledge of the object shape and positioning is required. We show that a cost function, which depends on the misalignment parameters, can be defined using the projection data and that such a cost function has a local minimum in correspondence to the actual parameters of the system. Hence, the calibration of the scanner can be carried out by minimizing the cost function using standard optimization techniques. The method is developed for a particular class of 3D object functions, for which the redundancy of the fan beam sinogram in the transaxial midplane can be extended to cone-beam projection data, even at wide cone angles. The method has an approximated validity for objects which do not belong to that class; in that case, a suitable subset of the projection data can be selected in order to compute the cost function. We show by numerical simulations that our method is capable to determine with high accuracy the most critical misalignment parameters of the scanner, i.e., the transversal shift and the skew of the detector. Additionally, the detector slant can be determined. Other parameters such as the detector tilt, the longitudinal shift and the error in the source-detector distance cannot be determined with our method, as the proposed cost function has a very weak dependence on them. However, due to the negligible influence of these latter parameters in the reconstructed image quality, they can be kept fixed at estimated values in both calibration and reconstruction processes without compromising the final result. A trade-off between computational cost and calibration accuracy must be considered when choosing the data subset used for the computation of the cost function. Results on real data of a mouse femur as obtained with a small animal micro-CT are shown as well, proving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, C. B.; Mei, Chuh
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear analysis is carried out for beams subjected to acoustic excitation. Effects of both nonlinear damping and large-deflection are included in the analysis in an attempt to explain the experimental phenomena of aircraft panels excited at high sound pressure levels; that is the broadening of the strain response peaks and the increase of modal frequency. An amplitude dependent nonlinear damping model is used in the anlaysis to study the effects and interactions of multiple modes, nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping on the random response of beams. Mean square maximum deflection, mean square maximum strain, and spectral density function of maximum strain for simple supported and clamped beams are obtained. It is shown analytically that nonlinear damping contributes significantly to the broadening of the response peak and to the mean square deflection and strain.
Effects of Geometric Azimuthal Asymmetries of the PPM Stack on Electron Beam Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
2000-01-01
The effects of geometric azimuthally asymmetric properties of a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing stack on electron beam characteristics obtained using a fully three dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) code will be presented. The simulation model, using MAFIA (Solution of MAxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm), incorporates 3D behavior of the beam immersed in static fields calculated directly from the exact geometry and material properties of the 3D magnetic focusing structure. The Hughes 8916H, 18-40 GHz helical TWT for the millimeter-wave power module (MMPM) was used as a prototype. Firstly, the effects of C-magnets used at the input and output of the TWT to allow for coupling of the RF signal into and out of the tube are considered. The 8916H input and output C-magnets differ because coaxial couplers are used at the input and waveguide couplers are used at the output The repositioning of the beam from its central axis due to the inclusion of the output C-magnet was found to be most significant. The modeled output C-magnet and its orientation in the Cartesian coordinate system is shown, and a two-dimensional beam profile including the output C-magnet is also shown. A table presents the shift of the beam center off the central axis relative to the average radius of the beam at the longitudinal points A, B and C designated on an enclosed figure. Secondly, the addition of shunts, or rectangular iron pieces applied manually by a skilled technician in order to improve beam transmission, is considered. The shunts are applied to the top of the tube; thus, azimuthal symmetry of the focusing stack is interrupted. Although shunts are typically added during RF focusing, they are also typically added at the input section of the tube where RF forces are minimal, making an electron optics analysis meaningful. Because several shunts are usually applied to one pole piece, the simulations have been simplified by modeling a half washer with the same
Reciprocity breaking during nonlinear propagation of adapted beams through random media.
Palastro, J P; Peñano, J; Nelson, W; DiComo, G; Helle, M; Johnson, L A; Hafizi, B
2016-08-22
Adaptive optics (AO) systems rely on the principle of reciprocity, or symmetry with respect to the interchange of point sources and receivers. These systems use the light received from a low power emitter on or near a target to compensate phase aberrations acquired by a laser beam during linear propagation through random media. If, however, the laser beam propagates nonlinearly, reciprocity is broken, potentially undermining AO correction. Here we examine the consequences of this breakdown, providing the first analysis of AO applied to high peak power laser beams. While discussed for general random and nonlinear media, we consider specific examples of Kerr-nonlinear, turbulent atmosphere. PMID:27557166
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon; Park, Byeongjin
2015-06-01
Damage often causes a structural system to exhibit severe nonlinear behaviors, and the resulting nonlinear features are often much more sensitive to the damage than their linear counterparts. This study develops a laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS) so that certain types of damage can be detected without any sensor placement. The proposed LNWMS utilizes a pulse laser to generate ultrasonic waves and a laser vibrometer for ultrasonic measurement. Under the broadband excitation of the pulse laser, a nonlinear source generates modulations at various frequency values due to interactions among various input frequency components. State space attractors are reconstructed from the ultrasonic responses measured by LNWMS, and a damage feature called Bhattacharyya distance (BD) is computed from the state space attractors to quantify the degree of damage-induced nonlinearity. By computing the BD values over the entire target surface using laser scanning, damage can be localized and visualized without relying on the baseline data obtained from the pristine condition of a target structure. The proposed technique has been successfully used for visualizing fatigue crack in an aluminum plate and delamination and debonding in a glass fiber reinforced polymer wind turbine blade.
A geometrical approach to control and controllability of nonlinear dynamical networks
Wang, Le-Zhi; Su, Ri-Qi; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wen-Xu; Grebogi, Celso; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2016-01-01
In spite of the recent interest and advances in linear controllability of complex networks, controlling nonlinear network dynamics remains an outstanding problem. Here we develop an experimentally feasible control framework for nonlinear dynamical networks that exhibit multistability. The control objective is to apply parameter perturbation to drive the system from one attractor to another, assuming that the former is undesired and the latter is desired. To make our framework practically meaningful, we consider restricted parameter perturbation by imposing two constraints: it must be experimentally realizable and applied only temporarily. We introduce the concept of attractor network, which allows us to formulate a quantifiable controllability framework for nonlinear dynamical networks: a network is more controllable if the attractor network is more strongly connected. We test our control framework using examples from various models of experimental gene regulatory networks and demonstrate the beneficial role of noise in facilitating control. PMID:27076273
A geometrical approach to control and controllability of nonlinear dynamical networks.
Wang, Le-Zhi; Su, Ri-Qi; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wen-Xu; Grebogi, Celso; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2016-01-01
In spite of the recent interest and advances in linear controllability of complex networks, controlling nonlinear network dynamics remains an outstanding problem. Here we develop an experimentally feasible control framework for nonlinear dynamical networks that exhibit multistability. The control objective is to apply parameter perturbation to drive the system from one attractor to another, assuming that the former is undesired and the latter is desired. To make our framework practically meaningful, we consider restricted parameter perturbation by imposing two constraints: it must be experimentally realizable and applied only temporarily. We introduce the concept of attractor network, which allows us to formulate a quantifiable controllability framework for nonlinear dynamical networks: a network is more controllable if the attractor network is more strongly connected. We test our control framework using examples from various models of experimental gene regulatory networks and demonstrate the beneficial role of noise in facilitating control. PMID:27076273
Studies of non-linear optical effects for agile beam steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vachss, F.; McMichael, I.; Yeh, P.
