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1

Ice core drilling at Vostok  

NSF Publications Database

... Subject: Initial Environmental Evaluation (Deep Ice Core Drilling at Vostok Station, Antarctica ... for the National Science Foundation's Deep Ice Core Drilling project at Vostok Station, prepare an ...

2

Comparison of hydrogeochemical logging of drilling fluid during coring with the results from geophysical logging and hydraulic testing Example of the Morte-Mérie scientific borehole, Ardèche-France, Deep Geology of France Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 980-m-deep well was cored on the Ardèche border of the Southeastern basin of France as part of the Deep Geology of France (GPF) programme. Hydrogeochemical logging was carried out during drilling, which involved the monitoring of physico-chemical parameters (pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity), and chemical parameters (concentrations of He, Rn, CO 2, CH 4, O 2 Ca, Cl and SiO 2) of the drilling fluid permanently circulating in the well. This logging programme was complemented by geophysical logging and two hydraulic tests. The combination of these measurements enabled identification of a transmissive interval due to fractures in the Jurassic carbonates, and of fluid inflow both at the base of the porous and slightly permeable Triassic sandstones and from an open fracture in the Permian conglomerates. These intervals are marked by changes in the drilling-fluid chemistry, such as an increase in chemical species content, or a drop in pH. The degree of modification depends on the natural permeability of the fractures and the salinity of the fluids. The porous and permeable intervals are also marked by He anomalies, which act as a tracer for these zones. Comparison between the geophysical and hydrogeochemical logs reveals that the latter provide information on the liquid phase, whether the fractures are productive or not, whereas the geophysical logs are more directly related to the solid phase.

Aquilina, L.; Eberschweiler, C.; Perrin, J.; Deep Geology of France Team

1996-11-01

3

Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane  

SciTech Connect

Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr. (ed.)

1987-04-01

4

Downhole geophysical data from recent deep drilling in the center of the Thuringian Basin, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the INFLUINS (Integrated Fluid Dynamics in Sedimentary Basins) project, a 1.179 meter deep scientific borehole was drilled in summer 2013. The drill site is situated in the north of Erfurt, in the center of the Thuringian Basin on the crossing point of two seismic reflection profiles, which were acquired in 2011. An almost complete sequence from Keuper to the base of the Buntsandstein was drilled. Drilling, geophysical measurements and well construction were conducted for three depth intervals. First, drilling was undertaken to a depth of 313 m down to the top of the Middle Muschelkalk. Then, the Middle and Upper Muschelkalk were drilled to a depth of 515 m and the third part of the drilling campaign was finished at a depth of 1.179 m at the base of the Lower Buntsandstein. Coring was done in the depth intervals of 285 m to 420 m and 520 m to 914 m. With the help of the borehole geophysical measurements, which were done along the entire depth, stratigraphic information obtained through core samples can be extrapolated from cored sections into those depth sections, where no coring was done. Immediately after finishing drilling through a certain depth interval, borehole geophysical measurements were conducted in the open hole. Using the caliper and inclination instruments, the geometry of the well was determined. In addition, milieu, gamma-ray, spectral gamma-ray, acoustic borehole television, sonic, susceptibility, dipmeter, gamma-gamma, neutron-neutron and the dual latero-log were measured to get information about rock properties. Within rock-salt bearing depth intervals, embedded cm-thin layers of clay can be geophysically resolved. This will e.g. enable to determine and contrast the physical properties of these alternating sequences with high accuracy. Besides the in-situ well measurements rock-physical parameters of the core samples were acquired with a Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL). Here, we present the new data set and discuss some preliminary results. Unexpectedly and contrary to them being prominent aquifers, like at the edges of the Thuringian Basin, the Middle Muschelkalk and Middle Buntsandstein sequences are characterized by very low porosities and no macroscopically recognizable fluid transport here.

Methe, Pascal; Goepel, Andreas; Kukowski, Nina

2014-05-01

5

Taguchi analysis of drilling quality associated with core drill in drilling of composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thrust force and surface roughness of core drill with drill parameters (grit size of diamond, thickness, feed rate and\\u000a spindle speed) in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate was experimentally investigated in this study.\\u000a A L27 (313) orthogonal array and signal-to-noise (S\\/N) were employed to analyze the effect of drill parameters. Using Taguchi method\\u000a for design of a

C. C. Tsao

2007-01-01

6

Geophysical implications of a decentered inner core  

E-print Network

In a first approximation, the Earth's interior has an isotropic structure with a spherical symmetry. Over the last decades the geophysical observations have revealed, at different spatial scales, the existence of several perturbations from this basic structure. In this paper we discuss the hemispheric perturbations induced to this basic structure if the inner core is displaced from the center of mass of the Earth. Using numerical simulations of the observed hemispheric asymmetry of the seismic waves traveling through the upper inner core, with faster arrival times and higher attenuation in the Eastern Hemisphere, we estimate that the present position of the inner core is shifted by tens of kilometers from the Earth's center eastward in the equatorial plane. If the only forces acting on the inner core were the gravitational forces, then its equilibrium position would be at the Earth's center and the estimated displacement would not be possible. We conjecture that, due to interactions with the flow and the magn...

Vamos, Calin

2014-01-01

7

Buckling and dynamic analysis of drill strings for core sampling  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document presents buckling and dynamic stability analyses of the drill strings used for core sampling. The results of the drill string analyses provide limiting operating axial loads and rotational speeds to prevent drill string failure, instability and drill bit overheating during core sampling. The recommended loads and speeds provide controls necessary for Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic field operations.

Ziada, H.H., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-15

8

Geophysical investigations in deep horizontal holes drilled ahead of tunnelling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deep horizontal drill holes have been used since 1967 by the Defense Nuclear Agency as a primary exploration tool for siting nuclear events in tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Geological Survey had developed geophysical logging techniques for obtaining resistivity and velocity in these holes, and to date 33 horizontal drill holes in excess of 300 m in depth have been successfully logged. The deepest hole was drilled to a horizontal depth of 1125 m. The purposes of the logging measurements are to define clay zones, because of the unstable ground conditions such zones can present to tunnelling, and to define zones of partially saturated rock, because of the attenuating effects such zones have on the shock wave generated by the nuclear detonation. Excessive attenuation is undesirable because the shock wave is used as a tunnel closure mechanism to contain debris and other undesirable explosion products. Measurements are made by pumping resistivity, sonic and geophone probes down the drill string and out of the bit into the open hole. Clay zones are defined by the electrical resistivity technique based on empirical data relating the magnitude of the resistivity measurement to qualitative clay content. Rock exhibiting resistivity of less than 20 ??-m is considered potentially unstable, and resistivities less than 10 ??-m indicate appreciable amounts of clay are present in the rock. Partially saturated rock zones are defined by the measurement of the rock sound speed. Zones in the rock which exhibit velocities less than 2450 m/sec are considered of potential concern. ?? 1980.

Carroll, R.D.; Cunningham, M.J.

1980-01-01

9

Concepts and Benefits of Lunar Core Drilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding lunar material at depth is critical to nearly every aspect of NASA s Vision and Strategic Plan. As we consider sending human s back to the Moon for brief and extended periods, we will need to utilize lunar materials in construction, for resource extraction, and for radiation shielding and protection. In each case, we will be working with materials at some depth beneath the surface. Understanding the properties of that material is critical, thus the need for Lunar core drilling capability. Of course, the science benefit from returning core samples and operating down-hole autonomous experiments is a key element of Lunar missions as defined by NASA s Exploration Systems Architecture Study. Lunar missions will be targeted to answer specific questions concerning lunar science and re-sources.

McNamara, K. M.; Bogard, D. D.; Derkowski, B. J.; George, J. A.; Askew, R. S.; Lindsay, J. F.

2007-01-01

10

Comparison between response surface methodology and radial basis function network for core-center drill in drilling composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling using twist drill is the most frequently used secondary machining for fiber-reinforced composite laminates and delamination\\u000a is the most important concern during drilling. The drill design and drilling parameters associated with thrust distribution\\u000a on the drilling-induced delamination are presented. The core-center drill has been found to be more advantageous than the\\u000a core drill in reference and practice experiences. Response

C. C. Tsao

2008-01-01

11

Orienting drill core using borehole-wall image correlation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for orienting drill core is proposed that correlates measurements of planar structures in drill core with those observed in spatially referenced images of borehole walls. The drill core orientation is expressed in terms of a transformation between the geographic coordinate system and the drill core coordinate system, using the Euler angles ?, ?, and ?. The angles ? and ? are the azimuth (trend) and the plunge of the inclined borehole, respectively. The angle ? is the rotation angle about the drill core axis and is determined through correlation analyses of planar structures in the drill core with those observed in the borehole wall images. Orientations of planar structures in the drill core are measured in terms of a reference line that is drawn along the length of the drill core in an arbitrary position. The proposed method is applied to drill core samples recovered from a borehole that penetrates the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) at Matsusaka-Iitaka (ITA), eastern Kii Peninsula, Japan. The results suggest that the accuracy of the determination of ? is about ±5°.

Shigematsu, Norio; Otsubo, Makoto; Fujimoto, Koichiro; Tanaka, Nobuaki

2014-10-01

12

Creating Classroom Activities About Ocean Drilling Geophysics Through Scientist-Teacher Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can examples of geophysical data used in research be effectively taught to middle and high school students with only general science knowledge? Logging data, or logs, are continuous measurements of physical properties made in situ and at high resolution by lowering instruments into boreholes after completion of coring. As part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) "School of Rock 2007" (http://www.joilearning.org/schoolofrock2007), we created a classroom activity to introduce pre-college students to representative logging data collected by the R/V JOIDES Resolution during expeditions of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). The synergistic model for curriculum development involving a research scientist (Guerin) and classroom teacher (Passow) provides an efficient strategy to disseminate technical research methods and results more widely with students and teachers. The "School of Rock 2007" brought 18 educators and 12 scientists together at the Texas A and M IODP Gulf Coast Observatory for a week in July to learn about techniques in sea floor exploration and advances in understanding the Earth's climate using geophysics, biostratigraphy, geomagnetics, and more. Teachers and researchers then collaborated to produce classroom activities that will add to the existing collection of educational resources available through JOI Learning (http://www.joiscience.org/learning). The activity we developed introduces students to general concepts of downhole logging, then presents sample data from three sites. Using guiding information provided, students engage in simplified interpretation of the data to identify such features as sedimentary layers, igneous rocks, or gas hydrate-bearing formations. Activities include questions about geography, identifying patterns within the data, recognizing distinctive features in gamma ray, resistivity, density and porosity logs. The curriculum materials will be tested with students and teachers in various setting during Fall 2007, including as part of the Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers (http://www.earth2class.org) and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Open House (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu.)

Passow, M. J.; Guerin, G.

2007-12-01

13

Core and log-based geophysical investigations of Neogene deposition on continental margins of the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical studies were undertaken during two Ocean Drilling Program cruises in and around the Southern Ocean. Log data were collected during Legs 181 and 188, and rock-magnetic data were collected from samples taken during Leg 181. A combination of downhole logging and continuous-core geophysical measurements was used to create synthetic seismograms to ground-truth seismic profiles recorded in Prydz Bay, Antarctica,

David Allen Handwerger

2003-01-01

14

-RIS-M-2210 KVANE -A KVANEFJELD DRILL CORE DATABASE  

E-print Network

-RISÃ?-M-2210 KVANE - A KVANEFJELD DRILL CORE DATABASE Flemming Lund Clausen Nineralogical Institute, Technical University of Denmark Abstract. A database KVANE containing all drill core information from be picked out of the database. A short introduction to the SAS system is also given. The database has been

15

Commercial geophysical well logs from the USW G-1 drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drill hole USW G-1 was drilled at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, as part of the ongoing exploration program for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Contract geophysical well logs run at USW G-1 show only limited stratigraphic correlations, but correlate reasonably well with the welding of the ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs. Rocks in the upper part of the section have highly variable physical properties, but are more uniform and predictably lower in the section.

Muller, D. C.; Kibler, J. E.

1983-01-01

16

Recent Developments and Adaptations in Diamond Wireline Core Drilling Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific drilling using diamond wireline technology is presently undergoing a significant expansion and extension of activities that has allowed us to recover geologic samples that have heretofore been technically or financially unattainable. Under the direction and management of DOSECC, a high-capacity hybrid core drilling system was designed and fabricated for the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) in 1998. This system, the DOSECC Hybrid Coring System (DHCS), has the capacity to recover H-sized core from depths of more than 6 km. In 1999, the DHCS completed the first phase of the HSDP to a depth of 3100 m at a substantially lower cost per foot than any previous scientific borehole to comparable depths and, in the process, established a new depth record for recovery of H-sized wireline core. This system has been offered for use in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, the Chicxulub (impact crater) Scientific Drilling Project, and the Geysers Deep Geothermal Reservoir Project. More recently, DOSECC has developed a smaller barge-mounted wireline core drilling system, the GLAD800, that is capable of recovering P-sized sediment core to depths of up to 800 m. The GLAD800 has been successfully deployed on Great Salt Lake and Bear Lake in Utah and is presently being mobilized to Lake Titicaca in South America for an extensive core recovery effort there. The coring capabilities of the GLAD800 system will be available to the global lakes drilling community for acquisition of sediment cores from many of the world's deep lakes for use in calibrating and refining global climate models. Presently under development by DOSECC is a heave-compensation system that will allow us to expand the capabilities of the moderate depth coring system to allow us to collect sediment and bottom core from the shallow marine environment. The design and capabilities of these coring systems will be presented along with a discussion of their potential applications for addressing a range of earth sciences questions.

Thomas, D. M.; Nielson, D. L.; Howell, B. B.; Pardey, M.

2001-05-01

17

Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous factors that may be relevant to this interpretation also is presented. (Lantz-PTT)

Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

1986-01-01

18

Ice core drilling at McMurdo Dome  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Ice core drilling at McMurdo Dome Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : July 28, 1993 File : opp93111 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS OFFICE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 202/357-7766 MEMORANDUM Date: July 28, 1993 From: Acting Environmental Officer Subject: Initial Environmental Evaluation (Ice Core Drilling at McMurdo Dome, Antarctica Environmental Impact Assessment and Finding) To: Office Director, Polar Programs Manager, Polar Operations Health and Safety Officer...

19

Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

1993-01-01

20

Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the cores were scanned for compositional variations using an XRF core scanner at the BGR lab and scan images of the slabbed surfaces were performed. The average core recovery rate was very high at nearly 100%. Altogether, we gained 533 m of excellent core material including sandstones, siltstones and claystones, carbonates, sulfates and chlorides. This provides valuable insight into the stratigraphic column of the Thuringian Syncline.

Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

2014-05-01

21

Characters of Faults and Structures Revealed from Cores and Wireline logs in Hole-A of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004-2005 two holes (hole-A and B) for Taiwan Chelungpu fault Drilling Project (TCDP) were drilled in Takeng, west-central Taiwan. Hole-A was drilled with continuously coring from 500 to 2003 m. Besides conventional wire-line downhole geophysical logs, Dipole Shear Sonic Imaging (DSI) and high- resolution micro-resistivity image (FMI\\/FMS) tools were run at the interval of 508 to 1865 m. Among

Y. Wu; J. Hung; E. Yeh; J. Dong

2005-01-01

22

Antifreeze thermal ice core drilling: an effective approach to the acquisition of ice cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifreeze thermal electric drills have a long history of ice drilling in temperate, subpolar and polar glaciers. Shallow, intermediate and deep ice cores have been obtained in Arctic, Antarctic and on high elevation glaciers. Many merits and drawbacks of antifreeze thermal technology have been discovered over the past 25 years. A modified version of the antifreeze thermal electric ice coring

V Zagorodnov; L. G Thompson; J. J Kelley; B Koci; V Mikhalenko

1998-01-01

23

Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.

Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.

1989-02-01

24

Stress orientations of Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) hole-A as observed from geophysical logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled a 2-km-deep research borehole to investigate the structure and mechanics of the Chelungpu Fault that ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Geophysical logs of the TCDP were carried out over depths of 500-1900 in, including Dipole Sonic Imager (DSI) logs and Formation Micro Imager (FMI) logs in order to identify bedding planes, fractures and shear zones. From the continuous core obtained from the borehole, a shear zone at a depth of 1110 meters is interpreted to be the Chelungpu fault, located within the Chinshui Shale, which extends from 1013 to 1300 meters depth. Stress-induced borehole breakouts were observed over nearly the entire length of the wellbore. These data show an overall stress direction (???N115??E) that is essentially parallel to the regional stress field and parallel to the convergence direction of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. Variability in the average stress direction is seen at various depths. In particular there is a major stress orientation anomaly in the vicinity of the Chelungpu fault. Abrupt stress rotations at depths of 1000 in and 1310 in are close to the Chinshui Shale's upper and lower boundaries, suggesting the possibility that bedding plane slip occurred during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Wu, H.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Zoback, M.; Boness, N.; Ito, H.; Hung, J.-H.; Hickman, S.

2007-01-01

25

Fixing mechanism for a wireline core barrel of core drilling equipment  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a wireline mechanism for removing a core barrel containing a core from within a hollow drill string carrying a hollow drill crown cutter on its lower end while the drill string is in position in the earth. The mechanism comprises a cylindrical fixer adapted to be mounted within the drill string coaxially thereof. A cap for attachment to a flexible elongated core-removing member is secured to the upper end of the fixer, a cylindrical hollow body is adapted to be mounted within the drill string coaxially thereof and generally below the fixer. A lower portion of the fixer is adapted to be telescoped within the upper portion of the cylindrical hollow body, a longitudinally extending stopper bar is connected to the upper part of the cylindrical hollow body, a locking bar and a nut connect the fixer to the lower part of the cylindrical hollow body.

Nenkov, N.D.; Petrov, I.B.; Peev, S.P.

1987-05-12

26

Design an Interactive Visualization System for Core Drilling Expeditions  

E-print Network

-playing and social probes to try to step into users' shoes. While these practices might be useful in designingDesign an Interactive Visualization System for Core Drilling Expeditions Using Immersive Empathic Method Overview In this paper, we propose an immersive empathic design method and used it to create

Johnson, Andrew

27

Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America  

SciTech Connect

Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

28

Depositional history of the Apollo 16 deep drill core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic hysteresis loop measurements were performed on 212 samples from the Apollo 16 deep drill core. The total iron content is generally uniform with a mean value of 5.7 plus or minus 0.9 wt%. The soils range in maturity from immature to mature. Two major contacts were observed. The contact at 13 cm depth represents a fossil surface whereas the contact at 190 cm depth has no time-stratigraphic significance. The data suggest that the core section below 13 cm depth was deposited in a single impact event and subjected to meteoritic gardening for about 450 m.y. However, our data do not preclude deposition by a series of closely spaced events. About 50 m.y. ago, the top 13 cm were added. Comparison with the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/60010 does not yield any evidence for a stratigraphic correlation with the deep drill core.

Gose, W. A.; Morris, R. V.

1977-01-01

29

Geophysical well-log measurements in three drill holes at Salt Valley, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Three exploratory drill holes were drilled at Salt Valley, Utah, to study the geologic, physical, geochemical, and hydrologic properties of the evaporite sequence in the Permian Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The results of these studies will be used to help to determine the suitability of salt deposits in the Paradox basin as a storage medium for radioactive waste material. The following geophysical well-log measurements were made in each of the three drill holes: (1) density, (2) neutron, (3) acoustic velocity, (4) normal resistivity, and (5) gamma ray. Widely spaced resistivity and conductivity well-log measurements were made in the deep drill hole. Each of these well-log measurements shows the division of the evaporite sequence into halite and interbed sections. At the present time the most useful well-logging measurements for determining the individual lithologies in an evaporite sequence are gamma ray, neutron, density, and acoustic velocity. The high resistivity contrast between the drilling fluid (0.5 ohm-m) and salt (10,000 ohm-m) makes it difficult to obtain quantitative measurements of electrical properties in an evaporite sequence. Tests of widely spaced electrode configurations show that the effects of the brine on the resistivity measurements can be reduced, and the depth of investigation increased, by increasing the source-receiver electrode spacing. Tests of a single-coil induction probe show good resolution of the contrasting electrical properties of the various interbed lithologies.

Daniels, J.J.; Hite, R.J.; Scott, J.H.

1980-01-01

30

Managing Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Risks Drilling Geothermal Exploration and Delineation Wells with Small-Footprint Highly Portable Diamond Core Drills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small hydraulic core rigs are highly portable (truck or scow-mounted), and have recently been used for geothermal exploration in areas such as Nevada, California, the Caribbean Islands, Central and South America and elsewhere. Drilling with slim diameter core rod below 7,000' is common, with continuous core recovery providing native-state geological information to aid in identifying the resource characteristics and boundaries; this is a highly cost-effective process. Benefits associated with this innovative exploration and delineation technology includes the following: Low initial Capital Equipment Cost and consumables costs Small Footprint, reducing location and road construction, and cleanup costs Supporting drill rod (10'/3meter) and tools are relatively low weight and easily shipped Speed of Mobilization and rig up Reduced requirements for support equipment (cranes, backhoes, personnel, etc) Small mud systems and cementing requirements Continuous, simplified coring capability Depth ratings comparable to that of large rotary rigs (up to ~10,000'+) Remote/small-location accessible (flown into remote areas or shipped in overseas containers) Can be scow or truck-mounted This technical presentation's primary goal is to share the technology of utilizing small, highly portable hydraulic coring rigs to provide exploratory drilling (and in some cases, production drilling) for geothermal projects. Significant cost and operational benefits are possible for the Geothermal Operator, especially for those who are pursuing projects in remote locations or countries, or in areas that are either inaccessible or in which a small footprint is required. John D. Tuttle Sinclair Well Products jtuttle@sinclairwp.com

Tuttle, J.; Listi, R.; Combs, J.; Welch, V.; Reilly, S.

2012-12-01

31

Comparison of core control and geophysical investigations, silica sand deposits, Dawmat Al Jandal, Al Jawf at Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is a summary of a comprehensive geophysical investigation in southern Dawmat Al Jandal, Al Jawf in Saudi Arabia. This research demonstrates that the acquisition of both core control and geophysical data is superior to the acquisition of core control alone. Coring is expensive and is limited in subsurface coverage. Geophysical surveying, however, is a relatively rapid and cost-effective means of deriving information about the subsurface between core holes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), and Seismic Refraction methods were used as exploration techniques to locate surficial mineral deposits within the study area. During the course of these investigations, the author tries to review the acquired 1620 meters of ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to image internal reflections (if any) within the sand and the top of the underlying sandstone; 27 MASW field records were acquired at each core hole location, which generated 1-D and 2-D shear wave velocity profiles, and 27 seismic refraction profiles were acquired, which did not image the top of the sandstone. The purpose was to estimate the thickness of the sand and to map bedding planes within the sand to better understand depositional environments under the same conditions, based on the high-resolution 2-D surveys, mostly performed in mining areas. The Geophysical investigations were successful and proved to be useful methods for the exploration of shallow subsurface areas where the results are equal to, or slightly different from, the corresponding with of the core holes' values. Therefore, geophysical surveying does not remove the need for core control, but when it is properly applied it can optimize exploration rating programs by maximizing the rate of ground coverage and minimizing the amount of core drilling that is required.

Alsulaimani, Ghassan Salem

32

Geophysical logs and core measurements from forty boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A data base of geophysical logs and core measurements acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been established. We used this data set to generate log plots from 40 boreholes at a scale of 1:1200 for reference and for correlation. Log headers summarize the drilling and logging sequence. We describe the logging tools, the sources of core data, and the editing procedures. We illustrate the adverse effects of casing on the gamma-ray log, of borehole rugosity on the density log, and of borehole diameter and fluid resistivity on the resistivity logs. Welding and alteration of the tuffs are the dominant geological controls on the response of the density, velocity, neutron, and resistivity logs. Density, resistivity, gamma-ray, and, in particular, the magnetic-field logs are useful for correlation of stratigraphy and alteration. A few zones in which the matrix is moderately permeable have produced log responses indication invasion of the rock by drilling fluid. Readings from the density log were confirmed with core measurements. It appears that the epithermal-neutron and dielectric-permittivity logs can be used to estimate water content providing calibration methods are established. 82 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Nelson, P.H.; Muller, D.C.; Schimschal, U.; Kibler, J.E.

1991-11-01

33

Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea floor drilling rig MeBo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea floor drill rig MeBo (acronym for Meeresboden-Bohrgerät, German for sea floor drill rig) is a robotic drill rig that is deployed on the sea floor and operated remotely from the research vessel to drill up to 80 m into the sea floor. It was developed at the MARUM Research Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at Bremen University. The complete system - comprising the drill rig, winch, control station, and the launch and recovery system - is transported in six containers and can be deployed worldwide from German and international research ships. It was the first remote-controlled deep sea drill rig to use a wireline coring technique. Compared to drilling vessels this technology has the advantage of operating from a stable platform at the sea bed, which allows for optimal control over the drilling process. Especially for shallow drillings in the range of tens to hundreds of metres, sea bed drill rigs are time-efficient since no drill string has to be assembled from the ship to the sea floor before the first core can be taken. The MeBo has been successfully operated, retrieving high-quality cores at the sea bed for a variety of research fields, including slope stability studies and palaeoclimate reconstructions. Based on experience with the MeBo, a rig is now being built that will be able to drill to a depth of 200 m.

Freudenthal, T.; Wefer, G.

2013-12-01

34

Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data From the USGS Dixon Core, Onslow County, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In October through November 2006, scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Region Earth Surface Processes Team (EESPT) and the Raleigh (N.C.) Water Science Center (WSC), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Onslow County Water and Sewer Authority (ONWASA), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Onslow County, N.C. The Dixon corehole was cored on ONWASA water utility property north of the town of Dixon, N.C., in the Sneads Ferry 7.5-minute quadrangle at latitude 34deg33'35' N, longitude 77deg26'54' W (decimal degrees 34.559722 and -77.448333). The site elevation is 66.0 feet (ft) above mean sea level as determined using a Paulin precision altimeter. The corehole attained a total depth of 1,010 ft and was continuously cored by the USGS EESPT drilling crew. A groundwater monitoring well was installed in the screened interval between 234 and 254 ft below land surface. The section cored at this site includes Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments. The Dixon core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh. The Dixon corehole is the fourth and last in a series of planned North Carolina benchmark coreholes drilled by the USGS Coastal Carolina Project. These coreholes explore the physical stratigraphy, facies, and thickness of Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene Coastal Plain sediments in North Carolina. Correlations of lithologies, facies, and sequence stratigraphy can be made with the Hope Plantation corehole, N.C., near Windsor in Bertie County (Weems and others, 2007); the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, N.C., in Bladen County (Self-Trail and others, 2004b); the Smith Elementary School corehole, near Cove City, N.C., in Craven County (Harris and Self-Trail, 2006; Crocetti, 2007); the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, N.C., in New Hanover County (Self-Trail and others, 2004a); the Esso#1, Esso #2, Mobil #1, and Mobil #2 cores in Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds, N.C. (Zarra, 1989); and the Cape Fear River outcrops in Bladen County, N.C. (Farrell, 1998; Farrell and others, 2001). This report contains the lithostratigraphic summary recorded at the drill site, core photographs, geophysical data, and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic correlations.

Seefelt, Ellen L.; Gonzalez, Wilma Aleman B.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Weems, Robert E.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Durand, Colleen T.

2009-01-01

35

Table S1 Core Geophysics and Age Control Methods Core Geophysics  

E-print Network

-wave velocity, gamma ray density, resistivity, and loop magnetic susceptibility (MS) at 0.5 cm spaced intervals at 0.5 cm spacing. The cores were imaged with the Oregon State University Aquilion 64 slice X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) system with a nominal voxel size of 0.5 mm. Age Control Methods Age control

Goldfinger, Chris

36

Ultrasonic\\/sonic drilling\\/coring (USDC) for in-situ planetary applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel ultrasonic drilling and coring device (USDC) was demonstrated to drill a wide variety of rocks: form ice and chalk to granite and basalt. The USDC addresses the key shortcomings of the conventional drills. The device requires low preload and power. The drill bits are not sharpened and, therefore there is no concern to loss of performance due to

Yoseph Bar-Cohen; Stewart Sherrit; Benjamin P. Dolgin; Dharmendra S. Pal; Thomas Peterson; Jason Kroh; Ron Krahe

2000-01-01

37

Mobile NMR for porosity analysis of drill core sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a novel mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning system, the NMR-MOUSE® (NMR-MOUSE (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Mobile Universal Surface Explorer) is a registered trademark of RWTH Aachen University), for measuring porosity of geological drill core sections. The NMR-MOUSE® is used for transverse relaxation measurements on water-saturated core sections using a CPMG sequence with a short echo time. A regularized Laplace-transform analysis by the UPEN program yields the distribution of transverse relaxation times. The signal amplitudes and the distribution integrals correlate directly with the porosity of the cores, in spite of the influence of diffusion in the strong field gradient of the NMR-MOUSE®, which is discussed. The method is particularly attractive because it neither requires a volume calibration nor the samples to be machined to fit the coil, and because the device is mobile and particularly attractive for field use such as on logging platforms and research vessels.

Blümich, Bernhard; Anferova, Sofia; Pechnig, Renate; Pape, Hansgeorg; Arnold, Juliane; Clauser, Christoph

2004-09-01

38

Research core drilling in the Manson impact structure, Iowa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Manson impact structure (MIS) has a diameter of 35 km and is the largest confirmed impact structure in the United States. The MIS has yielded a Ar-40/Ar-39 age of 65.7 Ma on microcline from its central peak, an age that is indistinguishable from the age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In the summer of 1991 the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau and U.S. Geological Survey initiated a research core drilling project on the MIS. The first core was beneath 55 m of glacial drift. The core penetrated a 6-m layered sequence of shale and siltstone and 42 m of Cretaceous shale-dominated sedimentary clast breccia. Below this breccia, the core encountered two crystalline rock clast breccia units. The upper unit is 53 m thick, with a glassy matrix displaying various degrees of devitrification. The upper half of this unit is dominated by the glassy matrix, with shock-deformed mineral grains (especially quartz) the most common clast. The glassy-matrix unit grades downward into the basal unit in the core, a crystalline rock breccia with a sandy matrix, the matrix dominated by igneous and metamorphic rock fragments or disaggregated grains from those rocks. The unit is about 45 m thick, and grains display abundant shock deformation features. Preliminary interpretations suggest that the crystalline rock breccias are the transient crater floor, lifted up with the central peak. The sedimentary clast breccia probably represents a postimpact debris flow from the crater rim, and the uppermost layered unit probably represents a large block associated with the flow. The second core (M-2) was drilled near the center of the crater moat in an area where an early crater model suggested the presence of postimpact lake sediments. The core encountered 39 m of sedimentary clast breccia, similar to that in the M-1 core. Beneath the breccia, 120 m of poorly consolidated, mildly deformed, and sheared siltstone, shale, and sandstone was encountered. The basal unit in the core was another sequence of sedimentary clast breccia. The two sedimentary clast units, like the lithologically similar unit in the M-1 core, probably formed as debris flows from the crater rim. The middle, nonbrecciated interval is probably a large, intact block of Upper Cretaceous strata transported from the crater rim with the debris flow. Alternatively, the sequence may represent the elusive postimpact lake sequence.

Anderson, R. R.; Hartung, J. B.; Roddy, D. J.; Shoemaker, E. M.

1992-01-01

39

Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea-floor drilling rig MeBo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sampling of the upper 50 to 200 m of the sea floor to address questions relating to marine mineral resources and gas hydrates, for geotechnical research in areas of planned offshore installations, to study slope stability, and to investigate past climate fluctuations, to name just a few examples, is becoming increasingly important both in shallow waters and in the deep sea. As a rule, the use of drilling ships for this kind of drilling is inefficient because before the first core can be taken a drill string has to be assembled extending from the ship to the sea floor. Furthermore, movement of the ship due to wave motion disturbs the drilling process and often results in poor core quality, especially in the upper layers of the sea floor. For these reasons, the MeBo drilling rig, which is lowered to the sea floor and operated remotely from the ship to drill up to 80 m into the sea floor, was developed at the MARUM Research Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at Bremen University. The complete system, comprising the drill rig, winch, control station, and the launch and recovery system, is transported in six containers and can be deployed worldwide from German and international research ships. It was the first remote-controlled deep sea drill rig that uses a wireline coring technique. Based on the experiences with the MeBo a rig is now being built that will be able to drill to a depth of 200 m.

Freudenthal, T.; Wefer, G.

2013-07-01

40

Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides resources for teaching geophysics. It includes a collection of teaching activities, internet resources, and a geophysical instrument registry and information from a workshop held in 2007 that focused on teaching geophysics.

41

Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were estimated, including volume of clay matrix, volume of matrix other than clay, density of matrix other than clay, density of matrix, intrinsic permeability, specific yield, and specific storage. Geophysical logs were used to (1) determine lithology, (2) correlate lithologic and permeable zones, (3) calibrate seismic reprocessing, (4) calibrate transient-electromagnetic surveys, and (5) calibrate uphole-survey interpretations. Logs were used at the drill site to (1) determine permeability zones, (2) determine dissolved-solids content, which is a function of water resistivity, and (3) design wells accordingly. Data and properties derived from logs were used to determine transmissivity and specific yield of aquifer materials.

Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

1994-01-01

42

Results of exploratory drilling  

SciTech Connect

Eight exploratory holes were drilled in the Vermillion Creek basin, southern Sweetwater County, Wyoming, to aid in interpreting the subsurface stratigraphy of the Vermillion Creek coal bed. Lithologic logs based on cuttings and geophysical logs (natural gamma, density, and caliper) were made for each drill hole. Core samples of the Vermillion Creek coal bed and associated strata (roof rock, floor rock, and partings) were collected from three drill holes for geochemical and petrographic analysis. The geophysical logs indicate the presence of anomalous radioactive zones in the strata surrounding the Vermillion Creek coal bed.

Hildebrand, R.T.

1987-01-01

43

Instruments and Methods Portable system for intermediate-depth ice-core drilling  

E-print Network

TD and operates in a fluid-free (dry) hole. Where the ice is warmer and rapid hole closure is possible, the slower- ate paper (Zagorodnov and others,1998). A BRIEF REVIEW OF DRY-HOLE EM ICE-CORE DRILL DEVELOPMENTInstruments and Methods Portable system for intermediate-depth ice-core drilling V. Zagorodnov, L

Howat, Ian M.

44

Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core  

SciTech Connect

Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

1984-11-15

45

Preliminary physical stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and geophysical data of the USGS South Dover Bridge Core, Talbot County, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The South Dover Bridge (SDB) corehole was drilled in October 2007 in Talbot County, Maryland. The main purpose for drilling this corehole was to characterize the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the aquifers and confining units of this region. The data obtained from this core also will be used as a guide to geologic mapping and to help interpret well data from the eastern part of the Washington East 1:100,000-scale map near the town of Easton, Md. Core drilling was conducted to a depth of 700 feet (ft). The Cretaceous section was not penetrated due to technical problems during drilling. This project was funded by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Eastern Geology and Paleoclimate Science Center (EGPSC) as part of the Geology of the Atlantic Watersheds Project; this project was carried out in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) through partnerships with the Aquifer Characterization Program of the USGS’s Maryland-Delaware-District of Columbia Water Science Center and the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The SDB corehole was drilled by the USGS drilling crew in the northeastern corner of the Trappe 7.5-minute quadrangle, near the type locality of the Boston Cliffs member of the Choptank Formation. Geophysical logs (gamma ray, single point resistance, and 16-inch and 64-inch normal resistivity) were run to a depth of 527.5 ft; the total depth of 700.0 ft could not be reached because of the collapse of the lower part of the hole. Of the 700.0 ft drilled, 531.8 ft of core were recovered, representing a 76 percent core recovery. The elevation of the top of the corehole is approximately 12 ft above mean sea level; its coordinates are lat 38°44?49.34?N. and long 76°00?25.09?W. (38.74704N., 76.00697W. in decimal degrees). A groundwater monitoring well was not installed at this site. The South Dover Bridge corehole was the first corehole that will be used to better understand the geology and hydrology of the Maryland Eastern Shore.

Alemán González,Wilma B.; Powars, David S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Durand, Colleen T.; Schultz, Arthur P.; McLaughlin, Peter P.

2012-01-01

46

Learning Activities Developed at The University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics Using Ocean Drilling Science, Technology and Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

NSF GK-12 Fellows at The University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) actively contribute to K-12 education by linking K-12 students and teachers to research scientists and recent discoveries, and by developing hands-on learning activities designed primarily for secondary school learning environments. The excitement of the new Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international research program that explores

D. M. Bailey; J. Stevens; D. Clarke; K. Ellins; G. Tynes; M. Petkovsek

2004-01-01

47

Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater,

S. Goff; G. Heiken; F. Goff; J. Gardner; W. Duffield; L. Martinelli; S. Aycinena; O. Castaneda

1990-01-01

48

A battery powered, instrumented deep ice core drill for liquid filled holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ice core drill used at Dye 3 for coring to bedrock at 2038-m depth is described. The main design criteria was low cost and weight, and easy maintenance in the field. The drill is divided into two main parts. The upper section consists of the antitorque section that prevents rotation of the upper part, the motors and the electronics. During drilling, the ice chips produced by the cutters are sucked into the lower, rotating part of the drill and transported with the drill to the surface, where the drill is clamped to a 6 m tower and tilted to horizontal position for easy core removal and drill cleaning. The cutters work like a plane, with an aggressive cutting angle that reduces the cutting power and provides stable penetration essentially independent of the load on the cutters. The drill is powered by a rechargeable battery pack, charged through the 6.4-mm cable. A microcomputer built into the drill controls 7 functions (battery charge and temperature, motor rotation speed and direction, etc.) at the same time that it measures 32 parameters. All this information is transmitted to a data terminal at the surface. The length of the drill is 11.5 m and its weight is 180 kg. The tower and the winch, including an electro-hydraulic pumpstation and 2500 m of cable, weigh 900 kg total. Core length is about 2.2 m per run, and the weekly core retrieval is 120 m of 10 cm diameter core at the 2000 m depth. The core recovery is better than 99.9%. Close to bedrock the hole deviates 6 degrees from the vertical, and the temperature is -13°C (-20°C at surface).

