Sample records for geophysical drill cores

  1. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

  2. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  3. Geologic, geotechnical, and geophysical properties of core from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Donley S.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary core study from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming, revealed that the upper portion of the core had been baked by a fire confined to the underlying Monarch coal bed. The baked (clinkered) sediment above the Monarch coal bed was determined to have higher point-load strength values (greater than 2 MPa) than the sediment under the burned coal

  4. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7 do not include long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous-potential, or single-point resistivity. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7A include only caliper and natural-gamma logs.

  5. A Model of the Chicxulub Impact Basin Based on Evaluation of Geophysical Data, Well Logs, and Drill Core Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.; Carney, John D.; Lee, Scott; Ryder, Graham; Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Sikora, Paul; Spudis, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Abundant evidence now shows that the buried Chicxulub structure in northern Yucatan, Mexico, is indeed the intensely sought-after source of the ejecta found world-wide at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. In addition to large-scale concentric patterns in gravity and magnetic data over the structure, recent analyses of drill-core samples reveal a lithological assemblage similar to that observed at other terrestrial craters. This assemblage comprises suevite breccias, ejecta deposit breccias (Bunte Breccia equivalents), fine-grained impact melt rocks, and melt-matrix breccias. All these impact-produced lithologies contain diagnostic evidence of shock metamorphism, including planar deformation features in quartz, feldspar, and zircons; diaplectic glasses of quartz and feldspar; and fused mineral melts and whole-rock melts. In addition, elevated concentrations of Ir, Re, and Os, in meteoritic relative proportions, have been detected in some melt-rock samples from the center of the structure. Isotopic analyses, magnetization of melt-rock samples, and local stratigraphic constraints identify this crater as the source of K/T boundary deposits.

  6. Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr. (ed.)

    1987-04-01

    Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Core drill and method of removing a core therefrom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bossler

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method of expediting the removal of a core from the interior of a tubular core drill which comprises: fixedly securing an externally threaded bushing to the rear end of the core drill; providing a sleeve for detachably coupling the bushing-equipped core drill to the externally threaded drive shank of a power unit for the core drill.

  8. Continental drilling superdeep drilling and deep geophysical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, John; Barber, G. Arthur

    On August 23-29, 1988, the Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R., in cooperation with the Inter-Union Commission of the Lithosphere, sponsored an International Seminar on Superdeep Continental Drilling and Deep Geophysical Research. The seminar was attended by more than 250 geoscientists and engineers representing 20 nations. It was held at the Dobrynin Palace of Culture and Technology in Yaroslavl, a city of some 800,000 people, situated on the Volga River about 200 km northeast of Moscow. The goals of the seminar were to discuss “results and future perspectives of superdeep continental drilling and its relations to deep sounding in the neighborhood of deep wells and on connecting geotraverses (transects).”

  9. A New Paradigm for Ice Core Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Mary; Bentley, Charles; Twickler, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The search for answers to questions about the changing climate has created an urgent need to discover past climate signatures archived in glaciers and ice sheets, and to understand current ice sheet behavior. Recognizing that U.S. scientific productivity in this area depends upon a mechanism for ensuring continuity and international cooperation in ice coring and drilling efforts, along with the availability of appropriate drills, drilling expertise, and innovations in drilling technology, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) has established the Ice Drilling Program Office (IDPO) and its partner, the Ice Drilling Design and Operations group (IDDO), together known as IDPO/IDDO (Figure 1). This approach to integrated research and technology planning and delivery replaces the prior approach to drilling, which involved a series of NSF contracts with the Polar Ice Coring Office (PICO) and Ice Coring and Drilling Services (ICDS). This contracting approach lacked integrated planning. Previously, NSF had no way to forecast what science the community would propose—it would get compelling climate proposals that needed ice cores for data, but in many cases no existing drill could retrieve the core needed in the proposal. Constructing the needed drill—a process that takes years—forced science objectives to be put on hold. Now the science community is able to give feedback on its needs to IDPO/IDDO continually, allowing those who develop drilling technology to begin designing and constructing drills that scientists will need for the science proposals that they will submit years in the future. As such, IDPO/IDDO represents a new paradigm for integrated science and science support.

  10. Core drill and method of removing a core therefrom

    SciTech Connect

    Bossler, J.

    1987-04-14

    This patent describes a method of expediting the removal of a core from the interior of a tubular core drill which comprises: fixedly securing an externally threaded bushing to the rear end of the core drill; providing a sleeve for detachably coupling the bushing-equipped core drill to the externally threaded drive shank of a power unit for the core drill. The coupling sleeve is threaded internally of the opposite ends thereof and respectively sized to mate one with the threaded bushing and one with the threaded drive shank; providing the sleeve with wrench engaging means for the assembly and disassembly thereof to and from the drive shank; and detaching the sleeve from the drive shank and withdrawing by gravity a core through the rear end of the drill stem and coupling sleeve.

  11. Downhole geophysical data from recent deep drilling in the center of the Thuringian Basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methe, Pascal; Goepel, Andreas; Kukowski, Nina

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the INFLUINS (Integrated Fluid Dynamics in Sedimentary Basins) project, a 1.179 meter deep scientific borehole was drilled in summer 2013. The drill site is situated in the north of Erfurt, in the center of the Thuringian Basin on the crossing point of two seismic reflection profiles, which were acquired in 2011. An almost complete sequence from Keuper to the base of the Buntsandstein was drilled. Drilling, geophysical measurements and well construction were conducted for three depth intervals. First, drilling was undertaken to a depth of 313 m down to the top of the Middle Muschelkalk. Then, the Middle and Upper Muschelkalk were drilled to a depth of 515 m and the third part of the drilling campaign was finished at a depth of 1.179 m at the base of the Lower Buntsandstein. Coring was done in the depth intervals of 285 m to 420 m and 520 m to 914 m. With the help of the borehole geophysical measurements, which were done along the entire depth, stratigraphic information obtained through core samples can be extrapolated from cored sections into those depth sections, where no coring was done. Immediately after finishing drilling through a certain depth interval, borehole geophysical measurements were conducted in the open hole. Using the caliper and inclination instruments, the geometry of the well was determined. In addition, milieu, gamma-ray, spectral gamma-ray, acoustic borehole television, sonic, susceptibility, dipmeter, gamma-gamma, neutron-neutron and the dual latero-log were measured to get information about rock properties. Within rock-salt bearing depth intervals, embedded cm-thin layers of clay can be geophysically resolved. This will e.g. enable to determine and contrast the physical properties of these alternating sequences with high accuracy. Besides the in-situ well measurements rock-physical parameters of the core samples were acquired with a Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL). Here, we present the new data set and discuss some preliminary results. Unexpectedly and contrary to them being prominent aquifers, like at the edges of the Thuringian Basin, the Middle Muschelkalk and Middle Buntsandstein sequences are characterized by very low porosities and no macroscopically recognizable fluid transport here.

  12. Integrated Drill Core Data Analysis Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, Ronald; Reed, Josh; Chen, Yu-Chung; Krysiak, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Data management in scientific drilling programs such IODP, ICDP, and ANDRILL is applied to capture drilling and science data during an expedition and for long-term data storage and dissemination. Currently data management tools are linked directly with capture and visualization applications to allow for both, a two-way flow of data between the database and the applications, and an integrated data environment. The new system has meanwhile been tested by recent IODP and ICDP projects. The components comprise the Expedition Drilling Information System (ExpeditionDIS) used for data acquisition, PSICAT, the Paleontological Stratigraphic Interval Construction and Analysis Tool, for graphical editing and viewing of core description diagrams, and Corelyzer as part of CoreWall for scalable, extensible visualization, developed to enhance the study of geological cores. This interoperable configuration of tools provides an excellent all-in-one toolbox for core analysis.

  13. A new hybrid pressure-coring system for the drilling vessel Chikyu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Y.; Mizuguchi, Y.; Inagaki, F.; Yamamoto, K.

    2014-04-01

    Retrieving core samples without releasing the in situ hydrostatic pressure during core recovery is one of the many technical challenges in scientific drilling. We report here a newly developed hybrid pressure-coring system for the use on the drilling vessel Chikyu and its successful use during expeditions 906 and 802 in the Nankai Trough of Japan. The system is gas-tight and hence enables researchers to study in situ geophysical and geochemical characteristics of sediments containing gaseous components, such as methane hydrates that cannot be reliably recovered with nonpressure coring systems. In addition, pressure coring is a powerful tool, not only for scientific but also for hydrocarbon resources research.

  14. Barberton drilling project - Buck Reef Chert core BARB3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Axel; Karykowski, Bartosz; Mason, Paul; Chunnet, Gordon; Arndt, Nick

    2013-04-01

    As part of the ICDP-sponsored Barberton drilling project a single drill core (BARB3) with a total length of 899 m was obtained from the c. 3.4 Ga old Buck Reef Chert (BRC). The BRC is an unusually thick (up to 350 m) sequence of predominantly black-and-white banded chert and banded ferruginous chert that are steeply dipping. It overlies a shallow intrusive to extrusive sequence of dacitic volcanic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation and is separated from ultramafic lapillistone of the Kromberg Formation by a >150 m thick ultramafic sill. Drilling commenced in the ultramafic sill at an angle of c. 45° and c. 200 m of serpentinized peridotite were intersected. The remaining c. 700 m of the core include a great variety of chert lithofacies and minor intrusive mafic to intermediate igneous rocks. The base of the BRC was not intersected. Geophysical logging was done up to a depth of 847 m and included acoustic televiewer, gamma ray, resistivity, magnetic field and caliper logs. Stratigraphic and geophysical logs will be presented that will form the basis of follow-up studies on the BARB3 core. Abundance of organic matter, sulphides and Fe-bearing carbonates in specific intervals or associated with specific facies of the chert succession reflect changes in the oceanic, environmental and/or hydrothermal conditions in a shallow marine early Archaean setting. Evaluating the different processes will require a combined sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical approach that will provide insights into the habitat of early life, geochemical cycles and marine/hydrothermal conditions.

  15. Spectroscopic Analysis of Hydrothermal Alteration in Geothermal Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. M.; Littlefield, E. F.

    2012-12-01

    Water geochemistry can vary with depth and location within a geothermal reservoir, owing to natural factors such as changing rock type, gas content, fluid source and temperature. The interaction of these variable fluids with the host rock will cause changes in the host rock and create a variety of alteration minerals and precipitates. These alteration products can suggest regions of past fluid flow in the subsurface and their mineralogy can be used to determine fluid temperature. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly good at identifying a wide variety of hydrothermal alteration minerals, requires no sample preparation, and is especially helpful in discrimination among clay minerals. We have applied traditional remote sensing hyperspectral techniques in several pilot studies of geothermal drill core and chip analysis. We have surveyed a variety of samples, including drill chip boards, boxed core, and drill cuttings from envelopes and chip trays. Alteration mineralogy can indicate both the presence of thermal fluids and the hottest fluid temperature. These preliminary studies have established reliable methods for core/chip surveys that can rapidly measure samples with high depth resolution and show the efficiency of the technique to sample continuously and provide alteration logs similar to geophysical logs. We have successfully identified a wide variety of phyllosilicates, zeolites, opal, calcite, and iron oxides and hydroxides in drill core and cuttings from geothermal wells. In high vertical resolution measurements (every 10') we note depth-associated changes in alteration minerals, patterns or zones. Temperature dependent mineral assemblages are found, both gradational with depth and as narrow zones associated with vein or fracture fill. Amorphous silica is clearly identified and seen only in the highest temperature wells. We can readily identify montmorillonite/illite transitions that may be associated with Na/Ca/K variation and may eventually be used for geothermometry. We will present an overview of these past studies, with specific comparisons to other geochemical analysis for the Humboldt House location.

  16. The Apollo 16 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. O. A.; Mccallister, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Numerous investigations have been undertaken on samples from the Apollo 16 deep drill core. These studies are diverse in character and range from grain size analyses, through chemical and mineralogical studies to investigations of nuclear particle tracks, rare gases, and isotopic abundances. In order to comprehend the significance of the studies of the mineral chemistry of the clasts below 1 mm in size in several samples with respect to other studies, it became obvious that a review of all previous works was desireable. After reviewing the available literature it can be concluded that only four major stratigraphic divisions exist in the core section. Whether these represent four single events or multi-stage events within one unit is uncertain; however, it appears that accumulation of the material in the core has taken place during a period of 1 billion years, and that the material is predominantly of locally derived Highlands origin.

  17. Fixing mechanism for a wireline core barrel of core drilling equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. D. Nenkov; I. B. Petrov; S. P. Peev

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a wireline mechanism for removing a core barrel containing a core from within a hollow drill string carrying a hollow drill crown cutter on its lower end while the drill string is in position in the earth. The mechanism comprises a cylindrical fixer adapted to be mounted within the drill string coaxially thereof. A cap for attachment

  18. Calculation of Bedding Angles Inclination from Drill Core Digital Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Quiniou; Nazha Selmaoui; Christine Laporte-magoni; Michel Allenbach

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new technique for the automatic orientation of bedding in drill core from digital images. Images are planar pictures of the drill core, and we show that it is possible to determine layer orientation without rotating the core on the full circumference. More precisely, we show that angle information can be ex- tracted by applying

  19. Concepts and Benefits of Lunar Core Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Bogard, D. D.; Derkowski, B. J.; George, J. A.; Askew, R. S.; Lindsay, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding lunar material at depth is critical to nearly every aspect of NASA s Vision and Strategic Plan. As we consider sending human s back to the Moon for brief and extended periods, we will need to utilize lunar materials in construction, for resource extraction, and for radiation shielding and protection. In each case, we will be working with materials at some depth beneath the surface. Understanding the properties of that material is critical, thus the need for Lunar core drilling capability. Of course, the science benefit from returning core samples and operating down-hole autonomous experiments is a key element of Lunar missions as defined by NASA s Exploration Systems Architecture Study. Lunar missions will be targeted to answer specific questions concerning lunar science and re-sources.

  20. Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact age, cratering, target-impactite stratigraphy, ejecta, impact dynamics, hydrothermal alterations and post-impact processes are presented. The challenges and perspectives of drilling studies of impact craters are discussed.

  1. ROPEC - ROtary PErcussive Coring Drill for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Spring, Justin; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The ROtary Percussive Coring Drill is a light weight, flight-like, five-actuator drilling system prototype designed to acquire core material from rock targets for the purposes of Mars Sample Return. In addition to producing rock cores for sample caching, the ROPEC drill can be integrated with a number of end effectors to perform functions such as rock surface abrasion, dust and debris removal, powder and regolith acquisition, and viewing of potential cores prior to caching. The ROPEC drill and its suite of end effectors have been demonstrated with a five degree of freedom Robotic Arm mounted to a mobility system with a prototype sample cache and bit storage station.

  2. Orienting drill core using borehole-wall image correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, Norio; Otsubo, Makoto; Fujimoto, Koichiro; Tanaka, Nobuaki

    2014-10-01

    A method for orienting drill core is proposed that correlates measurements of planar structures in drill core with those observed in spatially referenced images of borehole walls. The drill core orientation is expressed in terms of a transformation between the geographic coordinate system and the drill core coordinate system, using the Euler angles ?, ?, and ?. The angles ? and ? are the azimuth (trend) and the plunge of the inclined borehole, respectively. The angle ? is the rotation angle about the drill core axis and is determined through correlation analyses of planar structures in the drill core with those observed in the borehole wall images. Orientations of planar structures in the drill core are measured in terms of a reference line that is drawn along the length of the drill core in an arbitrary position. The proposed method is applied to drill core samples recovered from a borehole that penetrates the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) at Matsusaka-Iitaka (ITA), eastern Kii Peninsula, Japan. The results suggest that the accuracy of the determination of ? is about ±5°.

  3. Drilled core holes key to coalbed methane project

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, C. (River Gas Corp., Northport, AL (United States))

    1995-03-06

    An efficient system of drilling core holes for data followed by drilling, fracing, and producing gas wells helped develop economic quantities of coalbed methane. The objective of the Drunkards Wash, Utah, project is to explore for and produce commercial quantities of methane from medium-depth coal seams in east central Utah. Current gas production rates are exceeding the projections made prior to development and used for initial economic feasibility. The paper describes the coring program, drilling operations, completion practices, and production operations.

  4. Petrophysical and paleomagnetic data of drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Elbra; A. Kontny; L. J. Pesonen; N. Schleifer; C. Schell

    2007-01-01

    Physical properties from rocks of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, Central Africa, are essential to understand the formation of the relatively young (1.07 Ma) and small (10.5 km) impact crater and to improve its geophysical modeling. Results of our petrophysical studies of deep drill cores LB-07A and LB-08A reveal distinct lithological patterns but no depth dependence. The most conspicuous difference

  5. Cretaceous shallow drilling, US Western Interior: Core research

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, M.A.

    1993-02-17

    This project is a continuing multidisciplinary study of middle to Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate and clastic rocks in the Utah-Colorado-Kansas corridor of the old Cretaceous seaway that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Arctic during maximum Cretaceous transgressions. It is collaborative between in the US Geological Survey (W.E. Dean, P.I.) and University researchers led by The Pennsylvania State University(M.A. Arthur, P.I.) and funded by DOE and the USGS, in part. Research focusses on the Greenhom, Niobrara and lower Pierre Shale units and their equivalents, combining biostratigraphic/paleoecologic studies, inorganic, organic and stable isotopic geochemical studies, mineralogical investigations and high-resolution geophysical logging. This research requires unweathered samples and continuous smooth exposures'' in the form of cores from at least 4 relatively shallow reference holes (i.e. < 1000m) in transect from east to west across the basin. The major initial effort was recovery in Year 1 of the project of continuous cores from each site in the transect. This drilling provided samples and logs of strata ranging from pelagic sequences that contain organic-carbon-rich marine source rocks to nearshore coal-bearing units. This transect also will provide information on the extent of thermal maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in organic-carbon-rich strata along a burial gradient.

  6. Recent Developments and Adaptations in Diamond Wireline Core Drilling Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Nielson, D. L.; Howell, B. B.; Pardey, M.

    2001-05-01

    Scientific drilling using diamond wireline technology is presently undergoing a significant expansion and extension of activities that has allowed us to recover geologic samples that have heretofore been technically or financially unattainable. Under the direction and management of DOSECC, a high-capacity hybrid core drilling system was designed and fabricated for the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) in 1998. This system, the DOSECC Hybrid Coring System (DHCS), has the capacity to recover H-sized core from depths of more than 6 km. In 1999, the DHCS completed the first phase of the HSDP to a depth of 3100 m at a substantially lower cost per foot than any previous scientific borehole to comparable depths and, in the process, established a new depth record for recovery of H-sized wireline core. This system has been offered for use in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, the Chicxulub (impact crater) Scientific Drilling Project, and the Geysers Deep Geothermal Reservoir Project. More recently, DOSECC has developed a smaller barge-mounted wireline core drilling system, the GLAD800, that is capable of recovering P-sized sediment core to depths of up to 800 m. The GLAD800 has been successfully deployed on Great Salt Lake and Bear Lake in Utah and is presently being mobilized to Lake Titicaca in South America for an extensive core recovery effort there. The coring capabilities of the GLAD800 system will be available to the global lakes drilling community for acquisition of sediment cores from many of the world's deep lakes for use in calibrating and refining global climate models. Presently under development by DOSECC is a heave-compensation system that will allow us to expand the capabilities of the moderate depth coring system to allow us to collect sediment and bottom core from the shallow marine environment. The design and capabilities of these coring systems will be presented along with a discussion of their potential applications for addressing a range of earth sciences questions.

  7. Drilled core holes key to coalbed methane project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    An efficient system of drilling core holes for data followed by drilling, fracing, and producing gas wells helped develop economic quantities of coalbed methane. The objective of the Drunkards Wash, Utah, project is to explore for and produce commercial quantities of methane from medium-depth coal seams in east central Utah. Current gas production rates are exceeding the projections made prior

  8. Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Dolgin, Benjamin; Askin, Steve; Peterson, Thomas M.; Bell, Bill; Kroh, Jason; Pal, Dharmendra; Krahe, Ron; Du, Shu

    2003-01-01

    Two apparatuses now under development are intended to perform a variety of deep-drilling, coring, and sensing functions for subsurface exploration of rock and soil. These are modified versions of the apparatuses described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. In comparison with the drilling equipment traditionally used in such exploration, these apparatuses weigh less and consume less power. Moreover, unlike traditional drills and corers, these apparatuses function without need for large externally applied axial forces.

  9. Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the cores were scanned for compositional variations using an XRF core scanner at the BGR lab and scan images of the slabbed surfaces were performed. The average core recovery rate was very high at nearly 100%. Altogether, we gained 533 m of excellent core material including sandstones, siltstones and claystones, carbonates, sulfates and chlorides. This provides valuable insight into the stratigraphic column of the Thuringian Syncline.

  10. Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. Fixing mechanism for a wireline core barrel of core drilling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nenkov, N.D.; Petrov, I.B.; Peev, S.P.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a wireline mechanism for removing a core barrel containing a core from within a hollow drill string carrying a hollow drill crown cutter on its lower end while the drill string is in position in the earth. The mechanism comprises a cylindrical fixer adapted to be mounted within the drill string coaxially thereof. A cap for attachment to a flexible elongated core-removing member is secured to the upper end of the fixer, a cylindrical hollow body is adapted to be mounted within the drill string coaxially thereof and generally below the fixer. A lower portion of the fixer is adapted to be telescoped within the upper portion of the cylindrical hollow body, a longitudinally extending stopper bar is connected to the upper part of the cylindrical hollow body, a locking bar and a nut connect the fixer to the lower part of the cylindrical hollow body.

  12. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  13. Improved Halbach sensor for NMR scanning of drill cores.

    PubMed

    Anferova, Sophia; Anferov, Vladimir; Arnold, Juliane; Talnishnikh, Elena; Voda, Mihai A; Kupferschläger, Klaus; Blümler, Peter; Clauser, Christoph; Blümich, Bernhard

    2007-05-01

    A lightweight Halbach magnet system for use in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on drill cores was designed and built. It features an improved homogeneous magnetic field with a strength of 0.22 T and a maximum accessible sensitive volume. Additionally, it is furnished with a sliding table for automatic scans of cylindrical samples. This device is optimized for nondestructive online measurements of porosity and pore size distributions of water-saturated full cylindrical and split semicylindrical drill cores of different diameters. The porosity of core plugs with diameters from 20 to 80 mm can be measured routinely using exchangeable radiofrequency coils. Advanced NMR techniques that provide 2D T(1)-T(2) correlations with an average measurement time of 30 min and permeability estimates can be performed with a special insert suitable for small core plugs with diameter and length of 20 mm. PMID:17466767

  14. Mobile NMR for porosity analysis of drill core sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Blümich; Sofia Anferova; Renate Pechnig; Hansgeorg Pape; Juliane Arnold; Christoph Clauser

    2004-01-01

    We apply a novel mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning system, the NMR-MOUSE® (NMR-MOUSE (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Mobile Universal Surface Explorer) is a registered trademark of RWTH Aachen University), for measuring porosity of geological drill core sections. The NMR-MOUSE® is used for transverse relaxation measurements on water-saturated core sections using a CPMG sequence with a short echo time. A regularized

  15. A new 122 mm electromechanical drill for deep ice-sheet coring (DISC): 3. Control, electrical and electronics design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolai B. Mortensen; Paul J. Sendelbach; Alexander J. Shturmakov

    2007-01-01

    The deep ice-sheet coring (DISC) drill developed by Ice Coring and Drilling Services under contract to the US National Science Foundation is an electromechanical drill designed to take 122 mm ice cores to depths of 4000 m. Electronic, electrical and control systems are major aspects of the DISC drill. The drill sonde, the down-hole portion of the drill system, requires

  16. Discarded Drill Cores from the Blackbird Cobalt-Copper Mine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Blocks of biotitic meta-sandstone from the lower part of the Gunsight Formation, and drill core from the underlying banded siltite unit of the Apple Creek Formation, lying on the dump of the lower workings of the Copper Queen mine, southeast of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine area....

  17. Stratigraphy of the Apollo 15 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G.; Duke, M.; Fryxell, R.; Nagle, J. S.; Scott, R.; Sellers, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The crew of Apollo 15 collected at 242-centimeter-long core of the regolith of the moon developed on the surface of Palus Putredinis 3 deg 39 min 20 sec E, 26 deg 26 min 00 sec N. The 2.04-centimeter-diameter core, which has a mass of 1333.2 grams, consists of 42 major textural units, with thicknesses ranging from a few milliliters to 13 centimeters thick. The regolith is not homogeneous and is composed of many layers that are mostly ejecta from impact events.

  18. Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.

    1979-01-01

    Lithologic abundances obtained from modal analyses of a continuous string of polished thin sections indicate that the Apollo 17 deep drill core can be divided into three main zones: An upper zone (0-19 cm depth) characterized by high abundances of agglutinates (30%) and a high ratio of mare to non-mare lithic fragments (less than 0.8); a coarse-grained layer (24-56 cm) rich in fragments of high-Ti mare basalts and mineral fragments derived from them, and poor in agglutinates (6%); and a lower zone (56-285 cm) characterized by variable but generally high agglutinate abundances (25%) and a low ratio of mare to nonmare lithic fragments (0.6). Using observations of the geology of the landing site, the principles of cratering dynamics, and the vast amount of data collected on the core, the following depositional history for the section of regolith sampled by the Apollo 17 drill core: was devised.

  19. Depositional history of the Apollo 16 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gose, W. A.; Morris, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic hysteresis loop measurements were performed on 212 samples from the Apollo 16 deep drill core. The total iron content is generally uniform with a mean value of 5.7 plus or minus 0.9 wt%. The soils range in maturity from immature to mature. Two major contacts were observed. The contact at 13 cm depth represents a fossil surface whereas the contact at 190 cm depth has no time-stratigraphic significance. The data suggest that the core section below 13 cm depth was deposited in a single impact event and subjected to meteoritic gardening for about 450 m.y. However, our data do not preclude deposition by a series of closely spaced events. About 50 m.y. ago, the top 13 cm were added. Comparison with the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/60010 does not yield any evidence for a stratigraphic correlation with the deep drill core.

  20. Deposition and irradiation of the Apollo 17 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, G.; Ross, L. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Additional fossil track measurements at 25 locations in the Apollo 17 deep drill stem are reported and used, together with other types of data, to discuss possible depositional scenarios. The lower 2 meters of this core do not appear to have been emplaced rapidly as suggested by other authors. The model of Crozaz and Plachy (1976) for the emplacement of the upper part of the core is still valid. There is no evidence for periodic variations in the flux of meteorites in the centimeter to meter range or for the presence in the core of unusually low track density coarse fragments which may have been associated with a Tycho origin.

  1. Managing Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Risks Drilling Geothermal Exploration and Delineation Wells with Small-Footprint Highly Portable Diamond Core Drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Listi, R.; Combs, J.; Welch, V.; Reilly, S.

    2012-12-01

    Small hydraulic core rigs are highly portable (truck or scow-mounted), and have recently been used for geothermal exploration in areas such as Nevada, California, the Caribbean Islands, Central and South America and elsewhere. Drilling with slim diameter core rod below 7,000' is common, with continuous core recovery providing native-state geological information to aid in identifying the resource characteristics and boundaries; this is a highly cost-effective process. Benefits associated with this innovative exploration and delineation technology includes the following: Low initial Capital Equipment Cost and consumables costs Small Footprint, reducing location and road construction, and cleanup costs Supporting drill rod (10'/3meter) and tools are relatively low weight and easily shipped Speed of Mobilization and rig up Reduced requirements for support equipment (cranes, backhoes, personnel, etc) Small mud systems and cementing requirements Continuous, simplified coring capability Depth ratings comparable to that of large rotary rigs (up to ~10,000'+) Remote/small-location accessible (flown into remote areas or shipped in overseas containers) Can be scow or truck-mounted This technical presentation's primary goal is to share the technology of utilizing small, highly portable hydraulic coring rigs to provide exploratory drilling (and in some cases, production drilling) for geothermal projects. Significant cost and operational benefits are possible for the Geothermal Operator, especially for those who are pursuing projects in remote locations or countries, or in areas that are either inaccessible or in which a small footprint is required. John D. Tuttle Sinclair Well Products jtuttle@sinclairwp.com

  2. Development of a drilling and coring test-bed for lunar subsurface exploration and preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Deng, Zongquan; Quan, Qiquan; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Drill sampling has been widely employed as an effective way to acquire deep samples in extraterrestrial exploration. A novel sampling method, namely, flexible-tube coring, was adopted for the Chang'e mission to acquire drilling cores without damaging stratification information. Since the extraterrestrial environment is uncertain and different from the terrestrial environment, automated drill sampling missions are at risk of failure. The principles of drilling and coring for the lunar subsurface should be fully tested and verified on earth before launch. This paper proposes a test-bed for conducting the aforementioned experiments on earth. The test-bed comprises a rotary-percussive drilling mechanism, penetrating mechanism, drilling medium container, and signal acquisition and control system. For granular soil, coring experiments indicate that the sampling method has a high coring rate greater than 80%. For hard rock, drilling experiments indicate that the percussive frequency greatly affects the drilling efficiency. A multi-layered simulant composed of granular soil and hard rock is built to test the adaptability of drilling and coring. To tackle complex drilling media, an intelligent drilling strategy based on online recognition is proposed to improve the adaptability of the sampling drill. The primary features of this research are the proposal of a scheme for drilling and coring a test-bed for validation on earth and the execution of drilling experiments in complex media.

  3. Petrophysical and paleomagnetic data of drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbra, T.; Kontny, A.; Pesonen, L. J.; Schleifer, N.; Schell, C.

    Physical properties from rocks of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, Central Africa, are essential to understand the formation of the relatively young (1.07 Ma) and small (10.5 km) impact crater and to improve its geophysical modeling. Results of our petrophysical studies of deep drill cores LB-07A and LB-08A reveal distinct lithological patterns but no depth dependence. The most conspicuous difference between impactites and target lithologies are the lower bulk densities and significantly higher porosities of the suevite and lithic breccia units compared to meta-graywacke and metapelites of target lithologies. Magnetic susceptibility shows mostly paramagnetic values (200-500 × 10-6 SI) throughout the core, with an exception of a few metasediment samples, and correlates positively with natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and Q values. These data indicate that magnetic parameters are related to inhomogeneously distributed ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite. The paleomagnetic data reveals that the characteristic direction of NRM has shallow normal (in a few cases shallow reversed) polarity, which is in agreement with the Lower Jaramillo N-polarity chron direction, and is carried by ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite. However, our study has not revealed the expected high magnetization body required from previous magnetic modeling. Furthermore, the LB-07A and LB08-A drill cores did not show the predicted high content of melt in the rocks, requiring a new interpretation model for magnetic data.

  4. Axel rover NanoDrill and PowderDrill: Acquisition of cores, regolith and powder from steep walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Chu, P.; Hedlund, M.; Spring, J.; Osborne, L.; Matthews, J.; Zarzhitsky, D.; Nesnas, I. A.; Szwarc, T.; Indyk, S.

    This paper describes development and testing of low-mass, low-power drills for the Axel rover. Axel is a two-wheeled tethered rover designed for the robotic exploration of steep cliff walls, crater walls and deep holes on earth and other planetary bodies. The Axel rover has a capability to deploy scientific instruments and/or samplers in the areas of interest to scientists currently inaccessible by conventional robotic systems. To enable sample recovery, we developed two drills: NanoDrill for acquisition of 25 mm long and 7 mm diameter cores and PowderDrill for acquisition of either in situ regolith/soil or drilled cuttings from depths of up to 15 mm. Both drills have been successfully tested in laboratory in limestone and sandstone rocks and on-board the Axel rover in the Mars Yard at NASA JPL. The drills managed to acquire limestone and sandstone cores and powder, with an average power of less than 5 Watts. The penetration rate of the NanoDrill was ~2 mm/min and of the PowderDrill it was ~9 mm/min. After sample acquisition, both drills successfully ejected of the acquired samples (cores and powder).

  5. Mobile NMR for porosity analysis of drill core sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Anferova, Sofia; Pechnig, Renate; Pape, Hansgeorg; Arnold, Juliane; Clauser, Christoph

    2004-09-01

    We apply a novel mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning system, the NMR-MOUSE® (NMR-MOUSE (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Mobile Universal Surface Explorer) is a registered trademark of RWTH Aachen University), for measuring porosity of geological drill core sections. The NMR-MOUSE® is used for transverse relaxation measurements on water-saturated core sections using a CPMG sequence with a short echo time. A regularized Laplace-transform analysis by the UPEN program yields the distribution of transverse relaxation times. The signal amplitudes and the distribution integrals correlate directly with the porosity of the cores, in spite of the influence of diffusion in the strong field gradient of the NMR-MOUSE®, which is discussed. The method is particularly attractive because it neither requires a volume calibration nor the samples to be machined to fit the coil, and because the device is mobile and particularly attractive for field use such as on logging platforms and research vessels.

  6. Provenance of Apollo 15 deep drill core sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Bower, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Modal analysis and electron probe microanalysis were performed on polished thin sections prepared from Apollo 15 deep drill core soils in an effort to characterize their provenance. The particles were in the 0.25-1.00 mm size range. The particles were classified into mineral fragments, agglutinates, glasses, rock fragments, and breccias. The results show that highland and mare material occur in the core in an approximately 60:40 ratio, with mare component generally increasing from bottom to top in the core. Quartz-normative basalts are nearly twice as abundant as olivine basalts. Nonmare sources include KREEP basalt flow units from some depth in the crust, excavated by cratering events and supplied to the site as 'rays'.

  7. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data From the USGS Dixon Core, Onslow County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Gonzalez, Wilma Aleman B.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Weems, Robert E.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Durand, Colleen T.

    2009-01-01

    In October through November 2006, scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Region Earth Surface Processes Team (EESPT) and the Raleigh (N.C.) Water Science Center (WSC), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Onslow County Water and Sewer Authority (ONWASA), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Onslow County, N.C. The Dixon corehole was cored on ONWASA water utility property north of the town of Dixon, N.C., in the Sneads Ferry 7.5-minute quadrangle at latitude 34deg33'35' N, longitude 77deg26'54' W (decimal degrees 34.559722 and -77.448333). The site elevation is 66.0 feet (ft) above mean sea level as determined using a Paulin precision altimeter. The corehole attained a total depth of 1,010 ft and was continuously cored by the USGS EESPT drilling crew. A groundwater monitoring well was installed in the screened interval between 234 and 254 ft below land surface. The section cored at this site includes Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments. The Dixon core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh. The Dixon corehole is the fourth and last in a series of planned North Carolina benchmark coreholes drilled by the USGS Coastal Carolina Project. These coreholes explore the physical stratigraphy, facies, and thickness of Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene Coastal Plain sediments in North Carolina. Correlations of lithologies, facies, and sequence stratigraphy can be made with the Hope Plantation corehole, N.C., near Windsor in Bertie County (Weems and others, 2007); the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, N.C., in Bladen County (Self-Trail and others, 2004b); the Smith Elementary School corehole, near Cove City, N.C., in Craven County (Harris and Self-Trail, 2006; Crocetti, 2007); the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, N.C., in New Hanover County (Self-Trail and others, 2004a); the Esso#1, Esso #2, Mobil #1, and Mobil #2 cores in Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds, N.C. (Zarra, 1989); and the Cape Fear River outcrops in Bladen County, N.C. (Farrell, 1998; Farrell and others, 2001). This report contains the lithostratigraphic summary recorded at the drill site, core photographs, geophysical data, and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic correlations.

  8. The Ocean Drilling Program IV: Deep water coring technology-Past, present, and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Huey; Michael A. Storms

    1985-01-01

    Using the technology developed during 15 years of the highly successful Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) is continuing to pursue both the scientific objectives of recovering core samples from beneath the world's oceans and the technical objectives of advancing the state-of-the-art of deep water coring. The wide variety of wireline coring tools developed during DSDP

  9. Physical-Property Measurements on Core samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.; Watt, Janet T.; Casteel, John; Logsdon, Grant

    2009-01-01

    From May to June 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and measured physical properties on 36 core samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 1 (DB-1) and 46 samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 2 (DB-2) along the west side of Blue Mountain about 40 km west of Winnemucca, Nev. These data were collected as part of an effort to determine the geophysical setting of the Blue Mountain geothermal prospect as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of geothermal systems throughout the Great Basin. The physical properties of these rocks and other rock types in the area create a distinguishable pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies that can be used to infer their subsurface geologic structure. Drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 were spudded in alluvium on the western flank of Blue Mountain in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and are about 1 km apart. Drill-hole DB-1 is at a ground elevation of 1,325 m and was drilled to a depth of 672 m and drill-hole DB-2 is at a ground elevation of 1,392 m and was drilled to a depth of 1522 m. Diameter of the core samples is 6.4 cm. These drill holes penetrate Jurassic and Triassic metasedimentary rocks predominantly consisting of argillite, mudstone, and sandstone; Tertiary diorite and gabbro; and younger Tertiary felsic dikes.

  10. Core-log integration studies in hole-A of Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun-Hao; Yeh, En-Chao; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Kuo, Li-Wei; Hsu, Jui-Yu; Hung, Jih-Hao

    2008-09-01

    Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) was initiated to understand the physical mechanisms involved in the large displacements of the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Continuous measurements of cores (including laboratory work) and a suite of geophysical downhole logs, including P- and S-wave sonic velocity, gamma ray, electrical resistivity, density, temperature, electrical borehole images and dipole-shear sonic imager, were acquired in Hole-A over the depth of 500-2003 m. Integrated studies of cores and logs facilitate qualitative and quantitative comparison of subsurface structures and physical properties of rocks. A total of 10 subunits were divided on the basis of geophysical characteristics. Generally, formation velocity and temperature increase with depth as a result of the overburden and thermal gradient, respectively. Gamma ray, resistivity, formation density, shear velocity anisotropy and density-derived porosity are primarily dependent on the lithology. Zones with changes of percentage of shear wave anisotropy and the fast shear polarization azimuth deduced from Dipole Shear-Imager (DSI) are associated with the appearance of fractures, steep bedding and shear zones. The fast shear wave azimuth is in good agreement with overall dip of the bedding (approximately 30° towards SE) and maximum horizontal compressional direction, particularly in the Kueichulin Formation showing strong shear wave velocity anisotropy. Bedding-parallel fractures are prevalent within cores, whereas minor sets of high-angle, NNW-SSE trending with N- and S-dipping fractures are sporadically distributed. The fault zone at depth 1111 m (FZA1111) is the Chi-Chi earthquake slip zone and could be a fluid conduit after the earthquake. The drastic change in fast shear wave polarization direction across the underlying, non-active Sanyi thrust at depth 1710 m reflects changes in stratigraphy, physical properties and structural geometry.

  11. Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Alekhina; J. R. Petit; V. V. Lukin; S. A. Bulat

    2003-01-01

    Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content

  12. Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Smith, M. R.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

  13. Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1984-11-15

    Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

  14. Laboratory measurements of the seismic velocities and other petrophysical properties of the Outokumpu deep drill core samples, eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbra, Tiiu; Karlqvist, Ronnie; Lassila, Ilkka; Høgström, Edward; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2011-01-01

    Petrophysical, in particular seismic velocity, measurements of the Outokumpu deep drill core (depth 2.5 km) have been carried out to characterize the geophysical nature of the Paleoproterozoic crustal section of eastern Finland and to find lithological and geophysical interpretations to the distinct crustal reflectors as observed in seismic surveys. The results show that different lithological units can be identified based on the petrophysical data. The density of the samples remained nearly constant throughout the drilled section. Only diopside-tremolite skarns and black schists exhibit higher densities. The samples are dominated by the paramagnetic behaviour with occasional ferromagnetic signature caused by serpentinitic rocks. Large variations in seismic velocities, both at ambient pressure and under in situ crustal conditions are observed. The porosity of the samples, which is extremely low, is either intrinsic by nature or caused by decompaction related to fracturing during the core retrieval. It is noteworthy that these microfractures have dramatically lowered the VP and VS values. From the measured velocities and density data we have calculated the seismic impedances, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios for the lithological units of the Outokumpu section and from these data the reflection coefficients for the major lithological boundaries, evident in the surveyed section, were determined. The data show that the strong and distinct reflections visible in wide-angle seismic surveys are caused by interfaces between diopside-tremolite skarn and either serpentinites, mica schist or black schist.

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE: Geophysical signatures of oceanic core complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Donna K.; Canales, J. Pablo; Harding, Alistair

    2009-08-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) provide access to intrusive and ultramafic sections of young lithosphere and their structure and evolution contain clues about how the balance between magmatism and faulting controls the style of rifting that may dominate in a portion of a spreading centre for Myr timescales. Initial models of the development of OCCs depended strongly on insights available from continental core complexes and from seafloor mapping. While these frameworks have been useful in guiding a broader scope of studies and determining the extent of OCC formation along slow spreading ridges, as we summarize herein, results from the past decade highlight the need to reassess the hypothesis that reduced magma supply is a driver of long-lived detachment faulting. The aim of this paper is to review the available geophysical constraints on OCC structure and to look at what aspects of current models are constrained or required by the data. We consider sonar data (morphology and backscatter), gravity, magnetics, borehole geophysics and seismic reflection. Additional emphasis is placed on seismic velocity results (refraction) since this is where deviations from normal crustal accretion should be most readily quantified. However, as with gravity and magnetic studies at OCCs, ambiguities are inherent in seismic interpretation, including within some processing/analysis steps. We briefly discuss some of these issues for each data type. Progress in understanding the shallow structure of OCCs (within ~1 km of the seafloor) is considerable. Firm constraints on deeper structure, particularly characterization of the transition from dominantly mafic rock (and/or altered ultramafic rock) to dominantly fresh mantle peridotite, are not currently in hand. There is limited information on the structure and composition of the conjugate lithosphere accreted to the opposite plate while an OCC forms, commonly on the inside corner of a ridge-offset intersection. These gaps preclude full testing of current models. However, with the data in hand there are systematic patterns in OCC structure, such as the 1-2 Myr duration of this rifting style within a given ridge segment, the height of the domal cores with respect to surrounding seafloor, the correspondence of gravity highs with OCCs, and the persistence of corrugations that mark relative (palaeo) slip along the exposed detachment capping the domal cores. This compilation of geophysical results at OCCs should be useful to investigators new to the topic but we also target advanced researchers in our presentation and synthesis of findings to date.

  16. The Chicxulub Multiring Impact Crater and the Cretaceous/Paleogene Boundary: Results From Geophysical Surveys and Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Perez-Cruz, Ligia

    2010-03-01

    The Chicxulub crater has attracted considerable attention as one of the three largest terrestrial impact structures and its association with the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary (K/Pg). Chicxulub is a 200 km-diameter multi-ring structure formed 65.5 Ma ago in the Yucatan carbonate platform in the southern Gulf of Mexico and which has since been buried by Paleogene and Neogene carbonates. Chicxulub is one of few large craters with preserved ejecta deposits, which include the world-wide K/Pg boundary clay layer. The impact has been related to the global major environmental and climatic effects and the organism mass extinction that mark the K/Pg boundary, which affected more than 70 % of organisms, including the dinosaurs, marine and flying reptiles, ammonites and a large part of the marine microorganisms. The impact and crater formation occur instantaneously, with excavation of the crust down to 25 km depths in fractions of second and lower crust uplift and crater formation in a few hundreds of seconds. Energy released by impact and crustal deformation generates seismic waves traveling the whole Earth, and resulting in intense fracturing and deformation at the target site. Understanding of the physics of impacts on planetary surfaces and modeling of processes of crustal deformation, rheological behavior of materials at high temperatures and pressures remain a major challenge in geosciences. Study of the Chicxulub crater and the global effects and mass extinction requires inter- and multidisciplinary approaches, with researchers from many diverse fields beyond the geosciences. With no surface exposures, geophysical surveys and drilling are required to study the crater. Differential compaction between the impact breccias and the surrounding carbonate rocks has produced a ring-fracture structure that at the surface reflects in a small topographic depression and the karstic cenote ring. The crater structure, located half offshore and half on-land, has been imaged by different geophysical aerial, land and marine methods including gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics and seismic refraction and reflection. The impact lithologies and carbonate sequence have been cored as part of several drilling projects. Here we analyze the stratigraphy of Chicxulub from borehole logging data and core analyses, with particular reference to studies on CSDP Yaxcopoil-1 and UNAM Santa Elena boreholes. Analyses of core samples have examined the stratigraphy of the cover carbonate sequence, impact breccia contact and implications for impact age, K/Pg global correlations and paleoenvironmental conditions following impact. The K/Pg age for Chicxulub has been supported from different studies, including Ar/Ar dating, magnetic polarity stratigraphy, geochemistry and biostratigraphy. A Late Maastrichtian age has also been proposed for Chicxulub from studies in Yaxcopoil-1 basal Paleocene carbonates, with impact occurring 300 ka earlier predating the K/Pg boundary. This proposal calls attention to the temporal resolution of stratigraphic and chronological methods, and the need for further detailed analyses of the basal carbonate sections in existing boreholes and new drilling/coring projects. Stratigraphy of impact ejecta and basal sediments in Yaxcopoil-1 and UNAM boreholes indicates a hiatus in the basal sequence. Modeling of post- impact processes suggest erosion effects due to seawater back surge, block slumping and partial rim collapse of post-impact crater modification. Analyses of stable isotopes and magnetostratigraphic data for the Paleocene carbonate sequences in Yaxcopoil-1 and Santa Elena boreholes permit to investigate the post- impact processes, depositional conditions and age of basal sediments. Correlation of stable isotopes with the global pattern for marine carbonate sediments provides a stratigraphic framework for the basal Paleocene carbonates. The analyses confirm a K/Pg boundary age for the Chicxulub impact. References: Collins et al, 2008. Earth Planetary Science Letters 270, 221-230; Gulick et al, 2008. Nature Geoscience 1, 131-135; Hild

  17. Cretaceous shallow drilling, US Western Interior: Core research. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, M.A.

    1993-02-17

    This project is a continuing multidisciplinary study of middle to Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate and clastic rocks in the Utah-Colorado-Kansas corridor of the old Cretaceous seaway that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Arctic during maximum Cretaceous transgressions. It is collaborative between in the US Geological Survey (W.E. Dean, P.I.) and University researchers led by The Pennsylvania State University(M.A. Arthur, P.I.) and funded by DOE and the USGS, in part. Research focusses on the Greenhom, Niobrara and lower Pierre Shale units and their equivalents, combining biostratigraphic/paleoecologic studies, inorganic, organic and stable isotopic geochemical studies, mineralogical investigations and high-resolution geophysical logging. This research requires unweathered samples and continuous smooth ``exposures`` in the form of cores from at least 4 relatively shallow reference holes (i.e. < 1000m) in transect from east to west across the basin. The major initial effort was recovery in Year 1 of the project of continuous cores from each site in the transect. This drilling provided samples and logs of strata ranging from pelagic sequences that contain organic-carbon-rich marine source rocks to nearshore coal-bearing units. This transect also will provide information on the extent of thermal maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in organic-carbon-rich strata along a burial gradient.

  18. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Goff; G. Heiken; F. Goff; J. Gardner; W. Duffield; L. Martinelli; S. Aycinena; O. Castaneda

    1990-01-01

    A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater,

  19. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were estimated, including volume of clay matrix, volume of matrix other than clay, density of matrix other than clay, density of matrix, intrinsic permeability, specific yield, and specific storage. Geophysical logs were used to (1) determine lithology, (2) correlate lithologic and permeable zones, (3) calibrate seismic reprocessing, (4) calibrate transient-electromagnetic surveys, and (5) calibrate uphole-survey interpretations. Logs were used at the drill site to (1) determine permeability zones, (2) determine dissolved-solids content, which is a function of water resistivity, and (3) design wells accordingly. Data and properties derived from logs were used to determine transmissivity and specific yield of aquifer materials.

  20. GRED STUDIES AND DRILLING OF AMERICULTURE STATE 2, AMERICULTURE TILAPIA FARM LIGHTNING DOCK KGRA, ANIMAS VALLEY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, James

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the GRED drilling operations in the AmeriCulture State 2 well with an overview of the preliminary geologic and geothermal findings, from drill cuttings, core, geophysical logs and water geochemical sampling.

  1. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55 ?? 0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01 ?? 0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67 ?? 0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89 ?? 0.17 and 2.97 ?? 0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing downward the hyaloclastite absorbs less water and becomes better cemented. This change is apparently due to palagonitization of glass and addition of secondary minerals in the deeper older hyaloclastite, a process favored by the increase of temperature with depth. The cementation is largely complete at 1800 m depth where the temperature attains about 20??C. The zone of freshest, uncemented hyaloclastite represents the weakest rock in the drill hole and is a likely level for tectonic or landslide disruption. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Chemical stratigraphy of the Apollo 17 deep drill cores 70009-70007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehmann, W. D.; Ali, M. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an analysis of a total of 26 samples from three core segments (70009, 70008, 70007) of the Apollo 17 deep drill string. The deep drill string was taken about 700 m east of the Camelot Crater in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon. Three core segments have been chemically characterized from the mainly coarse-grained upper portion of the deep drill string. The chemical data suggest that the entire 70007-70009 portion of the deep drill string examined was not deposited as a single unit, but was formed by several events sampling slightly different source materials which may have occurred over a relatively short period of time. According to the data from drill stem 70007, there were at least two phases of deposition. Core segment 70009 is probably derived from somewhat different source material than 70008. It seems to be a very well mixed material.

  3. Surface elevation change artifact at the NEEM ice core drilling site, North Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg Larsen, Lars; Schøtt Hvidberg, Christine; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Lilja Buchardt, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    The NEEM deep drilling site (77.45°N 51.06°W) is located at the main ice divide in North Greenland. For the ice core drilling project, a number of buildings was erected and left on the snow surface during the five-year project period. The structures created snowdrifts that formed accordingly to the predominant wind direction on the lee side on the buildings and the overwintering cargo. To get access to the buildings, the snowdrifts and the accumulated snow were removed and the surface in the camp was leveled with heavy machinery each summer. In the camp a GPS reference pole was placed as a part of the NEEM strain net, 12 poles placed in three diamonds at distances of 2,5 km, 7,5 km and 25 km they were all measured with high precision GPS every year. Around the reference pole, a 1 km x 1 km grid with a spacing of 100 m was measured with differential GPS each year. In this work, we present results from the GPS surface topography measurements in and around the campsite. The mapping of the topography in and around the campsite shows how the snowdrifts evolve and are the reason for the lift of the camp site area. The accumulated snowdrifts are compared to the dominant wind directions from year to year. The annual snow accumulation at the NEEM site is 0.60 m. The reference pole in the camp indicates an additional snow accumulation of 0.50 m per year caused by collected drifting snow. The surface topography mapping shows that this artificially elevated surface extends up to several kilometers out in the terrain. This could have possible implications on other glaciological and geophysical measurements in the area i.e. pit and snow accumulation studies.