1993-11-01
The objective of this program is the demonstration of a new technique for massless beam steering of high energy laser radiation. Using the effect of nonlinear electrostriction in acousto-optic devices, we show large improvements in diffraction efficiency and resolution. These results are obtained through the development of a novel geometry for acousto-optic beam steering and of a prototype device designed to take advantage of this geometry. Theoretical and experimental results of this effort establish the validity of large aperture, high frequency nonlinear acousto-optic beam steering. The results are found to be applicable to steering of high power laser beams.
Self-focusing of Hermite-Gaussian laser beam with relativistic nonlinearity
Sharma, Prerana
2015-07-31
This paper presents an investigation of self-focusing of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams in plasma considering relativistic nonlinearity. The differential equations for beam width parameters are obtained using the usual Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The nonlinearity in the dielectric constant is assumed to be aroused mainly due to the relativistic mass correction of electron. To highlight the nature of focusing, graphical results of the behavior of beam-width parameters with the dimensionless distance of propagation is presented. The numerical computation is completed by using Taylor series method. The present work is helpful to understand issues related to the beam propagation in laser plasma interaction experiments.
Farr, J. B.; Schoenenberg, D.; Dessy, F.; De Wilde, O.; Bietzer, O.
2013-07-15
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to compare and contrast the measured fundamental properties of two new types of modulated proton scanning systems. This provides a basis for clinical expectations based on the scanned beam quality and a benchmark for computational models. Because the relatively small beam and fast scanning gave challenges to the characterization, a secondary purpose was to develop and apply new approaches where necessary to do so.Methods: The following performances of the proton scanning systems were investigated: beamlet alignment, static in-air beamlet size and shape, scanned in-air penumbra, scanned fluence map accuracy, geometric alignment of scanning system to isocenter, maximum field size, lateral and longitudinal field uniformity of a 1 l cubic uniform field, output stability over time, gantry angle invariance, monitoring system linearity, and reproducibility. A range of detectors was used: film, ionization chambers, lateral multielement and longitudinal multilayer ionization chambers, and a scintillation screen combined with a digital video camera. Characterization of the scanned fluence maps was performed with a software analysis tool.Results: The resulting measurements and analysis indicated that the two types of delivery systems performed within specification for those aspects investigated. The significant differences were observed between the two types of scanning systems where one type exhibits a smaller spot size and associated penumbra than the other. The differential is minimum at maximum energy and increases inversely with decreasing energy. Additionally, the large spot system showed an increase in dose precision to a static target with layer rescanning whereas the small spot system did not.Conclusions: The measured results from the two types of modulated scanning types of system were consistent with their designs under the conditions tested. The most significant difference between the types of system was their proton
Effects of geometrical order on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMahon, Matthew David
This dissertation describes experimental and computational studies of the effects of ordered arrangement on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles. The principal result is that second-harmonic light may be generated and observed from nanoparticle gratings having maximum in-plane symmetry, provided that one looks at non-normal observation angles. These measurements are made possible by a custom-built variable-angle microscope, and enable a variety of studies of the second-order nonlinear response of nanoparticles that were not previously feasible. In addition, the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles is studied by linear spectroscopy. A comparison of experimental data with computational modeling shows that under normal ambient conditions, Ag nanoparticles tarnish by a sulfidation reaction more readily than bulk silver, and that even a very thin surface layer of corroded material (Ag2S) considerably redshifts and weakens the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanoparticle.
Horizontal geometrical reaction time model for two-beam nacelle LiDARs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beuth, Thorsten; Fox, Maik; Stork, Wilhelm
2015-06-01
Wind energy is one of the leading sustainable energies. To attract further private and state investment in this technology, a broad scaled drop of the cost of energy has to be enforced. There is a trend towards using Laser Doppler Velocimetry LiDAR systems for enhancing power output and minimizing downtimes, fatigue and extreme forces. Since most used LiDARs are horizontally setup on a nacelle and work with two beams, it is important to understand the geometrical configuration which is crucial to estimate reaction times for the actuators to compensate wind gusts. In the beginning of this article, the basic operating modes of wind turbines are explained and the literature on wind behavior is analyzed to derive specific wind speed and wind angle conditions in relation to the yaw angle of the hub. A short introduction to the requirements for the reconstruction of the wind vector length and wind angle leads to the problem of wind shear detection of angled but horizontal homogeneous wind fronts due to the spatial separation of the measuring points. A distance is defined in which the wind shear of such homogeneous wind fronts is not present which is used as a base to estimate further distance calculations. The reaction time of the controller and the actuators are having a negative effect on the effective overall reaction time for wind regulation as well. In the end, exemplary calculations estimate benefits and disadvantages of system parameters for wind gust regulating LiDARs for a wind turbine of typical size. An outlook shows possible future improvements concerning the vertical wind behavior.
Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Jabir, M. V.; Banerji, J.; Samanta, G. K.
2016-01-01
Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625
Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Banerji, J; Samanta, G K
2016-01-01
Hollow Gaussian beams (HGB) are a special class of doughnut shaped beams that do not carry orbital angular momentum (OAM). Such beams have a wide range of applications in many fields including atomic optics, bio-photonics, atmospheric science, and plasma physics. Till date, these beams have been generated using linear optical elements. Here, we show a new way of generating HGBs by three-wave mixing in a nonlinear crystal. Based on nonlinear interaction of photons having OAM and conservation of OAM in nonlinear processes, we experimentally generated ultrafast HGBs of order as high as 6 and power >180 mW at 355 nm. This generic concept can be extended to any wavelength, timescales (continuous-wave and ultrafast) and any orders. We show that the removal of azimuthal phase of vortices does not produce Gaussian beam. We also propose a new and only method to characterize the order of the HGBs. PMID:27581625
Shaping of light beams by 3D direct laser writing on facets of nonlinear crystals.
Lightman, Shlomi; Gvishi, Raz; Hurvitz, Gilad; Arie, Ady
2015-10-01
We demonstrate experimentally spatial-mode conversions of light beams generated in a quadratic nonlinear process by micron-scale structures placed on the facets of nonlinear crystals. These structures were printed on the crystal facets using a three-dimensional (3D) direct laser writing system. The functional structures were designed to modify the phase of the beam at specific wavelengths, thereby enabling conversion of a fundamental Gaussian laser beam into different high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes, Laguerre-Gaussian modes, and zeroth-order Bessel beams of the second harmonic. This facet functionalization opens exciting new opportunities for robust and compact beam shaping in a nonlinear interaction without compromising the conversion efficiency. PMID:26421556
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizzi, Stephen A.
2003-01-01
The use of stress predictions from equivalent linearization analyses in the computation of high-cycle fatigue life is examined. Stresses so obtained differ in behavior from the fully nonlinear analysis in both spectral shape and amplitude. Consequently, fatigue life predictions made using this data will be affected. Comparisons of fatigue life predictions based upon the stress response obtained from equivalent linear and numerical simulation analyses are made to determine the range over which the equivalent linear analysis is applicable.
Geometrically nonlinear design sensitivity analysis on parallel-vector high-performance computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baddourah, Majdi A.; Nguyen, Duc T.
1993-01-01
Parallel-vector solution strategies for generation and assembly of element matrices, solution of the resulted system of linear equations, calculations of the unbalanced loads, displacements, stresses, and design sensitivity analysis (DSA) are all incorporated into the Newton Raphson (NR) procedure for nonlinear finite element analysis and DSA. Numerical results are included to show the performance of the proposed method for structural analysis and DSA in a parallel-vector computer environment.
Results of including geometric nonlinearities in an aeroelastic model of an F/A-18
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buttrill, Carey S.