Gundestrup, N. S.; Johnsen, S. J.

49

Ultrasonic/sonic drilling/coring (USDC) for in-situ planetary applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel ultrasonic drilling and coring device (USDC) was demonstrated to drill a wide variety of rocks: form ice and chalk to granite and basalt. The USDC addresses the key shortcomings of the conventional drills. The device requires low preload and power. The drill bits are not sharpened and, therefore there is no concern to loss of performance due to warring out. The device is not subject to drill walk during core initiation, and does not apply larger lateral forces on its platform. The USDC has produced round and square cores and 14-cm deep holes and has opened new possibilities to the designers of future NASA planetary exploration missions. USDC can be mounted on a Sojourner class rover, a robotic arm or an Aerobot.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Dolgin, Benjamin P.; Pal, Dharmendra S.; Peterson, Thomas; Kroh, Jason; Krahe, Ron

2000-06-01

50

Surface elevation change artifact at the NEEM ice core drilling site, North Greenland.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEEM deep drilling site (77.45°N 51.06°W) is located at the main ice divide in North Greenland. For the ice core drilling project, a number of buildings was erected and left on the snow surface during the five-year project period. The structures created snowdrifts that formed accordingly to the predominant wind direction on the lee side on the buildings and the overwintering cargo. To get access to the buildings, the snowdrifts and the accumulated snow were removed and the surface in the camp was leveled with heavy machinery each summer. In the camp a GPS reference pole was placed as a part of the NEEM strain net, 12 poles placed in three diamonds at distances of 2,5 km, 7,5 km and 25 km they were all measured with high precision GPS every year. Around the reference pole, a 1 km x 1 km grid with a spacing of 100 m was measured with differential GPS each year. In this work, we present results from the GPS surface topography measurements in and around the campsite. The mapping of the topography in and around the campsite shows how the snowdrifts evolve and are the reason for the lift of the camp site area. The accumulated snowdrifts are compared to the dominant wind directions from year to year. The annual snow accumulation at the NEEM site is 0.60 m. The reference pole in the camp indicates an additional snow accumulation of 0.50 m per year caused by collected drifting snow. The surface topography mapping shows that this artificially elevated surface extends up to several kilometers out in the terrain. This could have possible implications on other glaciological and geophysical measurements in the area i.e. pit and snow accumulation studies.

Berg Larsen, Lars; Schøtt Hvidberg, Christine; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Lilja Buchardt, Susanne

2014-05-01

51

Possible reasons of shock melt deficiency in the Bosumtwi drill cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-drilling numerical modeling of the Bosumtwi impact event predicted a 200 m thick coherent melt layer, as well as abundant highly shocked target material within the central part of the crater structure. However, these predictions are in disagreement with data from drill core obtained in 2004-2005. Here I provide a brief overview of previous results and discuss possible reasons behind

N. Artemieva

2007-01-01

52

Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations  

SciTech Connect

The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

1987-04-01

53

Deep Rotary-Ultrasonic Core Drill for Exploration of Europa and Enceladus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since water is an important requisite for life as we know it, likely exobiologic exploration targets in our Solar System include Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, where water/ice is known to exist. Because of oxidizing nature of Mars atmosphere, as well as increased radiation at the surfaces of Mars, Europa and Enceladus, samples must be acquired from the subsurface at greater depths, presenting a great challenge to off-world drilling design. For the past 3 years, we have been developing a prototype wireline coring drill, called the Auto-Gopher, for the capability to acquire samples from hundreds of meters depth. The drill is capable of penetrating both rock and ice. However, because of large geological uncertainty on Mars and issues related to borehole collapse, we specifically target ice formations present on Europa and Enceladus. The main feature of the Auto-Gopher is its wireline operation. The drill is essentially suspended on a tether and the motors and mechanisms are built into a tube that ends with a coring bit. The tether provides the mechanical connection to a rover/lander on a surface as well as power and data communication. Upon penetrating to a target depth, the drill (plus core) is retracted from the borehole by a pulley system (the pulley system can be either on the surface or integrated into a top part of the drill itself). Once on the surface, the core is deposited into a sample transfer system, and the drill is lowered back into the hole in order to drill the next segment. Each segment is typically 10 cm long. Wireline operation sidesteps one of the major drawbacks of traditional continuous drill string systems by obviating the need for multiple drill sections. With traditional continuous drill string systems (the major competition to the Autor-Gopher), new drill sections need to be added to the string as the drill gets deeper. This of course requires multiple drill sections, which add significantly to the mass of the system very quickly, and requires a complicated drill string feeding and coupling mechanism, thus increasing the system complexity. The Auto-gopher has been successfully tested in a lab environment in rock to a depth of 2 meters and in the field. The average drilling power was in the range of 100-150 Watt, while penetration rate was approximately 1 cm/min.

Paulsen, G. L.; Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Beegle, L. W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Mellerowicz, B.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Ibarra, Y.

2012-12-01

54

Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data of the USGS Hope Plantation Core (BE-110), Bertie County, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction In March and April, 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Raleigh Water Resources Discipline (WRD), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Bertie County, North Carolina (fig. 1). The Hope Plantation test hole (BE-110-2004) was cored on the property of Hope Plantation near Windsor, North Carolina. The drill site is located on the Republican 7.5 minute quadradrangle at lat 36?01'58'N., long 78?01'09'W. (decimal degrees 36.0329 and 77.0192) (fig. 2). The altitude of the site is 48 ft above mean sea level as determined by Paulin Precise altimeter. This test hole was continuously cored by Eugene F. Cobbs, III and Kevin C. McKinney (USGS) to a total depth of 1094.5 ft. Later, a ground water observation well was installed with a screened interval between 315-329 feet below land surface (fig. 3). Upper Triassic, Lower Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments were recovered from the site. The core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh, North Carolina. In this report, we provide the initial lithostratigraphic summary recorded at the drill site along with site core photographs, data from the geophysical logger, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic correlations (Table 1) and initial hydrogeologic interpretations. The lithostratigraphy from this core can be compared to previous investigations of the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, North Carolina in Bladen County (Self-Trail, Wrege, and others, 2004), the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, North Carolina in New Hanover County (Self-Trail, Prowell, and Christopher, 2004), the Esso #1, Esso #2, Mobil #1 and Mobil #2 cores in the Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds (Zarra, 1989), and the Cape Fear River outcrops in Bladen County (Farrell, 1998; Farrell and others, 2001). This core is the third in a series of planned benchmark coreholes that will be used to elucidate the physical stratigraphy, facies, thickness, and hydrogeology of the Tertiary and Cretaceous Coastal Plain sediments of North Carolina.

Weems, Robert E.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Wrege, Beth M.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Prowell, David C.; Durand, Colleen; Cobbs, Eugene F., III; McKinney, Kevin C.

2007-01-01

55

EOS, TRANSACTIONS, AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION Drill Bit Noise Illuminates the San Andreas Fault  

E-print Network

Extracting the vibration response of the subsurface from noise is a rapidly growing field of research [Curtis et al., 2006; Larose et al., 2006]. We carried out broadside imaging of the San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ) using drill bit noise created in the main hole of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), near Parkfield, Calif. Imaging with drill bit noise is not new, but it traditionally requires the measurement of the vibrations of the drill stem [Rector and Marion, 1991]; such measurements provide the waves radiated by the drill bit. At SAFOD, these measurements were not available due to the absence of

unknown authors

2008-01-01

56

Application of Ground Penetrating Radar and Geodetics to the Selection of an Ice Core Drill Site on the Kahiltna Glacier of Mount McKinley, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in global climate change continues to fuel the search for more sources of quality paleo-climate information in hopes of accurately reconstructing and predicting past and future climates respectively. Ice core records from the Arctic and Antarctic have provided some of the most reliable data for paleo-climate modeling however, the validity of these data and models rely heavily on a number of assumptions regarding ice stratigraphy and glacier structure. Unfortunately, many Arctic valley glaciers are unsuitable for ice core drilling because they exhibit significant melt, ice flow, deformation, and dipping stratigraphy due to their thermal regime and confined flow boundary conditions. Other valley glaciers do exhibit stable accumulation basins with conditions suitable for ice core drilling, however these sites need to be validated through a variety of geophysical and glacio-chemical techniques. A thorough assessment of local meteorological data, snow chemistry, ice flow dynamics, glacier structure, and stratigraphy prior to ice core drilling in a valley glacier is important to determine if the site meets the proper criteria. A glacio-chemical and geophysical reconnaissance of the Kahiltna Glacier on Mount McKinley, Alaska, was performed in 2008 and 2009 to search for an appropriate deep ice core drill location in Central Alaska. Surface velocity measurements from a rapid static GPS survey were coupled with approximately 10 km of 100 MHz GPR profiles to determine surface and subsurface glacier structure and dynamics at a promising drill site near Kahiltna Pass (3078 masl). The GPR profiles reveal a pocket of ice east of Kahiltna Pass with horizontal stratigraphy and 300 meters of ice; based on local accumulation rates and ice flow modeling, this depth of ice likely represents 500 +/- years of climate record. Preliminary geodetic data suggest low velocities (less the 0.1 m/day) at the potential drill site and velocities up to 0.45 m/day 7 km down slope of the drill site. These velocities are comparable to previous velocity measurements recorded on the Kahiltna Glacier. Stratigtraphic complexities do exist in the upper Kahiltna Glacier region; interpretation of these features and their relevance to local ice flow and drill site selection will be discussed.

Campbell, S. W.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Arcone, S. A.; Volkening, K.; Lurie, M.

2009-12-01

57

Fischer Assays of Oil Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Piceance Basin, Colorado - 2009 Update  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM includes updated files containing Fischer assays of samples of core holes and cuttings from exploration drill holes drilled in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. A database was compiled that includes more than 321,380 Fischer assays from 782 boreholes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 1,042 core and rotary holes, oil and gas tests, as well as a few surface sections are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. These assays are part of a larger collection of subsurface information held by the U.S. Geological Survey, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, and chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses having to do with the Green River oil shale deposits in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM disc containing updated Fischer assay data for the Piceance Basin oil shale deposits in northwestern Colorado is being released to the public.

Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Self, Jesse G.

1998-01-01

58

Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data are from analyses performed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, with some analyses made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet that is included in the CD-ROM. These Wyoming Fischer assays and histograms are part of a much larger collection of oil-shale information, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses on the Green River oil-shale deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming held by the U.S. Geological Survey. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM containing Fischer assay data and oil-yield histograms for the Green River oil-shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming is being released to the public. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets included with Chapter 2 contain the Fischer assay data from the 426 holes and data on the company name and drill-hole name, and location. Histograms of the oil yields obtained from the Fischer assays are presented in both Grapher and PDF format. Fischer assay text data files are also included in the CD-ROM.

2008-01-01

59

Core formation, evolution, and convection: A geophysical model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is proposed for the formation and evolution of the Earth's core which provides an adequate energy source for maintaining the geodynamo. A modified inhomogeneous accretion model is proposed which leads to initial iron and refractory enrichment at the center of the planet. The probable heat source for melting of the core is the decay of Al. The refractory material is emplaced irregularly in the lowermost mantle with uranium and thorium serving as a long lived heat source. Fluid motions in the core are driven by the differential heating from above and the resulting cyclonic motions may be the source of the geodynamo.

Ruff, L.; Anderson, D. L.

1978-01-01

60

Geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

1976-01-01

61

Chattanooga shale (Devonian and Mississippian) from the Tennessee Division of Geology: U. S. Department of Energy cored drill holes Number 4 and 5, Hawkins County, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Tennessee Division of Geology under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has drilled eight NX coreholes in eastern Tennessee. The coring program was designed to retrieve continuous cores for a detailed study of the character of the Chattanooga Shale. The geophysical wire-line logging of the NX drill holes was performed by the US Geological Survey. The lithologic and wire-line log data in conjunction with two seismic surveys will be used to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the Chattanooga Shale in northeastern Tennessee. The purpose of this report is to present a detailed lithologic description and gamma-ray log of the Tennessee Division of Geology and US Department of Energy cored drill holes no. 4 and 5 (TDG-DOE no. 4 and no. 5). In spite of the overlap, no distinct marker beds were found to facilitate a positive correlation between the two cores. Reconstruction of the total Chattanooga section was based on detailed field mapping of the uppermost dark-gray shale below the base of the Grainger Formation and the projection of the beds. The total thickness of the Chattanooga Shale at the coring locations is estimated to be 1650 to 1700 ft.

Roen, J.B.; Wallace, L.G.; Milici, R.C.

1980-01-01

62

Core Cracking and Hydrothermal Circulation Profoundly Affect Ceres' Geophysical Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dwarf planet (1)Ceres is about to be visited by the Dawn spacecraft [1]. In addition to a recent report of water vapor emission [2], observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock [3,4].Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code [5], we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia [4], by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The heating effect from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via “temperature resets”, global cooling events lasting ~50 Myr, followed by ~1 Gyr periods during which Ceres' interior is nearly isothermal and its hydrosphere largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) suggests that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter [1] could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.References:[1] Russell C. T. & Raymond C. A. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 3-23.[2] Küppers M. et al. (2014) Nature 505, 525-527.[3] Rivkin A. et al. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 95-116.[4] Castillo-Rogez J. C. & McCord T. B. (2010) Icarus 205, 443-459.[5] Neveu M., Desch S. J. & Castillo-Rogez J. C., submitted.

Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

2014-11-01

63

Volatiles in glasses from the HSDP2 drill core  

Microsoft Academic Search

H2O, CO2, S, Cl, and F concentrations are reported for 556 glasses from the submarine section of the 1999 phase of HSDP drilling in Hilo, Hawaii, providing a high-resolution record of magmatic volatiles over ?200 kyr of a Hawaiian volcano's lifetime. Glasses range from undegassed to having lost significant volatiles at near-atmospheric pressure. Nearly all hyaloclastite glasses are degassed, compatible

Caroline Seaman; Sarah Bean Sherman; Michael O. Garcia; Michael B. Baker; Brian Balta; Edward Stolper

2004-01-01

64

Petrologic studies of drill cores USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation as a possible deep geologic site for high-level radioactive waste disposal. This report characterizes tuff retrieved in core from two drill holes, USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, at the Yucca Mountain block. The USW-G2 drill core is from the northernmost extent of the block, whereas UE25b-1H is adjacent to an earlier drill hole, UE25a-1. The drill cores USW-G2 and UE25b-1H bottomed at 6000 and 4200 ft, respectively. Petrographic and x-ray diffraction studies of the two drill cores are presented in this report and indicate that tuffs (composed primarily of variably welded ash flows) are partially recrystallized to secondary minerals. Correlations of stratigraphy are also made with previous drill cores from Yucca Mountain.

Caporuscio, F.; Vaniman, D.; Bish, D.; Broxton, D.; Arney, B.; Heiken, G.; Byers, F.; Gooley, R.; Semarge, E.

1982-07-01

65

Seismic-Stratigraphic Framework for Drill Cores and Paleoclimate Records in Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 200-km network of high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles was collected in Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, in order to explore the sedimentary framework of the lake's paleoclimate record as derived from cores and drill holes. In addition to a series of short cores, including piston cores as much as 5 m long, two deep holes were drilled at a site on one of the seismic-reflection lines. These continuously cored drill holes, 100 and 120 m deep, were part of the testing operations for the Global Lake Drilling-800 m (GLAD800) drilling system. The seismic stratigraphy below the lake indicates its principal origin as a simple half-graben, with a steep normal-fault margin on the east and a ramp margin on the west. Seismic reflections diverge toward the master fault, bounding eastward thickening sediment wedges. Secondary normal faults west of the master fault were imaged beneath the lake, and many of these faults show progressively increasing throw with depth and age. Several faults cut the youngest sediments in the lake as well as the modern lake floor. Although pinch-outs of sedimentary units are common in relatively shallow water, no major erosional or depositional features suggestive of shoreline processes were observed on seismic profiles in water deeper than about 5 m. The relative simplicity of the sedimentary sequence is broken in the northern part of the basin by what appears to be a large (2.5 x 9.5 km) bedrock landslide block, which overlies stratified lake sediment. Preliminary identification of volcanic ashes, gross correlation of climate proxies, and preliminary U-series data all suggest that the base of the deepest drill hole is about 250,000 years old, and that sedimentation has been relatively uniform at an average rate of about 0.5 m per thousand years. These data allow isochronous seismic-reflection horizons, tied to the drill hole, to be traced throughout the basin.

Colman, S. M.

2001-12-01

66

Diaplectic transformation of minerals: Vorotilov drill core, Puchezh-Katunki impact crater, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vorotilov core was drilled in the central uplift of the Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme to a depth of 5.1 km. Impactites are revealed in the rocks of the core beginning from a depth of 366 m: suevites (66 m), allogenic breccias (112 m), and autogenic breccias (deeper than 544 m). These rocks are represented by shocked-metamorphic gneisses, schists, amphibolites of Archean age, and magmatic rocks (dolerites, olivines, and peridotites) that lie between them.

Feldman, V. I.

1992-01-01

67

Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources

S. J. Goff; F. E. Goff; G. H. Heiken; W. A. Duffield; C. J. Janik

1994-01-01

68

The remarkable chemical uniformity of Apollo 16 layered deep drill core section 60002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic absorption and colorimetric spectrophotometers were used to determine major- and minor-element abundances in 12 samples from layered section 60002 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. It is suggested that gardening of a relatively thick local unit produced the layering in this section in such a manner that the proportions of materials of different compositions remained virtually unchanged.

Nava, D. F.; Philpotts, J. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Lindstrom, D. J.

1976-01-01

69

Al26 depth profile in Apollo 15 drill core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerator mass spectrometry is used in a study of galactic cosmic ray production profiles based on cosmic ray-produced Al-26 in the Apollo 15 long core. The results, which are in general agreement with earlier nondestructive counting data, are of significantly higher precision, yet systematically lower. The half-attenuation length for Al-26 production is presently calculated to be 122 g\\/sq cm, after

K. Nishiizumi; J. R. Arnold; J. Klein; R. Middleton

1984-01-01

70

Best practices in core and data management for lake drilling projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LacCore, the National Lacustrine Core Facility, was founded a decade ago by the US National Science Foundation and the University of Minnesota in part to support lake drilling projects made possible by the parallel advent of the Global Lake Drilling (GLAD) platform and tools. Since that time, LacCore has participated in 8 of the 11 GLAD projects, assisting with planning, field, lab, and archival phases as required by each project. This experience has informed work on future projects, for which we encourage science groups to utilize existing, proven resources and relationships within ICDP, DOSECC, and LacCore to achieve project goals efficiently. Bringing people from these groups together early in the planning process is critical to obtaining a thorough understanding of the resources available to projects, and for identifying new project-specific needs. In the planning stage, this experience allows for rapid generation of supplies lists and budget estimates, and avoidance of costly logistical mistakes. In the field, LacCore personnel serve as an effective interface among drillers and scientists, and provide critical institutional memory between projects with different PIs and drillers. Standard procedures and equipment for core handling and data capture at the drill site vastly simplify core and data management downstream. In the lab, optimization of core processing techniques, an array of high-end instrumentation, and ample personnel and both work- and storage space maximize the efficiency of core processing and sampling. Unique project-specific requirements drive continual adaptation and expansion of the resources available to subsequent groups. These established resources free PIs from some of the enormous logistical burden created by these large-scale projects.

Noren, A. J.; Brady, K. L.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.

2009-12-01

71

Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain indicating that very unusual microbes can be contained in a drilling fluid. All this testifies that kerosene film is indeed hard to remove and everyone should be aware on bacteria introduced with any drilling fluid. Our results demonstrate the necessity to have a drilling fluid data base when studying the microbial contents of ice cores.

Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

2003-04-01

72

Paleomagnetic Reorientation of Structural Elements in Drill Cores: an example from Tolhuaca Geothermal Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reorientation of mesoscopic faults, veins and fractures recovered from drilling is critical to construct reliable structural models that can account for their architecture and deformation regime. However, oriented cores are expensive and time consuming to drill. Some techniques achieve reorientation by introducing tools into the borehole. Problems arise when boreholes are unstable or collapse. One alternative technique allowing reorientation is to obtain reliable paleomagnetic vectors to reorient each core piece after drilling. Here, we present stable and reliable remnant magnetic vectors calculated from the Tol-1 core to analyze the geometry of the fracture network and its relationship to regional tectonic. Tol-1 core is a vertical, 1073 m deep geothermal well, drilled at the Tolhuaca Geothermal Field in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes by MRP Geothermal Chile Ltda (formerly GGE Chile SpA) in 2009. The core consists of basaltic/andesitic volcanic rocks with subordinate pyroclastic/volcaniclastic units, with probable Pleistocene age. Fault planes with slickenlines and mineral fiber kinematic indicators are common in the upper 700 m of the core. Calcite, quartz and calcite-quartz veins are recognized along of entire core, whereas epidote-quartz and calcite-epidote veins occur in the last 350 m, minor chlorite, anhydrite and clay-minerals are present. Orientations of structural features in the core were measured with a goniometer using the core's axis and a false north for each piece; hence, orientation data has a false strike but a real dip. To achieve total reorientation of the pieces, we collected 200 standard-size paleomagnetic specimens, ensuring that at least four of them were recovered from continuous pieces. Thermal (up to 700°C) and alternating field demagnetization (up to 90mT on steps of 2mT) methods were used to isolate a stable remnant magnetization (RM) vector, and each technique yielded similar results. RM vectors were recovered between 0 to 25mT, and between 0 to 625°C. The declination of RM vectors was used to bring pieces to a common anchor orientation calculated through the Geocentric Axial Dipole Model (GAD). The paleomagnetic technique proved to be reliable to reorient the Tol-1 core. Structural analyses along the core show N50-60E-striking preferential vein orientation. In addition, N40-50E- and N60-70W-striking preferential fault orientations were identified. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data shows a N60E-striking bulk fault plane solution with normal strain regime. The veins and faults orientation show strain axes compatible with published regional stress field (?max N238E).

Perez-Flores, P.; Veloso, E. E.; Cembrano, J. M.; Sánchez, P.; Iriarte, S.; Lohmar, S.

2013-12-01

73

Laboratory-determined transport properties of core from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cores from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project have been studied in the laboratory to determine electrical resistivity, ultrasonic velocity, and brine permeability at pressures and temperatures close to estimated borehole conditions. Both samples were siltstones; the first sample was from 1158-m depth, and the other was from 919-m depth. A synthetic brine with 13.6 weight percent NaCl, 7.5

Wunan Lin; William Daily

1988-01-01

74

Mineralogic variation in drill core UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction methods have been used to analyze 108 samples from drill core UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This drill hole, located within the imbricate fault zone east of the potential Yucca Mountain repository site, confirms the authors` previous knowledge of gross-scale mineral distributions at Yucca Mountain and provides insight into possible shallow pathways for hydrologic recharge into the potential host rock. Analyses of samples from UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 have shown that the distribution of major zeolitized horizons, of silica phases, and of glassy tuffs are similar to those noted in nearby drill cores. However, the continuous core and closer sample spacing in UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 provide a more exact determination of mineral stratigraphy, particularly in hydrologically important units such as the Paintbrush bedded tuffs above the Topopah Spring Tuff and in the upper vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Tuff. The discovery of matrix zeolitization in the devitrified Topopah Spring Tuff of UE25 UZ{number_sign}16 shows that some unexpected mineralogic features can still be encountered in the exploration of Yucca Mountain and emphasizes the importance of obtaining a more complete three-dimensional model of Yucca Mountain mineralogy.

Chipera, S.J.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L.

1995-02-01

75

Initial core descriptions: Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 94, North Atlantic Ocean, June 17-August 17, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The report contains lithologic descriptions of drill cores obtained during Leg 94 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) in the North Atlantic. The objective of the project was to determine the Neogene history of paleoceanographic change in the North Atlantic as a response to global climate. (ACR)

Not Available

1984-08-31

76

Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.  

PubMed

Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice. PMID:24450335

Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

2014-08-01

77

Z .Cold Regions Science and Technology 28 1998 189202 Antifreeze thermal ice core drilling: an effective approach to the  

E-print Network

not combine with ice . Dry borehole coring to a depth of 350 m was possible 0165-232Xr98r$ - see front matter; Ice Drilling Tech- .nology, 1984, 1994 . Considering ice core quality as a major criterion a dry. Therefore, good quality ice core down to 400 m can be obtained efficiently with the combination of dry

Howat, Ian M.

78

A Long Record of Tropical Glaciation and Climate Change in Drill Cores From Lake Titicaca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long and continuous continental record of climate change from the tropics could provide a measure of climate variability and pacing comparable to marine and high-latitude terrestrial records. Lake Titicaca (16° S, 69° W), one of the largest extant lakes in South America, is located at 3810 m between the eastern and western cordillera of the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes. In April-May 2001 we used the GLAD800 drill rig to recover 625 m of sediment core from three sites in the lake. Our principal drill site in 235 m water depth yielded a 136 m core. Five intervals of sediments high in magnetic susceptibility are separated by thinner intervals of sediments with low magnetic susceptibility characterized by relatively high organic (0.2 to 12.9%) and inorganic carbon (0.2 to 9.8%). Radiocarbon analysis of bulk organic matter from the core catchers indicates that the most recent interval of high magnetic susceptibility lasted from ca. 22,000 to <52,000 14C yr BP. Our previous work on piston cores from Lake Titicaca indicated that sediments high in magnetic susceptibility and low in organic carbon were associated with a greater influx of glacially derived silts from the neighboring cordillera. In contrast, sediments with high organic and inorganic carbon and low magnetic susceptibility represented time periods when glaciers had retreated and perhaps disappeared entirely from the watershed. We believe that the stratigraphic variations in the new drill cores from Lake Titicaca represent at least five periods of glaciation in the tropical Andes. Diatom and geochemical analysis of piston cores from Lake Titicaca also indicated that wet climatic conditions prevailed during the most recent glaciation. However, the extent of glaciation in the tropics is highly constrained by mean monthly temperatures that are relatively constant throughout the year. Thus glaciers can only expand significantly when there is also a reduction in mean annual temperature. The most recent period of glaciation and the older glacial phases represented in the stratigraphy of the new drill cores were probably associated with both colder and wetter conditions than today. In contrast, the interglacials/interstadials were characterized by warmer and drier conditions, including significant drops in lake level.

Seltzer, G.; Baker, P.; Fritz, S.; Arnold, K.; Ballantine, A.; Tapia, P.; Veliz, C.

2001-12-01

79

First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC-1): Drilling report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at Long Valley, California; Salton Sea, California; and the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy of the core hole, core quality description, core rig specifications, and performance. It is intended to guide future research on the core and in the borehole, as well as have applications to other areas and scientific problems in the Valles Caldera. The primary objectives of this Valles Caldera coring effort were (1) to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow, (2) to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations in the southern ring-fracture zone, and (3) to obtain continuous core samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito rhyolite (approximately 0.1 Ma). All objectives were met. The high percentage of core recovery and the excellent quality of the samples are especially notable. New field sample (core) handling and documentation procedures were successfully utilized. The procedures were designed to provide consistent field handling of the samples and logs obtained through the national CSDP.

Rowley, J.; Hawkins, W.; Gardner, J. (comps.)

1987-02-01

80

Theoretical formulation of the core drilling method to evaluate stresses in concrete structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hole drilling method is an ASTM Standard Test Method that is used to evaluate residual stresses in isotropic linearly elastic materials. In civil engineering, the method is often used to evaluate stresses in metal structures. However, the method is not applicable to concrete because the heterogeneous composition of concrete prevents strain measurements from being made over small gage lengths. This paper presents the theoretical formulation of a modified hole drilling method that is applicable to concrete structures. This modified method is referred to as the core drilling method. Potential applications of the method include the determination of insitu stress in a variety of reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, and steel-concrete composite structures, including bridges, buildings, dams, retaining walls, tunnels, shafts, and containment vessels. Equations are derived to relate the displacements caused by local stress relaxation as a core hole is cut into a structure to the magnitudes and directions of the in situ stresses. Several practical stress states are treated in the formulation. Numerical examples are presented to verify the theoretical formulation and to further explain the method.

Pessiki, Stephen; Turker, Hakan

2000-05-01

81

Quaternary paleoceanography of the central Arctic based on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Arctic Coring Expedition 302 foraminiferal assemblages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) Hole 4C from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean recovered a continuous 18 in record of Quaternary foraminifera yielding evidence for seasonally ice-free interglacials during the Matuyama, progressive development of large glacials during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) ???1.2-0.9 Ma, and the onset of high-amplitude 100-ka orbital cycles ???500 ka. Foraminiferal preservation in sediments from the Arctic is influenced by primary (sea ice, organic input, and other environmental conditions) and secondary factors (syndepositional, long-term pore water dissolution). Taking these into account, the ACEX 4C record shows distinct maxima in agglutinated foraminiferal abundance corresponding to several interglacials and deglacials between marine isotope stages (MIS) 13-37, and although less precise dating is available for older sediments, these trends appear to continue through the Matuyama. The MPT is characterized by nearly barren intervals during major glacials (MIS 12, 16, and 22-24) and faunal turnover (MIS 12-24). Abundant calcareous planktonic (mainly Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sin.) and benthic foraminifers occur mainly in interglacial intervals during the Brunhes and very rarely in the Matuyama. A distinct faunal transition from calcareous to agglutinated foraminifers 200-300 ka in ACEX 4C is comparable to that found in Arctic sediments from the Lomonosov, Alpha, and Northwind ridges and the Morris Jesup Rise. Down-core disappearance of calcareous taxa is probably related to either reduced sea ice cover prior to the last few 100-ka cycles, pore water dissolution, or both. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

Cronin, T. M.; Smith, S. A.; Eynaud, F.; O'Regan, M.; King, J.

2008-01-01

82

Rare gases and Ca, Sr, and Ba in Apollo 17 drill-core fines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trapped gas isotopic compositions and spallation gas concentrations as functions of depth in the Apollo 17 drill core were determined from mass spectrometer studies by means of correlation techniques. The distribution of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe as well as Ca, Sr, and Ba was investigated, and rare-gas spallation and neutron capture profiles are compared with attention to proposed depositional models for the Taurus-Littrow regolith. The data exclude a sedimentation pattern similar to that found at the Apollo 15 site but are possibly compatible with long-term continuous accretion models or models of very recent rapid accumulation of regolith.

Pepin, R. O.; Dragon, J. C.; Johnson, N. L.; Bates, A.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

1975-01-01

83

Characterization and depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With a depth resolution of about 0.5 cm, the stratigraphy of the approximately 3 m Apollo 17 deep drill core by measurement of the total FeO concentration is characterized along with the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index Is/FeO, the metallic iron concentration Fe-vsm, and the FMR linewidth delta-H. For stratigraphic characterization, the first two parameters are the most important. Most of the core is characterized by a FeO concentration of approximately 15.5 wt. %; there is a more mafic zone in the upper approximately 75 cm where the maximum FeO concentration is approximately 18.5 wt. %, and a more felsic zone between approximately 225 and 260 cm where the minimum FeO concentration is approximately 14.0%. As indicated by Is/FeO, most of the soil in the core is submature to mature; the only immature zone is located between approximately 20 and 60 cm and is one of the most distinctive features in the core. A two stage model for the depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core is proposed: (1) deposition by one event approximately 110 m.y. ago or deposition by a sequence of closely spaced events initating a maximum of approximately 200 m.y. ago and terminating approximately 110 m.y. ago, (2) in situ reworking (gardening) to a depth of approximately 26 cm in the period between approximately 110 m.y. ago and the present day.

Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Gose, W. A.

1979-01-01

84

Trace element profiles, notably Hg, from a preliminary study of the Apollo 15 deep-drill core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously reported results on Hg in Apollo 11, 12 and 14 and Luna 16 core and trench samples are interpreted in terms of the diurnal thermal pulse and layering processes. Apollo 15 deep-drill core samples from greater depths would not be expected to and do not respond to diurnal heating but the (labile) Hg profile reflects a layering process with little or no mixing and is in agreement with the extent of surface exposure that might be predicted on the basis of track studies by Phakey et al. Concentrations of Os, Ru and U in the deep-drill core samples are also reported.

Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

1972-10-01

85

Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater, which has been proposed as the source of pyroxene pumice deposits in the Tecuamburro area. TCB-1 is located 300 m south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco; the core hole penetrates the thin edge of a tuff ring surrounding Ixpaco and zones of hydrothermal brecciation within the upper 150 m may be related to the phreatic blast, dated at 2,910 {sup 14}C years. At the time of this writing, the unequilibrated temperature at a depth of 570m was 180{degree}C. Data on fracturing, permeability, hydrothermal alteration, and temperature will be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Goff, S.; Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Duffield, W. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (USA)); Martinelli, L.; Aycinena, S. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

1990-01-01

86

Geochemical Characteristics of Core Samples from IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343 drilled three holes through the plate boundary near the Japan Trench to investigate the cause of very large fault slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In this paper, we report trace element compositions of the core samples, including plate-boundary fault rocks, recovered from Hole C0019E. The rocks in the C0019E are lithologically subdivided into seven units (Chester et al., Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Vol. 343/343T, 2013): Units 1 to 3, wedge sediments of upper plate; Unit 4, plate-boundary fault; Units 5 to 7, sediments of lower plate. In this study, we analyzed the rocks from six lithological units except for Unit 7 (chert) using ICP-MS. The core samples analyzed all show trace element characteristics of typical marine sediments, but there exist some differences between the compositions of upper plate sediments, plate-boundary fault rocks and lower plate sediments. The clay-rich plate-boundary fault rocks (Unit 4) are characterized by elevated concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and some refractory metals, and are distinct from any other JFAST samples in terms of trace element characteristics. Brown mudstones of lower plate (Unit 5) show trace element characteristics (e.g. REE pattern) roughly similar to those of upper plate sediments (Units 1 to 3), but they are still distinguishable each other. Varicolored sediments of lower plate (Unit 6) show highly varied trace element compositions. Some of them show large negative Ce anomaly, and are distinct from any other JFAST samples. These observations show clear relationship between the lithological units and the trace element characteristics of the JFAST samples. It seems that in Units 1 to 3 and Units 5 to 7 there is no sedimentary rock equivalent to the protolith of the plate-boundary fault rocks, which provides a key for understanding the origin of the plate-boundary fault at the Japan Trench.

Ishikawa, T.; Matsuoka, J.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.

2013-12-01

87

Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations ot the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Morin, R.H.; Wilkens, R.H.

2005-01-01

88

Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.  

PubMed

Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

2008-10-01

89

A first chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core has been derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) and its model extension (GICC05modelext) from the NGRIP core to the NEEM core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) and dielectrical profiling (DEP) records. Tephra horizons found in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the matching based on ECM and DEP and provide five additional horizons used for the timescale transfer. A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard-Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age horizons. In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice age-gas age difference (?age) has been reconstructed using a coupled firn densification-heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the ?age model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to optimize the fit to timing constraints from ?15N of nitrogen and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onset of Greenland interstadials. The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM core, named GICC05modelext-NEEM-1. Based on both the flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history for the NEEM site has been reconstructed. Together, the timescale and accumulation reconstruction provide the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.

Rasmussen, S. O.; Abbott, P. M.; Blunier, T.; Bourne, A. J.; Brook, E.; Buchardt, S. L.; Buizert, C.; Chappellaz, J.; Clausen, H. B.; Cook, E.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Davies, S. M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Laepple, T.; Seierstad, I. K.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Steffensen, J. P.; Stowasser, C.; Svensson, A.; Vallelonga, P.; Vinther, B. M.; Wilhelms, F.; Winstrup, M.

2013-12-01

90

Composition of breccia matrices from the Manson M-1 drill core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven drill cores were recently recovered from the Manson, Iowa, impact structure. Core M-1, which was drilled at the edge of the large central uplift, contains three major impact rock types: sedimentary clast breccia, melt matrix breccia, and fragmental breccia. Breccia matrices from different depths in the M-1 core were investigated by defocused beam electron probe microanalysis. To obtain average compositions, matrix areas free of lithic and mineral clasts were covered with an orthogonal grid of analyses points. Variations in composition have two main causes: differences in source lithology and postimpact processes. With increasing depth distinct changes in composition can be observed. All compositions are highly feldspathic and surprisingly low in SiO2 for putative source lithologies of mostly granitic composition. Within the lithological units containing melt matrix breccia increasing recrystallization can be observed with depth. Compositions in this interval are marginally corundum normative and not as high in normative feldspar as other matrices. The thoroughly recrystallized matrices from the lowest intervals of the melt matrix breccia are more feldpathic, higher in Na/K ratio, and not corundum normative. Unlike the chemical variation between rock types, we tentatively ascribe the chemical changes within the melt matrix breccia to reaction of matrix with clasts. In particular, quartz clasts in breccias with highly recrystallized matrices develop fringes of K-spar, cpx, and ilmenite. The formation of these minerals is presumably accompanied by complementary changes in matrix composition. Factor analysis on data sets of individual melt matrix analyses provides further clues to the influence of source lithology and post impact processes respectively in the chemical makeup of the breccia matrices. The most significant factors are a mafic component and a plagioclase component.