  4. Application of drilling, coring, and sampling techniques to test holes and wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shuter, Eugene; Teasdale, Warren E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide ground-water hydrologists with a working knowledge of the techniques of test drilling, auger drilling, coring and sampling, and the related drilling and sampling equipment. For the most part, the techniques discussed deal with drilling, sampling, and completion of test holes in unconsolidated sediments because a hydrologist is interested primarily in shallow-aquifer data in this type of lithology. Successful drilling and coring of these materials usually is difficult, and published research information on the subject is not readily available. The authors emphasize in-situ sampling of unconsolidated sediments to obtain virtually undisturbed samples. Particular attention is given to auger drilling and hydraulic-rotary methods of drilling because these are the principal means of test drilling performed by the U.S. Geological Survey during hydrologic studies. Techniques for sampling areas contaminated by solid or liquid waste are discussed. Basic concepts of well development and a detailed discussion of drilling muds, as related to hole conditioning, also are included in the report. The information contained in this manual is intended to help ground-water hydrologists obtain useful subsurface data and samples from their drilling programs.

  5. Wear characteristics of PDC pin and hybrid core bits in rock drilling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ersoy; M. D. Waller

    1995-01-01

    Drilling cost is controlled to a large extent by the drilling rate which is heavily influenced by the wear condition of the bit. Developments in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) production techniques have enabled the manufacture of rectangular “pins” of material which have been incorporated into various forms of core bits. The wear characteristics of these bits are controlled by a

  6. Drilling detritus and the operating parameters of thermally stable PDC core bits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ersoy; M. D. Waller

    1997-01-01

    A single rock type was drilled using two types of thermally stable polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) and an impregnated diamond core bit using a fully instrumented laboratory drilling rig at a fixed rotational speed, and over a range of weights on bit (WOB). Operating parameters of the bits such as WOB, rate of penetration (ROP), rotational speed (RPM), torque and

  7. Geophysical well logs for eleven drill holes at the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine Site, Idaho Springs, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The following geophysical well log measurements were made in eleven drill holes above the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado: (1) acoustic velocity (2) resistivity, (3) caliper, (4) gamma-gamma density, (5) neutron-thermal neutron, (6) gamma ray, (7) induced polarization (IP), (8) self potential (SP), and magnetic susceptibility. The density and acoustic velocity logs indicate extensive fracturing in each of the drill holes. Variations in the relative amount of felsic or mafic mineral components in the rocks can be inferred from the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray well log responses. Zones containing metallic sulfide mineralization are interpreted from the IP well log response.

  8. Preliminary physical stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and geophysical data of the USGS South Dover Bridge Core, Talbot County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alemán González, Wilma B.; Powars, David S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Durand, Colleen T.; Schultz, Arthur P.; McLaughlin, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    The South Dover Bridge (SDB) corehole was drilled in October 2007 in Talbot County, Maryland. The main purpose for drilling this corehole was to characterize the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the aquifers and confining units of this region. The data obtained from this core also will be used as a guide to geologic mapping and to help interpret well data from the eastern part of the Washington East 1:100,000-scale map near the town of Easton, Md. Core drilling was conducted to a depth of 700 feet (ft). The Cretaceous section was not penetrated due to technical problems during drilling. This project was funded by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Eastern Geology and Paleoclimate Science Center (EGPSC) as part of the Geology of the Atlantic Watersheds Project; this project was carried out in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) through partnerships with the Aquifer Characterization Program of the USGS’s Maryland-Delaware-District of Columbia Water Science Center and the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The SDB corehole was drilled by the USGS drilling crew in the northeastern corner of the Trappe 7.5-minute quadrangle, near the type locality of the Boston Cliffs member of the Choptank Formation. Geophysical logs (gamma ray, single point resistance, and 16-inch and 64-inch normal resistivity) were run to a depth of 527.5 ft; the total depth of 700.0 ft could not be reached because of the collapse of the lower part of the hole. Of the 700.0 ft drilled, 531.8 ft of core were recovered, representing a 76 percent core recovery. The elevation of the top of the corehole is approximately 12 ft above mean sea level; its coordinates are lat 38°44?49.34?N. and long 76°00?25.09?W. (38.74704N., 76.00697W. in decimal degrees). A groundwater monitoring well was not installed at this site. The South Dover Bridge corehole was the first corehole that will be used to better understand the geology and hydrology of the Maryland Eastern Shore.

  9. Core drill's bit is replaceable without withdrawal of drill stem - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushing, F. C.; Simon, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Drill bit is divided into several sectors. When collapsed, the outside diameter is forced down the drill stem, when it reaches bottom the sectors are forced outward and form a cutting bit. A dulled bit is retracted by reversal of this procedure.

  10. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Deep Rotary-Ultrasonic Core Drill for Exploration of Europa and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G. L.; Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Beegle, L. W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Mellerowicz, B.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Ibarra, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since water is an important requisite for life as we know it, likely exobiologic exploration targets in our Solar System include Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, where water/ice is known to exist. Because of oxidizing nature of Mars atmosphere, as well as increased radiation at the surfaces of Mars, Europa and Enceladus, samples must be acquired from the subsurface at greater depths, presenting a great challenge to off-world drilling design. For the past 3 years, we have been developing a prototype wireline coring drill, called the Auto-Gopher, for the capability to acquire samples from hundreds of meters depth. The drill is capable of penetrating both rock and ice. However, because of large geological uncertainty on Mars and issues related to borehole collapse, we specifically target ice formations present on Europa and Enceladus. The main feature of the Auto-Gopher is its wireline operation. The drill is essentially suspended on a tether and the motors and mechanisms are built into a tube that ends with a coring bit. The tether provides the mechanical connection to a rover/lander on a surface as well as power and data communication. Upon penetrating to a target depth, the drill (plus core) is retracted from the borehole by a pulley system (the pulley system can be either on the surface or integrated into a top part of the drill itself). Once on the surface, the core is deposited into a sample transfer system, and the drill is lowered back into the hole in order to drill the next segment. Each segment is typically 10 cm long. Wireline operation sidesteps one of the major drawbacks of traditional continuous drill string systems by obviating the need for multiple drill sections. With traditional continuous drill string systems (the major competition to the Autor-Gopher), new drill sections need to be added to the string as the drill gets deeper. This of course requires multiple drill sections, which add significantly to the mass of the system very quickly, and requires a complicated drill string feeding and coupling mechanism, thus increasing the system complexity. The Auto-gopher has been successfully tested in a lab environment in rock to a depth of 2 meters and in the field. The average drilling power was in the range of 100-150 Watt, while penetration rate was approximately 1 cm/min.

  12. Coring to the West Antarctic ice sheet bed with a new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. R.; Taylor, K. C.; Shturmakov, A. J.; Mason, W. P.; Emmel, G. R.; Lebar, D. A.

    2005-05-01

    As a contribution to IPY 2007-2008, the U.S. ice core research community, supported by the National Science Foundation, plans to core through the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) at the ice-flow divide between the Ross Sea and Amundsen Sea drainage systems. The aim is to develop a unique series of interrelated climatic, ice-dynamic, and biologic records focused on understanding interactions among global earth systems. There will be approximately 15 separate but synergistic projects to analyze the ice and interpret the records. The most significant expected outcome of the WAIS Divide program will be climate records for the last ~40,000 years with an annually resolved chronology (through layer counting), comparable to the records from central Greenland. The data will also extend, at lower temporal resolution, to approximately 100,000 BP. These records will permit comparison of environmental conditions between the northern and southern hemispheres, and study of greenhouse gas concentrations in the paleoatmosphere, with unprecedented detail. To accomplish the coring, an innovative new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill is being built at the University of Wisconsin. The modular design of the bore-hole assembly (sonde) provides high flexibility for producing a 122 mm diameter ice core to depths of 4,000 m with maximum core lengths of 4 m. The DISC drill has a rotating outer barrel that can be used with or without an inner barrel designed to improve core recovery in brittle ice. Separate and independent motors for the drill and pump allow cutter speeds from 0 to 150 rpm and pump rates from 0 to 140 gpm. The high pumping rate should alleviate problems drilling in warm ice near the bed; it also helps make tripping speeds several times faster than with the old US drill. Other innovations include vibration and acoustic sensors for monitoring the drilling process, a segmented core barrel to avoid the formerly persistent problem of bent core barrels, and a high-speed data acquisition system, which allows the real-time monitoring of 30 parameters for operational and scientific use. Data are transmitted from the sonde to the surface through optical fibers contained in the drill cable, which also provides power to the sonde. The entire drilling process utilizes a user-friendly "expert" control system. Quick connectors allow for fast core removal and sonde servicing. The drill tower is a tilting tower utilizing modular truss construction for flexibility and portability. We expect higher quality cores than produced by the old drill, because of a straighter barrel, the independently controlled drill and pump motors, and better monitoring and control of the drilling process. The drill is scheduled for testing in Greenland in the summer of 2006 and for first drilling at the WAIS Divide site late in the 2006-07 austral field season.

  13. The Apollo 16 drill core - Modal petrology and characterization of the mineral and lithic component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Lellis, S. F.; Cameron, K. L.; Papike, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    A string of 59 polished thin sections covering the length of the Apollo 16 deep drill core has been examined. A modal analysis, involving the optical classification of 116,000 points was made, and over 500 mineral and lithic fragments from the core were chemically analyzed using an electron microprobe. These data were used to identify and characterize the source areas of the core material and to reconstruct the accumulation history of the core.

  14. Fischer Assays of Oil Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Piceance Basin, Colorado - 2009 Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Self, Jesse G.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM includes updated files containing Fischer assays of samples of core holes and cuttings from exploration drill holes drilled in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. A database was compiled that includes more than 321,380 Fischer assays from 782 boreholes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 1,042 core and rotary holes, oil and gas tests, as well as a few surface sections are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. These assays are part of a larger collection of subsurface information held by the U.S. Geological Survey, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, and chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses having to do with the Green River oil shale deposits in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM disc containing updated Fischer assay data for the Piceance Basin oil shale deposits in northwestern Colorado is being released to the public.

  15. Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data are from analyses performed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, with some analyses made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet that is included in the CD-ROM. These Wyoming Fischer assays and histograms are part of a much larger collection of oil-shale information, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses on the Green River oil-shale deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming held by the U.S. Geological Survey. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM containing Fischer assay data and oil-yield histograms for the Green River oil-shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming is being released to the public. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets included with Chapter 2 contain the Fischer assay data from the 426 holes and data on the company name and drill-hole name, and location. Histograms of the oil yields obtained from the Fischer assays are presented in both Grapher and PDF format. Fischer assay text data files are also included in the CD-ROM.

  16. Geophysics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides resources for teaching geophysics. It includes a collection of teaching activities, internet resources, and a geophysical instrument registry and information from a workshop held in 2007 that focused on teaching geophysics.

  17. Mineralogic variation in drill core UE25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Chipera; D. T. Vaniman; B. A. Carlos; D. L. Bish

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction methods have been used to analyze 108 samples from drill core UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This drill hole, located within the imbricate fault zone east of the potential Yucca Mountain repository site, confirms the authors` previous knowledge of gross-scale mineral distributions at Yucca Mountain and provides insight into possible shallow pathways for hydrologic recharge

  18. Volatiles in glasses from the HSDP2 drill core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Seaman; Sarah Bean Sherman; Michael O. Garcia; Michael B. Baker; Brian Balta; Edward Stolper

    2004-01-01

    H2O, CO2, S, Cl, and F concentrations are reported for 556 glasses from the submarine section of the 1999 phase of HSDP drilling in Hilo, Hawaii, providing a high-resolution record of magmatic volatiles over ?200 kyr of a Hawaiian volcano's lifetime. Glasses range from undegassed to having lost significant volatiles at near-atmospheric pressure. Nearly all hyaloclastite glasses are degassed, compatible

  19. Calibration of Mobile NMR Instruments in Respect to Porosity and Pore Size Distribution of Drill Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J.; Anferova, S.; Anferov, V.; Pechnig, R.; Bluemich, B.; Clauser, C.

    2004-12-01

    The focus of our research is set on the calibration of two different and new developed light weight mobile NMR scanning systems: (1) the NMR-MOUSE and (2) the HALBACH device for measuring porosity and pore size distribution of different drill cores recovered from the International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). Further goals are to adapt current NMR processing techniques, the development of new measurement routines, and to evaluate precision and accuracy of this method. Transverse relaxation on water-saturated drill cores were measured using a CPMG sequence. A regularized Laplace transform analysis based on the UPEN program yields the distribution of transverse relaxation times. The signal amplitudes and the integrals of distribution correlate directly to the core porosity. The main advantage of our mobile NMR scanning systems compared to conventional methods is their small size and weight, which is particularly attractive for the shipboard use and on any drilling platform envisioned for IODP. Both tools, the NMR-MOUSE and the HALBACH scanner are suitable for routine measurements of porosity and pore-size distribution of drill core sections. In contrast to the NMR-MOUSE, the HALBACH tool has a sufficiently homogeneous magnetic field and is more sensitive. It can determine porosities as low as 3 %. While the NMR-MOUSE can be applied on core sections of any geometry, the Halbach tool is especially designed for the size of standard drill cores recovered from the deep sea ocean floor by the IODP. Combined with a mobile NMR spectrometer and special software for porosity and pore size distribution measurements, both light and mobile devices are particularly attractive for the use on research vessels and logging platforms and thus alow to determine prosity and permeability on very fresh material.

  20. Alteration of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase 1 Drill Core 1. Description and paragenesis

    E-print Network

    Walton, Anthony W.; Schiffman, Peter

    2003-05-01

    % of the core drilled from a 3.06 km- deep hole on the south east flank of Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project-2, 2000; referred to subsequently as HSDP-2). From approximately 1080 mbsl to the bottom, the core contained submarine lithologies... in the initial report from the project [DePaolo et al., 2000]. The samples we studied are all believed to come from eruptions of Mauna Kea or satellite vents of that volcano. Sample depths and some petrographic information are included in Table 1. 3...

  1. -RIS-M-2210 KVANE -A KVANEFJELD DRILL CORE DATABASE

    E-print Network

    were 70 holes with a total core length of approximately 10460 meters (fig. 1). Among these holes only a few are inclined with various dips while the rest are vertical. Each sample represents a one meter

  2. Diaplectic transformation of minerals: Vorotilov drill core, Puchezh-Katunki impact crater, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, V. I.

    1992-01-01

    The Vorotilov core was drilled in the central uplift of the Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme to a depth of 5.1 km. Impactites are revealed in the rocks of the core beginning from a depth of 366 m: suevites (66 m), allogenic breccias (112 m), and autogenic breccias (deeper than 544 m). These rocks are represented by shocked-metamorphic gneisses, schists, amphibolites of Archean age, and magmatic rocks (dolerites, olivines, and peridotites) that lie between them.

  3. ESR detection of seismic frictional heating events in the Nojima fault drill core samples, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuro Fukuchi; Jun-ichiro Yurugi; Noboru Imai

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the Nojima fault NIED 1800 m drill core samples by ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) to detect seismic frictional heating events, especially during the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Dark gray fault gouge with foliation >10 cm away from the fault plane at about 1140 m in depth, which was produced by ancient fault movements, has a FMR (ferrimagnetic resonance) signal. Heating experiments

  4. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Goff; F. E. Goff; G. H. Heiken; W. A. Duffield; C. J. Janik

    1994-01-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources

  5. A summary of Brunhes paleomagnetic field variability recorded in Ocean Drilling Program cores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Lund; Joseph S. Stoner; James E. T. Channell; Gary Acton

    2006-01-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has recovered many long sediment sequences from around the World that contain medium to high-resolution paleomagnetic records of Brunhes age. These records have provided an important new global view of geomagnetic field variability during ‘stable’ magnetic (dipole) polarity that could not be recovered by conventional terrestrial or deep-sea piston coring. The ODP paleomagnetic records of

  6. The remarkable chemical uniformity of Apollo 16 layered deep drill core section 60002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, D. F.; Philpotts, J. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Atomic absorption and colorimetric spectrophotometers were used to determine major- and minor-element abundances in 12 samples from layered section 60002 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. It is suggested that gardening of a relatively thick local unit produced the layering in this section in such a manner that the proportions of materials of different compositions remained virtually unchanged.

  7. Al-26 depth profile in Apollo 15 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is used in a study of galactic cosmic ray production profiles based on cosmic ray-produced Al-26 in the Apollo 15 long core. The results, which are in general agreement with earlier nondestructive counting data, are of significantly higher precision, yet systematically lower. The half-attenuation length for Al-26 production is presently calculated to be 122 g/sq cm, after normalizing the data to average chemical composition.

  8. The Apollo 17 drill core - Chemical systematics of grain size fractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Lepel, E. A.; Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Data for 35 major, minor, and trace elements in 40 bulk and size fractions of core 70005-70003 (140-250 cm) are presented. The core is heterogeneous with depth. Moreover, the 1000 to 90 micron coarse fractions are nearly identical but quite different from the less than 20 micron fine fraction. The bulk soil chemistry is governed by the coarse fractions, because of their greater weight proportion in the sample. The 1000-90 micron fraction contains more ilmenite basalt and less orange glass components than the 90-20 micron fraction. The less than 20 micron fraction is consistently enriched in highland material at all depths in the drill core.

  9. The PASADO core processing strategy — A proposed new protocol for sediment core treatment in multidisciplinary lake drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlendorf, Christian; Gebhardt, Catalina; Hahn, Annette; Kliem, Pierre; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2011-07-01

    Using the ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) deep lake drilling expedition no. 5022 as an example, we describe core processing and sampling procedures as well as new tools developed for subsampling. A manual core splitter is presented that is (1) mobile, (2) able to cut plastic core liners lengthwise without producing swarf of liner material and (3) consists of off-the-shelf components. In order to improve the sampling of sediment cores, a new device, the core sampling assembly (CSA), was developed that meets the following targets: (1) the partitioning of the sediment into discs of equal thickness is fast and precise, (2) disturbed sediment at the inner surface of the liner is discarded during this sampling process, (3) usage of the available sediment is optimised, (4) subsamples are volumetric and oriented, and (5) identical subsamples are taken. The CSA can be applied to D-shaped split sediment cores of any diameter and consists of a divider and a D-shaped scoop. The sampling plan applied for ICDP expedition 5022 is illustrated and may be used as a guideline for planning the efficient partitioning of sediment amongst different lake research groups involved in multidisciplinary projects. For every subsample, the use of quality flags is suggested (1) to document the sample condition, (2) to give a first sediment classification and (3) to guarantee a precise adjustment of logging and scanning data with data determined on individual samples. Based on this, we propose a protocol that might be applied across lake drilling projects in order to facilitate planning and documentation of sampling campaigns and to ensure a better comparability of results.

  10. The ICDP Hotspot Scientific Drilling Program: Overview of geophysical logging and seismic imaging through basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Liberty, L. M.; Kessler, J. A.; Kueck, J.; Kofman, R. S.; Bishop, R. A.; Shervais, J. W.; Evans, J. P.; Champion, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    The recently completed ICDP Hotspot drilling program consisted of drilling of three scientific drill holes each to at least 1800 m depth across the Snake River Plain of Idaho. The three boreholes include i) Kimama: thick sequences of basalt flows with sediment interbeds; ii) Kimberley: near surface basalt flows overlying rhyolite deposits, and iii) Mountain Home: geothermally altered basalts overlain by lacustrine sediments. The program consisted of high resolution 2D surface tied to vertical and walk-a-way borehole seismic profiles and an extensive suite of full waveform sonic, ultrasonic televiewer, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and hydrogen index neutron logging. There are a number of highlights out of this work. First, seismic imaging beneath basalt flows is a classic problem in reflection seismology and has long been believed to be due to rapid attenuation of the downgoing seismic pulse. Here, however, we observed strong arrivals at all depths suggesting that seismic energy is penetrating such formations and that issues in imaging may be a result of the heterogeneous nature of the formations. Second, the neutron log responses correlate well with the structure of individual basalt flows. High and low backscattered neutron counts correspond to massive low porosity basalt rock and with the higher porosity and sediment filled flow tops, respectively. Third, the ultrasonic borehole televiewer information is being used to orient the nearly complete sets of core in order to obtain information on the azimuths of natural and drilling induced core fractures. This together with examination of borehole breakouts and drilling induced tensile fractures on the wellbore wall will allow for semi-quantitative stress estimates across the Snake River Plain. Finally, the Mountain Home borehole provides an unique opportunity to study the geothermally altered basalts. There are a number of correlations between, for example, the sonic and electrical logs that must relate to the style of alteration.

  11. Integration of various geophysical data with geological and geochemical data to determine additional drilling for copper exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, three data-driven methods (i.e., Bayesian, k-nearest neighbour (k-nn) and neural network classifiers) are used to generate a prospectivity map for porphyry-Cu deposits. Different data layers of geological, geophysical and geochemical themes are integrated to evaluate the Now Chun porphyry-Cu deposit, located in the Kerman province of Iran, and to prepare a prospectivity map for mineral exploration. Both the Bayesian and k-nn methods showed correct classification rates (CCR) of 52.38% for 21 boreholes divided into five classes. Three types of the neural networks including multi-layer perceptron, radial based function (RBF) and probabilistic neural network are applied to evaluate the result. Among neural networks used, the RBF neural network generated the highest CCR equal to 80.95%. Multi-classification of the prospect for detailed study could increase the resolution of the prospectivity map and decrease the drilling risk.

  12. Core formation, evolution, and convection: A geophysical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A model is proposed for the formation and evolution of the Earth's core which provides an adequate energy source for maintaining the geodynamo. A modified inhomogeneous accretion model is proposed which leads to initial iron and refractory enrichment at the center of the planet. The probable heat source for melting of the core is the decay of Al. The refractory material is emplaced irregularly in the lowermost mantle with uranium and thorium serving as a long lived heat source. Fluid motions in the core are driven by the differential heating from above and the resulting cyclonic motions may be the source of the geodynamo.

  13. Core formation, evolution, and convection - A geophysical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A model for the formation and evolution of the earth's core, which provides an adequate energy source for maintaining the geodynamo, is proposed. A modified inhomogeneous accretion model is proposed which leads to initial iron and refractory enrichment at the center of the planet. The probable heat source for melting of the core is the decay of Al-26. The refractory material is emplaced irregularly in the lowermost mantle with uranium and thorium serving as a long-lived heat source. Fluid motions in the core are driven by the differential heating from above and the resulting cyclonic motions may be the source of the geodynamo.

  14. Chemistry and petrology of size fractions of Apollo 17 deep drill core 70009-70006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S.

    1978-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to examine 34 major, minor and trace elements in 48 bulk soils and size fractions (90-1000 microns, 20-90 microns and less than 20 microns) of the Apollo 17 deep drill core sections 70009-70006 (upper 130 cm). Modal data were also obtained for the less than 20 micron size fraction. Preliminary results indicate that (1) the chemistry of the greater than 90 micron and 20-90 micron coarse fractions is identical but quite different from the less than 20 micron fine fraction; (2) the upper 50 cm of the drill core is highly enriched in mare material; (3) the dominant source of highland material is KREEPy instead of anorthositic; and (4) indigenous volatiles such as Zn are quite high in all size fractions.

  15. The Apollo 17 drill core - Modal petrology and glass chemistry /sections 70007, 70008, 70009/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of modal petrography the upper, mare basalt-rich portion of the Apollo 17 drill core (sections 70007, 70008, 70009) can be subdivided into three major stratigraphic units. The lower unit (a) falls within 70007, is relatively mature, and contains evidence of an increase in highland component and decrease of mare component within the lower approximately 8 cm. The middle unit (b) is coarse-grained and relatively immature; this unit has the highest concentration of mare basalt lithic and mineral fragments and mare orange/black glasses. The top unit (c) falls within 70009 and is relatively mature. Within these three sections of the drill core, there are compositional clusters of glass beads that correspond to high Ti subfloor basalt (orange/black glass), anorthositic gabbro (clear glass), and a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt (yellow/green glass).

  16. Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice. PMID:24450335

  17. Core Cracking and Hydrothermal Circulation Profoundly Affect Ceres' Geophysical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2014-11-01

    The dwarf planet (1)Ceres is about to be visited by the Dawn spacecraft [1]. In addition to a recent report of water vapor emission [2], observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock [3,4].Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code [5], we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia [4], by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The heating effect from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via “temperature resets”, global cooling events lasting ~50 Myr, followed by ~1 Gyr periods during which Ceres' interior is nearly isothermal and its hydrosphere largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) suggests that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter [1] could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.References:[1] Russell C. T. & Raymond C. A. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 3-23.[2] Küppers M. et al. (2014) Nature 505, 525-527.[3] Rivkin A. et al. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 95-116.[4] Castillo-Rogez J. C. & McCord T. B. (2010) Icarus 205, 443-459.[5] Neveu M., Desch S. J. & Castillo-Rogez J. C., submitted.

  18. Revised magnetostratigraphic chronologies for New Harbour drill cores, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary

    2012-02-01

    The Taylor Valley (DVDP-10, -11) and Ferrar Fiord (CIROS-2) drill cores offer a window into the evolution of southern Victoria Land glaciers and the Antarctic climate system during the late-Neogene. Here we present new magnetostratigraphic chronologies, which we use to correlate the drill core successions with onshore dry-valleys geomorphic records and offshore deep-ocean records. Magnetostratigraphies were constructed using stepwise AF and/or thermal demagnetisation of discrete specimens from the drill cores. Correlation of magnetostratigraphies with the magnetic polarity timescale was guided by biostratigraphic and radiometric constraints. We recognise five styles of sedimentation in the Taylor/Ferrar fiords, which we correlate with discrete climate phases. During the latest Miocene-early Pliocene, wet based glaciers filled the Taylor and Ferrar fiords with active sedimentation in the Taylor Fiord and erosion of basement rocks in the Ferrar Fiord. Glaciers retreated during the Pliocene warm period leaving open marine conditions and deep fiords (> 300 m) at a time when the Ross Sea was free of ice and sea surface temperatures around Antarctica were at least 5 °C warmer than today. We recognise the first significant cooling in DVDP-11 post 2.6 Ma by a shift to current winnowed sediments sourced from the Ross Sea rather than from East Antarctic glaciers. Post 1.7 Ma, lacustrine sediments were deposited behind ice-dammed lakes, which formed when West Antarctic ice expanded and grounded across the Ross Embayment and abutted the Transantarctic Mountains.

  19. Reprint of: Revised magnetostratigraphic chronologies for New Harbour drill cores, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The Taylor Valley (DVDP-10, -11) and Ferrar Fiord (CIROS-2) drill cores offer a window into the evolution of southern Victoria Land glaciers and the Antarctic climate system during the late-Neogene. Here we present new magnetostratigraphic chronologies, which we use to correlate the drill core successions with onshore dry-valleys geomorphic records and offshore deep-ocean records. Magnetostratigraphies were constructed using stepwise AF and/or thermal demagnetisation of discrete specimens from the drill cores. Correlation of magnetostratigraphies with the magnetic polarity timescale was guided by biostratigraphic and radiometric constraints. We recognise five styles of sedimentation in the Taylor/Ferrar fiords, which we correlate with discrete climate phases. During the latest Miocene-early Pliocene, wet based glaciers filled the Taylor and Ferrar fiords with active sedimentation in the Taylor Fiord and erosion of basement rocks in the Ferrar Fiord. Glaciers retreated during the Pliocene warm period leaving open marine conditions and deep fiords (> 300 m) at a time when the Ross Sea was free of ice and sea surface temperatures around Antarctica were at least 5 °C warmer than today. We recognise the first significant cooling in DVDP-11 post 2.6 Ma by a shift to current winnowed sediments sourced from the Ross Sea rather than from East Antarctic glaciers. Post 1.7 Ma, lacustrine sediments were deposited behind ice-dammed lakes, which formed when West Antarctic ice expanded and grounded across the Ross Embayment and abutted the Transantarctic Mountains.

  20. Core drilling provides information about Santa Fe Group aquifer system beneath Albuquerque's West Mesa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, B.D.; Connell, S.D.; Hawley, J.W.; Stone, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Core samples from the upper ???1500 ft of the Santa Fe Group in the Albuquerque West Mesa area provide a first-hand look at the sediments and at subsurface stratigraphic relationships in this important part of the basin-fill aquifer system. Two major hydrostratigraphic subunits consisting of a lower coarse-grained, sandy interval and an overlying fine-grained, interbedded silty sand and clay interval lie beneath the water table at the 98th St core hole. Borehole electrical conductivity measurements reproduce major textural changes observed in the recovered cores and support subsurface correlations of hydrostratigraphic units in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system based on geophysical logs. Comparison of electrical logs from the core hole and from nearby city wells reveals laterally consistent lithostratigraphic patterns over much of the metropolitan area west of the Rio Grande that may be used to delineate structural and related stratigraphic features that have a direct bearing on the availability of ground water.

  1. First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC-1): Drilling report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.; Hawkins, W.; Gardner, J. (comps.)

    1987-02-01

    This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at Long Valley, California; Salton Sea, California; and the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy of the core hole, core quality description, core rig specifications, and performance. It is intended to guide future research on the core and in the borehole, as well as have applications to other areas and scientific problems in the Valles Caldera. The primary objectives of this Valles Caldera coring effort were (1) to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow, (2) to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations in the southern ring-fracture zone, and (3) to obtain continuous core samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito rhyolite (approximately 0.1 Ma). All objectives were met. The high percentage of core recovery and the excellent quality of the samples are especially notable. New field sample (core) handling and documentation procedures were successfully utilized. The procedures were designed to provide consistent field handling of the samples and logs obtained through the national CSDP.

  2. A Long Record of Tropical Glaciation and Climate Change in Drill Cores From Lake Titicaca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzer, G.; Baker, P.; Fritz, S.; Arnold, K.; Ballantine, A.; Tapia, P.; Veliz, C.

    2001-12-01

    A long and continuous continental record of climate change from the tropics could provide a measure of climate variability and pacing comparable to marine and high-latitude terrestrial records. Lake Titicaca (16° S, 69° W), one of the largest extant lakes in South America, is located at 3810 m between the eastern and western cordillera of the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes. In April-May 2001 we used the GLAD800 drill rig to recover 625 m of sediment core from three sites in the lake. Our principal drill site in 235 m water depth yielded a 136 m core. Five intervals of sediments high in magnetic susceptibility are separated by thinner intervals of sediments with low magnetic susceptibility characterized by relatively high organic (0.2 to 12.9%) and inorganic carbon (0.2 to 9.8%). Radiocarbon analysis of bulk organic matter from the core catchers indicates that the most recent interval of high magnetic susceptibility lasted from ca. 22,000 to <52,000 14C yr BP. Our previous work on piston cores from Lake Titicaca indicated that sediments high in magnetic susceptibility and low in organic carbon were associated with a greater influx of glacially derived silts from the neighboring cordillera. In contrast, sediments with high organic and inorganic carbon and low magnetic susceptibility represented time periods when glaciers had retreated and perhaps disappeared entirely from the watershed. We believe that the stratigraphic variations in the new drill cores from Lake Titicaca represent at least five periods of glaciation in the tropical Andes. Diatom and geochemical analysis of piston cores from Lake Titicaca also indicated that wet climatic conditions prevailed during the most recent glaciation. However, the extent of glaciation in the tropics is highly constrained by mean monthly temperatures that are relatively constant throughout the year. Thus glaciers can only expand significantly when there is also a reduction in mean annual temperature. The most recent period of glaciation and the older glacial phases represented in the stratigraphy of the new drill cores were probably associated with both colder and wetter conditions than today. In contrast, the interglacials/interstadials were characterized by warmer and drier conditions, including significant drops in lake level.

  3. Quaternary paleoceanography of the central Arctic based on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Arctic Coring Expedition 302 foraminiferal assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Smith, S.A.; Eynaud, F.; O'Regan, M.; King, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) Hole 4C from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean recovered a continuous 18 in record of Quaternary foraminifera yielding evidence for seasonally ice-free interglacials during the Matuyama, progressive development of large glacials during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) ???1.2-0.9 Ma, and the onset of high-amplitude 100-ka orbital cycles ???500 ka. Foraminiferal preservation in sediments from the Arctic is influenced by primary (sea ice, organic input, and other environmental conditions) and secondary factors (syndepositional, long-term pore water dissolution). Taking these into account, the ACEX 4C record shows distinct maxima in agglutinated foraminiferal abundance corresponding to several interglacials and deglacials between marine isotope stages (MIS) 13-37, and although less precise dating is available for older sediments, these trends appear to continue through the Matuyama. The MPT is characterized by nearly barren intervals during major glacials (MIS 12, 16, and 22-24) and faunal turnover (MIS 12-24). Abundant calcareous planktonic (mainly Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sin.) and benthic foraminifers occur mainly in interglacial intervals during the Brunhes and very rarely in the Matuyama. A distinct faunal transition from calcareous to agglutinated foraminifers 200-300 ka in ACEX 4C is comparable to that found in Arctic sediments from the Lomonosov, Alpha, and Northwind ridges and the Morris Jesup Rise. Down-core disappearance of calcareous taxa is probably related to either reduced sea ice cover prior to the last few 100-ka cycles, pore water dissolution, or both. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Geochemistry of drill core headspace gases and its significance in gas hydrate drilling in Qilian Mountain permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhengquan; Rao, Zhu; He, Jiaxiong; Zhu, Youhai; Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ting; Xue, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Headspace gases from cores are sampled in the gas hydrate drilling well DK-8 in the Qilian Mountain permafrost. Gas components and carbon isotopes of methane from headspace gas samples are analyzed. The geochemical features of the headspace gases along the well profile are compared with occurrences of gas hydrate, and with the distribution of faults or fractures. Their geochemical significance is finally pointed out in gas hydrate occurrences and hydrocarbon migration. Results show high levels of hydrocarbon concentrations in the headspace gases at depths of 149-167 m, 228-299 m, 321-337 m and 360-380 m. Visible gas hydrate and its associated anomalies occur at 149-167 m and 228-299 m; the occurrence of high gas concentrations in core headspace gases was correlated to gas hydrate occurrences and their associated anomalies, especially in the shallow layers. Gas compositions, gas ratios of C1/?C1-5, C1/(C2 + C3), iC4/nC4, and iC5/nC5, and carbon isotopic compositions of methane (?13C1, PDB‰) indicate that the headspace gases are mainly thermogenic, partly mixed with biodegraded thermogenic sources with small amounts derived from microbial sources. Faults or fracture zones are identified at intervals of 149-167 m, 228-299 m, 321-337 m, and near 360-380 m; significantly higher gas concentrations and lower dryness ratio were found in the headspace gases within the fault or fracture zones compared with areas above these zones. In the shallow zones, low dryness ratios were observed in headspace gases in zones where gas hydrate and faults or fracture zones were found, suggesting that faults or fracture zones serve as migration paths for gases in the deep layers and provide accumulation space for gas hydrate in the shallow layers of the Qilian Mountain permafrost.

  5. Strike-dip determination of fractures in drill cores by an astatic-magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, M.; Furutani, N.

    1982-10-01

    The strike and dip of fractures in drillcores from Well HT-4 drilled in the Hatchobaru geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan, have been determined using an astatic-magnetometer. Since the drill cores consist mainly of younger andesite lavas, the measurements of the declination and inclination of remnant magnetism should yield the strike and dip of the fractures. The results show that they dip generally southward with angles from 40/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ (62.5 on the average), and strike NW-SE or NE-SW. The NW-SE trending fractures predominate in the Pleistocene series, which persists at depths shallower than 1000 m, while the NE-SW trending ones occur in the Neogene system at deeper levels, and are considered to be older than the former. The stress field can also be estimated by the strike-dip data and the direction of lineation on a slickenside.

  6. Procedures for use of, and drill cores and cuttings available for study at, the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.C.; Hannula, S.R.; Bowers, B.

    1997-03-01

    In 1990, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, established the Lithologic Core Storage Library at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The facility was established to consolidate, catalog, and permanently store nonradioactive drill cores and cuttings from investigations of the subsurface conducted at the INEL, and to provide a location for researchers to examine, sample, and test these materials. The facility is open by appointment to researchers for examination, sampling, and testing of cores and cuttings. This report describes the facility and cores and cuttings stored at the facility. Descriptions of cores and cuttings include the well names, well locations, and depth intervals available. Most cores and cuttings stored at the facility were drilled at or near the INEL, on the eastern Snake River Plain; however, two cores drilled on the western Snake River Plain are stored for comparative studies. Basalt, rhyolite, sedimentary interbeds, and surficial sediments compose the majority of cores and cuttings, most of which are continuous from land surface to their total depth. The deepest core stored at the facility was drilled to 5,000 feet below land surface. This report describes procedures and researchers` responsibilities for access to the facility, and examination, sampling, and return of materials.

  7. Geophysics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Slaymaker

    This website contains abbreviated course notes from a geophysics class at California State University at Sacramento. The notes contain topic summaries and formulas, including gravity, Newton's laws, radioactivity, radioactive decay, Rb/Sr dating, Uranium-Thorium-Lead dating, uses of Lead, fission-track dating, Potassium-Argon dating, Carbon dating, heat, magnetism, seismology and earthquake prediction.

  8. Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  9. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling risks and costs. This procedure enables a timely, efficient and accurate data access and exchange among the rig site data acquisition system, office-based software applications and data storage. The loading of real-time data has to be quick and efficient in order to refine the model and learn the lessons for the next drilling operations.

  10. Rare gases and Ca, Sr, and Ba in Apollo 17 drill-core fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.; Dragon, J. C.; Johnson, N. L.; Bates, A.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Trapped gas isotopic compositions and spallation gas concentrations as functions of depth in the Apollo 17 drill core were determined from mass spectrometer studies by means of correlation techniques. The distribution of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe as well as Ca, Sr, and Ba was investigated, and rare-gas spallation and neutron capture profiles are compared with attention to proposed depositional models for the Taurus-Littrow regolith. The data exclude a sedimentation pattern similar to that found at the Apollo 15 site but are possibly compatible with long-term continuous accretion models or models of very recent rapid accumulation of regolith.

  11. Characterization and depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Gose, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    With a depth resolution of about 0.5 cm, the stratigraphy of the approximately 3 m Apollo 17 deep drill core by measurement of the total FeO concentration is characterized along with the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index Is/FeO, the metallic iron concentration Fe-vsm, and the FMR linewidth delta-H. For stratigraphic characterization, the first two parameters are the most important. Most of the core is characterized by a FeO concentration of approximately 15.5 wt. %; there is a more mafic zone in the upper approximately 75 cm where the maximum FeO concentration is approximately 18.5 wt. %, and a more felsic zone between approximately 225 and 260 cm where the minimum FeO concentration is approximately 14.0%. As indicated by Is/FeO, most of the soil in the core is submature to mature; the only immature zone is located between approximately 20 and 60 cm and is one of the most distinctive features in the core. A two stage model for the depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core is proposed: (1) deposition by one event approximately 110 m.y. ago or deposition by a sequence of closely spaced events initating a maximum of approximately 200 m.y. ago and terminating approximately 110 m.y. ago, (2) in situ reworking (gardening) to a depth of approximately 26 cm in the period between approximately 110 m.y. ago and the present day.

  12. Interrelating the breakage and composition of mined and drill core coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Terril Edward

    Particle size distribution of coal is important if the coal is to be beneficiated, or if a coal sales contract includes particle size specifications. An exploration bore core sample of coal ought to be reduced from its original cylindrical form to a particle size distribution and particle composition that reflects, insofar as possible, a process stream of raw coal it represents. Often, coal cores are reduced with a laboratory crushing machine, the product of which does not match the raw coal size distribution. This study proceeds from work in coal bore core reduction by Australian investigators. In this study, as differentiated from the Australian work, drop-shatter impact breakage followed by dry batch tumbling in steel cylinder rotated about its transverse axis are employed to characterize the core material in terms of first-order and zeroth-order breakage rate constants, which are indices of the propensity of the coal to degrade during excavation and handling. Initial drop-shatter and dry tumbling calibrations were done with synthetic cores composed of controlled low-strength concrete incorporating fly ash (as a partial substitute for Portland cement) in order to reduce material variables and conserve difficult-to-obtain coal cores. Cores of three different coalbeds--Illinois No. 6, Upper Freeport, and Pocahontas No. 5 were subjected to drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling tests to determine breakage response. First-order breakage, characterized by a first-order breakage index for each coal, occurred in the drop-shatter tests. First- and zeroth-order breakage occurred in dry batch tumbling; disappearance of coarse particles and creation of fine particles occurred in a systematic way that could be represented mathematically. Certain of the coal cores available for testing were dry and friable. Comparison of coal preparation plant feed with a crushed bore core and a bore core prepared by drop-shatter and tumbling (all from the same Illinois No.6 coal mining property) indicated that the size distribution and size fraction composition of the drop-shattered/tumbled core more closely resembled the plant feed than the crushed core. An attempt to determine breakage parameters (to allow use of selection and breakage functions and population balance models in the description of bore core size reduction) was initiated. Rank determination of the three coal types was done, indicating that higher rank associates with higher breakage propensity. The two step procedure of drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling simulates the first-order (volume breakage) and zeroth-order (abrasion of particle surfaces) that occur in excavation and handling operations, and is appropriate for drill core reduction prior to laboratory analysis.

  13. A shallow ice core re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap, western China: recent changes in the Asian high mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nozomu Takeuchi; Takayuki Miyake; Fumio Nakazawa; Hideki Narita; Koji Fujita; Akiko Sakai; Masayoshi Nakawo; Yoshiyuki Fujii; Keqin Duan; Tandong Yao

    2009-01-01

    A 51 m deep ice core was re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap of western China in 2002, 15 years after the previous ice core drilling in 1987. Dating by seasonal variations in delta18O and particle concentration showed that this 51 m deep ice core covered approximately the last 150 years. The stratigraphy and density showed that more than 90%

  14. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Duffield, W. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (USA)); Martinelli, L.; Aycinena, S. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1990-01-01

    A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater, which has been proposed as the source of pyroxene pumice deposits in the Tecuamburro area. TCB-1 is located 300 m south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco; the core hole penetrates the thin edge of a tuff ring surrounding Ixpaco and zones of hydrothermal brecciation within the upper 150 m may be related to the phreatic blast, dated at 2,910 {sup 14}C years. At the time of this writing, the unequilibrated temperature at a depth of 570m was 180{degree}C. Data on fracturing, permeability, hydrothermal alteration, and temperature will be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Solar and cosmogenic nitrogen in the Apollo 17 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemens, M. H.; Clayton, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    It is established that the greatest distinction in origin of the soils in the Apollo 17 drill core is between the surface layer, down to 25 cm, and the remainder. The surface layer was not derived by the reworking of underlying material, but was deposited from elsewhere. The soils in the core below 25 cm have had similar surface histories, with first exposure to the solar wind 1.0-1.5 million years ago and accumulation of solar wind continuously over hundreds of millions of years thereafter. The soil with the least, and most ancient, surface exposure is 25-60 cm deep, while that with the greatest and most recent exposure, other than the present surface layer, lies at a depth of 110-170 cm. A major stratigraphic sequence disturbance has therefore deposited the soils in their present positions.

  16. Petrographic and ferromagnetic resonance studies of the Apollo 15 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G. H.; Morris, R. V.; Mckay, D. S.; Fruland, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed petrographic grain size, and ferromagnetic resonance studies were performed on a representative suite of samples from the Apollo 15 deep drill core. Petrographic analyses of the 90-150 micron size fraction show a subtle upward increase in the ratio of mare to highland components. The agglutinate content at the FMR intensity normalized to FeO show that the soils in the core are generally immature to submature. The most striking feature shown by the maturity indices is a systematic decrease in maturity from the lunar surface to a depth of about 40 cm. Although other mechanisms are possible, the downward decrease in maturity can be attributed to in situ reworking over a time span of 400 m.y. at a 50% probability.

  17. The Apollo 15 regolith - Comparative petrology of drive tube 15010/15011 and drill core section 15003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Papike, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Two Apollo 15 regolith cores - double drive-tube 15010/15011 and deep drill core section 15003 - were compared. The drive tube was taken from near the edge of Hadley Rille within the mare region and the drill core was taken from the landing site, approximately the same distance as the drive tube from the Apennine Front. Optical modes were done on the two cores, each of which was divided into three stratigraphic units defined by minor differences in grain size and modal abundances. Electron microprobe data were collected on the mineral and glass fragments within each unit. Fused-soil-free bulk chemistries were calculated for each unit by modal recombination, using our modal data and average compositional and density data for soil components. It is found that the drive tube and drill core section are fairly homogeneous units both chemically and modally. Both soils are submature to immature. There are, however, significant differences between the cores. The drill core shows significant enrichments of highland lithic-fragments and highland-derived minerals and glasses relative to the drive tube. These differences are attributed to the fresh nature of the drive tube soil whose major source material is mare basalt ejecta from the shallow bedrock.

  18. Mineralogical and petrological investigations of rocks cored from depths higher than 440m during the CFDDP drilling activities at the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Balassone, Giuseppina; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera is one of the highest-risk volcanic areas on the Earth and the drilling exploiting activities carried by the Azienda Geologica Italiana Petroli (AGIP) and the Società Anonima Forze Endogene Napoletane (SAFEN) since the '40 have produced the main constrains to the definition of the subsurface structure of the caldera. The eastern part of the caldera represents among the least known in the area in terms of both volcanic and geothermal evolution. Recently, in the 2012, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) allowed performing a 506m hole in this sector of the caldera, i.e. in the Bagnoli Plain, where the western districts of the Neapolitan city developed. Here, we present the preliminary results from mineralogical, geochemical and petrological investigations of drilling core samples collected at -443 m and -506 m of depths. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microanalysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) together with investigations by back-scattered electron mode (SEM-BSE), and powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) allowed: 1) defining the primary sample lithology; 2) examining the features of both primary and secondary minerals; 3) describing the relationships among texture and secondary mineralization. Sr isotope analyses were furthermore performed on separated feldspars. Density measurements were also carried out on the bottom core. The investigated samples are representative of strongly altered, massive pyroclastic tuffs, which made of a chaotic ashy to sandy matrix including low crystalline juvenile scoria and pumice fragments. Textural features of secondary mineralization are consistent with circulation of hydrothermal fluids as the results of a wide geothermal resource in the caldera. Comparing the paleo-temperature inferred by authigenic minerals occurrence and the temperature measured at the bottom hole (~60°C) during geophysical logs, we suggest the cooling of the hydrothermal system in the eastern sector of the caldera.

  19. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

  20. Physical properties of the drill core from the El'gygytgyn impact structure, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharaj, Dharmindar; Elbra, Tiiu; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2013-07-01

    The El'gygytgyn impact structure in northeast Russia was drilled in 2008/2009. The 3.5 Ma old structure has a rim-to-rim diameter of 18 km and is the only known impact structure that has been formed on a siliceous volcanic target. The petrophysical, rock- and paleomagnetic properties, including attempted reorientation of samples, along the El'gygytgyn drill core were analyzed. Physical properties, such as bulk density, porosity, seismic velocity, and electrical conductivity, clearly showed the propagation of shock and the associated fracturing. The grain density, however, was probably influenced by the postimpact hydrothermal activity and/or the distribution of impact melt. The highest values of electrical conductivity coincided with higher concentrations of particular metals as indicated by Raschke et al. (2012a). The rock- and paleomagnetic investigations showed iron-titanium oxides with varying oxidation/reduction states as the main magnetic fraction in the core samples and indicated them as carriers for remanent magnetization. With few exceptions, most samples showed normal polarity of characteristic remanent magnetization and confirmed that the impact occurred after the Gauss/Gilbert (approximately 3.596 Ma) reversal. Shallower inclinations than that expected for a 3.5 Ma dipole field were probably due to impact-related block movements and/or compaction.

  1. A first chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, S. O.; Abbott, P. M.; Blunier, T.; Bourne, A. J.; Brook, E.; Buchardt, S. L.; Buizert, C.; Chappellaz, J.; Clausen, H. B.; Cook, E.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Davies, S. M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Laepple, T.; Seierstad, I. K.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Steffensen, J. P.; Stowasser, C.; Svensson, A.; Vallelonga, P.; Vinther, B. M.; Wilhelms, F.; Winstrup, M.

    2013-12-01

    A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core has been derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) and its model extension (GICC05modelext) from the NGRIP core to the NEEM core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) and dielectrical profiling (DEP) records. Tephra horizons found in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the matching based on ECM and DEP and provide five additional horizons used for the timescale transfer. A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard-Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age horizons. In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice age-gas age difference (?age) has been reconstructed using a coupled firn densification-heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the ?age model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to optimize the fit to timing constraints from ?15N of nitrogen and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onset of Greenland interstadials. The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM core, named GICC05modelext-NEEM-1. Based on both the flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history for the NEEM site has been reconstructed. Together, the timescale and accumulation reconstruction provide the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.

  2. Drilling Induced Fracture (DIF) Characterization and Stress Pattern Analysis of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) Core, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patlan, E.; Wilson, T. J.; Millan, C.

    2008-12-01

    There is a significant lack of data about present day stress fields in Antarctica. Stresses provide valuable information data about the forces acting on the plates. In Antarctica, stresses may be related to ridge forces such as rifting and/or uplifting, to ice loading/unloading related processes, or both. This project involves the study of drilling induced fractures from core recovered in the Victoria Land rift basin of Antarctica. Drilling induced fractures form ahead of the drill bit during drilling from stress imbalances due to the removal of excess weight pressure around the rock. Because horizontal stresses strike parallel to the planes made by drilling induced fractures, they can be used to measure modern day stress fields. Whole core images obtained during core logging by digitally scanning the outside of the core are stitched into longer intact intervals. Drilling induced fractures in the core are 'picked' in order to obtain their azimuth. Magnetically oriented acoustic images of the inside of the drill hole are then compare side by side with the stitched whole core images and visually scanned for matching features. Once the same set of fractures is found in the core and the borehole is then possible to rotate to core images to match the orientation of the borehole image. This will result on a core image with all the fractures in that interval re-oriented to true north. This final orientation of drilling induced fractures in the core will thus provide the direction of maximum horizontal compressional stress in this area.