1989-01-01
An integrated, nonlinear simulation model suitable for aeroelastic modeling of fixed-wing aircraft has been developed. While the author realizes that the subject of modeling rotating, elastic structures is not closed, it is believed that the equations of motion developed and applied herein are correct to second order and are suitable for use with typical aircraft structures. The equations are not suitable for large elastic deformation. In addition, the modeling framework generalizes both the methods and terminology of non-linear rigid-body airplane simulation and traditional linear aeroelastic modeling. Concerning the importance of angular/elastic inertial coupling in the dynamic analysis of fixed-wing aircraft, the following may be said. The rigorous inclusion of said coupling is not without peril and must be approached with care. In keeping with the same engineering judgment that guided the development of the traditional aeroelastic equations, the effect of non-linear inertial effects for most airplane applications is expected to be small. A parameter does not tell the whole story, however, and modes flagged by the parameter as significant also need to be checked to see if the coupling is not a one-way path, i.e., the inertially affected modes can influence other modes.
Reciprocity breaking during nonlinear propagation of adapted beams through random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palastro, J. P.; Peñano, J.; Nelson, W.; DiComo, G.; Helle, M.; Johnson, L. A.; Hafizi, B.
2016-08-01
Adaptive optics (AO) systems rely on the principle of reciprocity, or symmetry with respect to the interchange of point sources and receivers. These systems use the light received from a low power emitter on or near a target to compensate profile aberrations acquired by a laser beam during linear propagation through random media. If, however, the laser beam propagates nonlinearly, reciprocity is broken, potentially undermining AO correction. Here we examine the consequences of this breakdown. While discussed for general random and nonlinear media, we consider specific examples of Kerr-nonlinear, turbulent atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu-Feng; Feng, Bin-Lu; Rui, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiang-Zhi
2015-07-01
With the help of a simple Lie algebra, an isospectral Lax pair, whose feature presents decomposition of element (1, 2) into a linear combination in the temporal Lax matrix, is introduced for which a new integrable hierarchy of evolution equations is obtained, whose Hamiltonian structure is also derived from the trace identity in which contains a constant γ to be determined. In the paper, we obtain a general formula for computing the constant γ. The reduced equations of the obtained hierarchy are the generalized nonlinear heat equation containing three-potential functions, the mKdV equation and a generalized linear KdV equation. The algebro-geometric solutions (also called finite band solutions) of the generalized nonlinear heat equation are obtained by the use of theory on algebraic curves. Finally, two kinds of gauge transformations of the spatial isospectral problem are produced. Supported by the Innovation Team of Jiangsu Province hosted by China University of Mining and Technology (2014) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2013XK03) as well as the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2013AL016
Effect of geometric elastic non-linearities on the impact response of flexible multi-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakr, E. M.; Shabana, A. A.
1987-02-01
The intermittent motion behavior of large scale geometrically non-linear flexible multi-body systems due to impact loading is investigated. Impacts and the associated impulsive forces are incorporated into the dynamic formulation by using a generalized momentum balance. The solution of the momentum equation provides the jump discontinuities in the system velocities and reaction forces. Flexible components in the system are discretized by using the finite element method. Because of the large rotations of the system components, a set of reference co-ordinates are employed to describe the motion of a selected body reference. The rigid body modes of the finite element shape functions are eliminated by using a set of reference conditions and accordingly a unique displacement field is defined. In order to account for the inertia and elastic non-linearities which are, respectively, the results of the large rotations and finite deformations, the system inertia and stiffness characteristics have to be iteratively updated. Two numerical examples of different nature are presented. The first example is a high speed slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. In the second example, however, the dynamic response of a flexible multi-body aircraft during the touch down impact is predicted.
Shen, Ming; Gao, Jinsong; Ge, Lijuan
2015-01-01
We investigate the spatially optical solitons shedding from Airy beams and anomalous interactions of Airy beams in nonlocal nonlinear media by means of direct numerical simulations. Numerical results show that nonlocality has profound effects on the propagation dynamics of the solitons shedding from the Airy beam. It is also shown that the strong nonlocality can support periodic intensity distribution of Airy beams with opposite bending directions. Nonlocality also provides a long-range attractive force between Airy beams, leading to the formation of stable bound states of both in-phase and out-of-phase breathing Airy solitons which always repel in local media. PMID:25900878
Comparison of Finite Element Non-Linear Beam Random Response with Experimental Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, R. R.; Mei, C.; Wolfe, HF
1996-09-01
A finite element formulation combined with the equivalent linearization technique and normal mode method is developed for the non-linear random response of beams subjected to acoustic and thermal loads applied simultaneously. To validate the present formulation and solution procedure, results are compared with the classical continuum solution and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation solution. Comparison is also made with experimental data for a pre-stretched clamped beam. Random responses of thermally buckled simply supported beam, clamped beam and simply supported-clamped beam are presented. The comparison of the present simultaneously loaded response with the existing sequentially loaded results shows a significant difference between them.
Experimental Study on Nonlinear Vibrations of Fixed-Fixed Curved Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ajay; Patel, B. P.
2016-07-01
Nonlinear dynamic behavior of fixed-fixed shallow and deep curved beams is studied experimentally using non-contact type of electromagnetic shaker and acceleration measurements. The frequency response obtained from acceleration measurements is found to be in fairly good agreement with the computational response. The travellingwave phenomenon along with participation of higher harmonics and softening nonlinearity are observed. The experimental results on the internal resonance of curved beams due to direct excitation of anti-symmetric mode are reported for the first time. The deep curved beam depicts chaotic response at higher excitation amplitude.
Beam instabilities stabilization as a result of strong nonlinear interaction between waves
Soloshenko, I.A.; Taranov, V.B.; Tsyolko, V.V.; Shamrai, K.P.; Shulzhenko, P.M. )
1990-01-01
It is shown that the nonlinear interaction between unstable low-frequency ion waves and high-frequency electron waves growing in an ion beam plasma can result in stabilization of one of the modes if the level of the other is sufficiently high. A theoretical model of the phenomenon has been developed, and its predictions are in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The suppression mechanism is considered, and appears to be essentially nonlinear. The effect of this mutual suppression of ion beam instabilities may be important for improved ion beam transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.
2004-10-01
A simple and effective method to describe Gaussian beams propagation and diffraction in arbitrary smoothly inhomogeneous 2D medium has been developed based on the eikonal form of complex geometrical optics. The method assumes the eikonal equation can be solved in paraxial approximation in curvilinear frame of references, connected with the central ray. The Riccati-type ordinary differential equation is derived for complex parameter characterizing the Gaussian beam width and phase front curvature. The same parameter was proved to define both the modulus and the argument of the complex amplitude. As a result, the problem of the Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous media has been reduced to the solution of the ordinary differential equation of the first order, which can be readily calculated numerically for arbitrary profile of dielectric permittivity.
HAMMERAND,DANIEL C.; KAPANIA,RAKESH K.
2000-05-01
A triangular flat shell element for large deformation analysis of linear viscoelastic laminated composites is presented. Hygrothermorheologically simple materials are considered for which a change in the hygrothermal environment results in a horizontal shifting of the relaxation moduli curves on a log time scale, in addition to the usual hygrothermal loads. Recurrence relations are developed and implemented for the evaluation of the viscoelastic memory loads. The nonlinear deformation process is computed using an incremental/iterative approach with the Newton-Raphson Method used to find the incremental displacements in each step. The presented numerical examples consider the large deformation and stability of linear viscoelastic structures under deformation-independent mechanical loads, deformation-dependent pressure loads, and thermal loads. Unlike elastic structures that have a single critical load value associated with a given snapping of buckling instability phenomenon, viscoelastic structures will usually exhibit a particular instability for a range of applied loads over a range of critical times. Both creep buckling and snap-through examples are presented here. In some cases, viscoelastic results are also obtained using the quasielastic method in which load-history effects are ignored, and time-varying viscoelastic properties are simply used in a series of elastic problems. The presented numerical examples demonstrate the capability and accuracy of the formulation.