Kracher, A.; Anderson, R. R.; Koeberl, C.

1994-07-01

91

HSDP II Drill Core: Preliminary Rock Strength Results and Implications to Flank Stability, Mauna Kea Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected portions of the 3-km HSDP II core were tested to provide unconfined rock strength data from hyaloclastite alteration zones and pillow lavas. Though the drilling project was not originally intended for strength purpose, it is believed the core can provide unique rock strength insights into the flank stability of the Hawaiian Islands. The testing showed that very weak rock exists in the hyaloclastite abundant zones in the lower 2-km of the core with strength dependent on the degree of consolidation and type of alteration. Walton and Schiffman identified three zones of alteration, an upper incipient alteration zone (1080-1335m), a smectitic zone (1405-1573m) and a lower palagonitic zone from about 1573 m to the base of the core. These three zones were sampled and tested together with pillow lava horizons for comparison. Traditional cylindrical core was not available as a consequence of the entire core having been split lengthwise for archival purposes. Hence, point load strength testing was utilized which provides the unconfined compressive strength on irregular shaped samples. The lowest unconfined strengths were recorded from incipient alteration zones with a mean value of 9.5 MPa. Smectitic alteration zones yielded mean values of 16.4 MPa, with the highest measured alteration strengths from the palagonite zones with a mean value of 32.1 MPa. As anticipated, the highest strengths were from essentially unaltered lavas with a mean value of 173 MPa. Strength variations of between one to two orders of magnitude were identified in comparing the submarine hyaloclastite with the intercalated submarine lavas. The weakest zones within the hyaloclastites may provide horizons for assisting flank collapse by serving as potential thrust zones and landslide surfaces.

Thompson, N.; Watters, R. J.; Schiffman, P.

2004-12-01

92

Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms will be reviewed and discussed including the configurations, capabilities, and challenges.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

2012-01-01

93

Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

1990-03-01

94

Deformed sediments in the Dead Sea drill core: a long-term palaeoseismic record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lacustrine 70 ka sediments outcropping around the Dead Sea contain superb examples of seismites that were formed at the margins of the lakes in water depths of <100 m. In previous studies we explored the temporal distribution and the physics of seismite formation. Now we examine the drill cores from the depocentre in order to understand how the deep basin sediments reacted to the earthquake vibrations and compare the record with that from the margins. Our interpretation is largely based on our acquaintance with the outcrops, on mechanical analyses, and on modern analogs. We realize that several types of disturbed layers that appear in the cores are seismites that do not appear in the lake margin facies but only at the depocentre, mostly transported material in the form of turbiditic slumps. We recognize numerous slumps of various thicknesses ranging from mm to several decimeters. The allochtonous contribution to the depocentre sediment load results with three times the thickness at the margins. Analyses of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) show mostly sedimentary fabric (vertical K3) or unstable scatter. Standard AMS analysis procedure requires multiple sampling for each level, but we can only recover one specimen. Therefore, we regard the results inconclusive. The main product of this stage is an inventory of all the features in the cores that we suspect to be seismites.

Marco, Shmuel; Kagan, Elisa J.

2014-05-01

95

Very low Ti /VLT/ basalts - A new mare rock type from the Apollo 17 drill core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phaneritic fragments, vitrophyres, and glass beads of a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt are found in the Apollo 17 drill core. VLT lithic fragments are characterized by TiO2 content of approximately 0.5%, Mg/(Mg + Fe) of approximately 0.52, CaO/Al2O3 of approximately 0.9, and low alkali content. Although mineral systematics and modal composition of VLT basalt are similar to Apollo 12 and 15 low Ti basalts, VLT basalts cannot be related to these mare basalts by crystal fractionation. Since VLT basalt is isochemical with some of the less mafic green glasses, fractionation of VLT magma from a liquid of green-glass composition is a possibility. Spectral reflectance studies suggest that VLT-type basalts may be relatively common in mare basins.

Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

1977-01-01

96

Petrography of shock features in the 1953 Manson 2-A drill core  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Drilling of Nx core in late 1953 into an anomalous zone of disturbed rocks northwest of Manson, Iowa disclosed presence of extensive breccias including crystalline rocks brought to the surface from depths of 4 km or more. Hole 2-A penetrated breccias dominated by leucocratic igneous and metamorphic lithologies, later interpreted to be part of a general ringed peak complex within a 35 km wide impact structure produced about 65 Ma ago. Proof of this origin was given in 1966 by NMS through recognition of shock metamorphic features in 2-A materials during a cursory examination of samples provided by R.A. Hoppin, University of Iowa. A detailed study of this material now underway has revealed that most breccia clasts in 2-A show abundant and varied evidence of shock damage, including extensive planar deformation features (PDF) in quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and a pyroxene and varying degrees of isotropization and incipient melting in feldspars.

Short, N. M.; Gold, D. P.

1993-01-01

97

Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15

98

Trace elements profiles, notably Hg, from a preliminary study of the Apollo 15 deep-drill core.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible thermal gradient near the surface during a lunation is considered together with the heat flow from the interior, the physical process of Hg migration, the results from core and trench samples from previous missions, and other temperature sensitive phenomena that may help understand the processes. U, Os, and Ru concentrations in the deep drill core samples are of potential interest and are summarized in a table. The Os tends to parallel the Hg profile with depth.

Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

1972-01-01

99

Spherule Size Distribution in the BARB5 ICDP Drill Core from the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the four 4 cm thick spherule layers of the ICDP BARB5 drill core grain size analysis has been performed. The grain size statistics do not indicate regular decrease of spherule sizes, so do not represent a single impact bed.

Hoehnel, D.; Mohr-Westheide, T.; Fritz, J.; Reimold, W. U.

2014-09-01

100

The ICDP Dead Sea deep drill cores: records of climate change and tectonics in the Levant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea drainage basin sits at the boundary of the Mediterranean and the Saharan climate zones, and the basin is formed by the Dead Sea transform fault. The ICDP-funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental and paleo-seismic record in the Middle East, drilling holes of ~450 and ~350 meters in deep (~300 m below the lake level) and shallow sites (~3 m), respectively, and. The sediments record the evolving environmental conditions (e.g. droughts, rains, floods, dust-storms), as well as tectonics (earthquake layers). The core can be dated using 14C on organic materials, U-Th on inorganic aragonite, stable isotopes, and layer counting. They were opened, described, and XRF-scanned during June to November 2011, the first sampling party took place in July 2012, and study is now underway. Some important conclusions can already be drawn. The stratigraphy reflects the climate conditions. During wet climate intervals the lithology is typically varve-like laminated aragonite and detritus (aad), reflecting summer and winter seasons, respectively, and sequences of mud. Gypsum layers reflect more arid climate, and salt (halite) indicates extreme aridity. The Dead Sea expands during glacials, and the portion of the core that corresponds to the last glacial Lisan Formation above the shoreline is easily recognized in the core based on the common lithological sequence, and this allows us to infer a broad scale age model. Interglacials show all the lithologic facies (aad, mud, gypsum, salt), reflecting extreme climate variability, while glacials contain the aad, mud, and gypsum but lack salt layers. Thus we estimate that the deep site hole extends into MIS 7 (to ~200,000 years). Thin (up to several cm thick) seismic layers occur throughout the core, but thick (up to several meters) landslide deposits only occur during glacial intervals. The most dramatic discovery is evidence of an extreme dry interval during MIS 5 at the deep site. There is a ~40 cm thick interval of partly rounded pebbles in the core at ~235 m below the lake floor. It is the only clean pebbly unit in the core, and resembles a beach deposit. Below the layer there is ~45 meters of mainly salt. These observations indicate a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping at rates >1m/year, as all the countries in the area are using all the runoff. GCM models indicate a more arid future in the region. The core shows that the runoff nearly stopped during the last interglacial without human intervention. Dating is underway to constrain the timing of the extreme drydown.

Goldstein, S. L.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G. H.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.

2012-12-01

101

Regional geophysical setting of the Yellowstone Hotspot track along the Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an overview of the regional geophysical setting of the Yellowstone Hotspot track along the Snake River Plain (SRP) and surrounding regions in support of a proposed scientific drilling program for one of the world's youngest, best-preserved intra-continental hotspots. The preliminary scientific drilling plan is to core a series of intermediate-depth drill holes near the axes of the western

J. M. Glen; S. J. Payne; C. Bouligand; C. M. Helm-Clark; D. E. Champion

2006-01-01

102

The Apollo 17 drill core - Petrologic systematics and the identification of a possible Tycho component  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modal data support a five-unit stratigraphy for the Apollo 17 drill core. The upper unit E (0-22 cm depth) is marked by high content of fused soil, brown glass, and mare basalt fragments. This unit corresponds with a portion of the core excavated and refilled within the last 2 m.y. The underlying unit D (22071 cm depth) has a low abundance of fused soil (i.e., low maturity) and is rich in coarse (less than 200 microns) mare fragments. A large section of the core, unit C (71-224 cm depth), is finer-grained, more mature (richer in agglutinates), more feldspathic and has more highland lithic, mineral and glass fragments than unit D. The next underlying unit, B (224-256 cm depth), has yellow/colorless KREEP glasses with a high Si, low-alkali composition unlike the common Apollo 15 or Apollo 17 KREEP series. The petrologic (fused soil) and Is/FeO maturity of this layer is also lower than the units above and below. The deepest unit, A (256-284 cm depth), is marked by its relatively higher maturity and lower yellow/colorless KREEP glass content. The most prominent petrographic/stratigraphic indicators are the pyroxene-rich immature mare unit D and the abundance of KREEP glass in unit B. This KREEP glass is distinctive petrographically and compositionally, and is probably exotic to the Apollo 17 site. It is suggested here that the KREEP glass in unit B is derived from Tycho, which implies widespread distribution of KREEP on the lunar nearside.

Vaniman, D. T.; Labotka, T. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Laul, J. C.

1979-01-01

103

2004 NAI-ADP Deep Diamond Drill Cores: Transects Through Archean Time in the Pilbara Craton, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July-August 2004, the NASA Astrobiology Drilling Program sponsored the coring of 3 deep diamond-drill holes in the Pilbara Craton of northwest Australia. The holes targeted the lowest grade and least deformed sedimentary sections of 4 stratigraphic units: the 2.4-2.6 Ga Hamersley Group, the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation of the Fortescue Group, the 3.4 Ga Warrawoona Group, and the 3.5 Ga Coonterunah Group. ABDP 8 cored the unconformity between the Warrawoona and Coonterunah Groups to a depth of 330 metres, intersecting it at 155 metres. Because of syn-depositional erosion, the Strelley Pool Chert was attenuated and the alteration zone beneath the unconformity was scoured and filled to a depth of 10 metres by quartz arenite. As a result, no definitive lithological determination on its status as a potential paleosol could be made. Secondary oxidative alteration was present in Coonterunah cherts to depths of at least 220 metres down-hole. ABDP 9 cored 984 metres of the lower Hamersley Group, from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation into the Paraburdoo Member of the Wittenoom Formation. Though the hole was intended to penetrate the uppermost Fortescue Group, drilling was terminated early because of equipment damage by fractured rock, loss of water circulation clogging the hole with cuttings and unanticipated thickening of the Paraburdoo Member by dilational fracturing, expansive brecciation and cavity formation. 79 samples for organic geochemical analysis of biomarker syngenesis were collected under clean conditions immediately the core surfaced. A horizon of impact spherules was intersected in the Bee Gorge Member of the Wittenoom Formation; unlike surface exposures, it was markedly silicified and chloritized in drill-core. ABDP 10 cored 210 metres of the Tumbiana Formation, intersecting the entire Meentheena Carbonate Member, the upper Mingah Tuff Member and terminating just below 4 scoriaceous basalt flows. Large and complex calcareous stromatolites, which were partly silificified in surface exposures, contained no chert in drill-core. Ooid grainstone was a prominent lithology, attesting to a shallow subaqueous depositional environment. Pseudomorphs possibly after diagenetic gypsum were encountered in a fine tuffaceous wacke unit, but no other evaporite minerals were evident. 8 samples for biomarker analysis were collected. The cores will be archived at the Geological Survey of Western Australia core library in Perth. They will be cut using non-magnetic saw blades to allow paleomagnetic studies. Quarter-core splits will be sent to the USA and Japan for detailed examination.

Buick, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bonser, L. C.

2004-12-01

104

Stratigraphy of the Hawai`i Scientific Drilling Project core (HSDP2): Anatomy of a Hawaiian shield volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawai`i Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) successfully drilled ˜3.1 km into the island of Hawai`i. Drilling started on Mauna Loa volcano, drilling 247 m of subaerial lavas before encountering 832 m of subaerial Mauna Kea lavas, followed by 2019 m of submarine Mauna Kea volcanic and sedimentary units. The 2.85 km stratigraphic record of Mauna Kea volcano spans back to ˜650 ka. Mauna Kea subaerial lavas have high average olivine contents (13 vol.%) and low average vesicle abundances (10 vol.%). Most subaerial Mauna Kea flows are `a`? (˜63%), whereas the Mauna Loa section contains nearly equal amounts of p?hoehoe and `a`? (like its current surface). The submarine Mauna Kea section contains an upper, ˜900 m thick, hyaloclastite-rich section and a lower, ˜1100 m thick, pillow-lava-dominated section. These results support a model that Hawaiian volcanoes are built on a pedestal of pillow lavas capped by rapidly quenched, fragmented lava debris. The HSDP2 section is compared here to a 1.7 km deep hole (SOH1) on Kilauea's lower east rift zone. Differences in the sections reflect the proximity to source vents and the lower magma supply to Kilauea's rift zone. Both drill core sections are cut by intrusions, but the higher abundance of intrusions in SOH1 reflects its location within a rift zone, causing more extensive alteration in the SOH1 core. The HSDP2 site recovered a relatively unaltered core well suited for geochemical analyses of the single deepest and most complete borehole ever drilled through a Hawaiian or any other oceanic island volcano.

Garcia, Michael O.; Haskins, Eric H.; Stolper, Edward M.; Baker, Michael

2007-02-01

105

Tectonic implications deduced from drill cores in the Qaidam basin, NE Tibetan Plateau (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Qaidam Basin is the largest intermontane basin of the NE Tibetan Plateau and an ideal place to study the paleoenvironmental evolution and erosion history related to tectonic activity and climate change. We studied two cores of lacustrine sediments drilled in the western basin within a distance of about 25 km, the 940 m deep SG-1 core in the Chahansilatu sub-depression and the 723 m deep SG-1b core in the Jianshan anticline. These cores comprise fine-grained lacustrine sediments and according to our magnetostratigraphic results span the ages of ~2.8-1.1 Ma (SG-1) and ~7.3-1.6 Ma (SG-1b). The proxy record reveals a long-term drying trend, and several proxy parameters can be matched with the marine oxygen isotope curve indicating a tie to global climate change. However, overlying trends and stepwise changes of average sediment accumulation rates (SAR) point towards an influence of tectonic processes. The results of average SARs of core SG-1b show three intervals with relatively higher values from the bottom (>7.3 Ma) to 6.0 Ma, between 5.2 and 4.2 Ma and between 3.6 and 2.6 Ma. These phases are in temporal agreement with the deposition of thick coarse-grained deposits in other parts of the Qaidam basin, the development of the en-echelon s-shaped structure of the basin, the separation of the western basin into shallow subbasins and the formation of a large synclinal trough in the eastern basin, and tectonic activities at the north-eastern plateau and other plateau regions. Growth strata are crucial to interpret the fold-and-thrust geometry, and the kinematics modeled by variations of the sedimentation rate and the uplift rate in the folding region. Several features indicate that the geometry of growth strata at our study site has developed by limb rotation with clear changes of growth strata dip and thicknesses on the forelimb, rather than by kink-band migration. Comparison of the SARs from SG-1 and SG-1b demonstrates that the development of the limb rotation was controlled by overlap before ~1.6 Ma. Rapid uplift is indicated after ~1.6 Ma caused the occurrence of offlap and the termination of deposition at the Jianshan anticline region. This all can be probably related to pulse tectonic uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau and fault-propagation-folding in the Qaidam Basin.

Appel, E.; Zhang, W.; Fang, X.; Song, C.; Setzer, F.; Herb, C.

2013-12-01

106

Results of NanTroSEIZE Expeditions Stages 1 & 2: Deep-sea Coring Operations on-board the Deep-sea Drilling Vessel Chikyu and Development of Coring Equipment for Stage 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nankai-Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) has carried out several drilling expeditions in the Kumano Basin off the Kii-Peninsula of Japan with the deep-sea scientific drilling vessel Chikyu. Core sampling runs were carried out during the expeditions using an advanced multiple wireline coring system which can continuously core into sections of undersea formations. The core recovery rate with the Rotary

Y. Shinmoto; K. Wada; E. Miyazaki; Y. Sanada; I. Sawada; M. Yamao

2010-01-01

107

Interpretation of core and well log physical property data from drill hole UPH-3, Stephenson County, Illinois  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory and well log physical property measurements show variations in the mineralogy with depth in UPH-3. Gamma ray values generally decrease with depth in the drill hole, corresponding to a decrease in the felsic mineral components of the granite. Correspondingly, an increase with depth in mafic minerals in the granite is indicated by the magnetic susceptibility, and gamma ray measurements. These mineralogic changes indicated by the geophysical well logs support the hypothesis of fractionation during continuous crystallization of the intrusive penetrated by UPH-3. Two fracture zones, and an altered zone within the granite penetrated by drill hole UPH-3 are defined by the physical property measurements. An abnormally low magnetic susceptibility response in the upper portion of the drill hole can be attributed to alteration of the rock adjacent to the sediments overlying the granite. Fracture zones can be identified from the sonic velocity, neutron, and resistivity measurements. A fracture zone, characterized by low resistivity values and low neutron values, is present in the depth interval from 1150 to 1320 m. Low magnetic susceptibility and high gamma ray values indicate the presence of felsic-micaceous pegmatites within this fracture zone. An unfractured region present from a depth of 1380 m to the bottom of the hole is characterized by an absence of physical property variations. The magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray measurements indicate a change in the amount of mafic minerals at the base of this otherwise homogenous region of the drilled interval. Abrupt changes and repeated patterns of physical properties within the drill hole may represent interruptions in the crystallization process of the melt or they may be indicative of critical temperatures for specific mineral assemblages within the intrusive.

Daniels, J. J.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Scott, J. H.

1984-01-01

108

Thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities of core samples obtained from the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities determined by a transient plane heat source method for four whole-round core samples obtained by the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343. These thermal properties are necessary for the interpretation of a temperature anomaly detected in the vicinity of the plate boundary fault that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and other thermal processes observed within the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project temperature observatory. Results of measured thermal conductivities are consistent with those independently measured using a transient line source method and a divided bar technique. Our measurements indicate no significant anisotropy in either thermal conductivity or thermal diffusivity.

Lin, Weiren; Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.; Tadai, Osamu; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Tanikawa, Wataru; Kinoshita, Masataka

2014-12-01

109

Laboratory-determined transport properties of core from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project  

SciTech Connect

Two cores from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project have been studied in the laboratory to determine electrical resistivity, ultrasonic velocity, and brine permeability at pressures and temperatures close to estimated borehole conditions. Both samples were siltstones; the first sample was from 1158-m depth, and the other was from 919-m depth. A synthetic brine with 13.6 weight percent NaCl, 7.5 weight percent CaCl/sub 2/, and 3.2 weight percent KCl was used as a pore fluid. The dry bulk density of the first sample was 2.44 Mg m/sup -3/ with an effective porosity of 8.7%. The second sample had a dry bulk density of 2.06 Mg m/sup -3/ with an effective porosity of 22.2%. At the midplane of the first sample, electrical impedance tomography was used to map the spatial variation of resistivity during the experiment. Also, at the midplane of both samples, ultrasonic tomography was used to map the spatial variation of P wave velocity.

Lin, W.; Daily, W.

1988-11-10

110

Drill report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has approved an industry proposal to conduct reflection seismic studies for oil and gas on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain. The plan submitted by Geophysical Services Inc. (GSI) was approved, subject to modifications aimed at safeguarding the environment. A listing of current drilling activities in Alaska is provided.

Not Available

1983-11-01

111

Empirical relations of rock properties of outcrop and core samples from the Northwest German Basin for geothermal drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about geomechanical and physical rock properties, particularly uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), are needed for geomechanical model development and updating with logging-while-drilling methods to minimise costs and risks of the drilling process. The following parameters with importance at different stages of geothermal exploitation and drilling are presented for typical sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Northwest German Basin (NWGB): physical (P wave velocities, porosity, and bulk and grain density) and geomechanical parameters (UCS, static Young's modulus, destruction work and indirect tensile strength both perpendicular and parallel to bedding) for 35 rock samples from quarries and 14 core samples of sandstones and carbonate rocks. With regression analyses (linear- and non-linear) empirical relations are developed to predict UCS values from all other parameters. Analyses focus on sedimentary rocks and were repeated separately for clastic rock samples or carbonate rock samples as well as for outcrop samples or core samples. Empirical relations have high statistical significance for Young's modulus, tensile strength and destruction work; for physical properties, there is a wider scatter of data and prediction of UCS is less precise. For most relations, properties of core samples plot within the scatter of outcrop samples and lie within the 90% prediction bands of developed regression functions. The results indicate the applicability of empirical relations that are based on outcrop data on questions related to drilling operations when the database contains a sufficient number of samples with varying rock properties. The presented equations may help to predict UCS values for sedimentary rocks at depth, and thus develop suitable geomechanical models for the adaptation of the drilling strategy on rock mechanical conditions in the NWGB.

Reyer, D.; Philipp, S. L.

2014-09-01

112

Results of NanTroSEIZE Expeditions Stages 1 & 2: Deep-sea Coring Operations on-board the Deep-sea Drilling Vessel Chikyu and Development of Coring Equipment for Stage 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nankai-Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) has carried out several drilling expeditions in the Kumano Basin off the Kii-Peninsula of Japan with the deep-sea scientific drilling vessel Chikyu. Core sampling runs were carried out during the expeditions using an advanced multiple wireline coring system which can continuously core into sections of undersea formations. The core recovery rate with the Rotary Core Barrel (RCB) system was rather low as compared with other methods such as the Hydraulic Piston Coring System (HPCS) and Extended Shoe Coring System (ESCS). Drilling conditions such as hole collapse and sea conditions such as high ship-heave motions need to be analyzed along with differences in lithology, formation hardness, water depth and coring depth in order to develop coring tools, such as the core barrel or core bit, that will yield the highest core recovery and quality. The core bit is especially important in good recovery of high quality cores, however, the PDC cutters were severely damaged during the NanTroSEIZE Stages 1 & 2 expeditions due to severe drilling conditions. In the Stage 1 (riserless coring) the average core recovery was rather low at 38 % with the RCB and many difficulties such as borehole collapse, stick-slip and stuck pipe occurred, causing the damage of several of the PDC cutters. In Stage 2, a new design for the core bit was deployed and core recovery was improved at 67 % for the riserless system and 85 % with the riser. However, due to harsh drilling conditions, the PDC core bit and all of the PDC cutters were completely worn down. Another original core bit was also deployed, however, core recovery performance was low even for plate boundary core samples. This study aims to identify the influence of the RCB system specifically on the recovery rates at each of the holes drilled in the NanTroSEIZE coring expeditions. The drilling parameters such as weight-on-bit, torque, rotary speed and flow rate, etc., were analyzed and conditions such as formation, tools, and sea conditions which directly affect core recovery have been categorized. Also discussed will be the further development of such coring equipment as the core bit and core barrel for the NanTroSEIZE Stage 3 expeditions, which aim to reach a depth of 7000 m-below the sea floor into harder formations under extreme drilling conditions.

Shinmoto, Y.; Wada, K.; Miyazaki, E.; Sanada, Y.; Sawada, I.; Yamao, M.

2010-12-01

113

Can tephra be recognized in Hawaiian drill core, and if so, what can be learned about the explosivity of Hawaiian volcanoes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 6000 feet of drill core was recently recovered from the Pohakula Training Area (PTA) near the Saddle Road between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island. Drilling was funded by the US Army with an objective to find a potable water source; the rock core was logged and archived thanks to funding from the National Science Foundation. Within the first few hundred meters, alluvial outwash from the slopes of Mauna Kea is underlain by post-shield Mauna Kea lavas. Below this depth the core is predominantly pahoehoe and to a lesser extent a'a lavas expected to be from Mauna Kea's shield stage volcanism. During the logging effort, and throughout the core, a number of suspect-pyroclastic deposits were identified (largely based on particle texture). These deposits will be examined in more detail, with results presented here. An effort will be made to determine whether explosive deposits can, in fact, be unequivocally identified in drill core. Two anticipated challenges are differentiating between: scoria and 'clinker' (the latter associated with a'a lava flows), and primary volcanic ash, loess, and glacial sediments. Recognition of explosive deposits in the PTA drill core would lend insight into Mauna Kea's explosive history, and potentially that of other Big Island volcanoes as well. If the characteristics of tephra in Hawaiian drill core can be identified, core from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) and Scientific Observation Holes (SOH-1,2,4) may also be examined.

Lautze, N. C.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

2013-12-01

114

The 1992 drill core from the Kalkkop impact crater, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: stratigraphy, petrography, geochemistry and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

New drill core data are provided which support earlier interpretations that the Kalkkop structure, a 600–630 m wide, near-circular feature south-southwest of Graaff-Reinet in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, is a meteorite impact crater. Shock metamorphosed clasts in suevitic crater fill and Re?Os isotope data of this breccia indicate the presence of a minor (0.05%) meteoritic component in

Wolf Uwe Reimold; Christian Koeberl; Jacobus S. V. Reddering

1998-01-01

115

Mineralogical Aspects of Three Drill Cores Along the McArthur River Transect Using a Portable Infrared Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed logging and infrared analyses of samples from three drill cores were completed during field activities in 2002 at the McArthur River mine site in northern Saskatchewan. Both FieldSpec Pro and PIMA-II portable spectrometers were used to determine mineralogy of the matrix in representative samples selected every 1.5 m. Spectral data from the FieldSpec Pro were converted to PIMA format

J. B. Percival; K. Wasyliuk; T. Reif; S. Bernier; G. Drever; C. T. Perkins

116

Microbial Community Analysis of Opalinus Clay Drill Core Samples from the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opalinus Clay is a candidate host rock for a high-level radioactive waste repository in Switzerland. Microbial metabolism and its by-products could affect the physical and (geo)chemical conditions in such a repository. This study investigated the occurrence of indigenous microbes, their community size and-structure in an Opalinus Clay core from the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, Switzerland, drilled with aseptic techniques.

S. Stroes-Gascoyne; A. Schippers; B. Schwyn; S. Poulain; C. Sergeant; M. Simonoff; C. Le Marrec; S. Altmann; T. Nagaoka; L. Mauclaire; J. McKenzie; S. Daumas; A. Vinsot; C. Beaucaire; J.-M. Matray

2007-01-01

117

Paleomagnetic records of core samples of the plate-boundary thrust drilled during the IODP Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST), drilled across the plate-boundary décollement zone near the Japan Trench where large slip occurred during the March 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We conducted paleomagnetic measurements of the core sample retrieved from the highly-deformed sediments comprising the plate-boundary décollement zone. Whole-round samples for structural analyses from five depth intervals of the core (0-12 cm, 12-30 cm, 43-48 cm, 48-58 cm, and 87.5-105 cm), were trimmed into oriented slabs with typical dimensions of 3x3x5 cm that are now being used to make petrographic sections for microstructural and chemical study. The remainder of the core sample was split into working and archive halves. We measured remanent magnetization of 16 trimmed slabs and the archive half of the core sample. The slabs were subjected to natural remanent magnetization (NRM) measurements in 0.5-1 cm intervals and progressive alternating field demagnetization (AFD) up to 80 mT with a 2G755 pass-through superconducting rock magnetometer at Kochi University. The archive half of the core sample was subjected to NRM measurement and AFD up to 20 mT with a 2G760 superconducting rock magnetometer installed on R/V Chikyu. Typically, two or three paleomagnetic components were isolated during the AFD of slab samples up to 80 mT. One ';soft' component was demagnetized below 20-30 mT, and another ';hard' component was not demagnetized even with AFD in 80 mT. A third component may be separated during AFD at the intermediate demagnetizing field, and may overlap the soft and hard components. The multiple slab samples cut from an identical whole-round sample have generally consistent paleomagnetic direction of the hard component. Contrastingly, the direction of the soft component is less consistent between adjacent slabs, and even varies within a single slab. The direction variation of the soft component possibly reflects the cm-scale strain and rotation of the highly-deformed sediments within the plate-boundary décollement zone. Studies of the relationship of the direction variation to the microstructure are ongoing, and will be reported at the meeting. The consistency of the hard component direction within highly deformed sediment implies it was recently acquired. Further studies of the acquisition mechanism of the hard component are also intended.

Mishima, T.; Yang, T.; Ujiie, K.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Chester, F. M.; Moore, J. C.; Rowe, C. D.; Regalla, C.; Remitti, F.; Kameda, J.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Bose, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Toy, V. G.

2013-12-01

118

Strontium Isotopic Variations in the Koolau Volcanic Series, Oahu, Hawaii: Results from KSDP Drill Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface samples of the Koolau tholeiite series, from the eastern side of the island of Oahu, Hawaii, have long been noted for their unusually high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (up to 0.7042) and other extreme geochemical parameters, as compared to both earlier and later Oahu lavas, values from other Hawaiian islands, and lavas from the Waianae volcano on west Oahu. It has been assumed that the geochemistry of the surface samples of Koolau applied to most of the volcano and that the extreme features were a relatively long-lived characteristic of the Hawaiian mantle plume at the time that the Koolau lavas were being erupted about 3 million years ago. The Koolau Scientific Drilling Project, which returned nearly continuous core from depths of 350 to 670 meters below sea level, provided an opportunity to probe deeper into the Koolau edifice (Haskins and Garcia, CMP, 147, 2004). We present new Sr isotope data on thirty whole rock samples from KSDP, which complement other isotopic data that have been reported recently (Salters and Blichert-Toft, submitted). The KSDP samples have variable, but generally significant, amounts of post-eruption weathering and hence the samples were strongly acid-leached before TIMS isotopic analysis in order to remove any seawater-derived strontium. The 87Sr/86Sr values in the core samples vary from values near 0.7040 at the top of the core to 0.7035 near the bottom. There is a general trend of increasing 87Sr/86Sr upsection as well as oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0003. The Sr isotope ratios correlate reasonably well with Nd and Hf isotope ratios. The data show that the Koolau surface samples are not representative of the volcano as a whole, and that the extreme geochemistry of the surface samples may represent only a minor component of the Hawaiian plume. The normal trend of Sr isotope ratios in the waning stages of shield building is from high values to low (as in Mauna Kea, Kohala, East Molokai and Haleakala). A trend toward higher ratios is seen elsewhere only in Late Pleistocene to recent Mauna Loa lavas. Models of lava accumulation rates for Hawaiian volcanoes suggest that the time interval of the KSDP core is probably 40 to 60 kyr, so the large shift of Sr isotope ratios happens over a short time; this is also true of the similar shift seen in Mauna Loa. The oscillations are also rapid - with cycle times of about 10 kyr. These rapid changes are difficult to account for with magma generation models; they seem to suggest either that there are very large amplitude variations in the mantle magma source, or that the magma extraction process is discontinuous. In general, there is a consistent pattern in Hawaiian volcanoes that the lava sections with the highest Sr isotope ratios also show the most internal isotopic variability. A simple interpretation of this trend is that the mantle sources with lower 87Sr/86Sr (ca. 0.7035) represent mantle that has been stirred by convection for a longer time than those with 87Sr/86Sr > 0.7038.

Smith, M. M.; Depaolo, D. J.

2005-12-01

119

Drilling program for Long Valley Caldera  

SciTech Connect

In September of this year, we will begin the first of four drilling phases in the Magma Energy Exploratory Well that is planned to reach a depth near 20,000 feet. This well will be used to verify the configuration of the magma body and to calibrate surface geophysical techniques against downhole data. It will also provide information of several kinds that is of interest to several groups: we will resolve geologic uncertainties---such as the location of fractured and abnormally pressured zones, chemistry of rocks and produced fluids, and magnitude of creep in the deep basement---that affect the drilling of any subsequent well, we will test drilling technology---e. g., high temperature drilling fluid, bits, coring, logging tools and tubulars---in a realistic environment, and we will gain insight on the history of collapse, resurgence, and intrusion in a major young caldera. 4 figs.

Finger, J.T.

1988-01-01

120

Development of a seismic borehole sonde for high resolution geophysical exploration ahead and around the drill bit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of exploration with high resolution increases more and more because reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are characterized of small-scale geological structures. Today, surface seismic surveys were often combined with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD to improve the velocity model and to image the structures with higher resolution. The accuracy of structure localization depends strongly on the surveying depth. There is the need for resolution of such small-scale structures in the range of meters to explore deeper structures with a high resolution. In the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD) a new approach for a seismic exploration method in boreholes will be examined. SPWD comprises the seismic sources and receivers in one device. This allows an exploration with a resolution independent from depth and a system development for an exploration ahead and around the drill bit. At first a prototype of a borehole device for dry horizontal boreholes in a mine was developed and tested. The source device consists of four magnetostrictive vibrators emitting sweep signals from 500 Hz to 5000 Hz. To achieve a radiation pattern for focusing the seismic wave energy in predefined directions the signals of each vibrator must be independently controlled in amplitude and phase. The adjustment of amplitudes and phases of each sweep signal resulting in constructive interference with a predefined direction. A control of the emitted signals is retained by 30 three-component receivers mounted along the surrounding galleries in distances of up to 50 m. In measurements several parameters were examined to control the radiation pattern. The enhancement and diminishment of the wave amplitudes in the predefined directions of the radiation pattern is clearly exhibited also a dependency of the frequency. Using a three-component Fresnel-Volume-Migration to image the reflected wave field the results show clearly the effect of the radiation pattern on the distribution of the seismic wave energy. The migration of the reflected wave field reveals an amplification of the reflected amplitudes at the galleries corresponding to the radiation pattern of the complex borehole source. Also, structures passing through the borehole can be detected with an additional characterization by different radiation patterns. Further improvements were realized in focusing the seismic energy with advances in technical devices and also in the control of the vibrators. As a next step a wireline prototype for borehole measurements was designed and constructed. Currently the manufacturing is in progress. This prototype will be used in vertical boreholes up to 2000 m depth. After completion first measurements are planned to verify the exploration method for a directional investigation in boreholes. The measurements will take place in different geologies of hard and soft rocks and also depths. Also the mine was expanded with a 70 m vertical borehole for further research aspects. This project is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry.

Jaksch, K.; Giese, R.; Kopf, M.

2012-04-01

121

Theoretical formulation of the core drilling method to evaluate stresses in concrete structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hole drilling method is an ASTM Standard Test Method that is used to evaluate residual stresses in isotropic linearly elastic materials. In civil engineering, the method is often used to evaluate stresses in metal structures. However, the method is not applicable to concrete because the heterogeneous composition of concrete prevents strain measurements from being made over small gage lengths.

Stephen Pessiki; Hakan Turker

2000-01-01

122

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 207 recently cored sediments on the Demerara Rise at ~9N  

E-print Network

Rise,north of Suriname and French Guyana, South America,is an ideal drilling target because expanded.Rifting processes and related transform faulting separated the Guinea and Demerara plateaus along an east sediments (calcareous ooze) are thin or absent from the distal portions of the plateau as a result

Bice, Karen L.