  3. Lithologic and geophysical logs of drill holes Felderhoff Federal 5-1 and 25-1, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.; Grow, J.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Keller, S.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Two wildcat oil and gas exploration holes drilled in 1991 on the northern edge of the Amargosa Desert penetrated Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks, alluvium, and basalt, possible Tertiary volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks, and Tertiary (?) and Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The easternmost of the two holes, Felderhoff-Federal 5-1, encountered about 200 feet of alluvium, underlain by 305 feet of basalt breccia and basalt, about 345 feet of probable Tertiary tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and 616 feet of dense limestone and dolomite of uncertain age. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated 240 feet of alluvium and marl (?), and 250 feet of basalt breccia (?) and basalt, 270 feet of tuff (?) and/or tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, 360 feet of slide blocks (?) and large boulders of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and 2,800 feet of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite. The two drill holes are located within a northerly trending fault zone defined largely by geophysical data; this fault zone lies along the east side of a major rift containing many small basalt eruptive centers and, farther north, several caldera complexes. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated an inverted paleozoic rock sequence; drill hole 5-1 encountered two large cavities 24-inches wide or more in dense carbonate rock of uncertain, but probable Paleozoic age. These openings may be tectonic and controlled by a regional system of northeast-striking faults.

  4. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Petrophysical Properties of Twenty Drill Cores from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.R.; Contreras L., E.; Garcia G., A.; Dominquez A., Bernardo

    1987-01-20

    For this study we selected 20 drill cores covering a wide range of depths (400-3000 m), from 15 wells, that provide a reasonable coverage of the field. Only andesite, the largely predominant rock type in the field, was included in this sample. We measured bulk density, grain (solids) density, effective porosity and (matrix) permeability on a considerable number of specimens taken from the cores; and inferred the corresponding total porosity and fraction of interconnected total porosity. We characterized the statistical distributions of the measured and inferred variables. The distributions of bulk density and grain density resulted approximately normal; the distributions of effective porosity, total porosity and fraction of total porosity turned out to be bimodal; the permeability distribution resulted highly skewed towards very small (1 mdarcy) values, though values as high as 400 mdarcies were measured. We also characterized the internal inhomogeneity of the cores by means of the ratio (standard deviation/mean) corresponding to the bulk density in each core (in average there are 9 specimens per core). The cores were found to present clearly discernible inhomogeneity; this quantitative characterization will help design new experimental work and interpret currently available and forthcoming results. We also found statistically significant linear correlations between total density and density of solids, effective porosity and total density, total porosity and total density, fraction of interconnected total porosity and the inverse of the effective porosity, total porosity and effective porosity; bulk density and total porosity also correlate with elevation. These results provide the first sizable and statistically detailed database available on petrophysical properties of the Los Azufres andesites. 1 tab., 16 figs., 4 refs.

  6. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N. B.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75°37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  7. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms will be reviewed and discussed including the configurations, capabilities, and challenges.

  8. Deformed sediments in the Dead Sea drill core: a long-term palaeoseismic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Shmuel; Kagan, Elisa J.

    2014-05-01

    The lacustrine 70 ka sediments outcropping around the Dead Sea contain superb examples of seismites that were formed at the margins of the lakes in water depths of <100 m. In previous studies we explored the temporal distribution and the physics of seismite formation. Now we examine the drill cores from the depocentre in order to understand how the deep basin sediments reacted to the earthquake vibrations and compare the record with that from the margins. Our interpretation is largely based on our acquaintance with the outcrops, on mechanical analyses, and on modern analogs. We realize that several types of disturbed layers that appear in the cores are seismites that do not appear in the lake margin facies but only at the depocentre, mostly transported material in the form of turbiditic slumps. We recognize numerous slumps of various thicknesses ranging from mm to several decimeters. The allochtonous contribution to the depocentre sediment load results with three times the thickness at the margins. Analyses of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) show mostly sedimentary fabric (vertical K3) or unstable scatter. Standard AMS analysis procedure requires multiple sampling for each level, but we can only recover one specimen. Therefore, we regard the results inconclusive. The main product of this stage is an inventory of all the features in the cores that we suspect to be seismites.

  9. Very low Ti /VLT/ basalts - A new mare rock type from the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Phaneritic fragments, vitrophyres, and glass beads of a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt are found in the Apollo 17 drill core. VLT lithic fragments are characterized by TiO2 content of approximately 0.5%, Mg/(Mg + Fe) of approximately 0.52, CaO/Al2O3 of approximately 0.9, and low alkali content. Although mineral systematics and modal composition of VLT basalt are similar to Apollo 12 and 15 low Ti basalts, VLT basalts cannot be related to these mare basalts by crystal fractionation. Since VLT basalt is isochemical with some of the less mafic green glasses, fractionation of VLT magma from a liquid of green-glass composition is a possibility. Spectral reflectance studies suggest that VLT-type basalts may be relatively common in mare basins.

  10. Petrography of shock features in the 1953 Manson 2-A drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Gold, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    Drilling of Nx core in late 1953 into an anomalous zone of disturbed rocks northwest of Manson, Iowa disclosed presence of extensive breccias including crystalline rocks brought to the surface from depths of 4 km or more. Hole 2-A penetrated breccias dominated by leucocratic igneous and metamorphic lithologies, later interpreted to be part of a general ringed peak complex within a 35 km wide impact structure produced about 65 Ma ago. Proof of this origin was given in 1966 by NMS through recognition of shock metamorphic features in 2-A materials during a cursory examination of samples provided by R.A. Hoppin, University of Iowa. A detailed study of this material now underway has revealed that most breccia clasts in 2-A show abundant and varied evidence of shock damage, including extensive planar deformation features (PDF) in quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and a pyroxene and varying degrees of isotropization and incipient melting in feldspars.

  11. Petrology and geochemistry of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Nielsen, R. L.; Drake, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Petrological and geochemical analysis of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core showed these fragments to fall into the essentially the same range of rock types as observed in surface soil samples and large rock samples. Three particles are singled out as being of special interest. One sample is a mare basalt containing extremely evolved phases. The particle may represent small-scale imperfect crystal/liquid separation in a lava flow. A green glass particle is not the ultramafic emerald green glass described from the Apollo 15 site, but rather an ANT-like light green color, and has a quite different chemical composition from the ultramafic variety. One mare basalt displays a positive Eu anomaly and is enriched in plagioclase relative to olivine plus pyroxene.

  12. Earthquakes and Ice Cores Point to Wet Feet at the NorthGRIP Deep Drill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Gundestrup, N. S.

    2001-12-01

    A seismic broadband station was placed at the NorthGRIP deep drill site (75N, 42W) on the Greenland Ice Cap for the summer 2000. During the 2 month acquisition period 15 earthquakes with sufficient quality for Receiver Function analysis aimed at crust and mantle structure under NorthGRIP were recorded. The models are consistent with the presence of a thin sedimentary layer at the base of the ice. The seismic velocities in the sediments are lower than in the ice, indicating wet sediments. The results from the deep drilling program reveal high basal temperatures at the base of the 3080 m thick ice at NorthGRIP. The measured temperatures and the observed layer thickness' in the ice core indicate that there is basal melting of the order of 5 mm /yr. and that the geothermal heatflow is of the order of 100 mW/m2 (REF), much higher than expected. A detailed radio echo mapping of the bedrock show that NorthGRIP is located in a large, flat-bottomed valley, suggesting that the sediments observed are lacustrine. The thin layer of sediments cannot account for the unexpected high heatflow causing equally unexpected basal melting. The geology is presumed to be Precambrian. Heatflow determined in a similar way at the GRIP deep drill site (73N, 38W) is 51 mW/ m2 (Dahl-Jensen et al, 1998), more in line with expected values. Magnetic anomaly data do not indicate any volcanic structures, which could help explain the high heatflow. Gravity anomaly data show that NorthGRIP is located at the edge of marked gravity discontinuity. The cause of the discontinuity is not known, but "edge effects" could be speculated upon to be the cause of the high heatflow. D. Dahl-Jensen, N. Gundestrup, H. Miller, O. Watanabe, S.J. Johnsen, J.P. Steffensen, H.B. Clausen, A. Svensson, L.B. Larsen in press: The NorthGRIP drilling program. Annals of Glaciology, vol 35 D. Dahl-Jensen, K Mosegaard, N. Grundestrup, G.D. Clow, S.J. Johnson and N. Balling 1998: Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 282 pp 268-271

  13. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75° 37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that a deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  14. Spherule Size Distribution in the BARB5 ICDP Drill Core from the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehnel, D.; Mohr-Westheide, T.; Fritz, J.; Reimold, W. U.

    2014-09-01

    On the four 4 cm thick spherule layers of the ICDP BARB5 drill core grain size analysis has been performed. The grain size statistics do not indicate regular decrease of spherule sizes, so do not represent a single impact bed.

  15. Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Ishii, H.; Yamauchi, T.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China Jiren Xu1 (+86-10-68992879; xujiren@ccsd.org.cn) Zhixin Zhao1 (+86-10-68999734; zhaozhixin@ccsd.org.cn) Hiroshi Ishii2 (+81-0572-67-3105; ishii@tries.gr.jp Tsuneo Yamauchi3 (+81-052-789-3045; yamauchi@seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp) 1 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China 2 Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES), Japan 3 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) site is located in the Donghai area of the Dabie-Sulu belt, which is the largest UHPM belt in the world. The drilling of the main borehole with 5000m will finish in next year. Three satellite boreholes, PP1, PP2 and PP3 were drilled and various surveys have been performed in the Donghai area about 6 years ago. We are going to install a newly developed Multi-component Instrument for borehole observations in main hole near the large Tanlu fault, and establish a long-term underground observation laboratory, which is the first noiseless one in China. The seismic activity and various geophysical fields, viz. strain, geomagnetism, geothermy, tilt, pore pressure etc. will be investigated. Data from the underground laboratory will be open to scientific, engineering and public services. We will measure the initial stress in various depths of the borehole by overcoring method using a new developed wireless intelligent type strainmeter of in-situ stress. Establishing a long-term noiseless underground observation laboratory at deep borehole and investigating crustal movement in East China are important for observing the physical conditions of the earth¡_s interior and solving many social problems, such as resources, disasters and environment. Multiple geophysical observations and the study in deep borehole will speed up and develop the study on tectonics and geodynamics. The accomplishment of this project may enrich the knowledge on the geophysics and geology.

  16. Yucatan Subsurface Stratigraphy from Geophysical Data, Well Logs and Core Analyses in the Chicxulub Impact Crater and Implications for Target Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, I.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Camargo, A. Z.; Perez-Cruz, G.

    2011-12-01

    Asymmetries in the geophysical signature of Chicxulub crater are being evaluated to investigate on effects of impact angle and trajectory and pre-existing target structural controls for final crater form. Early studies interpreted asymmetries in the gravity anomaly in the offshore sector to propose oblique either northwest- and northeast-directed trajectories. An oblique impact was correlated to the global ejecta distribution and enhanced environmental disturbance. In contrast, recent studies using marine seismic data and computer modeling have shown that crater asymmetries correlate with pre-existing undulations of the Cretaceous continental shelf, suggesting a structural control of target heterogeneities. Documentation of Yucatan subsurface stratigraphy has been limited by lack of outcrops of pre-Paleogene rocks. The extensive cover of platform carbonate rocks has not been affected by faulting or deformation and with no rivers cutting the carbonates, information comes mainly from the drilling programs and geophysical surveys. Here we revisit the subsurface stratigraphy in the crater area from the well log data and cores retrieved in the drilling projects and marine seismic reflection profiles. Other source of information being exploited comes from the impact breccias, which contain a sampling of disrupted target sequences, including crystalline basement and Mesozoic sediments. We analyze gravity and seismic data from the various exploration surveys, including multiple Pemex profiles in the platform and the Chicxulub experiments. Analyses of well log data and seismic profiles identify contacts for Lower Cretaceous, Cretaceous/Jurassic and K/Pg boundaries. Results show that the Cretaceous continental shelf was shallower on the south and southwest than on the east, with emerged areas in Quintana Roo and Belize. Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sediments show variable thickness, possibly reflecting the crystalline basement regional structure. Paleozoic and Precambrian basement outcrops are located farther to the southeast in Belize and northern Guatemala. Inferred shelf paleo-bathymetry supports existence of a sedimentary basin extending to the northeast, where crater rim and terrace zones are subdued in the seismic images.

  17. The ICDP Dead Sea deep drill cores: records of climate change and tectonics in the Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G. H.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea drainage basin sits at the boundary of the Mediterranean and the Saharan climate zones, and the basin is formed by the Dead Sea transform fault. The ICDP-funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental and paleo-seismic record in the Middle East, drilling holes of ~450 and ~350 meters in deep (~300 m below the lake level) and shallow sites (~3 m), respectively, and. The sediments record the evolving environmental conditions (e.g. droughts, rains, floods, dust-storms), as well as tectonics (earthquake layers). The core can be dated using 14C on organic materials, U-Th on inorganic aragonite, stable isotopes, and layer counting. They were opened, described, and XRF-scanned during June to November 2011, the first sampling party took place in July 2012, and study is now underway. Some important conclusions can already be drawn. The stratigraphy reflects the climate conditions. During wet climate intervals the lithology is typically varve-like laminated aragonite and detritus (aad), reflecting summer and winter seasons, respectively, and sequences of mud. Gypsum layers reflect more arid climate, and salt (halite) indicates extreme aridity. The Dead Sea expands during glacials, and the portion of the core that corresponds to the last glacial Lisan Formation above the shoreline is easily recognized in the core based on the common lithological sequence, and this allows us to infer a broad scale age model. Interglacials show all the lithologic facies (aad, mud, gypsum, salt), reflecting extreme climate variability, while glacials contain the aad, mud, and gypsum but lack salt layers. Thus we estimate that the deep site hole extends into MIS 7 (to ~200,000 years). Thin (up to several cm thick) seismic layers occur throughout the core, but thick (up to several meters) landslide deposits only occur during glacial intervals. The most dramatic discovery is evidence of an extreme dry interval during MIS 5 at the deep site. There is a ~40 cm thick interval of partly rounded pebbles in the core at ~235 m below the lake floor. It is the only clean pebbly unit in the core, and resembles a beach deposit. Below the layer there is ~45 meters of mainly salt. These observations indicate a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping at rates >1m/year, as all the countries in the area are using all the runoff. GCM models indicate a more arid future in the region. The core shows that the runoff nearly stopped during the last interglacial without human intervention. Dating is underway to constrain the timing of the extreme drydown.

  18. Chronology and paleoenvironmental records of a drill core in the central Tengger Desert of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zaijun; Sun, Donghuai; Chen, Fahu; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yuebao; Guo, Feng; Wang, Xin; Li, Baofeng

    2014-02-01

    The desertification history of inland Asia provides most direct evidence for Asian drying history, but the formation ages of the most Asian deserts are not clear due to the lack of outcrops. The Tengger Desert, one of the main proximal deserts of the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), is of special paleoclimatic significances for its dust emission and environmental affection. Here, we report lithofacies, paleomagnetic ages and paleoenvironmental proxy indexes of the first drill core (WEDP01) from the central Tengger Desert. Paleomagnetism measurements reveal that the core spans from ˜3.55 Ma to present, consistent with the electron spin resonance (ESR) dating results. The strata of the central desert consist of alluvial-fluvial deposits, lacustrine-fluvial deposits mixed with dust, and eolian sand from bottom to top. Sedimentary analysis reveals that continuous eolian sand started by ˜0.9 Ma, marking the initial formation of the Tengger Desert; and the domination of eolian sand in the strata with similar characters of the modern desert appeared by ˜0.68 Ma, indicating expansion of the Tengger Desert. The proximal deserts formation and simultaneous increase of dust accumulation in the CLP and the North Pacific Ocean in mid-Pleistocene demonstrate the role of proximal deserts for the dust loading of Northern China and even Northern Hemisphere. Our analysis suggests the uplift of Tibetan Plateau in the mid-Pleistocene probably played the main role for this drying event and desert formation, while global cooling may strength the arid environment of the proximal deserts.

  19. Analysis of hydrologic structures within Mauna Kea volcano using diamond wireline core drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Haskins, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project was undertaken on the Island of Hawaii in an effort to characterize the hydrologic structures controlling groundwater movement and storage within the dry (~430 mm/year annual rainfall) saddle region between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes. The project drilled a 1764 m, continuously-cored, borehole from an elevation of 1946 m amsl. The shallow stratigraphy consisted of alluvial outwash of clastic debris, of both volcanic and glacial origin, from the upper slopes of Mauna Kea, and was underlain by highly permeable post-shield lavas to depths of a few hundred meters. Below this depth, shield stage lavas were dominated by highly-fractured and permeable pahoehoe lavas and (less common) a'a flows and occasional soil and ash accumulations at flow boundaries. As depths increased below 1000 m, progressive compaction of fragmental material was found at the flow boundaries and, by depths of ~1500 m, much of the void space in the flow boundaries had been collapsed and compacted. Increasing secondary mineralization was observed below about 1000 m depth that was exacerbated by rising temperatures and temperature gradients toward the bottom of the hole. Hydrologic conditions were strikingly different from those predicted by conventional models for ocean islands: the formation was dry down to only ~150 m where the first, thin, perched aquifer was encountered; a second, more substantial, perched aquifer was reached at only ~220 m depth that extended to ~360 m where a sequence of (remarkably thin) perching formations were recovered in the core down to about 420 m where unsaturated rocks were again encountered. Saturated conditions resumed at 550 m depth that continued to the total depth drilled; this latter zone is inferred to be the basal aquifer for Mauna Kea within this region of the island. Our initial analysis of the core suggests that thin, clay-rich, perching formations in the shallow stratigraphic column play a much larger role in groundwater transport than has generally been recognized; in the deeper interior of the volcano, compaction of flow boundaries (the major water carriers in the shallow stratigraphy) leads to a progressive decrease in permeability and reduction in the transport rates of recharge toward the shoreline aquifers.

  20. Lake Van deep drilling project PALEOVAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2014-11-01

    A complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ?600,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) was drilled in 2010 supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. This introductory paper provides background information of the deep drilling project and an overview of the studies presented in this special volume by the PALEOVAN science team dealing with chronology, paleomagnetism, paleoenvironmental proxies, geophysical and petrophysical investigations as well as pore-water and fluid transport.

  1. Stratigraphy of the Hawai`i Scientific Drilling Project core (HSDP2): Anatomy of a Hawaiian shield volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Michael O.; Haskins, Eric H.; Stolper, Edward M.; Baker, Michael

    2007-02-01

    The Hawai`i Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) successfully drilled ˜3.1 km into the island of Hawai`i. Drilling started on Mauna Loa volcano, drilling 247 m of subaerial lavas before encountering 832 m of subaerial Mauna Kea lavas, followed by 2019 m of submarine Mauna Kea volcanic and sedimentary units. The 2.85 km stratigraphic record of Mauna Kea volcano spans back to ˜650 ka. Mauna Kea subaerial lavas have high average olivine contents (13 vol.%) and low average vesicle abundances (10 vol.%). Most subaerial Mauna Kea flows are `a`? (˜63%), whereas the Mauna Loa section contains nearly equal amounts of p?hoehoe and `a`? (like its current surface). The submarine Mauna Kea section contains an upper, ˜900 m thick, hyaloclastite-rich section and a lower, ˜1100 m thick, pillow-lava-dominated section. These results support a model that Hawaiian volcanoes are built on a pedestal of pillow lavas capped by rapidly quenched, fragmented lava debris. The HSDP2 section is compared here to a 1.7 km deep hole (SOH1) on Kilauea's lower east rift zone. Differences in the sections reflect the proximity to source vents and the lower magma supply to Kilauea's rift zone. Both drill core sections are cut by intrusions, but the higher abundance of intrusions in SOH1 reflects its location within a rift zone, causing more extensive alteration in the SOH1 core. The HSDP2 site recovered a relatively unaltered core well suited for geochemical analyses of the single deepest and most complete borehole ever drilled through a Hawaiian or any other oceanic island volcano.

  2. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP Luminometry provided insights for potential contamination from core-handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths and limits of in-situ/remote observations vs. laboratory measurements. Results from this experiment will also aid the debate on advantages/ disadvantages of manned vs. robotic drilling missions on Mars or other planets. [1] Boston et al., 1997; [2] http://marte.arc.nasa.gov; [3] Stoker, C., et al., 2006 AbSciCon, [4] Stoker et al., submitted; [5] Bonaccorsi., et al., 2006 AbSciCon.

  3. Faulting processes in active faults - Evidences from TCDP and SAFOD drill core samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Wenk, H.-R.; Morales, L.; Naumann, R.; Kienast, M.; Song, S.-R.; Dresen, G.

    2014-08-01

    The microstructures, mineralogy and chemistry of representative samples collected from the cores of the San Andreas Fault drill hole (SAFOD) and the Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling project (TCDP) have been studied using optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF analyses. SAFOD samples provide a transect across undeformed host rock, the fault damage zone and currently active deforming zones of the San Andreas Fault. TCDP samples are retrieved from the principal slip zone (PSZ) and from the surrounding damage zone of the Chelungpu Fault. Substantial differences exist in the clay mineralogy of SAFOD and TCDP fault gouge samples. Amorphous material has been observed in SAFOD as well as TCDP samples. In line with previous publications, we propose that melt, observed in TCDP black gouge samples, was produced by seismic slip (melt origin) whereas amorphous material in SAFOD samples was formed by comminution of grains (crush origin) rather than by melting. Dauphiné twins in quartz grains of SAFOD and TCDP samples may indicate high seismic stress. The differences in the crystallographic preferred orientation of calcite between SAFOD and TCDP samples are significant. Microstructures resulting from dissolution-precipitation processes were observed in both faults but are more frequently found in SAFOD samples than in TCDP fault rocks. As already described for many other fault zones clay-gouge fabrics are quite weak in SAFOD and TCDP samples. Clay-clast aggregates (CCAs), proposed to indicate frictional heating and thermal pressurization, occur in material taken from the PSZ of the Chelungpu Fault, as well as within and outside of the SAFOD deforming zones, indicating that these microstructures were formed over a wide range of slip rates.

  4. The Apollo 17 drill core - Petrologic systematics and the identification of a possible Tycho component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Labotka, T. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Laul, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Modal data support a five-unit stratigraphy for the Apollo 17 drill core. The upper unit E (0-22 cm depth) is marked by high content of fused soil, brown glass, and mare basalt fragments. This unit corresponds with a portion of the core excavated and refilled within the last 2 m.y. The underlying unit D (22071 cm depth) has a low abundance of fused soil (i.e., low maturity) and is rich in coarse (less than 200 microns) mare fragments. A large section of the core, unit C (71-224 cm depth), is finer-grained, more mature (richer in agglutinates), more feldspathic and has more highland lithic, mineral and glass fragments than unit D. The next underlying unit, B (224-256 cm depth), has yellow/colorless KREEP glasses with a high Si, low-alkali composition unlike the common Apollo 15 or Apollo 17 KREEP series. The petrologic (fused soil) and Is/FeO maturity of this layer is also lower than the units above and below. The deepest unit, A (256-284 cm depth), is marked by its relatively higher maturity and lower yellow/colorless KREEP glass content. The most prominent petrographic/stratigraphic indicators are the pyroxene-rich immature mare unit D and the abundance of KREEP glass in unit B. This KREEP glass is distinctive petrographically and compositionally, and is probably exotic to the Apollo 17 site. It is suggested here that the KREEP glass in unit B is derived from Tycho, which implies widespread distribution of KREEP on the lunar nearside.

  5. Determination of Stress State in Deep Subsea Formation by Combination of Hydrofracturing Test and Core Analysis - A Case Study in the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 319

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, T.; Funato, A.; Ito, H.; Kinoshita, M.

    2010-12-01

    As the first expedition of the NanTroSEIZE Stage 2, IODP Expedition 319 was carried out in 2009, and a borehole was drilled to 1603.7 mbsf (meters below seafloor) from seafloor at 2054 m water depth of Site C0009 which is located in a central region of the Kumano forearc basin and the upper plate above the seismogenic and presumed locked portion of the plate boundary thrust system. The upper 700 m was cased, a 12-1/4 inch hole was drilled from 700 to 1510 mbsf and RCB core was cut from 1510 to 1539.9 mbsf. By using the Schlumberger’s Modular Dynamics Tester (MDT) dual packer tool, the hydraulic fracturing (HF) test was carried out to measure in-situ stress at depth of 1532.7 mbsf in the open-hole section. While the HF test provided limited information on stress state, we finally figured out all three principal in-situ stresses and their orientations combining information obtained by other geophysical logging and the analysis of a core sample. The pressure - time curve obtained by the HF test was not typical shape, but we found a small sign of fracture initiation in pressure variation with fluid injection. Then we detected the possible shut-in pressure Ps to be 41.6 MPa. The value of Ps is obviously smaller than the vertical stress computed from the overlying strata, which is 51.8 MPa. This fact suggests that a vertical fracture was induced by the fracturing test, and so Ps should indicate the minimum horizontal stress Sh, i.e. Sh = 41.6 MPa. On the other hand, the reopening pressure Pr of a induced vertical fracture has been applied for estimating the maximum horizontal stress SH. However, for effective measurement of Pr, it is necessary to use the fracturing system with sufficiently small compliance (Ito et al., 1999; 2005; 2006). If not, there is no way to estimate the maximum horizontal stress from Pr. This limitation makes it difficult to apply hydraulic fracturing for the measurement of the maximum horizontal stress, because the compliance of the current fracturing system is generally so large. The present fracturing test was probably influenced by the problem. Thus we applied the core deformation method (Funato and Chen, 2005) for estimating SH. This method assumes that a core sample expands elastically in response to the stress release due to coring. The core sample retrieved from anisotropic in-situ stress field should expand elliptically, the maximum expansion occurs in the direction of SH, and then we can estimate the stress deviation (SH - Sh) from the difference of the major and minor axes of the elliptical core. The core sample retrieved from the depth of 1540 mbsf in the borehole drilled at site C0009 was found to be actually elliptical in shape, and from the measured dimensions of the core sample, the stress deviation (SH - Sh) was estimated to be 8.9 MPa. As a result, the remaining stress component of SH was finally estimated to be 50.5 MPa (=Ps + 8.9 MPa). The orientation of SH was estimated to be N40degW from breakout orientation detected by FMI logging.

  6. Thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities of core samples obtained from the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weiren; Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.; Tadai, Osamu; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Tanikawa, Wataru; Kinoshita, Masataka

    2014-12-01

    We report thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities determined by a transient plane heat source method for four whole-round core samples obtained by the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343. These thermal properties are necessary for the interpretation of a temperature anomaly detected in the vicinity of the plate boundary fault that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and other thermal processes observed within the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project temperature observatory. Results of measured thermal conductivities are consistent with those independently measured using a transient line source method and a divided bar technique. Our measurements indicate no significant anisotropy in either thermal conductivity or thermal diffusivity.

  7. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. At present, lithology logs are produced at the well site by mud loggers. They provide basic description and relative amounts of lithologies. Major difficulties are encountered in relating the cuttings to their original formations due to mixing in the drilling mud while transporting to the surface, sloughing shales, flawed sampling, etc. This results in a poor control on the stratigraphic sequence and on the depth of formation boundaries. A composite log can be produced after drilling this additional inputs such as wireline, petrography, and paleontology. This process is labor intensive and expensive. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution to bed boundaries, (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input results in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries.

  8. A new high altitude paleoclimate record from the first ice core drilled in the eastern European Alps: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, P.; Barbante, C.; Carturan, L.; Davis, M. E.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Dinale, R.; Dragà, G.; Gabrieli, J.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Mair, V.; Mikhalenko, V.; Oeggl, K.; Schotterer, U.; Seppi, R.; Thompson, L. G.; Tonidandel, D.

    2012-12-01

    Low latitude ice cores offer unique and detailed paleoclimate information from high elevations. Multiple proxies synchronized within the same ice medium offer the possibility to precisely link past climate variations to changes in the surrounding ecosystems and human activities, providing a unique paleo-geographic perspective of the Earth system. However, as most of the accessible low latitude drilling sites have already been exploited and as glaciers are melting worldwide, it is difficult to identify ice fields that contain novel and intact ice core records. We drilled the first ice cores to bedrock in the eastern European Alps during autumn 2011. These cores were extracted from the Alto dell'Ortles glacier (3859 m, South Tyrol, Italy) and their length was up to 75 m. The firn-ice transition was found at ~30 m depth. Below the temperate firn portion, cold ice layers sitting on frozen bedrock still exist and represent remnants from the colder climate before ~1980 AD. Analysis of beta emissions and tritium indicate the well-known 1963 peak (originating from radioactive nuclear fallout) to be at 41 m depth. Together with a measured density profile, this allows us to estimate an average accumulation rate of ~ 850 mm of water equivalent per year during the last 50 years. This confirms this drilling site as one with the lowest snow accumulation rate in the Alps, potentially containing older ice than most of the other Alpine glaciers. Preliminary analyses reveal that the deep and cold ice layers of this glacier preserve clearly distinguishable annual variations in stable isotopes, dust and major ions that can be precisely dated. Alto dell'Ortles is the first low-accumulation alpine drilling site where both winter and summer layers can be clearly identified. Application of a conventional flow model and preliminary annual layer counting suggest that the high altitude records contained in these ice cores may span at least several centuries.

  9. Results of NanTroSEIZE Expeditions Stages 1 & 2: Deep-sea Coring Operations on-board the Deep-sea Drilling Vessel Chikyu and Development of Coring Equipment for Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinmoto, Y.; Wada, K.; Miyazaki, E.; Sanada, Y.; Sawada, I.; Yamao, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Nankai-Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) has carried out several drilling expeditions in the Kumano Basin off the Kii-Peninsula of Japan with the deep-sea scientific drilling vessel Chikyu. Core sampling runs were carried out during the expeditions using an advanced multiple wireline coring system which can continuously core into sections of undersea formations. The core recovery rate with the Rotary Core Barrel (RCB) system was rather low as compared with other methods such as the Hydraulic Piston Coring System (HPCS) and Extended Shoe Coring System (ESCS). Drilling conditions such as hole collapse and sea conditions such as high ship-heave motions need to be analyzed along with differences in lithology, formation hardness, water depth and coring depth in order to develop coring tools, such as the core barrel or core bit, that will yield the highest core recovery and quality. The core bit is especially important in good recovery of high quality cores, however, the PDC cutters were severely damaged during the NanTroSEIZE Stages 1 & 2 expeditions due to severe drilling conditions. In the Stage 1 (riserless coring) the average core recovery was rather low at 38 % with the RCB and many difficulties such as borehole collapse, stick-slip and stuck pipe occurred, causing the damage of several of the PDC cutters. In Stage 2, a new design for the core bit was deployed and core recovery was improved at 67 % for the riserless system and 85 % with the riser. However, due to harsh drilling conditions, the PDC core bit and all of the PDC cutters were completely worn down. Another original core bit was also deployed, however, core recovery performance was low even for plate boundary core samples. This study aims to identify the influence of the RCB system specifically on the recovery rates at each of the holes drilled in the NanTroSEIZE coring expeditions. The drilling parameters such as weight-on-bit, torque, rotary speed and flow rate, etc., were analyzed and conditions such as formation, tools, and sea conditions which directly affect core recovery have been categorized. Also discussed will be the further development of such coring equipment as the core bit and core barrel for the NanTroSEIZE Stage 3 expeditions, which aim to reach a depth of 7000 m-below the sea floor into harder formations under extreme drilling conditions.

  10. Empirical relations of rock properties of outcrop and core samples from the Northwest German Basin for geothermal drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyer, D.; Philipp, S. L.

    2014-09-01

    Information about geomechanical and physical rock properties, particularly uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), are needed for geomechanical model development and updating with logging-while-drilling methods to minimise costs and risks of the drilling process. The following parameters with importance at different stages of geothermal exploitation and drilling are presented for typical sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Northwest German Basin (NWGB): physical (P wave velocities, porosity, and bulk and grain density) and geomechanical parameters (UCS, static Young's modulus, destruction work and indirect tensile strength both perpendicular and parallel to bedding) for 35 rock samples from quarries and 14 core samples of sandstones and carbonate rocks. With regression analyses (linear- and non-linear) empirical relations are developed to predict UCS values from all other parameters. Analyses focus on sedimentary rocks and were repeated separately for clastic rock samples or carbonate rock samples as well as for outcrop samples or core samples. Empirical relations have high statistical significance for Young's modulus, tensile strength and destruction work; for physical properties, there is a wider scatter of data and prediction of UCS is less precise. For most relations, properties of core samples plot within the scatter of outcrop samples and lie within the 90% prediction bands of developed regression functions. The results indicate the applicability of empirical relations that are based on outcrop data on questions related to drilling operations when the database contains a sufficient number of samples with varying rock properties. The presented equations may help to predict UCS values for sedimentary rocks at depth, and thus develop suitable geomechanical models for the adaptation of the drilling strategy on rock mechanical conditions in the NWGB.

  11. Development of a portable x-ray computed tomographic imaging system for drill-site investigation of recovered core

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Pruess, Jacob

    2003-05-01

    A portable x-ray computed tomography (CT) system was constructed for imaging core at drill sites. Performing drill-site-based x-ray scanning and CT analysis permits rapid evaluation of core properties (such as density, lithologic structure, and macroporosity distribution) and allows for real-time decision making for additional core-handling procedures. Because of the speed with which scanning is performed, systematic imaging and electronic cataloging of all retrieved core is feasible. Innovations (such as a novel clamshell shielding arrangement integrated with system interlocks) permit safe operation of the x-ray system in a busy core handling area. The minimization of the volume encapsulated with shielding reduces the overall system weight and facilitates instrument portability. The x-ray system as originally fabricated had a 110 kV x-ray source with a fixed 300-micron focal spot size. A 15 cm image intensifier with a cesium iodide phosphor input screen was coupled to a CCD for image capture. The CT system has since been modified with a 130 kV micro-focal x-ray source. With the x-ray system's variable focal spot size, high-resolution studies (10-micron resolution) can be performed on core plugs and coarser (100-micron resolution) images can be acquired of whole drill cores. The development of an aluminum compensator has significantly improved the dynamic range and accuracy of the system. An x-ray filter has also been incorporated, permitting rapid acquisition of multi-energy scans for more quantitative analysis of sample mineralogy. The x-ray CT system has operated reliably under extreme field conditions, which have varied from shipboard to arctic.

  12. The Apollo 17 drill core - Chemistry of size fractions and the nature of the fused soil component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the Apollo 17 drill core 70009-70001 is heterogeneous with depth, containing five stratigraphic units, and has a bulk soil chemistry governed by the coarse fractions because of their greater weight proportions. The four components (1) KREEP, (2) anorthositic gabbro, (3) mare basalt, and (4) orange glass are used to model the compositions of the coarse and fine fractions of the entire drill core. It is found that the chemistry of the fused soil component in the five stratigraphic units is more similar to the chemistry of the fine, less than 20-micron fractions than the coarse fraction, suggesting that agglutinates may prefferentially meld and replicate the chemistry of the finer size fractions. The sources of Zn are the orange/black glasses, and the Zn profile is anticorrelated with the maturity index of Morris et al (1979), indicating the liberation of Zn during soil maturation.

  13. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

  14. 38. BATHYMETRY AND OCEANIC CRUSTAL AGES IN THE VICINITY OF THE MOUTH OF THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA, ILLUSTRATED USING DEEP SEA DRILLING PROJECT LEG 63 UNDERWAY GEOPHYSICAL PROFILES1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon E. Ness; Richard W. Couch; Robert S. Yeats

    We used recently acquired and rigorously navigated underway geophysical data from the region of the mouth of the Gulf of California to prepare detailed bathymetric and crustal age maps along a swath approximately 200 km wide paralleling DSDP Leg 63 track lines between Sites 471, 472, and 473. The basement ages of the drilling sites, estimated from magnetic anomalies fit

  15. High permafrost ice contents in Holocene slope deposits as observed from shallow geophysics and a coring program in Pangnirtung, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonneau, A.; Allard, M.; L'Hérault, E.; LeBlanc, A.

    2011-12-01

    A study of permafrost conditions was undertaken in the Hamlet of Pangnirtung, Nunavut, by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) and Université Laval's Centre d'études nordiques (CEN) to support decision makers in their community planning work. The methods used for this project were based on geophysical and geomorphological approaches, including permafrost cores drilled in surficial deposits and ground penetrating radar surveys using a GPR Pulse EKKO 100 extending to the complete community area and to its projected expansion sector. Laboratory analysis allowed a detailed characterization of permafrost in terms of water contents, salinity and grain size. Cryostratigraphic analysis was done via CT-Scan imagery of frozen cores using medical imaging softwares such as Osiris. This non destructive method allows a 3D imaging of the entire core in order to locate the amount of the excess ice, determine the volumetric ice content and also interpret the ice-formation processes that took place during freezing of the permafrost. Our new map of the permafrost conditions in Pangnirtung illustrates that the dominant mapping unit consist of ice-rich colluvial deposits. Aggradationnal ice formed syngenitically with slope sedimentation. Buried soils were found imbedded in this colluvial layer and demonstrates that colluviation associated with overland-flow during snowmelt occurred almost continuously since 7080 cal. BP. In the eastern sector of town, the 1 to 4 meters thick colluviums cover till and a network of ice wedges that were revealed as spaced hyperbolic reflectors on GPR profiles. The colluviums also cover ice-rich marine silt and bedrock in the western sector of the hamlet; marine shells found in a permafrost core yielded a radiocarbon date of 9553 cal. BP which provides a revised age for the local deglaciation and also a revised marine submergence limit. Among the applied methods, shallow drilling in coarse grained permafrost, core recovery and CT-Scan allowed the discovery of the importance of Holocene slope processes on shaping the surface of the terrain and leading to the observed cryostructures and ice contents in the near surface permafrost.

  16. Drilling overdeepened Alpine Valleys (DOVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Preusser, Frank; Bavec, Milos; Crouzet, Christian; Fiebig, Markus; Gabriel, Gerald; Ravazzi, Cesare; Spoetl, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    A recently submitted ICDP drilling proposal targets formerly glaciated areas, which are often characterized by deeply incised structures filled by thick Quaternary deposits. These buried troughs and valleys were formed by glacial overdeepening, likely caused by pressurized subglacial meltwater below warm-based glaciers. The proposed multinational drilling initiative consists of 14 drill sites in six different countries, all linked by the fact that they surround a formerly glaciated, densely populated mountain range, the European Alps. Being the best studied mountain range, the Alps will serve as textbook example allowing application of drilling results to other glaciated areas around the world. The drill holes, to be cored all the way to bedrock, will explore the type and age of the infillings of these overdeepened troughs. Such drill cores, paired with matching geophysical and instrumental data, hold the keys to understand how and how fast mountain ranges and their foreland are shaped by repetitive glaciations. The overarching goal will be to date the age and extent of past glaciations and their connection to paleoclimate, paleoecology and landscape history. As of today, it is not known how these glaciations varied along and across the Alps during the past, and to what extent the ice build-up along and across the Alps reflects changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. First results of drill holes in similar settings have produced local knowledge of the timing of glacial activity. Only an alpine-wide drilling initiative, however, will allow to reconstruct the full spatial and temporal scale of glacier advances and erosion and related landscape-forming processes over several glacial-interglacial cycles. Next to these paleoglacial, paleoecological and paleoclimatic aspects, the thick valley fills hold large, untapped aquifers. In the light of an increasing demand for water resources likely amplified by the projected climate change, testing these aquifers in the framework of this project is of high relevance for future hydrogeological applications. Related to this role, these drill holes may be used for shallow geothermal applications, which, however, to date rely on poorly constrained physical properties of the infilling sections. In addition, the areas represent areas of high seismic hazards related to their unfavorable seismic site effects. All these goals will be first addressed by state-of-the-art geophysical surveys that quantify the geometry of the overdeepenings. Drillholes will be analyzed by downhole logging, groundwater sampling and subsurface biosphere testing. Sedimentological, geochemical and palaeobiological analyses will characterize the sediment cores, and a combination of different approaches (biostratigraphy, luminescence dating, cosmogenic nuclide dating, magnetostratigraphy, and tephrastratigraphy) will establish the chronological framework. Eventually, the results from the above approaches will be cross-checked with the outcome of modeling both glacial flow and erosion and atmospheric circulation.

  17. Coring and Drilling Equipment and Procedures for Recovery of Long Lacustrine Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUZANNE A. G. LEROY; STEVE M. COLMAN

    Owing to the increasing interest in continental drilling in retrieving palaeoclimatic archives from extant lakes, a compilation and description of drilling equipment available for continuous and undisturbed sampling (>50 m) of soft sediment from a platform floating on a lake surface is provided. For those systems operated by scientific institutions, at least one scientist with PAGES-related research experience is part

  18. Uranium-series age determination of calcite veins, VC-1 drill core, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, Neil C.; Binz, Carl M.

    1988-06-01

    Uranium-series analysis (238U-234U-230Th) of 13 calcite veins from the hydrothermally altered Madera Limestone in the VC-1 drill core was performed to determine the ages of the veins and their relation to the Valles hydrothermal system. Thermal water from VC-1 and two hot springs in San Diego Canyon was analyzed for U and (234U/238U) to help evaluate the constancy of initial (234U/238U). The (230Th/234U) age of one of the veins is ˜95 kyr, and those of two other veins are ˜230 and ˜250 kyr. Five of the veins have near equilibrium (230Th/234U) and are probably older than ˜0.3 m.y. Uranium concentrations in the remaining veins are too low for analysis by the ?-spectrometry techniques employed in this study. Of the five veins near (230Th/234U) equilibrium, four are also near (234U/238U) equilibrium, suggesting ages greater than ˜1.0 m.y., but one has (234U/238U) = 1.15, suggesting an age between ˜0.3 and ˜1.0 m.y. Calculated initial (234U/238U) of the veins yielding relatively young ages are neither equal to each other nor to (234U/238U) in thermal water from VC-1, indicating inconstancy of initial (234U/238U) that may be related to variations in groundwater mixing proportions. Three of the four veins that yield relatively young ages consist of coarse, sparry, vuggy calcite, suggesting that this may be the type of calcite vein which forms under conditions resembling those encountered presently in VC-1. The analytical data are consistent with closed-system behavior of U and Th in the VC-1 calcite veins.

  19. Paleomagnetic records of core samples of the plate-boundary thrust drilled during the IODP Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishima, T.; Yang, T.; Ujiie, K.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Chester, F. M.; Moore, J. C.; Rowe, C. D.; Regalla, C.; Remitti, F.; Kameda, J.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Bose, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Toy, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST), drilled across the plate-boundary décollement zone near the Japan Trench where large slip occurred during the March 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We conducted paleomagnetic measurements of the core sample retrieved from the highly-deformed sediments comprising the plate-boundary décollement zone. Whole-round samples for structural analyses from five depth intervals of the core (0-12 cm, 12-30 cm, 43-48 cm, 48-58 cm, and 87.5-105 cm), were trimmed into oriented slabs with typical dimensions of 3x3x5 cm that are now being used to make petrographic sections for microstructural and chemical study. The remainder of the core sample was split into working and archive halves. We measured remanent magnetization of 16 trimmed slabs and the archive half of the core sample. The slabs were subjected to natural remanent magnetization (NRM) measurements in 0.5-1 cm intervals and progressive alternating field demagnetization (AFD) up to 80 mT with a 2G755 pass-through superconducting rock magnetometer at Kochi University. The archive half of the core sample was subjected to NRM measurement and AFD up to 20 mT with a 2G760 superconducting rock magnetometer installed on R/V Chikyu. Typically, two or three paleomagnetic components were isolated during the AFD of slab samples up to 80 mT. One ';soft' component was demagnetized below 20-30 mT, and another ';hard' component was not demagnetized even with AFD in 80 mT. A third component may be separated during AFD at the intermediate demagnetizing field, and may overlap the soft and hard components. The multiple slab samples cut from an identical whole-round sample have generally consistent paleomagnetic direction of the hard component. Contrastingly, the direction of the soft component is less consistent between adjacent slabs, and even varies within a single slab. The direction variation of the soft component possibly reflects the cm-scale strain and rotation of the highly-deformed sediments within the plate-boundary décollement zone. Studies of the relationship of the direction variation to the microstructure are ongoing, and will be reported at the meeting. The consistency of the hard component direction within highly deformed sediment implies it was recently acquired. Further studies of the acquisition mechanism of the hard component are also intended.

  20. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-02-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution of bed boundaries. (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input will result in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries. The log will serve the geologist as well as the driller, petrophysicist, and reservoir engineer. It will form the basis for more comprehensive formation evaluation while drilling by adding hydrocarbon and MWD log data.

  1. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 40, 25572561, doi:10.1002/grl.50514, 2013 Observations of core-mantle boundary Stoneley modes

    E-print Network

    Ritsema, Jeroen

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 40, 2557­2561, doi:10.1002/grl.50514, 2013 Observations of core Stoneley modes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2557­2561, doi:10.1002/grl.50514. 1. Introduction [2] The D

  2. Unzen Scientific Drilling Project: Challenging drilling operation into the magmatic conduit shortly after eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, S.; Nakada, S.; Uto, K.

    2004-12-01

    Drilling operation was aimed at penetration into the core of the volcano 8 years after eruption of Unzen, including directional drilling in high temperature and with high inclination. The project started with fixing drilling site. Scientists and drilling engineers agreed to settle it at the northern slope of Mt. Unzen at 840 m asl, and the drilling target was set at sea level. Drilling operation was started in Feb. 2003. In the shallow section, frequent lost circulation and accidental side-track occurred due to the unconsolidated zone, and caused_@many troubles. Although the drilling was delayed, we succeeded in drilling down to 396m with the inclination of 25 degree in 17-1/2 inch hole and 13-3/8 inch casing section. 12-1/4 inch hole was drilled using TDS, EM-MWD, and DHM. When the inclination was built up to 75 degree at 795 m, we changed the drilling mode of trajectory control to keep the angle. A large fracture of total loss was encountered at 807m, and serious cuttings bed occurred. The latter made the drilling impossible to continue. Then, we inserted 9-5/8 inch casing down to 796 m. Trajectory correction runs was completed in 8-5/8 inch hole, and 7 inch casing was set down to 1550m. In 6-1/4 inch hole, though EM-MWD and DHM were not used, drilling inclination and azimuth were stable. Spot coring was started at 1582 m, the levels of spot coring depth were chosen based on the data of temperature measurement and cuttings observation. Though the drilling exceeded 1800m, the original target depth, drilling was continued, because we could not encounter the high temperature conduit at that time. Finally, the well reached the 1995 m, and succeeded in taking cores highly probable of magmatic conduit in July 2004. We could carry out geophysical logging mostly throughout the whole sections. Spot coring were done at 16 times; its total length was 75m. Although the highest measured temperature was 155 deg. C, the formation temperature may reach at least 200 deg. C. The reasons of smooth drilling after 9-5/8 inch casing installation were easy hole cleaning due to smaller diameter, least lost circulation, and no gas invasion.

  3. 23. SYNTHESIS OF THE BARBADOS DÉCOLLEMENT SEISMIC REFLECTION RESPONSE FROM DRILLING-BASED GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. Shipley; Gregory F. Moore; Harold J. Tobin; J. Casey Moore

    A three-dimensional seismic reflection experiment has revealed a distinctive distribution of waveforms and amplitudes associated with the décollement reflection in the Barbados Trench. One objective of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 156 was to calibrate this seismic reflection response, which was thought to be related to variations in fault zone properties. Site 948 is char- acterized by a normal polarity reflection

  4. Initial results from VC-1, first Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Charles, R.; Wachs, D.; Maassen, L.; Heiken, G.

    1986-02-10

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  5. Initial results from VC-1, First Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole in Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Rowley, John; Gardner, Jamie N.; Hawkins, Ward; Goff, Sue; Charles, Robert; Wachs, Daniel; Maassen, Larry; Heiken, Grant

    1986-02-01

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphie information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, arid to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the Battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  6. Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the southern Victoria Land climate system as seen in New Harbor drill cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, C.; Wilson, G. S.

    2012-04-01

    The Taylor Valley (DVDP-10, -11) and Ferrar Fiord (CIROS-2) drill cores offer a window into the history of Southern Victoria Land glaciers and the Antarctic climate system during the late- Neogene. Here we present new paleomagnetic studies from these drill cores which date five phases of sedimentation in the Taylor/Ferrar fiords and reveal a climate modulation of magnetic mineralogy in southern Victoria Land during the late Neogene. Magnetostratigraphies were constructed from stepwise AF and/or thermal demagnetisation of discrete specimens from drill cores. Correlation of magnetostratigraphies with the magnetic polarity timescale was guided by biostratigraphic and radiometric constraints. Environmental magnetic studies were conducted to determine changes in concentration, gainsize and magnetic mineralogy through time. A parallel rock magnetic study was also conducted of regional basement rocks to quantify the source of magnetic minerals. The new ages models and environmental magnetic records indicate that during the latest Miocene - early Pliocene, wet based glaciers filled the Taylor and Ferrar fiords and that glaciers retreated during the Pliocene warm period leaving open marine conditions and deep fiords (>300 m). Magnetic minerals in these sediments are variably oxidised indicating terrestrial soil formation and probably warmer and wetter conditions at a time when the Ross Sea was free of ice and sea surface temperatures were 5°C warmer than today. We recognise the first significant cooling in DVDP-11 after 2.6 Ma by a shift to current winnowed sediments sourced from the Ross Sea. After 1.7 Ma sediments are almost exclusively lacustrine and were deposited in ice dammed lakes which formed when West Antarctic ice expanded across the Ross Embayment and abutted the Transantarctic Mountains. Magnetic mineralogy after ~2.6 Ma is dominated by a ubiquitous, paramagnetic component which coincides with the shift from warmer/wetter, sub-polar conditions to dry, polar dominated conditions.

  7. Stress analysis of jacks, frame and bearing connections, and drill rod for core sampler truck No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1995-02-28

    This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads).

  8. The volcanic record of the upper 600 m of the ANDRILL AND-1 drill cores: Evidence of ice-free conditions and local volcanic activity over the

    E-print Network

    Dunbar, Nelia W.

    . The occurrence and nature of the volcanic layers also has implications to ice local conditions, sediment in the core consist of reworked volcanogenic sediments, volcanic clasts and reworked or primary pyroclasticThe volcanic record of the upper 600 m of the ANDRILL AND-1 drill cores: Evidence of ice

  9. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  10. Influence of Steel Reinforcement on In-Situ Stress Evaluation in Concrete Structures by the Core-Drilling Method

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M. J.; Pessiki, S. [Lehigh University Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2006-03-06

    The core-drilling method is an emerging technique for evaluating in-situ stress in a concrete structure. A small hole is drilled into the structure, and the deformations in the vicinity of the hole are measured and related via elasticity theory to the stress. The method is similar to the ASTM hole-drilling strain-gauge method excepting that displacements rather than strains are the measured quantities. The technique may be considered nondestructive since the ability of the structure to perform its function is unaffected, and the hole is easily repaired. Displacement measurements in the current work are performed using 3D digital image correlation and industrial photogrammetry. The current paper addresses perturbations in the method caused by steel reinforcement within the concrete. The reinforcement is significantly stiffer than the surrounding concrete, altering the expected displacement field. A numerical investigation performed indicates an under-prediction of stress by as much as 18 percent in a heavily reinforced structure, although the effect is significantly smaller for more common amounts of reinforcement.