Explicit Nonlinear Finite Element Geometric Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Springs under Various Loads
Kong, Y. S.; Omar, M. Z.; Chua, L. B.; Abdullah, S.
2013-01-01
This study describes the effects of bounce, brake, and roll behavior of a bus toward its leaf spring suspension systems. Parabolic leaf springs are designed based on vertical deflection and stress; however, loads are practically derived from various modes especially under harsh road drives or emergency braking. Parabolic leaf springs must sustain these loads without failing to ensure bus and passenger safety. In this study, the explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element (FE) method is implemented because of the complexity of experimental testing A series of load cases; namely, vertical push, wind-up, and suspension roll are introduced for the simulations. The vertical stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is related to the vehicle load-carrying capability, whereas the wind-up stiffness is associated with vehicle braking. The roll stiffness of the parabolic leaf springs is correlated with the vehicle roll stability. To obtain a better bus performance, two new parabolic leaf spring designs are proposed and simulated. The stress level during the loadings is observed and compared with its design limit. Results indicate that the newly designed high vertical stiffness parabolic spring provides the bus a greater roll stability and a lower stress value compared with the original design. Bus safety and stability is promoted, as well as the load carrying capability. PMID:24298209
Underlying conservation and stability laws in nonlinear propagation of axicon-generated Bessel beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porras, Miguel A.; Ruiz-Jiménez, Carlos; Losada, Juan Carlos
2015-12-01
In light filamentation induced by axicon-generated, powerful Bessel beams, the spatial propagation dynamics in the nonlinear medium determines the geometry of the filament channel and hence its potential applications. We show that the observed steady and unsteady Bessel beam propagation regimes can be understood in a unified way from the existence of an attractor and its stability properties. The attractor is identified as the nonlinear unbalanced Bessel beam (NLUBB) whose inward Hänkel beam amplitude equals the amplitude of the linear Bessel beam that the axicon would generate in linear propagation. A simple analytical formula that determines the NLUBB attractor is given. Steady or unsteady propagation depends on whether the attracting NLUBB has a small, exponentially growing, unstable mode. In the case of unsteady propagation, periodic, quasiperiodic, or chaotic dynamics after the axicon reproduces similar dynamics after the development of the small unstable mode into the large perturbation regime.
Extension of non-linear beam models with deformable cross sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolov, I.; Krylov, S.; Harari, I.
2015-12-01
Geometrically exact beam theory is extended to allow distortion of the cross section. We present an appropriate set of cross-section basis functions and provide physical insight to the cross-sectional distortion from linear elastostatics. The beam formulation in terms of material (back-rotated) beam internal force resultants and work-conjugate kinematic quantities emerges naturally from the material description of virtual work of constrained finite elasticity. The inclusion of cross-sectional deformation allows straightforward application of three-dimensional constitutive laws in the beam formulation. Beam counterparts of applied loads are expressed in terms of the original three-dimensional data. Special attention is paid to the treatment of the applied stress, keeping in mind applications such as hydrogel actuators under environmental stimuli or devices made of electroactive polymers. Numerical comparisons show the ability of the beam model to reproduce finite elasticity results with good efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nili Ahmadabadi, Z.; Khadem, S. E.
2014-09-01
This paper presents an optimal design for a system comprising a nonlinear energy sink (NES) and a piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester attached to a free-free beam under shock excitation. The energy harvester is used for scavenging vibration energy dissipated by the NES. Grounded and ungrounded configurations are examined and the systems parameters are optimized globally to both maximize the dissipated energy by the NES and increase the harvested energy by piezoelectric element. A satisfactory amount of energy has been harvested as electric power in both configurations. The realization of nonlinear vibration control through one-way irreversible nonlinear energy pumping and optimizing the system parameters result in acquiring up to 78 percent dissipation of the grounded system energy.
BEAM-BASED NON-LINEAR OPTICS CORRECTIONS IN COLLIDERS.
PILAT, R.; LUO, Y.; MALITSKY, N.; PTITSYN, V.
2005-05-16
A method has been developed to measure and correct operationally the non-linear effects of the final focusing magnets in colliders, that gives access to the effects of multi-pole errors by applying closed orbit bumps, and analyzing the resulting tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been tested and used during 4 years of RHIC (the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL) operations. I will discuss here the theoretical basis of the method, the experimental set-up, the correction results, the present understanding of the machine model, the potential and limitations of the method itself as compared with other non-linear correction techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ruixi; Mei, Chuh
1993-04-01
A finite element formulation combined with the equivalent linearization technique and the normal mode method is developed for the study of nonlinear random response of beams subjected to simultaneously applied acoustic and thermal loads. Examples include thermally buckled random response of simply supported beam, clamped-clamped beam and simply supported-clamped beam. To compare and validate the present formulation, results are compared with the solutions from existing sequential load method, and significant difference has been found. Results by classical continuum solution and the solution of Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation are also derived and obtained for comparison.
Light steering of Air-Gaussian beam in Nonlocal Nonlinear Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ran; Zhang, Xiaping
2016-07-01
With a nonlocal model, we investigate the propagation dynamics of a single Airy-Gaussian (AiG) beam and their interaction in one-dimensional condition by means of direct numerical simulations. With the split-step Fourier method, numerical results show that nonlocality can support periodic intensity distribution of AiG beams leading to the formation of stable bound states. Espesically, by tuning the phase difference between the two beams, we can steer the centre of the bound AiG beams in nonlocal nonlinear media.
Bound states of breathing Airy-Gaussian beams in nonlocal nonlinear medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaping
2016-05-01
With a nonlocal model, we investigate the propagation dynamics of a single Airy-Gaussian (AiG) beam and their interaction in one-dimensional condition by means of direct numerical simulations. With the split-step Fourier method, numerical results shows that nonlocality can support periodic intensity distribution of AiG beams leading to the formation of stable bound states. Especially, by tuning the phase difference between the two beams, we can steer the center of the bound AiG beams in nonlocal nonlinear media.
Nonlinear Beam Kinematics by Decomposition of the Rotation Tensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danielson, D. A.; Hodges, D. H.
1987-01-01
A simple matrix expression is obtained for the strain components of a beam in which the displacements and rotations are large. The only restrictions are on the magnitudes of the strain and of the local rotation, a newly-identified kinematical quantity. The local rotation is defined as the change of orientation of material elements relative to the change of orientation of the beam reference triad. The vectors and tensors in the theory are resolved along orthogonal triads of base vectors centered along the undeformed and deformed beam reference axes, so Cartesian tensor notation is used. Although a curvilinear coordinate system is natural to the beam problem, the complications usually associated with its use are circumvented. Local rotations appear explicitly in the resulting strain expressions, facilitating the treatment of beams with both open and closed cross sections in applications of the theory. The theory is used to obtain the kinematical relations for coupled bending, torsion extension, shear deformation, and warping of an initially curved and twisted beam.