123

Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

124

Source and Crystallization Characteristics of Basalts in the Kimama core: Project Hotspot Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral chemistry and petrography of basalts from the Kimama drill core recovered by Hotspot: Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho establish crystallization conditions of these lavas. Twenty-three basalt samples, from 20 individual lava flows were sampled from the upper 1000 m (of the 1912 m drilled) core drilled on the axis of the Snake River Plain, and represent approximately 3 m.y. of volcanism (rocks at the bottom of the hole are ~6 Ma). Rock from the upper 1000 m are typically fresh, while those lower in the core are more altered and are less likely to preserve fresh phenocrysts to analyze. Intratelluric phenocrysts (pre-eruption) are: olivine, plagioclase and Cr-spinel inclusions in olivine and plagioclase; groundmass phases (post-eruption) are: olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite and ilmenite. Olivine core compositions range from Fo84-68, plagioclase cores range from An80-62, clinopyroxene ranges in composition from Wo47-34, En47-28, Fs30-15, spinel inclusions are Cr (up to 20 wt % Cr2O3) and Al-rich (up to 35 wt % Al2O3) and evolve to lower concentrations of Cr and Al and higher Fe and Ti, chromian titanomagnetite to magnetite, and ilmenite are groundmass oxide phases. Thermobarometry of Kimama core basalts indicates that the phenocryst phases crystallized at temperatures of 1155 to 1255°C at depths of 7 to 17 km, which is within or near the seismically imaged mid-crustal sill. Plagioclase hygrometry suggests that these lavas are relatively anhydrous with less than 0.4 wt % H2O. Groundmass phases crystallized at lower temperatures (<1140°C) after eruption. Oxygen fugacity inferred from Fe-Ti oxide equilibria is at or just below the QFM buffer. The origin of the basaltic rocks of the Snake River Plain has been attributed to a mantle plume or to other, shallow mantle processes. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element geochemistry of the olivine tholeiites from the Kimama core are used to distinguish between these two sources (deep or shallow mantle). Whole rock compositions were corrected for plagioclase and olivine fractionation to calculate primary liquids to estimate mantle potential temperatures. Olivine phenocrysts have the pyroxenite source characteristics of low Mn and Ca, but a peridotite source characteristic of low Ni. Thus, trace element models were used to test whether there is pyroxenite in the source of the Snake River Plain basalts, as hypothesized for Hawaii and other plume-related hotspots (e.g., Sobolev et al., 2005; Herzberg, 2011). Olivine chemistry and trace element models establish that the basalt source is a spinel peridotite, not a pyroxenite. The average mantle potential temperature obtained for these samples is 1577°C, 177°C hotter than ambient mantle, suggesting that the basaltic liquids were derived from a thermal plume. Silica activity barometry shows that melt segregation occurs between 80 and 110 km depth, which is within or very near the spinel stability field, and suggests that the lithosphere has been eroded by the plume to a maximum depth of 80 km, and recent mantle tomography suggests that it may be even thinner.

Bradshaw, R. W.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.; Potter, K. E.

2012-12-01

125

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activities enabled the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. The SSSDP exceeded its target depth of 10,000 feet, and a comprehensive set of cuttings, cores, and downhole logs was obtained. Two flow tests at different depths were successfully completed. Hydrologic connection between the different producing horizons, however, made the data from the deeper test difficult to interpret. Temperature logging by the Geological Survey and Sandia National Laboratories to establish the equilibrium profile continued until August of 1987. The SSSDP provides a model for scientific cooperation among government agencies, universities, and private industry.

Sass, J.H.

1988-01-01

126

Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past\\/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site

R. Bonaccorsi; C. R. Stoker

2006-01-01

127

An ultra-clean firn core from the Devon Island Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada, retrieved using a titanium drill specially designed for trace element studies.  

PubMed

An electromechanical drill with titanium barrels was used to recover a 63.7 m long firn core from Devon Island Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada, representing 155 years of precipitation. The core was processed and analysed at the Geological Survey of Canada by following strict clean procedures for measurements of Pb and Cd at concentrations at or below the pg g(-1) level. This paper describes the effectiveness of the titanium drill with respect to contamination during ice core retrieval and evaluates sample-processing procedures in laboratories. The results demonstrate that: (1) ice cores retrieved with this titanium drill are of excellent quality with metal contamination one to four orders of magnitude less than those retrieved with conventional drills; (2) the core cleaning and sampling protocols used were effective, contamination-free, and adequate for analysis of the metals (Pb and Cd) at low pg g(-1) levels; and (3) results from 489 firn core samples analysed in this study are comparable with published data from other sites in the Arctic, Greenland and the Antarctic. PMID:16528426

Zheng, J; Fisher, D; Blake, E; Hall, G; Vaive, J; Krachler, M; Zdanowicz, C; Lam, J; Lawson, G; Shotyk, W

2006-03-01

128

Core hole drilling and the ''rain current'' phenomenon at Newberry Volcano, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole Geo N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mW m/sup -2/, reflecting subsurface temperatures, sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mW m/sup -2/, is less encouraging. We emphasize the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Cole hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite, basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Caving and sloughing were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes. The uppermost regime is isothemal at mean air temperature down to about 900-1000 m (the rain curtain).

Swanberg, C.A.; Walkey, W.C.; Combs, J.

1988-09-10

129

Records of Long-chain Alkenones From the Drilling Core in Lake Qinghai Over the Last 13,000 Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tended to concentrate on alkenone distribution patterns in Lake Qinghai region around 2005 and found the long-chain alkenones were widely distributed in surface water and modern sediments. Alkenone proxy could be used in palaeoenvironment change research in this region. In here, we present the C37 content, %C37:4 value and Uk'37 of lacustrine sediments from a drilling core LQDP05-1F of Lake Qinghai. (The 14C chronology is from Zhou et al, unpublished data). C37 contents range from 0.6 to 60 g/g around the average value of 10 g/g and represent several significant higher values stages in the Holocene, which reflects greater biomass level of LCAs producer algae's. In the other words, it is records the producer algae's suitable growth period and the information of algae growth environment. The long period existence of LCAs in drilling core also indicates that it can be used as a continuous biological proxy in Lake Qinghai over late Pleistocene. Based on the recognition of %C37:4 distribution of modern Lake Qinghai, there is negative correlation between %C37:4 value and salinity within a certain salinity range. The salinity indicated by %C37:4 values represent three stages of different change trends over the last 13 kyr. From late Pleistocene to early Holocene, %C37:4 range from 5.9 to 42.7% and salinity shows several significant fluctuations. During middle Holocene, %C37:4 values firstly stabilize on the lower level around the average value 17% and increase to 60%, a lower salinity exhibit in this period. During the late Holocene, the salinity change strongly with significant fluctuations of %C37:4, the variation range over 40%. We suggest it can be used to explain the salinity changes in three stages by the interaction of the climate change and the evolution of Lake Qinghai. Uk'37 values change slightly around the average value of 0.17 during the late Pleistocene generally. However, it shows several significant peaks of higher values respectively, which is difficult to explain by the usual recognition of temperature change during the Holocene period. We suggest that Uk'37 is still strongly effected by other environment factors in Lake Qinghai or other closed interior brackish-salt lakes, except for the temperature of lake water. It needs more mechanisms research of modern LCAs distribution in Lake Qinghai. Keywords: long-chain alkenones, Lake Qinghai, drilling core

Liu, W.; Wang, Z.; Fu, M.; An, Z.

2008-12-01

130

Deconvolution of long-core paleomagnetic data of Ocean Drilling Program by Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deconvolution of long-core paleomagnetic data of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) was developed based on Bayesian statistics. Samples of deep-sea sediments obtained by drilling with an advanced piston corer are subjected to pass-through measurements by a cryogenic magnetometer aboard the ODP's research vessel (Joides Resolution) which provide continuous paleomagnetic records. Deconvolution of the magnetometer output was developed in order to obtain more detailed variations of the magnetization than permitted by the spatial resolution of the pickup coil (approximately 11 cm). The magnetization vector was modeled as a smoothly changing sequence parametrized by L2 norm of second-order difference and then deconvolved using a matrix calculation as a smoothness constrained least squares method. The optimum smoothness was obtained by minimizing Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion which is a measure of the logarithm of the likelihood. This deconvolution scheme was applied to pass-through data artificially produced by convolving synthetic reversal record and adding a Gaussian noise. The amplitude of the noise was estimated and the variations shorter than the spatial resolution of the sensor were obtained. The deconvolution also was applied to the real pass-through data from Holes 769A and 769B measured at intervals of 5 mm. The deconvolution revealed variations of the magnetizations with a maximum spatial resolution of about 2 cm. The magnetizations after deconvolution were in good agreement with magnetization values measured separately on cube samples taken at intervals of 5 or 10 cm.

Oda, Hirokuni; Shibuya, Hidetoshi

1996-02-01

131

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 101, NO. B5, PAGES 11,655-11,663, MAY 10, 1996 Geomagnetic field inclinations for the past 400 kyr from the  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 101, NO. B5, PAGES 11,655-11,663, MAY 10, 1996 Geomagnetic field inclinations for the past 400 kyr from the 1-km core of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project ~400 kyr at Hilo, Hawaii, has been obtained from the 941.5 m of core recovered by the Hawaii Scientific

132

In-situ rock melting applied to lunar base construction and for exploration drilling and coring on the moon  

SciTech Connect

An excavation technology based upon melting of rock and soil has been extensively developed at the prototype hardware and conceptual design levels for terrestrial conditions. Laboratory and field tests of rock-melting penetration have conclusively indicated that this excavation method is insensitive to rock, soil types, and conditions. Especially significant is the ability to form in-place glass linings or casings on the walls of boreholes, tunnels, and shafts. These factors indicate the unique potential for in situ construction of primary lunar base facilities. Drilling and coring equipment for resource exploration on the moon can also be devised that are largely automated and remotely operated. It is also very likely that lunar melt-glasses will have changed mechanical properties when formed in anhydrous and hard vacuum conditions. Rock melting experiments and prototype hardware designs for lunar rock-melting excavation applications are suggested.

Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W.

1984-01-01

133

Description and hydrogeologic implications of cored sedimentary material from the 1975 drilling program at the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of sedimentary material from interbeds between basalt flows and from fractures in the flows, taken from two drill cores at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were analyzed for (1) particle-size dribution, (2) bulk mineralogy, (3) clay mineralogy, (4) cation-exchange capacity, and (5) carbonate content. Thin sections of selected sediment material were made for petrographic examination. Preliminary interpretations indicate that (1) it may be possible to distinguish the various sediment interbeds on the basis of their mineralogy, (2) the presence of carbonate horizons in sedimentary interbeds may be utilized to approximate the time of exposure and the climate while the surface was exposed (which affected the hydrogeologic character of the sediment), and the type and orientation of fracture-filling material may be utilized to determine the mechanism by which fractures were filled. (USGS)

Rightmire, C.T.

1984-01-01

134

Fossils, lithologies, and geophysical logs of the Mancos Shale from core hole USGS CL-1 in Montrose County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a multidisciplinary investigation of Mancos Shale landscapes in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area in Delta and Montrose Counties of western Colorado by the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation, a core of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale was obtained from a borehole, USGS CL-1, in NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 50 N., R. 9 W. (approximately lat 38.61717 degree(s) N., long 107.90174 degree(s) W.), near the town of Olathe. Geophysical records of the borehole include resistivity, gamma ray, and density logs. The core extends between depths of 20 and 557 ft and is about 2.5 in. in diameter. It is composed of calcareous silty shale, as well as scattered beds of limestone and bentonite which were deposited mainly in offshore marine environments during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian Stages of the Cretaceous Series. The strata were sampled and analyzed to obtain geochemical data and to identify constituent fossils. Stratigraphic units within the Mancos in the core include the following members, in ascending order: Bridge Creek Limestone (part), Fairport, Blue Hill, Juana Lopez, Montezuma Valley, and Niobrara (part). Strata herein assigned to the Bridge Creek Limestone are about 18 ft thick and consist of silty shale that contains ammonites, bivalves, and a coral of Late Cenomanian age. Strata assigned to the Fairport are about 22 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenite-bearing, calcareous shale. Fossils in this member include ammonites and bivalves of early middle Turonian age. Overlying the Fairport is the Blue Hill Member, which is about 139 ft thick, and consists of glauconitic, shaley siltstone, and less silty shale. The Juana Lopez Member, overlying the Blue Hill, is about 138 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenitic, silty shale. Beds in this member contain ammonites and bivalves of late middle and early late Turonian ages. Overlying the Juana Lopez is the Montezuma Valley Member, which is about 55 ft thick and consists of calcarenitic, calcareous silty shale. The Montezuma Valley Member contains ammonites and bivalves of late Turonian age. It is overlain by a lower part of the Niobrara Member of the Mancos Shale which is laterally equivalent to the Fort Hays Limestone Member and part of the overlying Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Formation at outcrops in central Colorado. Strata in the core comparable to the Fort Hays are about 39 ft thick and include shaley limestone and calcareous shale, which contain lower Coniacian bivalves. Strata in the core equivalent to part of the Smoky Hill are about 126 ft thick and consist mainly of calcareous silty shale which also contains lower Coniacian bivalves.

Ball, Bridget A.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Grauch, R.I.; McKinney, K.C.; Livo, K.E.

2009-01-01

135

Minerals in fractures of the saturated zone from drill core USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The minerals in fractures in drill core USW G-4, from the static water level (SWL) at 1770 ft to the base of the hole at 3000 ft, were studied to determine their identity and depositional sequence and to compare them with those found above the SWL in the same drill hole. There is no change in mineralogy or mineral morphology across the SWL. The significant change in mineralogy and relationship to the host rock occurs at 1381 ft, well above the present water table. Below 1381 ft clinoptilolite appears in the fractures and rock matrix instead of heulandite, and the fracture mineralogy correlates with the host rock mineralogy. Throughout most of the saturated zone (below the SWL) in USW G-4, zeolites occur in fractures only in zeolitic tuff; however, zeolites persist in fracture below the base of the deepest zeolitic tuff interval. Nonzeolitic intervals of tuff have fewer fractures, and many of these have no coatings; a few have quartz and feldspar coatings. One interval in zeolitic tuff (2125-2140 ft) contains abundant crisobalite coatings in the fractures. Calcite occurs in fractures from 2575 to 2660 ft, usually with the manganese mineral hollandite, and from 2750 to 2765 ft, usually alone. Manganese minerals occur in several intervals. The spatial correlation of zeolites in fractures with zeolitic host rock suggests that both may have been zeolitized at the same time, possibly by water moving laterally through more permeable zones in the tuff. The continuation of zeolites in fractures below the lowest zeolitic interval in this hole suggests that vertical fracture flow may have been important in the deposition of these coatings. Core from deeper intervals in another hole will be examined to determine if that relationship continues. 17 refs., 19 figs.

Carlos, B.A.

1987-04-01

136

SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

1986-01-01

137

Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of hydrothermal minerals from Yellowstone drill cores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199??C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The ??18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, ??-cristobalite, and ??-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8???. About one third of the silica 7samples have ??18O values that are consistent with isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters; most of the other silica samples appear to have precipitated from water enriched in 18O (up to 4.7???) relative to present thermal water, assuming precipitation at present in situ temperatures. Available data on fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures in hydrothermal quartz indicate that silica precipitation occurred mostly at temperatures above those measured during drilling and imply that 15O enrichments in water during silica precipitation were generally larger than those estimated from present conditions. Similarly, clay minerals (celadonite and smectite) have ??18O values higher (by 3.5 to 7.9???) than equilibrium values under present conditions. In contrast, all eight analyzed calcite samples are close to isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters. The frequent incidence of apparent 18O enrichment in thermal water from which the hydrothermal minerals precipitated may indicate that a higher proportion of strongly 18O-enriched deep hydrothermal fluid once circulated through shallow portions of the Yellowstone system, or that a recurring transient 18O-enrichment effect occurs at shallow depths and is caused either by sudden decompressional boiling or by isotopic exchange at low water/rock ratios in new fractures. The mineralogy and apparent 18O enrichments of hydrothermal fracture-filling minerals are consistent with deposition during transient boiling or rock-water exchange (fracturing) events. ?? 1990.

Sturchio, N.C.; Keith, T.E.C.; Muehlenbachs, K.

1990-01-01

138

Dynamics of the late Plio-Pleistocene West Antarctic Ice Sheet documented in subglacial diamictites, AND-1B drill core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic studies of sediment deposited by glaciers can provide crucial insights into the subglacial environment. We studied muddy diamictites in the ANtarctic geological DRILLing (ANDRILL) AND-1B drill core, acquired from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf in McMurdo Sound, with the aim of identifying paleo-ice stream activity in the Plio-Pleistocene. Glacial advances were identified from glacial surfaces of erosion (GSEs) and subglacial diamictites within three complete sequences were investigated using lithofacies associations, micromorphology, and quartz sand grain microtextures. Whereas conditions in the Late Pliocene resemble the modern Greenland Ice Sheet where fast flowing glaciers lubricated by surface meltwater terminate directly in the sea (interval 201-212 mbsl) conditions in the Late Pleistocene are similar to modern West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) ice streams (38-49 mbsl). We identify the latter from ductile deformation and high pore-water pressure, which resulted in pervasive rotation and formation of till pellets and low relief, rounded sand grains dominated by abrasion. In the transitional period during the Mid-Pleistocene (55-68 mbsf), a slow moving inland ice sheet deposited tills with brittle deformation, producing lineations and bi-masepic and unistrial plasma fabric, along with high relief, conchoidally fractured quartz grains. Changes in the provenance of gravel to cobble-size clasts support a distant source area of Byrd Glacier for fast-flowing paleo-ice streams and a proximal area between Darwin and Skelton Glaciers for the slow-moving inland ice sheet. This difference in till provenance documents a shift in direction of glacial flow at the core site, which indirectly reflects changes in the size and thickness of the WAIS. Hence, we found that fast ice streaming motion is a consequence of a thicker WAIS pushing flow lines to the west and introducing clasts from the Byrd Glacier source area to the drill site. The detailed analysis of diamictites in AND-1B demonstrates that Pliocene glacial intervals were warmer than in the Pleistocene when polar ice sheets grew from local inland ice to regional ice streams.

Cowan, Ellen A.; Christoffersen, Poul; Powell, Ross D.; Talarico, Franco M.

2014-08-01

139

Methane hydrate pore saturation evaluation from geophysical logging and pressure core analysis, at the first offshore production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 2013, the first offshore production test form methane hydrate (MH) concentrated zone (MHCZ) was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21) at the AT1 site located in the north-western slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. Before the production test, extensive geophysical logging and pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System were conducted in 2012 at monitoring well (AT1-MC) and coring well (AT1-C), in order to obtain basic information for the MH reservoir characterization. MH pore saturation (Sh) is one of the important basic parameters not only for reservoir characterization, but also the resource assessment. However, precise evaluation of Sh from geophysical logging is still challenging technical issue. The MHCZ confirmed by the geophysical logging at AT1-MC has a turbidite assemblage (from several tens of centimeters to a few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness; it is composed of lobe/sheet type sequences in the upper part, and relatively thick channel sand sequences in the lower part. In this study, the Sh evaluated from geophysical logging data were compared with those evaluated from pressure core analysis. Resistivity logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log were used for the Sh evaluation by geophysical logging. Standard Archie equation was applied for Sh evaluation from resistivity log, while density magnetic resonance (DMR) method was used for Sh evaluation from NMR log. The Sh from pressure core samples were evaluated using the amount of dissociated gas volume, together with core sample bulk volume, measured porosity, net sand intervals, and assumed methane solubility in pore water. In the upper part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from resistivity log showed distinct difference in value between sand and mud layers, compared to Sh from NMR log. Resistivity log has higher vertical resolution than NMR log, so it is favorable for these kinds of thin bed evaluation. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which showed fairly good agreement with core derived Sh. On the other hand, lower part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from both resistivity and NMR log showed higher background value and relatively smoother curve than upper part. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which was also showed good agreement with core derived Sh. This study was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21).

Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Nagao, J.

2013-12-01

140

An in-depth look at distal Sierra Nevada palaeochannel fill: drill cores through the Table Mountain Latite near Knights Ferry  

E-print Network

An in-depth look at distal Sierra Nevada palaeochannel fill: drill cores through the Table Mountain and Keith Putirkab a Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA; b Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740, USA (Accepted

Busby, Cathy

141

Structure in continuously cored, deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, with notes on calcite occurrence; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of more than 22,000 feet of core from five deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provided data on the attitude and vertical distribution of faults and fractures, the sense of fault displacement, and the occurrence of calcite. The study was done mainly to look for evidence of fault flattening at depth, but no consistent downward decrease in

1992-01-01

142

Detrital dating on drill-core records from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea (Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Antarctic ice sheets on the global climate system during the Cenozoic has been intensely investigated in the last years, especially after the successful drilling projects off-shore the western Ross Sea. While the role of the Western Ice Sheet (WAIS) during the Miocene it is not clear, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) has been suggested to be more or less stable and cold for the last 14 Ma. Records from drilling projects in syn-tectonic basins located on the continental shelf along the western margin of the West Antarctica Rift System (DSDP, CIROS, CRP and ANDRILL projects) may provide crucial information on the tectonic and paleo-climatic evolution of that region during Cenozoic. The drilled sedimentary records have been therefore investigated by detrital geochronology which, integrated by sandstone and gravel petrography, can provide valuable information on the dynamics of the ice sheets as provenance data are sensitive to variations in the ice-flow patterns. Apatite fission-track (AFT) data from ANDRILL and CRP records show multiple peaks in most of the samples. In the AND-2A well, whose stratigraphic record spans the last 20 Ma, the grain-age distributions are dominated by grains between 20 and 40 Ma. A young peak with a comparable age has been also episodically detected in CRP wells where conversely the most relevant population is made by grain ages between 45 and 70 Ma. Samples from Late Miocene-Pleistocene sediments of AND-1B well show a completely different AFT age distribution as a single peak is usually detected and ages are younger than 20 Ma. The AFT age range is well represented in bedrock data along the entire Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The main denudation phase in the TAM began at 55-50 Ma but the occurrence of a young peak in the detrital data at ca. 35 Ma indicates the presence of an Oligocene pulse, as testified also by the small gap between AFT and some (U-Th-Sm)/He ages that have been detected on AND-2A samples. Such young ages are absent in the onshore portion of the TAM proximal to wells while they are present in regions located to the south. This suggests that the TAM are segmented by transversal lineaments and that significant vertical displacements occurred south of the so-called Discovery Accommodation Zone during the Oligocene. Single grain U-Pb ages on apatites from AND-2A well testify that some volcanism was concurrent with this exhumation event. The location of the volcanic centers is unknown, but aeromagnetic anomalies suggest the presence of subglacial volcanic centers beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and the WAIS. After the Oligocene, the TAM have been in a post-orogenic decay, with exhumation rates of the order of 0.1 km/Ma. As a whole, detrital ages and petrographic data agree on the idea of an ice pattern dominated by south to north trending flow lines parallel to the TAM front. Our record supports the presence of large-scale advance of WAIS across the Ross Sea. Local ice lobes from the TAM glaciers were able to transport debris only during glacial-minima settings while during periods with presence of large ice volumes, W-E flows from the TAM were obstructed by the major flow running S to N.

Zattin, M.; Andreucci, B.; Balestrieri, M.; Olivetti, V.; Pace, D.; Reiners, P. W.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F.; Thomson, S. N.

2012-12-01

143

Effects of fluids on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature microstructures observed in samples from SAFOD drill cores indicate fluid-related deformation and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations, document open pores that formed in-situ during or after deformation. In TEM images, many pores with high aspect ratio appear to be unconnected. They were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting that elevated pore fluid pressure exist in the fault gouge, preventing pore collapse. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault rocks is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. TEM imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. In few samples syntectonic fluid-assisted overgrowth of chlorite-rich films on slickensides partly replaced sedimentary quartz grains. Quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved with sutured boundaries. Newly-formed phyllosilicates are illite-smectite phases, Mg-rich smectites and chlorite minerals. They are very fine-grained (down to 20 nm) and nucleate at grain surfaces (interfaces), which in many cases are pore or fracture walls. These relatively straight or curved crystals grow into open pore spaces and fractures. They are arranged in a card-house fabric with open pore spaces between the flakes. Locally, clay flakes are bent, folded or show sigmoidal shapes indicating that they were involved in faulting. The clay particles do not show a preferred shape orientation. The predominantly random orientation distribution of the clay minerals was confirmed by x-ray synchrotron texture analysis. Pole figures show very weak textures with maxima around 1.2 m.r.d. and minima around around 0.8 m.r.d., indicating that a majority of crystals are oriented randomly. The dominance of randomly oriented clay particles, characterized by weak fabrics, may influence the mechanical stability of fault zone rocks. Formation of secondary calcite cement reveals fluid-assisted fracture healing. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows at least three different generations of calcite veins confined to lithoclasts, displaying dissolution seams. Additionally, crack and seal processes in K-feldspar are identified. The calcite grains exhibit different degrees of deformation with evidence for twinning and crystal plasticity.

Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Morales, L. G.; Rybacki, E.; Wenk, H.; Dresen, G. H.

2011-12-01

144

Magnetic properties of drill core and surface samples from the Calico Hills area, Nye County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of the Calico Hills area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, required the determination of magnetic properties of rocks exposed in the region. Eighty-two samples representing a variety of units found at the surface show that most rocks in the Calico Hills, other than parts of the Eleana Formation, are relatively nonmagnetic. The magnetic vector of the Eleana Formation at the surface was found to point northward and downward. Remanence directions were scattered, but a remanence azimuth of 16? east of north was assigned on the basis of present-day declination. Measurements of 123 samples of the Eleana Formation from the exploratory drill hole UE25a-3 indicate that some facies are strongly magnetic. The average total magnetization of the argillite samples is 3.89 A/m (0.00389 emu). These samples have an average natural remanent inclination of 76?. Results of demagnetization demonstrated that this relatively high inclination is due, at least in part, to a soft vertical component of remanent magnetization. The magnitude of the component could not be determined. Further tests showed that the tendency to pick up a soft component of magnetism may be a function of rock type. Inhomogeneity of the Eleana argillite was probably the cause of some differences in remanence values between large and small samples from the same depth.

Baldwin, M. J.; Jahren, C. E.

1982-01-01

145

Clay-mineral assemblages from some levels of K-118 drill core of Maha Sarakham evaporites, northeastern Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay-mineral assemblages in Middle Clastic, Middle Salt, Lower Clastic, Potash Zone, and Lower Salt, totalling 13 samples from K-118 drill core, in the Maha Sarakham Formation, Khorat Basin, northeastern Thailand were studied. The clay-size particles were separated from the water-soluble salt by water leaching. Then the samples were leached again in the EDTA solution and separated into clay-size particles by using the timing sedimentation. The EDTA-clay residues were divided and analyzed by using the XRD and XRF method. The XRD peaks show that the major-clay minerals are chlorite, illite, and mixed-layer corrensite including traces of rectorite? and paragonite? The other clay-size particles are quartz and potassium feldspar. The XRF results indicate Mg-rich values and moderate Mg?Al atom ratio values in those clay minerals. The variable Fe, Na, and K contents in the clay-mineral assemblages can explain the environment of deposition compared to the positions of the samples from the core. Hypothetically, mineralogy and the chemistry of the residual assemblages strongly indicate that severe alteration and Mg-enrichment of normal clay detritus occurred in the evaporite environment through brine-sediment interaction. The various Mg-enrichment varies along the various members reflecting whether sedimentation is near or far from the hypersaline brine.

Suwanich, Parkorn

146

Teaching Marine Geoscience at Sea: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's School of Rock Explores Cascadia Subduction Zone - Cores, Logs, and ACORKs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For twelve days this past September, seventeen formal and informal educators from the US, UK, and France joined six instructors and a small science party on the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)’s Cascadia ACORK Expedition. The educators were part of the annual “School of Rock (SOR)” education program. SOR is coordinated by the U.S. Implementing Organization (USIO) of IODP and is designed to engage participants in seagoing Earth systems research and education workshops onboard the JOIDES Resolution and on shore at the Gulf Coast Core Repository in Texas. The scientific objective of the Cascadia ACORK expedition was to install a new permanent hydrologic observatory at ODP Site 889 to provide long-term monitoring of the pressure at the frontal part of the Cascadia accretionary prism. This year’s SOR workshop focused on how cores, logs, and ACORKs shed light on the hydrology and geology of the Cascadia subduction zone in the Northeast Pacific. In addition to observing the deployment of the ACORK, the SOR participants conducted daily hands-on analyses of archived sediment and hard-rock cores with scientists and technicians who specialize in IODP research using the lab facilities on the ship. Throughout the expedition, participants engaged in different activities and lessons designed to explore the deep biosphere, methane hydrates, paleoceanography, sedimentology, biostratigraphy, seafloor spreading, and drilling technology. The workshop also provided participants with “C3” time; time to communicate their experience using the successful joidesresolution.org website and other tools, make connections to their prior knowledge and expertise, and to be creative in developing and planning new education and outreach activities based on their new knowledge and research. As part of participating in the expedition, participants committed to further developing and testing their education and outreach products after the expedition, conducting post-expedition projects in conjunction with the U.S. Implementing Organization and their own institutions, and to participating actively in post-cruise evaluation. Since its inception in 2005, 75 SOR graduates and staff have conducted over 150 workshops and short courses for 3,000 participants in more than 30 U.S. states and five other nations. Integral to the success of the program is the evaluation process that takes place during and after each SOR. In particular, SOR evaluations take advantage of the power of video data collection to demonstrate the transformative nature of SOR expeditions. Video evaluations offer a unique opportunity to collect and preserve participant “voice” to document true transformative broader impacts. Along with video evaluations, the program also employs more traditional evaluation methods such as internal evaluator observations, open-ended questionnaires, and participant journals.

Reagan, M.; Collins, J.; Ludwig, K. A.; Slough, S.; Delaney, M. L.; Hovan, S. A.; Expedition 328 Scientists

2010-12-01

147

A 106 ka paleoclimate record from drill core of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 100m long salt core (SQM #2005) from the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile (23°S, 68°W), a dry lake bed, contains a 106kyr paleoclimate record of hydrologic balances on the western slopes of the central Andes of South America. Six U-series disequilibrium dates range sequentially from 106.1±6.4 to 5.4±2.7ka. Based on sedimentary structures and petrographic textures of salts and associated

Andrew L Bobst; Tim K Lowenstein; Teresa E Jordan; Linda V Godfrey; Teh-Lung Ku; Shangde Luo

2001-01-01

148

Manson impact structure, Iowa: First geochemical results for drill core M-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Manson Impact Structure is a large complex impact crater centered ca. S km north of the town of Manson, Iowa. It is the largest intact impact structure recognized in the United States (35 km in diameter). Its Ar-40/Ar-39 age is indistinguishable from that of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. The Manson structure may be one element of the events at the K-T boundary. The crater is completely covered by Quaternary glacial sedimentary deposits that are normally underlain by Cretaceous clastic sediments and flat-lying carbonate sediments of Phanerozoic age, as well as Proterozoic red clastic, metamorphic, volcanic, and plutonic rock sequences. The study of a reflection seismic profile, provided by Amoco, was critical in interpreting the structure. In the 35 km diameter zone that marks the extension of the crater the normal rock sequence is disturbed due to the impact, and at the center of the structure granitic basement rocks are present that have been uplifted from about 4 km depth. Our studies consist of detailed petrological and geochemical characterization of all cores, with emphasis on a detailed description of all rock types found in the core samples and their relationship to target rocks. Geochemical data on samples from the Manson M-1 core are presented.

Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, Raymond R.; Hartung, Jack B.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

1993-01-01

149

Effects of special drill bits on drilling-induced delamination of composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling is the most frequently employed operation of secondary machining for fiber-reinforced materials owing to the need for joining structures. Delamination is among the serious concerns during drilling. Practical experience proves the advantage of using such special drills as saw drill, candle stick drill, core drill and step drill. The experimental investigation described in this paper examines the theoretical predictions

H. Hocheng; C. C. Tsao

2006-01-01

150

Stratigraphy of the Hawai`i Scientific Drilling Project core (HSDP2): Anatomy of a Hawaiian shield volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawai`i Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) successfully drilled ~3.1 km into the island of Hawai`i. Drilling started on Mauna Loa volcano, drilling 247 m of subaerial lavas before encountering 832 m of subaerial Mauna Kea lavas, followed by 2019 m of submarine Mauna Kea volcanic and sedimentary units. The 2.85 km stratigraphic record of Mauna Kea volcano spans back to

Michael O. Garcia; Eric H. Haskins; Edward M. Stolper; Michael Baker

2007-01-01

151

A magnetic Signature of the solar Core in IMF Variations and geophysical Data?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the successful reconstruction of the global solar magnetic field by a number of investigators it seems clear that the field strength B nT has increased significantly during the last 300 years However it has been demonstrated that a weak field strength has unexpected consequences for the near-Earth environment since under those conditions very large fluence SPE-nitrate events have an enhanced probability to be observed in the earth s ice caps These results were explicable in terms of the linear dependence of the Alfven velocity upon the strength of the IMF leading to higher shock compressions in the past For this reason emphasis has been placed on evaluating the minimum values Bmin of the total magnetic flux Solanki et al 2000 which upon rough examination seems to resemble variations between sequential states of equilibrium which extend over several Schwabe cycles Whereas the magnetic field strength B nT increases with decreasing cycle length an inverse relationship can be demonstrated for the field strength with decreasing cycle length if the magnetic flux Bmax is expressed as a fraction of Bmin This type of variation will be examined in view of varying contributions to the field strength by low and high order multipoles 2l-poles of the magnetic flux of the solar magnetic field The current understanding of this field is based on the dynamo action generated at the tachocline as revealed by helioseismic data Such data have not yet revealed detailed structural information about the core However modulation of magnetic energy

Dreschhoff, G.

152

Magnetic fabrics in deformed metaperidotites of the Outokumpu Deep Drill Core, Finland: Implications for a major crustal shear zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Outokumpu (OKU) assemblage was studied in drill cores from the 2516 m deep OKU Deep Drill Hole, Finland, and we observed that the strongest magnetic anomalies found in borehole measurements are related to three ferrimagnetic metaperidotite units with magnetic susceptibilities of up to 93 × 10- 3 SI separated by paramagnetic rock units. The main ferrimagnetic minerals are magnetite and minor pyrrhotite. Magnetic fabric studies were done in order to examine deformation within the OKU assemblage during the collisional deformation event 1.9 Ga ago. Well-defined magnetic axes (kmax, kmin) and nearly horizontal magnetic foliation subparallel to the macroscopic foliation occur at the top and the bottom of the OKU formation. Low- and high-field AMS measurements showed that ferri- and paramagnetic subfabrics are coaxial. Paramagnetic units intercalated between the ferrimagnetic units show mostly triaxial magnetic fabrics, and low degrees of magnetic anisotropy values (P? < 1.3) with a high variation of the shape factor (T) from prolate to oblate shapes. P? of the ferrimagnetic metaperidotite is high and range between 1.3 and 3.6 and T tends to more oblate shapes (T > 0). Ferrimagnetic unit 2 shows the highest magnetic susceptibility and P? up to 5.6, which is related to a high amount of magnetite and pyrrhotite mostly concentrated in huge aggregates and veins. Alignment of magnetic minerals parallel with the structural foliation and the high P? values in the ferrimagnetic metaperidotite indicate that magnetic fabric was acquired in a high strain zone. The magnetic fabrics represent shear zone (SC) fabrics, which have been formed during early obduction-related deformation of the Svecofennian orogeny. The stacked sequence of the ferri- and paramagnetic metaperidotite bodies can be interpreted as a thrust system with an imbricate fan, in which three individual listric thrust sheets occur. This interpretation is in accordance with previous tectonic models of the Outokumpu area.

Kontny, Agnes; Dietze, Frank

2014-08-01

153

Integrated Geologic, Hydrologic, and Geophysical Investigations of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia, USA: A Multi-Agency Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is the focus of an ongoing federal-state-local research program. Recent core drilling and geophysical surveys address the formative processes and hydrogeologic properties of this major "wet-target" impact. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Gohn, G. S.; Bruce, T. S.; Catchings, R. D.; Emry, S. R.; Johnson, G. H.; Levine, J. S.; McFarland, E. R.; Poag, C. W.; Powars, D. S.

2001-01-01

154

Physical properties of upper oceanic crust: Ocean Drilling Program Hole 801C and the waning of hydrothermal circulation  

E-print Network

Physical properties of upper oceanic crust: Ocean Drilling Program Hole 801C and the waning Project and ODP core physical properties and downhole logs. Increasing crustal age entails macroporosity crust; 3035 Marine Geology and Geophysics: Midocean ridge processes; 5102 Physical Properties of Rocks

Abrams, Lewis J.

155

Environmental Health Research Recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations  

PubMed Central

Background: Unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) (which include hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) supply an energy source that is potentially cleaner than liquid or solid fossil fuels and may provide a route to energy independence. However, significant concerns have arisen due to the lack of research on the public health impact of UNGDO. Objectives: Environmental Health Sciences Core Centers (EHSCCs), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), formed a working group to review the literature on the potential public health impact of UNGDO and to make recommendations for needed research. Discussion: The Inter-EHSCC Working Group concluded that a potential for water and air pollution exists that might endanger public health, and that the social fabric of communities could be impacted by the rapid emergence of drilling operations. The working group recommends research to inform how potential risks could be mitigated. Conclusions: Research on exposure and health outcomes related to UNGDO is urgently needed, and community engagement is essential in the design of such studies. Citation: Penning TM, Breysse PN, Gray K, Howarth M, Yan B. 2014. Environmental health research recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations. Environ Health Perspect 122:1155–1159;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408207 PMID:25036093

Breysse, Patrick N.; Gray, Kathleen; Howarth, Marilyn; Yan, Beizhan

2014-01-01

156

The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)  

PubMed Central

During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M.; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H.; Moyer, Craig L.; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

2013-01-01

157

`Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History': Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made

K. St. John; R. M. Leckie; M. H. Jones; K. S. Pound; E. Pyle; L. A. Krissek

2009-01-01

158

Neogene clay mineral assemblages in the AND2A drill core (McMurdo Sound, Antarctica) and their implications for environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clay mineral assemblages in sediments from ANDRILL drill core AND-2A were used to reconstruct the Neogene palaeoenvironment. For the first time a clay mineral data set can be presented for southern McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica, that covers an expanded and fairly continuous Lower and Middle Miocene section. Although the occurrence of some authigenic smectites, zeolites and opal-CT documents diagenetic

Daniel Franke; Werner Ehrmann

2010-01-01

159

Drill, Baby, Drill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

Kerkhoff, Todd

2009-01-01

160

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

1992-04-01

161

Resources for Computational Geophysics Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important skill that students in solid Earth physics need to acquire is the ability to write computer programs that can be used for the processing, analysis, and modeling of geophysical data and phenomena. Therefore, this skill (which we call "computational geophysics") is a core part of any undergraduate geophysics curriculum. In this Forum, we share our personal experience in teaching such a course.