  11. Brines and interstitial brackish water in drill cores from the deep gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Sayles, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    Marked increases in interstitial salinity occur in two drill holes located in the Gulf of Mexico at a water depth of more than 3500 meters. The increases probably arose through diffusion of salt from buried evaporites. In one hole, however, brackish water was encountered on penetrating the oil-permeated cap rock of a salt dome. The phenomenon is attributed to production of fresh water during oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons and decomposition of gypsum to form native sulfur.

  12. Geochemical studies of the SUBO 18 (Enkingen) drill core and other impact breccias from the Ries crater, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe; McDonald, Iain; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas; Hansen, Birgit; Jacob, Juliane; Koeberl, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Suevite and melt breccia compositions in the boreholes Enkingen and Polsingen are compared with compositions of suevites from other Ries boreholes and surface locations and discussed in terms of implications for impact breccia genesis. No significant differences in average chemical compositions for the various drill cores or surface samples are noted. Compositions of suevite and melt breccia from southern and northeastern sectors of the Ries crater do not significantly differ. This is in stark contrast to the published variations between within-crater and out-of-crater suevites from northern and southern sectors of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana. Locally occurring alteration overprint on drill cores—especially strong on the carbonate-impregnated suevite specimens of the Enkingen borehole—does affect the average compositions. Overall, the composition of the analyzed impact breccias from Ries are characterized by very little macroscopically or microscopically recognized sediment-clast component; the clast populations of suevite and impact melt breccia are dominated consistently by granitic and intermediate granitoid components. The Polsingen breccia is significantly enriched in a dioritic clast component. Overall, chemical compositions are of intermediate composition as well, with dioritic-granodioritic silica contents, and relatively small contributions from mafic target components. Selected suevite samples from the Enkingen core have elevated Ni, Co, Cr, and Ir contents compared with previously analyzed suevites from the Ries crater, which suggest a small meteoritic component. Platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations for some of the enriched samples indicate somewhat elevated concentrations and near-chondritic ratios of the most immobile PGE, consistent with an extraterrestrial contribution of 0.1-0.2% chondrite-equivalent.

  13. Alteration of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase 1 Drill Core: 2. Mass balance of the conversion of sideromelane to palagonite and chabazite

    E-print Network

    Walton, Anthony W.; Schiffman, P.

    2003-05-03

    % of the core drilled from a 3.06 km- deep hole on the south east flank of Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project-2, 2000; referred to subsequently as HSDP-2). From approximately 1080 mbsl to the bottom, the core contained submarine lithologies... in the initial report from the project [DePaolo et al., 2000]. The samples we studied are all believed to come from eruptions of Mauna Kea or satellite vents of that volcano. Sample depths and some petrographic information are included in Table 1. 3...

  14. Core hole drilling and the ''rain current'' phenomenon at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C.A.; Walkey, W.C.; Combs, J.

    1988-09-10

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole Geo N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mW m/sup -2/, reflecting subsurface temperatures, sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mW m/sup -2/, is less encouraging. We emphasize the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Cole hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite, basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Caving and sloughing were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes. The uppermost regime is isothemal at mean air temperature down to about 900-1000 m (the rain curtain).

  15. Internal Geophysics \\/ Géophysique interne The inner core and the geodynamo La graine et la géodynamo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Labrosse; Mélina Macouin

    Using energy and entropy constraints applicable to the Earth's core, the heat flow at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) needed to sustain a given total dissipation in the core can be computed. Reasonable estimates for the present Joule dissipation in the core gives a present heat flow of 6 to 10 TW at the CMB. Palaeointensity data acquired from rocks younger

  16. Results of core drilling for uranium-bearing carbonaceous shale and lignite in the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mapel, William J.; Hail, William J., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    Thirteen core holes, totaling 2,023 feet, were drilled during the fall of 1953 to explore the grade and extent of uranium-bearing beds of carbonaceous shale and lignite in the east-central part of the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho. The beds tested are interbedded with volcanic ash, bentonite, greenish-gray shale, sandstone, and conglomerate in two fairly well defined zones in the lower part of the Salt Lake formation of lower Pliocene age. Nine holes penetrated carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone, and one hole penetrated carbonaceous shale and lignite beds in zone B, 160 feet stratigraphically below the Barrett zone. The highest concentration of uranium found by drilling is 0.10 percent in the upper part of a 4-foot bed of carbonaceous shale and lignite in zone B. The grade of carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone ranges from 0.044 percent to less than 0.003 percent uranium. Inferred reserves in the district are estimated to be 790,000 tons in beds 1 foot or more thick containing an average of 0.014 percent or 120 tons of uranium.

  17. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4.6 x 103?m3 mL-1 (mean: 56?m3 mL-1 ), the unicellular cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 3.0 x 104?m3 mL-1 (mean: 1.2 x 103?m3 mL-1 ), and Green algae varied from 0.0 to 2.3 x 104?m3 mL-1 (mean: 2.2 x 103?m3 mL-1 ). Based on the dating by pollen grains, the 64 m core covers 237 years. The results suggest that the snow algae did not grow every year on the top of the ice cap, and their biomass and community structure varied greatly from year to year. The total biomass after the 1960s was significantly higher than those before the 1950s. This suggested suggests that the surface conditions changed more favorable to the growth of algae in the 1960s. Annal variation of the algal biomass was found to be significantly correlated with air temperature at the nearest observing station from Grigoriev the iIce cap and hydrogen stable isotope (?D) in the ice core. The results suggest that the algal growth is more preferable in warmer year.

  18. In-situ rock melting applied to lunar base construction and for exploration drilling and coring on the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    An excavation technology based upon melting of rock and soil has been extensively developed at the prototype hardware and conceptual design levels for terrestrial conditions. Laboratory and field tests of rock-melting penetration have conclusively indicated that this excavation method is insensitive to rock, soil types, and conditions. Especially significant is the ability to form in-place glass linings or casings on the walls of boreholes, tunnels, and shafts. These factors indicate the unique potential for in situ construction of primary lunar base facilities. Drilling and coring equipment for resource exploration on the moon can also be devised that are largely automated and remotely operated. It is also very likely that lunar melt-glasses will have changed mechanical properties when formed in anhydrous and hard vacuum conditions. Rock melting experiments and prototype hardware designs for lunar rock-melting excavation applications are suggested.

  19. Description and hydrogeologic implications of cored sedimentary material from the 1975 drilling program at the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rightmire, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of sedimentary material from interbeds between basalt flows and from fractures in the flows, taken from two drill cores at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were analyzed for (1) particle-size dribution, (2) bulk mineralogy, (3) clay mineralogy, (4) cation-exchange capacity, and (5) carbonate content. Thin sections of selected sediment material were made for petrographic examination. Preliminary interpretations indicate that (1) it may be possible to distinguish the various sediment interbeds on the basis of their mineralogy, (2) the presence of carbonate horizons in sedimentary interbeds may be utilized to approximate the time of exposure and the climate while the surface was exposed (which affected the hydrogeologic character of the sediment), and the type and orientation of fracture-filling material may be utilized to determine the mechanism by which fractures were filled. (USGS)

  20. Minerals in fractures of the saturated zone from drill core USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.

    1987-04-01

    The minerals in fractures in drill core USW G-4, from the static water level (SWL) at 1770 ft to the base of the hole at 3000 ft, were studied to determine their identity and depositional sequence and to compare them with those found above the SWL in the same drill hole. There is no change in mineralogy or mineral morphology across the SWL. The significant change in mineralogy and relationship to the host rock occurs at 1381 ft, well above the present water table. Below 1381 ft clinoptilolite appears in the fractures and rock matrix instead of heulandite, and the fracture mineralogy correlates with the host rock mineralogy. Throughout most of the saturated zone (below the SWL) in USW G-4, zeolites occur in fractures only in zeolitic tuff; however, zeolites persist in fracture below the base of the deepest zeolitic tuff interval. Nonzeolitic intervals of tuff have fewer fractures, and many of these have no coatings; a few have quartz and feldspar coatings. One interval in zeolitic tuff (2125-2140 ft) contains abundant crisobalite coatings in the fractures. Calcite occurs in fractures from 2575 to 2660 ft, usually with the manganese mineral hollandite, and from 2750 to 2765 ft, usually alone. Manganese minerals occur in several intervals. The spatial correlation of zeolites in fractures with zeolitic host rock suggests that both may have been zeolitized at the same time, possibly by water moving laterally through more permeable zones in the tuff. The continuation of zeolites in fractures below the lowest zeolitic interval in this hole suggests that vertical fracture flow may have been important in the deposition of these coatings. Core from deeper intervals in another hole will be examined to determine if that relationship continues. 17 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Early Miocene Antarctic glacial history: new insights from heavy mineral analysis from ANDRILL AND-2A drill core sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacoviello, Francesco; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Turbanti Memmi, Isabella; Passchier, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    The present study deals with heavy mineral analysis of late Early Miocene marine sediments recovered in the McMurdo Sound region (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during the ANDRILL—SMS Project in 2007. The main objective is to investigate how heavy mineral assemblages reflect different source rocks and hence different provenance areas. These data contribute to a better understanding of East Antarctica ice dynamics in the Ross Sea sector during the Early Miocene (17.6-20.2 Ma), a time of long-term global warming and sea level rise. The AND-2A drill core recovered several stratigraphic intervals that span from Early Miocene to Pleistocene and it collected a variety of terrigenous lithologies. The heavy mineral assemblages of the lower 650-m-thick sedimentary succession were analyzed through SEM observations and SEM-EDS microanalyses on heavy mineral grains. The heavy mineral analysis shows that the sediments are a mix of detritus dominated by McMurdo Volcanic Group sources most likely located in the present-day Mount Morning area (Proto-Mount Morning) with minor contribution from Transantarctic Mountains source rocks located west of the drill site. The heavy mineral assemblages in Interval 1 indicate that between 20.2 and 20.1 Ma, the grounding line of the ice sheet advanced to a position near the present-day Mount Morning volcanic center. During deposition of Interval 2 (20.1-19.3 Ma), the ice sheet most likely experienced a dynamic behavior with interval of ice advance alternating with periods of ice retreat, while Interval 3 (19.3-18.7 Ma) records further retreat to open water conditions. A dynamic behavior is noted in Interval 4 (18.7-17.6 Ma) with a decreasing contribution of materials derived from the basalts of the Mount Morning volcanic center located to the south of the drill site and a consequent increasing contribution of materials derived from the Transantarctic Mountains to the west of the drill site.

  2. Dynamics of the late Plio-Pleistocene West Antarctic Ice Sheet documented in subglacial diamictites, AND-1B drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Ellen A.; Christoffersen, Poul; Powell, Ross D.; Talarico, Franco M.

    2014-08-01

    Geologic studies of sediment deposited by glaciers can provide crucial insights into the subglacial environment. We studied muddy diamictites in the ANtarctic geological DRILLing (ANDRILL) AND-1B drill core, acquired from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf in McMurdo Sound, with the aim of identifying paleo-ice stream activity in the Plio-Pleistocene. Glacial advances were identified from glacial surfaces of erosion (GSEs) and subglacial diamictites within three complete sequences were investigated using lithofacies associations, micromorphology, and quartz sand grain microtextures. Whereas conditions in the Late Pliocene resemble the modern Greenland Ice Sheet where fast flowing glaciers lubricated by surface meltwater terminate directly in the sea (interval 201-212 mbsl) conditions in the Late Pleistocene are similar to modern West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) ice streams (38-49 mbsl). We identify the latter from ductile deformation and high pore-water pressure, which resulted in pervasive rotation and formation of till pellets and low relief, rounded sand grains dominated by abrasion. In the transitional period during the Mid-Pleistocene (55-68 mbsf), a slow moving inland ice sheet deposited tills with brittle deformation, producing lineations and bi-masepic and unistrial plasma fabric, along with high relief, conchoidally fractured quartz grains. Changes in the provenance of gravel to cobble-size clasts support a distant source area of Byrd Glacier for fast-flowing paleo-ice streams and a proximal area between Darwin and Skelton Glaciers for the slow-moving inland ice sheet. This difference in till provenance documents a shift in direction of glacial flow at the core site, which indirectly reflects changes in the size and thickness of the WAIS. Hence, we found that fast ice streaming motion is a consequence of a thicker WAIS pushing flow lines to the west and introducing clasts from the Byrd Glacier source area to the drill site. The detailed analysis of diamictites in AND-1B demonstrates that Pliocene glacial intervals were warmer than in the Pleistocene when polar ice sheets grew from local inland ice to regional ice streams.

  3. Preliminary rock-magnetic studies of core samples from the IODP Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishima, T.; Yang, T.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.

    2012-12-01

    During IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST), boreholes were drilled through the prism and across the fault that is thought to have slipped during the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake. 74 subsamples of the core recovered from hole C0019E were subjected to rock magnetic analyses to identify magnetic minerals, determine the magnetic-grain size distribution and investigate rock magnetic changes related to fault zone processes. Magnetic susceptibility was measured with a MFK1-FA Kappabridge instrument at three different frequencies: 976 Hz (F1), 3904 Hz (F2) and 15616 Hz (F3), and frequency-dependent susceptibility (?fd%) was calculated using the equation ?fd%=(?@F2-?@F3)/?@F2×100%. Magnetic hysteresis curves and backfield DC demagnetization curves of isothermal remanent magnetization were measured using an alternating gradient field magnetometer. Bulk coercivity parameters (Hc, Hcr) show a significant down-core variation. Samples from the lower part of the frontal prism sediment (688-820 mbsf) showed high Hc and Hcr (15-52 mT and 45-85 mT). Samples from hemipelagic sediment we interpret was deposited on the oceanic basement (824-832 mbsf) showed slightly lower Hc and Hcr (13-26 mT and 34-65 mT). A sheared scaly clay zone between two sediment types (820-824 mbsf), inferred to be the plate boundary decollement, clearly has low Hc and Hcr (10-13 and 22-24 mT). The difference in Hc and Hcr suggests a difference in magnetic mineralogy. Saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanence (Mr) show a down-core increasing trends with no obvious changes at the geologically-indicated plate boundary.Magnetic susceptibility shows different down-core variation with coercivity parameters. Generally, the scaly clay has the highest susceptibility and susceptibility of the hemipelagic sediment is relatively lower. For example, the mean values of low frequency (F1) magnetic susceptibility are 74.21, 387.83 and 30.58×10-8 m3 kg-1 for the lower part of frontal prism sediment, sheared scaly clay zone and hemipelagic sediment, respectively. The variation may be related to the difference in magnetic mineralogy and relative concentrations. In addition, magnetic susceptibility shows a strong dependence on measured frequency, and frequency-dependent susceptibility (?fd%) generally increases with depth, which may reflect an increasing contribution of the superparamagnetic components with depth. Further measurements, such as low-temperature magnetic properties, and thermomagnetic measurements of magnetic susceptibility and induced magnetization are intended.

  4. Development of a seismic borehole sonde for high resolution geophysical exploration ahead and around the drill bit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, K.; Giese, R.; Kopf, M.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of exploration with high resolution increases more and more because reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are characterized of small-scale geological structures. Today, surface seismic surveys were often combined with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD to improve the velocity model and to image the structures with higher resolution. The accuracy of structure localization depends strongly on the surveying depth. There is the need for resolution of such small-scale structures in the range of meters to explore deeper structures with a high resolution. In the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD) a new approach for a seismic exploration method in boreholes will be examined. SPWD comprises the seismic sources and receivers in one device. This allows an exploration with a resolution independent from depth and a system development for an exploration ahead and around the drill bit. At first a prototype of a borehole device for dry horizontal boreholes in a mine was developed and tested. The source device consists of four magnetostrictive vibrators emitting sweep signals from 500 Hz to 5000 Hz. To achieve a radiation pattern for focusing the seismic wave energy in predefined directions the signals of each vibrator must be independently controlled in amplitude and phase. The adjustment of amplitudes and phases of each sweep signal resulting in constructive interference with a predefined direction. A control of the emitted signals is retained by 30 three-component receivers mounted along the surrounding galleries in distances of up to 50 m. In measurements several parameters were examined to control the radiation pattern. The enhancement and diminishment of the wave amplitudes in the predefined directions of the radiation pattern is clearly exhibited also a dependency of the frequency. Using a three-component Fresnel-Volume-Migration to image the reflected wave field the results show clearly the effect of the radiation pattern on the distribution of the seismic wave energy. The migration of the reflected wave field reveals an amplification of the reflected amplitudes at the galleries corresponding to the radiation pattern of the complex borehole source. Also, structures passing through the borehole can be detected with an additional characterization by different radiation patterns. Further improvements were realized in focusing the seismic energy with advances in technical devices and also in the control of the vibrators. As a next step a wireline prototype for borehole measurements was designed and constructed. Currently the manufacturing is in progress. This prototype will be used in vertical boreholes up to 2000 m depth. After completion first measurements are planned to verify the exploration method for a directional investigation in boreholes. The measurements will take place in different geologies of hard and soft rocks and also depths. Also the mine was expanded with a 70 m vertical borehole for further research aspects. This project is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry.

  5. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

    2002-07-24

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

  6. Petrology of impactites from El'gygytgyn crater: Breccias in ICDP-drill core 1C, glassy impact melt rocks and spherules

    E-print Network

    Claeys, Philippe

    Petrology of impactites from El'gygytgyn crater: Breccias in ICDP-drill core 1C, glassy impact melt intercalations of polymict breccia and mafic inclusions. These lithologies are overlain by 89 m of polymict breccia whose components occasionally exhibit scarce, low-degree shock metamorphic features. This unit

  7. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of hydrothermal minerals from Yellowstone drill cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturchio, N.C.; Keith, T.E.C.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199??C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The ??18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, ??-cristobalite, and ??-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8???. About one third of the silica 7samples have ??18O values that are consistent with isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters; most of the other silica samples appear to have precipitated from water enriched in 18O (up to 4.7???) relative to present thermal water, assuming precipitation at present in situ temperatures. Available data on fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures in hydrothermal quartz indicate that silica precipitation occurred mostly at temperatures above those measured during drilling and imply that 15O enrichments in water during silica precipitation were generally larger than those estimated from present conditions. Similarly, clay minerals (celadonite and smectite) have ??18O values higher (by 3.5 to 7.9???) than equilibrium values under present conditions. In contrast, all eight analyzed calcite samples are close to isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters. The frequent incidence of apparent 18O enrichment in thermal water from which the hydrothermal minerals precipitated may indicate that a higher proportion of strongly 18O-enriched deep hydrothermal fluid once circulated through shallow portions of the Yellowstone system, or that a recurring transient 18O-enrichment effect occurs at shallow depths and is caused either by sudden decompressional boiling or by isotopic exchange at low water/rock ratios in new fractures. The mineralogy and apparent 18O enrichments of hydrothermal fracture-filling minerals are consistent with deposition during transient boiling or rock-water exchange (fracturing) events. ?? 1990.

  8. Detrital dating on drill-core records from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zattin, M.; Andreucci, B.; Balestrieri, M.; Olivetti, V.; Pace, D.; Reiners, P. W.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F.; Thomson, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of Antarctic ice sheets on the global climate system during the Cenozoic has been intensely investigated in the last years, especially after the successful drilling projects off-shore the western Ross Sea. While the role of the Western Ice Sheet (WAIS) during the Miocene it is not clear, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) has been suggested to be more or less stable and cold for the last 14 Ma. Records from drilling projects in syn-tectonic basins located on the continental shelf along the western margin of the West Antarctica Rift System (DSDP, CIROS, CRP and ANDRILL projects) may provide crucial information on the tectonic and paleo-climatic evolution of that region during Cenozoic. The drilled sedimentary records have been therefore investigated by detrital geochronology which, integrated by sandstone and gravel petrography, can provide valuable information on the dynamics of the ice sheets as provenance data are sensitive to variations in the ice-flow patterns. Apatite fission-track (AFT) data from ANDRILL and CRP records show multiple peaks in most of the samples. In the AND-2A well, whose stratigraphic record spans the last 20 Ma, the grain-age distributions are dominated by grains between 20 and 40 Ma. A young peak with a comparable age has been also episodically detected in CRP wells where conversely the most relevant population is made by grain ages between 45 and 70 Ma. Samples from Late Miocene-Pleistocene sediments of AND-1B well show a completely different AFT age distribution as a single peak is usually detected and ages are younger than 20 Ma. The AFT age range is well represented in bedrock data along the entire Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The main denudation phase in the TAM began at 55-50 Ma but the occurrence of a young peak in the detrital data at ca. 35 Ma indicates the presence of an Oligocene pulse, as testified also by the small gap between AFT and some (U-Th-Sm)/He ages that have been detected on AND-2A samples. Such young ages are absent in the onshore portion of the TAM proximal to wells while they are present in regions located to the south. This suggests that the TAM are segmented by transversal lineaments and that significant vertical displacements occurred south of the so-called Discovery Accommodation Zone during the Oligocene. Single grain U-Pb ages on apatites from AND-2A well testify that some volcanism was concurrent with this exhumation event. The location of the volcanic centers is unknown, but aeromagnetic anomalies suggest the presence of subglacial volcanic centers beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and the WAIS. After the Oligocene, the TAM have been in a post-orogenic decay, with exhumation rates of the order of 0.1 km/Ma. As a whole, detrital ages and petrographic data agree on the idea of an ice pattern dominated by south to north trending flow lines parallel to the TAM front. Our record supports the presence of large-scale advance of WAIS across the Ross Sea. Local ice lobes from the TAM glaciers were able to transport debris only during glacial-minima settings while during periods with presence of large ice volumes, W-E flows from the TAM were obstructed by the major flow running S to N.

  9. Interrelating the breakage and composition of mined and drill core coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terril Edward Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Particle size distribution of coal is important if the coal is to be beneficiated, or if a coal sales contract includes particle size specifications. An exploration bore core sample of coal ought to be reduced from its original cylindrical form to a particle size distribution and particle composition that reflects, insofar as possible, a process stream of raw coal it

  10. Teaching Marine Geoscience at Sea: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's School of Rock Explores Cascadia Subduction Zone - Cores, Logs, and ACORKs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M.; Collins, J.; Ludwig, K. A.; Slough, S.; Delaney, M. L.; Hovan, S. A.; Expedition 328 Scientists

    2010-12-01

    For twelve days this past September, seventeen formal and informal educators from the US, UK, and France joined six instructors and a small science party on the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)’s Cascadia ACORK Expedition. The educators were part of the annual “School of Rock (SOR)” education program. SOR is coordinated by the U.S. Implementing Organization (USIO) of IODP and is designed to engage participants in seagoing Earth systems research and education workshops onboard the JOIDES Resolution and on shore at the Gulf Coast Core Repository in Texas. The scientific objective of the Cascadia ACORK expedition was to install a new permanent hydrologic observatory at ODP Site 889 to provide long-term monitoring of the pressure at the frontal part of the Cascadia accretionary prism. This year’s SOR workshop focused on how cores, logs, and ACORKs shed light on the hydrology and geology of the Cascadia subduction zone in the Northeast Pacific. In addition to observing the deployment of the ACORK, the SOR participants conducted daily hands-on analyses of archived sediment and hard-rock cores with scientists and technicians who specialize in IODP research using the lab facilities on the ship. Throughout the expedition, participants engaged in different activities and lessons designed to explore the deep biosphere, methane hydrates, paleoceanography, sedimentology, biostratigraphy, seafloor spreading, and drilling technology. The workshop also provided participants with “C3” time; time to communicate their experience using the successful joidesresolution.org website and other tools, make connections to their prior knowledge and expertise, and to be creative in developing and planning new education and outreach activities based on their new knowledge and research. As part of participating in the expedition, participants committed to further developing and testing their education and outreach products after the expedition, conducting post-expedition projects in conjunction with the U.S. Implementing Organization and their own institutions, and to participating actively in post-cruise evaluation. Since its inception in 2005, 75 SOR graduates and staff have conducted over 150 workshops and short courses for 3,000 participants in more than 30 U.S. states and five other nations. Integral to the success of the program is the evaluation process that takes place during and after each SOR. In particular, SOR evaluations take advantage of the power of video data collection to demonstrate the transformative nature of SOR expeditions. Video evaluations offer a unique opportunity to collect and preserve participant “voice” to document true transformative broader impacts. Along with video evaluations, the program also employs more traditional evaluation methods such as internal evaluator observations, open-ended questionnaires, and participant journals.

  11. Effects of fluids on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Morales, L. G.; Rybacki, E.; Wenk, H.; Dresen, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Low temperature microstructures observed in samples from SAFOD drill cores indicate fluid-related deformation and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations, document open pores that formed in-situ during or after deformation. In TEM images, many pores with high aspect ratio appear to be unconnected. They were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting that elevated pore fluid pressure exist in the fault gouge, preventing pore collapse. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault rocks is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. TEM imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. In few samples syntectonic fluid-assisted overgrowth of chlorite-rich films on slickensides partly replaced sedimentary quartz grains. Quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved with sutured boundaries. Newly-formed phyllosilicates are illite-smectite phases, Mg-rich smectites and chlorite minerals. They are very fine-grained (down to 20 nm) and nucleate at grain surfaces (interfaces), which in many cases are pore or fracture walls. These relatively straight or curved crystals grow into open pore spaces and fractures. They are arranged in a card-house fabric with open pore spaces between the flakes. Locally, clay flakes are bent, folded or show sigmoidal shapes indicating that they were involved in faulting. The clay particles do not show a preferred shape orientation. The predominantly random orientation distribution of the clay minerals was confirmed by x-ray synchrotron texture analysis. Pole figures show very weak textures with maxima around 1.2 m.r.d. and minima around around 0.8 m.r.d., indicating that a majority of crystals are oriented randomly. The dominance of randomly oriented clay particles, characterized by weak fabrics, may influence the mechanical stability of fault zone rocks. Formation of secondary calcite cement reveals fluid-assisted fracture healing. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows at least three different generations of calcite veins confined to lithoclasts, displaying dissolution seams. Additionally, crack and seal processes in K-feldspar are identified. The calcite grains exhibit different degrees of deformation with evidence for twinning and crystal plasticity.

  12. Magnetic fabrics in deformed metaperidotites of the Outokumpu Deep Drill Core, Finland: Implications for a major crustal shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Agnes; Dietze, Frank

    2014-08-01

    The Outokumpu (OKU) assemblage was studied in drill cores from the 2516 m deep OKU Deep Drill Hole, Finland, and we observed that the strongest magnetic anomalies found in borehole measurements are related to three ferrimagnetic metaperidotite units with magnetic susceptibilities of up to 93 × 10- 3 SI separated by paramagnetic rock units. The main ferrimagnetic minerals are magnetite and minor pyrrhotite. Magnetic fabric studies were done in order to examine deformation within the OKU assemblage during the collisional deformation event 1.9 Ga ago. Well-defined magnetic axes (kmax, kmin) and nearly horizontal magnetic foliation subparallel to the macroscopic foliation occur at the top and the bottom of the OKU formation. Low- and high-field AMS measurements showed that ferri- and paramagnetic subfabrics are coaxial. Paramagnetic units intercalated between the ferrimagnetic units show mostly triaxial magnetic fabrics, and low degrees of magnetic anisotropy values (P? < 1.3) with a high variation of the shape factor (T) from prolate to oblate shapes. P? of the ferrimagnetic metaperidotite is high and range between 1.3 and 3.6 and T tends to more oblate shapes (T > 0). Ferrimagnetic unit 2 shows the highest magnetic susceptibility and P? up to 5.6, which is related to a high amount of magnetite and pyrrhotite mostly concentrated in huge aggregates and veins. Alignment of magnetic minerals parallel with the structural foliation and the high P? values in the ferrimagnetic metaperidotite indicate that magnetic fabric was acquired in a high strain zone. The magnetic fabrics represent shear zone (SC) fabrics, which have been formed during early obduction-related deformation of the Svecofennian orogeny. The stacked sequence of the ferri- and paramagnetic metaperidotite bodies can be interpreted as a thrust system with an imbricate fan, in which three individual listric thrust sheets occur. This interpretation is in accordance with previous tectonic models of the Outokumpu area.

  13. Manson impact structure, Iowa: First geochemical results for drill core M-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, Raymond R.; Hartung, Jack B.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1993-01-01

    The Manson Impact Structure is a large complex impact crater centered ca. S km north of the town of Manson, Iowa. It is the largest intact impact structure recognized in the United States (35 km in diameter). Its Ar-40/Ar-39 age is indistinguishable from that of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. The Manson structure may be one element of the events at the K-T boundary. The crater is completely covered by Quaternary glacial sedimentary deposits that are normally underlain by Cretaceous clastic sediments and flat-lying carbonate sediments of Phanerozoic age, as well as Proterozoic red clastic, metamorphic, volcanic, and plutonic rock sequences. The study of a reflection seismic profile, provided by Amoco, was critical in interpreting the structure. In the 35 km diameter zone that marks the extension of the crater the normal rock sequence is disturbed due to the impact, and at the center of the structure granitic basement rocks are present that have been uplifted from about 4 km depth. Our studies consist of detailed petrological and geochemical characterization of all cores, with emphasis on a detailed description of all rock types found in the core samples and their relationship to target rocks. Geochemical data on samples from the Manson M-1 core are presented.

  14. Core cracking and hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' geophysical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2015-02-01

    Observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock. Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code, we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia, by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The effect of heating from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via "temperature resets," core cooling events lasting ˜50 Myr during which Ceres' interior temperature profile becomes very shallow and its hydrosphere is largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) would suggest that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter, whose arrival at Ceres is imminent, could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.

  15. Integrated Geologic, Hydrologic, and Geophysical Investigations of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia, USA: A Multi-Agency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohn, G. S.; Bruce, T. S.; Catchings, R. D.; Emry, S. R.; Johnson, G. H.; Levine, J. S.; McFarland, E. R.; Poag, C. W.; Powars, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is the focus of an ongoing federal-state-local research program. Recent core drilling and geophysical surveys address the formative processes and hydrogeologic properties of this major "wet-target" impact. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Petrological and Geochemical Studies of Samples from the Nicor Chestnut 18-4 Drill Core, AMES Impact Structure, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W. U.

    1996-03-01

    The near-circular 15-km-diameter Ames structure is located at 36 degrees 15' N and 98 degrees 12' W in southeastern Major County (NW Oklahoma). The structure, which is set in Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle dolomite, consists of two concentric rims, an outer rim, which is about 1.5 to 3 km wide, and an inner "rim". The rocks of the outer rim consist mainly of fractured and brecciated Arbuckle dolomite. The inner "ring" (about 5 km in diameter) seems to be the eroded remnant of a central structural uplift, with rocks comprising brecciated Precambrian granite and Arbuckle dolomite. The depression is covered by Middle Ordovician Oil Creek shale. The structure is penetrated by a number of oil- and gas-producing wells in the crater rim and the central uplift. The production from these wells indicate that Ames represents one of the largest - if not the largest - single oil fields in Oklahoma. Currently the structural disturbance is buried beneath almost 3000 m of sedimentary rock. The origin of the structure has been intensely debated since the discovery of the structural anomaly, but geophysical and geological, as well as petrological and geochemical data provide very good evidence that it was formed by impact, and not by volcanism or even more esoteric processes. In the present study, we analyzed 17 samples, including impact melt breccia, from the Nicor Chestnut 18-4 core. These samples represent the largest and best examples of impact melt breccias and melt rock obtained so far from the Ames structure. One important result of the petrographic analyses is the observation that not all carbonate rocks postdate the impact, but some were clearly present among the target rocks. The chemical composition of the impact melt breccias is similar to that of other melt rocks from the Dorothy 1-19 core, as well as to the target granite, with variable carbonate admixtures. Some impact melt rocks are enriched in siderophile elements, indicating a possible meteoritic component.

  17. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  18. Impact-related dike breccia lithologies in the ICDP drill core Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, A.; Kenkamnn, T.; Schmitt, R. T.; Hecht, L.; Stöffler, D.

    2004-06-01

    Petrographic descriptions of three dike breccia lithologies from drill core Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) are presented. They occur within allochthonous units of displaced sedimentary megablocks of the Chicxulub impact structure. The suevitic dike breccias are the uppermost dike lithology. They contain melt rock particles and melt injections into the dike groundmass. Shock features occur ubiquitously and indicate a strong thermal annealing. Flow textures suggest a highly energetic emplacement process, possibly during the excavation stage as a ground-surge related deposit. The impact melt rock dikes are present in a strongly brecciated megablock interval as flow textured, anastomozing veinlets of impact melt rock that were altered to clay minerals. The melt impregnated a dolomitic host rock, indicating a low viscosity and, thus, high initial temperatures. Brecciation of the impact melt rock dikes occurred while they were still below the glass transition temperature, suggesting that dynamic conditions prevailed shortly after the emplacement process. Major element data indicates that the impact melt rock dikes differ in composition from the homogenized impact melt rock of Chicxulub. This could point to an emplacement during the late compression or early excavation stages of cratering. The clastic polymict dike breccias are coeval with pervasive brittle fracturing of the host rocks. They bear clasts including some crystalline basement and possible melt rock particles in a fine-grained dolomite matrix with turbulent flow textures. Fabric and texture indicate a granular flow at ambient pressures. Such conditions could be envisaged for the excavation phase while the transient cavity grew and fractures opened.

  19. A shallow ice core re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap, western China: recent changes in the Asian high mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu; Miyake, Takayuki; Nakazawa, Fumio; Narita, Hideki; Fujita, Koji; Sakai, Akiko; Nakawo, Masayoshi; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Duan, Keqin; Yao, Tandong

    2009-10-01

    A 51 m deep ice core was re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap of western China in 2002, 15 years after the previous ice core drilling in 1987. Dating by seasonal variations in ?18O and particle concentration showed that this 51 m deep ice core covered approximately the last 150 years. The stratigraphy and density showed that more than 90% of the ice core was refrozen ice layers, which comprised less than 5% of the annual accumulation in the older core. This indicates that the ice cap had experienced a more intense melting since 1987, possibly due to climate warming in this region. Mean net accumulation since the last drilling (2002-1987) was 176 mm a-1, which was considerably smaller than that obtained from the 1987 core (390 mm a-1, 1987-1963), indicating a significant decrease of net accumulation on the ice cap in the more recent period. The ?18O record showed an increasing trend in the late 19th century and the highest in the 1950s, which is consistent with the previous core findings. However, there has been no significant increase in ?18O during the last two decades, in contrast to the warming trends suggested by the melt features and other climate records. This discrepancy may be due to the modification of ?18O records by melt water runoff, percolation, and refreezing on the ice cap. Results strongly suggest recent significant mass loss of glaciers in the Asian high mountains and serious shortage of water supply for local people in this arid region in the near future.

  20. Environmental Health Research Recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Patrick N.; Gray, Kathleen; Howarth, Marilyn; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) (which include hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) supply an energy source that is potentially cleaner than liquid or solid fossil fuels and may provide a route to energy independence. However, significant concerns have arisen due to the lack of research on the public health impact of UNGDO. Objectives: Environmental Health Sciences Core Centers (EHSCCs), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), formed a working group to review the literature on the potential public health impact of UNGDO and to make recommendations for needed research. Discussion: The Inter-EHSCC Working Group concluded that a potential for water and air pollution exists that might endanger public health, and that the social fabric of communities could be impacted by the rapid emergence of drilling operations. The working group recommends research to inform how potential risks could be mitigated. Conclusions: Research on exposure and health outcomes related to UNGDO is urgently needed, and community engagement is essential in the design of such studies. Citation: Penning TM, Breysse PN, Gray K, Howarth M, Yan B. 2014. Environmental health research recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations. Environ Health Perspect 122:1155–1159;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408207 PMID:25036093

  1. Drill core LB08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Petrographic and shock metamorphic studies of material from the central uplift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovic Ferrière; Christian Koeberl; Wolf Uwe Reimold

    2007-01-01

    During a recent drilling project sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Progam (ICDP), two boreholes (LB-07A and LB-08A) were drilled into the crater fill of the Bosumtwi impact structure and the underlying basement, into the deep crater moat and the outer flank of the central uplift, respectively. The Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which is 10.5 km

  2. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M.; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H.; Moyer, Craig L.; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

  3. Drilling and Completion of the Urach III HDR Test Well

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, U.; Ernst, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The hot dry rock (HDR) test well, urach III, was drilled and completed in 1979. The borehole is located in Southwest Germany in the geothermal anomaly of Urach. The purpose of project Urach was to study drilling and completion problems of HDR wells and to provide a test site for a HDR research program. The Urach III borehole was drilled to a total depth of 3,334 meters (10,939 feet), penetrating 1,700 meters (5,578 feet) into the granitic basement. Extensive coring was required to provide samples for geophysical and geochemical studies. Positive displacement downhole motors were used for coring and normal drilling operations. It was found that these motors in combination with the proper bits gave better results than conventional rotary drilling. Loss of circulation was encountered not only in sedimentary rocks but also in the granite. After drilling and completion of the borehole, a number of hydraulic fracturing experiments were performed in the open hole as well as in the cased section of Urach III. A circulation loop was established by using the single-borehole concept. It is not yet clear whether new fractures have actually been generated or preexisting joints and fissures have been reactivated. Evaluation of the results of this first step is almost completed and the planning of Phase II of the Urach project is under way.

  4. On the joint inversion of geophysical data for models of the coupled core-mantle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1991-01-01

    Joint inversion of magnetic, earth rotation, geoid, and seismic data for a unified model of the coupled core-mantle system is proposed and shown to be possible. A sample objective function is offered and simplified by targeting results from independent inversions and summary travel time residuals instead of original observations. These data are parameterized in terms of a very simple, closed model of the topographically coupled core-mantle system. Minimization of the simplified objective function leads to a nonlinear inverse problem; an iterative method for solution is presented. Parameterization and method are emphasized; numerical results are not presented.

  5. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  6. Physical properties of fault zone rocks from SAFOD: Tying logging data to high-pressure measurements on drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2005, Phase 2 of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole was completed and logged with wireline tools including a dipole sonic tool to measure P- and S-wave velocities. A zone of anomalously low velocity was detected from 3150 to 3414 m measured depth (MD), corresponding with the subsurface location of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ). This low velocity zone is 5-30% slower than the surrounding host rock. Within this broad low-velocity zone, several slip surfaces were identified as well as two actively deforming shear zones: the southwest deformation zone (SDZ) and the central deformation zone (CDZ), located at 3192 and 3302 m MD, respectively. The SAFZ had also previously been identified as a low velocity zone in seismic velocity inversion models. The anomalously low velocity was hypothesized to result from either (a) brittle deformation in the damage zone of the fault, (b) high fluid pressures with in the fault zone, or (c) lithological variation, or a combination of the above. We measured P- and S-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequencies on saturated 2.5 cm diameter core plug samples taken from SAFOD core obtained in 2007 from within the low velocity zone. The resulting values fall into two distinct groups: foliated fault gouge and non-gouge. Samples of the foliated fault gouge have P-wave velocities between 2.3-3.5 km/s while non-gouge samples lie between 4.1-5.4 km/s over a range of effective pressures from 5-70 MPa. There is a good correlation between the log measurements and laboratory values of P-and S wave velocity at in situ pressure conditions especially for the foliated fault gouge. For non-gouge samples the laboratory values are approximately 0.08-0.73 km/s faster than the log values. This difference places the non-gouge velocities within the Great Valley siltstone velocity range, as measured by logs and ultrasonic measurements performed on outcrop samples. As a high fluid pressure zone was not encountered during SAFOD drilling, we use the ultrasonic velocities of SAFOD core and analogous outcrop samples to determine if the velocity reduction is due to lithologic variations or the presence of deformational fabrics and alteration in the fault zone. Preliminary analysis indicates that while the decrease in velocity across the broad fault zone is heavily influenced by fractures, the extremely low velocities associated with the actively deforming zones are more likely caused by the development of scaly fabric with clay coatings on the fracture surfaces. Analysis of thin sections and well logs are used to support this interpretation.

  7. Methane hydrate pore saturation evaluation from geophysical logging and pressure core analysis, at the first offshore production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    On March 2013, the first offshore production test form methane hydrate (MH) concentrated zone (MHCZ) was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21) at the AT1 site located in the north-western slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. Before the production test, extensive geophysical logging and pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System were conducted in 2012 at monitoring well (AT1-MC) and coring well (AT1-C), in order to obtain basic information for the MH reservoir characterization. MH pore saturation (Sh) is one of the important basic parameters not only for reservoir characterization, but also the resource assessment. However, precise evaluation of Sh from geophysical logging is still challenging technical issue. The MHCZ confirmed by the geophysical logging at AT1-MC has a turbidite assemblage (from several tens of centimeters to a few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness; it is composed of lobe/sheet type sequences in the upper part, and relatively thick channel sand sequences in the lower part. In this study, the Sh evaluated from geophysical logging data were compared with those evaluated from pressure core analysis. Resistivity logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log were used for the Sh evaluation by geophysical logging. Standard Archie equation was applied for Sh evaluation from resistivity log, while density magnetic resonance (DMR) method was used for Sh evaluation from NMR log. The Sh from pressure core samples were evaluated using the amount of dissociated gas volume, together with core sample bulk volume, measured porosity, net sand intervals, and assumed methane solubility in pore water. In the upper part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from resistivity log showed distinct difference in value between sand and mud layers, compared to Sh from NMR log. Resistivity log has higher vertical resolution than NMR log, so it is favorable for these kinds of thin bed evaluation. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which showed fairly good agreement with core derived Sh. On the other hand, lower part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from both resistivity and NMR log showed higher background value and relatively smoother curve than upper part. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which was also showed good agreement with core derived Sh. This study was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21).

  8. Petrophysical characterization of first ever drilled core samples from an active CO2 storage site, the German Ketzin Pilot Site - Comparison with long term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. These parameters may change during and/or after the CO2 injection due to geochemical reactions in the reservoir system that are triggered by the injected CO2. Here we present petrophysical data of first ever drilled cores from a newly drilled well at the active CO2 storage site - the Ketzin pilot site in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. By comparison with pre-injection baseline data from core samples recovered prior to injection, the new samples provide the unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of CO2 on pore size related properties of reservoir and cap rocks at a real injection site under in-situ reservoir conditions. After injection of 61 000 tons CO2, an additional well was drilled and new rock cores were recovered. In total 100 core samples from the reservoir and the overlaying caprock were investigated by NMR relaxation. Permeability of 20 core samples was estimated by nitrogen and porosity by helium pycnometry. The determined data are comparable between pre-injection and post-injection core samples. The lower part of the reservoir sandstone is unaffected by the injected CO2. The upper part of the reservoir sandstone shows consistently slightly lower NMR porosity and permeability values in the post-injection samples when compared to the pre-injection data. This upper sandstone part is above the fluid level and CO2 present as a free gas phase and a possible residual gas saturation of the cores distorted the NMR results. The potash-containing drilling fluid can also influence these results: NMR investigation of twin samples from inner and outer parts of the cores show a reduced fraction of larger pores for the outer core samples together with lower porosities and T2 times. The drill mud penetration depth can be controlled by the added fluorescent tracer. Due to the heterogeneous character of the Stuttgart Formation it is difficult to estimate definite CO2 induced changes from petrophysical measurements. The observed changes are only minor. Several batch experiments on Ketzin samples drilled prior injection confirm the results from investigation of the in-situ rock cores. Core samples of the pre-injection wells were exposed to CO2 and brine in autoclaves over various time periods. Samples were characterized prior to and after the experiments by NMR and Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP). The results are consistent with the logging data and show only minor change. Unfortunately, also in these experiments observed mineralogical and petrophysical changes were within the natural heterogeneity of the Ketzin reservoir and precluded unequivocal conclusions. However, given the only minor differences between post-injection well and pre-injection well, it is reasonable to assume that the potential dissolution-precipitation processes appear to have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behaviour. This is also in line with the continuously recorded injection operation parameter. These do not point to any changes in reservoir injectivity.|

  9. Fossils, lithologies, and geophysical logs of the Mancos Shale from core hole USGS CL-1 in Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Bridget A.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Grauch, R.I.; McKinney, K.C.; Livo, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary investigation of Mancos Shale landscapes in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area in Delta and Montrose Counties of western Colorado by the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation, a core of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale was obtained from a borehole, USGS CL-1, in NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 50 N., R. 9 W. (approximately lat 38.61717 degree(s) N., long 107.90174 degree(s) W.), near the town of Olathe. Geophysical records of the borehole include resistivity, gamma ray, and density logs. The core extends between depths of 20 and 557 ft and is about 2.5 in. in diameter. It is composed of calcareous silty shale, as well as scattered beds of limestone and bentonite which were deposited mainly in offshore marine environments during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian Stages of the Cretaceous Series. The strata were sampled and analyzed to obtain geochemical data and to identify constituent fossils. Stratigraphic units within the Mancos in the core include the following members, in ascending order: Bridge Creek Limestone (part), Fairport, Blue Hill, Juana Lopez, Montezuma Valley, and Niobrara (part). Strata herein assigned to the Bridge Creek Limestone are about 18 ft thick and consist of silty shale that contains ammonites, bivalves, and a coral of Late Cenomanian age. Strata assigned to the Fairport are about 22 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenite-bearing, calcareous shale. Fossils in this member include ammonites and bivalves of early middle Turonian age. Overlying the Fairport is the Blue Hill Member, which is about 139 ft thick, and consists of glauconitic, shaley siltstone, and less silty shale. The Juana Lopez Member, overlying the Blue Hill, is about 138 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenitic, silty shale. Beds in this member contain ammonites and bivalves of late middle and early late Turonian ages. Overlying the Juana Lopez is the Montezuma Valley Member, which is about 55 ft thick and consists of calcarenitic, calcareous silty shale. The Montezuma Valley Member contains ammonites and bivalves of late Turonian age. It is overlain by a lower part of the Niobrara Member of the Mancos Shale which is laterally equivalent to the Fort Hays Limestone Member and part of the overlying Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Formation at outcrops in central Colorado. Strata in the core comparable to the Fort Hays are about 39 ft thick and include shaley limestone and calcareous shale, which contain lower Coniacian bivalves. Strata in the core equivalent to part of the Smoky Hill are about 126 ft thick and consist mainly of calcareous silty shale which also contains lower Coniacian bivalves.

  10. Bibliography, geophysical data locations, and well core listings for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    To date, comprehensive basin analysis and petroleum system modeling studies have not been performed on any of the basins in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Of these basins, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been selected for study because it is the most petroliferous basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, small- and medium-size companies are drilling the majority of the exploration wells. These companies do not have the resources to perform basin analysis or petroleum system modeling research studies nor do they have the resources to undertake elaborate information searches through the volumes of publicly available data at the universities, geological surveys, and regulatory agencies in the region. The Advanced Geologic Basin Analysis Program of the US Department of Energy provides an avenue for studying and evaluating sedimentary basins. This program is designed to improve the efficiency of the discovery of the nation`s remaining undiscovered oil resources by providing improved access to information available in the public domain and by increasing the amount of public information on domestic basins. This report provides the information obtained from Year 1 of this study of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. The work during Year 1 focused on inventorying the data files and records of the major information repositories in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and making these inventories easily accessible in an electronic format.

  11. Summary of micrographic analysis of fracture coating phases on drill cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The flow path between Pahute Mesa and the groundwater discharge area in Oasis Valley (approximately 18 miles to the southwest) is of concern due to the relatively short travel distance between a recharge area where underground nuclear testing has been conducted and the off-site water users. Groundwater flow and transport modeling by IT Corporation (IT) has shown rapid tritium transport in the volcanic rock aquifers along this flow path. The resultant estimates of rapid transport were based on water level data, limited hydraulic conductivity data, estimates of groundwater discharge rates in Oasis Valley, assumed porosities, and estimated retardation rates. Many of these parameters are poorly constrained and may vary considerably. Sampling and analytical techniques are being applied as an independent means to determine transport rates by providing an understanding of the geochemical processes that control solute movement along the flow path. As part of these geochemical investigations, this report summarizes the analysis of fracture coating mineral phases from drill core samples from the Pahute mesa area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Archived samples were collected based on the presence of natural fractures and on the types and abundance of secondary mineral phases present on those fracture surfaces. Mineral phases present along fracture surfaces are significant because, through the process of water-rock interaction, they can either contribute (as a result of dissolution) or remove (as a result of precipitation or adsorption) constituents from solution. Particular attention was paid to secondary calcite occurrences because they represent a potential source of exchangeable carbon and can interact with groundwater resulting in a modified isotopic signature and apparent water age.

  12. Subsurface structure, physical properties, fault-zone characteristics and stress state in scientific drill holes of Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jih-Hao Hung; Kuo-Fong Ma; Chien-Yin Wang; Hisao Ito; Weiren Lin; En-Chao Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Continuous cores and a suit of geophysical measurements were collected in two scientific drill holes to understand physical mechanisms involved in the large displacements during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Physical properties obtained from wire-line logs including P- and S-wave sonic velocity, gamma ray, electrical resistivity, density and temperature, are primarily dependent on parameters such as lithology, depth and fault zones.

  13. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Peeters; Brad Blair

    2000-01-01

    Growing interest in extraterrestrial subsurface exploration has prompted an examination of advanced technologies for drilling slim holes and obtaining geophysical data in these holes. The borehole surveys with geophysical measurements called \\

  14. Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa and Lindi areas of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 1-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; Msaky, Emma; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2004-05-01

    Initial results of scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. A total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly clays and claystones deposited in a deep marine shelf environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology), magnetostratigraphy, and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 1 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko airstrip (8°54.516 'S, 39°30.397 'E). It yielded 8.55 m of barren blue-grey clays that may be Miocene in age, followed by 1.2 m of greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clay probably of the same age. The remainder of the hole cored 62.35 m of lower Oligocene sediments (nannofossil Zone NP23), which are predominantly greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clays. Total penetration was 74.10 m. The coring represents the first report of a thick Oligocene clay formation in the area. TDP Site 2 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko prison (8°55.277 'S, 39°30.219 'E). It yielded 92.78 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clay with occasional allochthonous limestone beds that consist mostly of redeposited larger foraminifers. The site encompasses lower to middle Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones P8/9 to P11 and nannofossil Subzones NP14b to NP15c. It encompasses a rarely cored interval across the Ypresian-Lutetian transition. TDP Site 3 was drilled near Mpara in the Kilwa area (8°51.585 'S, 39°27.655 'E). It yielded 56.4 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clays and claystones. The site is assigned to lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zone P6 and nannofossil Zone NP11. TDP Site 4 was drilled near Ras Tipuli on the northwest side of Lindi creek (9°56.999 'S, 39°42.985 'E). It yielded 19.8 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clay with allochthonous limestone interbeds. The site encompasses middle Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones P12-P14 and nannofossil Zone NP17. TDP Site 5 was drilled at Machole, near Lindi, south of Kitulo Hill (10°01.646 'S, 39°41.375 'E). It yielded 31.6 m of predominantly greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clay assigned to the upper Cretaceous Globotruncana falsostuarti planktonic foraminifer zone and nannofossil zones UC15e-UC17 (upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian). Paleomagnetic analysis suggests that the site straddles two magnetic reversals, between Chrons C32r.2r and C32r.1n. Samples from TDP Sites 1-5 yielded dinocyst and miospore assemblages that are integrated with the calcareous stratigraphy. Organic geochemical analyses of samples from each of the cores revealed biomarkers of predominantly terrestrial origin and an unusually low degree of thermal maturity, suggesting shallow burial depths. X-ray diffraction studies suggest that much of the Paleogene clay may be reworked from eroded Mesozoic formations.