Effect of Geometric Azimuthal Asymmetries of PPM Stack on Electron Beam Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.; Heinen, Vernon (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) beam optics model has been developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code MAFIA. The model includes an electron beam with initial transverse velocity distribution focused by a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stack. All components of the model are simulated in three dimensions allowing several azimuthally asymmetric traveling wave tube (TWT) characteristics to be investigated for the first time. These include C-magnets, shunts, and magnet misalignment and their effects on electron beam behavior. The development of the model is presented and 3D TWT electron beam characteristics are compared in the absence of and under the influence of the azimuthally asymmetric characteristics described.
Effect of Geometric Azimuthal Asymmetrics of PPM Stack on Electron Beam Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kory, Carol L.
2000-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) beam optics model has been developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code MAFIA. The model includes an electron beam with initial transverse velocity distribution focused by a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stack. All components of the model are simulated in three dimensions allowing several azimuthally asymmetric traveling wave tube (TWT) characteristics to be investigated for the first time. These include C-magnets, shunts and magnet misalignment and their effects on electron beam behavior. The development of the model is presented and 3D TWT electron beam characteristics are compared in the absence of and under the influence of the azimuthally asymmetric characteristics described.
Nonlinear interaction of intense hypergeometric Gaussian subfamily laser beams in plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobhani, H.; Vaziri (Khamedi), M.; Rooholamininejad, H.; Bahrampour, A. R.
2016-07-01
Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian laser beam in a nonlinear plasma medium is investigated by considering the Source Dependent Expansion method. A subfamily of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams with a non-negative, even and integer radial index, can be expressed as the linear superposition of finite number of Laguerre-Gaussian functions. Propagation of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams in a nonlinear plasma medium depends on the value of radial index. The bright rings' number of these beams is changed during the propagation in plasma medium. The effect of beam vortex charge number l and initial (input) beam intensity on the self-focusing of Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams is explored. Also, by choosing the suitable initial conditions, Hypergeometric-Gaussian subfamily beams can be converted to one or more mode components that a typical of mode conversion may be occurred. The self-focusing of these winding beams can be used to control the focusing force and improve the electron bunch quality in laser plasma accelerators.
Modelling Gaussian beam propagation through thick nonlinear refractive and absorptive media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namarathne, D.; Walden, S.; Shortell, M.; Jaatinen, E.
2016-04-01
A novel numerical finite difference beam propagation method developed for quadratic refractive index media is presented and applied to TEM00 Gaussian beams propagating through nonlinear optical media. The beam's diffraction through the medium was calculated by using the nonlinear Schrodinger equation on small slices which proved to be effective for thick samples. The performance of the model was compared to experimental z-scan observations of colloidal ZnO particles at low cw and high pulsed peak powers at a wavelength of 532 nm. Different optical behaviours were observed in these two power regimes. Negligible nonlinear absorption and refraction were observed at low cw powers, with strong defocusing arising through thermal lensing in the colloidal solution. For the pulsed experiments with peak powers up to 43-kW and 7-ns pulses, values for the intensity-dependent absorption were determined to be β = 1.0 × 10^{ - 10} {text{m/W}} and n_{{2{text{R}}}} = 2.0 × 10^{ - 18} {text{m}}2 /{text{W}}. Despite the very different nonlinear and thermal-optical behaviours in two power regimes, there was good agreement between the model and observations. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach in extracting the nonlinear properties of a medium even if it is not optically thin and in the case when a sample displays both strong nonlinear refraction and absorption.
Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson; Hong Qin
2002-05-07
In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b} >> T{sub {parallel}b}). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigen frequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with {partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}{theta} = 0.
Effects of Transverse Physics on Nonlinear Evolution of Longitudinal Space-Charge Waves in Beams
K. Tian, I. Haber, R.A. Kishek, P.G. O'Shea, M. Reiser, D. Stratakis
2009-05-01
Longitudinal space-charge waves can introduce energy perturbations into charge particle beams and degrade the beam quality, which is critical to many modern applications of particle accelerators. Although many longitudinal phenomena arising from small perturbations can be explained by a one-dimensional cold fluid theory, nonlinear behavior of space-charge waves observed in experiments has not been well understood. In this paper, we summarize our recent investigation by means of more detailed measurements and self-consistent simulations. Combining the numerical capability of a PIC code, WARP, with the detailed initial conditions measured by our newly developed time resolved 6-D phase space mapping technique, we are able to construct a self consistent model for studying the complex physics of longitudinal dynamics of space-charge dominated beams. Results from simulation studies suggest that the unexplained nonlinear behavior of space-charge waves may be due to transverse mismatch or misalignment of beams.
Numerical simulation of nonlinear processes in a beam-plasma system
Efimova, A. A. Berendeev, E. A.; Vshivkov, V. A.; Dudnikova, G. I.
2015-10-28
In the present paper we consider the efficiency of the electromagnetic radiation generation due to various nonlinear processes in the beam-plasma system. The beam and plasma parameters were chosen close to the parameters in the experiment on the GOL-3 facility (BINP SB RAS). The model of the collisionless plasma is described by system of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations with periodic boundary conditions. The parallel numerical algorithm is based on the particles-in-cell method (PIC) with mixed Euler-Lagrangian domain decomposition. Various scenarios of nonlinear evolution in the beam-plasma system under the influence of an external magnetic field in case of a low density beam were studied. The energy transfer from one unstable mode to the others modes was observed.
Effects of nonlinear damping on random response of beams to acoustic loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, C.; Prasad, C. B.
1986-01-01
Effects of both nonlinear damping and large-deflection are included in the theoretical analysis in an attempt to explain the experimental phenomena of aircraft panels excited at high sound pressure levels; that is the broadening of the strain response peak and the increase of the modal frequency. Two nonlinear damping models are considered in the analysis using a single-mode approach. Mean square maximum deflection, mean square maximum strain, and spectral density function of maximum strain for simply supported and clamped beams are obtained. It is demonstrated that nonlinear damping contributes significantly to the broadening of the response peak and to the mean square maximum deflection and strain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Yan; Quan, Wei; Wei, Qi; Qiu, Peng
2016-05-01
We theoretically design a device composed of four nanoslits to dynamically modulate the propagation direction of light beam by embedding non-linear material and air, respectively. Directions of radiation fields are determined by the phase difference of the surface waves at the exit interface and distance of each slit. Numerical simulations using finite element method verify that the unidirectional excitation and beam focusing can be achieved easily by changing the intensity of incident light.
Nonlinear delta(f) Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams
Hong Qin
2003-01-21
A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, et al., in Proc. of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, 2001 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 688.] at the Los Alamos National Laboratory agree well with experimental observations. Large-scale parallel simulations have also been carried out for the ion-electron two-stream instability in the very-high-intensity heavy ion beams envisioned for heavy ion fusion applications. In both cases, the simulation results indicate that the dominant two-stream instability has a dipole-mode (hose-like) structure and can be stabilized by a modest axial momentum spread of the beam particles.
Random vibration of nonlinear beams by the new stochastic linearization technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fang, J.
1994-01-01
In this paper, the beam under general time dependent stationary random excitation is investigated, when exact solution is unavailable. Numerical simulations are carried out to compare its results with those yielded by the conventional linearization techniques. It is found that the modified version of the stochastic linearization technique yields considerably more accurate results for the mean square displacement of the beam than the conventional equivalent linearization technique, especially in the case of large nonlinearity.