Keers, Henk; Rondenay, Stéphane; Harlap, Yaël.; Nordmo, Ivar

2014-09-01

162

Geological and geophysical evidence of structures in northwest-trending washes, Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada, and their possible significance to a nuclear waste repository in the unsaturated zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that five prominent linear northwest-trending washes in the northeastern part of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are underlain by zones of right-lateral strike-slip faults. Northwest-striking faults exposed along the washes are nearly vertical, have essentially horizontal striations on slickensides, and have small vertical offsets. Cores from drill holes within Drill Hole Wash contain northwest-striking steeply dipping fault

R. B. Scott; G. D. Bath; V. J. Flanigan; D. B. Hoover; J. G. Rosenbaum; R. W. Spengler

1984-01-01

163

Formative Processes of a Sliding Zone in Pelitic Schist - Implications of Microscopic Analyses on High-quality Drilled Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pelitic schist has been known to be easily deformed by gravitational force to form characteristic topographic and geologic features, but little is known about how they develop. This is mainly due to the fact that deformed politic schist is so fragile that it could not be obtained from subsurface without disturbance. We analyzed high-quality undisturbed cores obtained by using a sophisticated drilling technique from two typical pelitic schist landslide sites in Japan. We made analyses on physical, chemical, mineralogical properties and observations from mesoscopic to microscopic rock textures of these cores and found that a special layering of rock-forming minerals determines the locations of shearing by gravity and that there is specific water-rock interaction processes in pelitic schist. Pelitic schist consists of thinly alternating beds of black layers and quartz-rich layers, and a black layer has numerous microscopic layers containing abundant pyrite and graphite grains (pyrite-graphite layers). Many of the black layers were observed to have microfractures connected to open cracks, suggesting that relatively thick, continuous black layers are easily sheared to form an incipient sliding layer. Thus unevenly distributed pyrite-graphite layers likely to determine the potential location of microscopic slip in a rock mass. Shear displacement along black layers occurs unevenly, depending upon the microscopic heterogeneity in mineral composition as well as undulating shape of the layers. Open micro-cracks nearly perpendicular to the schistosity were commonly observed in quartz-rich layers in contact with black layers, suggesting that the shearing occurred with heterogeneous displacements along the black layer and that it occurred under the low confining pressure. This is in the incipient stage of a fracture zone. When shearing occurs along two thick neighboring black layers, the rock in between would be fractured, rotated and pulverized. In some cases, quartz-rich layers were fractured in a brittle manner and their fragments were rearranged to form micro-folds. Rocks are thus pulverized with multiple shear surfaces. Incipient fracture zones and their surroundings have many voids because they are made under low confining pressures near the ground surface, so oxidizing surface water easily percolates through them. Oxidizing water reacts with pyrite which is contained in pelitic schist, producing sulfuric acid through. The rocks therefore become deteriorated by the water-rock interaction and would be easily deformed. Such a combination of the physical processes of deformation and fracturing and the chemical process of weathering develop a sliding zone.

Yamasaki, S.; Chigira, M.

2009-04-01

164

Characterizing ocean basalt reservoirs for CO2 sequestration - Ocean drilling and geophysical logging at DSDP/ODP/IODP Sites 1256 and 504  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, sequestration of CO2 in ocean basalt reservoirs offers the potential for long-term storage in large, highly porous and permeable aquifers. Global assessments of ocean reservoirs suggest that the sediment-draped basalt flows along the flanks of mid-ocean ridges are promising sites for the injection and ultimate mineralization of CO2. These sites provide the additional advantages of gravity and hydrate trapping mechanisms that further reduce the risk of post-injection leakage. Ocean drilling and borehole logging in the eastern equatorial Pacific at Deep Sea Drilling Project/Ocean Drilling Program/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1256 and 504 provide data with which to characterize and evaluate the shallow (upper 1 km) oceanic crust. In this study, we identify six distinct intervals at Sites 1256 and 504 as potential reservoirs, with new and reprocessed porosities as great as 14% and permeability estimates as high as 10-14 m2. High-resolution electrical resistivity images in these boreholes provide evidence of the lava types (dominantly fractured flows, breccias, and pillow basalts) as well as the structure of fracture networks and pore spaces that exist within these reservoirs. Calculations of potential carbon storage capacity, using specific reservoir thickness and new porosity estimates, indicate that ~2,300 Gt-C could be stored as solid carbonate minerals in the combined reservoirs near Site 1256 and ~1,400 Gt-C could be stored in the combined reservoirs near Site 504. Even the smallest of these reservoirs could provide storage capacity for decades of global carbon emissions. Further in situ hydrogeologic experimentation is required to test these estimates of porosity, permeability, and carbon storage capacity. Such studies would confirm the potential for future CO2 sequestration in these reservoirs and could be used to predict similar properties at other mid-ocean ridge sites.

Slagle, A. L.; Goldberg, D.

2011-12-01

165

Shock Levels in Fallback and Fallout Impact Breccias at the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana: Results of Drill Core Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 10.5-km-diameter Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, 1.07 Ma old, is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi. During a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project, two boreholes (LB-07A and LB-08A) were drilled into the crater fill and underlying bedrock of the structure, into the deep crater moat and the outer flank of the central uplift, respectively. The 545.1-meter-deep ICDP borehole LB-07A contains two different

C. Koeberl; L. Ferriere; W. U. Reimold

2006-01-01

166

Petrology and hydrothermal mineralogy of U.S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 drill core from Newberry caldera, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 was drilled to a depth of 932 m within Newberry caldera. The bottom-hole temperature of 265°C is the highest reported temperature of any drill hole in the Cascades region of the United States. The upper part of the stratigraphic section pentrated by Newberry 2 consists of caldera fill below which are increasingly more mafic lavas

Terry E. C. Keith; Keith E. Bargar

1988-01-01

167

Petrology and hydrothermal mineralogy of U. S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 drill core from Newberry caldera, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 was drilled to a depth of 932 m within Newberry caldera. The bottom-hole temperature of 265°C is the highest reported temperature of any drill hole in the Cascades region of the United States. The upper part of the stratigraphic section pentrated by Newberry 2 consists of caldera fill below which are increasingly more mafic lavas

Terry E. C. Keith; Keith E. Bargar

1988-01-01

168

Crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake as seen in drill core recovered in 1967-1979  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption, one of the most picritic eruptions of Kilauea Volcano in the twentieth century. Since 1959 the 110 to 122 m thick lake has cooled slowly, developing steadily thickening upper and lower crusts, with a lens of more molten lava in between. Recent coring dates, with maximum depths reached in the center of the lake, are: 1967 (26.5 m). 1975 (44.2 m), 1976 (46.0 m) and 1979 (52.7 m). These depths define the base of the upper crust at the time of drilling. The bulk of the core consists of a gray, olivine-phyric basalt matrix, which locally contains coarser-grained diabasic segregation veins. The most important megascopic variation in the matrix rock is its variation in olivine content. The upper 15 m of crust is very olivine-rich. Abundance and average size of olivine decrease irregularly downward to 23 m; between 23 and 40 m the rock contains 5-10% of small olivine phenocrysts. Below 40 m. olivine content and average grainsize rise sharply. Olivine contents remain high (20-45%, by volume) throughout the lower crust, except for a narrow (< 6 m) olivine depleted zone near the basalt contact. Petrographically the olivine phenocrysts in Kilauea Iki can be divided into two types. Type 1 phenocrysts are large (1-12 mm long), with irregular blocky outlines, and often contain kink bands. Type 2 crystals are relatively small (0.5-2 mm in length), euhedral and undeformed. The variations in olivine content of the matrix rock are almost entirely variations in the amount of type 1 olivines. Sharp mineral layering of any sort is rare in Kilauea Iki. However, the depth range 41-52 m is marked by the frequent occurrence of steeply dipping (70°-90°) bands or bodies of slightly vuggy olivine-rich rock locally capped with a small cupola of segregation-vein material. In thin section there is clear evidence for relative movement of melt and crystals within these structures. The segregation veins occur only in the upper crust. The most widely distributed (occurring from 4.5-59.4 m) are thin veins (most < 5 cm thick), which cut the core at moderate angles and appear to have been derived from the immediately adjacent wall-rock by filter pressing. There is also a series of thicker (0.1-1.5 m) segregation veins, which recur every 2-3 m, between 20 and 52 m. These have subhorizontal contacts and appear, from similarities in thickness and spacing, to correlate between drill holes as much as 100 m apart. These large veins are not derived from the adjacent wallrock: their mechanism of formation is still problematical. The total thickness of segregation veins in Kilauea Iki is 3-6 m in the central part of the lake, corresponding to 6-11% of the upper crust. Whole-rock compositions for Kilauea Iki fall into two groups: the matrix rock ranges from 20-7.5% MgO, while the segregation veins all contain between 6.0 and 4.5% MgO. There are no whole-rock compositions of intermediate MgO content. Samples from < 12 m show eruption-controlled chemistry. Below that depth, matrix rock compositions have higher Al2O3, TiO2 and alkalies, and lower CaO and FeO, at a given MgO content than do the eruption pumices. The probable causes of this are assimilation of low-melting components from foundered crust, plus removal of olivine, plus removal of minor augite, for rocks with MgO contents of < 8.0%. Given the observed rate of growth of the upper crust, one can infer that significant removal of the type 1 olivine phenocrysts from the upper part of the lake began in 1963 and ceased sometime prior to 1972. The process. probably gravitative settling, appears to have been inhibited earlier by gas streaming from the lower part of the lens of melt. The olivine cumulate zone, which extends into the upper crust, contains relatively few (25-40%) olivine crystals, few of which actually touch each other. The diffuseness of the cumulate zone raises the possibility that the crystals were coated with a relatively visous boundary layer of melt which moved with them. Calculations of the Stokes’ law settling rates

Helz, R. T.

1980-12-01

169

Crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake as seen in drill core recovered in 1967-1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption, one of the most picritic eruptions of Kilauea Volcano in the twentieth century. Since 1959 the 110 to 122 m thick lake has cooled slowly, developing steadily thickening upper and lower crusts, with a lens of more molten lava in between. Recent coring dates, with maximum depths reached in the center of the lake, are: 1967 (26.5 m). 1975 (44.2 m), 1976 (46.0 m) and 1979 (52.7 m). These depths define the base of the upper crust at the time of drilling. The bulk of the core consists of a gray, olivine-phyric basalt matrix, which locally contains coarser-grained diabasic segregation veins. The most important megascopic variation in the matrix rock is its variation in olivine content. The upper 15 m of crust is very olivine-rich. Abundance and average size of olivine decrease irregularly downward to 23 m; between 23 and 40 m the rock contains 5-10% of small olivine phenocrysts. Below 40 m. olivine content and average grainsize rise sharply. Olivine contents remain high (20-45%, by volume) throughout the lower crust, except for a narrow (< 6 m) olivine depleted zone near the basalt contact. Petrographically the olivine phenocrysts in Kilauea Iki can be divided into two types. Type 1 phenocrysts are large (1-12 mm long), with irregular blocky outlines, and often contain kink bands. Type 2 crystals are relatively small (0.5-2 mm in length), euhedral and undeformed. The variations in olivine content of the matrix rock are almost entirely variations in the amount of type 1 olivines. Sharp mineral layering of any sort is rare in Kilauea Iki. However, the depth range 41-52 m is marked by the frequent occurrence of steeply dipping (70??-90??) bands or bodies of slightly vuggy olivine-rich rock locally capped with a small cupola of segregation-vein material. In thin section there is clear evidence for relative movement of melt and crystals within these structures. The segregation veins occur only in the upper crust. The most widely distributed (occurring from 4.5-59.4 m) are thin veins (most < 5 cm thick), which cut the core at moderate angles and appear to have been derived from the immediately adjacent wall-rock by filter pressing. There is also a series of thicker (0.1-1.5 m) segregation veins, which recur every 2-3 m, between 20 and 52 m. These have subhorizontal contacts and appear, from similarities in thickness and spacing, to correlate between drill holes as much as 100 m apart. These large veins are not derived from the adjacent wallrock: their mechanism of formation is still problematical. The total thickness of segregation veins in Kilauea Iki is 3-6 m in the central part of the lake, corresponding to 6-11% of the upper crust. Whole-rock compositions for Kilauea Iki fall into two groups: the matrix rock ranges from 20-7.5% MgO, while the segregation veins all contain between 6.0 and 4.5% MgO. There are no whole-rock compositions of intermediate MgO content. Samples from < 12 m show eruption-controlled chemistry. Below that depth, matrix rock compositions have higher Al2O3, TiO2 and alkalies, and lower CaO and FeO, at a given MgO content than do the eruption pumices. The probable causes of this are assimilation of low-melting components from foundered crust, plus removal of olivine, plus removal of minor augite, for rocks with MgO contents of < 8.0%. Given the observed rate of growth of the upper crust, one can infer that significant removal of the type 1 olivine phenocrysts from the upper part of the lake began in 1963 and ceased sometime prior to 1972. The process. probably gravitative settling, appears to have been inhibited earlier by gas streaming from the lower part of the lens of melt. The olivine cumulate zone, which extends into the upper crust, contains relatively few (25-40%) olivine crystals, few of which actually touch each other. The diffuseness of the cumulate zone raises the possibility that the crystals were coated with a relatively visous boundary layer

Helz, R. T.

1980-01-01

170

Subsurface structure, physical properties, fault-zone characteristics and stress state in scientific drill holes of Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous cores and a suit of geophysical measurements were collected in two scientific drill holes to understand physical mechanisms involved in the large displacements during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Physical properties obtained from wire-line logs including P- and S-wave sonic velocity, gamma ray, electrical resistivity, density and temperature, are primarily dependent on parameters such as lithology, depth and fault zones.

Jih-Hao Hung; Kuo-Fong Ma; Chien-Yin Wang; Hisao Ito; Weiren Lin; En-Chao Yeh

2009-01-01

171

Reprint of: Late Neogene climate and glacial history of the Southern Victoria Land coast from integrated drill core, seismic and outcrop data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Neogene stratigraphy of southern Victoria Land Basin is revealed in coastal and offshore drill cores and a network of seismic data in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. These data preserve a record of ice sheet response to global climate variability and progressive cooling through the past 5 million years. Application of a composite standard age model for diatom event stratigraphy to the McMurdo Sound drill cores provides an internally precise mechanism to correlate stratigraphic data and derive an event history for the basin. These marine records are indirectly compared to data obtained from geological outcrop in the Transantarctic Mountains to produce an integrated history of Antarctic Ice Sheet response to climate variability from the early Pliocene to Recent. Four distinct chronostratigraphic intervals reflect stages and steps in a transition from a relatively warm early Pliocene Antarctic coastal climate to modern cold polar conditions. Several of these stages and steps correlate with global events identified via geochemical proxy data recovered from deep ocean cores in mid to low latitudes. These correlations allow us to consider linkages between the high southern latitudes and tropical regions and establish a temporal framework to examine leads and lags in the climate system through the late Neogene and Quaternary. The relative influence of climate-tectonic feedbacks is discussed in light of glacial erosion and isostatic rebound that also influence the history along the Southern Victoria Land coastal margin.

Levy, Richard; Cody, Rosemary; Crampton, James; Fielding, Christopher; Golledge, Nick; Harwood, David; Henrys, Stuart; Mckay, Robert; Naish, Timothy; Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary; Wilson, Terry; Winter, Diane

2012-10-01

172

Ocean Drilling Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

Program, Ocean D.; Texas A&M University

173

Geochemical and Diatom Records of Hydrologic Variability in the Tropical Andes During the Late Quaternary From Drill Cores of Lake Titicaca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven drill cores were recovered from Lake Titicaca during the NSF/ICDP/DOSECC drilling expedition of 2001. Sub-lake floor drilling depths ranged from 53 to 139 m; water depths ranged from 40 to 232 m; recoveries ranged from 75 to 112%. Our most detailed multi-proxy analyses to date have been done on Core 2B raised from the central basin of the lake from 232 m water depth, drilled to 139.26 m sub-lakefloor with 140.61 m of total sediment recovered (101%). A basal age of 200 Ka is estimated by linear extrapolation from radiocarbon measurements in the upper 25 m of core; Ar-Ar dating of interbedded ashes is underway. The volume and lake level of Lake Titicaca have undergone large changes several times during the late Quaternary. Proxies for these water level changes (each of different fidelity) include the ratio of planktonic-to-benthic diatoms, sedimentary carbonate content, and stable isotopic content of organic carbon. The most recent of these changes, have been described previously from earlier piston cores. In the early and middle Holocene the lake fell below its outlet to 85 m below modern level, lake salinity increased several times, and the Salar de Uyuni, which receives overflow from Titicaca, dessicated. In contrast, Lake Titicaca was deep, fresh, and overflowing (southward to the Salar de Uyuni) throughout the last glacial maximum from prior to 25,000 BP to at least 15,000 BP. According to our extrapolated ages, the penultimate major lowstand of Lake Titicaca occurred around 75,000 to 80,000 BP, when seismic evidence indicates that lake level was about 240 m lower than present. Near the end of this lowstand, the lake also became quite saline. There are at least three, and possibly more, older lowstands, each separated temporally by periods in which the lake freshened dramatically and overflowed. Our analyses include decadal resolution of the stable isotopic composition of lowstand carbonate sediments. Taking advantage of a quantitative relationship between precipitation amount and ?18O of the precipitation, we use model calculations and the observed oxygen isotopic record to reconstruct precipitation rates during the carbonate-bearing intervals. These are compared with similar analyses and calculations done on the highstand deposits in the Salar de Uyuni (contemporaneous deposits in Lake Titicaca contain no carbonate).

Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Seltzer, G. O.; Arnold, K. K.; Tapia, P. M.

2002-12-01

174

Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31T, was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain\\u000a was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l?1) and MgCl2·6H2O (3 g l?1). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often\\u000a appeared in

K. W. Finster; C. S. Cockell; M. A. Voytek; A. L. Gronstal; K. U. Kjeldsen

2009-01-01

175

Structure in continuously cored, deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, with notes on calcite occurrence; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

A study of more than 22,000 feet of core from five deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provided data on the attitude and vertical distribution of faults and fractures, the sense of fault displacement, and the occurrence of calcite. The study was done mainly to look for evidence of fault flattening at depth, but no consistent downward decrease in dip of faults was found, and no increase in strata rotation was evident with increasing depth. In the two drill holes located near prominent faults that dip toward the holes (USW G-3 and G-2), an apparent increase in the frequency of faults occurs below the tuffs and lavas of Calico Hills. Some of this increase occurs in brittle lavas and flow breccias in the lower part of the volcanic section. In the two holes presumed to be relatively removed from the influence of important faults at depth, the vertical distribution of faults is relatively uniform. Calcite occurs mainly in two general zones, voids in welded portions of the Paintbrush Tuff, and in a deeper zone, mostly below 3,500 feet. Calcite is least abundant in USW G-4, which may reflect the fewer faults and fractures encountered in that drill hole.

Carr, W.J. [Carr (Wilfred J.), Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

1992-12-01

176

Teaching Marine Geoscience at Sea: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's School of Rock Explores Cascadia Subduction Zone - Cores, Logs, and ACORKs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For twelve days this past September, seventeen formal and informal educators from the US, UK, and France joined six instructors and a small science party on the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)'s Cascadia ACORK Expedition. The educators were part of the annual ``School of Rock (SOR)'' education program. SOR is coordinated by the U.S.

M. Reagan; J. Collins; K. A. Ludwig; S. Slough; M. L. Delaney; S. A. Hovan

2010-01-01

177

Geophysics in INSPIRE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface model (2D), and solid model (3D). Both measurements and models are derived from O&M sampling features that may be linked to sampling procedures and observation results. Geophysical products are output of complex procedures and can precisely be described as chains of consecutive O&M observations. For describing geophysical processes and results the data model both supports the use of OGC standard XML encoding (SensorML, SWE, GML) and traditional industry standards (SPS, UKOOA, SEG formats). To control the scope of the model and to harmonize terminology an initial set of extendable code lists was developed. The attempt to create a hierarchical SKOS vocabulary of terms for geophysical methods, resource types, processes, properties and technical parameters was partly based on the work done in the eContentPlus GEOMIND project. The result is far from being complete, and the work must be continued in the future.

S?rés, László

2013-04-01

178

Chemical geodynamics of continental subduction-zone metamorphism: Insights from studies of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) core samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt of east-central China has long been a type location for the study of geodynamic processes associated with ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) tectonics. Much of our understanding of the world's most enigmatic processes in continental deep-subduction zones has been deduced from various records in this belt. By taking advantage of having depth profiles from core samples of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project in the Sulu orogen, a series of combined studies were carried out for UHP metamorphic rocks from the main hole (MH) at continuous depths of 100 to 5000 m. The results provide new insights into the chemical geodynamics of continental subduction-zone metamorphism, especially on the issues that are not able to be resolved from the surface outcrops. Available results from our geochemical studies of CCSD-MH core samples can be outlined as follows. (1) An O isotope profile of 100 to 5000 m is established for the UHP metamorphic minerals, with finding of 18O depletion as deep as 3300 m. Along with areal 18O depletion of over 30,000 km 2 along the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, three-dimensional 18O depletion of over 100,000 km 3 occurs along the northern margin of the South China Block. (2) Changes in mineral O isotope, H isotope and water content occur in eclogite-gneiss transitions, concordant with petrographic changes. The contact between different lithologies is thus the most favorable place for fluid action; fluid for retrogression of the eclogites away from the eclogite-gneiss boundary was derived from the decompression exsolution. For the eclogites adjacent to gneiss, in contrast, the retrograde metamorphism was principally caused by aqueous fluid from the gneiss that is relatively rich in water. Inspection of the relationship between the distance, petrography and ?18O values of adjacent samples shows O isotope heterogeneities between the different and same lithologies on scales of 20 to 50 cm, corresponding to the maximum scales of fluid mobility during the continental collision. (3) Studies of major and trace elements in the two continuous core segments indicate high mobility of LILE and LREE but immobility of HFSE and HREE. Some eclogites have andesitic compositions with high SiO 2, alkalis, LREE and LILE but low CaO, MgO and FeO contents. These features likely result from chemical exchange with gneisses, possibly due to the metasomatism of felsic melt produced by partial melting of the associated gneisses during the exhumation. On the other hand, some eclogites appear to have geochemical affinity to refractory rocks formed by melt extraction as evidence by strong LREE and LILE depletion and the absence of hydrous minerals. These results provide evidence for melt-induced element mobility in the UHP metamorphic rocks, and thus the possible presence of supercritical fluid during exhumation. In particular, large variations in the abundance of such elements as SiO 2, LREE and LILE occur at the contact between eclogite and gneiss. This indicates their mobility between different slab components, although it only occurs on small scales and is thus limited in local open-systems. (4) Despite the widespread retrogression, retrograde fluid was internally buffered in stable isotope compositions, and the retrograde fluid was of deuteric origin and thus was derived from the decompression exsolution of structural hydroxyl and molecular water in nominally anhydrous minerals. (5) A combined study of petrography and geochronology reveals the episode of HP eclogite-facies recrystallization at 216 ± 3 Ma, with timescale of 1.9 to 9.3 Myr or less. Collectively, the Dabie-Sulu UHP terrenes underwent the protracted exhumation (2-3 mm/yr) in the HP-UHP regime. (6) Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes indicate that mid-Neoproterozoic protoliths of bimodal UHP metaigneous rocks formed during supercontinental rifting along preexisting arc-continent collision orogen, corresponding to dual bimodal magmatism in response to the attempted breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia at about 780 Ma. The first type of bim

Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu; Zhao, Zi-Fu

2009-09-01

179

APPLIED GEOPHYSICS FIELD CLASS GEOLOGY 437  

E-print Network

AND METEORITE IMPACT AREAS. APPLIED GEOPHYSICAL METHODS STUDIED MAY INCLUDE SEISMIC REFRACTION, REFLECTION: 11, 12 V. Visit oil drilling rig, seismic reflection crew, and computer lab work WEEKS: 13, 14, 15 VI

Nickrent, Daniel L.

180

Testing the ureilite projectile hypothesis for the El'gygytgyn impact: Determination of siderophile element abundances and Os isotope ratios in ICDP drill core samples and melt rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geochemical nature of the impactites from International Continental Scientific Drilling Project—El'gygytgyn lake drill core 1C is compared with that of impact melt rock fragments collected near the western rim of the structure and literature data. Concentrations of major and trace elements, with special focus on siderophile metals Cr, Co, Ni, and the platinum group elements, and isotope ratios of osmium (Os), were determined to test the hypothesis of an ureilite impactor at El'gygytgyn. Least squares mixing calculations suggest that the upper volcanic succession of rhyolites, dacites, and andesites were the main contributors to the polymict impact breccias. Additions of 2-13.5 vol% of basaltic inclusions recovered from drill core intervals between 391.6 and 423.0 mblf can almost entirely account for the compositional differences observed for the bottom of a reworked fallout deposit at 318.9 mblf, a polymict impact breccia at 471.4 mblf, and three impact melt rock fragments. However, the measured Os isotope ratios and slightly elevated PGE content (up to 0.262 ng g-1 Ir) of certain impactite samples, for which the CI-normalized logarithmic PGE signature displays a relatively flat (i.e., chondritic) pattern, can only be explained by the incorporation of a small meteoritic contribution. This component is also required to explain the exceptionally high siderophile element contents and corresponding Ni/Cr, Ni/Co, and Cr/Co ratios of impact glass spherules and spherule fragments that were recovered from the reworked fallout deposits and from terrace outcrops of the Enmyvaam River approximately 10 km southeast of the crater center. Mixing calculations support the presence of approximately 0.05 wt% and 0.50-18 wt% of ordinary chondrite (possibly type-LL) in several impactites and in the glassy spherules, respectively. The heterogeneous distribution of the meteoritic component provides clues for emplacement mechanisms of the various impactite units.

Goderis, S.; Wittmann, A.; Zaiss, J.; Elburg, M.; Ravizza, G.; Vanhaecke, F.; Deutsch, A.; Claeys, P.

2013-07-01

181

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California`s Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. [eds.

1992-04-01

182

Petrography and geochemistry of impactites and volcanic bedrock in the ICDP drill core D1c from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3.6 Ma old and 18 km diameter El'gygytgyn impact structure in NE Siberia was drilled in 2008/09 by ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program). A 517 m long core hole (D1c) was drilled into the outer flank of the central uplift structure, with an overall core recovery of approximately 63%. Thereby, approximately 315 m lake sediments and approximately 202 m impactites were recovered. Here, we present a detailed petrographic and geochemical assessment of the impact breccia and bedrock sections in this core. The 97 m long lower bedrock unit (517-420 m below lake floor [blf]) consists of an ignimbrite. In the overlying upper bedrock unit (420-390 mblf), the core recovered a sequence of similar ignimbrite and several decimeters of mafic rocks. We interpret these units as rocks that are located close to their former, preimpact position, but have been somewhat rotated due to collapse of the central uplift (i.e., it represents parautochthonous basement). From about 390 to 328 mblf occurs a suevite package with an impact melt poor, clast-dominated matrix, and lithic and mineral clasts that cover the entire range of volcanic target rocks known from the El'gygytgyn region. All stages of shock metamorphism (unshocked to melted) were observed in clasts, and in microclasts of the matrix, of suevite from different depths. Immediately below this package, at the contact to the underlying bedrock, occurs a 1 m wide sheared zone within vitrophyric ignimbrite, which we consider the actual crater floor. The uppermost approximately 12 m, from 328-316 mblf depth, seem to comprise reworked suevite, consisting of a mixture of sediments and suevite with more and, on average, stronger shocked minerals than found in the main suevite unit. This includes a small component of glassy spherules and impact melt fragments. Toward the top of this unit, lake sediments progressively become the dominant material in this section. We assume that this unit contains a fallback component from the ejecta plume that was mixed with the first sediments of the postimpact crater lake, and possibly some rocks that slumped off the inner crater wall—similar to a thin layer at the base of the sediment section of borehole LB-5A recovered in Lake Bosumtwi (Ghana).

Raschke, Ulli; Schmitt, Ralf T.; Reimold, W. Uwe

2013-07-01

183

Iron-oxide Magnetic, Morphologic, and Compositional Tracers of Sediment Provenance and Ice Sheet Extent in the ANDRILL AND-1B Drill Core, Ross Sea, Antarctica (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first drilling season of the Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) recovered a 13.57 million year Miocene through Pleistocene record of paleoclimate change (core AND-1B) within the Ross Sea. The magnetic mineral assemblage records the varying contributions of biological productivity, changing sediment sources, the emergence of volcanic centers, and post-depositional diagenesis. Characterization of bedrock samples from the McMurdo Volcanic Group (MVG) and Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) lithologic units allows us to construct fingerprints for the major source rocks bordering the Ross Sea, and identify their signatures within the AND-1B sediment. Key parameters that can be traced from source rock to sediment for the MVG-derived sediment include a 100-200 C order-disorder transition, titanomaghemite grains with homogenous textures but with substantial Al and Mg content, Fe-spinels with substantial Al, Cr, Mg, and Ti content, and titanomagnetite host grains with 1-3 swarms of ilmenite lamellae (both with variable amounts of oxidation). Distinctive signatures in TAM lithologies include low S-ratios in Koettlitz Group gneisses and Fe-sulfides with magnetite intergrowths in Byrd Glacier basement samples. The Cambrian Granite Harbor Intrusive Complex is characterized by coarse, homogeneous Mn-bearing ilmenite and nearly pure magnetite. The Jurassic dolerites and basalts of the Ferrar Group contain pseudo single domain to stable single domain-sized Fe-oxides with low-Ti content and homogeneous textures. Cu-Fe sulfides are also present in the Ferrar Group. Diamictites in the Pliocene-Pleistocene section of the AND-1B drill core contains Fe-oxide assemblages with MVG-type rock magnetic and textural characteristics, while the Miocene diamictites contain TAM-type signatures. These observations can be explained by increased ice flow from the west during the Miocene and/or the absence of MVG volcanic centers, which had not yet reached a significant size. During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, ice flow was from the south, entraining sediment from MVG volcanic centers south of the drill site. This work demonstrates the utility of using the combination of rock magnetic and electron microscopy signatures of Fe-oxides and Fe-sulfides to serve as provenance tracers in both ice proximal and distal sedimentary units, aiding in the study of ice sheet dynamics, and the identification of ice rafted debris sources and dispersal patterns in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica.

Brachfeld, S. A.; Pinzon, J.; Darley, J. S.; Sagnotti, L.; Kuhn, G.; Florindo, F.; Wilson, G. S.; Ohneiser, C.; Monien, D.; Joseph, L. H.

2013-12-01

184

Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project  

SciTech Connect

The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

Lance Prothro, Sigmund Drellack, Margaret Townsend

2009-03-25

185

Drill Presses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

186

10Be content in clasts from fallout suevitic breccia in drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana: Clues to preimpact target distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocks from drill cores LB-07A (crater fill) and LB-08A (central uplift) into the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana, were analyzed for the presence of the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which target rocks of various depths were mixed during the formation of the crater-filling breccia, and also to detect meteoric water infiltration within the impactite layer. 10Be abundances above background were found in two (out of 24) samples from the LB-07A core, and in none of five samples from the LB-08A core. After excluding other possible explanations for an elevated 10Be signal, we conclude that it is most probably due to a preimpact origin of those clasts from target rocks close to the surface. Our results suggest that in-crater breccias were well mixed during the impact cratering process. In addition, the lack of a 10Be signal within the rocks located very close to the lake sediment-impactite boundary suggests that infiltration of meteoric water below the postimpact crater floor was limited. This may suggest that the infiltration of the meteoric water within the crater takes place not through the aerial pore-space, but rather through a localized system of fractures.

Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Michlmayr, Leonard; Koeberl, Christian

2014-03-01

187

Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

1990-01-01

188

Element mobility studies of two drill-cores from the Go??temar Granite (Kra??kema??la test site), southeast Sweden  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A pilot study was carried out on two relatively deep drill-cores (??? 600 m) from the Go??temar Granite massif in S.E. Sweden. This granite is typical of the 1400-Ma anorogenic granites of the northern hemisphere. Samples from representative, unfractured parts of the cores, together with four samples taken along a profile tangential to a fracture plane at ??? 280-m depth, were investigated chemically, mineralogically and isotopically. The results show that after crystallisation, subtle and pervasive open-system modifications of the trace-element chemistry of the granite took place. Whereas the major-element chemistry and minera-logical data emphasised the relative homogeneity of the Go??temar Granite samples investigated, trace elements such as U, Rb, and Pb revealed irregular distributions which are probably the result of large-scale hydrothermal alteration processes. This conclusion is supported by isotopic studies which indicate that whole-rock samples were open to a gain or loss of Pb and possibly U at ??? 420 ?? 171 Ma ago. In addition, isotopic data for U-Pb and U-Ra are consistent with a recent minor loss of U. The pervasive alteration and the more recent mobilisation of U are evident to a depth of at least 600 m. The effects are most prevalent along major fracture zones and within the upper 250-300 m of one drill-hole where a high frequency of crush zones has been noted. Higher Fe oxidation ratios, higher Rb contents, lower U contents and correspondingly higher Th/U ratios, all characterise this zone. ?? 1985.

Smellie, J.A.T.; Stuckless, J.S.

1985-01-01

189

Temperature and Aridity in Tropical East Africa Over the Past 200,000 Years: Reconstructions from the Lake Malawi Drill Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical heating is the driving force behind global atmospheric circulation and thus is an essential component to our understanding of climate dynamics through time. We present a record of temperature and aridity from Lake Malawi, the largest and southern-most of the large East African Rift lakes, which extends from 9 to 14 °S. The temperature record is based on TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of tetraethers with 86 carbon atoms) analyses on a drill core from the central basin of the lake, which provides a new record from 39 to 140 m burial depth, extending to approximately 200kyr BP. (This record will extend to the core bottom at 378 m below lake floor when completed.) Average lake surface temperature during the past 200kyr was ~25.5°C, with temperature values ranging from 22 to 29°C. When compared to earlier studies, the range of temperatures over the most recent glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 2 to 1) exceeds that of any time earlier in this ~ 200kyr record. No consistent relationship exists between temperature and aridity as indicated by Ca (calcite) abundance in the sediments. Cyclic behavior on orbital time scales is apparent in both temperature and Ca records, however not at the same frequencies. Superimposed on the orbital scale variability are higher frequency, millennial shifts of 2 - 3°C, which undoubtedly impacted ecosystem dynamics and hominin migration on the East African landscape, at least in the vicinity of Lake Malawi, over the past 200,000 years. The regional extent of this climate history cannot be ascertained until comparable records are recovered through drilling the other great lakes of the East African Rift Valley.

Abbott, A. N.; Johnson, T. C.; Berke, M. A.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Brown, E. T.

2010-12-01

190

Longhole drilling  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes new drilling equipment used to drill blasting holes for underground mining operations. Although this method was originally designed for caving or stopping, it is now suitable for all highly mechanized mining operations. It describes the automated methods to monitor drilling progress, align drill holes, and handling of drill rods. It also gives some case examples of the use of this equipment showing the reduction in mining costs, increase in safety, and increase in productivity at an Australian gold mine.

Not Available

1993-10-01

191

1991 drill bit classifier  

SciTech Connect

Whether drilling soft, swelling gumbo formations along the Gulf Coast, harder Green River shales in Wyoming or really tough and abrasive quartzite, basalt or Devonian chert deposits in the Permian basin, choosing the best bit for the job is important if optimum drilling and cost efficiency are to be maintained. To make the selection process easier, WORLD OIL has compiled a comprehensive, yet simple-to-use guide for classifying bits. This paper is divided into six major formation categories roughly corresponding to those used by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Within these are listed virtually all commonly available drilling and coring bits by type and manufacturer. To use the guide, simply identify the formation to be drilled, decide whether a rock, diamond, PDC or hybrid bit is most appropriate, choose the manufacturer and scan the bits available. In fact, bits from all manufacturers can readily be compared.