  15. Melt layer statistic of two firn cores recently drilled at Dye3 and South dome in the dry snow zone of Southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstsuhl, Sepp; Hoerz, Sebastian; Eling, Lukas; Vinther, Bo; Popp, Trevor

    2014-05-01

    In the last couple of years remote sensing data have shown large areas of wet snow in the Southern part of the Greenland ice sheet. These melt features are attributed to the overall warming trend. Persistent warming implies changes in the firn layer as well. Even in areas of the dry snow zone one can observe sporadically a few ice lenses within the firn column indicating refrozen meltwater from warm events in the past. In our contribution we want to close the gap between investigations of firn cores drilled in the 70's and the observational record of remote sensing data over the last decade in South Greenland. The focus lies on firn of the dry snow zone which is sensitive against changes in a warming atmosphere and cold enough to prevent a longway percolation path of meltwater to several firn layers. To this end we had drilled two 45m-long firn cores at the former drilling sites of DYE3 (65°11'N, 43°49'W) and South Dome (SD) (63°32'N, 44°34'W) during a aircraft-supported field campaign 2012. The retrieved 3inch-firn core segments of 1m length are measured by a X-ray-scanning routine with the means of the core-scale AWI-ICE-CT. The 2d-density fields are calculated and allow to distinguish between refreezing meltwater and compacted firn. The depth-scales are converted to time-scales by using DEP (dielectric profiling) and (in case of DYE3) discrete sampled d18O measurements. Number density of melt layers and relative amount of melt show an synchronized behavior with an general increase over the last 30 years. Local maxima are observed in both sites at around 6-9m and 25m at DYE3 and 5-8m, 22m and 40m at SD.

  16. Coal test drilling for the DE-NA-Zin Bisti Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.W.; Jentgen, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    From October 1978 to June 1979, the US Geological Survey (USGS) drilled 51 test holes, and cored 9 holes, in the vicinity of the Bisti Trading Post in the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin, San Juan County, New Mexico. The drilling was done in response to expressions of interest received by the Bureau of Land Management concerning coal leasing and, in some places, badlands preservation. The object of the drilling was to determine the depth, thickness, extent, and quality of the coal in the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in northwest New Mexico. The holes were geophysically logged immediately after drilling. Resistivity spontaneous-potential, and natural gamma logs were run in all of the holes. A high-resolution density log was also run in all holes drilled before January 13, when a logging unit from the USGS in Albuquerque was available. After January 13, the holes were logged by a USGS unit from Casper, Wyoming that lacked density logging capabilities. At nine locations a second hole was drilled, about 20 ft from the first hole, down to selected coal-bearing intervals and the coal beds were cored. A detailed description of each of the cores is given on the page(s) following the logs for each hole. From these coal cores, 32 intervals were selected and submitted to the Department of Energy in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for analysis.

  17. Development of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation on a shale dip-slope: Observations from high-quality drill cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, M.; Hariyama, T.; Yamasaki, S.

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed high-quality drill cores with 100% recovery drilled into a gravitationally deformed dip-slope of a shale-dominated sequence of sediments in Japan. The slope had undulating surfaces but no well-defined landslide scarps, suggesting that parts of the slope had undergone gravitational deformation but had not completely separated from the surrounding bedrock. The gravitational deformation of shale and sandstone is characterized by disintegration and brecciation of sediments and the formation of pulverized zones with poorly developed planar structures, jigsaw-like structures, and fracture openings. Shear zones are distributed intermittently within the slope but have not merged discernably into a through-going master sliding surface. Incipient landslide shear zones form openings within coherent rock by shearing along bedding, with these shear zones potentially developing downward in a stepwise manner, which may be related to stress redistribution induced by river incision.

  18. Ages and stable-isotope compositions of secondary calcite and opal in drill cores from Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Kyser, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    Stable-isotope compositions of fracture- and cavity-filling calcite from the unsaturated zone of three drill cores at Yucca Mountain Tertiary volcanic complex indicate that the water from which the minerals precipitated was probably meteoric in origin. A decrease in 18O in the calcite with depth is interpreted as being due to the increase in temperature in drill holes corresponding to an estimated average geothermal gradient of 34?? per kilometer. A few of the calcite samples and all of the opal samples yielded uranium-series ages older than 400 000 yr, although most of the calcite samples yielded ages between 26 000 and 310 000 yr. The stable-isotope and uranium-series dates from precipitated calcite and opal of this reconnaissance study suggest a complex history of fluid movement through the volcanic pile, and episodes of fracture filling predominantly from meteoric water during at least the past 400 000 yr. -Authors

  19. Ocean Drilling Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean Drilling Program

    This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

  20. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  1. Geophysical evidence for the evolution of the California Inner Continental Borderland as a metamorphic core complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Zhang, Jie; Brocher, Thomas M.; Okaya, David A.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Fuis, Gary S.

    2000-01-01

    We use new seismic and gravity data collected during the 1994 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) to discuss the origin of the California Inner Continental Borderland (ICB) as an extended terrain possibly in a metamorphic core complex mode. The data provide detailed crustal structure of the Borderland and its transition to mainland southern California. Using tomographic inversion as well as traditional forward ray tracing to model the wide-angle seismic data, we find little or no sediments, low (?6.6 km/s) P wave velocity extending down to the crust-mantle boundary, and a thin crust (19 to 23 km thick). Coincident multichannel seismic reflection data show a reflective lower crust under Catalina Ridge. Contrary to other parts of coastal California, we do not find evidence for an underplated fossil oceanic layer at the base of the crust. Coincident gravity data suggest an abrupt increase in crustal thickness under the shelf edge, which represents the transition to the western Transverse Ranges. On the shelf the Palos Verdes Fault merges downward into a landward dipping surface which separates "basement" from low-velocity sediments, but interpretation of this surface as a detachment fault is inconclusive. The seismic velocity structure is interpreted to represent Catalina Schist rocks extending from top to bottom of the crust. This interpretation is compatible with a model for the origin of the ICB as an autochthonous formerly hot highly extended region that was filled with the exhumed metamorphic rocks. The basin and ridge topography and the protracted volcanism probably represent continued extension as a wide rift until ?13 m.y. ago. Subduction of the young and hot Monterey and Arguello microplates under the Continental Borderland, followed by rotation and translation of the western Transverse Ranges, may have provided the necessary thermomechanical conditions for this extension and crustal inflow.

  2. Drilling tools for continuous offshore operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfgat, M.Y. [Aquatic Company, Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Surkov, D.V.; Buyanovsky, I.N. [All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Drilling Techniques, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Offshore drilling tools are still the object of improvement aimed in achieving maximum production or scientific effect of minimum costs. One of perspective ways of improving offshore scientific drilling indices is utilization of drilling systems which provide continuous hole penetration without pulling out the drill string aboard of drill vessel for bit replacement. The report presents specific features of the drilling tools supplying Complete Coring System (CCS) operations. CCS can provide continuous coring and drilling as well as logging in any geological profiles from the soft to very hard formations. One of the basic principles in coring is slimhole pilot drilling, thus giving many advantages. Development of drilling tools for CCS is based upon vast experience in designing drilling tools, including the retractable bits. In perspective CCS can be applied in stratigraphic and scientific drilling in deep water, especially in complicated geological conditions.

  3. Unzen Scientific Drilling Project: Challenging drilling operation into the magmatic conduit shortly after eruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sakuma; S. Nakada; K. Uto

    2004-01-01

    Drilling operation was aimed at penetration into the core of the volcano 8 years after eruption of Unzen, including directional drilling in high temperature and with high inclination. The project started with fixing drilling site. Scientists and drilling engineers agreed to settle it at the northern slope of Mt. Unzen at 840 m asl, and the drilling target was set

  4. Water Depth Estimates Using the Volatile Content of Volcanic Glass from the AND-1B Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, B. I.; Krans, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Volatile contents of volcanic glass from the ocean floor and subglacial environments can help determine water depth or ice thickness, respectively, owing to the pressure-dependence of volatile solubility in magma. The higher the pressure (i.e., the greater the water depth or ice thickness), the greater the concentration of volatiles dissolved in the magma. The existence of volcanic glass in the AND-1B drill core erupted subaqueously or even subglacially affords the possibility of constraining water depth by measuring the volatile content of the glass. Water depth is a critical variable required for the ANDRILL climate models. Glass samples studied come from Lithostratigraphic Unit (LU) 1 at ~25 m depth and from LU 2 between 92 and 145 m depth. The samples from LU1 were fresh-looking basanitic/phonotephritic glassy sands. The glass and tachylite was very blocky suggesting a near-source subaquatic eruption origin rather than a subaerial eruptive process. The vesiculated nature of the glass indicates eruption into shallow water. The black and well sorted sands from subunit 2.4 were more likely derived from subaerial Hawaiian/Strombolian type eruptions. The graded bedding exposed in this subunit may result from fallout of tephra through the water column. Small chips of fresh glass were picked from the volcanic sediment in order to make mounts for major element study by electron microprobe and doubly polished glass wafers for volatile analysis by synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectrometry. S and Cl concentrations determined by electron microprobe range from 0.02 to 0.16 wt% (Dunbar, pers. comm.). Magmatic tephra from Iceland typically contain 0.03-0.06 wt% S indicating near complete degassing of the magma upon eruption. The range of S concentrations in the upper part of AND-1B support the textural interpretation indicating both subaerial and subaqueous eruptions. H2O contents calculated from FTIR spectra depend on absorbance, density of the glass, and thickness of the glass wafer. Volatile measurements here have determined wafer thickness using interference fringes on spectra collected in reflectance mode on the FTIR. H2O contents measured in the volcanic glasses from the upper 120 m of AND-1B range from 0.21 to 0.87 wt%. One sample from 25.64 m depth from LU 1 was measured to have 0.56 wt% H2O by FTIR. No carbonate peaks were observed in the spectra indicating the glass contained less than the detection limit of ~30 ppm CO2. On-ice participants interpret the volcanic glass in the black sands from the core as a product of subaqueous eruptions. Assuming a SiO2 content of 47 wt% for the glass and a temperature of 1000°C, 0.56 wt% H2O yields a saturation pressure of 33.5 bars. An eruption pressure of 33.5 bars translates into a water depth of 342 m assuming 0 ppm CO2 in the glass. The water depth calculation depends significantly on the CO2 content, however small. A CO2 concentration of 20 ppm CO2 indicates a depth of 578 m. Future studies will concentrate on whether the measured H2O contents are truly magmatic values. Step-heating hydrogen isotopic measurements and H2O content maps of glassy clasts using synchrotron FTIR can help determine the true magmatic H2O content.

  5. Geochemical and Diatom Records of Hydrologic Variability in the Tropical Andes During the Late Quaternary From Drill Cores of Lake Titicaca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Seltzer, G. O.; Arnold, K. K.; Tapia, P. M.

    2002-12-01

    Seven drill cores were recovered from Lake Titicaca during the NSF/ICDP/DOSECC drilling expedition of 2001. Sub-lake floor drilling depths ranged from 53 to 139 m; water depths ranged from 40 to 232 m; recoveries ranged from 75 to 112%. Our most detailed multi-proxy analyses to date have been done on Core 2B raised from the central basin of the lake from 232 m water depth, drilled to 139.26 m sub-lakefloor with 140.61 m of total sediment recovered (101%). A basal age of 200 Ka is estimated by linear extrapolation from radiocarbon measurements in the upper 25 m of core; Ar-Ar dating of interbedded ashes is underway. The volume and lake level of Lake Titicaca have undergone large changes several times during the late Quaternary. Proxies for these water level changes (each of different fidelity) include the ratio of planktonic-to-benthic diatoms, sedimentary carbonate content, and stable isotopic content of organic carbon. The most recent of these changes, have been described previously from earlier piston cores. In the early and middle Holocene the lake fell below its outlet to 85 m below modern level, lake salinity increased several times, and the Salar de Uyuni, which receives overflow from Titicaca, dessicated. In contrast, Lake Titicaca was deep, fresh, and overflowing (southward to the Salar de Uyuni) throughout the last glacial maximum from prior to 25,000 BP to at least 15,000 BP. According to our extrapolated ages, the penultimate major lowstand of Lake Titicaca occurred around 75,000 to 80,000 BP, when seismic evidence indicates that lake level was about 240 m lower than present. Near the end of this lowstand, the lake also became quite saline. There are at least three, and possibly more, older lowstands, each separated temporally by periods in which the lake freshened dramatically and overflowed. Our analyses include decadal resolution of the stable isotopic composition of lowstand carbonate sediments. Taking advantage of a quantitative relationship between precipitation amount and ?18O of the precipitation, we use model calculations and the observed oxygen isotopic record to reconstruct precipitation rates during the carbonate-bearing intervals. These are compared with similar analyses and calculations done on the highstand deposits in the Salar de Uyuni (contemporaneous deposits in Lake Titicaca contain no carbonate).

  6. IODP drilling at Chicxulub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J.; Urrutia, J.; Gulick, S.; Grieve, R.; Rebolledo, M.; Melosh, J.; Warner, M.; Christeson, G.; Barton, P.

    2005-05-01

    The terrestrial record is the only source of 3-D ground truth observations on the lithological and structural character of natural impact structures. Of the three largest known impact craters on Earth, Chicxulub is the best preserved because of a slow burial on a tectonically quiet carbonate platform. Our proposal is to drill two wells that address fundamental issues about the structure of the Chicxulub impact crater and its environmental effects. CHICX-01A will focus on constraining the environmental effects of the impact. Current emphasis is on the potential effects of vapor species derived from shocked carbonates and sulfates. Chicx-01A will supply a complete litho-stratigraphic section of the offshore sedimentary portion of the target. Anhydrite is likely to be the most lethal component of the target rocks, but estimates of its constituent percentage range between 10 and 40 %. Half of the crater lies offshore, and seismic indicate that the Mesozoic section is > 1-km thicker offshore than onshore. The thicker the sedimentary layer, the greater the volume of potential pollutants released. If we drill Chicx-01A, we will be able to calibrate the marine reflection data, in terms of depth, strata and lithology, and be better able to convert travel-time to depth for the entire marine reflection dataset. Onshore drilling at Yaxcopoil-1 penetrated 600 m of late Cretaceous calcarenite, dolomite and anhydrite rocks. These data are of significant value in establishing the chemistry of the uppermost section of target rock, and will serve as a baseline for onshore-offshore comparisons if Chicx-01A is drilled. CHICX-02A is specifically designed to sample the peak ring and provide information to constrain formational processes. It is widely believed that peak rings form from hydrodynamic collapse in some form of extension of the structural uplift process that leads to central peaks in smaller complex craters. However, annular rings within terrestrial craters correspond to different morphological elements and this diversity, as well as a lack of common understanding as to what constitutes the planetary equivalent of a peak ring, means that there is currently no consensual agreement on the nature of a topographic peak ring. Drilling through the peak ring at Chicxulub will answer this fundamental cratering question. Geophysical property measurements on the core will be used to improve 3D structural models of the central crater. Of particular interest is the source of the short-wavelength magnetic anomalies that appear to track the peak ring, and may represent enhanced hydrothermal circulation. Our high-resolution 3-D seismic survey, shot in early 2005, will place the drill-hole in its correct structural context. Understanding the mechanism for peak-ring formation is fundamental to understanding cratering. When we can model crater formation in detail, we can better use craters as a diagnostic tool for understanding the surface evolution of the other terrestrial planets. Subtle differences in crater morphology between different planetary bodies provide clues to their near-surface rheology.

  7. Polar organic compounds in pore waters of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Eyreville core hole: Character of the dissolved organic carbon and comparison with drilling fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Sanford, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores recovered at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, were analyzed to characterize the dissolved organic carbon. After squeezing or centrifuging, a small volume of pore water, 100 ??L, was taken for analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Porewater samples were analyzed directly without filtration or fractionation, in positive and negative mode, for polar organic compounds. Spectra in both modes were dominated by low-molecular-weight ions. Negative mode had clusters of ions differing by -60 daltons, possibly due to increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. The numberaverage molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight values for the pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure are higher than those reported for other aquatic sources of natural dissolved organic carbon as determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In order to address the question of whether drilling mud fluids may have contaminated the pore waters during sample collection, spectra from the pore waters were compared to spectra from drilling mud fluids. Ions indicative of drilling mud fluids were not found in spectra from the pore waters, indicating there was no detectable contamination, and highlighting the usefulness of this analytical technique for detecting potential contamination during sample collection. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Teaching Marine Geoscience at Sea: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's School of Rock Explores Cascadia Subduction Zone - Cores, Logs, and ACORKs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Reagan; J. Collins; K. A. Ludwig; S. Slough; M. L. Delaney; S. A. Hovan

    2010-01-01

    For twelve days this past September, seventeen formal and informal educators from the US, UK, and France joined six instructors and a small science party on the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)'s Cascadia ACORK Expedition. The educators were part of the annual ``School of Rock (SOR)'' education program. SOR is coordinated by the U.S.

  9. Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic studies of cores 60009/60010 and 60003 - Compositional and surface-exposure stratigraphy. [of Apollo deep drill lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Gose, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance and static magnetic measurements were made on 131 samples from core 60009/60010 and on 40 samples from section 60003 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. These studies provided depth profiles for composition, in terms of the concentration of FeO, and relative surface exposure age (or maturity), in terms of the values of the specific FMR intensity normalized to the FeO content. For core 60009/60010, the concentration of FeO ranged from about 1.6 wt.% to 5.8 wt.% with a mean value of 4.6 wt.% and the maturity ranged from immature to mature with most of the soils being submature. A systematic decrease in maturity from the lunar surface to a depth of about 12.5 cm was observed in core section 60010. For core section 60003, the concentration of FeO ranged from about 5.2 wt.% to 7.5 wt.% with a mean value of 6.4 wt.% and the maturity ranged from submature to mature with most of the soils being mature.

  10. Testing the ureilite projectile hypothesis for the El'gygytgyn impact: Determination of siderophile element abundances and Os isotope ratios in ICDP drill core samples and melt rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderis, S.; Wittmann, A.; Zaiss, J.; Elburg, M.; Ravizza, G.; Vanhaecke, F.; Deutsch, A.; Claeys, P.

    2013-07-01

    The geochemical nature of the impactites from International Continental Scientific Drilling Project—El'gygytgyn lake drill core 1C is compared with that of impact melt rock fragments collected near the western rim of the structure and literature data. Concentrations of major and trace elements, with special focus on siderophile metals Cr, Co, Ni, and the platinum group elements, and isotope ratios of osmium (Os), were determined to test the hypothesis of an ureilite impactor at El'gygytgyn. Least squares mixing calculations suggest that the upper volcanic succession of rhyolites, dacites, and andesites were the main contributors to the polymict impact breccias. Additions of 2-13.5 vol% of basaltic inclusions recovered from drill core intervals between 391.6 and 423.0 mblf can almost entirely account for the compositional differences observed for the bottom of a reworked fallout deposit at 318.9 mblf, a polymict impact breccia at 471.4 mblf, and three impact melt rock fragments. However, the measured Os isotope ratios and slightly elevated PGE content (up to 0.262 ng g-1 Ir) of certain impactite samples, for which the CI-normalized logarithmic PGE signature displays a relatively flat (i.e., chondritic) pattern, can only be explained by the incorporation of a small meteoritic contribution. This component is also required to explain the exceptionally high siderophile element contents and corresponding Ni/Cr, Ni/Co, and Cr/Co ratios of impact glass spherules and spherule fragments that were recovered from the reworked fallout deposits and from terrace outcrops of the Enmyvaam River approximately 10 km southeast of the crater center. Mixing calculations support the presence of approximately 0.05 wt% and 0.50-18 wt% of ordinary chondrite (possibly type-LL) in several impactites and in the glassy spherules, respectively. The heterogeneous distribution of the meteoritic component provides clues for emplacement mechanisms of the various impactite units.

  11. Petrography and geochemistry of impactites and volcanic bedrock in the ICDP drill core D1c from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Ulli; Schmitt, Ralf T.; Reimold, W. Uwe

    2013-07-01

    The 3.6 Ma old and 18 km diameter El'gygytgyn impact structure in NE Siberia was drilled in 2008/09 by ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program). A 517 m long core hole (D1c) was drilled into the outer flank of the central uplift structure, with an overall core recovery of approximately 63%. Thereby, approximately 315 m lake sediments and approximately 202 m impactites were recovered. Here, we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical assessment of the impact breccia and bedrock sections in this core. The 97 m long lower bedrock unit (517-420 m below lake floor [blf]) consists of an ignimbrite. In the overlying upper bedrock unit (420-390 mblf), the core recovered a sequence of similar ignimbrite and several decimeters of mafic rocks. We interpret these units as rocks that are located close to their former, preimpact position, but have been somewhat rotated due to collapse of the central uplift (i.e., it represents parautochthonous basement). From about 390 to 328 mblf occurs a suevite package with an impact melt poor, clast-dominated matrix, and lithic and mineral clasts that cover the entire range of volcanic target rocks known from the El'gygytgyn region. All stages of shock metamorphism (unshocked to melted) were observed in clasts, and in microclasts of the matrix, of suevite from different depths. Immediately below this package, at the contact to the underlying bedrock, occurs a 1 m wide sheared zone within vitrophyric ignimbrite, which we consider the actual crater floor. The uppermost approximately 12 m, from 328-316 mblf depth, seem to comprise reworked suevite, consisting of a mixture of sediments and suevite with more and, on average, stronger shocked minerals than found in the main suevite unit. This includes a small component of glassy spherules and impact melt fragments. Toward the top of this unit, lake sediments progressively become the dominant material in this section. We assume that this unit contains a fallback component from the ejecta plume that was mixed with the first sediments of the postimpact crater lake, and possibly some rocks that slumped off the inner crater wall—similar to a thin layer at the base of the sediment section of borehole LB-5A recovered in Lake Bosumtwi (Ghana).

  12. Deep drilling in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure - An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, G.S.; Koeberl, C.; Miller, K.G.; Reimold, W.U.

    2009-01-01

    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure lies buried at moderate depths below Chesapeake Bay and surrounding landmasses in southeastern Virginia, USA. Numerous characteristics made this impact structure an inviting target for scientific drilling, including the location of the impact on the Eocene continental shelf, its threelayer target structure, its large size (??85 km diameter), its status as the source of the North American tektite strewn field, its temporal association with other late Eocene terrestrial impacts, its documented effects on the regional groundwater system, and its previously unstudied effects on the deep microbial biosphere. The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project was designed to drill a deep, continuously cored test hole into the central part of the structure. A project workshop, funding proposals, and the acceptance of those proposals occurred during 2003-2005. Initial drilling funds were provided by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Supplementary funds were provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate, ICDP, and USGS. Field operations were conducted at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, by Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) and the project staff during September-December 2005, resulting in two continuously cored, deep holes. The USGS and Rutgers University cored a shallow hole to 140 m in April-May 2006 to complete the recovered section from land surface to 1766 m depth. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of crater materials and 444 m of overlying postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. The crater section consists of, from base to top: basement-derived blocks of crystalline rocks (215 m); a section of suevite, impact melt rock, lithic impact breccia, and cataclasites (154 m); a thin interval of quartz sand and lithic blocks (26 m); a granite megablock (275 m); and sediment blocks and boulders, polymict, sediment-clast-dominated sedimentary breccias, and a thin upper section of stratified sediments (652 m). The cored postimpact sediments provide insight into the effects of a large continental-margin impact on subsequent coastal-plain sedimentation. This volume contains the first results of multidisciplinary studies of the Eyreville cores and related topics. The volume is divided into these sections: geologic column; borehole geophysical studies; regional geophysical studies; crystalline rocks, impactites, and impact models; sedimentary breccias; postimpact sediments; hydrologic and geothermal studies; and microbiologic studies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  13. Results of Elemental, Stable Isotope, Organic Matter, and Fission-track Analyses of SAFOD Drill-hole Cuttings and Core Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, D.; Evans, J.; Chester, J.; Chester, F.; Garver, J.; Solum, J.; Hickman, S.; Moore, D.

    2006-12-01

    Geochemical analyses of cuttings and core material from the SAFOD drill hole provide important information on the subsurface geology and the fluid-rock interactions that have occurred in and adjacent to the fault zone. We have obtained an integrated geochemical data set from the main drill hole that includes elemental data for 120 cutting and core samples, stable isotope data for 100 vein and breccia samples, organic maturity data for 30 samples, and zircon fission-track data for 6 samples. In the elemental data set, there are 6 breaks/transitions in the abundance of individual elements: at 3197 m (potentially corresponding to the western fault-bounded margin of the SAF damage zone); at 1926 m (a granite-sandstone fault contact); at 3319 m (perhaps the most important fault contact within the core of the SAF zone); at 2570 (core of clay-rich shear zone?); at 3481 (near faulted contact between folded and non-folded sediments); and at 3078m (near clay-rich fault zone that was encountered at end of phase 1 coring). In the stable isotope data, the carbon isotope values of the carbonate veins and cement vary significantly from +8 to negative 20 per mil; the oxygen isotope values vary from +26 to +12 per mil. The data can be separated into two groups, both of which are present on either side of the inferred SAF. The group with low carbon isotope values are consistent with the carbon having been derived from, or exchanged with, either 1) biogenically derived methane, 2) thermogenic methane at temperature greater than 180C rather than at their current down hole temperature of approximately 120C, or 3) dissolved carbon in groundwater that had been produced in the root zone of C3 plants. The latter hypothesis would be consistent with the carbon isotope data of soil gas in the Parkfield area (Lewicki et al., 2002). In contrast, the other group of veins and breccias are in oxygen isotope equilibrium with the silicate-buffered formation water obtained from the drill hole and close to carbon isotope equilibrium with the thermogenic methane sampled in the drill hole. The total organic content (TOC) of the cuttings are below 1 percent by weight. The kerogen is considered to be "gas prone" on the basis of the TOC and Rock-Eval pyrolysis, hydrogen index, and oxygen index values. The vitrinite reflectance of 23 samples increase with depth from 0.70 at 3230 m to 0.95 at 3960 m. This increase in reflectance values is consistent with increasing temperature and organic maturation with depth. Although the data is limited, there is no significant offset in organic maturity across the inferred SAF zone. Six zircon fission-track dates range from 64 to 70 Ma, which are interpreted as cooling ages of the sediments' source terranes. There is no discernable difference in dates across the inferred SAF zone. Zircons from approximately 15 other samples are in the process of being analyzed at this time.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lance Prothro, Sigmund Drellack, Margaret Townsend

    2009-03-25

    The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

  15. 1991 drill bit classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Whether drilling soft, swelling gumbo formations along the Gulf Coast, harder Green River shales in Wyoming or really tough and abrasive quartzite, basalt or Devonian chert deposits in the Permian basin, choosing the best bit for the job is important if optimum drilling and cost efficiency are to be maintained. To make the selection process easier, WORLD OIL has compiled a comprehensive, yet simple-to-use guide for classifying bits. This paper is divided into six major formation categories roughly corresponding to those used by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Within these are listed virtually all commonly available drilling and coring bits by type and manufacturer. To use the guide, simply identify the formation to be drilled, decide whether a rock, diamond, PDC or hybrid bit is most appropriate, choose the manufacturer and scan the bits available. In fact, bits from all manufacturers can readily be compared.

  16. Core lithology, Valles caldera No. 1, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.N.; Goff, F.; Goff, S.; Maassen, L.; Mathews, K.; Wachs, D.; Wilson, D.

    1987-04-01

    Vallas caldera No. 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program research core hole in the Vallas caldera and the first continuously cored hole in the region. The hole penetrated 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera-fill ignimbrites, 35 m of volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales with over 95% core recovery. The primary research objectives included coring through the youngest rhyolite flow within the caldera; obtaining structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring-fracture zone and the pre-caldera Jemez fault zone; and penetrating a high-temperature hydrothermal outflow plume near its source. This report presents a compilation of lithologic and geophysical logs and photographs of core that were collected while drilling VC-1. It is intended to be a reference tool for researchers interested in caldera processes and associated geologic phenomena.

  17. OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 176 PRELIMINARY REPORT

    E-print Network

    OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 176 PRELIMINARY REPORT RETURN TO HOLE 735B Dr. Henry B.Dick Co Drilling Program: Henry B. Dick, Co-Chief Scientist (Department of Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole, Plouzané cedex 29280, France, Internet: dbideau@ifremer.fr) Jeffrey S. Gee, Paleomagnetist (Scripps

  18. Geochemistry of core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG{number_sign}3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.

    1996-07-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff of Miocene age is composed of crystal-poor, high-silica rhyolite overlain by a crystal-rich zone that is gradational in composition from high-silica rhyolite to quartz latite. Each of these zones is divided into subzones that have distinctive physical, mineralogical, and geochemical features.Accurate identification of these subzones and their contacts is essential for detailed mapping and correlation both at the surface and in the subsurface in drill holes and in the exploratory studies facility (ESF). This report presents analyses of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) in core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG {number_sign}3. The concentrations of most of these elements are remarkably constant throughout the high-silica rhyolite, but at its upper contact with the crystal-rich zone, Ti, Zr, Ba, Ca, Sr, La, Ce, and K begin to increase progressively through the crystal-rich zone. In contrast, Rb and Nb decrease, and Y remains essentially constant. Initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios are relatively uniform in the high-silica rhyolite with a mean value of 0.7117, whereas initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios decrease upward in the quartz latite to values as low as 0.7090.

  19. Developers set drilling pace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    McNally

    1981-01-01

    Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner core of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional drilling and production platforms. The majority of drilling rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud

  20. Petrology and hydrothermal mineralogy of U. S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 drill core from Newberry caldera, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Bargar, K.E.

    1988-09-10

    U.S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 was drilled to a depth of 932 m within Newberry caldera. The bottom-hole temperature of 265/sup 0/C is the highest reported temperature of any drill hole in the Cascades region of the United States. The upper part of the stratigraphic section pentrated by Newberry 2 consists of caldera fill below which are increasingly more mafic lavas ranging from rhyodacite at 501 m to basalt at 932 m. Measured temperatures shallower than 300 m are less than 35/sup 0/C, and rock alteration consists of hydration of glass and local palagonitization of basaltic tuffs. Incipient zeolitization and partial smectite replacement of ash and pumice occurred throughout the pumiceous lithic tuffs from 300 to 500 m. Higher-temperature alteration of the tuffs to chlorite and mordenite occurs adjacent to a rhyodacite sill at 460--470 m; alteration minerals within the sill consist of pyrrhotite, pyrite, quartz, calcite, and siderite. Below 697 m the rocks are progressively more altered with depth mainly because of increased temperature along a conductive gradient from 100/sup 0/C at 697 m to 265/sup 0/C at 930 m. Fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite indicate that temperature in the past have been higher than at present, most likely due to local confining pressures between impermeable lava flows.

  1. 10Be content in clasts from fallout suevitic breccia in drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana: Clues to preimpact target distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Michlmayr, Leonard; Koeberl, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Rocks from drill cores LB-07A (crater fill) and LB-08A (central uplift) into the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana, were analyzed for the presence of the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which target rocks of various depths were mixed during the formation of the crater-filling breccia, and also to detect meteoric water infiltration within the impactite layer. 10Be abundances above background were found in two (out of 24) samples from the LB-07A core, and in none of five samples from the LB-08A core. After excluding other possible explanations for an elevated 10Be signal, we conclude that it is most probably due to a preimpact origin of those clasts from target rocks close to the surface. Our results suggest that in-crater breccias were well mixed during the impact cratering process. In addition, the lack of a 10Be signal within the rocks located very close to the lake sediment-impactite boundary suggests that infiltration of meteoric water below the postimpact crater floor was limited. This may suggest that the infiltration of the meteoric water within the crater takes place not through the aerial pore-space, but rather through a localized system of fractures.

  2. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  3. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  4. Element mobility studies of two drill-cores from the Go??temar Granite (Kra??kema??la test site), southeast Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smellie, J.A.T.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out on two relatively deep drill-cores (??? 600 m) from the Go??temar Granite massif in S.E. Sweden. This granite is typical of the 1400-Ma anorogenic granites of the northern hemisphere. Samples from representative, unfractured parts of the cores, together with four samples taken along a profile tangential to a fracture plane at ??? 280-m depth, were investigated chemically, mineralogically and isotopically. The results show that after crystallisation, subtle and pervasive open-system modifications of the trace-element chemistry of the granite took place. Whereas the major-element chemistry and minera-logical data emphasised the relative homogeneity of the Go??temar Granite samples investigated, trace elements such as U, Rb, and Pb revealed irregular distributions which are probably the result of large-scale hydrothermal alteration processes. This conclusion is supported by isotopic studies which indicate that whole-rock samples were open to a gain or loss of Pb and possibly U at ??? 420 ?? 171 Ma ago. In addition, isotopic data for U-Pb and U-Ra are consistent with a recent minor loss of U. The pervasive alteration and the more recent mobilisation of U are evident to a depth of at least 600 m. The effects are most prevalent along major fracture zones and within the upper 250-300 m of one drill-hole where a high frequency of crush zones has been noted. Higher Fe oxidation ratios, higher Rb contents, lower U contents and correspondingly higher Th/U ratios, all characterise this zone. ?? 1985.

  5. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.R. (USGS); Shelander, D. (Schlumberger, Houston, TX); Dai, J. (Schlumberger, Hoston, TX); McConnell, D. (AOA Geophysics, Inc., Houston, TX); Shedd, W. (Minerals Management Service); Frye, M. (Minerals Management Service); Ruppel, C. (USGS); Boswell, R.; Jones, E. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX); Collett, T.S. (USGS); Rose, K.; Dugan, B. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX); Wood, W. (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory); Latham, T. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX)

    2008-07-01

    In the late spring of 2008, the Chevron-led Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) expects to conduct an exploratory drilling and logging campaign to better understand gas hydrate-bearing sands in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The JIP Site Selection team selected three areas to test alternative geological models and geophysical interpretations supporting the existence of potential high gas hydrate saturations in reservoir-quality sands. The three sites are near existing drill holes which provide geological and geophysical constraints in Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system in an area characterized by seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and abundant seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets ponded sheet sands and associated channel/levee deposits within a minibasin, making this a non-structural play. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. Drilling locations have been selected at each site to 1) test geological methods and models used to infer the occurrence of gas hydrate in sand reservoirs in different settings in the northern Gulf of Mexico; 2) calibrate geophysical models used to detect gas hydrate sands, map reservoir thicknesses, and estimate the degree of gas hydrate saturation; and 3) delineate potential locations for subsequent JIP drilling and coring operations that will collect samples for comprehensive physical property, geochemical and other analyses.

  6. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-1

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C.A.; Combs, J. (Geothermal Resources International, Inc., San Mateo, CA (USA)); Walkey, W.C. (GEO Operator Corp., Bend, OR (USA))

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-3

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C.A.

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core holes GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commercial exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table.

  8. Correction to “Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tembe, Sheryl; Lockner, David; Wong, Teng-Fong

    2010-01-01

    This article corrects: Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2. Vol. 114, Issue B11, Article first published online: 5 NOV 2009.

  9. Comparison between Borehole Geophysical Observations and Sedimentary Facies for Three Long Cores Recovered from the Ulleung Basin, Korea: Insights into the Distribution of Gas Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Lee, S.; Bahk, J.

    2010-12-01

    In late 2007, a logging-while-drilling (LWD) operation was performed as part of gas hydrate study at five sites in the Ulleung Basin, east of Korea. Of those five sites, long sediment cores were also recovered at three sites (UBGH-4, 9, and 10), allowing us to compare borehole observation results with characteristics of sediment in the cores. In this study, we analyzed the resistivity log and resistivity image recorded using GVR-SONIC-ADN MD200 to see if there exists any meaningful relationship between the borehole data and sedimentary facies described in the cores. The presence of fracture zones and their orientation were also estimated from the resistivity images. Site UBGH-4 shows little evidence of disintegrated mud (DITM), an important source of gas hydrate. No notable changes could be seen in the resistivity log or image at this site. On the other hand, at Site UBGH-9, several peaks in resistivity values and numerous fractures are found at 70-150 mbsf. This depth interval matches with DITM found in the cores. At UBGH-10, DITM facies are found below 175 mbsf, but unfortunately due to error in resistivity and image data, it is unclear as to whether this depth coincides with the location of abundant gas hydrate or not. In summary, the argument that massive gas hydrates generally occur in the mud sections with ample fractures could not be thoroughly tested except for Site UBGH-9 where the two features do correlate.

  10. Iron oxide tracers of ice sheet extent and sediment provenance in the ANDRILL AND-1B drill core, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, Stefanie; Pinzon, Juliana; Darley, Jason; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Kuhn, Gerhard; Florindo, Fabio; Wilson, Gary; Ohneiser, Christian; Monien, Donata; Joseph, Leah

    2013-11-01

    The AND-1B drill core recovered a 13.57 million year Miocene through Pleistocene record from beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf in Antarctica (77.9°S, 167.1°E). Varying sedimentary facies in the 1285 m core indicate glacial-interglacial cyclicity with the proximity of ice at the site ranging from grounding of ice in 917 m of water to ice free marine conditions. Broader interpretation of climatic conditions of the wider Ross Sea Embayment is deduced from provenance studies. Here we present an analysis of the iron oxide assemblages in the AND-1B core and interpret their variability with respect to wider paleoclimatic conditions. The core is naturally divided into an upper and lower succession by an expanded 170 m thick volcanic interval between 590 and 760 m. Above 590 m the Plio-Pleistocene glacial cycles are diatom rich and below 760 m late Miocene glacial cycles are terrigenous. Electron microscopy and rock magnetic parameters confirm the subdivision with biogenic silica diluting the terrigenous input (fine pseudo-single domain and stable single domain titanomagnetite from the McMurdo Volcanic Group with a variety of textures and compositions) above 590 m. Below 760 m, the Miocene section consists of coarse-grained ilmenite and multidomain magnetite derived from Transantarctic Mountain lithologies. This may reflect ice flow patterns and the absence of McMurdo Volcanic Group volcanic centers or indicate that volcanic centers had not yet grown to a significant size. The combined rock magnetic and electron microscopy signatures of magnetic minerals serve as provenance tracers in both ice proximal and distal sedimentary units, aiding in the study of ice sheet extent and dynamics, and the identification of ice rafted debris sources and dispersal patterns in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica.

  11. Deep Drilling at Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kate Ramsayer

    This Science News for Kids article provides an image-rich overview of a deep-sea drilling project off the coast of British Columbia. The article guides students through the exploration, explaining how deep sediment cores are taken, what researchers find in the cores, and details of what life is like on a research ship. It features links to an online poll, an opportunity for students to submit comments, a deep-sea drilling word find, and links to supplementary reading questions and related sites.

  12. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, we hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300°C; 2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

  13. Geophysical signatures of some recently discovered large (> 40 ha) kimberlite pipes on the Alto Cuilo concession in northeastern Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, Wayne

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a comparison of geophysical responses from several large kimberlite complexes discovered and delineated on the Alto Cuilo concession in the diamond fields of northeastern Angola in the years 2005 to 2008. Several geophysical methods were used in combination with geochemical and mineralogical prioritization techniques to guide exploratory, delineation and bulk sample drilling, in order to rapidly identify and evaluate the kimberlite bodies. The kimberlites were emplaced through Karoo Supergroup sandstones and shales, have eruption ages contemporaneous with the sand-dominated Cretaceous-age Calonda Formation, and are covered by sand-dominated poorly consolidated sediments of the Kalahari Group. Given that sand-dominated non-kimberlite lithologies are magnetically transparent, a low level, high resolution helicopter-borne magnetic gradiometer survey proved to be exceptionally effective in discriminating kimberlite targets, even for low-amplitude anomalies (e.g. 1-2 nT). The helicopter magnetic data outlined approximately 244 probable kimberlite targets and drilling of 103 targets confirmed 80 new kimberlites greater than 5 ha in area. Most kimberlites take the form of well-preserved crater edifices containing a full range of crater-related kimberlite lithologies. Ground gravity and electromagnetic surveys were conducted over all kimberlites prioritized for follow-up investigation. Geophysical responses were ground-truthed against magnetic susceptibility and density measurements, which were routinely collected on all drill cores. The geophysical signatures resolved by the three independent geophysical methods were surprisingly variable and are inferred to be sourced primarily in the crater facies materials, which demonstrate characteristically variable lithologies. Geophysical interpretations guided the drill targeting at all stages of the program at Alto Cuilo, from exploration to evaluation. Combined with geochemical and mineralogical prioritization techniques, the geophysical signatures in magnetic, gravity and electromagnetic data provide a sound basis to guide exploratory, delineation and mini bulk sample drilling of kimberlites buried under 10-70 m of overburden. The significant variability in the geophysical responses from kimberlites that are similar in size, structure and geometry highlights the importance of applying all three independent geophysical methods in order to effectively achieve kimberlite exploration and evaluation goals. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary approach to kimberlite evaluation is demonstrated in the rapid assessment of a cluster of large kimberlites discovered at Project Alto Cuilo.

  14. Piggyback drilling in Kansas: An example for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald W. Steeples; M. E. Bickford

    1981-01-01

    As the development of plate tectonic theory has provided a framework within which to interpret new geological and geophysical data, the need for an organized deep-drilling effort on the continents has become apparent. Since the expense of such a venture will be large, it is important to perform as many scientific experiments as practical on each hole drilled. This paper

  15. Drill report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    North Slope drilling activity is described. As of November 14, 1984, four rigs were actively drilling in the Kuparuk River field with another two doing workovers. Only one rig was drilling in the Prudhoe Bay field, with another doing workovers and one on standby.

  16. National Geophysical Data Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), located in Boulder, Colorado is a project of the US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, and National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service. This site is an informational resource for glaciology, marine geology and geophysics, paleoclimatology, solar-terrestrial physics, and solid earth geophysics. The glaciology section is linked to the National Snow and Ice Data Center website, which offers resources for those interested in studying snow and ice and their relation to Earth systems. The other four sections contain data (often searchable), images, reports, publications and general information on a variety of areas such as bathymetry, ocean drilling/seafloor sediment/rock sample data, the geomagnetic field, solar and upper atmospheric data, global climate, heatflow, and much more.

  17. Microbial Ecosystem In The Oldest Freshwater Lake Revealed From A Drill Core Of The 2.76 Ga Hardey Formation, Pilbara District, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Bevacqua, D. C.; Ohmoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    The Hardey Formation in the Pilbara district of Western Australia, is the oldest known (2.76 Ga) lacustrine deposit, was one of eight targets of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). Rocks in the drilling area have been subjected to very low-grade metamorphism (zeolites facies). The recovered drill core (~145 m in depth) is divisible into two depth zones: (1) the upper zone (<~80 m), comprising mostly coare-grained, gray, arkosic sandstones, and (2) the lower zone, comprising alternating layers of finely laminated, black shales and calcareous sandstones. We selected 26 samples from the lower zone at 2.5-m intervals, and conducted petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations (e.g., chemical mapping of major and trace element (including REEs); organic and carbonate C, and S contents; C isotope). Bedding planes are well preserved, comprising alternating layers of organic-C rich clay and organic-C poor carbonate (10-20 µm). Presence of cross-lamination suggests a low energy depositional environment, probably a shallow lake. Major and trace element contents of all samples are quite homogeneous. Organic C- and pyrite S contents fall in narrow ranges, from 0.2 to 0.7wt% (a mean value = 0.5wt% and s.d. = 0.1wt%) and from 0.01 to 0.1wt% (a mean value = 0.04 wt%; s.d. = 0.02 wt%), respectively. Compared to average Archean marine shales (organic C = 0.45 wt%; S = 0.1 wt%), the Hardy shales are comparable in organic C but are much depleted in pyrite S contents. The low S/C ratios of the Hardy shales concur with a freshwater depositional interpretation. The C isotope values for the organic C vary from -36.6 to -27.6% (a mean value = -32.7%; s.d. = 1.8%). There is no stratigraphic trend, but theycorrelate well with the lithology: -31.9 to -27.6% (a mean value = -30.4%) for disseminated-grains and seams of organic C in calcareous sandstone; and -36.6 to 32.6% (a mean value = -33.4%) for finely-laminated black shales. The heavier values may represent microbial communities in shallow water, while the lighter values represent microbial communities in deeper water. The carbon isotope systematics in the Hardy Formation are essentially identical to those of the 2.75 Ga marine shales at Kidd Creek, Ontario, Canada. These data suggest that the fresh-water ecosystems were already as diversed as marine ecosystems at 2.76 Ga ago.

  18. Petrography, geochemistry, and 40Ar-39Ar ages of impact melt rocks and breccias from the Ames Impact Structure, Oklahoma: The Nicor Chestnut 18-4 drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Kelley, Simon P.

    2001-05-01

    The 15-km-diameter Ames structure in northwestern Oklahoma is located 2.75 km below surface in Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle dolomite, which is overlain by Middle Ordovician Oil Creek Formation shale. The feature is marked by two concentric ring structures, with the inner ring of about 5 km diameter probably representing the collapsed remnant of a structural uplift composed of brecciated Precambrian granite and Arbuckle dolomite. Wells from both the crater rim and the central uplift are oil- and gas-producing, making Ames one of the economically important impact structures. Petrographic, geochemical, and age data were obtained on samples from the Nicor Chestnut 18-4 drill core, off the NW flank of the central uplift. These samples represent the largest and best examples of impact melt breccia obtained so far from the Ames structure. They contain carbonate rocks which, therefore, are derived from the target sequence. The chemical composition of the impact melt breccias is similar to that of target granite, with variable carbonate admixture. Some impact melt rocks are enriched in siderophile elements indicating the possible presence of a meteoritic component. Based on stratigraphic arguments, the age of the crater was estimated at 470 Ma. Previous 40Ar-39Ar dating attempts of impact melt breccias from the Dorothy 1-19 core yielded plateau ages of about 285 Ma, which is in conflict with the stratigraphic age. The new 40Ar-39Ar age data obtained on the melt breccias from the Nicor Chestnut core by UV laser spot analysis, resulted in a range of ages with maxima around 300 Ma. These data could reflect processes related either the regional Nemaha Uplift or resetting due to hot brines active on a midcontinent-wide scale, perhaps in related to the Alleghenian and Ouachita orogenies. The age data indicate an extended burial phase associated with thermal overprint during Late Pennsylvanian-Permian.

  19. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  20. Study on drilling force and delamination in high speed drilling carbon fiber reinforce plastics (CFRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Luo, Xueke; Xu, Honghai

    2011-05-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastics are highly promising materials which widely used in aerospace industry due to their excellent mechanical properties. The delamination is considered a major problem in manufacture the parts and assembly. The thrust force affected the delamination mostly. This paper investigated the drilling force, torque, delamination of carbon fibred composite with carbide drilling tools and half core drilling tool. The experiments were carried out under air cooling cutting conditions and the drilling force and the damage around the hole using carbide tool and half core tool were compared. The experimental results indicated that the drilling forces using half core drill were smaller than that of using carbide tool and the damages around the drilling hole using half core tool and better than that using carbide drill.

  1. Study on drilling force and delamination in high speed drilling carbon fiber reinforce plastics (CFRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Luo, Xueke; Xu, Honghai

    2010-12-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastics are highly promising materials which widely used in aerospace industry due to their excellent mechanical properties. The delamination is considered a major problem in manufacture the parts and assembly. The thrust force affected the delamination mostly. This paper investigated the drilling force, torque, delamination of carbon fibred composite with carbide drilling tools and half core drilling tool. The experiments were carried out under air cooling cutting conditions and the drilling force and the damage around the hole using carbide tool and half core tool were compared. The experimental results indicated that the drilling forces using half core drill were smaller than that of using carbide tool and the damages around the drilling hole using half core tool and better than that using carbide drill.

  2. Manganese-oxide minerals in fractures of the Crater Flat Tuff in drill core USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1990-07-01

    The Crater Flat Tuff is almost entirely below the water table in drill hole USW G-4 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Manganese-oxide minerals from the Crater Flat Tuff in USW G-4 were studied using optical, scanning electron microscopic, electron microprobe, and x-ray powder diffraction methods to determine their distribution, mineralogy, and chemistry. Manganese-oxide minerals coat fractures in all three members of the Crater Flat Tuff (Prow Pass, Bullfrog, and Tram), but they are most abundant in fractures in the densely welded devitrified intervals of these members. The coatings are mostly of the cryptomelane/hollandite mineral group, but the chemistry of these coatings varies considerably. Some of the chemical variations, particularly the presence of calcium, sodium, and strontium, can be explained by admixture with todorokite, seen in some x-ray powder diffraction patterns. Other chemical variations, particularly between Ba and Pb, demonstrate that considerable substitution of Pb for Ba occurs in hollandite. Manganese-oxide coatings are common in the 10-m interval that produced 75% of the water pumped from USW G-4 in a flow survey in 1983. Their presence in water-producing zones suggests that manganese oxides may exert a significant chemical effect on groundwater beneath Yucca Mountain. In particular, the ability of the manganese oxides found at Yucca Mountain to be easily reduced suggests that they may affect the redox conditions of the groundwater and may oxidize dissolved or suspended species. Although the Mn oxides at Yucca Mountain have low exchange capacities, these minerals may retard the migration of some radionuclides, particularly the actinides, through scavenging and coprecipitation. 23 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Rhyolites in the Kimberly Drill Core, Project Hotspot: First Intracaldera Ignimbrite from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, E. H.; McCurry, M. O.; Champion, D. E.; Bolte, T.; Holtz, F.; Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The rhyolites on the track of the Yellowstone hotspot are the classic examples of continental hotspot volcanism and the study of surface outcrops is maturing rapidly. However, in the central part of the track, where silicic volcanism is most voluminous, compositionally distinctive, and isotopically most anomalous, study of these large magma systems has been hindered because eruptive sources are buried. The 2 km Kimberly core helps fill that gap; it penetrates through surficial basalt, deep into the rhyolitic underpinnings on the southern margin of the province. The Kimberly core is dominated by thick sections of rhyolite lava and welded ignimbrite, with basalt-sediment intercalations between 241 m and 424 m depth. We tentatively interpret the core to include a thick intracaldera tuff. Our preliminary studies suggest that there are three major rhyolite units in the core. Rhyolite 3, the uppermost unit, is a nearly 130 m thick, low-silica rhyolite lava. Rhyolite 2 is the most highly evolved with ~75% silica and distinctively resorbed quartz. Rhyolite 1 is at least 1,340 m thick (the base was not cut by the core), has no apparent flow contacts or cooling breaks, and may represent a single, thick intracaldera ignimbrite. Paleomagnetic inclinations form a curious V-shaped profile, shallowing by about 18? between 700 and 1700 m depth. We interpret this to be the result of slower cooling of the mid-part of the thick intracaldera ignimbrite. The lower unit is a low-silica rhyolite with high concentrations of Fe2O3 and TiO2--among the highest of any known ignimbrite on the SRP. It is chemically distinct from the upper units, very homogeneous, not vertically zoned, and lacks multiple populations of phenocrysts. It somewhat resembles the regionally extensive ~10 Ma outflow tuff of Wooden Shoe Butte. However, this is one of several large, petrologically similar ignimbrites as young as 8.6 Ma exposed in the Cassia Mountains south of the hole, so further work is needed. Like most rhyolites from the Snake River Plain, all 3 units have the characteristics of A-type rhyolites with high concentrations of alkalies, high Fe/Mg and TiO2/MgO ratios, as well as high concentrations Nb, Y, Zr and Ga. Initial analyses of plag, cpx, and qtz show that all three units are low ?18O rhyolites, like most from the Central Snake River Plain-- ?18O in feldspar ranges from 1‰ in Rhyolite 1 to 3‰ in Rhyolites 2 and 3. In the thick lower ignimbrite, whole-rock ?18O increases systematically from the base upward (0.5‰ to as much as 9‰ in the altered top and ?D ranges from -140 to -180‰). Whole rock variations correlate with water content, apparently controlled by secondary clay. We suggest that these characteristics were largely imposed by their derivation from partial melting of basaltic sills and surrounding older crust. The low ?18O values reflect recycling of hydrothermally altered crustal rocks and indicate progressive incorporation of more hydrothermally altered material into the younger magmas. More work is needed to establish correlation with regional units, understand the emplacement of the rhyolites and their volcanic setting, and ascertain the origin of these distinctive low ?18O, A-type rhyolites.