Lin, Tai-Chia; Belić, Milivoj R.; Petrović, Milan S.; Chen, Goong
2014-01-15
Counterpropagating optical beams in nonlinear media give rise to a host of interesting nonlinear phenomena such as the formation of spatial solitons, spatiotemporal instabilities, self-focusing and self-trapping, etc. Here we study the existence of ground state (the energy minimizer under the L{sup 2}-normalization condition) in two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) systems with saturable nonlinearity, which describes paraxial counterpropagating beams in isotropic local media. The nonlinear coefficient of saturable nonlinearity exhibits a threshold which is crucial in determining whether the ground state exists. The threshold can be estimated by the Gagliardo-Nirenberg inequality and the ground state existence can be proved by the energy method, but not the concentration-compactness method. Our results also show the essential difference between 2D NLS equations with cubic and saturable nonlinearities.
Non-linear Dynamics in ETG Mode Saturation and Beam-Plasma Instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokluoglu, Erinc K.
Non-linear mechanisms arise frequently in plasmas and beam-plasma systems resulting in dynamics not predicted by linear theory. The non-linear mechanisms can influence the time evolution of plasma instabilities and can be used to describe their saturation. Furthermore time and space averaged non-linear fields generated by instabilities can lead to collisionless transport and plasma heating. In the case of beam-plasma systems counter-intuitive beam defocusing and scaling behavior which are interesting areas of study for both Low-Temperature and High Energy Density physics. The non-linear mode interactions in form of phase coupling can describe energy transfer to other modes and can be used to describe the saturation of plasma instabilities. In the first part of this thesis, a theoretical model was formulated to explain the saturation mechanism of Slab Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode observed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM), based on experimental time-series data collected through probe diagnostics [1]. ETG modes are considered to be a major player in the unexplained high levels of electron transport observed in tokamak fusion experiments and the saturation mechanism of these modes is still an active area of investigation. The data in the frequency space indicated phase coupling between 3 modes, through a higher order spectral correlation coefficient known as bicoherence. The resulting model is similar to [2], which was a treatment for ITG modes observed in the CLM and correctly predicts the observed saturation level of the ETG turbulence. The scenario is further supported by the fact that the observed mode frequencies are in close alignment with those predicted theoretical dispersion relations. Non-linear effects arise frequently in beam-plasma systems and can be important for both low temperature plasma devices commonly used for material processing as well as High Energy Density applications relevant to inertial fusion. The non-linear time averaged
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Kei W.; Meier, Christoph; Wall, Wolfgang A.
2015-12-01
Networks of crosslinked biopolymer filaments such as the cytoskeleton are the subject of intense research. Oftentimes, mechanics on the scale of single monomers (∼ 5 nm) govern the mechanics of the entire network (∼ 10 μm). Until now, one either resolved the small scales and lost the big (network) picture or focused on mechanics above the single-filament scale and neglected the molecular architecture. Therefore, the study of network mechanics influenced by the entire spectrum of relevant length scales has been infeasible so far. We propose a method that reconciles both small and large length scales without the otherwise inevitable loss in either numerical efficiency or geometrical (molecular) detail. Both explicitly modeled species, filaments and their crosslinkers, are discretized with geometrically exact beam finite elements of Simo-Reissner type. Through specific coupling conditions between the elements of the two species, mechanical joints can be established anywhere along a beam's centerline, enabling arbitrary densities of chemical binding sites. These binding sites can be oriented to model the monomeric architecture of polymers. First, we carefully discuss the method and then demonstrate its capabilities by means of a series of numerical examples.
Ella, Lior Yuvaraj, D.; Suchoi, Oren; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal
2015-01-07
We present a study of the controllable nonlinear dynamics of a micromechanical beam coupled to a dc-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device). The coupling between these systems places the modes of the beam in a highly nonlinear potential, whose shape can be altered by varying the bias current and applied flux of the SQUID. We detect the position of the beam by placing it in an optical cavity, which sets free the SQUID to be used solely for actuation. This enables us to probe the previously unexplored full parameter space of this device. We measure the frequency response of the beam and find that it displays a Duffing oscillator behavior which is periodic in the applied magnetic flux. To account for this, we develop a model based on the standard theory for SQUID dynamics. In addition, with the aim of understanding if the device can reach nonlinearity at the single phonon level, we use this model to show that the responsivity of the current circulating in the SQUID to the position of the beam can become divergent, with its magnitude limited only by noise. This suggests a direction for the generation of macroscopically distinguishable superposition states of the beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ella, Lior; Yuvaraj, D.; Suchoi, Oren; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal
2015-01-01
We present a study of the controllable nonlinear dynamics of a micromechanical beam coupled to a dc-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device). The coupling between these systems places the modes of the beam in a highly nonlinear potential, whose shape can be altered by varying the bias current and applied flux of the SQUID. We detect the position of the beam by placing it in an optical cavity, which sets free the SQUID to be used solely for actuation. This enables us to probe the previously unexplored full parameter space of this device. We measure the frequency response of the beam and find that it displays a Duffing oscillator behavior which is periodic in the applied magnetic flux. To account for this, we develop a model based on the standard theory for SQUID dynamics. In addition, with the aim of understanding if the device can reach nonlinearity at the single phonon level, we use this model to show that the responsivity of the current circulating in the SQUID to the position of the beam can become divergent, with its magnitude limited only by noise. This suggests a direction for the generation of macroscopically distinguishable superposition states of the beam.
Nonlinear hybrid simulation of internal kink with beam ion effects in DIII-D
Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Fu, G. Y.; Tobias, Benjamin; Zeeland, Michael Van; Wang, Feng
2015-04-15
In DIII-D sawteething plasmas, long-lived (1,1) kink modes are often observed between sawtooth crashes. The saturated kink modes have two distinct frequencies. The mode with higher frequency transits to a fishbone-like mode with sufficient on-axis neutral beam power. In this work, hybrid simulations with the global kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K have been carried out to investigate the linear stability and nonlinear dynamics of the n = 1 mode with effects of energetic beam ions for a typical DIII-D discharge where both saturated kink mode and fishbone were observed. Linear simulation results show that the n = 1 internal kink mode is unstable in MHD limit. However, with kinetic effects of beam ions, a fishbone-like mode is excited with mode frequency about a few kHz depending on beam pressure profile. The mode frequency is higher at higher beam power and/or narrower radial profile consistent with the experimental observation. Nonlinear simulations have been performed to investigate mode saturation as well as energetic particle transport. The nonlinear MHD simulations show that the unstable kink mode becomes a saturated kink mode after a sawtooth crash. With beam ion effects, the fishbone-like mode can also transit to a saturated kink mode with a small but finite mode frequency. These results are consistent with the experimental observation of saturated kink mode between sawtooth crashes.
Wu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Li, Z. H.; Tang, C. X.