Not Available

1991-09-01

192

Geophysical fluid dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of fluid dynamics are applied to large-scale flows in the oceans and the atmosphere in this text, intended as a core curriculum in geophysical fluid dynamics. Emphasis throughout the book is devoted to basing scaling techniques and the derivation of systematic approximations to the equations of motion. The inviscid dynamics of a homogeneous fluid are examined to reveal the

J. Pedlosky

1982-01-01

193

Lithostratigraphy of the impactite and bedrock section of ICDP drill core D1c from the El'gygytgyn impact crater, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2008/2009, the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) obtained drill cores from the El'gygytgyn impact structure located on the Chukotka Peninsula (Russia). These cores provide the most complete geological section ever obtained from an impact structure in siliceous volcanic rock. The lithostratigraphy comprises a thick sequence of lacustrine sediments overlying impact breccias and deformed target rock. The interval from 316 m (below lake floor—blf) to the end of the core at 517 m depth can be subdivided into four lithological sequences. At 316 m depth, the first mesoscopic clasts of shocked target rock occur in lacustrine sediments. The growing abundance of target rock clasts with increasing depth and corresponding decrease of lacustrine sediment components indicate the extent of this transition zone to 328 m depth. It constitutes a zone of mixed reworked impact breccia and lacustrine sediments. Volcanic clasts in this reworked suevite section show all stages of shock metamorphism, up to melting. The underlying unit (328-390 m depth) represents a suevite package, a polymict impact breccia, with considerable evidence of shock deformation in a wide variety of volcanic clasts. This includes fragments with quartz that exhibit planar fractures and planar deformation features (PDF). In addition, at three depths, several centimeter-sized clasts with shatter cones were detected. Due to microanalytical identification of relatively rare, microscopic impact melt particles in the matrix of this breccia, this material can be confidently labeled a suevite. Also in this sequence, three unshocked, <1 m thick intersections of volcanic blocks occur at 333.83, 351.52, and 383.00 m depths. The upper bedrock unit begins at 390.74 m depth, has a thickness of 30.15 m, and represents a sequence of different volcanic rocks—an upper part with basaltic composition from 390.74 to 391.79 m depth overlying a lower, rhyodacitic part from 391.79 to 420.27 m depth. This (parautochthonous) basement unit is only very weakly affected by the impact: only one shocked quartz grain with two sets of PDF was recorded at 391.33 m depth. The lower bedrock unit (420.89-517.09 m depth [end of core]) is a brittly deformed, rather homogeneous welded ignimbrite that in part can be considered a cataclasite. The top three meters of this section are sheared, which could represent pre-impact tectonic deformation. A 54 cm thick injection of polymict impact breccia occurs at 471.42-471.96 m depth.

Raschke, Ulli; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Zaag, Patrice Tristan; Pittarello, Lidia; Koeberl, Christian

2013-07-01

194

Parallelization of GeoClaw code for modeling geophysical flows with adaptive mesh refinement on many-core systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We parallelized the GeoClaw code on one-level grid using OpenMP in March, 2011 to meet the urgent need of simulating tsunami waves at near-shore from Tohoku 2011 and achieved over 75% of the potential speed-up on an eight core Dell Precision T7500 workstation [1]. After submitting that work to SC11 - the International Conference for High Performance Computing, we obtained an unreleased OpenMP version of GeoClaw from David George, who developed the GeoClaw code as part of his PH.D thesis. In this paper, we will show the complementary characteristics of the two approaches used in parallelizing GeoClaw and the speed-up obtained by combining the advantage of each of the two individual approaches with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), demonstrating the capabilities of running GeoClaw efficiently on many-core systems. We will also show a novel simulation of the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami waves inundating the Sendai airport and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants, over which the finest grid distance of 20 meters is achieved through a 4-level AMR. This simulation yields quite good predictions about the wave-heights and travel time of the tsunami waves. ?? 2011 IEEE.

Zhang, S.; Yuen, D.A.; Zhu, A.; Song, S.; George, D.L.

2011-01-01

195

Core lithology, Valles caldera No. 1, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Vallas caldera No. 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program research core hole in the Vallas caldera and the first continuously cored hole in the region. The hole penetrated 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera-fill ignimbrites, 35 m of volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales with over 95% core recovery. The primary research objectives included coring through the youngest rhyolite flow within the caldera; obtaining structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring-fracture zone and the pre-caldera Jemez fault zone; and penetrating a high-temperature hydrothermal outflow plume near its source. This report presents a compilation of lithologic and geophysical logs and photographs of core that were collected while drilling VC-1. It is intended to be a reference tool for researchers interested in caldera processes and associated geologic phenomena.

Gardner, J.N.; Goff, F.; Goff, S.; Maassen, L.; Mathews, K.; Wachs, D.; Wilson, D.

1987-04-01

196

Rapid and Quiet Drill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

2007-01-01

197

Iron oxide tracers of ice sheet extent and sediment provenance in the ANDRILL AND-1B drill core, Ross Sea, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AND-1B drill core recovered a 13.57 million year Miocene through Pleistocene record from beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf in Antarctica (77.9°S, 167.1°E). Varying sedimentary facies in the 1285 m core indicate glacial-interglacial cyclicity with the proximity of ice at the site ranging from grounding of ice in 917 m of water to ice free marine conditions. Broader interpretation of climatic conditions of the wider Ross Sea Embayment is deduced from provenance studies. Here we present an analysis of the iron oxide assemblages in the AND-1B core and interpret their variability with respect to wider paleoclimatic conditions. The core is naturally divided into an upper and lower succession by an expanded 170 m thick volcanic interval between 590 and 760 m. Above 590 m the Plio-Pleistocene glacial cycles are diatom rich and below 760 m late Miocene glacial cycles are terrigenous. Electron microscopy and rock magnetic parameters confirm the subdivision with biogenic silica diluting the terrigenous input (fine pseudo-single domain and stable single domain titanomagnetite from the McMurdo Volcanic Group with a variety of textures and compositions) above 590 m. Below 760 m, the Miocene section consists of coarse-grained ilmenite and multidomain magnetite derived from Transantarctic Mountain lithologies. This may reflect ice flow patterns and the absence of McMurdo Volcanic Group volcanic centers or indicate that volcanic centers had not yet grown to a significant size. The combined rock magnetic and electron microscopy signatures of magnetic minerals serve as provenance tracers in both ice proximal and distal sedimentary units, aiding in the study of ice sheet extent and dynamics, and the identification of ice rafted debris sources and dispersal patterns in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica.

Brachfeld, Stefanie; Pinzon, Juliana; Darley, Jason; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Kuhn, Gerhard; Florindo, Fabio; Wilson, Gary; Ohneiser, Christian; Monien, Donata; Joseph, Leah

2013-11-01

198

13. PETROGRAPHIC AND GEOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TEPHRAS IN DEEP SEA DRILLING PROJECT CORES FROM THE NORTH PHILIPPINE SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refractive index and chemical composition were determined for glass shards contained in more than 100 tephra layers in DSDP Leg 58 sediment cores collected in the Shikoku Basin, North Philippine Sea. The refractive index is consistent with chemical composition. Refractive index and total iron show a linear relationship. Tephra in Pleistocene and Pliocene sediments is mostly rhyolitic and dacitic (non-alkali),

Toshio Furuta; Fusao Arai

199

Correction to “Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2”  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This article corrects: Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2. Vol. 114, Issue B11, Article first published online: 5 NOV 2009.

Tembe, Sheryl; Lockner, David; Wong, Teng-fong

2010-01-01

200

Raise drilling  

SciTech Connect

The first raise in the US drilled with equipment specifically designed for the purpose was completed in 1962 at the Homer Wauseca Mine in Michigan. Raise drilling opens vertical and inclined shafts in a wide range of sizes. Such openings can be used for ore passes, ventilation shafts, service raises, stope access, slot raises, fill raises, and emergency escapeways. In sinking large diameter shafts, a raise can be bored first and then enlarged to its final diameter by drill and blast methods. The pilot hole capability of raise drilling machines also can by used to drill small diameter drain holes and sandfill holes. Advances in raise drilling technology are reviewed.

Not Available

1981-02-01

201

How to identify Antarctica's "Oldest Ice" with geophysical data?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Partnership for Ice Core Sciences (IPICS) identified the retrieve of an "Oldest-Ice" ice core as one of the most important scientific challenges in ice core research for the near future. As the outcome of an "Oldest-Ice" workshop a general approach was recently suggested how to combine geophysical reconnaissance, numerical ice-flow modelling and sample drilling to identify the most promising sites where about 1.5 Ma old ice could most likely be found (Fischer et al., CP, 2013). The most critical unknown parameter is the geothermal heat flow underneath the ice, followed by bed topography and integrity of internal layering. Here, we propose the combined application of geophysical methods in conjunction with existing ice-core data to improve the knowledge on physical properties of the ice and the underlaying strata. It builds on (i) conventional application of potential field geophysics (gravimetry and magnetics) to estimate subglacial geology; (ii) radar internal architecture to determine layer integrity and bedrock topography; (iii) combination of ice-core profiles with radar to determine the origin - and thus confirm isochronity and age - of internal radar layers, complemented by layer attributes; (iv) extrapolation of ice-core impurities and the related attenuation of radar waves in space along internal layers; and (v) radar and seismic wave attenuation analyses to determine the englacial temperature distribution. This approach has the potential to improve our capabilities to estimate the spatial variation of geothermal heat flux and provide spatially distributed age-depth constraints for ice-flow models.

Eisen, Olaf

2014-05-01

202

Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-1  

SciTech Connect

Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Swanberg, C.A.; Combs, J. (Geothermal Resources International, Inc., San Mateo, CA (USA)); Walkey, W.C. (GEO Operator Corp., Bend, OR (USA))

1988-07-19

203

Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-3  

SciTech Connect

Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core holes GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commercial exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table.

Swanberg, C.A.

1988-07-19

204

‘Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History’: Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made accessible' is the essence of this goal. Our team consists of research and education specialists from institutions ranging from R1 research to public liberal arts to community college. We address relevant and timely ‘Big Ideas’ with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. The exercises are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to cores, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygen-isotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, drill site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment cores, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, or assigned as homework. All exercises utilize authentic data. Students work with scientific uncertainty, practice quantitative and problem-solving skills, and expand their basic geologic and geographic knowledge. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation strategies, as well as providing links to other supplementary materials and examples for assessment. Preliminary assessment data indicates positive gains in student attitudes towards science, and in their content knowledge and scientific skills. In addition, student outcomes appear to depend somewhat on students’ motivation for taking the course and their institution, but are generally independent of students’ class rank or GPA. Our classroom-tested learning materials are being disseminated through a variety of outlets including instructor workshops and eventually to the web.

St. John, K.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E.; Krissek, L. A.

2009-12-01

205

Chemical geodynamics of continental subduction-zone metamorphism: Insights from studies of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) core samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dabie–Sulu orogenic belt of east-central China has long been a type location for the study of geodynamic processes associated with ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) tectonics. Much of our understanding of the world's most enigmatic processes in continental deep-subduction zones has been deduced from various records in this belt. By taking advantage of having depth profiles from core samples of the Chinese

Yong-Fei Zheng; Ren-Xu Chen; Zi-Fu Zhao

2009-01-01

206

Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

In the late spring of 2008, the Chevron-led Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) expects to conduct an exploratory drilling and logging campaign to better understand gas hydrate-bearing sands in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The JIP Site Selection team selected three areas to test alternative geological models and geophysical interpretations supporting the existence of potential high gas hydrate saturations in reservoir-quality sands. The three sites are near existing drill holes which provide geological and geophysical constraints in Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system in an area characterized by seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and abundant seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets ponded sheet sands and associated channel/levee deposits within a minibasin, making this a non-structural play. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. Drilling locations have been selected at each site to 1) test geological methods and models used to infer the occurrence of gas hydrate in sand reservoirs in different settings in the northern Gulf of Mexico; 2) calibrate geophysical models used to detect gas hydrate sands, map reservoir thicknesses, and estimate the degree of gas hydrate saturation; and 3) delineate potential locations for subsequent JIP drilling and coring operations that will collect samples for comprehensive physical property, geochemical and other analyses.

Hutchinson, D.R. (USGS); Shelander, D. (Schlumberger, Houston, TX); Dai, J. (Schlumberger, Hoston, TX); McConnell, D. (AOA Geophysics, Inc., Houston, TX); Shedd, W. (Minerals Management Service); Frye, M. (Minerals Management Service); Ruppel, C. (USGS); Boswell, R.; Jones, E. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX); Collett, T.S. (USGS); Rose, K.; Dugan, B. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX); Wood, W. (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory); Latham, T. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX)

2008-07-01

207

Deep Drilling at Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science News for Kids article provides an image-rich overview of a deep-sea drilling project off the coast of British Columbia. The article guides students through the exploration, explaining how deep sediment cores are taken, what researchers find in the cores, and details of what life is like on a research ship. It features links to an online poll, an opportunity for students to submit comments, a deep-sea drilling word find, and links to supplementary reading questions and related sites.

Ramsayer, Kate; Magazine, Science N.

208

Why Drill More than One Ice Core? Paleoclimate Reconstruction along a Vertical Transect in the Saint Elias Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic represents one of the key regions on Earth in our efforts to document and understand global change. The St. Elias mountain range in the southwestern Yukon Territory has recently been the focus of an international ice core research.. The broad elevational extent of snow accumulation zones in this region (ranging from 2500 to 5300 m asl) allows for the detailed investigation of environmental change extending from the planetary boundary layer through to the free troposphere via the collection and analysis of ice cores from different elevations. Multi-parameter, high resolution glaciochemical records are currently available from the Northwest Col on Mt. Logan (5340 m asl, 103 m deep; 270 year record;) and from three cores recovered from the Eclipse Icefield (3107 m asl) in 1996 (160 m deep; 100 year record) and in 2002 (345 m and 140 m deep). Snow accumulation rates at Eclipse are about 5 times larger than the summit average of 0.30 m water equivalent. Despite their close proximity, the climate signals recorded on the summit of Mt. Logan also differ from those at Eclipse. For example, while the Mt. Logan record shows no increase in sulfate or nitrate deposition over the past 100 years, all three Eclipse cores shows a clear increase in nitrate and sulfate deposition beginning in the late 1940s due to an increase in anthropogenic emissions in Eurasia during this time period. Over the last century, the sulfate time-series from Eclipse records from 32 discrete volcanic events, primarily from Alaskan, Aleutian, or Kamchatkan eruptions, while the summit site only records 8 volcanic events. The Eclipse summer d18O record displays a significant positive relationship with summer temperatures at both coastal and interior Alaskan sites, while the Mt. Logan d18O time-series does not correlate well with instrumental temperature records or most circum-Arctic paleoclimate records. Conversely, the summit ice core accumulation time-series strongly correlates with instrumental precipitation records from Japan and with indices of the El Nino- Southern Oscillation on both interannual and interdecadal time scales suggesting the summit records are uniquely situated for studies of global teleconnection patterns. Our results to date indicate that the two sites sample different air masses and that boundary layer dynamics play an important role in the glaciochemical signals preserved at each location. The Northwest Col and Eclipse records, in conjunction with analysis of new ice cores already recovered from Prospector-Russell Col (5300 m; 187 m; circa 35,000 years) by the Geological Survey of Canada and King Col (4135 m asl; 220 m deep; circa 2,000 year record) on the Logan Massif by the National Institute for Polar Research (Japan) offers an unprecedented opportunity for paleoclimate reconstruction along a vertical transect in the St. Elias Mountains and should provide a rich and multi-layered contribution to our understanding boundary layer dynamics and Holocene environmental change in the region.

Wake, C. P.; Yalcin, K.; Kreutz, K. J.; Mayewski, P. A.; Fisher, D.; Holdsworth, G.

2004-05-01

209

Drill report  

SciTech Connect

North Slope drilling activity is described. As of November 14, 1984, four rigs were actively drilling in the Kuparuk River field with another two doing workovers. Only one rig was drilling in the Prudhoe Bay field, with another doing workovers and one on standby.

Not Available

1984-12-01

210

Palaeoglaciology of the Alexander Island ice cap, western Antarctic Peninsula, reconstructed from marine geophysical and core data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glacial history of the continental shelf northwest of Alexander Island is not well known, due mainly to a lack of targeted marine data on Antarctica's palaeo-ice sheets in their inter-ice-stream areas. Recently it has been argued that the region was ice-free at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and thus a potential site for glacial refugia. In this paper, multibeam swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiles and sediment cores are used to map the Alexander Island sector of the Antarctic Peninsula margin, in order to reconstruct the shelf's palaeoglaciology. Sea-floor bedforms provide evidence that an independent ice cap persisted on Alexander Island through the LGM and deglaciation. We show that this ice cap drained via two major, previously-undescribed tidewater outlets (Rothschild and Charcot Glaciers) sourced from an ice dome centred over the west of the island and near-shore areas. The glaciers grounded along deep, fjord-like cross-shelf troughs to within at least ˜10-20 km of the shelf edge, and probably reached the shelf break. Only one small outer-shelf zone appears to have remained free of ice throughout an otherwise extensive LGM. During retreat, grounding-line geomorphology indicates periodic stabilisation of Charcot Glacier on the mid-shelf after 13,500 cal yrs BP, while Rothschild Glacier retreated across its mid-shelf by 14,450 cal yrs BP. The timing of these events is in phase with retreat in nearby Marguerite Trough, and we take this as evidence of a common history and forcing with the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet. The fine details of ice flow documented by our new reconstruction highlight the importance of capturing complex ice flow patterns in models (e.g. in inter-stream areas), for understanding how region-specific parts of Antarctica may change in the future. Moreover, the reconstruction shows that glacial refugia, if present, cannot have been extensive on the Alexander Island shelf at the LGM as indicated by previous biological studies; instead, we argue that any ice-free refugia were probably restricted to isolated outer-shelf pockets, that opened, closed, or were maintained through diachronous ice-sheet advance and retreat.

Graham, Alastair G. C.; Smith, James A.

2012-03-01

211

Rhyolites in the Kimberly Drill Core, Project Hotspot: First Intracaldera Ignimbrite from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rhyolites on the track of the Yellowstone hotspot are the classic examples of continental hotspot volcanism and the study of surface outcrops is maturing rapidly. However, in the central part of the track, where silicic volcanism is most voluminous, compositionally distinctive, and isotopically most anomalous, study of these large magma systems has been hindered because eruptive sources are buried. The 2 km Kimberly core helps fill that gap; it penetrates through surficial basalt, deep into the rhyolitic underpinnings on the southern margin of the province. The Kimberly core is dominated by thick sections of rhyolite lava and welded ignimbrite, with basalt-sediment intercalations between 241 m and 424 m depth. We tentatively interpret the core to include a thick intracaldera tuff. Our preliminary studies suggest that there are three major rhyolite units in the core. Rhyolite 3, the uppermost unit, is a nearly 130 m thick, low-silica rhyolite lava. Rhyolite 2 is the most highly evolved with ~75% silica and distinctively resorbed quartz. Rhyolite 1 is at least 1,340 m thick (the base was not cut by the core), has no apparent flow contacts or cooling breaks, and may represent a single, thick intracaldera ignimbrite. Paleomagnetic inclinations form a curious V-shaped profile, shallowing by about 18? between 700 and 1700 m depth. We interpret this to be the result of slower cooling of the mid-part of the thick intracaldera ignimbrite. The lower unit is a low-silica rhyolite with high concentrations of Fe2O3 and TiO2--among the highest of any known ignimbrite on the SRP. It is chemically distinct from the upper units, very homogeneous, not vertically zoned, and lacks multiple populations of phenocrysts. It somewhat resembles the regionally extensive ~10 Ma outflow tuff of Wooden Shoe Butte. However, this is one of several large, petrologically similar ignimbrites as young as 8.6 Ma exposed in the Cassia Mountains south of the hole, so further work is needed. Like most rhyolites from the Snake River Plain, all 3 units have the characteristics of A-type rhyolites with high concentrations of alkalies, high Fe/Mg and TiO2/MgO ratios, as well as high concentrations Nb, Y, Zr and Ga. Initial analyses of plag, cpx, and qtz show that all three units are low ?18O rhyolites, like most from the Central Snake River Plain-- ?18O in feldspar ranges from 1‰ in Rhyolite 1 to 3‰ in Rhyolites 2 and 3. In the thick lower ignimbrite, whole-rock ?18O increases systematically from the base upward (0.5‰ to as much as 9‰ in the altered top and ?D ranges from -140 to -180‰). Whole rock variations correlate with water content, apparently controlled by secondary clay. We suggest that these characteristics were largely imposed by their derivation from partial melting of basaltic sills and surrounding older crust. The low ?18O values reflect recycling of hydrothermally altered crustal rocks and indicate progressive incorporation of more hydrothermally altered material into the younger magmas. More work is needed to establish correlation with regional units, understand the emplacement of the rhyolites and their volcanic setting, and ascertain the origin of these distinctive low ?18O, A-type rhyolites.

Christiansen, E. H.; McCurry, M. O.; Champion, D. E.; Bolte, T.; Holtz, F.; Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.

2013-12-01

212

Construction diagrams, geophysical logs, and lithologic descriptions for boreholes USGS 103, 105, 108, 131, 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, summarizes construction, geophysical, and lithologic data collected from about 4,509 feet of core from seven boreholes deepened or drilled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office, from 2006 to 2009 at the INL. USGS 103, 105, 108, and 131 were deepened and cored from 759 to 1,307 feet, 800 to 1,409 feet, 760 to 1,218 feet, and 808 to 1,239 feet, respectively. Boreholes USGS 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16 were drilled and continuously cored from land surface to 1,198, 759, and 425 feet, respectively. Cores were photographed and digitally logged by using commercially available software. Borehole descriptions summarize location, completion date, and amount and type of core recovered.

Hodges, Mary K.V.; Orr, Stephanie M.; Potter, Katherine E.; LeMaitre, Tynan

2012-01-01

213

30 CFR 251.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.  

...geophysical survey instruments you will use before and during drilling; (v) Seismic, bathymetric, sidescan sonar, magnetometer, or other geophysical data and information sufficient to evaluate seafloor characteristics, shallow geologic...

2014-07-01

214

30 CFR 551.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.  

...Gather and submit seismic, bathymetric, sidescan sonar, magnetometer, or other geophysical data and information to determine...drilling; (v) Seismic, bathymetric, sidescan sonar, magnetometer, or other geophysical data and information...

2014-07-01

215

San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through an integrated program of coring, fluid sampling, in-situ and laboratory experimentation and long-term monitoring, we hope to provide fundamental constraints on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300??C; 2) continuous coring of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6 and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of seismicity and a broad range of physical and chemical properties over periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the regions of greatest scientific interest.

Hickman, Stephen; Younker, Leland; Zobeck, Mark; Cooper, George

1994-01-01

216

San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, we hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300°C; 2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.

1995-01-01

217

Exploration Geophysics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

Savit, Carl H.

1978-01-01

218

Exploration Geophysics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

Espey, H. R.

1977-01-01

219

Integrated provenance-detrital thermochronology studies in ANDRILL AND-2A drill core: first evidence of an Oligocene exhumation episode (McMurdo Sound, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated investigation including provenance analysis of the gravel-fraction and detrital apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology on the AND-2A core provides new results to constrain the exhumation history of source regions and the reconstruction of sediment provenance models in the Ross Embayment in Late Cenozoic time. All the AFT ages, from 20 samples, evenly distributed in the uppermost 1000 m of the core, indicate that the entire succession originated from a source that exhumed in the Oligocene/Late Eocene time. In fact, most of the grains in nearly all the samples can be grouped into a youngest grain-age component (P1) in the range between 21.7 Ma and 43.4 Ma. However, most of the samples show more than one population, documenting the presence of multiple source areas in some periods of the basin history. On the other hand, the presence in some of the samples of a unique peak suggests a limited drainage system, as indicated by the petrographic data. The AFT data indicate the presence of active tectonics at the end of the Oligocene, therefore suggesting a source of sediments located along the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) south of the Dry Valleys Block, where bedrock AFT ages indicate an older (Eocene) exhumation phase. Hence, the idea of a structural segmentation of the TAM during the Cenozoic (Wilson, Glob. Plan. Change, 1999) is well supported by these data. Provenance analysis of the gravel fraction highlights significant down-core modal and compositional variations and the occurrence of two main basement clast assemblages, diagnostic of specific source regions and occurring in distinct core sections: a) including marbles, garnet micaschists and diopside schists, suggesting oscillation of "local" glaciers in the on-shore area close to the AND-2A drill site, and b) low-grade metasediments and alkaline granites, indicating oscillations of a most extensive ice sheet/shelf with a clear provenance from the Skelton-Mulock glacier area. These data agree with AFT ages as both the methodologies give a clear indication for sources located in the southern McMurdo Sound. The compositional shifts of TAM-derived clasts suggest a dynamic behavior (waxing and waning) of the Antarctic Ice Sheets. In particular, expansions of the ice-flow lines of Skelton and Mulock glaciers into the McMurdo Sound are similar to the glaciological reconstructions for the Last Glacial Maximum and, consistently with provenance and glaciological models based on the AND-1B record, they can be interpreted as the result of West Antarctic Ice Sheet influence on provenance and dispersal of sediments in the Ross Embayment.

Zattin, M.; Talarico, F. M.; Sandroni, S.

2009-12-01

220

Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

221

Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is low in the natural gamma ray isotopes uranium, thorium, and potassium, while rhyolites produce high total gamma ray responses. Sediment interbeds become apparent as the radioactivity associated with fine grained minerals is significantly higher than that of the host rock (e.g. basalt) due to high hydrogen concentration within the crystal structure of clays. Basalt lacks conductive minerals and results in high resistivity but moderate magnetic susceptibility. The sediments on the other hand are highly conductive and have a low magnetic susceptibility. The basalt and rhyolite units are relatively massive except for fractures which become apparent in the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. Signal is lost in soft sediments resulting in dark regions when full amplitude is displayed for the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. The massive basalt shows short P- and S-wave travel times and therefore a high sonic velocity, while the sediments display only P-wave first arrivals.

Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

2013-12-01

222

Results from exploratory drill hole UE2ce, Northwest Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, near the NASH Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory drill hole UE2ce was drilled in January 1977 to determine geologic and geophysical characteristics of this site. This report presents geophysical logs, lithology, geologic structure, water table measurements, and physical properties for this drill hole. The data are then extrapolated to the NASH site, an event in U2ce, 55.6 m due north of UE2ce.

Pawloski

1982-01-01

223

Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.  

PubMed

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

2008-06-01

224

Studies on formation mechanism and source depth of mud volcanoes by using of drilling cores in the Kumano forearc basin, SW Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine mud volcanoes are formed as conical mounds composed of erupted unconsolidated or partially consolidated sediments from mud diapirs which are induced by high pore-fluid pressure and buoyancy developed in the deep underground. Most of them were discovered around subduction zones. Mud diapir that brings deep underground materials to seafloor has an important role for material circulations in subduction zones. Moreover, methane seepages at mound summits are suggested by existences of chemosynthetic biological communities, and accumulation of methane hydrate is expected from core samples and seismic reflection studies. Therefore, mud volcano is also significant in terms of global warming and energy resource. In order to understand material circulations by mud volcanoes, information about formation mechanism, source layer and its depth is important. In addition, despite mud diapir is generally regarded as rising phenomenon by buoyancy and abnormal high pore pressure, those physical properties are not well investigated. In this study, we discuss the formation mechanism and source depth of mud diapir by using of samples derived form mud volcanoes. We obtained drilling samples from two sites at the summit of the mud volcano in the Kumano Trough, off Kii Peninsula, SW Japan, during CK09-01 using Deep-Sea Drilling Vessel CHIKYU, in March, 2009. Those sites are near the central part of the vent of the mud volcano. To understand formation process of mud volcano, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, vitrinite reflectance, density, geological description of breccia are conducted. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility shows particle arrangement within samples to understand sedimentation and deformation fabrics. While muddy sediments usually exhibit the ellipsoidal body characterized by oblate shape, the samples from the mud volcano show prolate shape rather than oblate shape. Moreover, long axis of the ellipsoidal body shows mostly vertical direction. Therefore, we expected that the drilling site is influenced by vertical material flow. Porosity of the matrix from the mud volcano is almost constant around 50%. In contrast, the porosity from deposits of the normal basin sediment decreases with the depth and show larger values than those of the mud volcano within 20 m below seafloor. Constant value of porosity of mud volcanoes indicates recent eruption without gravitational compaction. On the other hand, the porosity of breccias shows 20-40 %. These values are smaller than those of the surface basin sediment and the matrix of the mud volcano suggesting their derivations from consolidated host formations. We measured vitrinite reflectances of breccias and estimated absolute maximum temperature of breccias using nanno fossil age by a previous study. The source depth of a breccia is calculated to be 2000 meters using the temperature from vitrinite reflectance and the geothermal gradient of this area. Therefore, it can be said that the source depth of the mud volcano is more than 2000 meters.

Muraoka, S.; Ashi, J.; Kanamatsu, T.; Sakaguchi, A.; Inagaki, F.

2010-12-01

225

Drilling reorganizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will

Barbara T. Richman

1983-01-01

226

Lockdown Drills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

2011-01-01

227

Particle Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysics research has long been dominated by classical mechanics, largely disregarding the potential of particle physics to augment existing techniques. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing Earth's interior with muons and neutrinos. Existing results for various volcanological targets are reviewed. Geoneutrinos are also highlighted as examples in which the neutrino probes elucidate the composition of Earth's deep interior. Particle geophysics has the potential to serve as a useful paradigm to transform our understanding of Earth as dramatically as the X-ray transformed our understanding of medicine and the body.

Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

2014-05-01

228

Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31T, was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l-1) and MgCl2???6H 2O (3 g l-1). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45??C, with an optimum between 35 and 40??C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31T (=NCIMB 14440T = DSM 21240T). ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Finster, K. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Voytek, M. A.; Gronstal, A. L.; Kjeldsen, K. U.

2009-01-01

229

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol

2009-07-13

230

Drilling on Autopilot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated drilling and life-detection system. Her team is drilling into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do core drilling and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.

Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol; Magazine, Astrobiology

231

Drilling reorganizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

Richman, Barbara T.

232

Geophysical Institute Magnetometer Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geophysical Institute Magnetometer Array (GIMA) consists of twelve magnetometer stations distributed across Alaska cutting the auroral oval. Each station is equipped with a ring-core, fluxgate magnetometer, GPS clock and data logger. Data are returned from each station to the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska where it is verified, archived, and made available to the space science community. The GIMA web page, at http://magnet.gi.alaska.edu/, provides the data from eight stations online in real-time. The GIMA web page also provides limited data access from five Russian magnetometer stations. The GIMA data set available online spans the time period 1995 to the present. This presentation describes the current operation of the array, its capabilities (data collection parameters), the web site, and methods for acessing the data set. Current efforts to improve data access and integrate the data set with online virtual observatories is described.

Wilkinson, D.; Heavner, M. J.

2006-12-01

233

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling  

E-print Network

Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography containing citations related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, and International Ocean Discovery Program Last updated: May 2014 #12;Comprehensive Bibliography Comprehensive Ocean Drilling Bibliography

234

Sidewall core gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for taking core samples from the sidewall of a borehole in a well, the apparatus comprising: a string of drill pipe; at least one gun housing connected to the downhole end of the drill string; at least one coring bullet radially disposed within the gun housing, the coring bullet arranged for securing formation samples from the

E. A. Jr. Colle; D. N. Jr. Yates; E. F. Brieger

1986-01-01

235

Drill core-based facies reconstruction of a deep-marine felsic volcano hosting an active hydrothermal system (Pual Ridge, Papau New Guinea, ODP Leg 193)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pual Ridge is a deep-marine, felsic volcanic edifice in the eastern Manus back-arc basin (Papua New Guinea) with an estimated volume of ˜6 to 9 km 3. It is 1-1.5 km wide, 20 km long and rises 500-600 m above the surrounding ocean floor. The active PACMANUS hydrothermal field on the crest of Pual Ridge at 1640-1690 m below sea level was the target of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. Variably altered dacite lavas have been recovered from the subsurface of a low-T discharge site (Snowcap) and a high-T black smoker site (Roman Ruins) reaching a maximum depth of 380 m below seafloor (mbsf). Volcanic facies interpretation of these cores is difficult due to incomplete recovery and widespread pseudoclastic textures generated by fracturing and multi-phase, incomplete fluid-dacite interaction. However, distinction of genuine volcaniclastic facies and facies with alteration-related clastic appearance is important in order to define paleo-seafloor positions within the volcanic stratigraphy, that may be prospective for massive sulfide mineralization. This has been accomplished using remnant primary characteristics indicative of transportation such as polymictic composition, grading or textural evidence for differential movement of individual clasts. Three phases of volcanic activity can be distinguished and a proximal facies association dominated by coherent facies of dacite lavas exists below Snowcap. At Roman Ruins, a medial facies association consists of lava flows with about equal proportions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies. Endogenous growth was an important process during lava flow emplacement and groundmass textures such as perlite, flow banding and spherulites indicate that cooling rates were variable, locally allowing for high-temperature devitrification. A tube pumice breccia unit is interpreted as the resedimented facies of a quench fragmented, highly vesicular dacite lava carapace. Sulfide accumulations in the subsurface are restricted to Roman Ruins suggesting that the abundance of volcaniclastic facies favored ascent of metal-bearing fluids due to the inherent high permeability. Evidence for mineralization at paleo-seafloor positions at 110 and 195 mbsf indicate a complex interrelationship between volcanic and hydrothermal activity. A facies model has been developed which may help to locate subaqueous, felsic lava-dominated volcanic centers and associated sulfide deposits in ancient volcano-sedimentary successions.

Paulick, H.; Vanko, D. A.; Yeats, C. J.

2004-02-01

236

New Discoveries From The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP), an international scientific drilling project involving scientists from the USA, Australia and Japan, was initiated in Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The scientific objectives of the ABDP are the identification of microfossils and biomarkers, the clarification of geochemical environment of the early Earth, and the understanding of geophysical contribution to the co-evolution of life and

M. Nedachi

2004-01-01

237

Lithologic and borehole geophysical data, Green Swamp area, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Continuous unconsolidated cores were obtained at 74 sites in the Green Swamp are to evaluate the potential for downward leakage to the Floridian aquifer. Depth of the core holes ranged from 21 to 227 feet and averaged about 87 feet., Lithology was determined by microscopic examination of the core from each hole. Geophysical logs were obtained from 59 of the 74 core holes. This report presents the detailed lithologic and geophysical data for these core holes.

Grubb, Hayes F.; Chappelear, John W.; Miller, James A.

1978-01-01

238

The Toa Baja Drilling Project, Puerto Rico: Scientific drilling into a non-volcanic island arc massif  

SciTech Connect

The Toa Baja Drilling Project was a broad, interdisciplinary experiment to document the in situ geology and geophysics of a non-volcanic island arc massif. This overview provides a brief summary of oil exploration on Puerto Rico that lead up to the present investigation, and summarizes some of the problems addressed by drilling.

Larue, D.K. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

1991-03-01

239

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

1989-01-01

240

Site Report for USGS Test Holes Drilled at Cape Charles, Northampton County, Virginia, in 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey drilled two test holes near Cape Charles, Virginia, during May and June 2004, as part of an investigation of the buried, late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The first hole is designated as the USGS-Sustainable Technology Park test hole #1 (USGS-STP1). This test hole was abandoned at a depth of 300 ft; cuttings samples were collected, but no cores or geophysical logs were acquired. The second hole is designated as the USGS-Sustainable Technology Park test hole #2 (USGS-STP2). This test hole was drilled to a depth of 2,699 ft. Cores were collected between depths of 1,401.7 ft and 1,420.7 ft and between 2,440.0 ft and 2,699.0 ft. Cuttings samples were collected from the uncored intervals below 280-ft depth. Interim sets of geophysical logs were acquired during the drilling operation, and one final set was acquired at the end of drilling. Two wells were installed in the USGS-STP2 test hole. The deep well (designated 62G-24) was screened between 2,260 ft and 2,280 ft, and the shallow well (designated 62G-25) was screened between 1,360 ft and 1,380 ft. Ground-water salinities stabilized at 40 parts per thousand for the deep well and 20 parts per thousand for the shallow well. The geologic section encountered in the test holes consists of three main units: (1) Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sands and clays are present between land surface and a depth of 1,163 ft; (2) sediment-clast breccias of the impact structure are present between depths of 1,163 ft and 2,150 ft; and (3) crystalline-clast breccias and cataclastic gneiss of the impact structure are present between depths of 2,150 ft and 2,699 ft.

Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Powars, David S.; Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Morin, Roger H.; Self-Trail, Jean M.

2007-01-01

241

Geology of the USW SD-7 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The USW SD-7 drill hole is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the Systematic Drilling Program, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Yucca Mountain site has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-7 drill hole is located near the southern end of the potential repository area and immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility. The hole is not far from the junction of the Main Test Level drift and the proposed South Ramp decline. Drill hole USW SD-7 is 2675.1 ft (815.3 m) deep, and the core recovered nearly complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. Core was recovered from much of the underlying Calico Hills Formation, and core was virtually continuous in the Prow Pass Tuff and the Bullfrog Tuff. The SD-7 drill hole penetrated the top several tens of feet into the Tram Tuff, which underlies the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Tuffs. These latter three units are all formations of the Crater Flat Group, The drill hole was collared in welded materials assigned to the crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone of the Tiva Canyon Tuff; approximately 280 ft (85 m) of this ash-flow sheet was penetrated by the hole. The Yucca Mountain Tuff appears to be missing from the section at the USW SD-7 location, and the Pah Canyon Tuff is only 14.5 ft thick. The Pah Canyon Tuff was not recovered in core because of drilling difficulties, suggesting that the unit is entirely nonwelded. The presence of this unit is inferred through interpretation of down-hole geophysical logs.

Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-09-01

242

Hydraulic core cutting motor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for drilling core cutting from the sidewall of a drill hole wherein the apparatus comprises an elongated housing with a hydraulic operated back-up shoe mounted within the housing for wedging the housing at a selected location in the drill hole and a hydraulic motor with a drilling bit connected thereto for rotation by the hydraulic motor and hydraulic means mounted within the housing and connected to the hydraulic motor for moving the bit into drilling engagement with the sidewall of the drill hole.

Kilmer, L.G.; Carter, J.W.

1987-11-24

243

RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

2002-09-01

244

The San Andreas fault zone drilling project: Scientific objectives and technological challenges  

SciTech Connect

The authors are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, the authors hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: (1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300 C; (2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; (3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and (4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, the authors expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

Hickman, S.H. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Younker, L.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Zoback, M.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics; Cooper, G.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

1995-12-01

245

The San Andreas fault zone drilling project: Scientific objectives and technological challenges  

SciTech Connect

The authors are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through an integrated program of coring, fluid sampling, in-situ and laboratory experimentation and long-term monitoring, the authors hope to provide fundamental constraints on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: (1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300 C; (2) continuous coring of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6 and 9 km; (3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and (4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of seismicity and a broad range of physical and chemical properties over periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, the authors expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the regions of greatest scientific interest.

Hickman, S. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Younker, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Science Division; Zobeck, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics; Cooper, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Material Science and Mineral Engineering

1994-12-31

246

Ocean science drilling and underwater technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new international science program is going to start from 2003 named IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program). The major tools of this science program are drillships, and they drill and get cores from beneath the deep ocean floor around the world. One of the drillships is capable of \\

S. Takagawa

2002-01-01

247

INTRODUCTION APPLIED GEOPHYSICS  

E-print Network

GEOL 384.3 INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED GEOPHYSICS OUTLINE INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED GEOPHYSICS GEOL 384 unknowns; the ones we don't know we don't know. And if one looks throughout the history of geophysics he didn't really say geophysics. He said, " ... our country and other free countries ...". But I am

Merriam, James

248

"Mission to Rochechouart": Drilling Project and Colaterals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rochechouart National Reserve offers to drill core the impact deposits and underlying target and to manage the samples making them available to the scientific community at large. The latter is invited to express interest in studying the samples.

Lambert, P.; Allard, J. L.; Rougier, J. M.

2014-09-01

249

Petrography and phenocryst chemistry of volcanic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A comparison of outcrop and drill hole samples  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of petrographic and mineral chemical data for stratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. It supports a possible peer review of Yucca Mountain drill core by summarizing the available data in a form that allows comparison of stratigraphic units in drill holes with surface outcrops of the same units. Petrographic and mineral chemical data can be used in conjunction with other geologic and geophysical information to determine if stratigraphic relations in Yucca Mountain drill core are geologically reasonable and compare well with relations known from extensive surface studies. This compilation of petrographic and mineral chemical data is complete enough for most stratigraphic units to be used in a peer review of Yucca Mountain drill core. Additional data must be collected for a few units to complete the characterization. Rock units at Yucca Mountain have unique petrographic and mineral chemical characteristics that can be used to make accurate stratigraphic assignments in drill core samples. Stratigraphic units can be differentiated on the basis of petrographic characteristics such as total phenocryst abundances, relative proportions of phenocryst minerals, and type and abundances of mafic and accessory minerals. The mineral chemistry of phenocrysts is also an important means of differentiating among stratigraphic units, especially when used in conjunction with the petrographic data. Sanidine phenocrysts and plagioclase rims have narrow compositional ranges for most units and often have well-defined dominant compositions. Biotite compositions are useful for identifying groups of related units (e.g., Paintbrush Tuff Members vs Crater Flat Tuff Members) and for providing an important check on the consistency of the data. 21 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Broxton, D.E.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Warren, R.G.

1989-04-01

250

Drilling head of a rotary impact drill  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust channel in a rock drilling head of a rotary impact drill has an opening which extends over the front face of the drill shaft and over the adjoining peripheral surface of the drill shaft. Clogging of the exhaust channel is prevented by providing clearances between the forward and peripheral surfaces of the drilling head and the bored hole which are too small to permit the passage of rock particles large enough to block the exhaust channel.

Kleine, W.

1981-01-06

251

Analysis of drill stem test data  

E-print Network

taken from individual wells and compared to subsequent wellinfor- mation takenfrom core analyses, pressure buildup tests, and open flow tests. The method of determining initial reservoir pressure from drill stem test data is discussed, but data were... taken from individual wells and compared to subsequent wellinfor- mation takenfrom core analyses, pressure buildup tests, and open flow tests. The method of determining initial reservoir pressure from drill stem test data is discussed, but data were...

Zak, Albin Joseph

2012-06-07

252

Analysis of borehole geophysical information across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, Karnes County, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Borehole geophysical studies across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, South Texas, show the three geochemical environments often associated with uranium roll-type deposits: an altered (oxidized) zone, an ore zone, and an unaltered (reduced) zone. Mineralogic analysis of the total sulfides contained in the drill core shows only slight changes in the total sulfide content among the three geochemical regimes. However, induced polarization measurements on the core samples indicate that samples obtained from the reduced side of the ore zone are more electrically polarizable than those from the oxidized side of the ore zone, and therefore probably contain more pyrite. Analysis of the clay-size fraction in core samples indicates that montmorillonite is the dominant clay mineral. High resistivity values within the ore zone indicate the presence of calcite cement concentrations that are higher than those seen outside of the ore zone. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements show the presence of an extensive zone of calcite cement within the ore zone, and electrical polarizable material (such as pyrite) within and on the reduced side of the ore zone. A quantitative analysis of the between-hole resistivity data, using a layered-earth model, and a qualitative analysis of the between-hole induced polarization measurements showed that mineralogic variations among the three geochemical environments were more pronounced than were indicated by the geophysical and geologic well logs. Uranium exploration in the South Texas Coastal Plain area has focused chiefly in three geologic units: the Oakville Sandstone, the Catahoula Tuff, and the Jackson Group. The Oakville Sandstone and the Catahoula Tuff are of Miocene age, and the Jackson Group is of Eocene age (Eargle and others, 1971). Most of the uranium mineralization in these formations is low grade (often less than 0.02 percent U3O8) and occurs in shallow deposits that are found by concentrated exploratory drilling programs. The sporadic occurrence of these deposits makes it desirable to develop borehole geophysical techniques that will help to define the depositional environments of the uranium ore, which is characterized by geochemical changes near the uranium deposits. Geochemical changes are accompanied by changes in the physical characteristics of the rocks that can be detected with borehole geophysical tools. This study is concerned with a uranium deposit within the Jackson Group that is located just east of Karnes City, Tex. Five holes were drilled on this property to obtain borehole geophysical data and cores. The cores were analyzed for mineralogic and electrical properties. The borehole geophysical information at this property included induced polarization, resistivity, gamma-gamma density, neutron-neutron, gamma-ray, caliper, and single-point-resistance logs. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements were made between hole pairs across the ore deposit and off the ore deposit.

Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Scott, James Henry; Smith, Bruce D.

1979-01-01

253

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 90, NO. C6, PAGES 11,756-11,764, NOVEMBER 20, 1985 Oscillationsand Rotations of Elliptical Warm-Core Rings  

E-print Network

a strongthermoclinethat risesaround the warm-water pool and reachesthe surface,forming a front along the ring's periphery, theoreticaloceanographershave proposedvery few models of warm-corerings surroundedby an interfacethat extendsto the surface,forming Oscillationsand Rotations of Elliptical Warm-Core Rings BENOIT CUSHMAN-ROISIN Mesoscale

Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

254

EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Journal of Geophysics and Engineering (JGE) aims to publicize and promote research and developments in geophysics and in related areas of engineering. As stated in the journal scope, JGE is positioned to bridge the gap between earth physics and geo-engineering, where it reflects a growing trend in both industry and academia. JGE covers those aspects of engineering that bear closely on geophysics or on the targets and problems that geophysics addresses. Typically this will be engineering focused on the subsurface, particularly petroleum engineering, rock mechanics, geophysical software engineering, drilling technology, remote sensing, instrumentation and sensor design. There is a trend, visible throughout academia, for rapid expansion in cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary working. Many of the most important and exciting problems and advances are being made at the boundaries between traditional subject areas and, increasingly, techniques from one discipline are finding applications in others. There is a corresponding increasing requirement for researchers to be aware of developments in adjacent areas and for papers published in one area to be readily accessible, both in terms of location and language, to those in others. One such area that is expanding rapidly is that at the interface between geophysics and engineering. There are three principal developments. Geophysics, and especially applied geophysics, is increasingly constrained by the limits of technology, particularly computing technology. Consequently, major advances in geophysics are often predicated upon major developments in engineering and many research geophysicists are working in multi-disciplinary teams with engineers. Engineering problems relevant to the sub-surface are increasingly looking to advances in geophysics to provide part of the solution. Engineering systems, for example, for tunnel boring or petroleum reservoir management, are using high-resolution geophysical imaging to reduce uncertainty and associated risk. In the economically dominant area of petroleum exploration and production, the focus has moved dramatically from exploration to production. This shift is leading increasingly to integration between petroleum geoscience and petrophysics on the one hand, and petroleum engineering and rock mechanics on the other. This integration means that petroleum engineers need to be aware of developments in geophysics, and geophysicists need to be aware of the problems and requirements of the reservoir engineer. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering has been established firmly in that context, and we expect this trend to strengthen and extend far into the future. The Editors welcome your submissions, and comments on this first issue of JGE.

2004-03-01

255

13. Wysession, M. E., et al. in The Core-Mantle Boundary Region (eds Gurnis, M., Wysession, M. E., Knittle, E. & Buffett, B. A.) 273297 (American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 1998).  

E-print Network

., Knittle, E. & Buffett, B. A.) 273­297 (American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 1998). 14. Sidorin, I­318 (American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 1998). 16. Panning, M. & Romanowicz, B. Inferences on flow., Forte, A., Liebermann, R., Masters, G. & Stixrude, L.) 63­87 (American Geophysical Union, Washington DC

Vocadlo, Lidunka

256

National Geophysical Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To say that the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) brings a wide range of scientific materials together in one location online would perhaps be a bit of an understatement. This site brings together over 300 digital and analog databases, which include those that deal with marine conditions, lake cores, seismic reflection, and ecosystems. Visitors can feel free to browse around in this list of databases via the "Data and Information" tab located on the top of the site's homepage, or they can also perform a more detailed search as well. It is worth noting that there are six featured types of databases on the homepage, which include solar events, geomagnetic data, and natural hazards. Additionally, a good way to keep abreast of new materials on the site is by looking at their "News and Features" area, which profiles data sets of note.

257

Apparatus and method for drilling into the sidewall of a drill hole  

SciTech Connect

A method of core cutting and apparatus operable on a seven conductor wireline logging cable for drilling a hole in the sidewall of a drill hole which comprises an elongated housing with a hydraulically operated backup shoe mounted within the housing for wedging the housing at a selected location in the drill hole and a hydraulic motor with a drilling bit connected thereto for rotation by the hydraulic motor. Hydraulic means are mounted within the housing and are connected to the hydraulic motor for moving the bit into drilling engagement with the sidewall of the drill hole. In one embodiment, a core cutting bit is connected to the motor for obtaining a sample of a subterranean formation at the selected location.

Broding, R.A.; Jageler, A.E.; Kilmer, L.G.

1982-10-19

258

Ocean Drilling Program Legacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) conducted basic research into Earth processes by recovering sediment and rock samples from below the ocean floor and using the resulting holes to perform downhole measurements and experiments. The program, which lasted from 1983 to 2003, published thousands of pages of data and reports, which are now available online. The materials include information on sampling procedures, permanent core archives, repositories, and micropaleontological reference centers. Available publications include ODP proceedings and scientific results; initial and preliminary reports; technical notes and reports; citations; the ODP bibliography, dictionary, and editorial guide; and issues of the JOIDES (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling) Journal from 1975 to 2004. There are also links to ODP core data and logs and extensive data documentation. Other links access ODP outreach materials, information on engineering and science operations, cruise leg summaries and discovery highlights, and information on the administration of the program.

259

Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

2014-01-01

260

Geophysical imaging methods for analysis of the Krafla Geothermal Field, NE Iceland  

E-print Network

Joint geophysical imaging techniques have the potential to be reliable methods for characterizing geothermal sites and reservoirs while reducing drilling and production risks. In this study, we applied a finite difference ...

Parker, Beatrice Smith

2012-01-01

261

Spatial scale analysis in geophysics - Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in groundwater studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Integration of geophysical data obtained at various scales can bridge the gap between localized data from boreholes and site-wide data from regional survey profiles. Specific approaches to such analysis include: 1) comparing geophysical measurements in boreholes with the same measurement made from the surface; 2) regressing geophysical data obtained in boreholes with water-sample data from screened intervals; 3) using multiple, physically independent measurements in boreholes to develop multivariate response models for surface geophysical surveys; 4) defining subsurface cell geometry for most effective survey inversion methods; and 5) making geophysical measurements in boreholes to serve as independent verification of geophysical interpretations. Integrated analysis of surface electromagnetic surveys and borehole geophysical logs at a study site in south Florida indicates that salinity of water in the surficial aquifers is controlled by a simple wedge of seawater intrusion along the coast and by a complex pattern of upward brine seepage from deeper aquifers throughout the study area. This interpretation was verified by drilling three additional test boreholes in carefully selected locations.

Paillet, F. L.

2002-01-01

262

Rationale for future Antarctic and Southern Ocean drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valuable insights into future sensitivity of the Antarctic cryosphere to atmospheric and oceanic warming can be gained from the geologic record of past climatic warm intervals. Continental to deep ocean sediments provide records of contemporaneous changes in ice sheet extent and oceanographic conditions that extend back in time, including periods with atmospheric CO2 levels and temperatures similar to those likely to be reached in the next 100 years. The Circum-Antarctic region is under-sampled respect to scientific ocean drilling. However, recovery from glacially-influenced, continental shelf and rise sediments (expeditions ODP178, 188 and IODP 318), provided excellent records of Cenozoic climate and ice sheet evolution. The ANtarctic DRILLing program achieved >98% recovery on the Ross Sea shelf with a stable platform on fast ice with riser drilling technology. Newer technologies, such as the MeBo shallow drilling rig will further improve Antarctic margin drilling. Drilling around Antarctica in the past decades revealed cooling and regional ice growth during the Cenozoic, coupled with paleogeographic, CO2 atmosphere concentration and global temperature changes. Substantial progress has been made in dating sediments and in the interpretation of paleoclimate/paleoenvironmental proxies in Antarctic margin sediments (e.g. orbital scale variations in Antarctica's cryosphere during the Miocene and Pliocene). Holocene ultra-high resolution shelf sections recently recovered can be correlated to the ice core record, to detect local mechanisms versus inter-hemispheric connections. While the potential for reconstructing past ice sheet history has been demonstrated through a careful integration of geological and geophysical data with numerical ice sheet modelling, uncertainties remain high due to the sparse geographic distribution of the records and the regional variability in the ice sheet's response. Projects developed using a multi-leg, multi-platform approach (e.g. latitudinal and/or depth transects involving a combination of land/ice shelf, seabed, riser, and riserless drilling platforms) will likely make the most significant scientific advances. Fundamental hypothesis can be tested and accomplished by drilling depth transects from ice-proximal to ice-distal locations, that will enable researchers to link past perturbations in the ice sheet with Southern Ocean and global climate dynamics. The variable response of the ice sheet to ongoing climatic change mandates broad geographic drilling coverage, particularly in climatically sensitive regions, like those with large upstream drainage basins, whose marine terminus is presently melting, due to ocean, warming water impinging the continental shelf. Key transects were identified at community workshops (http://www.scar-ace.org) in the frame of the SCAR/ACE (Antarctic Climate Evolution) and PAIS (Past Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics) programs. New proposals, also for MSP expeditions were then submitted to IODP, in addition to the existing ones, in the frame of a scientific concerted strategy and with a significant European participation. Main questions underpinning future scientific drilling tied IODP Science themes: 1) How did and will the Antarctic Ice Sheets respond to elevated temperatures and atmospheric pCO2? What is the contribution of Antarctic ice to past and future sea level changes? 2) What was the timing of rifting and subsidence controlling the opening of ocean gateways and the initiation of the circumpolar current system and the onset of glaciations?

De Santis, Laura; Gohl, Karsten; Larter, Rob; Escutia, Carlota; Ikehara, Minoru; Hong, JongKuk; Naish, Tim; Barrett, Peter; Rack, Frank; Wellner, Julia

2013-04-01

263

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility as a tool for recognizing core deformation: reevaluation of the paleomagnetic record of Pleistocene sediments from drill hole OL-92, Owens Lake, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At Owens Lake, California, paleomagnetic data document the Matuyama/Brunhes polarity boundary near the bottom of a 323-m core (OL-92) and display numerous directional fluctuations throughout the Brunhes chron. Many of the intervals of high directional dispersion were previously interpreted to record magnetic excursions. For the upper ~120 m, these interpretations were tested using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which typically defines a subhorizontal planar fabric for sediments deposited in quiet water. AMS data from intervals of deformed core, determined from detailed analysis of sedimentary structures, were compared to a reference AMS fabric derived from undisturbed sediment. This comparison shows that changes in the AMS fabric provide a means of screening core samples for deformation and the associated paleomagnetic record for the adverse effects of distortion. For that portion of core OL-92 studied here (about the upper 120 m), the combined analyses of sedimentary structures and AMS data demonstrate that most of the paleomagnetic features, previously interpreted as geomagnetic excursions, are likely the result of core deformation.

Rosenbaum, Joseph; Reynolds, Richard; Smoot, Joseph; Meyer, Robert

2000-01-01

264

Probability of ignition of reactive wastes by rotary sampling drills  

SciTech Connect

Sampling with a rotary drill could potentially cause a fire in some Hanford tanks. If the rotary drill experiences a failure while in fuel-rich, dry waste, the waste could be ignited by the hot drill bit. For the saltcake tanks subject to this hazard, this report presents a methodology for calculating the probabilities of fire due to core drill failure. The methodology utilizes sampling data from tank characterization studies to determine the amount of reactive waste in the tanks.

Heasler, P.G.

1996-06-01

265

Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program  

SciTech Connect

This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.

Stieve, A.

1991-05-15

266

Lithology and stratigraphy of selected drill holes in LANL use areas of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site. Volume V  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a compilation of data from drill holes completed, except where noted, during the calendar year 1983 in areas used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site. Data presented in this report includes hole locations, drilling statistics, a supplemental data sheet, stratigraphy and lithology penetrated, and selected geophysical logs including a log of drilling

S. L. Jr. Drellack; J. L. Gonzales; W. J. Davies

1984-01-01

267

The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (IODP Exp. 343&343T JFAST): Making Scientific Drilling History in the Japan Trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international scientific community began planning the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST) soon after the 11 March Tohoku Earthquake occurred. Predicted rapid decay of any thermal anomaly resulting from shear heating, which may allow the frictional strength of the main slip zone to be calculated, dictated that temperature measurements needed to be made within 18 months of the initial earthquake. Based on the drilling and observatory request from the science team, the Center for Deep Earth Exploration (CDEX) began scoping activities for this project, and rapidly became aware of some of the daunting technical challenges involved in drilling in approximately 7 km of water. The deepest water depth drilling in scientific ocean drilling history was in the Marianas Trench in 1978 in water depth of 7,049.5 m with 15.5 m penetration. The original plan of JFAST required logging-while-drilling (LWD) and sample collection from 1,000 m below the seafloor in 7,000 m water depth in the Japan Trench. Beyond this, temperature observatories needed to be deployed into the borehole. A scientific drilling proposal was submitted to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) by 1 August 2011 and our preparation for the operation began in parallel. To reach the plate boundary target, and to install an observatory, we had to develop several new tools (e.g., a casing running tool). The strength and performance of the drill string was also a major technical and engineering issue. Taking the limitations of the operational time window into account, our original strategy was, in about 7,000 m of water depth near the axis of the Japan Trench, to 1) drill a 8-1/2" hole with LWD and install an observatory 900 m below the seafloor, 2) drill a 10-5/8" hole with coring assembly and collect core samples from the deeper part of the hole then install another observatory 900 m below the seafloor. IODP Expedition 343 (JFAST) started on 1 April 2012 (less than 13 months after the earthquake). Several mechanical and weather issues prohibited completion of the above planned operations but we had reached the following operational targets by the end of this expedition of 24 May 2012: 1. Penetrated 850.5 m below seafloor and obtained geophysical data by LWD which allowed the plate boundary interface to be located. 2. Collected core samples from 648 m to 844.5 m below the seafloor, including samples of the plate boundary fault zone. Both operations were completed in water depth of 6889.5 m. However, due to a lack of operational time, the installation of temperature observatories was not performed. Consequently, IODP and CDEX/JAMSTEC decided to return to the site, in a follow-up expedition (IODP Expedition 343T), to install a temperature observatory into a borehole started by the original part of the expedition. IODP Expedition 343T began on 5 July 2012 and successfully installed a temperature observatory into an 854.8 m borehole in 6,897.5 m of water, operations completed on 19 July 2012.

Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Maeda, L.; Sawada, I.; Saruhashi, T.; Kyo, N.; Namba, Y.; Chester, F.; Mori, J. J.; Science Party, I.

2012-12-01

268

GIS of selected geophysical and core data in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope collected by the U.S. Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1982 the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected a large amount of surficial and shallow subsurface geologic information in the deep-water parts of the US EEZ in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These data include digital sidescan sonar imagery, digital seismic-reflection data, and descriptions and analyses of piston and gravity cores. The data were collected during several different projects that addressed surficial and shallow subsurface geologic processes. Some of these datasets have already been published, but the growing interest in the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico warrants integrating these existing USGS datasets and associated interpretations into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide regional background information for ongoing and future gas hydrate research. This GIS is organized into five different components that contain (1) information needed to develop an assessment of gas hydrates, (2) background information for the Gulf of Mexico, (3) cores collected by the USGS, (4) seismic surveys conducted by the USGS, and (5) sidescan sonar surveys conducted by the USGS. A brief summary of the goals and findings of the USGS field programs in the Gulf of Mexico is given in the Geologic Findings section, and then the contents of each of the five data categories are described in greater detail in the GIS Data Catalog section.

Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Winters, William J.; Hart, Patrick E.

2006-01-01

269

Application of Ground Penetrating Radar and Geodetics to the Selection of an Ice Core Drill Site on the Kahiltna Glacier of Mount McKinley, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in global climate change continues to fuel the search for more sources of quality paleo-climate information in hopes of accurately reconstructing and predicting past and future climates respectively. Ice core records from the Arctic and Antarctic have provided some of the most reliable data for paleo-climate modeling however, the validity of these data and models rely heavily on a

S. W. Campbell; K. J. Kreutz; C. P. Wake; E. C. Osterberg; S. A. Arcone; K. Volkening; M. Lurie

2009-01-01

270

In situ gas concentrations in the Kumano forearc basin from drilling mud gas monitoring and sonic velocity data (IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 Site C0009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional IODP shipboard methods of gas investigations comprise gas sampling from core voids and headspace gas sampling followed by shipboard gas analysis. These methods possibly underestimate the in situ gas concentration due to core degassing during retrieval and handling on deck. In few cases, a Pressure Core Sampler (PCS) was used in the past to overcome this problem, providing gas concentrations one or two order of magnitude higher than headspace gas analysis from corresponding depths. Here, we describe two new techniques applied during IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 Site C0009 riser drilling in the Kumano forearc basin to estimate in situ gas concentrations without drill core recovery. During riser drilling of site C0009 between 703 to 1594 mbsf, gas was continuously extracted from returing drilling mud and analysed in real-time (drill mud gas monitoring). This method results in information on the gas composition and gas concentration at depth. The chemical (C1-C3) and isotope (?13C, H/D) composition of hydrocarbons, the only formation-derived gases identified in drill mud, demonstrate a microbial hydrocarbon gas source mixing with small but increasing amounts of thermogenic gas at greater depth. Methane content in drilling mud semi-quantitatively correlates with visible allochtonous material (wood, lignite) in drilling cuttings. In situ gas concentration determination from drill mud gas monitoring based on the assumption that gas is either liberated from the rock into the drilling mud during drilling and ascent with the mud column or remains in the pore space of the drilling cuttings. Drilling mud gas data were calibrated with a defined amount of C2H2 (175 l [STP]) from a carbide test and result in methane concentrations reaching up to 24 lgas/lsediment, in good agreement with findings from other IODP Legs using the PCS. Hydrocarbon gas concentrations in drilling cuttings from C0009 are significantly lower, indicating cuttings outgassing during ascent of the drill mud column to the surface. An alternative method to quantify free gas is the analysis of high quality sonic data from wireline logging to infer the porosity and estimate the water content stored in intergranular pores and the gas saturation (Doan et al., 2011). Drill mud gas monitoring and sonic velocity data analysis reveal similar depth concentration profiles for C0009 and in situ gas concentrations in fairly good agreement. The further observation implies that formation gas is located in the pore space of the rock and does e.g. not penetrate into the borehole through fractures and faults. Doan, M.-L.; Conin, M.; Henry, P.; Wiersberg, T.; Boutt, D.; Buchs, D.; Saffer, D.; McNeill, L. C.; Cukur, D.; Lin, W. (2011) Quantification of free gas in the Kumano fore-arc basin detected from borehole physical properties: IODP Nan TroSEIZE drilling Site C0009. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 12, Q0AD06, doi: 10.1029/2010GC003284

Wiersberg, T.; Doan, M.-L.; Schleicher, A. M.; Horiguchi, K.; Eguchi, N.; Erzinger, J.

2012-04-01

271

Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans  

SciTech Connect

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

272

Geophysical InversionFacility  

E-print Network

UBC Geophysical InversionFacility Modelling and Inversion of EMI data collected over magnetic soils of EMI data acquired at sites with magnetic soils · Geophysical Proveouts · Geonics EM63 Data · First model parameters: · Location · Orientation · Polarizabilities 4 #12;UBC Geophysical Inversion Facility

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

273

Non-invasive characterization of water-bearing strata using a combination of geophysical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogeological investigations were carried out in an arid area of Inner-Mongolia to determine the locations of future water supply resources. The first geophysical survey was conducted near Baiqi to identify favorable boreholes using magnetic resonance sounding (MRS). The yield capacities of 43 sites were investigated, and the extent of the potential groundwater storage was determined. Previous studies have indicated that a major tectonic structure may have a significant impact on the groundwater flow and well yield in the study area. Therefore, high-resolution seismic surveys were applied in the second stage of the investigation to determine the fault locations. After the regional identification, a major structure was investigated in detail to map the fracture patterns. Based on the assumption that the hydraulic conductivity of this formation is similar along the entire strike of the fracture, we proposed drilling a borehole (BQ3) in the zone. However, this well has a yield of only 0.8 L/s, falling short of the required flow rate of 3.0 L/s. Therefore, the objective of the final stage of exploration was to accurately define the attitude and extension of the aquifer and to select a more favorable borehole site that would meet the required water flow rate. The geophysical exploration was carried out using time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and MRS methods. The MRS results suggest optimal locations for water supply boreholes within the subsurface structures mapped by the TDEM inversion method. The data obtained by drilling and coring are in agreement with the predicted aquifer thickness from the TDEM data. Pumping tests indicate that the water discharge of borehole BQ4 was 3.5 L/s. Our results demonstrate that the delineation of the groundwater body using a combined application of three geophysical methods (the MRS, TDEM and 2D seismic methods) was successful.

Lin, Jun; Lin, Tingting; Ji, Yanju; Chen, Zubin; Zhao, Yiping; Li, Haisheng

2013-04-01

274

Fiscal year 1985 groundwater investigation drilling program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 2805  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater investigation drilling operations at ten formerly or currently used waste disposal sites in the Y-12 vicinity have been completed. A total of 4 core holes, 11 soil borings, and 55 groundwater investigation wells were drilled at identified locations. The objective of the drilling program was to characterize the geology and hydrology of the sites investigated so that an effective monitoring well network could be designed and installed. The basic approach followed at each of the sites was to identify the major features of subsurface geology and then install the necessary boreholes to investigate the hydrogeologic significance of such features. Initially, a core hole or relatively deep borehole was drilled at an up section location to determine the general components of the subsurface geology. Study of drill cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs from this initial borehole identified geohydrologically significant targets. Those identified for investigation during the second stage of drilling at a specific site include: (1) the top of the water table, (2) the interface between the base of soil and the top of weathered bedrock, (3) base of weather in the bedrock, (4) cavity zones near the base of weathering in the top of bedrock, (5) zones of high porosity in the unweathered bedrock, and (6) fractures or fractured zones within the unweathered bedrock. After the investigatory phase was completed, groundwater investigation wells were installed to provide additional subsurface geological data and to provide data on hydrostatic heads and water quality for the shallow-flow regime in soils and upper weathered-bedrock zone and for the deep-flow regimes within the bedrock below the zone of significant weathering. 24 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

Haase, C.S.; Gillis, G.A.; King, H.L.

1987-01-01

275

Drilling an Active Pahoehoe Lava Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core-Drilling of an actively inflating pahoehoe lava flow on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii has provided new insight into the timing and causes of widely recognized petrologic variations within individual basalt flows. Seven closely spaced and successively longer cores through the crust-melt interface, along with melt samples, were recovered from a single lava flow during inflation and then throughout final solidification. Petrologic

C. Thornber; L. Keszthelyi; C. Lewis-Kenedi; M. Cazeneuve; D. Goehring

2004-01-01

276

International Collaboration in Data Management for Scientific Ocean Drilling: Preserving Legacy Data While Implementing New Requirements.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2003-2013 initial phase) is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP: 1968-1983) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP: 1985-2003). These earlier scientific drilling programs amassed collections of sediment and rock cores (over 300 kilometers stored in four repositories) and data organized in distributed databases and in print or electronic publications. International members of the IODP have established, through memoranda, the right to have access to: (1) all data, samples, scientific and technical results, all engineering plans, data or other information produced under contract to the program; and, (2) all data from geophysical and other site surveys performed in support of the program which are used for drilling planning. The challenge that faces the individual platform operators and management of IODP is to find the right balance and appropriate synergies among the needs, expectations and requirements of stakeholders. The evolving model for IODP database services consists of the management and integration of data collected onboard the various IODP platforms (including downhole logging and syn-cruise site survey information), legacy data from DSDP and ODP, data derived from post-cruise research and publications, and other IODP-relevant information types, to form a common, program-wide IODP information system (e.g., IODP Portal) which will be accessible to both researchers and the public. The JANUS relational database of ODP was introduced in 1997 and the bulk of ODP shipboard data has been migrated into this system, which is comprised of a relational data model consisting of over 450 tables. The JANUS database includes paleontological, lithostratigraphic, chemical, physical, sedimentological, and geophysical data from a global distribution of sites. For ODP Legs 100 through 210, and including IODP Expeditions 301 through 308, JANUS has been used to store data from 233,835 meters of core recovered, which are comprised of 38,039 cores, with 202,281 core sections stored in repositories, which have resulted in the taking of 2,299,180 samples for scientists and other users (http://iodp.tamu.edu/janusweb/general/dbtable.cgi). JANUS and other IODP databases are viewed as components of an evolving distributed network of databases, supported by metadata catalogs and middleware with XML workflows, that are intended to provide access to DSDP/ODP/IODP cores and sample-based data as well as other distributed geoscience data collections (e.g., CHRONOS, PetDB, SedDB). These data resources can be explored through the use of emerging data visualization environments, such as GeoWall, CoreWall (http://(www.evl.uic.edu/cavern/corewall), a multi-screen display for viewing cores and related data, GeoWall-2 and LambdaVision, a very-high resolution, networked environment for data exploration and visualization, and others. The U.S Implementing Organization (USIO) for the IODP, also known as the JOI Alliance, is a partnership between Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Texas A&M University, and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. JOI is a consortium of 20 premier oceanographic research institutions that serves the U.S. scientific community by leading large-scale, global research programs in scientific ocean drilling and ocean observing. For more than 25 years, JOI has helped facilitate discovery and advance global understanding of the Earth and its oceans through excellence in program management.

Rack, F. R.

2005-12-01

277

Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1997-11-01

278

Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

1996-06-01

279

North American Database of Archaeological Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under a grant from the National Park Service's National Center for Preservation Technology, the North American Database of Archaeological Geophysics (NADAG) is developed and maintained by the Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies (CAST) and members of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Arkansas. The Web site primarily targets the general archaeology community, offering a wide array of information geared toward using geophysical methods and technology to improve archaeological practices. Among other materials, the Web Site offers an image library, project database, and bibliography concerning the archaeological geophysics of North America. Searchable by location, archaeological site type, and geophysical survey type, NADAG's core materials -- the image library and project database -- are easy to navigate and extensive. Another point of interest, especially for educators, are the provided education materials. Additionally, users should note the open nature of the site's data; NADAG accepts relevant submissions to their database.

280

Rotary blasthole drilling update  

SciTech Connect

Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2008-02-15

281

Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala: exploration geothermal gradient drilling and results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala, indicate that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 300??C. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, fracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. The hole is located 300 m south of a 300m-diameter phreatic crater. Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2910 years. TCB-1 temperature logs do not indicate isothermal conditions at depth and the calculated thermal gradient from 500-800 m is 230??C/km. Bottom hole temperature is close to 240??C. Calculated heat flow values are around 350-400 mW/m2. Fluid-inclusion and secondary-alteration studies indicate that veins and secondary minerals were formed at temperatures equal to or slightly less than present temperatures; thus, the Tecuamburro geothermal system may still be heating up. The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for geothermal resource development. ?? 1992.

Goff, S. J.; Goff, F.; Janik, C. J.

1992-01-01

282

Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well.

Bennecke, W.M.

1996-10-01

283

Scientific Drilling in the Southwest Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent geophysical surveys and geological studies in the southwest Pacific Ocean have improved scientists' understanding of geological evolution and helped to crystallize new research goals. In the current phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), there have been five regional expeditions: Canterbury Basin Sea Level (Expedition 317), Wilkes Land Glacial History off Antarctica (Expedition 318), Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes (Expedition 325), South Pacific Gyre Subseafloor Life (Expedition 329), and Louisville Seamount Trail (Expedition 330). Of six current IODP proposals, four are ready to drill. To review the latest research in the region, briefly outline possible future IODP expeditions, and set up working groups to develop compelling new drilling proposals in the global science context, a workshop was organized at the University of Sydney with a diverse group of 80 scientists. As the JOIDES Resolution may be in the region fairly soon, the workshop participants agreed on the urgent need to build strong science proposals.

Exon, Neville; Gallagher, Stephen; Seton, Maria

2013-03-01

284

Old Maid Flat geothermal exploratory hole No. 7A drilling and completion report  

SciTech Connect

Drilling and testing efforts for a 6000-foot geothermal exploratory hole on the western approaches to Mount Hood, near Portland, Oregon were completed. The intent of the drilling was to encounter a hydrothermal reservoir in a postulated fracture system and confirm the existence of a moderate-temperature (200/sup 0/F) geothermal resource in the Old Main Flat (OMF) vicinity of Mount Hood. The exploratory hole, OMF No. 7A, was completed to a total depth of 6027 feet in 54 days using conventional rotary drilling techniques. The hole was found to be incapable of producing fluids with the desired temperatures. A maximum hole temperature of about 235/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth and a temperature gradient of about 3.3/sup 0/F/100 feet was exhibited over the lower 1000 feet of hole. A variety of technical data, including physical samples such as cores, cuttings, and borehole fluids, plus geophysical well logs were acquired. Data analyses are continuing, with results to be made available through future separate reports.

Not Available

1981-02-01

285

Assessment of geophysical logs from borehole USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Commercial logging contractors, Western Atlas, Schlumberger, and Edcon obtained borehole geophysical logs at the site of a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drill hole USW-G2 was picked for this test of suitable logging tools and logging technology, both representing state-of-the-art technology by these commercial companies. Experience gained by analysis of existing core data and a variety of logs obtained earlier by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas served as a guide to a choice of logs to be obtained. Logs were obtained in water-filled borehole in zeolitized tuff (saturated zone) and in air-filled borehole largely in unaltered welded tuff (unsaturated zone).

Nelson, P.H. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Schimschal, U. [Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)

1993-05-01

286

Geothermal drilling technology update  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

Glowka, D.A.

1997-04-01

287

Coring Sample Acquisition Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

2012-01-01

288

Cores from the Salton Sea scientific drilling program: Metamorphic reaction progress as a function of chemical and thermal environment: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The study investigated the downhole progressive metamorphism at the Salton Sea site by monitoring and evaluating discontinuous and continuous metamorphic reactions. The main emphasis was placed on: (1) the addition of petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical data to the Salton Sea data base; (2) determination of downhole reactions; (3) evaluation of the progress of individual continuous reaction (epsilon) and the overall reaction progress (epsilon/sub T/) during the transition from one metamorphic zone to the next; and (4) evaluation and correlation of mineral reactions and reaction progress with mineral phase and organic material geothermometry. To these ends, thirty-three samples from the Salton Sea core were analyzed for: (1) quantitative modal mineralogy using the x-ray diffraction reference intensity method (RIM), (2) 30 major and trace elements in the whole rock and (3) mineral chemistry and structural state. In addition, a subset of these samples were used for temperature determinations using vitrinite reflectivity.