  4. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  5. Quaternary evolution of the delta systems and the coast line of Lake Ohrid (FYROM/Albania) revealed by shallow geophysical and drilling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Reicherter, Klaus; Gruetzner, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    The Lake Ohrid Basin (40°54´ - 41°10`N, 20°38`- 20°48`E) is a cross boundary lake (FYROM/Albania) stretching over a length of c. 30 km and a width of c. 15 km. It is situated in a karstic environment in the Balkanides, an active tectonic region. The general geodynamic setting of the Lake Ohrid area can be described as a "basin and range" situation which is influenced by the northern part of the Hellenic trench and is underlain by ongonig extension so that the Ohrid basin is still actively subsiding. Typical sedimentation patterns supported by the topography give evidence for a tectonically controlled regime. Inactive, Pleistocene lobe-shaped fans are cut off relatively linear by the lake. Drowned alluvial fans along the west coast give evidence for lake-level fluctuations or tectonic subsidence along the western basin margin. In contrast the Struga plain in the North is a vast dried up area, which acts either as a sedimentary catchment for a fan system or as a tectonic basement which is subject to subsidence. Thus, the investigation areas concentrated close to the shorelines including extensive parts at the west coast, in the Struga Plain to the North, the deltas of the inflowing rivers and mass movement bodies at the east coast. Ground Penetrating Radar and Electric Resistivity have been applied, as a non-invasive shallow subsurface mapping methods, to image the sedimentary and tectonic structures. Sediment cores were taken and grain size and sediment composition were analysed. In the aggradation and deltaic plains of the Dajan river in the north and of the Cerava river in the south sets of channels cutting into horizontal layers were identified close to the shoreline. Several S-ward dipping foreset-like structures were found in the north near Struga. The cores show sequences of grain sizes varying between clay and gravel intersected by intervals that are fining upward, and are interpreted as fluvial sediments. No evidences for a higher lake-level were found, such as fine-grained limnic sediments, organic material or shells in the cores. In conclusion, during the Pleistocene higher erosion rates are observed around Lake Ohrid, but no evidence for higher lake-level was found in the plains north and south of the lake. Thus the Pleistocene sediments are affected by erosion and by fault activity, mainly along N-S striking normal faults. Flooding of the Struga plain is only subject to a lower ground level presuming that the old shorelines where limited by the deposits of the fans.

  6. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) provides technologically top-level drilling vessels and platforms that can be used by scientists to address global scientific problems, including the causes and processes responsible for submarine geohazards. Both IODP and ECORD (the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling in collaboration with the European Science Foundation) support scientific initiatives towards submarine geohazards, because the geological record of geohazards can be read and interpreted only through ocean drilling, combined with a broad array of geophysical, geotechnical, and laboratory studies, to identify structures and deposits associated with hazardous phenomena.

  7. Integrated provenance-detrital thermochronology studies in ANDRILL AND-2A drill core: first evidence of an Oligocene exhumation episode (McMurdo Sound, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zattin, M.; Talarico, F. M.; Sandroni, S.

    2009-12-01

    An integrated investigation including provenance analysis of the gravel-fraction and detrital apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology on the AND-2A core provides new results to constrain the exhumation history of source regions and the reconstruction of sediment provenance models in the Ross Embayment in Late Cenozoic time. All the AFT ages, from 20 samples, evenly distributed in the uppermost 1000 m of the core, indicate that the entire succession originated from a source that exhumed in the Oligocene/Late Eocene time. In fact, most of the grains in nearly all the samples can be grouped into a youngest grain-age component (P1) in the range between 21.7 Ma and 43.4 Ma. However, most of the samples show more than one population, documenting the presence of multiple source areas in some periods of the basin history. On the other hand, the presence in some of the samples of a unique peak suggests a limited drainage system, as indicated by the petrographic data. The AFT data indicate the presence of active tectonics at the end of the Oligocene, therefore suggesting a source of sediments located along the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) south of the Dry Valleys Block, where bedrock AFT ages indicate an older (Eocene) exhumation phase. Hence, the idea of a structural segmentation of the TAM during the Cenozoic (Wilson, Glob. Plan. Change, 1999) is well supported by these data. Provenance analysis of the gravel fraction highlights significant down-core modal and compositional variations and the occurrence of two main basement clast assemblages, diagnostic of specific source regions and occurring in distinct core sections: a) including marbles, garnet micaschists and diopside schists, suggesting oscillation of "local" glaciers in the on-shore area close to the AND-2A drill site, and b) low-grade metasediments and alkaline granites, indicating oscillations of a most extensive ice sheet/shelf with a clear provenance from the Skelton-Mulock glacier area. These data agree with AFT ages as both the methodologies give a clear indication for sources located in the southern McMurdo Sound. The compositional shifts of TAM-derived clasts suggest a dynamic behavior (waxing and waning) of the Antarctic Ice Sheets. In particular, expansions of the ice-flow lines of Skelton and Mulock glaciers into the McMurdo Sound are similar to the glaciological reconstructions for the Last Glacial Maximum and, consistently with provenance and glaciological models based on the AND-1B record, they can be interpreted as the result of West Antarctic Ice Sheet influence on provenance and dispersal of sediments in the Ross Embayment.

  8. Basic data from five core holes in the Raft River geothermal area, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E. G., (compiler)

    1976-01-01

    meters) were completed in the area (Crosthwaite, 1974), and the Aerojet Nuclear Company, under the auspices of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, was planning some deep drilling 4,000 to 6,000 feet (1,200 to 1,800 meters) (fig. 1). The purpose of the core drilling was to provide information to test geophysical interpretations of the subsurface structure and lithology and to provide hydrologic and geologic data on the shallow part of the geothermal system. Samples of the core were made available to several divisions and branches of the Geological Survey and to people and agencies outside the Survey. This report presents the basic data from the core holes that had been collected to September 1, 1975, and includes lithologic and geophysical well logs, chemical analyses of water (table 1), and laboratory analyses of cores (table 2) that were completed as of the above date. The data were collected by the Idaho District office, Hydrologic Laboratory, Borehole Geophysics Research Project, and Drilling, Sampling, and Testing Section, all of the Water Resources Division, and the Branch of Central Environmental Geology of the Geologic Divison.

  9. Orbitally tuned age model for the late Pliocene-Pleistocene lacustrine succession of drill core SG-1 from the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, Christian; Appel, Erwin; Voigt, Silke; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Pross, Jörg; Zhang, Weilin; Fang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    The availability of accurate and reliable age control is a crucial prerequisite for palaeoclimate studies, particularly when different archives are to be compared. Here we present a detailed depth-to-time transformation for the lacustrine sediments of a ˜940-m-long drill core (SG-1) from the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau). To establish a more precise age model than the one previously available, which was based solely on magnetostratigraphic dating using polarity boundaries as tie points, we applied time-series analysis on magnetic susceptibility (?) variation. The ? data are available in high resolution and are considered to be closely linked to orbital forcing. Since the sediment accumulation rate (SAR) varies strongly throughout the succession of core SG-1, conventional cyclostratigraphy by bandpass filtering cannot be applied. We present two alternative age models based on spectral characteristics and orbital tuning. The first age model (TPspec) is based on the assumption that changes in SAR occurred when the frequency spectra revealed obviously different characteristics in the spectral pattern. For the second age model (SARA), SAR was adjusted every 2 m by comparing observed with expected orbital cycles in accordance with the age of magnetic reversals. This age model appears more robust and shows the most convincing spectral results in the frequency and wavelet power spectrum of ?. According to the SARA age model, SAR varies between 14 and 73 cm kyr-1, and the bottom of SG-1 has an age of 2.69 Ma. Our results show that orbital tuning can be successfully applied for sequences with strongly variable SAR. The age model SARA can be used for a more detailed analysis of the existing multiproxy data set in terms of palaeoclimate evolution. The most prominent feature of ? spectra using the SARA age model is the identification of the middle Pleistocene transition.

  10. Magnetostratigraphy and Susceptibility of Deep Drilling Core SG-1 in the Western Qaidam Basin (ne Tibetan Plateau) and Their Tectonic and Climatic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Zhang, W.; Appel, E.; Song, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Qaidam Basin is the largest intermontane basin of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and contains a continuous Cenozoic sequence of lacustrine sediments. A nearly 1000 m deep drilling (SG-1) with an average core recovery of ~95% was carried out in the depocenter of the western Qaidam Basin, aimed to obtain a high-resolution record of the paleoenvironmental evolution and the erosion history. The core consists of dark grayish mudstone and grayish siltstone, intercalated with salts and fine sandstones in the upper part. Stepwise alternating field and thermal demagnetization, together with rock magnetic results, revealed a stable remanent magnetization for most samples, carried by magnetite. The polarity sequence consists of sixteen normal and fifteen reverse zones which can be correlated with chrons 1n to 2An of the global geomagnetic polarity time scale. Magnetostratigraphic results date the entire core SG-1 at ~2.77 Ma to ~0.1 Ma and yield sediment accumulation rate (SAR) ranging from 26.1 cm/ka to 51.5 cm/ka. Maximum SARs occur within the intervals of ~2.6-2.2 Ma and after ~0.8 Ma indicating two episodic erosional periods. Detailed magnetic susceptibility and rock magnetic properties were analyzed for revealing the significance of ferro(i)magnetic concentration for past changes of climate and erosion. Mass-specific susceptibility (?) shows a striking cyclic and long-term variation. Samples with high ? values are dominated by magnetite and maghemite with pseudo-single-domain properties. In contrast, samples with low ? values contain maghemite from single-domain to multi-domain, and additionally a significant fraction of hematite. Combining with high resolution pollen-spore and geochemical records for representative time intervals, the driving mechanism of ? variation can be explained by low-temperature oxidation in the lake sediments (dry climate). Trends of match with sedimentation rates and are roughly synchronous with the deep-sea ?18O record on a glacial-interglacial timescale. Therefore, magnetic concentration in the western Qaidam Basin sediments is seemingly controlled by both tectonic influence and paleoenvironmental changes, but can be best interpreted by alternations and trends of dry-cold and more humid periods due to Asian drying and global cooling.

  11. Sedimentary dynamics on isolated highs in Lake Baikal: evidence from detailed high-resolution geophysical data and sediment cores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Charlet; N. Fagel; M. De Batist; F. Hauregard; B. Minnebo; D. Meischner; SONIC Teamd

    2005-01-01

    High- and very-high-resolution seismic data, side-scan sonar mosaics and piston cores from three isolated highs in Lake Baikal (Vydrino Shoulder, Posolsky Bank, Continent Ridge) have allowed to document in unprecedented detail the depositional, re-depositional and tectonic processes and to characterise the overal sedimentary environment on such isolated highs. Our data show that Vydrino Shoulder actually represents a turbidity- or underflow-sourced

  12. Parallelization of GeoClaw Code for Modeling Geophysical Flows with Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Many-core Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuxia Zhang; David A. Yuen; Aiyu Zhu; Shenyi Song; David L. George

    2011-01-01

    We parallelized the GeoClaw code on one-level grid using OpenMP in March, 2011 to meet the urgent need of simulating tsunami waves at near-shore from Tohoku 2011 and achieved over 75% of the potential speed-up on an eight core Dell Precision T7500 workstation (1). After submitting that work to SC11 - the International Conference for High Performance Computing, we obtained

  13. Test drilling for potash resources: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-one borings to augment existing information on potash resources at the proposed site for a waste isolation pilot plant in eastern Eddy County, N. Mex., were drilled and logged in an 11-week period, mid-August to November 1976. The basic data developed from the borings are tabulated in the present report. The tabulation includes lithologic and geophysical logs of all the borings, as well as the results of chemical analyses, X-ray determinations, and calculations to establish a modal mineralogical composition of core samples from potash ore zones and mineralized salt beds.

  14. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  15. Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is low in the natural gamma ray isotopes uranium, thorium, and potassium, while rhyolites produce high total gamma ray responses. Sediment interbeds become apparent as the radioactivity associated with fine grained minerals is significantly higher than that of the host rock (e.g. basalt) due to high hydrogen concentration within the crystal structure of clays. Basalt lacks conductive minerals and results in high resistivity but moderate magnetic susceptibility. The sediments on the other hand are highly conductive and have a low magnetic susceptibility. The basalt and rhyolite units are relatively massive except for fractures which become apparent in the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. Signal is lost in soft sediments resulting in dark regions when full amplitude is displayed for the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. The massive basalt shows short P- and S-wave travel times and therefore a high sonic velocity, while the sediments display only P-wave first arrivals.

  16. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program U.S. Implementing Organization

    E-print Network

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program U.S. Implementing Organization FY09 Annual Report #12;Discrete core sampling #12;The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is an international marine research successes of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), programs

  17. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core students are the geophysics Honours students (~4th year undergraduates). In addition, up to 8 students from all over Africa are included in the program to help address practical training in Africa. The final cohort are minority students from the USA. Participants spend a week planning and costing out surveys, a week in the field collecting data using different methods including: gravity, DGPS, magnetics, resistivity, refraction seismic, EM methods, core logging and physical property measurements. The final week is spent interpreting and integrating their results. Graduate students are given the opportunity to instruct on the field school and manage the logistics for a particular method. The field school is unique in Africa and satisfies a need for practical training with limited resources, with a rare blend of cultural interactions!

  18. Sampling and Interpretation of Drill Cuttings from Geothermal Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Sibbett, Bruce S.

    1981-01-01

    Drill cuttings from geothermal and mineral exploration boreholes, by contrast with those from most petroleum wells, commonly are derived highly fractured and faulted, hydrothermally altered igneous and metamorphic rock sequences, and are likely to be severely contaminated. Characterization of a subsurface resource from cuttings thus requires not only especially careful sample collection, preparation, storage and examination, but also a thorough knowledge of drilling technology, local geology and the full range of potential borehole contaminants. Accurate identification of lithology from cuttings is critical for recognition and correlation of rock types likely to selectively host the desired commodity. However, many of the rocks encountered in geothermal and mineral exploration boreholes (such as gneisses and granitic rocks) can resemble one another closely as cuttings even though dissimilar in outcrop or core. In such cases, the actual rock type(s) in a cuttings sample generally can be determined by comparison with simulated cuttings of representative surface rocks, and with various geophysical and other well logs. Many other clues in cuttings, such as diagnostic metamorphic mineralogy, or sedimentary rounding and sorting, may help identify subsurface lithologies. Faults and fractures commonly are the dominant physical controls on geothermal and mineral resources. Faults occasionally can be recognized directly in cuttings by the presence of slickensiding, gouge, or other crushed material. More commonly, however, the ''gouge'' observed in cuttings actually is pseudo-gouge created beneath a bit during drilling. Since most faults and all fractures produce no direct evidence apparent in cuttings, they are best recognized indirectly, either by commonly associated hydrothermal alteration, or by responses on appropriate geophysical well logs. Hydrothermal alteration, useful for locating and defining a geothermal or mineral resource, is far more difficult to recognize and interpret in cuttings than in core or outcrop. Alteration textures and paragenetic relationships can be obscured or obliterated as cuttings are produced. Less resistant alteration (and rock-forming) minerals can be disaggregated during drilling and lost from cuttings during sampling or washing. Relict and contemporary alteration can be indistinguishable, and a wide variety of borehole contaminants can closely resemble natural alteration products encountered during drilling. These contaminants also can produce confusing geochemical signatures.

  19. Drilling on Autopilot

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Henry Bortman

    This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

  20. Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finster, K.W.; Cockell, C.S.; Voytek, M.A.; Gronstal, A.L.; Kjeldsen, K.U.

    2009-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31T, was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l-1) and MgCl2???6H 2O (3 g l-1). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45??C, with an optimum between 35 and 40??C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31T (=NCIMB 14440T = DSM 21240T). ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth).

    PubMed

    Finster, K W; Cockell, C S; Voytek, M A; Gronstal, A L; Kjeldsen, K U

    2009-11-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31(T), was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l(-1)) and MgCl2 x 6 H2O (3 g l(-1)). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was LL: -diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45 degrees C, with an optimum between 35 and 40 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31(T) (=NCIMB 14440(T) = DSM 21240(T)). PMID:19669589

  2. Palaeo-earthquake events during the late Early Palaeozoic in the central Tarim Basin (NW China): evidence from deep drilling cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bizhu; Qiao, Xiufu; Jiao, Cunli; Xu, Zhiqin; Cai, Zhihui; Guo, Xianpu; Zhang, Yinli

    2014-07-01

    Various millimetre-, centimetre- and metre-scale soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) have been identified in the Upper Ordovician and Lower-Middle Silurian from deep drilling cores in the Tarim Basin (NW China). These structures include liquefied-sand veins, liquefaction-induced breccias, boudinage-like structures, load and diapir- or flame-like structures, dish and mixed-layer structures, hydroplastic convolutions and seismic unconformities. The deformed layers are intercalated by undeformed layers of varying thicknesses that are petrologically and sedimentologically similar to the deformed layers. The SSDS developed in a shelf environment during the early Late Ordovician and formed initially under shear tensile stress conditions, as indicated by boudinage-like structures; during the latest Ordovician, SSDS formed under a com-pressional regime. The SSDS in the Lower-Middle Silurian consist mainly of mixed layers and sand veins; they formed in shoreline and tidal-flat settings with liquefaction features indicating an origin under a compressional stress regime. By Silurian times, the centre of tectonic activity had shifted to the south-eastern part of the basin. The SSDS occur at different depths in wells that are close to the syn-sedimentary Tazhong 1 Fault (TZ1F) and associated reversed-thrust secondary faults. Based on their characteristics, the inferred formation mechanism and the spatial association with faults, the SSDS are interpreted as seismites. The Tazhong 1 fault was a seismogenic fault during the later Ordovician, whereas the reversed-direction secondary faults became active in the Early-Middle Silurian. Multiple palaeo-earthquake records reflect pulses and cyclicity, which supports secondary tectonic activity within the main tectonic movement. The range of SSDS structures reflects different developments of tectonic activity with time for the various tectonic units of the centralbasin. The effects of the strong palaeo-earthquake activity coincide with uplift, fault activity and syn-tectonic sedimentation in the study area during the Late Ordovician to Middle Silurian.

  3. Physical property data from the ICDP-USGS Eyreville cores A and B, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA, acquired using a multisensor core logger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, H.A.; Murray, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled three core holes to a composite depth of 1766 m within the moat of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. Core recovery rates from the drilling were high (??90%), but problems with core hole collapse limited the geophysical downhole logging to natural-gamma and temperature logs. To supplement the downhole logs, ??5% of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores was processed through the USGS GeoTek multisensor core logger (MSCL) located in Menlo Park, California. The measured physical properties included core thickness (cm), density (g cm-3), P-wave velocity (m s-1), P-wave amplitude (%), magnetic susceptibility (cgs), and resistivity (ohm-m). Fractional porosity was a secondary calculated property. The MSCL data-sampling interval for all core sections was 1 cm longitudinally. Photos of each MSCL sampled core section were imbedded with the physical property data for direct comparison. These data have been used in seismic, geologic, thermal history, magnetic, and gravity models of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. Each physical property curve has a unique signature when viewed over the full depth of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure core holes. Variations in the measured properties reflect differences in pre-impact target-rock lithologies and spatial variations in impact-related deformation during late-stage crater collapse and ocean resurge. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  4. PDC bits find applications in Oklahoma drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Offenbacher, L.A.; McDermaid, J.D.; Patterson, C.R.

    1983-02-01

    Drilling in Oklahoma is difficult by any standards. Polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, with proven success drilling soft, homogenous formations common in the North Sea and U.S. Gulf Coast regions, have found some significant ''spot'' applications in Oklahoma. Applications qualified by bit design and application development over the past two (2) years include slim hole drilling in the deep Anadarko Basin, deviation control in Southern Oklahoma, drilling on mud motors, drilling in oil base mud, drilling cement, sidetracking, coring and some rotary drilling in larger hole sizes. PDC bits are formation sensitive, and care must be taken in selecting where to run them in Oklahoma. Most of the successful runs have been in water base mud drilling hard shales and soft, unconsolidated sands and lime, although bit life is often extended in oil-base muds.

  5. Core-log integration: importance of depth control

    SciTech Connect

    Knode, T.L.; Vickers, K.V.

    1989-03-01

    A fundamental basis for correlation between geology, petrophysics (cores), and geophysics (wireline and seismic) is the proper depth match of the information. Depth correlation of cores has evolved since its inception. The potentially least accurate method of correcting the depth of a core is marking the cores with driller's depths at the time of coring, then later correcting the depths by the difference between bottom depths of the drilling company and the logging company. This method is sometimes accurate and will work only if the driller is on or off depth consistently. Laboratory gamma-ray logging of the core to correlate with the open-hole logs is another way of correlation. If the laboratory logging is done well, then theoretically the core can be put on depth and missing intervals can be identified. The problem in this method lies in the vertical resolution of the open-hole logging tool, which is approximately 2 ft. Therefore, the core can be placed with confidence within 2 ft of its open-hole log depth. For further refining of the depth correlation, it can be shown that tools with increasingly smaller vertical resolutions (such as dipmeters and borehole televiewers) will be of great value. The small vertical resolution of these tools should allow depth correlation based upon visible natural markers within the core that correspond to geophysical responses on the logs.

  6. Microtubules in hyaloclasts from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project #2 phase 1 core, Hilo, Hawaii: evidence of microbe-rock interactions

    E-print Network

    Metevier, Kimberly Elizabeth

    2011-12-31

    Minute tubules etched into basalt glass in hyaloclastites from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project #2 (HSDP) phase 1 borehole are interpreted as trace fossils formed by microbes, i.e. microendolithic borings. Such borings are one to a few...

  7. Geochemical characters of Quaternary tephra beds and their stratighraphic position in the sedimentary core drilled at the site U1343 in the central Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Asahi, H.; Nagatsuma, Y.; Kurihara, K.; Fukuoka, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Iijima, K.

    2012-12-01

    The project IODP exp.323 in the Bering Sea focused on analyzing long-term ocean and climate trends during 5 Ma, and drilled seven sites (sites 1339-1345). Up to now, the studies of long-term tephrochronology in this area are very rare, though a part of histories of several volcanoes and late Pleistocene to Holocene volcanisms and studies for geochemistry of magma were reported in detail. Our objectives are to reveal how many widespread tephras are found in the Bering Sea and which of volcanoes or volcanic zones provided them. First of all, we analyzed forty-eight tephra samples in the sedimentary core collected at site U1343, near the Bering self sloop. Sediments in site U1343 (57°33.4'N, 175°49.0'E, water depth 1956 mbsf, core length 779.18 m) include three paleomagnetic events (the BM boundary;0.788 Ma, Jaramillo; 0.998 Ma, Cobb Mountain;1.173 Ma). The bottom datum event is reported as 2.0-2.2 Ma (diatom) at 716.4 m. All tephra samples were washed by flesh water and decanting, dried up naturally, sieved by the mesh of dia.250, 125 and 63 micrometer. We observed every tephra under the binocular/polarizing microscopes, and analyzed major-element composition of volcanic glass shards by EPMA (10nA, 15kV, probe dia.10 micrometer). All samples include many kinds of volcanic glass shards (color: colorless to dark brown, form: bubble-wall type, pumice type, fiber type). Diameter of grain size is normally less 125 micrometer, and volcanic glass size in some layers is concentrated in the less 63 micrometer. Thickness of tephra samples is approximately 0.5 cm to 4 cm. In the basis of geochemicalc analysis of volcanic glass shards in 48 samples, though every sample includes volcanic glass shards, we can distinguish the two groups roughly; glass-rich samples (31 samples) and contaminated samples (17 samples). Contaminated samples include course sands (lithic fragments, rounded minerals, fossil fragments), besides volcanic glass shards. Number of contaminated samples remarkably increases after BM boundary. Furthermore, during middle to late Pleistocene, the oxygen isotopic stratigraphy of benthic foranminiferal fossils in this core is clear and their oscillation is wider than early Pleistocene and Pliocene. So, volcanic glass shards in 'contaminated samples' which are expected to be provided from plural sources might be transported by seasonal sea ices, and ice berg which collapsed from the ice sheet around the Beringia. On the other hand, general character and geochemistry of glass-rich samples is as follows: The size of every tephra material is under 250 micrometer and there are rarely heavy minerals. Color of tephras has many varieties (white, brown, gray, and black) by geochemistry of volcanic glass shards. Content of SiO2 in volcanic glass shards varied approximately 58-72 wt%, Na2O is ~5.2 wt%, and K2O is ~3.2 wt% (basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite). There is no sample in alkali rock series, 5 samples in tholeiitic rock series and the other 26 samples in calc-alkalic rock series. Six tephra layers of 0.378Ma, 0.518-0.529Ma, 0.822-0.824Ma, 1.008Ma, 1.108Ma, and 1.547Ma are several centimeters thickness, so they are expected to be recognized as time marker beds in Bering Sea widely.

  8. The Toa Baja Drilling Project, Puerto Rico: Scientific drilling into a non-volcanic island arc massif

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

    1991-03-01

    The Toa Baja Drilling Project was a broad, interdisciplinary experiment to document the in situ geology and geophysics of a non-volcanic island arc massif. This overview provides a brief summary of oil exploration on Puerto Rico that lead up to the present investigation, and summarizes some of the problems addressed by drilling.

  9. Environmental geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Fitterman, David V.

    1995-07-01

    In this review we discuss selected publications during the last quadrennium (1991-1994) that involved the use or development of geophysical methods for environmental applications. The topic of environmental geophysics did not appear in the previous IUGG quadrennial report [Shea, 1991]. The principal annual conference proceedings volume related to environmental geophysics since 1988 (the Proceedings of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems) increased in size from just under four hundred pages in 1991 [Anonymous, 1991] to over one thousand pages in 1994 [Bell and Lepper, 1994]. These facts attest to the rapid growth of this new field.

  10. Geology of the USW SD-7 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The USW SD-7 drill hole is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the Systematic Drilling Program, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Yucca Mountain site has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-7 drill hole is located near the southern end of the potential repository area and immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility. The hole is not far from the junction of the Main Test Level drift and the proposed South Ramp decline. Drill hole USW SD-7 is 2675.1 ft (815.3 m) deep, and the core recovered nearly complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. Core was recovered from much of the underlying Calico Hills Formation, and core was virtually continuous in the Prow Pass Tuff and the Bullfrog Tuff. The SD-7 drill hole penetrated the top several tens of feet into the Tram Tuff, which underlies the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Tuffs. These latter three units are all formations of the Crater Flat Group, The drill hole was collared in welded materials assigned to the crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone of the Tiva Canyon Tuff; approximately 280 ft (85 m) of this ash-flow sheet was penetrated by the hole. The Yucca Mountain Tuff appears to be missing from the section at the USW SD-7 location, and the Pah Canyon Tuff is only 14.5 ft thick. The Pah Canyon Tuff was not recovered in core because of drilling difficulties, suggesting that the unit is entirely nonwelded. The presence of this unit is inferred through interpretation of down-hole geophysical logs.

  11. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  12. Early-Middle Miocene (17-14 Ma) Antarctic ice dynamics reconstructed from the heavy mineral provenance in the AND-2A drill core, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptvogel, Daniel W.; Passchier, Sandra

    2012-02-01

    The Miocene Climatic Optimum (17-15 Ma) and the rapid cooling of the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (15-13 Ma) together signal a major change in Earth's climate system. Here we examine the sediment provenance in the AND-2A drill core, located 10 km from the East Antarctic coastline, to significantly increase our understanding of Antarctic ice development, glacial erosion, and transport in the Ross embayment during this time. Heavy minerals are very diagnostic of source rock types and assemblages can be used to track changes in the areas of maximum erosion under the margin of an ice sheet. We used a combination of optical mineralogy and SEM-EDS analysis to characterize the heavy mineral fractions of diamictites and sandstones in the upper 650 m of AND-2A, which includes an expanded section dated between ~ 17 and 14 Ma. We find four diagnostic heavy mineral assemblages distributed in intervals throughout the core: I. (650-552 mbsf) elevated orthopyroxene, titanaugite, and carbonate contents; II. (552-308 mbsf) abundant diopside, pigeonite, and orthopyroxene, with sillimanite and kyanite; III. (308-250 mbsf) increasing contents of garnet and green hornblende; and IV. (250-20 mbsf) abundant green hornblende, titanaugite, green augite, and carbonate. Based on the heavy mineral analysis we demonstrate that (1) the ice sheet was grounded on the shelf at ~ 17.7-17.1 Ma, and it was eroding Cenozoic volcanic rocks to the south of the drillsite; (2) during the early part of the Miocene Climatic Optimum (~ 17.1-15.5 Ma) the East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreated landward into upland regions of the Transantarctic Mountains, where it eroded dolerite sills and high-grade metamorphic rocks; (3) immediately prior to the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (15.5-14.3 Ma), the East Antarctic ice advanced and eroded granitic and low-medium grade metamorphic basement rocks in the coastal sections of the Transantarctic Mountains; and (4) following this initial phase of ice growth, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the East Antarctic Ice Sheet coalesced into a larger than modern (interglacial) Antarctic Ice Sheet prior to 14.3 Ma and eroded Cenozoic volcanic and low- to medium-grade metamorphic basement rocks to the south of the drillsite. Our results suggest that, although East Antarctica may have remained glaciated during the Miocene Climatic Optimum, ice extent was reduced to a configuration within the present interglacial extent, even during orbital-scale glacial maxima. Ice growth during the Middle Miocene Climate Transition commenced at ca. 15.5 Ma in the Ross Sea basin, which is slightly earlier than inferred from deep-sea stable isotope records, but in agreement with low-latitude sea-level reconstructions.

  13. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP):(I) Drilling at Krafla encountered Rhyolitic Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmunsson, A.; Gudmundsson, B.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The IDDP aims to produce supercritical hydrothermal fluids from depths of 4-5 km and temperatures of >400°C as modeling suggests that supercritical water could generate an energy output about 10 times that of a typical geothermal well. This could lead to major improvements in developing high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The first IDDP well was located in the Krafla caldera in the active central rift zone of NE Iceland, where during 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred that involved 9 distinct volcanic eruptions. At Krafla there has been extensive production drilling since 1971 to supply steam to a geothermal power plant. Within the caldera a large magma chamber was detected by S-wave attenuation at 3-7 km depth, and a recent MT-survey determined its location. The IDDP-1 was located to reach to 4.5 km to end above the magma chamber. When the drilling had reached 2075 m depth multiple drilling problems ensued, including a failed coring attempt, twist offs, and sidetracks to bypass drill string lost in the hole. An anchor casing was set at 1950 m to case off the trouble zones. However drilling problems continued and another twist off and sidetrack followed. Drilling then penetrated a mixture of fresh basalt and granophyre until 24th June 2009, when at about 2100 m the bit became stuck. However, circulation was maintained and rhyolitic glass was returned to the surface. Rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole filling the bottom 10 m. The glass cuttings returned were at first pumiceous then homogeneous, sparsely phyric obsidian. The petrology of this glass is described in accompanying posters. The intrusion responsible was evidently below the resolution of available geophysical surveys. We decided to terminate drilling and test the well and so a 9 5/8 inch sacrificial production casing was cemented inside the anchor casing with a 9 5/8 inch slotted liner below. The well is now heating, and will be flow tested in late November 2009. If the flow tests are successful, a pilot plant to test power production could follow in 2010. The IDDP has engendered considerable scientific interest. Some of the research underway on samples from the IDDP-1 and from other wells at Krafla and from wells in the Reykjanes geothermal field, also targeted by the IDDP, is reported in accompanying posters. Subject to funding, two new IDDP wells, >4 km deep, are to be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields during 2010-2012 to search for supercritical fluid. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system in SW Iceland, on the landward extension of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, produces hydrothermally modified seawater. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be quite similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems.

  14. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of microspine toes that independently find holes and ledges on a rock to create an anchor. Once the system is anchored, a linear translation mechanism moves the drill axially into the surface while maintaining the proper WOB. The linear translation mechanism is composed of a ball screw and stepper motor that can translate a carriage with high precision and applied load. The carriage slides along rails using self-aligning linear bearings that correct any axial misalignment caused by bending and torsion. The carriage then compresses a series of springs that simultaneously transmit the load to the drill along the bit axis and act as a suspension that compensates for the vibration caused by percussive drilling. The drill is a compacted, modified version of an off-the-shelf rotary percussive drill, which uses a custom carbide-tipped coring bit. By using rotary percussive drilling, the drill time is greatly reduced. The percussive action fractures the rock debris, which is removed during rotation. The final result is a 0.75-in. (.1.9- cm) diameter hole and a preserved 0.5- in. (.1.3-cm) diameter rock core. This work extends microspine technology, making it applicable to astronaut missions to asteroids and a host of robotic sampling concepts. At the time of this reporting, it is the first instrument to be demonstrated using microspine anchors, and is the first self-contained drill/anchor system to be demonstrated that is capable of drilling in inverted configurations and would be capable of drilling in microgravity.

  15. Sample descriptions and geophysical logs for cored well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V. J. S.; Skipp, Gary L.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Davis, Joshua K.; Benson, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    BP-3-USGS was sited to test hypotheses developed from geophysical studies and to answer questions about the history and evolution of Pliocene and Pleistocene Lake Alamosa, which is represented by lacustrine deposits sampled by the well. The findings reported here represent a basis from which future studies can answer these questions and address other important scientific questions in the San Luis Valley regarding geologic history and climate change, groundwater hydrology, and geophysical interpretation.

  16. In-situ Trace Element and REE Analysis of Garnet Porphyroblast from the Murphy Belt Drill Core by 213 nm Laser Ablation High Resolution ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaTour, T. E.; Ghazi, A. M.

    2001-12-01

    Laser ablation coupled with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICPMS) is a powerful tool for in-situ trace element analysis of solid samples on the micron scale. Recent development of the 213 nm (quintupled) Nd-YAG laser has significantly improved upon the more widely used 266 nm laser. In this study we focus on analysis of zoned garnets from the Murphy Marble Belt with a Universal Platform (UP) Merchantek/New Wave 213 nm laser ablation system, coupled with a Finnigan MAT Element2 high resolution ICPMS which is equipped with the fast scanning power supply magnet. Laser ablation parameters included 60 um spots size, 100% energy level, repetition rate of 20Hz and scanning speed of 16-20 um/seconds. Garnets were analyzed for Mg, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf and REE and the data used here were obtained by using a line scan across the diameter of the garnet porphyroblasts. Aluminous schist from drill core from the Murphy Marble Belt of the Western Blue Ridge of Georgia contains two generations of garnet, gt I and gt II. Gt II occurs as stand-alone grains and as overgrowths on gt I. Gt I grew in conjunction with development of biotite (bi) schistosity. Gt-bi geothermometry yields 512-531oC for gt I, consistent upper greenschist metamorphism. Growth of gt I was followed by growth of gt II, kyanite (ky), and staurolite (st), in turn followed by growth of sillimanite (si), large muscovite (ms) porphyroclasts, (and gt II?), associated with a high-T mylonitic event in which plagioclase and aggregates of ky+st+bi were converted to porphyroclasts, lying in a medium grained si-ms-bi schistosity. This was followed by a retrograde mylonitic event which partially converted si, ky, st, and large ms to fine grained ms schistosity which is the dominant schistosity in the rocks. Gt II is distinctly higher in CaO and lower in MnO than gt I, suggesting that it grew under high pressure, perhaps resulting from overthrusting which formed the high-T mylonitic textures. Mg, REE and trace element data from gt I and gt II also show pronounced compositional differences. Gt I are more enriched in HREE, Y, Zr and Nb than gt II. On the other had gt II is distinctly more enriched in LREE , Ca, Rb and Sr. The co-variation of Ca-Sr is one strong indication of the validity of the data. Spot-to-spot analysis which of greater challenge is currently underway where a typical procedures involves internal standardization to one major element (e.g., Ca or Mg) and external standardization to NIST 612.

  17. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  18. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  19. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  20. Drilling the Central Crater of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure: A First Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Powars, David S.; Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Morin, Roger H.

    2004-09-01

    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure is a well-preserved example of one of Earth's largest impact craters, and its continental-shelf setting and relatively shallow burial make it an excellent target for study. Since the discovery of the structure over a decade ago, test drilling by U.S. federal and state agencies has been limited to the structure's annular trough (Figure 1). In May 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled the first scientific test hole into the central crater of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure at the town of Cape Charles, Virginia (Figure 1). This partially cored test hole, the deepest to date, penetrated postimpact sediments and impact breccias to a total depth of 823 m. The test hole is located on the eastern flank of the crater's central uplift, as inferred from seismic surveys and potential-field maps. Two groundwater observation wells were installed within the single test hole with screens at depths of 415-421 m and 689-695 m. The bottom 79 m of the test hole and a short interval at 427-433 m depth were cored with moderate recovery. Drill cuttings were collected from the uncored intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was acquired for the full length of the hole. Rock types and pore-water salinities encountered in this new hole are significantly different from those sampled previously in the structure's annular trough.

  1. "Mission to Rochechouart": Drilling Project and Colaterals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, P.; Allard, J. L.; Rougier, J. M.

    2014-09-01

    Rochechouart National Reserve offers to drill core the impact deposits and underlying target and to manage the samples making them available to the scientific community at large. The latter is invited to express interest in studying the samples.

  2. Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton, Jr.; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

  3. Drill bit benchmarking improves drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.A. Jr. [Hughes Christensen Co., The Woodlands, TX (United States); Stoltz, D.S. [ARCO Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Nims, D.G. [BP Exploration Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-06-02

    A practical method for standardizing drill bit selection reduced drilling costs by $5.5 million on the North Slope of Alaska. Shared Services Drilling (SSD), a consortium of BP Exploration Alaska and ARCO Alaska Inc., developed a benchmarking system that improved drilling performance across the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU). The process involved input from drill bit manufacturers, rig crews, and the operator. The paper discusses well configurations, bit standardization, benchmarking strategy, bit performance, PDC bits, and results.

  4. Lithologic and borehole geophysical data, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, Hayes F.; Chappelear, John W.; Miller, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Continuous unconsolidated cores were obtained at 74 sites in the Green Swamp are to evaluate the potential for downward leakage to the Floridian aquifer. Depth of the core holes ranged from 21 to 227 feet and averaged about 87 feet., Lithology was determined by microscopic examination of the core from each hole. Geophysical logs were obtained from 59 of the 74 core holes. This report presents the detailed lithologic and geophysical data for these core holes.

  5. Rationale for future Antarctic and Southern Ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, Laura; Gohl, Karsten; Larter, Rob; Escutia, Carlota; Ikehara, Minoru; Hong, JongKuk; Naish, Tim; Barrett, Peter; Rack, Frank; Wellner, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Valuable insights into future sensitivity of the Antarctic cryosphere to atmospheric and oceanic warming can be gained from the geologic record of past climatic warm intervals. Continental to deep ocean sediments provide records of contemporaneous changes in ice sheet extent and oceanographic conditions that extend back in time, including periods with atmospheric CO2 levels and temperatures similar to those likely to be reached in the next 100 years. The Circum-Antarctic region is under-sampled respect to scientific ocean drilling. However, recovery from glacially-influenced, continental shelf and rise sediments (expeditions ODP178, 188 and IODP 318), provided excellent records of Cenozoic climate and ice sheet evolution. The ANtarctic DRILLing program achieved >98% recovery on the Ross Sea shelf with a stable platform on fast ice with riser drilling technology. Newer technologies, such as the MeBo shallow drilling rig will further improve Antarctic margin drilling. Drilling around Antarctica in the past decades revealed cooling and regional ice growth during the Cenozoic, coupled with paleogeographic, CO2 atmosphere concentration and global temperature changes. Substantial progress has been made in dating sediments and in the interpretation of paleoclimate/paleoenvironmental proxies in Antarctic margin sediments (e.g. orbital scale variations in Antarctica's cryosphere during the Miocene and Pliocene). Holocene ultra-high resolution shelf sections recently recovered can be correlated to the ice core record, to detect local mechanisms versus inter-hemispheric connections. While the potential for reconstructing past ice sheet history has been demonstrated through a careful integration of geological and geophysical data with numerical ice sheet modelling, uncertainties remain high due to the sparse geographic distribution of the records and the regional variability in the ice sheet's response. Projects developed using a multi-leg, multi-platform approach (e.g. latitudinal and/or depth transects involving a combination of land/ice shelf, seabed, riser, and riserless drilling platforms) will likely make the most significant scientific advances. Fundamental hypothesis can be tested and accomplished by drilling depth transects from ice-proximal to ice-distal locations, that will enable researchers to link past perturbations in the ice sheet with Southern Ocean and global climate dynamics. The variable response of the ice sheet to ongoing climatic change mandates broad geographic drilling coverage, particularly in climatically sensitive regions, like those with large upstream drainage basins, whose marine terminus is presently melting, due to ocean, warming water impinging the continental shelf. Key transects were identified at community workshops (http://www.scar-ace.org) in the frame of the SCAR/ACE (Antarctic Climate Evolution) and PAIS (Past Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics) programs. New proposals, also for MSP expeditions were then submitted to IODP, in addition to the existing ones, in the frame of a scientific concerted strategy and with a significant European participation. Main questions underpinning future scientific drilling tied IODP Science themes: 1) How did and will the Antarctic Ice Sheets respond to elevated temperatures and atmospheric pCO2? What is the contribution of Antarctic ice to past and future sea level changes? 2) What was the timing of rifting and subsidence controlling the opening of ocean gateways and the initiation of the circumpolar current system and the onset of glaciations?

  6. Probability of ignition of reactive wastes by rotary sampling drills

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P.G.

    1996-06-01

    Sampling with a rotary drill could potentially cause a fire in some Hanford tanks. If the rotary drill experiences a failure while in fuel-rich, dry waste, the waste could be ignited by the hot drill bit. For the saltcake tanks subject to this hazard, this report presents a methodology for calculating the probabilities of fire due to core drill failure. The methodology utilizes sampling data from tank characterization studies to determine the amount of reactive waste in the tanks.

  7. Applied drilling engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Millheim, K.K.; Chenevert, M.E.; Young, F.S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This printing includes corrections made since the original publication in 1986. The text presents petroleum engineering science fundamentals as well as example engineering applications involving those fundamentals. Subjects covered include rotary drilling, drilling fluids, cements, drilling hydraulics, rotary-drilling bits, formation pore pressure and fracture resistance, casing design, directional drilling, and deviation control.

  8. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  9. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kuhns, Douglass J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wiersholm, Otto (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  10. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  11. New structural and stratigraphic interpretation of Lake Superior basin from hydrocarbon exploration geophysics and geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickas, A.B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Superior, WI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Between October 1987 and April 1992, two deep boreholes were drilled along the south shore of Lake Superior in a test of the hydrocarbon potential of the conglomerate, sandstone and shale composing the Middle Proterozoic Oronto Group ({approximately}1 billion years). These drilling ventures, preceded by geophysical programs, and combined with wireline and core information, support new interpretations of the structural and stratigraphic geology associated with the Midcontinent Rift System in the Lake Superior district. No.7-22 Terra-Patrick: A stratigraphic, but not structural fit. This borehole in Bayfield County, Wisconsin, drilled an expected sequence of Oronto Group clastic redbeds. No viable hydrocarbon shows were encountered. Six second reflection seismology profiles collected in northwestern Wisconsin indicate the Douglas Fault decreases in throw in an easterly direction, changing to a fold northeast of the borehole. This termination is associated with the south flank of White`s Ridge, a pre-rift residual high identified through modeling studies and seismic interpretations by local absence of Midcontinent Rift volcanics and overlying strata. To the southwest of Isle Royale, the pre-rift Grand Marias Ridge exhibits similar characteristics. No.1-29 St. Amour: A structural, but not stratigraphic, fit. Drilled in Alger County, Michigan, the St. Amour well appears to bottom in pre-rift metamorphic basement rocks. This hole was 100% cored. No hydrocarbon shows were reported. Reflection seismology profile analyses verify a change in strike, from northeast to southeast, of the Keweenaw Fault in the eastern Lake Superior Basin. The drilled section included 6,000 feet of pre-Paleozoic red-beds containing cross-bedding, ripple marks, and multiple fining-upward strata.

  12. Ocean Drilling Program Legacy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) conducted basic research into Earth processes by recovering sediment and rock samples from below the ocean floor and using the resulting holes to perform downhole measurements and experiments. The program, which lasted from 1983 to 2003, published thousands of pages of data and reports, which are now available online. The materials include information on sampling procedures, permanent core archives, repositories, and micropaleontological reference centers. Available publications include ODP proceedings and scientific results; initial and preliminary reports; technical notes and reports; citations; the ODP bibliography, dictionary, and editorial guide; and issues of the JOIDES (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling) Journal from 1975 to 2004. There are also links to ODP core data and logs and extensive data documentation. Other links access ODP outreach materials, information on engineering and science operations, cruise leg summaries and discovery highlights, and information on the administration of the program.

  13. In situ gas concentrations in the Kumano forearc basin from drilling mud gas monitoring and sonic velocity data (IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 Site C0009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, T.; Doan, M.-L.; Schleicher, A. M.; Horiguchi, K.; Eguchi, N.; Erzinger, J.

    2012-04-01

    Conventional IODP shipboard methods of gas investigations comprise gas sampling from core voids and headspace gas sampling followed by shipboard gas analysis. These methods possibly underestimate the in situ gas concentration due to core degassing during retrieval and handling on deck. In few cases, a Pressure Core Sampler (PCS) was used in the past to overcome this problem, providing gas concentrations one or two order of magnitude higher than headspace gas analysis from corresponding depths. Here, we describe two new techniques applied during IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 Site C0009 riser drilling in the Kumano forearc basin to estimate in situ gas concentrations without drill core recovery. During riser drilling of site C0009 between 703 to 1594 mbsf, gas was continuously extracted from returing drilling mud and analysed in real-time (drill mud gas monitoring). This method results in information on the gas composition and gas concentration at depth. The chemical (C1-C3) and isotope (?13C, H/D) composition of hydrocarbons, the only formation-derived gases identified in drill mud, demonstrate a microbial hydrocarbon gas source mixing with small but increasing amounts of thermogenic gas at greater depth. Methane content in drilling mud semi-quantitatively correlates with visible allochtonous material (wood, lignite) in drilling cuttings. In situ gas concentration determination from drill mud gas monitoring based on the assumption that gas is either liberated from the rock into the drilling mud during drilling and ascent with the mud column or remains in the pore space of the drilling cuttings. Drilling mud gas data were calibrated with a defined amount of C2H2 (175 l [STP]) from a carbide test and result in methane concentrations reaching up to 24 lgas/lsediment, in good agreement with findings from other IODP Legs using the PCS. Hydrocarbon gas concentrations in drilling cuttings from C0009 are significantly lower, indicating cuttings outgassing during ascent of the drill mud column to the surface. An alternative method to quantify free gas is the analysis of high quality sonic data from wireline logging to infer the porosity and estimate the water content stored in intergranular pores and the gas saturation (Doan et al., 2011). Drill mud gas monitoring and sonic velocity data analysis reveal similar depth concentration profiles for C0009 and in situ gas concentrations in fairly good agreement. The further observation implies that formation gas is located in the pore space of the rock and does e.g. not penetrate into the borehole through fractures and faults. Doan, M.-L.; Conin, M.; Henry, P.; Wiersberg, T.; Boutt, D.; Buchs, D.; Saffer, D.; McNeill, L. C.; Cukur, D.; Lin, W. (2011) Quantification of free gas in the Kumano fore-arc basin detected from borehole physical properties: IODP Nan TroSEIZE drilling Site C0009. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 12, Q0AD06, doi: 10.1029/2010GC003284

  14. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  15. Strontium and oxygen isotope study of M-1, M-3 and M-4 drill core samples from the Manson impact structure, Iowa: Comparison with Haitian K-T impact glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Hingston, Michael P.; Koeberl, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Strontium and oxygen isotope analyses were performed on 8 samples from the M-1, M-3, and M-4 cores recently drilled at the Manson impact structure. The samples were three elastic sedimentary rocks (of probable Cretaceous age) which occurred as clasts within the sedimentary clast breccia, two samples of crystalline rock breccia matrix, and three samples of dolomite and limestone. The Sr-87/Sr-86 (corrected to 65 Ma) ratios were much higher than those in impact glasses from the Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Isotope mixing calculations demonstrate that neither the silicate or carbonate rocks analyzed from the Manson crater, or mixtures of these rocks are appropriate source materials for the Haitian impact glasses. However, the Sr-87/Sr-86 (65Ma) ratio and delta O-18 value of the Ca-rich Haitian glasses are well reproduced by mixtures of Si-rich Haitian glass with platform carbonate of K-T age.