2012-07-15
In intermediate cavities of a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) driven by intense relativistic electron beam, the equivalent circuit model, which is widely adopted to investigate the interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a conventional klystron design, is invalid due to the high gap voltage and the nonlinear beam loading in a RKA. According to Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation, the self-consistent equations for beam-wave interaction in the intermediate cavity are introduced to study the nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a RKA. Based on the equations, the effects of modulation depth and modulation frequency of the beam on the gap voltage amplitude and its phase are obtained. It is shown that the gap voltage is significantly lower than that estimated by the equivalent circuit model when the beam modulation is high. And the bandwidth becomes wider as the beam modulation depth increases. An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier is designed based on the result. And the corresponding experiment is carried out on the linear transformer driver accelerator. The peak output power has achieved 1.2 GW with an efficiency of 28.6% and a gain of 46 dB in the corresponding experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yildirim, Tanju; Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Li, Weihua; Alici, Gursel
2016-01-01
An experimental investigation has been carried out on the nonlinear dynamics of a clamped-clamped Magneto-Rheological Elastomer (MRE) sandwich beam with a point mass when subjected to a point excitation. Three sets of experiments have been conducted namely for (i) an aluminium beam, (ii) a MRE sandwich beam in the absence of a magnetic field and (iii) a MRE sandwich beam in the presence of a magnetic field. An electrodynamic shaker was used to excite each system and the corresponding displacement of the point mass was measured: for the third experiment (iii), an array of magnets has been placed at various distances away from the centre of the point mass to investigate the effect of changing stiffness and damping properties on the nonlinear dynamical behaviour. An interesting feature for the third group is the beam point mass displacement was no longer symmetric as the stiffness and damping of the system are increased when moving towards the magnets. Both the first and second groups exhibited distinct nonlinear behaviour; however, for the third group this work shows that for a low magnetic field the sandwich beam exhibits two distinct resonance peaks, one occurring above and the other below the fundamental natural frequency of the transverse motion, with the right one larger. For a larger magnetic field, these peaks even out until the magnetic force was large enough that the hardening-type nonlinear behaviour changes to a softening-type; a significant qualitative change in the nonlinear dynamical behaviour of the system, due to the presence of the magnetic field, was observed.
Beam-shape effects in nonlinear Compton and Thomson scattering
Heinzl, T.; Seipt, D.; Kaempfer, B.
2010-02-15
We discuss intensity effects in collisions between beams of optical photons from a high-power laser and relativistic electrons. Our main focus is on the modifications of the emission spectra due to realistic finite-beam geometries. By carefully analyzing the classical limit we precisely quantify the distinction between strong-field QED Compton scattering and classical Thomson scattering. A purely classical, but fully covariant, calculation of the bremsstrahlung emitted by an electron in a plane-wave laser field yields radiation into harmonics, as expected. This result is generalized to pulses of finite duration and explains the appearance of line broadening and harmonic substructure as an interference phenomenon. The ensuing numerical treatment confirms that strong focusing of the laser leads to a broad continuum while higher harmonics become visible only at moderate focusing, and hence lower intensity. We present a scaling law for the backscattered photon spectral density which facilitates averaging over electron beam phase space. Finally, we propose a set of realistic parameters such that the observation of intensity-induced spectral red shift, higher harmonics, and their substructure becomes feasible.
Influence of nonadiabaticity and nonlinearity on the operation of cold-atom beam splitters
Stickney, James A.; Zozulya, Alex A.
2003-07-01
The operation of cold-atom beam splitters is analyzed in the context of Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry. We introduce two representative geometries of the splitting region and study influence of nonlinearity and nonadiabaticity on the splitting and the recombination of the condensate for both geometries.
Terahertz radiation generation by nonlinear mixing of two laser beams over a thin foil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.
2015-07-01
Terahertz radiation generation via nonlinear mixing of two laser beams incident over a thin metal foil is explored. The lasers exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons of metal foil at beat frequency which lies in the terahertz range. The metal foil acts as antenna, producing terahertz radiations, highly directional in nature.
Spata, Michael
2012-08-01
An experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility to develop a beam-based technique for characterizing the extent of the nonlinearity of the magnetic fields of a beam transport system. Horizontally and vertically oriented pairs of air-core kicker magnets were simultaneously driven at two different frequencies to provide a time-dependent transverse modulation of the beam orbit relative to the unperturbed reference orbit. Fourier decomposition of the position data at eight different points along the beamline was then used to measure the amplitude of these frequencies. For a purely linear transport system one expects to find solely the frequencies that were applied to the kickers with amplitudes that depend on the phase advance of the lattice. In the presence of nonlinear fields one expects to also find harmonics of the driving frequencies that depend on the order of the nonlinearity. Chebyshev polynomials and their unique properties allow one to directly quantify the magnitude of the nonlinearity with the minimum error. A calibration standard was developed using one of the sextupole magnets in a CEBAF beamline. The technique was then applied to a pair of Arc 1 dipoles and then to the magnets in the Transport Recombiner beamline to measure their multipole content as a function of transverse position within the magnets.
Terahertz radiation generation by nonlinear mixing of two laser beams over a thin foil
Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.
2015-07-31
Terahertz radiation generation via nonlinear mixing of two laser beams incident over a thin metal foil is explored. The lasers exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons of metal foil at beat frequency which lies in the terahertz range. The metal foil acts as antenna, producing terahertz radiations, highly directional in nature.
On the nonlinear deformation geometry of Euler-Bernoulli beams. [rotary wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, D. H.; Ormiston, R. A.; Peters, D. A.
1980-01-01
Nonlinear expressions are developed to relate the orientation of the deformed beam cross section, torsion, local components of bending curvature, angular velocity, and virtual rotation to deformation variables. The deformed beam kinematic quantities are proven to be equivalent to those derived from various rotation sequences by identifying appropriate changes of variable based on fundamental uniqueness properties of the deformed beam geometry. The torsion variable used is shown to be mathematically analogous to an axial deflection variable commonly used in the literature. Rigorous applicability of Hamilton's principle to systems described by a class of quasi-coordinates that includes these variables is formally established.
Beam loading in the nonlinear regime of plasma-based acceleration.
Tzoufras, M; Lu, W; Tsung, F S; Huang, C; Mori, W B; Katsouleas, T; Vieira, J; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O
2008-10-01
A theory that describes how to load negative charge into a nonlinear, three-dimensional plasma wakefield is presented. In this regime, a laser or an electron beam blows out the plasma electrons and creates a nearly spherical ion channel, which is modified by the presence of the beam load. Analytical solutions for the fields and the shape of the ion channel are derived. It is shown that very high beam-loading efficiency can be achieved, while the energy spread of the bunch is conserved. The theoretical results are verified with the particle-in-cell code OSIRIS. PMID:18851537
Beam Loading in the Nonlinear Regime of Plasma-Based Acceleration
Tzoufras, M.; Lu, W.; Tsung, F. S.; Huang, C.; Mori, W. B.; Katsouleas, T.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.
2008-10-03
A theory that describes how to load negative charge into a nonlinear, three-dimensional plasma wakefield is presented. In this regime, a laser or an electron beam blows out the plasma electrons and creates a nearly spherical ion channel, which is modified by the presence of the beam load. Analytical solutions for the fields and the shape of the ion channel are derived. It is shown that very high beam-loading efficiency can be achieved, while the energy spread of the bunch is conserved. The theoretical results are verified with the particle-in-cell code OSIRIS.
Nonlinear Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Pre-formed Plasma
Igor D. Kaganovich; Gennady Shvets; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson
2001-01-30
The propagation of a high-current finite-length ion beam in a cold pre-formed plasma is investigated. The outcome of the calculation is the quantitative prediction of the degree of charge and current neutralization of the ion beam pulse by the background plasma. The electric magnetic fields generated by the ion beam are studied analytically for the nonlinear case where the plasma density is comparable in size with the beam density. Particle-in-cell simulations and fluid calculations of current and charge neutralization have been performed for parameters relevant to heavy ion fusion assuming long, dense beams with el >> V(subscript b)/omega(subscript b), where V(subscript b) is the beam velocity and omega subscript b is the electron plasma frequency evaluated with the ion beam density. An important conclusion is that for long, nonrelativistic ion beams, charge neutralization is, for all practical purposes, complete even for very tenuous background plasmas. As a result, the self-magnetic force dominates the electric force and the beam ions are always pinched during beam propagation in a background plasma.
Mimicking the cochlear amplifier in a cantilever beam using nonlinear velocity feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joyce, Bryan S.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.
2014-07-01
The mammalian cochlea exhibits a nonlinear amplification which allows mammals to detect a large range of sound pressure levels while maintaining high frequency sensitivity. This work seeks to mimic the cochlea’s nonlinear amplification in a mechanical system. A nonlinear, velocity-based feedback control law is applied to a cantilever beam with piezoelectric actuators. The control law reduces the linear viscous damping of the system while introducing a cubic damping term. The result is a system which is positioned close to a Hopf bifurcation. Modelling and experimental results show that the beam with this control law undergoes a one-third amplitude scaling near the resonance frequency and an amplitude-dependent bandwidth. Both behaviors are characteristic of data obtained from the mammalian cochlea. This work could provide insight on the biological cochlea while producing bio-inspired sensors with a large dynamic range and sharp frequency sensitivity.
Thermodynamic Bounds on Nonlinear Electrostatic Perturbations in Intense Charged Particle Beams
Nikolas C. Logan and Ronald C. Davidson
2012-07-18
This paper places a lowest upper bound on the field energy in electrostatic perturbations in single-species charged particle beams with initial temperature anisotropy (TllT⊥ < 1). The result applies to all electrostatic perturbations driven by the natural anisotropies that develop in accelerated particle beams, including Harris-type electrostatic instabilities, known to limit the luminosity and minimum spot size attainable in experiments. The thermodynamic bound on the field perturbation energy of the instabilities is obtained from the nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equations for an arbitrary initial distribution function, including the effects of intense self-fields, finite geometry and nonlinear processes. This paper also includes analytical estimates of the nonlinear bounds for space-charge-dominated and emittance-dominated anisotropic bi-Maxwellian distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhat, Charbel; Geuzaine, Philippe; Grandmont, Céline
2001-12-01
Discrete geometric conservation laws (DGCLs) govern the geometric parameters of numerical schemes designed for the solution of unsteady flow problems on moving grids. A DGCL requires that these geometric parameters, which include among others grid positions and velocities, be computed so that the corresponding numerical scheme reproduces exactly a constant solution. Sometimes, this requirement affects the intrinsic design of an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solution method. In this paper, we show for sample ALE schemes that satisfying the corresponding DGCL is a necessary and sufficient condition for a numerical scheme to preserve the nonlinear stability of its fixed grid counterpart. We also highlight the impact of this theoretical result on practical applications of computational fluid dynamics.
Geometrical Optics of Beams with Vortices: Berry Phase and Orbital Angular Momentum Hall Effect
Bliokh, Konstantin Yu.
2006-07-28
We consider propagation of a paraxial beam carrying the spin angular momentum (polarization) and intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the presence of IOAM can dramatically enhance and rearrange the topological phenomena that previously were considered solely in connection to the polarization of transverse waves. In particular, the appearance of a new type of Berry phase that describes the parallel transport of the beam structure along a curved ray is predicted. We derive the ray equations demonstrating the splitting of beams with different values of IOAM. This is the orbital angular momentum Hall effect, which resembles the Magnus effect for optical vortices. Unlike the spin Hall effect of photons, it can be much larger in magnitude and is inherent to waves of any nature. Experimental means to detect the phenomena are discussed.
Nonlinear finite amplitude vibrations of sharp-edged beams in viscous fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aureli, M.; Basaran, M. E.; Porfiri, M.
2012-03-01
In this paper, we study flexural vibrations of a cantilever beam with thin rectangular cross section submerged in a quiescent viscous fluid and undergoing oscillations whose amplitude is comparable with its width. The structure is modeled using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the distributed hydrodynamic loading is described by a single complex-valued hydrodynamic function which accounts for added mass and fluid damping experienced by the structure. We perform a parametric 2D computational fluid dynamics analysis of an oscillating rigid lamina, representative of a generic beam cross section, to understand the dependence of the hydrodynamic function on the governing flow parameters. We find that increasing the frequency and amplitude of the vibration elicits vortex shedding and convection phenomena which are, in turn, responsible for nonlinear hydrodynamic damping. We establish a manageable nonlinear correction to the classical hydrodynamic function developed for small amplitude vibration and we derive a computationally efficient reduced order modal model for the beam nonlinear oscillations. Numerical and theoretical results are validated by comparison with ad hoc designed experiments on tapered beams and multimodal vibrations and with data available in the literature. Findings from this work are expected to find applications in the design of slender structures of interest in marine applications, such as biomimetic propulsion systems and energy harvesting devices.
Nonlinear tracking control of vibration amplitude for a parametrically excited microcantilever beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Quoc Chi; Krylov, Slava
2015-03-01
In this paper, a feedback control algorithm to regulate oscillation amplitude of a microelectromechanical (MEMS) cantilever beam operated at parametric resonances is developed. The control objective is to drive the oscillation amplitude of the micro-beam, which is amplified using parametric excitation, to the desired values. The principle of the control algorithm is to establish an output tracking control based on the nonlinear dynamic model of the micro-beam, where the supply voltage is considered as a control input. The tracking control algorithm is designed to solve the singularities resulting from the zero-deflection state of the micro-beam. The Galerkin method is applied in order to reduce the partial differential equation describing the dynamics of the beam into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Uniformly ultimate boundedness stability of the control system is proved using Lyapunov method. The effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm is illustrated via numerical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattei, P.-O.; Ponçot, R.; Pachebat, M.; Côte, R.
2016-07-01
In order to control the sound radiation by a structure, one aims to control vibration of radiating modes of vibration using "Energy Pumping" also named "Targeted Energy Transfer". This principle is here applied to a simplified model of a double leaf panel. This model is made of two beams coupled by a spring. One of the beams is connected to a nonlinear absorber. This nonlinear absorber is made of a 3D-printed support on which is clamped a buckled thin small beam with a small mass fixed at its centre having two equilibrium positions. The experiments showed that, once attached onto a vibrating system to be controlled, under forced excitation of the primary system, the light bistable oscillator allows a reduction of structural vibration up to 10 dB for significant amplitude and frequency range around the first two vibration modes of the system.
Linear and nonlinear analysis of a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier with misaligned electron beam
Jiao Chongqing; Luo Jirun
2006-11-15
This paper presents linear and self-consistent nonlinear theories to describe the beam-wave interaction in a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) with a misaligned electron beam. A linear theory based on the linearized Vlasov equations is developed by using Laplace transforms. By setting appropriate initial values of the electron guiding center, the nonlinear theory without misalignment can be used to study the misalignment effect. The two theories are in good agreement in the small-signal region for the gyro-TWA. The effects of beam misalignment on the TE{sub 01} mode gyro-TWA operating at the fundamental are discussed and the corresponding physical mechanism is analyzed.
Nonlinear modes of an intense laser beam interacting with a periodic lattice of nanoparticle
Sepehri Javan, N. Homami, S. H. H.
2015-08-15
Self-guided nonlinear propagation of an intense laser beam through a periodic lattice of nanoparticle is studied. Using a perturbative method, a cubic nonlinear wave equation describing the laser-nanoparticle interaction in the weakly relativistic regime is derived. Transverse Eigen modes of the laser, nonlinear dispersion relation and its related group velocity are obtained. It is shown that the best fitted function to the transverse profile is Gaussian. Effect of the laser amplitude and also the ratio of nanoparticles radius to their separation on the nonlinear dispersion and amplitude profiles are investigated. It is found that the increase in the just mentioned parameters leads to the localization of transverse profile around the propagation axis.