  16. Drilling the centre of the Thuringian Basin, Germany, to decipher potential interrelation between shallow and deep fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Abratis, Michael; Habisreuther, Annett; Ward, Timothy; Influins Drilling-Team

    2014-05-01

    To shed light on the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluids in a sedimentary basin on various scales, ranging from the pore scale to the extent of an entire basin, is of paramount importance to understand the functioning of sedimentary basins fluid systems and therefore e.g. drinking water supply. It is also the fundamental goal of INFLUINS (INtegrated FLuid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins), a research initiative of several groups from Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena and their partners. This research association is focusing on the nearby Thuringian basin, a well confined, small intra-continental sedimentary basin in Germany, as a natural geo laboratory. In a multidisciplinary approach, embracing different fields of geophysics like seismic reflection profiling or airborne geomagnetics, structural geology, sedimentology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydrology, remote sensing, microbiology and mineralogy, among others, and including both, field-based, laboratory-based and computer-based research, an integral INFLUINS topic is the potential interaction of aquifers within the basin and at its rims. The Thuringian basin, which is composed of sedimentary rocks from the latest Paleozoic and mainly Triassic, is particularly suited to undertake such research as it is of relative small size, about 50 to 100 km, easily accessible, and quite well known from previous studies, and therefore also a perfect candidate for deep drilling. After the acquisition of 76 km seismic reflection data in spring 2011, to get as much relevant data as possible from a deep drilling at the cross point between two seismic profiles with a limited financial budget, an optimated core sampling and measuring strategy including partial coring, borehole geophysics and pump tests as well as a drill hole design, which enables for later continuation of drilling down to the basement, had been developed. Drilling Triassic rocks from Keuper to lower Buntsandstein was successfully realised down to a final depth of 1179 m from late June to mid-September 2013. Here, we give an introduction into the layout of INFLUINS deep drilling together with a summary of preliminary results, e.g. on the nature of the boundaries between Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein, and between upper and middle Buntsandstein, a complete core recovery of upper Buntsandstein saliniferous formations as well as unexpectedly low porosity and permeability of potential aquifers.

  17. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  18. Drilling technology, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Offenbacher, L.

    1996-05-01

    Great strides have been made in drilling during the nineties, but many operators are unaware of many of the exciting capabilities and potential offered by today` drilling technology. As people move toward the year 2000, they see drilling providers refine these capabilities, broaden their applications, and increase operator awareness of their availability and usefulness. Thus, to see where drilling will be in the year 2000, people need to look at where the drilling forefront lies today. This paper discusses the trends in technology associated with horizontal drilling, re-entry techniques, coiled-tubing, extended-reach drilling, multilateral drilling and general well development technologies.

  19. Geochemistry & Geophysics

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    cleaning up oil spills and identifying the sources of surface water pollution, to understanding. Geophysics uses physical principles to study properties of the Earth, including the investigation support a range of studies national science Foundation, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department

  20. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer (BOP). Deviation tools. Wireline packers. And more.

  1. GEOPHYSICAL WELL LOG/CORE DESCRIPTIONS, CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  2. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis (Salt Lake City, UT); Black, Alan D. (Coral Springs, FL); Green, Sidney J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Robertson, Homer A. (West Jordan, UT); Bland, Ronald G. (Houston, TX); Curry, David Alexander (The Woodlands, TX); Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W. (Cypress, TX)

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  3. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  4. Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  5. Analysis of borehole geophysical information across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, Karnes County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Scott, James Henry; Smith, Bruce D.

    1979-01-01

    Borehole geophysical studies across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, South Texas, show the three geochemical environments often associated with uranium roll-type deposits: an altered (oxidized) zone, an ore zone, and an unaltered (reduced) zone. Mineralogic analysis of the total sulfides contained in the drill core shows only slight changes in the total sulfide content among the three geochemical regimes. However, induced polarization measurements on the core samples indicate that samples obtained from the reduced side of the ore zone are more electrically polarizable than those from the oxidized side of the ore zone, and therefore probably contain more pyrite. Analysis of the clay-size fraction in core samples indicates that montmorillonite is the dominant clay mineral. High resistivity values within the ore zone indicate the presence of calcite cement concentrations that are higher than those seen outside of the ore zone. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements show the presence of an extensive zone of calcite cement within the ore zone, and electrical polarizable material (such as pyrite) within and on the reduced side of the ore zone. A quantitative analysis of the between-hole resistivity data, using a layered-earth model, and a qualitative analysis of the between-hole induced polarization measurements showed that mineralogic variations among the three geochemical environments were more pronounced than were indicated by the geophysical and geologic well logs. Uranium exploration in the South Texas Coastal Plain area has focused chiefly in three geologic units: the Oakville Sandstone, the Catahoula Tuff, and the Jackson Group. The Oakville Sandstone and the Catahoula Tuff are of Miocene age, and the Jackson Group is of Eocene age (Eargle and others, 1971). Most of the uranium mineralization in these formations is low grade (often less than 0.02 percent U3O8) and occurs in shallow deposits that are found by concentrated exploratory drilling programs. The sporadic occurrence of these deposits makes it desirable to develop borehole geophysical techniques that will help to define the depositional environments of the uranium ore, which is characterized by geochemical changes near the uranium deposits. Geochemical changes are accompanied by changes in the physical characteristics of the rocks that can be detected with borehole geophysical tools. This study is concerned with a uranium deposit within the Jackson Group that is located just east of Karnes City, Tex. Five holes were drilled on this property to obtain borehole geophysical data and cores. The cores were analyzed for mineralogic and electrical properties. The borehole geophysical information at this property included induced polarization, resistivity, gamma-gamma density, neutron-neutron, gamma-ray, caliper, and single-point-resistance logs. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements were made between hole pairs across the ore deposit and off the ore deposit.

  6. Pickerill Field geophysical reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, G.; Tubman, K.; Cooke, D.; O`Connor, R.; Hawkes, C.

    1994-12-31

    The combination of petrophysics and geophysics adds significantly to the understanding of a hydrocarbon reservoir and can help guide the location of development wells. The objective of the Pickerill Field study was to develop seismic criteria that could be used to optimize the location of development wells. Primary products included a detailed fault map and an estimate of gross reservoir porosity. These are being used to help select development well locations. A set of seismic horizon attributes were generated from a refined Top Rotliegend interpretation and were used for detailed fault trace interpretation. Reservoir faults with throws of as little as fifteen feet were mapped and avoided in subsequent development drilling locations.

  7. Old Maid Flat geothermal exploratory hole No. 7A drilling and completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Drilling and testing efforts for a 6000-foot geothermal exploratory hole on the western approaches to Mount Hood, near Portland, Oregon were completed. The intent of the drilling was to encounter a hydrothermal reservoir in a postulated fracture system and confirm the existence of a moderate-temperature (200/sup 0/F) geothermal resource in the Old Main Flat (OMF) vicinity of Mount Hood. The exploratory hole, OMF No. 7A, was completed to a total depth of 6027 feet in 54 days using conventional rotary drilling techniques. The hole was found to be incapable of producing fluids with the desired temperatures. A maximum hole temperature of about 235/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth and a temperature gradient of about 3.3/sup 0/F/100 feet was exhibited over the lower 1000 feet of hole. A variety of technical data, including physical samples such as cores, cuttings, and borehole fluids, plus geophysical well logs were acquired. Data analyses are continuing, with results to be made available through future separate reports.

  8. EFFECTS OF FLUID DISTRIBUTION ON MEASURED GEOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR PARTIALLY SATURATED, SHALLOW SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective in situ remediation requires a knowledge of subsurface porosity, permeability, and fluid saturation. Estimation of hydrogeologic properties using improved geophysical imaging and interpretation is faster, cheaper, and less invasive than drilling. Methods for interpret...

  9. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala: exploration geothermal gradient drilling and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala, indicate that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 300??C. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, fracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. The hole is located 300 m south of a 300m-diameter phreatic crater. Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2910 years. TCB-1 temperature logs do not indicate isothermal conditions at depth and the calculated thermal gradient from 500-800 m is 230??C/km. Bottom hole temperature is close to 240??C. Calculated heat flow values are around 350-400 mW/m2. Fluid-inclusion and secondary-alteration studies indicate that veins and secondary minerals were formed at temperatures equal to or slightly less than present temperatures; thus, the Tecuamburro geothermal system may still be heating up. The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for geothermal resource development. ?? 1992.

  10. Scientific Drilling in the Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exon, Neville; Gallagher, Stephen; Seton, Maria

    2013-03-01

    Recent geophysical surveys and geological studies in the southwest Pacific Ocean have improved scientists' understanding of geological evolution and helped to crystallize new research goals. In the current phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), there have been five regional expeditions: Canterbury Basin Sea Level (Expedition 317), Wilkes Land Glacial History off Antarctica (Expedition 318), Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes (Expedition 325), South Pacific Gyre Subseafloor Life (Expedition 329), and Louisville Seamount Trail (Expedition 330). Of six current IODP proposals, four are ready to drill. To review the latest research in the region, briefly outline possible future IODP expeditions, and set up working groups to develop compelling new drilling proposals in the global science context, a workshop was organized at the University of Sydney with a diverse group of 80 scientists. As the JOIDES Resolution may be in the region fairly soon, the workshop participants agreed on the urgent need to build strong science proposals.

  11. Elf has set up rules for horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Jourdan, A.P.; Armessen, P.; Rousselet, P.

    1988-05-09

    Elf Aquitaine has developed and successfully tested a number of rules and techniques for drilling horizontal wells. A key element in Elf's approach is that drilling techniques without rotation are strictly limited, and rotary or turbodrilling, as is usual for most standard deviated wells, is relied on. The rules encompass such things as maximum curvature gradient, trajectory profile, azimuth correction, and the ideal path. Elf's main recommended drilling technique is to keep the drillstring rotating. Although most standard directional drilling techniques also apply to horizontal wells, such new tools as measurement-while-drilling, motor-driven stabilizers, variable-angle bent subs, motorized core barrels, steerable motors, and inverted drill strings have proved their reliability and improved drilling performance. Before going into more detail on Elf's practices, a discussion of some definitions for horizontal drilling are in order.

  12. Comprehensive Ocean Drilling

    E-print Network

    Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling for Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Proceedings Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part A, 28(3):251­268. doi:10.1016/0198- 0149(81)90066-2 [] Aagaard, K., 1989

  13. Drilling mud cleaning machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Spruiell; J. L. Spruiell

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a multiple-function cleaning, desilting and desanding machine for cleaning drilling muds which contain unwanted solid waste materials entrained during drilling processes. The machine comprises: supportive frame means adapted to be disposed upon a supportive surface for securely positioning the machine at a selected drilling site; a cyclone chamber having means for receiving dirty drilling mud from a

  14. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  15. Applied geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Dohr, G.

    1981-01-01

    This book discusses techniques which play a predominant role in petroleum and natural gas exploration. Particular emphasis has been placed on modern seismics which today claims over 90% of man-power and financial resources in exploration. The processing of geophysical data is the most important factor in applied physics and emphasis is placed on it in the discussion of exploration problems. Chapter titles include: refraction seismics; reflection seismics; seismic field techniques; digital seismics-electronic data processing; digital seismics-practical application; recent developments, special seismic procedures; gravitational methods; magnetic methods; geoelectric methods; well-logging; and miscellaneous methods in applied geophysics (thermal methods, radioactive dating, natural radioactivity surveys, and surface detection of gas. (DMC)

  16. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  17. Searching for Life Underground: An Analysis of Remote Sensing Observations of a Drill Core from Rio Tinto, Spain for Mineralogical Indications of Biological Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battler, M.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Water is unstable on the surface of Mars, and therefore the Martian surface is not likely to support life. It is possible, however, that liquid water exists beneath the surface of Mars, and thus life might also be found in the subsurface. Subsurface life would most likely be microbial, anaerobic, and chemoautotrophic; these types of biospheres on Earth are rare, and not well understood. Finding water and life are high priorities for Mars exploration, and therefore it is important that we learn to explore the subsurface robotically, by drilling. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE), has searched successfully for a subsurface biosphere at Rio Tinto, Spain [1,2,3,4]. The Rio Tinto study site was selected to search for a subsurface biosphere because the extremely low pH and high concentrations of elements such as iron and copper in the Tinto River suggest the presence of a chemoautotrophic biosphere in the subsurface beneath the river. The Rio Tinto has been recognized as an important mineralogical analog to the Sinus Meridiani site on Mars [5].

  18. HydroPulse Drilling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Kolle

    2004-01-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure

  19. Paleomagnetic reorientation of San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pares, J.M.; Schleicher, A.M.; van der Pluijm, B.A.; Hickman, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a protocol for using paleomagnetic analysis to determine the absolute orientation of core recovered from the SAFOD borehole. Our approach is based on determining the direction of the primary remanent magnetization of a spot core recovered from the Great Valley Sequence during SAFOD Phase 2 and comparing its direction to the expected reference field direction for the Late Cretaceous in North America. Both thermal and alternating field demagnetization provide equally resolved magnetization, possibly residing in magnetite, that allow reorientation. Because compositionally similar siltstones and fine-grained sandstones were encountered in the San Andreas Fault Zone during Stage 2 rotary drilling, we expect that paleomagnetic reorientation will yield reliable core orientations for continuous core acquired from directly within and adjacent to the San Andreas Fault during SAFOD Phase 3, which will be key to interpretation of spatial properties of these rocks. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    Your drilling prognosis must include a brief description of the procedures you will follow in drilling the well. This prognosis includes but is not limited to the following: (a) Projected plans for coring at specified depths; (b) Projected plans for...

  1. Spectrum Gamma Ray bore hole logging while tripping with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Steinke, Stephan; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wefer, Gerold

    2013-04-01

    The robotic Sea Floor Drill Rig MARUM-MeBo developed at the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen was used to retrieve long sediment cores at two sites in the northern South China Sea. Both sites are located in about 1000 m water depth in southeasterly and southwesterly direction of the Pearl River mouth, respectively. South East Asian Monsoon variability controls terrigenous material transport by rivers into the South China Sea. The Pearl River is one of the largest rivers of the region that discharges into the northern South China Sea. The terrigenous fraction of marine sediments of the northern South China Sea therefore provides an excellent archive for reconstructing past variability of the South East Asian Monsoon system. In analogy to the drilling strategy within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program IODP multiple holes were drilled in order to generate continuous spliced records at both sites. Overall the MARUM-MeBo drilled 374 m during 5 deployments with a maximum drilling depth of 80.85 m and an average core recovery of 94 %. Here we present first results of bore hole logging conducted during 4 of the 5 deployments with a spectrum gamma ray (SGR) probe adapted for the use with MARUM-MeBo. This probe is an autonomous slim hole probe that is used in the logging while tripping mode. This method is especially favorable for remote controlled drilling and logging operation. The probe is equipped with its own energy source and data storage. The probe is lowered into the drill string after the target wire-line coring depth is reached and after the last inner core barrel has been retrieved. When the probe has landed on the shoulder ring at the bottom of the hole, the drill string is pulled out and disassembled. The probe, while being raised with the drill string, continuously measures the geophysical properties of the in situ sediments and rocks. Since the bore hole is stabilized during the tripping process by the drill string in the vicinity of the logging probe, logging while tripping can also be used for unstable bore hole conditions e.g. in unconsolidated sediments. At both drill sites two profiles were measured during separate deployments of the MeBo. A close correlation of the profiles was observed at both sites. Natural gamma ray intensity varies between 38 and 91 API. The variations in natural gamma ray intensity are mainly attributed to changes in concentrations of potassium (0,5 - 1,6 %) and thorium (3,6 - 13,2 ppm), while the concentrations of uranium are fairly low (1,2 - 3,2 ppm). Clays are the main host minerals for thorium in marine sediments. Potassium may be incorporated both into clay and feldspar minerals. The variability in the natural gamma ray intensity can therefore be interpreted as an indicator of changes in terrestrial sediment input into the South China Sea. The observation of severe variability of the K/Th ratio and its correlation with sedimentary calcium content measured by XRF-scanning points to the fact that not only changes in the amount but also changes in the composition of the terrigenous fraction is elucidated by the SGR bore hole logging and will help reconstructing past changes in the South East Asian monsoon system.

  2. Core break-off mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrick, Thomas M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A mechanism for breaking off and retaining a core sample of a drill drilled into a ground substrate has an outer drill tube and an inner core break-off tube sleeved inside the drill tube. The break-off tube breaks off and retains the core sample by a varying geometric relationship of inner and outer diameters with the drill tube. The inside diameter (ID) of the drill tube is offset by a given amount with respect to its outer diameter (OD). Similarly, the outside diameter (OD) of the break-off tube is offset by the same amount with respect to its inner diameter (ID). When the break-off tube and drill tube are in one rotational alignment, the two offsets cancel each other such that the drill can operate the two tubes together in alignment with the drill axis. When the tubes are rotated 180 degrees to another positional alignment, the two offsets add together causing the core sample in the break-off tube to be displaced from the drill axis and applying shear forces to break off the core sample.

  3. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  4. Evaluation of past and future alterations in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, based on the clay mineralogy of drill cores USW G-1, G-2, and G-3

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.

    1989-03-01

    The tuffs at Yucca Mountain in south-central Nevada are being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to determine their suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. For predictive purposes, it is important to understand the alteration history of Yucca Mountain and to know how the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs respond to changing conditions such as elevated temperatures. The clay mineralogy of these tuffs has been examined using x-ray powder diffraction, and approximation temperatures of alteration have been determined using available clay mineral data and fluid inclusion analyses. Also, several illites from drill holes USW G-1 and G-2 have been dated using K/Ar techniques, yielding ages of about 11 Myr. The clay mineral in Yucca Mountain tuffs are predominantly interstratified illite/smectites, with minor amounts of chloride, kaolinite, and interstratified chlorite/smectite at depth in USW G-1 and G-2. The reactions observed for these illite/smectites are similar to those observed in pelitic rocks. With depths, the illite/smectites transform from random interstratifications (R = 0) through ordered intermediates (R = 1) to illite in USW G-2 and to Kalkberg (R {ge} 3) interstratifications in USW G-1. The illite/smectites in USW G-3 have not significantly transformed. It appears that the illites in deeper rock results from hydrothermal and diagenetic reactions of earlier-formed smectites. These data demonstrate that the rocks at depth in the northern end of Yucca Mountain were significantly altered about 11 Myr ago. Both clay mineralogy and fluid inclusions suggest that the rocks at depth in USW G-2 have been subjected to postdepositional temperatures of at least 275{degree}C, those in USW G-1 have reached 200{degree}C, and USW G-3 rocks probably have not exceeded 100{degree}C. 64 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Paleointensity of the geomagnetic field in the Late Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene obtained from drill cores of the Louisville seamount trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2014-06-01

    on the strength of the geomagnetic field is important for understanding the behavior of the geodynamo. Polarity reversal frequency increases toward the late Cenozoic since the end of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. Accumulating reliable paleointensity data in this time interval is still desired for elucidating the possibility of a link between reversal frequency and paleointensity. We conducted a paleointensity study on 288 samples from four seamounts from ˜74 to ˜50 Ma in age that constitutes the Louisville seamount trail. Based on thermomagnetic curves and scanning electron microscopy, we first excluded 134 samples that showed evidence for low-temperature oxidation. We then applied the Tsunakawa-Shaw method with low-temperature demagnetization and double heating after rejecting some samples that do not preserve stable primary remanence, and 52 successful results were obtained. An average virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.75 ± 1.52 (1022 Am2) was obtained at Site U1372 on Canopus seamount (˜74 Ma) based on 16 independent measurements. Sites U1373 and U1374 on Rigil seamount (˜70 Ma) yielded a mean of 3.79 ± 1.40 (n = 16), and Site U1376 on Burton seamount (˜65 Ma) yielded a mean of 3.70 ± 1.37 (n = 8). These VADMs are similar to the long-term average of the last 200 Myr by Tauxe et al. (2013) and the mean of the last 5 Myr by Yamamoto and Tsunakawa (2005). The volcanic sequence drilled at Site U1372 probably belongs to Chron C33n of 5.59 Myr long, whereas others belong to shorter chrons. Our results support no discernible relationship between polarity length and paleointensity.

  6. Deep Drilling Into the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Pemex Oil Exploration Boreholes Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Chicxulub structure was recognized in the 1940´s from gravity anomalies in oil exploration surveys by Pemex. Geophysical anomalies occur over the carbonate platform in NW Yucatan, where density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts with the carbonates suggested a buried igneous complex or basement uplift. The exploration program developed afterwards included several boreholes, starting with the Chicxulub-1 in 1952 and eventually comprising eight deep boreholes completed through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the Pemex decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to Pemex information, original data have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and incorporation with results from recent efforts. Logging data and core samples remain to be analyzed, reevaluated and integrated in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we discuss the paleontological data, stratigraphic columns and geophysical logs for the Chicxulub-1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m) and Ticul-1 (3575m) boreholes. These boreholes remain the deepest ones drilled in Chicxulub and the only ones providing samples of the melt-rich breccias and melt sheet. Other boreholes include the Y1 (3221m), Y2 (3474m), Y4 (2398m) and Y5A (3003m), which give information on pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on log and microfossil data, stratigraphic columns, lateral correlation, integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data, and analyses of sections of melt, impact breccias and basal Paleocene carbonates. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater focus in the peak ring zone and central sector, with proposed marine and on-land boreholes to the IODP and ICDP programs. Future ICDP borehole will be located close to Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1, which intersected the impact breccias at about 1 km and the melt and melt- rich breccias at some 1.3-1.4 km.

  7. Surface drilling technologies for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacic, J. D.; Rowley, J. C.; Cort, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Rock drilling and coring conceptual designs for the surface activities associated with a manned Mars mission are proposed. Straightforward extensions of equipment and procedures used on Earth are envisioned for the sample coring and shallow high explosive shot holes needed for tunneling and seismic surveying. A novel rocket exhaust jet piercing method is proposed for very rapid drilling of shot holes required for explosive excavation of emergency radiation shelters. Summaries of estimated equipment masses and power requirements are provided, and the indicated rotary coring rigs are scaled from terrestrial equipment and use compressed CO2 from the Martian atmosphere for core bit cooling and cuttings removal. A mass of 120 kg and power of 3 kW(e) are estimated for a 10 m depth capability. A 100 m depth capacity core rig requires about 1150 kg and 32 km(e). The rocket exhaust jet equipment devised for shallow (3m) explosive emplacement shot holes requires no surface power beyond an electrical ignition system, and might have a 15 kg mass.

  8. Historical record of European emissions of heavy metals to the atmosphere since the 1650s from alpine snow/ice cores drilled near Monte Rosa.

    PubMed

    Barbante, Carlo; Schwikowski, Margit; Döring, Thomas; Gäggeler, Heinz W; Schotterer, Ulrich; Tobler, Leo; van de Velde, Katja; Ferrari, Christophe; Cozzi, Giulio; Turetta, Andrea; Rosman, Kevin; Bolshov, Michael; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Cescon, Paolo; Boutron, Claude

    2004-08-01

    Cr, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sb, Pt, Au, and U have been determined in clean room conditions by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry and other analytical techniques, in various sections of two dated snow/ice cores from the high-altitude (4450 m asl) glacier saddle Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa massif, located in the Swiss-Italian Alps. These cores cover a 350-year time period, from 1650 to 1994. The results show highly enhanced concentrations for most metals in snow/ice dated from the second half of the 20th century, compared with concentrations in ancient ice dated from the 17th and 18th centuries. The highest increase factors from the pre-1700 period to the post-1970 period are observed for Cd (36), Zn (19), Bi (15), Cu (11), and Ni (9), confirming the importance of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals in Europe. Metal concentrations observed in Colle Gnifetti snow around 1980 appear to be quantitatively related to metal emissions from Italy, Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium, and Austria at that time, making it possible to reconstruct past changes in metal emission in these countries during the last centuries. PMID:15352445

  9. Drilling deeper into the core: an analysis of journal evaluation methodologies used to create the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials,” third edition

    PubMed Central

    Ugaz, Ana G

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The paper analyzes the journal evaluation criteria used to create the third edition of a core list of veterinary serials to determine the impact of each criterion on the final composition of the list in order to assess the value of using multiple criteria in creating a core list. Methods: Three additional lists were generated from criteria that were previously combined to prepare the third edition of the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials”: a list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations, another list based on journals selected by veterinary librarians, and a list based on both indexing coverage and scholarly rank. The top fifteen journals in each of the three lists were then compared to reveal potential biases. Subject representation on the full lists generated by each of these methods was also compared. Results: The list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations exhibited a focus on clinically relevant titles. The list based on veterinary librarian recommendations resulted in the broadest subject coverage. The list based on indexing and scholarly rank, while emphasizing research titles, produced the largest number of unique titles. Conclusion: A combination approach that includes objective evaluation measures and practical input, whether from librarians or discipline experts, can improve coverage and can result in a list that balances research-based with clinical practice journals. PMID:21464852

  10. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  11. The Final Phase of Drilling of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolper, E.; Depaolo, D.; Thomas, D.; Garcia, M.; Haskins, E.; Baker, M.

    2008-12-01

    The principal goal of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) was to core continuously deep into the flank of a Hawaiian volcano and to investigate the petrology, geochemisty, geochronology, magnetics, etc. of the recovered samples. Drilling in Hilo, on the island of Hawaii proceeded in three phases. A 1.06 km pilot hole was core-drilled in 1993; a second hole was core-drilled to 3,098 meters below sea level (mbsl) in 1999, then deepened in 2004-2007 to 3,509 mbsl. Although the final phase of drilling was at times technically challenging, core recovery was close to 100%. All rocks from the final phase of drilling were emplaced below sea level and are from the Mauna Kea volcano. On-site core logging identified 45 separate units (the 1999 phase of drilling yielded 345 units). Five lithologies were identified: pillows (~60%); pillow breccias (~10%); massive lavas (~12%); hyaloclastites (~17%); intrusives (~1%; these are mostly multiple thin (down to cm scale) fingers of magma with identical lithologies occurring over narrow depth intervals). The rocks are primarily tholeiitic, ranging from aphyric to highly olivine-phyric lavas (up to ~25% olivine phenocrysts), with considerable fresh glass and olivine; clays and zeolites are present throughout the core. Forty whole-rock samples were collected as a reference suite and sent to multiple investigators for study. Additionally, glass was collected at roughly 3 m intervals for electron microprobe analysis. Although continuous and consistent with the shallower rocks from the previous phase of coring, there are several noteworthy features of the deepest core: (1) Glasses from shallower portions of the core exhibited bimodal silica contents, a low SiO2 group (~48-50 wt.%) and a high SiO2 group (~50.5- 52 wt.%). Glasses from the last phase of drilling are essentially all in the high-silica group and are somewhat more evolved than the high-silica glasses from the shallower portion of the core (5.1-7.6 vs. 5.1-10.4 wt.% MgO). (2) The expected sequence of lithologies with depth in the core is subaerial lava flows, hyaloclastites (formed by debris flows carrying glass and lithic fragments from the shoreline down the submarine flanks of the volcano), and finally pillow lavas. This sequence was generally observed in the earlier phases of drilling, and it appeared that the deepest rocks from the 1999 phase of drilling were essentially all formed from pillow lavas (i.e., there were no more hyaloclastites). However, thick hyaloclastites reflecting long distance transport from the ancient shoreline reappear in the bottom ~100 m of the drill hole. Although it may be coincidence, pillow breccias occur in the shallower parts of the core from the final phase of drilling, but not in the deeper parts in which the hyaloclastites reappear. (3) Intrusive rocks make up a lower fraction (~1%) of samples from the final phase of coring than in the deeper parts of the section from the 1999 phase of drilling (3.8%). It had been suggested that intrusives might become more common the deeper the drilling, but this is not the case at depths down to 3.5 km. (4) There are three units classified as "massive" including one relatively thick (~40 m), featureless (no internal boundaries, no evidence of mixing or internal differentiation), moderately olivine-phyric basalt.

  12. Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production test. The XPT measurement results showed approximately 0.1 to several mD of water permeability in both the hydrate-bearing formation and seal formation, although there are some variations in measured values. However, the comparison of these results with permeability estimated by NMR log showed significant discrepancy (more than one order of difference), which suggests that it is necessary to have further investigation considering the difference in scale, measurement direction (Kh or Kv), and calibration methodology by pressure core data. In order to obtain basic reservoir/seal properties for the well log calibration within and above production test interval, pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System (Hybrid PCS) and also non-destructive core analysis onboard using Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System (PCATS) were conducted for 60 m interval in AT1-C, which located about 10 m northeast of AT1-MC. Finally, integrated reservoir characterization based on well-log and pressure core data was conducted to predict and optimize the flow rate of upcoming production test.

  13. Hydraulic piston coring of late Neogene and Quaternary sections in the Caribbean and equatorial Pacific: Preliminary results of Deep Sea Drilling Project leg 68.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prell, W.L.; Gardner, James V.; Adelseck, Charles; Blechschmidt, Gretchen; Fleet, Andrew J.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Ledbetter, Michael T.; Mann, Ulrich; Mayer, Larry; Reidel, William R.; Sancetta, Constance; Spariosu, Dann J.; Zimmerman, Herman B.

    1980-01-01

    The sediment of Site 502 (W.Caribbean) is primarily foram-bearing nanno marl which accumulated at c.3 to 4 cm/thousand yr. The bottom of Site 502 (228.7 m) is about 8 m.y. old. The sediment of Site 503 (Equatorial Pacific) is primarily siliceous calcareous ooze which accumulated at about 2 to 3 cm/thousand yr. The bottom of Site 503 (235.0 m) is about 8 m.y. old. The sediment at both sites shows a distinct cyclicity of CaCO3 content. These relatively high accumulation rate, continuous, undisturbed HPC cores will enable a wide variety of high-resolution biostratigraphic, paleoclimatic, and paleoceanographic studies.- from Authors

  14. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...701-TA-474 and 731-TA-1176 (Preliminary)] Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the...with material injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in...

  15. Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

    2012-12-01

    Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

  16. The Swedish Deep Drilling Program - an emerging scientific drilling program and new infrastructure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Scientific drilling projects imply numerous aspects that are difficult to handle for individual research groups. Therefore, about three years ago a joint effort was launched in the Swedish geoscientific community to establish a national program for scientific drilling, the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP). Soon afterwards, several working groups established drilling proposals with Nordic and, also, international participation. With this serious interest in scientific drilling SDDP was able to successfully promote the Swedish membership in ICDP which commenced in 2008. Two SDDP projects achieved workshop grants from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2009. In the same year the Swedish Research Council decided to support an application for a truck-mounted drill rig - a big success for the SDDP working group. Scientific Drilling infrastructure: SDDP envisages a mobile platform that is capable of core drilling to at least 2500 m depth. The procurement will be made during 2010 and first operations are planned for 2011. This drill rig is primarily intended for use in the SDDP drilling projects, but will be rented out to other scientific drilling projects or even commercial enterprises in the remaining time to cover maintenance and future upgrade costs. SDDP's drill rig will be unique in Europe and complementary to the deep drilling InnovaRig of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Until now, drilling to 2000 - 3000 m implied the use of a full-sized drill rig like the InnovaRig or the mobilization of a core drill rig from another continent. This gap will now be filled by Sweden's upcoming scientific drilling infrastructure. Drilling projects and proposals: Presently, SDDP serves six projects: "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC; ICDP workshop spring 2010), the "Postglacial Fault Drilling Project" (PFDP; ICDP workshop autumn 2010), a "Deep Rock Laboratory" (DRL), "Palaeoproterozoic Mineralized Volcanic Arc Systems" (PaMVAS), "Concentric Impact Structures in the Palaeozoic - the Lockne and Siljan craters" (CISP), and "Svecofennian accretion, an example of the early Structural Evolution in a Large Hot Orogen" (SELHO). More information on each drilling project is available at SDDP's website (http://www.sddp.se/'projectabbreviation'), where also the Science & Technology Plan is publicly available. The Nordic perspective: Recently, the researchers network "Scientific Drilling in the Nordic Countries" has been funded for three years by NordForsk, the Nordic Council of Minister's advisory board on research strategy (http://www.nordforsk.org). The aim of the network is to consolidate the competence and experience from past and present (and future) scientific drilling projects in the Nordic countries, and to propagate it to the scientific community. Within the scope of the researchers network, workshops and excursions will be tightly coupled to on-going scientific projects and bring together experts, experienced scientists and novices for knowledge exchange and transfer. The participation of all the Nordic countries and the ambitious drilling projects in their diverse geological settings - from the Archaean shield to active volcanoes - form an ideal basis for engaging and successful collaboration over many years to come.

  17. Geochemical and stable isotopic data on barren and mineralized drill core in the Devonian Popovich Formation, Screamer sector of the Betze-Post gold deposit, northern Carlin trend, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, William D.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Zohar, Pamela B.; Tousignant, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The Devonian Popovich Formation is the major host for Carlin-type gold deposits in the northern Carlin trend of Nevada. The Popovich is composed of gray to black, thin-bedded, calcareous to dolomitic mudstone and limestone deposited near the carbonate platform margin. Carlin-type gold deposits are Eocene, disseminated, auriferous pyrite deposits characterized by acid leaching, sulfidation, and silicification that are typically hosted in Paleozoic calcareous sedimentary rocks exposed in windows through siliceous sedimentary rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Carlin trend currently is the largest gold producer in the United States. The Screamer ore zone is a tabular body on the periphery of the huge Betze-Post gold deposit. Screamer is a good place to study both the original lithogeochemistry of the Popovich Formation and the effects of subsequent alteration and mineralization because it is below the level of supergene oxidation, mostly outside the contact metamorphic aureole of the Jurassic Goldstrike stock, has small, high-grade ore zones along fractures and Jurassic dikes, and has intervening areas with lower grade mineralization and barren rock. In 1997, prior to mining at Screamer, drill core intervals from barren and mineralized Popovich Formation were selected for geochemical and stable isotope analysis. The 332, five-foot core samples analyzed are from five holes separated by as much as 2000 feet (600 meters). The samples extend from the base of the Wispy unit up through the Planar and Soft sediment deformation units into the lower part of the upper Mud unit of the Popovich Formation.

  18. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  19. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  20. Foam drilling simulator

    E-print Network

    Paknejad, Amir Saman

    2007-04-25

    Although the use of compressible drilling fluids is experiencing growth, the flow behavior and stability properties of drilling foams are more complicated than those of conventional fluids. In contrast with conventional mud, the physical properties...

  1. Plug and drill template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orella, S.

    1979-01-01

    Device installs plugs and then drills them after sandwich face sheets are in place. Template guides drill bit into center of each concealed plug thereby saving considerable time and fostering weight reduction with usage of smaller plugs.

  2. Assessment of geophysical logs from borehole USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Schimschal, U. [Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Commercial logging contractors, Western Atlas, Schlumberger, and Edcon obtained borehole geophysical logs at the site of a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drill hole USW-G2 was picked for this test of suitable logging tools and logging technology, both representing state-of-the-art technology by these commercial companies. Experience gained by analysis of existing core data and a variety of logs obtained earlier by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas served as a guide to a choice of logs to be obtained. Logs were obtained in water-filled borehole in zeolitized tuff (saturated zone) and in air-filled borehole largely in unaltered welded tuff (unsaturated zone).

  3. Constraints on magma ascent, emplacement, and eruption: Geochemical and mineralogical data from the drill core at Inyo Craters, Inyo Chain, California: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    An 861-m-long hole (Inyo-4) has been cored on a slanted trajectory that passed directly beneath South Inyo Crater in the west moat of Long Valley Caldera, California. The purpose of the hole was to investigate the magmatic behavior that led to surface deformation and phreatic activity during the 600-year-old eruption of the Inyo vent chain. The trajectory and stratigraphy encountered by Inyo-4 are shown. The volcanic and sedimentary sequence consists solely of post-Bishop Tuff caldera fill, including 319 m of moat basalt and 342 m of early rhyolite. Breccia zones that intrude the caldera fill were intersected at 12.0-9.3 m and 1.2-0.8 m SW and 8. 5-25.1 m NE of the crater center. The largest breccia unit is symmetrically zoned from margins rich in vesicular rhyolite and locally derived rhyolite wallrock to a center of up to 50 vol.% basalt. Most individual clasts of the rhyolite are less than or equal to0.1m; individual clasts in the basalt breccia are up to 1 m in intersected length. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. DRILLING MACHINES GENERAL INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    or angled drilled. The base of the drilling machine supports the entire machine and when bolted to the floor parts. Follow the manufacturer's manual for proper lubrication methods. Clean each machine after useTC 9-524 Chapter 4 DRILLING MACHINES GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSE This chapter contains basic

  5. Combination offshore drilling rig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Lorenz; J. S. II Laid

    1986-01-01

    An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with

  6. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  7. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  8. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  9. Drilling innovations continue despite lean times

    SciTech Connect

    Muhleman, T.; Dempsey, P.

    1984-10-01

    Although reduced activity has left its mark on engineering budgets and many projects have been delayed, industry remains committed to research and development. This year's emphasis is offshore where new-generation semi-submersibles are under construction for Arctic waters and where equipment technology is reaching maturity. Improved tubulars such as new process-forged drill pipe, special alloy, corrosion-resistant pipe and new tool joint designs are finding eager markets both on and offshore. And back in the office, microcomputers, a curiosity a few years ago, are making significant advances in improving drilling and production operations. Specific examples of this new technology include: Two high-tech, high-risk floaters Hard rock sidewall coring tool New torque-resistant tool joint Two improved riser connection systems Breakthrough in drill pipe manufacturing Power-packed portable drilling computer.

  10. Novel drilling equipment allows downhole flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, D.P. (Stress Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Storms, M.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Ocean Drilling Program)

    1995-01-16

    The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) have developed numerous downhole tools and systems that have already found or might soon find applications in oil and gas exploration. Other potential applications for these coring tools, drillstring designs, and bottom hole assemblies (BHAs) include offshore mineral and resource evaluation, offshore geotechnical engineering, environmental monitoring, geothermal energy research hazardous waste disposal/site qualification, and general geoscience research. This new technology is expected eventually to become used by industry and benefit all participants. To date, little of the anticipated technological spin-off has occurred. Both DSDP and ODP have had limited formal technological reporting, and their engineers have not worked under a publish-or-perish mandate. This paper describes the drillship, drilling equipment, stress analysis software, a multipurpose BHA, drill-in casing, reentry system, hard rock guidebase, and a freefall reentry cone.

  11. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  12. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  13. Osmium isotope systematics of drilled lavas from Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik H. Hauri; John C. Lassiter; Donald J. DePaolo

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the isotopic compositions of Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb in a suite of primitive Mauna Loa lavas from the upper 280 m of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project pilot core drilled near Hilo, Hawaii. These lavas were probably erupted from Mauna Loa's northeast rift. Correlations between Os (hosted by olivine) and other isotopes indicate that olivine crystals

  14. Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

  15. Drill string shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E. A.; Webb, D. D.

    1985-11-12

    A telescopic shock absorber for use in a drill string includes a resilient arrangement to cushion telescopic contraction and extension of the shock absorber in response to shock loads and vibrations imparted during drilling. The shock absorber operates independently of the drilling fluid pressure conducted through the structure during drilling operations. A dampening system assists in cushioning the shock loads and vibrations and the dampening system and resilient arrangement are deactivated when jarring impacts are delivered to the well string by a drilling jar carried therein. The resilient arrangement provides a combination mechanical and hydraulic system for cushioning the impact loads and vibrations encountered.

  16. Hydrogeologic facies characterization of an alluvial fan near Fresno, California, using geophysical techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Weissmann, G.S.; Miller, R.D.; Placzek, Gary

    1997-01-01

    DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) contamination in the sole source aquifer near Fresno, California, has significantly affected drinking-water supplies. Borehole and surface geophysical data were integrated with borehole textural data to characterize the Kings River alluvial fan sediments and to provide a framework for computer modeling of pesticide transport in ground water. Primary hydrogeologic facies units, such as gravel, coarse sand or gravel, fine sand, and silt and clay, were identified in cores collected from three borings located on a 4.6-kilometer transect of multilevel monitoring wells. Borehole geophysical logs collected from seven wells and surface geophysical surveys were used to extrapolate hydrogeologic facies to depths of about 82meters and to correlate the facies units with neighboring drilling sites. Thickness ranged from 0.3to 13 meters for sand and gravel units, and from 0.3 to 17 meters for silt and clay. The lateral extent of distinct silt and clay layers was mapped using shallow seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar techniques. About 3.6 kilometers of seismic reflection data were collected; at least three distinct fine-grained layers were mapped. The depth of investigation of the seismic survey ranged from 34 to 107 meters below land surface, and vertical resolution was about 3.5 meters. The ground-penetrating radar survey covered 3.6kilometers and imaged a 1.5-meters thick, continuous fine-grained layer located at a depth of about 8 meters. Integrated results from the borehole sediment descriptions and geophysical surveys provided a detailed characterization over a larger areal extent than traditional hydrogeologic methods alone.

  17. Geohydrologic and drill-hole data for test well USW H-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, M.S. Jr.; Thordarson, W.; Eshom, E.P.

    1984-12-31

    This report presents data on drilling operations, lithology, geophysical well logs, sidewall-core samples, water-level monitoring, pumping tests, injection tests, radioactive-tracer borehole flow survey, and water chemistry for test well USW H-4. The well is one of a series of test wells drilled in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy. These test wells are part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations to identify sites for storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Test well USW H-4 was drilled in ash-flow tuff to a total depth of 1219 meters. Depth to water below land surface was 519 meters, or at an altitude of 730 meters above sea level. After test pumping at a rate of 17.4 liters per second for approximately 9 days, the drawdown was 4.85 meters. A radioactive borehole-flow survey indicated that the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff (Tertiary age) was the most productive geologic unit, producing 36.5 percent of the water in the well. The second most productive geologic unit was the Tram Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, which produced 32 percent of the water. The water in test well USW H-4 is predominantly a soft, sodium bicarbonate type of water typical of water produced in tuffaceous rocks in southern Nevada. 7 references, 26 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Geohydrologic and drill-hole data for test well USW H-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitfield, M.S.; Thordarson, William; Eshom, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented on drilling operations, lithology, geophysical well logs, sidewall-core samples, water-level monitoring, pumping tests, injection tests, radioactive-tracer borehole flow survey, and water chemistry for test well USW H-4. The well is one of a series of test wells drilled in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. These test wells are part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations to identify sites for storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Test well USW H-4 was drilled in ash-flow tuff to a total depth of 1,219 meters. Depth to water below land surface was 519 meters or at an altitude of 730 meters above sea level. After test pumping at a rate of 17.4 liters per second for approximately 9 days, the drawdown was 4.85 meters. A radioactive borehole-flow survey indicated that the Bullfrog Member was the most productive geologic unit, producing 36.5 percent of the water in the well. The second most productive geologic unit was the Tram Member, which produced 32 percent of the water. The water in test well USW H-4 is predominantly a soft, sodium bicarbonate type of water typical of water produced in tuffaceous rocks in southern Nevada. (USGS)

  19. National Geophysical Data Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    To say that the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) brings a wide range of scientific materials together in one location online would perhaps be a bit of an understatement. This site brings together over 300 digital and analog databases, which include those that deal with marine conditions, lake cores, seismic reflection, and ecosystems. Visitors can feel free to browse around in this list of databases via the "Data and Information" tab located on the top of the site's homepage, or they can also perform a more detailed search as well. It is worth noting that there are six featured types of databases on the homepage, which include solar events, geomagnetic data, and natural hazards. Additionally, a good way to keep abreast of new materials on the site is by looking at their "News and Features" area, which profiles data sets of note.

  20. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, F. H.

    In the past 8 years, since Pedlosky's book was first published, it has found a well established place in the literature of dynamical meteorology and physical oceanography. Geophysicists less familiar with these fields may need to be reminded that the subject of geophysical fluid dynamics, in the narrow definition used in the title of the book, refers to the theory of the large-scale motions of the atmosphere and the oceans. Topics such as thermal convection in the atmosphere or in Earth's mantle and core are not treated in this book, and the reader will search in vain for a discussion of atmospheric or oceanic tides. The theory of quasi-geostrophic flow is described comprehensively, however, and its major applications to problems of atmospheric and oceanic circulations are considered in detail.

  1. Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tembe, S.; Lockner, D.; Wong, T.-F.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of field data has led different investigators to conclude that the San Andreas Fault (SAF) has either anomalously low frictional sliding strength (?? 0.6). Arguments for the apparent weakness of the SAF generally hinge on conceptual models involving intrinsically weak gouge or elevated pore pressure within the fault zone. Some models assert that weak gouge and/or high pore pressure exist under static conditions while others consider strength loss or fluid pressure increase due to rapid coseismic fault slip. The present paper is composed of three parts. First, we develop generalized equations, based on and consistent with the Rice (1992) fault zone model to relate stress orientation and magnitude to depth-dependent coefficient of friction and pore pressure. Second, we present temperature-and pressure-dependent friction measurements from wet illite-rich fault gouge extracted from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) phase 1 core samples and from weak minerals associated with the San Andreas Fault. Third, we reevaluate the state of stress on the San Andreas Fault in light of new constraints imposed by SAFOD borehole data. Pure talc (?????0.1) had the lowest strength considered and was sufficiently weak to satisfy weak fault heat flow and stress orientation constraints with hydrostatic pore pressure. Other fault gouges showed a systematic increase in strength with increasing temperature and pressure. In this case, heat flow and stress orientation constraints would require elevated pore pressure and, in some cases, fault zone pore pressure in excess of vertical stress. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Overview of the Barberton Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.; Wilson, Allan; Mason, Paul; Hofmann, Axel; Lowe, Don

    2013-04-01

    The Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa is one of the best-preserved successions of mid- Archean (3.5-3.2 Ga) supracrustal rocks in the world, and, as such, a remarkable natural laboratory where conditions and processes at the surface of the Archean Earth can be studied in detail. Volcanic and sedimentary sequences in the belt provide information on the environment in which life emerged and evolved. A drilling project, sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), and many national funding agencies, was completed in May 2012. More than 3000 m of core from 5 holes at four sites were recovered. At the Tjakastad site, two ca. 300 m holes were drilling through sequences of komatiites and komatiitic basalts. The other three holes targeted sedimentary rocks: the Buck Reef hole sampled over 700m of mainly banded black and white cherts; the Mid Fig Tree hole sampled a sequence of ferruginous charts and mudstones; and the Barite Valley hole samples a more varied sequence including sandstone, shale, cherts and volcaniclastic rocks. The core is stored and has been logged in facilities of the University of the Wirwatersrand. Core logs can be found at tp://www.peeringintobarberton.com/Sites.html . An open call for proposals to work on the core, sent out in November 2012, was answered by over 50 scientists from 12 countries who plan to study the core using techniques ranging from petrography, through major and trace-element analysis, to sophisticated isotopic analysis. A workshop to discuss the drilling project and to view the core is planned at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg from Mon 18th to Wed the 21st February 2013, followed by a short trip to the Barberton belt to visit the drilling sites.

  3. GIS of selected geophysical and core data in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Winters, William J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1982 the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected a large amount of surficial and shallow subsurface geologic information in the deep-water parts of the US EEZ in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These data include digital sidescan sonar imagery, digital seismic-reflection data, and descriptions and analyses of piston and gravity cores. The data were collected during several different projects that addressed surficial and shallow subsurface geologic processes. Some of these datasets have already been published, but the growing interest in the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico warrants integrating these existing USGS datasets and associated interpretations into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide regional background information for ongoing and future gas hydrate research. This GIS is organized into five different components that contain (1) information needed to develop an assessment of gas hydrates, (2) background information for the Gulf of Mexico, (3) cores collected by the USGS, (4) seismic surveys conducted by the USGS, and (5) sidescan sonar surveys conducted by the USGS. A brief summary of the goals and findings of the USGS field programs in the Gulf of Mexico is given in the Geologic Findings section, and then the contents of each of the five data categories are described in greater detail in the GIS Data Catalog section.

  4. Geophysics benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An agreement signed May 6 between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. creates new opportunities for joint geophysical research programs. Dallas Peck, director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Erich Bloch, director of the National Science Foundation signed two agreements for basic scientific research with the Soviets to establish links between between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Soviet Ministry of Geology and between the National Science Foundation and the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The USGS agreement also establishes a connection with the Soviet Academy of Sciences.The Memoranda of Understanding are the first to be developed under the Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Basic Scientific Research signed in January, by then Secretary of State George Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze. The agreements address cooperation in basic rather than applied science and establish a formal mechanism for access to research facilities and support involving NSF, universities, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, USGS, and the Soviet Ministry of Geology.

  5. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  6. Experimental drilling in Chattanooga shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Andrew

    1948-01-01

    Information on which specifications were originally drawn for drilling the Chattanooga shale was obtained largely from the TVA, whose geologists and driller laid great stress on the difficulties of maintaining circulation in their ho;es. The stated that the shale itself was not particularly difficult to core, the trouble being in the overburden. They did not use deep casing, depending on cementing to hold the holes open. On this basis, the Survey's specifications called for mid casing only, it being assumed that solid rock would be encountered at relatively shallow depths. This belief was borne out by examination of such road cuts and other exposures as were available.

  7. Quimby, Iowa, scientific drill hole: Definition of Precambrian crustal features in northwestern Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Schmus, W. R.; Bickford, M. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Nelson, B. K.

    1989-06-01

    Geophysical data and sparse subsurface samples suggest that the Spirit Lake trend (SLT) in the aeromagnetic fabric of northwest Iowa is the southern boundary of the Archean Superior craton. Several small-diameter, positive aeromagnetic anomalies south of the SLT have been interpreted as Middle Proterozoic anorogenic, magnetite-bearing granites that intruded juvenile Early Proterozoic crust. A scientific drill hole 609 m deep was drilled into a 1200 gamma aeromagnetic anomaly near Quimby, Iowa, to test these interpretations. Precambrian basement was reached at a depth of 510 m, and 99 m of undeformed, megacrystic, magnetite-bearing granite core was collected. Petrographic and chemical data are consistent with derivation of the granite magma by melting of preexisting tonalitic continental crust. A U-Pb zircon age of 1433 ±4 Ma shows that this granite is part of the older anorogenic granite-rhyolite suite of the United States. Sm-Nd data yield a depleted-mantle separation age of 1860 Ma, which confirms that the source for the pluton magma was Early Proterozoic crust. All data are consistent with the hypothesis that the aeromagnetic anomalies are caused by Middle Proterozoic anorogenic plutons and with interpretation of the SLT as an Archean/Early Proterozoic crustal boundary.

  8. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud treatment and high temperature resistant cementing materials, and bionic bits,that is coupling bionic PDC tooth bit and diamond-impregnated bit for hard rock.All parts of CRUST-1 were successfully assembled along with the derrick and base lift and transported about 3456 kilometers from manufacture,GuangHan city in southwest China's Sichuan province,to the well site of SK-2 in end of 2013.SK-2 will be finished during next 4 years.

  9. Workshop on Requirements for Robotic Underwater Drills in U.S. Marine Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, W. W.; Johnson, H. P.; Dick, H.; Fryer, P.

    2001-05-01

    At present, subsurface hard rock samples and sediment cores deeper than ~30 m must be acquired using a drill ship, but a drill ship has severe limitations: high cost, limited availability, and poor performance in some lithologies. Many marine geoscience studies require more sampling than can be provided by the drill ship, samples from those problem lithologies, or samples from locations where the drill ship cannot go. Robotic underwater drills may help satisfy this need. Twenty-five scientists and engineers, representing a variety of academic institutions and scientific interests, met on November 3 and 4, 2000, to discuss how to bring about the ready access to robotic underwater drills for scientists engaged in academic research. The workshop considered what science programs would benefit from robotic drills, how many drills of what specifications are needed, and how such drills should be supported. The consensus was that there is a widespread need for a several drills. Most scientists wish for a Robotic Ocean-Bottom drill (ROBO-drill) that can core 50-100 m below the seafloor, with either rotary diamond bits or hydraulic corer, and retrieve cores >5 cm diameter from water depths up to ~4500 m. Although this big ROBO-drill has the widest application, attendees also favored three "niche" drills with different configurations. On the smaller end, there is a need for mini-ROBO-drill that is simple, can work in deeper water, is easily shipped and maintained, and would likely have a single core barrel 1-2 m in length. This drill would be for projects in which small penetration is adequate but cost is a primary concern. An ROV-based drill is also needed, attached to a widely available platform. With high maneuverability and excellent imaging capability, the ROV-drill would be the equivalent of a geologist roaming the seafloor with a rock hammer. There also may be a need for a slightly larger, single-barrel drill that can core up to ~5 m depth to reach below small sediment ponds and below weathered zones. This drill would have the advantage of lower weight, size, and cost over the big ROBO-drill. Workshop attendees also felt that the usual model for equipment development, a single investigator or small team, relying on funding from individual projects, is inadequate. A large, expensive ROBO-drill requires a team of technicians and continuous maintenance. This is difficult to achieve on individual grants and probably means that a drill facility is necessary.

  10. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  11. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  12. Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

  13. Trace elements in fines from the Apollo 15 deep drill.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Telander, K. M.; Weiss, C. K.; Haskin, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    Samples of fines from the bottom of the Apollo 15 deep drill core and from each junction between the six 42.5-cm long segments of the drill stem were analyzed for Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Hf, Rb, Sc, and Zn by neutron activation. The most striking feature of the results is the absence of significant variations in concentration for any element throughout the depth of the drill sample and despite the considerable stratigraphy of the cored material. The presence of a significant amount of KREEP material is indicated.

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  15. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A. (4616 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  16. Geophysical mapping of ground ice using a combination of capacitive coupled resistivity and ground-penetrating radar, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory P. De Pascale; Wayne H. Pollard; Kevin K. Williams

    2008-01-01

    The nature and distribution of ground ice are two of the most unpredictable geological variables in near-surface deposits characterized by continuous permafrost. Subsurface information about ground ice distribution and structure can be obtained either by invasive and environmentally destructive techniques like drilling and excavation or by noninvasive low-impact geophysical methods. In this study, coordinated measurements by two complementary geophysical tools,

  17. Geothermal Drilling Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.

    1999-07-07

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), founded in 1982 as a joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Industry organization, develops and funds near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling costs. Sandia National Laboratories administers DOE funds to assist industry critical cost-shared projects and provides development support for each project. GDO assistance to industry is vital in developing products and procedures to lower drilling costs, in part, because the geothermal industry is small and represents a limited market.

  18. Drilling operations change gear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    Predicts that several technological developments (e.g. measurement-while-drilling tools, computer data-gathering systems, improved drill bits, muds, downhole mud motors, and more efficient rigs) will have a major effect on drilling operations in the not-too-distant future. While several companies manufacture MWD systems and most can boast of successful runs, the major problem with the MWD system is cost. Manufacturers continue to make

  19. Roller cone drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, B.E.

    1983-10-11

    A roller bit is disclosed for use with a drill string, having at least two cutters which are generally conically shaped; each cutter includes one or more teeth in inclined planes across a conical surface. The bit is attached to the drill string with the axis of rotation of the cutter angled with respect to the longitudinal axis of the drill string. The teeth on each cutter are arranged for maximum cuttings size and penetration rate.

  20. Applied drilling engineering. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Millheim, K.K.; Chenevert, M.E.; Young, F.S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses petroleum engineering. Engineering science fundamentals and engineering applications involving these fundamentals are presented. Subjects covered include rotary drilling, drilling fluids, cements, drilling hydraulics, rotary drilling bits, formation pore pressure and fracture resistance, casing design, directional drilling and deviation control, plus two appendices and numerous examples.

  1. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  2. Remote drill bit loader

    DOEpatents

    Dokos, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A drill bit loader for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned.

  3. Remote drill bit loader

    DOEpatents

    Dokos, J.A.

    1997-12-30

    A drill bit loader is described for loading a tapered shank of a drill bit into a similarly tapered recess in the end of a drill spindle. The spindle has a transverse slot at the inner end of the recess. The end of the tapered shank of the drill bit has a transverse tang adapted to engage in the slot so that the drill bit will be rotated by the spindle. The loader is in the form of a cylinder adapted to receive the drill bit with the shank projecting out of the outer end of the cylinder. Retainer pins prevent rotation of the drill bit in the cylinder. The spindle is lowered to extend the shank of the drill bit into the recess in the spindle and the spindle is rotated to align the slot in the spindle with the tang on the shank. A spring unit in the cylinder is compressed by the drill bit during its entry into the recess of the spindle and resiliently drives the tang into the slot in the spindle when the tang and slot are aligned. 5 figs.

  4. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Lowrie; Ola M. Saether; A. A. Balkema; GEO ENV; Ian Lerche; M. C. R. Davies; M. Armstrong

    1997-01-01

    This unique textbook presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles of geophysics. Unlike most geophysics textbooks, it combines both the applied and theoretical aspects to the subject. The author explains complex geophysical concepts using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and easy-to-follow equations. After placing the Earth in the context of the solar system, he describes each major branch

  5. Drilling Automation Demonstrations in Subsurface Exploration for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, H.; Lee, P.; Hanagud, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-01-01

    This project proposes to study subsurface permafrost microbial habitats at a relevant Arctic Mars-analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada) while developing and maturing the subsurface drilling and drilling automation technologies that will be required by post-2010 missions. It builds on earlier drilling technology projects to add permafrost and ice-drilling capabilities to 5m with a lightweight drill that will be automatically monitored and controlled in-situ. Frozen cores obtained with this drill under sterilized protocols will be used in testing three hypotheses pertaining to near-surface physical geology and ground H2O ice distribution, viewed as a habitat for microbial life in subsurface ice and ice-consolidated sediments. Automation technologies employed will demonstrate hands-off diagnostics and drill control, using novel vibrational dynamical analysis methods and model-based reasoning to monitor and identify drilling fault states before and during faults. Three field deployments, to a Mars-analog site with frozen impact crater fallback breccia, will support science goals, provide a rigorous test of drilling automation and lightweight permafrost drilling, and leverage past experience with the field site s particular logistics.

  6. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bennecke, W.M.

    1996-10-01

    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well.

  7. Geophysical prospecting of a slow active fault in the Lower Rhine Embayment, NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streich, R.; Strecker, M.; Lück, E.; Scherbaum, F.; Schäbitz, F.; Spangenberg, U.

    2003-04-01

    The Lower Rhine embayment, Germany, is currently one of the most active sectors of the Cenozoic rift system of western and central Europe. Historical records denote at least 21 earthquakes with epicentral intensities >=7, and instrumental records show a concentration of seismicity at the major bounding Peel Boundary, Erft, Feldbiss and Rurrand faults. Many fault segments were active in the recent past and formed numerous morphologic scarps. However, fault scarps are poorly preserved since low displacement rates are opposed to interference of fluvioglacial with tectonic processes, a dense vegetation cover, high precipitation rates, and human landscape modification. This makes it difficult to determine the exact location, size and geometry of active fault segments in this region and hampers estimation of long-term displacement rates and fault activity. To overcome these difficulties, we applied a combination of morphologic, geophysical, and geological methods. We carried out detailed studies at the Hemmerich site located in the Erft fault system, SE Lower Rhine embayment (6.918oE, 50.758oN). The site is characterized by a topographic scarp, 4 m high and several km long. We placed special emphasis on testing the applicability of fast and simple geophysical prospecting techniques to fault assessment, and on evaluating the scarp as a potential site to excavate the suspected fault. The geophysical methods applied comprise resistivity and chargeability tomography, ground penetrating radar, and shallow seismic reflection, all carried out along profiles perpendicular to the topographic scarp. In addition, electromagnetic and magnetic maps were acquired. Beside geophysical prospecting, we conducted microtopographic levelling and coring. We detected a major break in a shallow radar reflector, and a steep seismic velocity contrast discernible both by seismic refraction tomography and dispersion analysis. These features are in good spatial correlation with each other and with an abrupt near-surface conductivity change in the steepest sloping part of the topographic scarp. Resistivity tomography data showed a steep, narrow low-resistivity zone 20--30 m upslope from the other geophysical contrasts. Consequently, in subsequent coring, we narrowed drilling intervals in this zone and found a less than 2 m wide unit of clay. A 6-m offset of sedimentary units, and anomalous soil and sedimentary profiles in the vicinity of the clay suggest that this clay unit may mark a fault plane. Thus, joint analysis of all geophysical and coring data collected suggests, with some ambiguity, tectonic faulting at the site within the uppermost 10 m. Regional geologic assignment of cored units and pollen analysis roughly indicate middle to late Holocene activity. C14 dating is in progress. Our results underline the importance of combining geophysical prospecting with geologic investigations for successful fault detection. Future work will include trenching to adduce an unambiguous proof of a seismogenic origin of the observed features.

  8. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

  9. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  10. Drilling operations change gear

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1982-08-01

    Predicts that several technological developments (e.g. measurement-while-drilling tools, computer data-gathering systems, improved drill bits, muds, downhole mud motors, and more efficient rigs) will have a major effect on drilling operations in the not-too-distant future. While several companies manufacture MWD systems and most can boast of successful runs, the major problem with the MWD system is cost. Manufacturers continue to make advances in both turbine and positive displacement mud motors. As the life span of downhole mud motors improves, these motors can economically compete with a rotary rig in drilling certain straight-hole intervals. Prototype bit designs include the use of lasers, electronic beams, flames, sparks, explosives, rocket exhaust, chains, projectiles, abrasive jets, and high-pressure erosion. Because drilling fluids are taking a large share of the drilling budget, mud engineers are trying to optimize costs, while maintaining well bore stability and increasing penetration rates. Many companies are taking the strategy of designing the simplest mud program possible and increasing additives only as needed. Air and foam drilling techniques are gaining attention. Concludes that as crude oil prices increase and the rig count begins to rebound, attention will once again turn to drilling technology and methodology.

  11. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

  12. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  13. A Treasure Chest of Cores

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Over the years, the combined ocean drilling programs (Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) have recovered thousands of cores from beneath the ocean floor. Students can study a brief synopsis of some of the most important discoveries made from these cores by clicking on an interactive map which shows sampling locations where major discoveries were made. Each link provides access to a photograph of a core section which is accompanied by a description of the events or phenomena preserved in the sediment. Important discoveries preserved in these cores include the asteroid impact at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, mineral-bearing hydrothermal deposits from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, evidence of plate tectonics, and evidence of climate change.

  14. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  15. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  16. Molecular analysis of bacterial diversity in kerosene-based drilling £uid from the deep ice borehole at Vostok, East Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina A. Alekhina; Dominique Marie; Jean Robert Petit; Valery V. Lukin; Vladimir M. Zubkov; Sergey A. Bulat

    Decontamination of ice cores is a critical issue in phylogenetic studies of glacial ice and subglacial lakes. At the Vostok drill site, a total of 3650m of ice core have now been obtained from the East Antarctic ice sheet. The ice core surface is coated with a hard-to-remove film of impure drilling fluid comprising a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic

  17. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  18. Drill hole logging with infrared spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, W.M.; Solum, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to identify rocks and minerals for over 40 years. The technique is sensitive to primary silicates as well as alteration products. Minerals can be uniquely identified based on multiple absorption features at wavelengths from the visible to the thermal infrared. We are currently establishing methods and protocols in order to use the technique for rapid assessment of downhole lithology on samples obtained during drilling operations. Initial work performed includes spectral analysis of chip cuttings and core sections from drill sites around Desert Peak, NV. In this paper, we report on a survey of 10,000 feet of drill cuttings, at 100 foot intervals, from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). Data from Blue Mountain geothermal wells will also be acquired. We will describe the utility of the technique for rapid assessment of lithologic and mineralogic discrimination.

  19. DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY Drilling for seawater

    E-print Network

    Water Desalination Fuel Production Waste Water Treatment Increased CO2 Absorbtion Agriculture & Mari) of cold water pipe WAS LOST 3 TIMES before demonstrating power generation #12;DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY BACKGROUND After a 2006 earthquake on the Big Island The NELHA cold water pipe cracked allowing warm water

  20. The Lake Baikal drilling project in the context of a global lake drilling initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas F Williams; Mikhail I Kuzmin; Alexander A Prokopenko; Eugene B Karabanov; Galina K Khursevich; Elena V Bezrukova

    2001-01-01

    Records of the tectonic and climatic evolution of continental interiors are important for understanding the dynamics of the Earth's climate system, evolutionary processes within the terrestrial biosphere, and human origins. Sediment drill cores recovered from Lake Baikal provide essential records not only for comparison with oceanic records of marine processes, but also benchmarks which can be used to help interpret

  1. Oil-shale data, cores, and samples collected by the U.S. geological survey through 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.; Gay, Frances; Michalski, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has acquired a large collection of geotechnical data, drill cores, and crushed samples of oil shale from the Eocene Green River Formation in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. The data include about 250,000 shale-oil analyses from about 600 core holes. Most of the data is from Colorado where the thickest and highest-grade oil shales of the Green River Formation are found in the Piceance Creek basin. Other data on file but not yet in the computer database include hundreds of lithologic core descriptions, geophysical well logs, and mineralogical and geochemical analyses. The shale-oil analyses are being prepared for release on floppy disks for use on microcomputers. About 173,000 lineal feet of drill core of oil shale and associated rocks, as well as 100,000 crushed samples of oil shale, are stored at the Core Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Lakewood, Colo. These materials are available to the public for research.

  2. Log response of ultrasonic imaging and its significance for deep mineral prospecting of scientific drilling borehole-2 in Nanling district, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Yue, Xuyuan; Zhou, Xinpeng; Li, Jianguo; Zhao, Bin

    2014-10-01

    The hole NLSD-2, one of the deepest scientific drilling projects in the metallic ore districts of China, is the second scientific drilling deep hole in the Nanling district. Its ultimate depth is 2012.12?m. This hole was created through the implementation of continuous coring, and the measuring of a variety of geophysical well logging methods was performed over the course of the drilling process. This paper analyzes the characteristic responses of the fracture and fractured zone by ultrasonic imaging log data, and characterizes various rules of fracture parameters which change according to drilling depth. It then discusses the denotative meaning of the log results of polymetallic mineralization layers. The formation fractures develop most readily in a depth of 100~200?m, 600~850?m and 1450~1550?m of the hole NLSD-2, and high angle fractures develop most prominently. The strike direction of the fractures is mainly NW-SE, reflecting the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress. For the polymetallic mineralization layer that occurred in the fractured zone, the characteristic response of ultrasonic imaging log is a wide dark zone, and the characteristic responses of conventional logs displayed high polarizability, high density, high acoustic velocity and low resistivity. All the main polymetallic mineralization layers are developed in fractures or fractured zones, and the fractures and fractured zones can be identified by an ultrasonic imaging log, thus the log results indirectly indicate the occurrence of polymetallic mineralization layers. Additionally, the relationship between the dip direction of fractures and the well deviation provides guidance for straightening of the drilling hole.

  3. High-power slim-hole drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.H.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to implement new high-power slim-hole motors and bits into field gas well drilling applications. Development of improved motors and bits is critical because rotating time constitutes the major cost of drilling gas wells. Conventional motors drill most formations 2 to 3 times faster than rotary continuous coring systems due to greater power transfer to the drill bit. New high-power motors and large-cutter TSP bits being developed by Maurer Engineering, Inc. (MEI) drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors. These slim-hole high-power motors and bits, which are ready for field testing on this DOE project, should reduce drilling costs by 20 to 40 percent in many areas. The objective of Phase I is to design, manufacture and laboratory test improved high-power slim-hole motors and large-cutter TSP bits. This work will be done in preparation for Phase II field tests. The objective of Phase II will be to field test the high-power motors and bits in Amoco`s Catoosa shallow-test well near Tulsa, OK, and in deep gas wells. The goal will be to drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors and to reduce the drilling costs by 20 to 40 percent over the intervals drilled.

  4. Study of sample drilling techniques for Mars sample return missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Mitchell; P. T. Harris

    1980-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring various surface samples for a Mars sample return mission the following tasks were performed: (1) design of a Mars rover-mounted drill system capable of acquiring crystalline rock cores; prediction of performance, mass, and power requirements for various size systems, and the generation of engineering drawings; (2) performance of simulated permafrost coring tests using a

  5. Rotary drilling drill string stabilizer-cuttings grinder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Dellinger; J. J. Kelly

    1983-01-01

    An arrangement for alleviating the problem of differential sticking of a drill string in rotary drilling of a highly deviated borehole by grinding and reducing the size of the cuttings generated by the drilling operation to enable the mudreturn flow to better remove the cuttings from the wellbore. At least one full gage, rotating stabilizer-grinder is placed along the drill

  6. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ...Nos. 701-TA-474 and 731-TA-1176 (Final)] Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the...threatened with material injury by reason of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for...

  7. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  8. Preliminary Drill Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  9. Ocean drilling program with 15 cruises completed

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Meyer, A.; Baldauf, J.

    1987-05-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) soon commences its campaign of scientific ocean drilling in the Indian Ocean aboard leg 115 of D.V. Sedco/BP471 (JOIDES Resolution). Many of ODP's scientific and technical objectives have been addressed during their initial 15 cruises (approximately 2.5 years). For example, high-latitude drilling, initiated in the northern polar latitudes in 1985 (leg 104-Norwegian Sea; leg 105-Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay), continued in 1987 in the southern polar latitudes of the Weddell Sea and southern South Atlantic Ocean (legs 113 and 114). Another important thrust requiring a major commitment in engineering development has been in drilling and coring the oceanic crust - in particular, drilling both supported and unsupported holes in zero-age crust in regions with little or no sediment cover (legs 106 and 109). The establishment of natural sea-floor laboratories has also been further enhanced by continued operations at former deep DSDP crustal holes (legs 102, 109, and 111). This paper focuses on the operational and scientific successes of the past ODP cruises and identifies areas of future studies in the Indian Ocean as outlined by JOIDES.

  10. World oil's 1988 drill bit classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    Whether drilling soft, swelling gumbo formations along the Gulf Coast, harder Green River shales in Wyoming or really tough and abrasive quartzite, basalt or Devonian chert deposits in the Permian basin, choosing the best bit for the job is important if optimum drilling and cost efficiency are to be maintained. To make the selection process easier, WORLD OIL has compiled a guide for classifying bits. In formatting the tables, six major formation categories were identified, roughly corresponding to those used by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Within these are listed virtually all commonly available drilling and coring bits by type and manufacturer. To use the guide, simply identify the formation to be drilled, decide whether a rock, diamond, PDC or hybrid bit is most appropriate, choose the manufacturer and scan the bits available. In fact, bits from all manufacturers can readily be compared. Companies are listed alphabetically, and bit models are given alphanumerically. IADC codes are listed as well as size range, suggested weight on bit and rotary speed. Crown profiles are given for diamond and PDC products. And special features or uses and other ancillary information are referenced in the far right-hand column and correspond with the nomenclature that follows here. Data contained in the tables were compiled from surveys of the companies included and their product literature.

  11. AC drives for drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, S.O.; Knudsen, S.

    1985-01-01

    Until now direct-current motors fed by thyristor rectifiers have dominated as variable-speed drive systems for oil-drilling applications. During drilling of a test well at Rogaland Research Center in Stavanger, Norway, a new drilling system ''The Power Swivel'' was tested and the conventional DC motor/SCR system was replaced by an asynchronous motor fed by a GTO frequency converter. Whilst an enclosure of protection class Ex(P) is required for DC motors operating in hazardous area, asynchronous motors can also be built to protection class Ex(d), (e), or (n) for this type of application.

  12. Horizontal drainhole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Striegler, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since mid-1979, ARCO Oil and Gas Co. has drilled and produced 4 horizontal drainholes in the Empire Abo Unit, Lea County, N. Mex. These horizontal holes were drilled into the lower part of the oil column to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing gas coning during production. Studies had indicated that reducing coning would lead to higher oil recovery per well. Drilling improvements achieved during these 4 operations are discussed. The production history for the first well is compared with that of conventional offset wells. 14 references.

  13. The study of a potential CO2 repository: Integrating laboratory and field geophysical experiments to characterize the upper Muschelkalk aquifer (northern Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, B.; Zappone, A. S.; Misra, S.; Diamond, L.

    2011-12-01

    The upper Muschelkalk saline aquifer consists of partly dolomitized to completely dolomitized carbonate rocks of mid Triassic age (~230 Ma). This aquifer is present throughout the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB), north of the Alps. A regional appraisal of the SMB indicates that this Formation is a potential host aquifer for sequestered CO2. However, the spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the porosity, permeability and other relevant physical and mechanical properties of the upper Muschelkalk are still poorly known. The uncertainty in this knowledge stems mainly from the weakly developed oil and gas exploration industry in Switzerland. We use an integrated approach to better constrain the aquifer physical properties, which couples field scale geophysical surveys (borehole logging and seismic reflection profiles) with laboratory analytical data. Here we focus on a set of boreholes from northern Switzerland, where geophysical data and drill core useable for laboratory measurements are available. Two sub-units comprise the upper Muschelkalk Formation. The stratigraphically higher part is a fossiliferous dolomite (>90 vol% CaMg(CO3)2; Trigodonusdolomit). The underlying unit, is composed of micritic calcite and dolomite layers interbedded with fossil-rich layers (Hauptmuschelkalk). Although both units are part of the aquifer formation, they appear to have distinctly different physical properties. The transition from Trigodonusdolomit to the Hauptmuschelkalk is marked by an increase in the sonic velocity, density and acoustic impedance. The magnitude of increase in sonic velocity can be up to 500 m/s, accompanied by an increase in acoustic impedance from 8500 to 15500 (m/s*g/cm3), but varies between the different boreholes. Poisson's ratio, determined from a single borehole, show sharp decrease at the transition. The origin of the changes in the geophysical data is likely reflecting differences in porosity and mineral composition in the Trigodonusdolomit and Hauptmuschelkalk. The boundary between the Trigodonusdolomit and Hauptmuschelkalk is further apparent in reflection seismic lines from surveys near the boreholes. Laboratory measurements of porosity, permeability, ultrasonic velocities and triaxial strength testing were performed at conditions similar to reservoir (in situ) conditions, and when applicable at room conditions, on samples recovered from borehole drill cores. Initial laboratory measurements of porosity, ultrasonic velocities and permeability also show distinct differences between the Trigodonusdolomit and Hauptmuschelkalk. Up-scaling issues, which arise from the comparison of laboratory measurements (small sample size) to field geophysical data, are discussed. Integration of laboratory and geophysical survey data allow us to better understand porosity and permeability distribution in the upper Muschelkalk aquifer on the scale of the Swiss Molasse Basin.

  14. Method for removing earth cutting from holes being formed by a preumatically exhausted drill tool

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, G.

    1985-02-19

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for reducing the quantity of air or other gas needed to remove earth cuttings from a hole being drilled in the earth. The apparatus includes an accelerator core having connectors at each end for installing the accelerator in a string of drilling pipe. The accelerator core is hollow so that compressed air can be conveyed through to the drill tool assembly. Attached to the accelerator core is a pair of flanges which support a sleeve. The apparatus restricts the available flow area thereby accelerating the flow of air exhausting from the drill hole, to remove the drill cuttings using a minimum of pneumatic gas. The accelerators are spaced appropriately throughout the drilling string.

  15. Alphine 1/Federal: Drilling report. Final report, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.; Pisto, L. [Tonto Drilling Services, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hahman, W.R. [Hahman (W. Richard), Las Cruces, NM (United States); Swanberg, C.A. [Swanberg (Chandler A.), Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Regional geologic and geophysical surveys, shallow temperature-gradient drilling, and published reconnaissance geothermal studies infer possible hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources in the Alpine-Springerville area. This report discusses the results of a State of Arizona and US Department of Energy funded drilling project designed to gather the deep temperature and stratigraphic data necessary to determine if near-term HDR geothermal potential actually exists in this portion of the White Mountains region of Arizona. A 4505 feet deep slim-hole exploratory well, Alpiner/Federal, was drilled within the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest at Alpine Divide near the Alpine Divide Camp Ground about 5 miles north of Alpine, Arizona in Apache County (Figure 1).

  16. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  17. EXPERIENCE WITH STRATAPAX DRILL BITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myo Thant

    1984-01-01

    Polycrystalline Diamond Comocct (PDC) bits have been extensively used in oil field drilling for sometime. Major performance gains have been reported for use of these bits in oil based drilling fluids, operating on mud motors. This paper describes the experience in Sarawak and Sabah Shell Operations with PDC bits in water based drilling fluids and with rotary drilling. It represents

  18. Drilling and production technology symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on well drilling. Topics considered at the conference included ice island drilling structures, artificial intelligence, electric motors, mud pumps, bottom hole assembly failures, oil spills, corrosion, wear characteristics of drill bits, two-phase flow in marine risers, the training of drilling personnel, and MWD systems.

  19. Managed Pressure Drilling Candidate Selection

    E-print Network

    Nauduri, Anantha S.

    2010-07-14

    Managed Pressure Drilling now at the pinnacle of the 'Oil Well Drilling' evolution tree, has itself been coined in 2003. It is an umbrella term for a few new drilling techniques and some preexisting drilling techniques, all of them aiming to solve...

  20. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S. (New York, NY); Myers, Gregory J. (Cornwall, NY)

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  1. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  2. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L. (Rigby, ID); Clark, Don T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grover, Blair K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mathewson, Rodney O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seymour, Craig A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  3. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  4. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  5. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R. [Regal International Corp., Corsicanna, TX (United States); Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [ed.] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  6. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  7. While drilling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  8. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara T. Richman

    1984-01-01

    The Sedco\\/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and

  9. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  10. Update on slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research.

  11. Brief overview of geophysical probing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    An evaluation of high-resolution geophysical techniques which can be used to characterize a nulcear waste disposal site is being conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commisson (NRC). LLNL is involved in research work aimed at evaluating the current capabilities and limitations of geophysical methods used for site selection. This report provides a brief overview of the capabilities and limitations associated with this technology and explains how our work addresses some of the present limitations. We are examining both seismic and electromagnetic techniques to obtain high-resolution information. We are also assessing the usefulness of geotomography in mapping fracture zones remotely. Finally, we are collecting core samples from a site in an effort to assess the capability of correlating such geophysical data with parameters of interest such as fracture continuity, orientation, and fracture density.

  12. Lithology and Stratigraphy of Holes Drilled in LANL-Use Areas of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lance B. Prothro; Sigmund L. Drellack, Jr.; Brian M. Allen

    1999-07-01

    Geologic data for ten holes drilled in areas used by Los Alamos National Laboratory at the Nevada Test Site are presented in this report. The holes include emplacement holes, instrumentation holes, and Underground Test Area wells drilled during calendar years 1991 through 1995. For each hole a stratigraphic log, a detailed lithologic log, and one or two geologic cross sections are presented, along with a supplemental data sheet containing information about the drilling operations, geology, or references. For three of the holes, graphic data summary sheets with geologic and geophysical data are provided as plates.

  13. Subsurface structure, physical properties, fault-zone characteristics and stress state in scientific drill holes of Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Jih-Hao; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Wang, Chien-Yin; Ito, Hisao; Lin, Weiren; Yeh, En-Chao

    2009-03-01

    Continuous cores and a suit of geophysical measurements were collected in two scientific drill holes to understand physical mechanisms involved in the large displacements during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Physical properties obtained from wire-line logs including P- and S-wave sonic velocity, gamma ray, electrical resistivity, density and temperature, are primarily dependent on parameters such as lithology, depth and fault zones. The average dip of bedding, identified from both cores and FMI (or FMS) logs, is about 30° towards SE. Nevertheless, local azimuthal variations and increasing or decreasing bedding dips appear across fault zones. A prominent increase of structural dip to 60°-80° below 1856 m could be due to deformation associated with propagation of the Sanyi fault. A total of 12 fault zones identified in hole-A are located in the Plio-Pleistocene Cholan Formation, Pliocene Chinshui Shale and Miocene Kueichulin Formation. The shallowest fault zone occurs at 1111 m depth (FZ1111). It is a 1 m gouge zone including 12 cm of thick indurate black material. We interpreted this zone as the slip zone during Chi-Chi earthquake. FZ1111 is characterized by: 1) bedding-parallel thrust fault with 30-degree dip; 2) the lowest resistivity; 3) low density, Vp and Vs, 4) high Vp/ Vs ratio and Poisson's ratio; 5) low energy and velocity anisotropy, and low permeability within the homogeneous 1 m gouge zone; 6) increasing gas (CO 2 and CH 4) emissions, and 7) appearance of smectite within the primary slip zone. In situ stresses at the drill site were inferred from leak-off tests, borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures from borehole FMS/FMI logs, and shear seismic wave anisotropy from DSI logs. The dominant fast shear-wave polarization direction is in good agreement with regional maximum horizontal stress axis, particularly within the strongly anisotropic Kueichulin Formation. A conjugate set of secondary directions are parallel to microcrack orientations. A drastic change of orientation of fast shear-wave polarization across the Sanyi thrust fault at the depth of 1712 m reflects the change of stratigraphy, physical properties and structural geometry.

  14. Controllable pneumatic drill

    SciTech Connect

    Kostylev, A.D.; Cherednikov, E.N.; Karavaev, A.T.; Tupitsyn, K.K.

    1986-05-01

    Pneumatic drills--self-propelled pneumatic shock machines for drilling holes and tunnels in the ground--are widely used in construction, mining and other industries. High performance and reliability, as well as easy service and the applicability in restrictive conductions, are the main advantages of these machines. A controllable machine will make it possible to drill long straight holes and excavate drifts with a given trajectory. The authors describe only the basic mechanisms of the controllable pneumatic drill without the design details. The efficiency of the various types of working members was measured in situ using a standard pneumatic drill IP4603. The pneumatic drill PDU130 is described and has four operation modes, which succeed one another in a certain sequence according to the signals from the control board. The method of remote control signal transmission in the PDU130 makes it possible to transmit all the commands through a single communication channel--the air hose. The original device, developed for this control method, is simple, highly reliable, and universal. It can be used with any type of working member and any pneumatic drive.

  15. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  16. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer [ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division, Golden, CO (USA)

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  17. Borehole Logging from Sample Collection to Borehole Geophysics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Laton

    In January of 2003, CSUF drilled and completed a deep multiport-monitoring well on the north side of campus. This was done in order to gain a better understanding of the local subsurface geology and groundwater conditions in and around CSUF. Samples were collected from the drill hole (boring) every 5-feet. The total depth of the well is 870 feet below ground surface (grade). Borehole geophysical data (E-log) information was collected from the boring prior to the installation of the well pipe. As you describe the soil samples, compare and contrast your findings to those of the geophysical signature (gamma-ray log) found in the accompanying "E-log" for the boring.

  18. Sources of Mercury and Cadmium in Offshore Drilling Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Candler; A. J. J. Leuterman; S. Y. L. Wong; M. P. Stephens

    1992-01-01

    In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed regulations that would set limits of 1.5 mg\\/kg mercury and 2.5 mg\\/kg cadmium for drilling-waste discharges. This paper reports that to determine potential sources of cadmium and mercury in drilling-waste discharges, samples of barite (barium sulfite), formation cores, and commercially available pipe-dope samples were analyzed for total and extractable levels of

  19. Effect of eccentricity of twist drill and candle stick drill on delamination in drilling composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Tsao; H. Hocheng

    2005-01-01

    Drilling is the most frequently employed operation of secondary machining for fiber-reinforced materials owing to the need for structure joining. Delamination is one of the serious concerns during drilling. Practical experience shows that an eccentric twist drill or an eccentric candle stick drill can degrade the quality of the fiber reinforced material. Comprehensive delamination models for the delamination induced by

  20. Geophysical surveys for proposed boreholes 299-W15-25, 26 and 27, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the survey was to locate subsurface obstructions that may affect the drilling of the proposed boreholes 299-W15-25, 299-w15-26, and 299-W15-27, north of the 321-Z building. The possible drill sites within the zone with the least likelihood of encountering identified obstructions were identified based on the results of the survey. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was the geophysical method chosen for the shallow characterization of this site.

  1. Geophysical logs and water-quality data collected for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B, and a Kimama water supply well near Kimama, southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, a research consortium led by scientists from Utah State University began drilling the first of three continuously cored boreholes on the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho. The goals of this effort, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, are to study the interaction between the Earth's crust and mantle, to identify potential geothermal energy sources, and to track the evolution of the Yellowstone hotspot on the Snake River Plain. The first borehole, located near Kimama, Idaho, is about 50 miles southwest of the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory. Because geohydrologic data are scarce for that area of the central Snake River Plain, the Kimama borehole, completed in January 2011, provided a unique opportunity to collect geophysical and water-chemistry data from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, downgradient of the laboratory. Therefore, in conjunction with the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory Project Office conducted geophysical logging and collected water samples at the Kimama site. Wireline geophysical logs were collected for the diverging borehole, Kimama-1A and -1B, from land surface to 976 and 2,498 feet below land surface (BLS), respectively. Water samples were collected from Kimama-1A at depths near 460 and 830 feet BLS, and from the Kimama Water Supply (KWS) well located about 75 feet away. Geophysical log data included a composite of natural gamma, neutron, gamma-gamma dual density, and gyroscopic analysis for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B. Geophysical logs depicted eight sediment layers (excluding surficial sediment) ranging from 4 to 60 feet in thickness. About 155 individual basalt flows were identified, ranging from less than 3 feet to more than 175 feet in thickness (averaging 15 feet) for borehole Kimama-1B (0 to 2,498 feet BLS). Sediment and basalt contacts were selected based on geophysical traces and were confirmed with visual inspection of core photographs. Temperature logs from the water table surface (about 260 feet BLS) to the bottom of borehole Kimama-1B (2,498 feet BLS) were nearly isothermal, ranging from about 62 to 64 degrees Fahrenheit. Gyroscopic data revealed that borehole Kimama-1B begins to separate from borehole Kimama-1A near a depth of 676 feet BLS. Drillhole azimuth and horizontal deviation at total logged depth for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B were 172.6 and 188.3 degrees and 25.9 and 82.0 feet, respectively. Water samples were collected and analyzed for common ions; selected trace elements; nutrients; isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon; and selected radionuclides. One set of water samples was collected from the KWS well and the two other sample sets were collected from borehole Kimama-1A near 460 and 830 feet BLS. With one exception, data for all three zones sampled near Kimama generally indicated that the water chemistry was similar. The exception was found in the deepest zone in borehole Kimama-1A (830 feet BLS) where concentrations probably were affected by the drilling mud. A comparison of the inorganic, organic, and stable chemistry data between the KWS well and the 460-foot zone in borehole Kimama-1A indicated similar chemistry of the aquifer water, except for some variability with nitrate plus nitrite, orthophosphate, iron, zinc, and carbon-14. Radionuclide concentrations were either less than reporting levels or at background levels for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer.

  2. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Kumar, R.M.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    Field operations, which were conducted as a cooperative effort between Conoco and Gruy Federal, began on January 16, 1980 when the well was spudded. The well was drilled to 3692 feet, and 18 cores recovered in 18 core-barrel runs (144 feet). Upon completion of the coring phase, the hole was drilled to a total depth of 4150 feet and a complete suite of geophysical logs was run. Logging was then followed by completion and testing by Concoco. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations. Residual oil saturation were 259 STB/acre-ft for the 4035 - 4055 feet interval, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the 3692 - 3718 feet interval. Nine BOPD was produced from the 4035 - 4055 feet interval and no oil was produced from 3692 to 3718 feet interval, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. 68 figures, 11 tables.

  3. Antarctic Drilling Recovers Stratigraphic Records From the Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, David; Florindo, Fabio; Talarico, Franco; Levy, Richard; Kuhn, Gerhard; Naish, Tim; Niessen, Frank; Powell, Ross; Pyne, Alex; Wilson, Gary

    2009-03-01

    The Antarctic Geological Drilling (ANDRILL) program—a collaboration between Germany, Italy, New Zealand, and the United States that is one of the larger programs endorsed by the International Polar Year (IPY; http://www.ipy.org)-successfully completed the drilling phase of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) Project in December 2007. This second drill core of the program's campaign in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, complements the results of the first drilling season [Naish et al., 2007] by penetrating deeper into the stratigraphic section in the Victoria Land Basin and extending the recovered time interval back to approximately 20 million years ago. The primary objectives of ANDRILL (http://www.andrill.org/) were to recover stratigraphic records from the Antarctic continental margin that document key steps in Antarctica’s Cenozoic (0- to 65-million-year-old) climatic and glacial history, and in the tectonic evolution of the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic Rift System [Harwood et al., 2006]. These two ANDRILL stratigraphic drill cores are guiding the understanding of the speed, size, and frequency of the past 20 million years of glacial and interglacial changes in the Antarctic region. The drill cores will help to establish, through their correlation to existing records and their integration with climate and ice sheet models, how these local changes relate to regional and global events.

  4. Organic geochemistry, hydrocarbon occurrence, and stratigraphy of government-drilled wells, North Slope, Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Magoon; K. J. Bird; G. E. Claypool; D. E. Weitzman; R. H. Thompson

    1989-01-01

    The basic data for evaluation of the petroleum source=rock potential in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska are summarized on the accompanying 39 plates. These data consist of organic geochemical analyses and observed hydrocarbon occurrences in 63 Government-drilled wells located in and adjacent to the NPRA. To relate the geochemistry to the geology, the authors have also included geophysical well

  5. Fate of Drilling Fluids during the South McMurdo Sound Project (SMS) of the Antarctic Geological Drilling Program (ANDRILL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenczewski, M.; Greer, C.; Greer, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Raimondi, E.; Carroll, M.

    2011-12-01

    A deep subsurface rock core for paleoclimate reconstruction was collected in October and November 2007 during the South McMurdo Sound Project (SMS) of the Antarctic Geological Drilling Program (ANDRILL). To allow for deeper penetration and more efficient core recovery, water-based saline drilling fluids were utilized. A total of 5.6x105 L of fluids was lost in the subsurface. The fluid was comprised of surface seawater from the sound, as the wetting agent mixed with densifying compounds (mainly potassium chloride and small amounts of fourteen other compounds including biodegradable organics). When exploring pristine locations a main goal needs to be minimizing the amount of biological and chemical contamination. Introducing a contaminant such as drilling fluids could negatively alter the in situ conditions; affecting the environment even after the exploring party has departed the system. The fate of contamination on the subsurface environment from invasive exploration methods into pristine environments is not well known. In this study, computer models (MODFLOW, SEAWAT) that are used by hydrogeologists to establish the fate and transport of contamination were utilized to determine the extent of the drilling fluid contamination from the sea floor to 1100 mbsf. In these models, previously collected logs for lithology, porosity, fracture density, drilling fluid loss, drilling fluid characteristics, and temperature were used as different parameters in the model. In addition, biodegradation and sorption constants for the drilling fluid were determined. These factors are important to determine the extent and half-life of the drilling fluids in the subsurface. Samples of drilling fluids used during coring and return fluids were collected from the drill site and were used to determine the biodegradation of the drilling fluids. The overall goal of this research project is to utilize the rich data set provided by SMS ANDRILL and some basic laboratory testing to predict and determine the potential subsurface contamination from drilling. The results of this study can be used as a reference for comparison of future studies examining newly developed, and improved, sample collecting methods in the continuing drilling in pristine environments.

  6. CT Scans of Cores Metadata, Barrow, Alaska 2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich

    Individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, throughout 2013 and 2014. Cores were drilled along different transects to sample polygonal features (i.e. the trough, center and rim of high, transitional and low center polygons). Most cores were drilled around 1 meter in depth and a few deep cores were drilled around 3 meters in depth. Three-dimensional images of the frozen cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. TIFF files can be uploaded to ImageJ (an open-source imaging software) to examine soil structure and densities within each core.

  7. Groundwater flow in an intermountain basin: Hydrological, geophysical, and geological exploration of South Park, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Lyndsay Brooke

    Groundwater in the intermountain basins of the American West is increasingly of interest with respect to water supply, ecosystem integrity, and contaminant and heat transport processes. These basins are defined by their heterogeneity through large topographic relief, substantial climatic variability, and permeability distributions made complex through variations in lithology and deformation over the orogenic history of these regions, leading to folded and faulted aquifers. This dissertation focuses on the influence of these heterogeneities on the groundwater flow system of the South Park basin in central Colorado, USA. The influence of faults on shallow groundwater flow was examined at two locations along the mapped trace of the Elkhorn fault, a Laramide reverse fault that juxtaposes crystalline and sedimentary rocks in eastern South Park. At the first location, electromagnetic, resistivity, self-potential, and hydraulic data were collected at an existing well field straddling the fault trace. Integrated analysis suggested the fault behaves as combined conduit barrier to groundwater in flow the upper 60 m. A second location along the mapped trace was selected through additional geophysical exploration. New boreholes were drilled to make direct geologic, hydrologic, and geophysical observations of the fault zone. However, these boreholes did not intersect the Elkhorn fault despite passing through rocks with similar electrical resistivity signatures to the first study location. Analyses of drill core and geophysical data indicate that the mineralogical composition of the crystalline rocks strongly influences their resistivity values, and the resistivity contrasts associated with the rock juxtaposition created by the Elkhorn fault is not unique. A steady-state, three-dimensional groundwater flow model of the South Park basin was developed to explore the influence of complex topography, recharge, and permeability structure on regional groundwater flow. Geologic complexity and the associated permeability structure are controlling factors in recharge and discharge patterns. Most groundwater circulates in the upper 1 km in local and intermediate flow systems, although mountain block recharge does make notable contributions to the main valley. Regional scale flow processes were found to be relatively insensitive to heterogeneity in recharge or fault zone permeability, although both can have localized impacts to groundwater flow.

  8. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  9. The reservoir geology and geophysics of the Hibernia field, offshore Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, T.J.; Kreisa, R.D.; Taylor, G.G.; Yates, W.R.L. (Mobil Oil Canada, Calgaary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    The Hibernia field is located 315 km (195 mi) east of St. John's, Newfoundland. The field was discovered in 1979. Pre-production investment, which includes the construction of a concrete gravity base structure (GBS), is currently estimated at approximately $5 billion Canadian. The plateau production rate is expected to average 17,480 m{sup 3}/day (110,000 b/day). To date, there is no hydrocarbon production from offshore eastern Canada. Hibernia field is located in the northwest sector of the rifted Jeanne d'Arc basin. The integrated geological and geophysical interpretation of the field is based upon the results of 10 wells and 460 km{sup 2} (177 mi{sup 2}) of three-dimensional seismic data. The trap, as seismically defined, is an arcuate anticline created by rollover into the basin-bounding Murre fault. A complex system of faults divides the structure into numerous horsts and grabens. An estimated recoverable resource of 83 million m{sup 3} (525 million bbl) occurs in two Lower Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. Berriasian- to Valanginian-age Hibernia sandstones are the primary reservoirs occurring at an average drill depth of 3,720 m (12,200 ft). Average porosity is 16%; permeability ranges up to 2 d. Sedimentological interpretation of core indicates that the dominant reservoir facies was deposited as high bed-load channels in a fluvially dominated deltaic complex. Reservoir sandstones are interpreted to be elongated and relatively continuous in a southwest-northeast direction. Concurrent crestal gas injection and downdip water injection will be used to maximize recovery. Barremian- to Albian-age Ben Nevis/Avalon sandstones are the secondary reservoirs and occur at an average drill depth of 2,345 m (7,700 ft). Core studies indicate deposition within transgressive shoreface and offshore shallow-marine environments. Thin bed stratigraphy predominates in this reservoir.

  10. Deep Sea Coring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Ocean and Climate Change Institute

    This Ocean and Climate Change Institute module features a brief, but image-rich overview of ocean drilling and sediment analysis to determine paleoclimate (past climate). This site is the first of a 3-page module, the other two sites (Describing the Core; Sampling Techniques) are linked at the top of the article.

  11. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  12. Reanalysis of Geophysical Data With IODP Constraints at Atlantis Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, D. K.; Collins, J. A.; Searle, R. C.; Karner, G. D.

    2007-12-01

    The recovery of a dominantly gabbroic sequence during IODP Expeditions 304/305 at the oceanic core complex on the Mid Atlantic Ridge 30ðN (Atlantis Massif, AM) motivated re-analysis of pre-existing geophysical data together with new borehole logging data. Re-assessment of prior interpretations of the domal high of AM as an ultramafic, flexurally uplifted footwall was warranted. Residual gravity anomalies corrected for seafloor topography and lithospheric temperature structure can be accounted for by a 3D gabbroic core, consisting of the central dome and southern ridge of AM, and a basaltic hanging wall. Mantle Bouguer anomalies are best fit by a model where the core terminates in the north at ~30ð15'N where the corrugated detachment surface ends and a series of steep normal faults characterizes the median valley wall to the north. Prior OBS refraction analyses implied the existence of a 7.5 km/s layer (appropriate for fresh peridotite) at 600 m sub-seafloor and some along- strike variability in the shallower, lower velocity layers. This was consistent with known outcrops of serpentinized harzburgite on the southern ridge. A new analysis of the OBS data suggests somewhat greater along-strike variability in layer thicknesses but with velocities in the 500 m deep section constrained by the ray tracing generally less than 6 km/s, a mafic rather than ultra-mafic rock. This model is similar to a prior best-fit model of data along another NOBEL refraction profile to the east on the dome. Unfortunately, the shot spacing and short (2 km) NOBEL line length do not allow discrimination between the various refraction models. Analysis of refracted arrivals recorded on the MCS streamer using a new method (see Harding et al., Session S12, Fall AGU07) will provide the basis of an inversion for the shallow velocity structure of the central dome near IODP Hole U1309D. This tomographic model will be reported and, together with drilling results, the implications in terms of variability within the core of Atlantis massif will be discussed.

  13. Establishment of the Coast Range ophiolite microbial observatory (CROMO): drilling objectives and preliminary outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Hoehler, T.; McCollom, T.; Schrenk, M.; Carnevale, D.; Kubo, M.; Twing, K.

    2013-11-01

    This project aimed to establish a subsurface microbial observatory in ultramafic rocks, by drilling into an actively serpentinizing peridotite body, characterizing cored rocks, and outfitting the boreholes for a program of long-term observation and experimentation to resolve the serpentinite-hosted subsurface biosphere. We completed drilling in August 2011, drilling two boreholes with core recovery and possibility for down-hole experimentation, and six smaller-diameter monitoring wells arrayed around the two primary holes, in the Coast Range ophiolite (CRO) locality in the UC-Davis McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Lower Lake, CA. Every effort was made during drilling to keep the cores and wells as free of drilling-induced contamination as possible: clean, purified water was used as drilling fluid, fluorescent microbead tracers were suspended in that water for quantification of drilling fluid penetration into the cores, and high resolution next generation sequencing approaches were used to characterize the microbial populations in the drill fluids and core materials. In December 2011, we completed installation of well pumps (slow flow bladder pumps) in the monitoring wells, and have deployed a set of in situ incubation experiments in the two uncased boreholes. Preliminary findings illustrate natural variability in actively serpentinizing strata, and confirm distinct groundwater flow regimes and microbial ecosystems in (a) shallow, surface-impacted soil water horizons and (b) deeper, ultramafic bedrock-sourced formation fluids.

  14. ICDP Drilling in the Scandinavian Caledonides: the COSC Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.; Parrish, R. R.; Rosberg, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project is a multidisciplinary investigation of the Scandian mountain belt. Cenozoic uplift of the Scandes has exposed a lower- to middle-crustal level section through this Himalaya-type orogen, providing unique opportunities to better understand not only the Caledonides, but also on-going orogeny and the earthquake-prone environments of modern mountains belts. COSC will also contribute to our knowledge of mountain belt hydrology, provide the first information about deep thermal gradients for paleoclimate modeling and potential geothermal energy resources, contribute new information about the deep biosphere, and improve our understanding of the Cenozoic uplift history of the Scandes. The drilling program targets the far-traveled (> 400 km) allochthons of the Scandinavian Caledonides and their emplacement across the Baltoscandian foreland basin onto the platform of continent Baltica. Two 2.5 km deep holes are planned. COSC-1, with drilling to be started in the late Spring of 2014, will target the high-grade metamorphic complex of the Seve Nappes (SNC) and its contact to underlying allochthons. COSC-2 will start in the lower thrust sheets, pass through the basal décollement and investigate the character of the deformation in the underlying basement. An international science team, including expertise on Himalaya-Tibet and other young orogens, is running the science program. New high-resolution reflection seismic data provide excellent images of the upper crust, allowing the drilling to also test the origin of the upper crustal reflectivity in this area. The site of COSC-1 is based on a 3D geological model, constructed from surface geology, recent and vintage regional reflection seismic profiles, regional and local gravity data, and high-resolution aeromagnetics, acquired recently by the Geological Survey of Sweden. The drilling will be carried out utilizing the new Swedish scientific drilling infrastructure, located at Lund University, an Atlas Copco CT20 diamond core-drilling rig, with versatile drilling equipment (see EGU2012-7379), providing the ideal platform for core-drilling to 2.5 km depths. Existing drilling, sampling and testing techniques (e.g. triple-tube core drilling for best core quality) will need to be adapted to highly variable lithologies and new techniques will be developed, as necessary. COSC-1 drilling operations and the directly related on-site investigations are financed by ICDP and the Swedish Research Council.

  15. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...nor does it include unfinished tubes for casing or tubing covered by any other antidumping...filed effective December 31, 2009, by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX; Rotary Drilling Tools, Beasley, TX; Texas Steel...