Papike, J.J.; Shearer, C.K.

1987-05-13

289

Geochemical monitoring of drilling fluids; A powerful tool to forecast and detect formation waters  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method based on the difference between the chemical compositions of formation and drilling fluids for analyzing drilling mud to forecast fluid-producing zones. The method was successfully applied in three boreholes in crystalline rocks in France. Subsequent geophysical logs and hydraulic tests confirmed the occurrence of flowing fractures.

Vuataz, F.D. (Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland)); Brach, M.; Criaud, A. (Ciments Francais (FR)); Fouillac, C. (Joint Institute for Geothermal Research (FR))

1990-06-01

290

Scientific Coring in the Lake Tahoe Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Tahoe ranks among the largest, oldest, and deepest lakes in North America. In addition, the lake is located at a major tectonic boundary. These factors make the Lake Tahoe basin an exciting natural laboratory for studying the interaction between tectonics and climate in a high-altitude temperate setting. A recent meeting to explore the potential benefits of a comprehensive program of scientific coring in the Lake Tahoe basin attracted 67 researchers from 28 institutions. The meeting was supported by a grant from the Drilling, Observations, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) consortium with additional funding provided by the John Muir Institute for the Environment and the Tahoe Environmental Research Center at the University of California, Davis, the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, San Diego, the Desert Research Institute in Reo, Nev., the Academy for the Environment of the University of Nevada, Reno, and the U.S. Geological Survey.

Verosub, Kenneth L.

2006-01-01

291

Surface drilling technologies for Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rock drilling and coring conceptual designs for the surface activities associated with a manned Mars mission are proposed. Straightforward extensions of equipment and procedures used on Earth are envisioned for the sample coring and shallow high explosive shot holes needed for tunneling and seismic surveying. A novel rocket exhaust jet piercing method is proposed for very rapid drilling of shot holes required for explosive excavation of emergency radiation shelters. Summaries of estimated equipment masses and power requirements are provided, and the indicated rotary coring rigs are scaled from terrestrial equipment and use compressed CO2 from the Martian atmosphere for core bit cooling and cuttings removal. A mass of 120 kg and power of 3 kW(e) are estimated for a 10 m depth capability. A 100 m depth capacity core rig requires about 1150 kg and 32 km(e). The rocket exhaust jet equipment devised for shallow (3m) explosive emplacement shot holes requires no surface power beyond an electrical ignition system, and might have a 15 kg mass.

Blacic, J. D.; Rowley, J. C.; Cort, G. E.

1986-01-01

292

Solid-Earth Geophysics in Latinamerica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical research increasingly requires of multidisciplinary global approaches. This is particularly the case on Earth system science, where studies of our planet attempt to integrate phenomena from the inner core to surface, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and beyond the magnetosphere into our solar system. To accomplish this, studies span wide ranges of spatial and temporal scales. Increasing understanding of how deeply interrelated

J. Urrutia-F

2003-01-01

293

Reykjanes Ridge Crest: A Detailed Geophysical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical survey employing satellite navigation was carried out over the Reykjanes submarine ridge southwest of Iceland. Water depth, sediment thickness, and the gravity and magnetic fields were continuously measured. In addition, bottom cores and measurements of sediment and water temperatures were obtained at stations. Expendable radio Sohobuoys were used to make seismic refraction measurements. This paper combines these various

Manik Talwani; Charles C. Windisch; Marcus G. Langseth Jr.

1971-01-01

294

A proposal for drilling to the base of a Lamont Seamount at 9° 50 N EPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lamont Seamount chain intersects the East Pacific Rise at 9° 50N and is a significant feature within the RIDGE2000 program integrated study site at 8-10° N. However, the origin of this, as well as all near-ridge seamount chains, remains unresolved. Geochemically, Lamont Seamount lavas form an excellent depleted end-member magma which mix with more enriched magmas to form typical 9° N EPR NMORB. Here I present the case for an IODP project to obtain a drill core to the base of a Lamont Seamount in order to gain fundamental insight into mantle melting processes. Drilling into the oldest Lamont Seamount will test the hypothesis that seamount chains reflect the presence of dunite melt conduits in the upper mantle feeding magma to near-ridge locations. If these conduits are created by the passage of reactive melts derived from melting of enriched mantle heterogeneities, the base of the oldest seamount should contain geochemically enriched melts. Seamount chains like Lamont aligned along absolute plate motion would reflect a melt conduit in the upwelling asthenosphere while relative motion hotspot chains would reflect dunite in the lithosphere. A stratigraphic sequence of seamount lavas in a core will also allow an assessment of whether melt compositions are chromatographically modified during ascent. This would also allow quantification of melt porosities in the melting column, complimentary to geophysical tomography efforts. A final hypothesis is that once established, dunite conduit systems lead to a melting process whereby diffusion of alkali elements into the surrounding mantle flux melts the mantle at shallow depths. This process might explain the production of anorthitic plagioclase in MORB, the creation of anomalous Cl rich melt inclusions in MORB, and the production of the volumetric majority of magmas beneath a mid-ocean ridges. Finally, a >1km long drill core would also allow other interdisciplinary RIDGE research such as unmatched look at microbial alteration of basalt through time.

Lundstrom, C.

2003-12-01

295

Geochemical and stable isotopic data on barren and mineralized drill core in the Devonian Popovich Formation, Screamer sector of the Betze-Post gold deposit, northern Carlin trend, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Devonian Popovich Formation is the major host for Carlin-type gold deposits in the northern Carlin trend of Nevada. The Popovich is composed of gray to black, thin-bedded, calcareous to dolomitic mudstone and limestone deposited near the carbonate platform margin. Carlin-type gold deposits are Eocene, disseminated, auriferous pyrite deposits characterized by acid leaching, sulfidation, and silicification that are typically hosted in Paleozoic calcareous sedimentary rocks exposed in windows through siliceous sedimentary rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Carlin trend currently is the largest gold producer in the United States. The Screamer ore zone is a tabular body on the periphery of the huge Betze-Post gold deposit. Screamer is a good place to study both the original lithogeochemistry of the Popovich Formation and the effects of subsequent alteration and mineralization because it is below the level of supergene oxidation, mostly outside the contact metamorphic aureole of the Jurassic Goldstrike stock, has small, high-grade ore zones along fractures and Jurassic dikes, and has intervening areas with lower grade mineralization and barren rock. In 1997, prior to mining at Screamer, drill core intervals from barren and mineralized Popovich Formation were selected for geochemical and stable isotope analysis. The 332, five-foot core samples analyzed are from five holes separated by as much as 2000 feet (600 meters). The samples extend from the base of the Wispy unit up through the Planar and Soft sediment deformation units into the lower part of the upper Mud unit of the Popovich Formation.

Christiansen, William D.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Zohar, Pamela B.; Tousignant, Gilles

2011-01-01

296

Fiber optic geophysical sensors  

DOEpatents

A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

Homuth, Emil F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

297

RESEARCH PAPER Compaction bands induced by borehole drilling  

E-print Network

-field stresses simulating real in situ conditions often result in localized failure around the created borehole Introduction Boreholes drilled into the Earth's crust for facilitating the extraction of water, oil, natural gas, geothermal steam, or for enabling geophysical observations, can reach depths of several

Einat, Aharonov

298

Constraints on magma ascent, emplacement, and eruption: Geochemical and mineralogical data from the drill core at Inyo Craters, Inyo Chain, California: Final report  

SciTech Connect

An 861-m-long hole (Inyo-4) has been cored on a slanted trajectory that passed directly beneath South Inyo Crater in the west moat of Long Valley Caldera, California. The purpose of the hole was to investigate the magmatic behavior that led to surface deformation and phreatic activity during the 600-year-old eruption of the Inyo vent chain. The trajectory and stratigraphy encountered by Inyo-4 are shown. The volcanic and sedimentary sequence consists solely of post-Bishop Tuff caldera fill, including 319 m of moat basalt and 342 m of early rhyolite. Breccia zones that intrude the caldera fill were intersected at 12.0-9.3 m and 1.2-0.8 m SW and 8. 5-25.1 m NE of the crater center. The largest breccia unit is symmetrically zoned from margins rich in vesicular rhyolite and locally derived rhyolite wallrock to a center of up to 50 vol.% basalt. Most individual clasts of the rhyolite are less than or equal to0.1m; individual clasts in the basalt breccia are up to 1 m in intersected length. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Vogel, T.A.

1988-01-01

299

Ultrasonic drilling apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

1988-06-20

300

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Review  

E-print Network

1 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Review Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Review June 30 - July 2, 2009June 30 - July 2, 2009 #12;Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Review June 30 - July 2 to vertical structure of temperature change] #12;8 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Review Geophysical

301

NanTroSEIZE Stage 1: Overview of Results From the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone IODP Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IODP Expeditions 314-316 took place over five months of continuous drilling operations in the off-Kumano region of the Nankai Trough subduction zone (September, 2007 - February, 2008). This effort was both the maiden scientific voyage of the new drilling vessel Chikyu and the first stage in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE), a multi-year effort designed to investigate fault mechanics and seismogenesis along a subduction megathrust through direct sampling, in situ measurements, and long- term monitoring. The principal elements of the larger project include (a) the 2006 3D seismic survey of the intended transect, (b) four planned stages of IODP drilling, sampling, and downhole measurements, and (c) long-term real-time monitoring of the plate interface in cabled borehole observatories. The three Stage 1 expeditions accomplished drilling, logging, and sampling of 8 sites as deep as 1400 meters below the sea floor. During Expedition 314, we obtained a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs at several sites along a transect focused on the up-dip transition from seismic to aseismic fault behavior, using state-of-the-art logging-while-drilling (LWD) techniques and drilling to depths of 400 to 1400 m. Expeditions 315 and 316 were devoted to coring at these same sites, plus two others. Integrated results of all three expeditions shed light on the lithologies, physical and hydrogeological properties, structural features, tectonic history, geochemical and biological systems, and present-day state of stress to 1.5 km below the seafloor. One highlight of log and cores results is evidence for the orientation of present-day principal stresses from borehole breakouts, and paleostress from fractures and faults in cores. The orientation of the maximum horizontal stress axis (SHmax) from breakouts across the outer wedge is consistently perpendicular to the local strike of major structure, but is subparallel to strike in the forearc basin/inner wedge domain, consistent with a compressional to transpressional stress state in the outer wedge and an extensional stress state in the inner wedge. Further results include: (a) contrasting internal structure of recently active faults depending on their apparent structural, burial, and or diagenetic history, (b) timing and evolution of the major forearc basin and "mega-splay" thrust system activity, (c) progressive disruption of sedimentary strata with distance into the wedge, and (d) interaction of syn-deformational slope deposits with recent thrust motion and slope failure. These first expeditions in NanTroSEIZE set the stage for coming deep drilling efforts to reach the seismogenic zone, scheduled to begin in March, 2009.

Tobin, H.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.; Lallemant, S.; Kimura, G.; Screaton, E.; Scientific Party, I.

2008-12-01

302

New approaches to subglacial bedrock drilling technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling to bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities to research processes acting at the bed for paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental recording, basal sliding studies, subglacial geology and tectonics investigations, prospecting and exploration for minerals covered by ice. Retrieving bedrock samples under ice sheets and glaciers is a very difficult task. Drilling operations are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface of, and within glaciers, and by glacier flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. In order to penetrate through the ice sheet or glacier up to the depth of at least 1000 m and to pierce the bedrock to the depth of several meters from ice - bedrock boundary the development activity already has been started in Polar Research Center at Jilin University, China. All drilling equipment (two 50-kW diesel generators, winch, control desk, fluid dumping station, etc.) is installed inside a movable sledge-mounted warm-keeping and wind-protecting drilling shelter that has dimensions of 8.8 ×2.8 × 3.0 m. Mast has two positions: horizontal for transportation and vertical working position (mast height is 12 m). Drilling shelter can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor, aircraft or helicopter. In case of carriage by air the whole drilling shelter was designed to be disassembled into pieces "small" enough to ship by aircraft. Weight and sizes of each component has been minimized to lower the cost of transportation and to meet weight restrictions for transportation. Total weight of drilling equipment (without drilling fluid) is near 15 tons. Expected time of assembling and preparing for drilling is 2 weeks. If drilling shelter is transported with crawler-tractor (for example, in Antarctic traverses) all equipment is ready to start drilling immediately upon arrival to the site. To drill through ice and bedrock a new, modified version of the cable-suspended electromechanical ice core drill is designed and tested. The expected average daily production of ice drilling would be not less than 25 m/day. The lower part of the drill is adapted for coring bed-rock using special tooth diamond bit. Deep ice coring requires a drilling fluid in the borehole during operation in order to keep the hole open and to compensate the hydrostatic pressures acting to close it. At present there are no ideal low-temperature drilling fluids as all of them are environmental and health hazardous substances. The new approaches of subglacial bedrock drilling technology are connected with utilization of environmental friendly, low-toxic materials, e.g. low-molecular dimethyl siloxane oils or aliphatic synthetic ester of ESTISOL™ 140 type. They have suitable density-viscosity properties, and can be consider as a viable alternative for drilling in glaciers and subglacial bedrock.

Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Jun; Chen, Chen; Markov, Alexey; Xu, Huiwen; Gong, Wenbin; Han, Wei; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Han, Lili; Sysoev, Mikhail

2013-04-01

303

Lithology and stratigraphy of drill holes completed during 1986 in LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) use areas of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site: Volume 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a compilation of data from drill holes completed during the calendar year 1986 in areas used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site. Data presented in this report include hole locations, drilling statistics, a supplemental data sheet, stratigraphy and lithology penetrated, and selected geophysical logs including a log of drilling penetration rate. Lithologic

A. P. Cavazos; S. L. Jr. Drellack; W. T. Hughes; P. H. Thompson

1987-01-01

304

Lithology and stratigraphy of drill holes completed during 1984 in LANL use areas of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, volume 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a compilation of data from drill holes completed during the calendar year 1984 in areas used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site. Data presented in this report includes hole locations, drilling statistics, a supplemental data sheet, stratigraphy and lithology penetrated, and selected geophysical logs including a log of drilling penetration rate. Lithologic

J. L. Gonzales; S. L. Drellack Jr.; W. J. Davies

1985-01-01

305

Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

2012-12-01

306

The Swedish Deep Drilling Program - an emerging scientific drilling program and new infrastructure.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific drilling projects imply numerous aspects that are difficult to handle for individual research groups. Therefore, about three years ago a joint effort was launched in the Swedish geoscientific community to establish a national program for scientific drilling, the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP). Soon afterwards, several working groups established drilling proposals with Nordic and, also, international participation. With this serious interest in scientific drilling SDDP was able to successfully promote the Swedish membership in ICDP which commenced in 2008. Two SDDP projects achieved workshop grants from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2009. In the same year the Swedish Research Council decided to support an application for a truck-mounted drill rig - a big success for the SDDP working group. Scientific Drilling infrastructure: SDDP envisages a mobile platform that is capable of core drilling to at least 2500 m depth. The procurement will be made during 2010 and first operations are planned for 2011. This drill rig is primarily intended for use in the SDDP drilling projects, but will be rented out to other scientific drilling projects or even commercial enterprises in the remaining time to cover maintenance and future upgrade costs. SDDP's drill rig will be unique in Europe and complementary to the deep drilling InnovaRig of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Until now, drilling to 2000 - 3000 m implied the use of a full-sized drill rig like the InnovaRig or the mobilization of a core drill rig from another continent. This gap will now be filled by Sweden's upcoming scientific drilling infrastructure. Drilling projects and proposals: Presently, SDDP serves six projects: "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC; ICDP workshop spring 2010), the "Postglacial Fault Drilling Project" (PFDP; ICDP workshop autumn 2010), a "Deep Rock Laboratory" (DRL), "Palaeoproterozoic Mineralized Volcanic Arc Systems" (PaMVAS), "Concentric Impact Structures in the Palaeozoic - the Lockne and Siljan craters" (CISP), and "Svecofennian accretion, an example of the early Structural Evolution in a Large Hot Orogen" (SELHO). More information on each drilling project is available at SDDP's website (http://www.sddp.se/'projectabbreviation'), where also the Science & Technology Plan is publicly available. The Nordic perspective: Recently, the researchers network "Scientific Drilling in the Nordic Countries" has been funded for three years by NordForsk, the Nordic Council of Minister's advisory board on research strategy (http://www.nordforsk.org). The aim of the network is to consolidate the competence and experience from past and present (and future) scientific drilling projects in the Nordic countries, and to propagate it to the scientific community. Within the scope of the researchers network, workshops and excursions will be tightly coupled to on-going scientific projects and bring together experts, experienced scientists and novices for knowledge exchange and transfer. The participation of all the Nordic countries and the ambitious drilling projects in their diverse geological settings - from the Archaean shield to active volcanoes - form an ideal basis for engaging and successful collaboration over many years to come.

Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher

2010-05-01

307

Environmental and Engineering Geophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity,

Prem V. Sharma

1997-01-01

308

Square hole drill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The square hole drill has a cutterhead configuration whose outline is in the form of a Reuleaux triangle and which also has a planetary gear drive. Two counter revolving motions are present in the drill at the same time. One is the pure rotary motion of the drill's cutterhead about its own shaft. The other is the circular motion of

R. J. Morrell; J. A. Gunn; G. D. Gore

1978-01-01

309

HydroPulse Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

J.J. Kolle

2004-04-01

310

Drilling technique for crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

1977-01-01

311

Mobile drilling apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inventiond discloses a drilling apparatus mounted on a self-propelled base quipped with a joint to permit use on uneven terrain and drilling at various angles with respect to the terrain surface; embodiments of the invention feature suction apparatus for removing drill cuttings, and foldable masts.

C. C. Brown; J. R. Brown

1978-01-01

312

Kick detection during drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a borehole drilling system including a drill string in a borehole with the drill string defining an annulus between the outer diameter of the string and the borehole. It comprises: pressure detecting means near the surface of the system for detecting the modulated pressure pulse train in the annulus which is transmitted to the surface from the

Codazzi

1992-01-01

313

Environmental and Engineering Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, self-potential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, ground-probing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and geophysical borehole logging. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable textbook for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied geophysics, a supplementary course book for students of geology, engineering geophysics, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.

Sharma, Prem V.

1997-12-01

314

Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of field data has led different investigators to conclude that the San Andreas Fault (SAF) has either anomalously low frictional sliding strength (?? 0.6). Arguments for the apparent weakness of the SAF generally hinge on conceptual models involving intrinsically weak gouge or elevated pore pressure within the fault zone. Some models assert that weak gouge and/or high pore pressure exist under static conditions while others consider strength loss or fluid pressure increase due to rapid coseismic fault slip. The present paper is composed of three parts. First, we develop generalized equations, based on and consistent with the Rice (1992) fault zone model to relate stress orientation and magnitude to depth-dependent coefficient of friction and pore pressure. Second, we present temperature-and pressure-dependent friction measurements from wet illite-rich fault gouge extracted from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) phase 1 core samples and from weak minerals associated with the San Andreas Fault. Third, we reevaluate the state of stress on the San Andreas Fault in light of new constraints imposed by SAFOD borehole data. Pure talc (?????0.1) had the lowest strength considered and was sufficiently weak to satisfy weak fault heat flow and stress orientation constraints with hydrostatic pore pressure. Other fault gouges showed a systematic increase in strength with increasing temperature and pressure. In this case, heat flow and stress orientation constraints would require elevated pore pressure and, in some cases, fault zone pore pressure in excess of vertical stress. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Tembe, S.; Lockner, D.; Wong, T. -F.

2009-01-01

315

Geophysical mapping of ground ice using a combination of capacitive coupled resistivity and ground-penetrating radar, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and distribution of ground ice are two of the most unpredictable geological variables in near-surface deposits characterized by continuous permafrost. Subsurface information about ground ice distribution and structure can be obtained either by invasive and environmentally destructive techniques like drilling and excavation or by noninvasive low-impact geophysical methods. In this study, coordinated measurements by two complementary geophysical tools,

Gregory P. De Pascale; Wayne H. Pollard; Kevin K. Williams

2008-01-01

316

Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing  

SciTech Connect

During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

1994-10-01

317

Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect

The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

Rowley, J.C.

1984-01-01

318

Drilling innovations continue despite lean times  

SciTech Connect

Although reduced activity has left its mark on engineering budgets and many projects have been delayed, industry remains committed to research and development. This year's emphasis is offshore where new-generation semi-submersibles are under construction for Arctic waters and where equipment technology is reaching maturity. Improved tubulars such as new process-forged drill pipe, special alloy, corrosion-resistant pipe and new tool joint designs are finding eager markets both on and offshore. And back in the office, microcomputers, a curiosity a few years ago, are making significant advances in improving drilling and production operations. Specific examples of this new technology include: Two high-tech, high-risk floaters Hard rock sidewall coring tool New torque-resistant tool joint Two improved riser connection systems Breakthrough in drill pipe manufacturing Power-packed portable drilling computer.

Muhleman, T.; Dempsey, P.

1984-10-01

319

Combination offshore drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with respect to such barge hull, the cantilever structure being so located relative to the drilling slot as to be movable horizontally into a position in vertical alignment with the drilling slot, a derrick and drilling machinery mounted to the cantilever structure and movable into a position above the drilling slot whereby well drilling operations may be conducted through the drilling slot, the cantilever structure also being movable horizontally to a position which locates the derrick and the drilling machinery outboard of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, whereby a drilling operations may be conducted outside of the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means mounted on the barge hull for moving the cantilever structure horizontally to different positions relative to the barge hull.

Lorenz, D.B.; Laid, J.S. II

1986-07-29

320

Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

Zuber, Maria

2005-01-01

321

Osmium isotope systematics of drilled lavas from Mauna Loa, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the isotopic compositions of Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb in a suite of primitive Mauna Loa lavas from the upper 280 m of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project pilot core drilled near Hilo, Hawaii. These lavas were probably erupted from Mauna Loa's northeast rift. Correlations between Os (hosted by olivine) and other isotopes indicate that olivine crystals

Erik H. Hauri; John C. Lassiter; Donald J. DePaolo

1996-01-01

322

Influence of drilling operations on drilling mud gas monitoring during IODP Exp. 338 and 348  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of scientific ocean drilling has developed some new techniques and technologies for drilling science, dynamic positioning being one of the most famous. However, while industry has developed newer tools and techniques, only some of these have been used in scientific ocean drilling. The introduction of riser-drilling, which recirculates the drilling mud and returns to the platform solids and gases from the formation, to the International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) through the launch of the Japan Agency of Marine Earth-Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) riser-drilling vessel D/V Chikyu, has made some of these techniques available to science. IODP Expedition 319 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: riser/riserless observatory) was the first such attempt, and among the tools and techniques used was drilling mud gas analysis. While industry regularly conducts drilling mud gas logging for safety concerns and reservoir evaluation, science is more interested in other components (e.g He, 222Rn) that are beyond the scope of typical mud logging services. Drilling mud gas logging simply examines the gases released into the drilling mud as part of the drilling process; the bit breaks and grinds the formation, releasing any trapped gases. These then circulate within the "closed circuit" mud-flow back to the drilling rig, where a degasser extracts these gases and passes them on to a dedicated mud gas logging unit. The unit contains gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, spectral analyzers, radon gas analyzers, and a methane carbon isotope analyzer. Data are collected and stored in a database, together with several drilling parameters (rate of penetration, mud density, etc.). This initial attempt was further refined during IODP Expeditions 337 (Deep Coalbed Biosphere off Shimokita), 338 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 3: NanTroSEIZE Plate Boundary Deep Riser 2) and finally 348 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 3: NanTroSEIZE Plate Boundary Deep Riser 3). Although still in its development stage for scientific application, this technique can provide a valuable suite of measurements to complement more traditional IODP shipboard measurements. Here we present unpublished data from IODP Expeditions 338 and 348, penetrating the Nankai Accretionary wedge to 3058.5 meters below seafloor. Increasing mud density decreased degasser efficiency, especially for higher hydrocarbons. Blurring of the relative variations in total gas by depth was observed, and confirmed with comparison to headspace gas concentrations from the cored interval. Theoretically, overpressured zones in the formation can be identified through C2/C3 ratios, but these ratios are highly affected by changing drilling parameters. Proper mud gas evaluations will need to carefully consider the effects of variable drilling parameters when designing experiments and interpreting the data.

Hammerschmidt, Sebastian; Toczko, Sean; Kubo, Yusuke; Wiersberg, Thomas; Fuchida, Shigeshi; Kopf, Achim; Hirose, Takehiro; Saffer, Demian; Tobin, Harold; Expedition 348 Scientists, the

2014-05-01

323

Fiber optic geophysical sensors  

DOEpatents

A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

Homuth, E.F.

1991-03-19

324

Geophysics I. Seismic Methods  

SciTech Connect

During the past two decades, the technology of geophysics has exploded. At the same time, the petroleum industry has been forced to look for more and more subtle traps in more and more difficult terrain. The choice of papers in this geophysics reprint volume reflects this evolution. The papers were chosen to help geologists, not geophysicists, enhance their knowledge of geophysics. Math-intensive papers were excluded because those papers are relatively esoteric and have limited applicability for most geologists. This volume concentrates on different seismic survey methods. Each of the 38 papers were abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Data Base.

Beaumont, E.A.; Foster, N.H. (comps.)

1989-01-01

325

Overview of the Barberton Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa is one of the best-preserved successions of mid- Archean (3.5-3.2 Ga) supracrustal rocks in the world, and, as such, a remarkable natural laboratory where conditions and processes at the surface of the Archean Earth can be studied in detail. Volcanic and sedimentary sequences in the belt provide information on the environment in which life emerged and evolved. A drilling project, sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), and many national funding agencies, was completed in May 2012. More than 3000 m of core from 5 holes at four sites were recovered. At the Tjakastad site, two ca. 300 m holes were drilling through sequences of komatiites and komatiitic basalts. The other three holes targeted sedimentary rocks: the Buck Reef hole sampled over 700m of mainly banded black and white cherts; the Mid Fig Tree hole sampled a sequence of ferruginous charts and mudstones; and the Barite Valley hole samples a more varied sequence including sandstone, shale, cherts and volcaniclastic rocks. The core is stored and has been logged in facilities of the University of the Wirwatersrand. Core logs can be found at tp://www.peeringintobarberton.com/Sites.html . An open call for proposals to work on the core, sent out in November 2012, was answered by over 50 scientists from 12 countries who plan to study the core using techniques ranging from petrography, through major and trace-element analysis, to sophisticated isotopic analysis. A workshop to discuss the drilling project and to view the core is planned at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg from Mon 18th to Wed the 21st February 2013, followed by a short trip to the Barberton belt to visit the drilling sites.

Arndt, Nicholas T.; Wilson, Allan; Mason, Paul; Hofmann, Axel; Lowe, Don

2013-04-01

326

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 195 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-print Network

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 195 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS MARIANA CONVERGENT MARGIN/ WEST PHILIPPINE SEA Publications homepage on the World Wide Web at: http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications This publication mud volcano on the forearc of the Mariana subduction system. The second segment is devoted to coring

327

Drilling side holes from a borehole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machine takes long horizontal stratum samples from confines of 21 cm bore hole. Stacked interlocking half cylindrical shells mate to form rigid thrust tube. Drive shaft and core storage device is flexible and retractable. Entire machine fits in 10 meter length of steel tube. Machine could drill drainage or ventilation holes in coal mines, or provide important information for geological, oil, and geothermal surveys.

Collins, E. R., Jr.

1980-01-01

328

Ice Core Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

2008-01-01

329

Evaluation of core data, physical properties, and oil yield USBM/AEC Colorado Core Hole no. 3 (Bronco BR-1)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

USBM/AEC Colorado Core Hole No. 3 (Bronco BR-1) is located in the SW1/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 14, T. 1 N., R. 98 W., Rio Blanco County, Colorado. The collar is at a ground elevation of 6,356 feet. The hole was core drilled between depths of 964 and 3,325 feet with a total depth of 3,797 feet. The hole was drilled to investigate geologic, geophysical and hydrological conditions at a possible in situ oil-shale retorting experiment site. The drill hole passed through 1,157 feet of alluvium and the Evacuation Creek Member of the Green River Formation, 1,603 feet of the Parachute Creek Member and penetrated into the Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. In-bole density log/oil yield ratio interpretation indicates that two oil-shale zones exist which yield more than 20 gallons of shale oil per ton of rock; an upper zone lying between 1,271 and 1,750 feet in depth and a lower zone lying between 1,900 and 2,964 feet. Halite (sodium chloride salt) is found between 2,140 and 2,185 feet and nahcolite (sodium bicarbonate salt) between 2,195 and 2,700 feet. Nahcolite was present at one time above 2,195 feet but has been subsequently dissolved out by ground water. The core can be divided into six structural units based upon degree of fracturing. A highly fractured interval is found between 1,646 and 1,899 feet, which coincides with the dissolution or leached nahcolite zone. Physical property tests made on core samples between 1,356 and 3,253 feet give average values of 11,988 psi for uniaxial compressive strength, 1.38 X 10[superscript]6[superscript] psi for static Young's modulus and 11,809 fps for compressional velocity.

Ege, John R.; Carroll, R. D.; Way, R. J.; Magner, J. E.

1969-01-01

330

American Geophysical Union  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Geophysical Union (AGU), which was established in 1919 by the National Research Council and for more than 50 years operated as an unincorporated affiliate of the National Academy of Sciences, is now a nonprofit corporation chartered under the laws of the District of Columbia. The Union is dedicated to the furtherance of the geophysical sciences through the individual efforts of its members and in cooperation with other national and international scientific organizations.

2010-03-03

331

Hydrogeologic data from a 2,000-foot deep core hole at Polk City, Green Swamp area, central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two core holes were drilled to depths of 906 and 1,996 feet, respectively, within the Tertiary limestone (Floridan) aquifers, at Polk City, central Florida. Data from the two holes revealed that the bottom of the zone of vigorous groundwater circulation is confined by carbonate rocks at a depth of about 1,000 feet (863 feet below sea level). The zone of circulation is divided into two high-permeability zones. The dissolved solids of the water within the high-permeability zones is approximately 150 milligrams per liter. Within the carbonate rocks, the dissolved solids content of the water reaches about 2,000 milligrams per liter at the bottom of the core hole. Water levels in the core holes declined a total of about 16 feet as the hole was drilled; most of the head loss occurred at depths below 1,800 feet. The porosities of selected cores ranged from 1.6 to 45.3 percent; the hydraulic conductivities ranged from less than 0.000024 to 19.0786 feet per day in the horizontal direction and from less than 0.000024 to 2.99 feet per day in the vertical direction; and the ratio of vertical to horizontal permeability ranged from 0.03 to 1.98. Due to drilling problems, packer tests and geophysical logging could not be accomplished. (USGS)

Navoy, A.S.

1986-01-01

332

“Imaging” the cross section of oceanic lithosphere: The development and future of electrical microresistivity logging through scientific ocean drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed understanding of the architecture of volcanic and magmatic lithologies present within the oceanic lithosphere is essential to advance our knowledge of the geodynamics of spreading ridges and subduction zones. Undertaking sub-meter scale observations of oceanic lithosphere is challenging, primarily because of the difficulty in direct continuous sampling (e.g., by scientific ocean drilling) and the limited resolution of the majority of geophysical remote sensing methods. Downhole logging data from drillholes through basement formations, when integrated with recovered core and geophysical remote sensing data, can provide new insights into crustal accretion processes, lithosphere hydrogeology and associated alteration processes, and variations in the physical properties of the oceanic lithosphere over time. Here, we introduce an alternative approach to determine the formation architecture and lithofacies of the oceanic sub-basement by using logging data, particularly utilizing downhole microresistivity imagery (e.g. Formation MicroScanner (FMS) imagery), which has the potential to become a key tool in deciphering the high-resolution internal architecture of the intact upper ocean crust. A novel ocean crust lithostratigraphy model based on meticulously deciphered lava morphology determined by in situ FMS electrofacies analysis of holes drilled during Ocean Drilling Program legs (1) advances our understanding of ocean crust formation and accretionary processes over both time and space; and (2) allows the linking of local igneous histories deciphered from the drillholes to the regional magmatic and tectonic histories. Furthermore, microresistivity imagery can potentially allow the investigation of (i) magmatic lithology and architecture in the lower ocean crust and upper mantle; and, (ii) void space abundances in crustal material and the determination of complex lithology-dependent void geometries.

Tominaga, Masako

2013-11-01

333

Method of deep drilling  

DOEpatents

Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

Colgate, Stirling A. (4616 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

334

Organic Matter and delta 13C Throughout a SubBasement Red Soil Unit in Hole 1206A Cored During Ocean Drilling Program Leg 197 (Koko Seamount): First Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the discovery of deep red-brown paleosols during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) legs dates back to the 80's [1-3], the potential for preservation of organic matter in these igneous-derived silty-claystone units has been overlooked, and depositional settings have been inferred from only petrologic observations. This work aims to present the first geochemical (TOC, N

R. Bonaccorsi

2002-01-01

335

Geophysical Constraints on the Nature of Atlantis Massif, 30°N MAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent drilling at Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N, provides new insights into oceanic core complex (OCC) development. IODP Expeditions 304/305 had high recovery in the footwall of the detachment capping the central dome of the massif: Hole U1309B, 100 m deep; Hole U1309D, 1415 m. Recovery of a dominantly gabbroic sequence challenges prior interpretations that this OCC was mainly ultramafic, geophysical data having suggested much of the uplifted core was mantle peridotite, with Moho less than 1 km deep. Although models based on prior analysis fit the data well and were consistent with outcrops of serpentinized peridotite on the south face of Atlantis Massif, it is now clear that additional complexity needs to be incorporated in the geophysical analysis. The southern ridge is morphologically distinct from the central dome. Does this indicate that the south and central parts of this OCC are fundamentally different? Or, is the serpentinized peridotite exposed on the south wall (and found in a few loose fragments on top of the central dome) a thin veneer of mantle rock that has deformed around a dominantly gabbroic core? The occurrence of many gabbroic samples from the southern ridge could support the latter but models of serpentinization that drives the Lost City hydrothermal system near the peak of the massif might favor the former. New analysis of geophysical data provide further constraints on the scale of possible variability. Prior seismic analysis suggested fresh mantle might shoal by a couple hundred meters 1-2 km north of Site U1309. In contrast, gravity data suggest the highest density rocks occur at and to the south of the site. These observations will be combined in a 3D model of Atlantis Massif and we expect to report initial results. Downhole logging indicates that bulk density increases steadily from 2.8 to 2.9 g/cc downhole. Log and core sample seismic velocity are variable within a 5.5-6.8 km/s range, lower values where degree of alteration is greatest, higher values in olivine-rich units. Initial analysis of borehole seismometer recordings of airgun shots suggests a high velocity interval occurs within the fresnel zone (100's m) of this experiment. Postcruise analysis is required to rule out noise bias so we expect to report whether this indication of velocity greater than 7 km/s at 580-635 m depth is confirmed. If it is, this could indicate that prior refraction analysis detected a lens of high velocity rock but not the regional Moho.

Blackman, D.

2005-12-01

336

Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud treatment and high temperature resistant cementing materials, and bionic bits,that is coupling bionic PDC tooth bit and diamond-impregnated bit for hard rock.All parts of CRUST-1 were successfully assembled along with the derrick and base lift and transported about 3456 kilometers from manufacture,GuangHan city in southwest China's Sichuan province,to the well site of SK-2 in end of 2013.SK-2 will be finished during next 4 years.

Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

2014-05-01

337

The Geophysical Institute Magnetometer Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geophysical Institute Magnetometer Array (GIMA) consists of eight magnetometer stations distributed across Alaska spanning the auroral oval. Each station is equipped with a ring-core, fluxgate magnetometer, GPS clock and data logger. Data are returned from each station to the Geophysical Insitute, University of Alaska where it is verified, archived, and made available to the space science community. The GIMA web page, at http://magnet.gi.alaska.edu/, provides the data from five stations online in real-time. The GIMA web page also provides realtime data from four Russian magnetometer stations (NOK, Norilsk; PBK, Pebek; TIK, Tixie Bay; CCS, Cape Chelynskin). In addition, three other stations (operated by the USGS) in Alaska have online data available. The data set online spans the time period 1995 to the present. This presentation includes a review of the array, its capabilities (data collection parameters), the web site, and methods for acessing the data set. Interesting examples of the data will be used to illustrate the performance and capability of GIMA.

Heavner, M.

2005-12-01

338

Ocean Drilling Program: Results from tenth year of drilling operations  

SciTech Connect

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 61 internationally staffed expeditions and ten years of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the tectonic evolution of passive and active continental margins, origin and evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. To address these problems, ODP has made numerous advances in technology for retrieval of continuous undisturbed cores under hostile environmental conditions. ODP curates over 198 km of cored material and associated scientific data bases and publishes results of the scientific expeditions in a continuous series of Proceedings volumes. During its tenth year, ODP continued its pioneering exploration in the Atlantic Ocean. This paper reviews the drilling activities associated with the Atlantic Leg of the project. It focuses on volcanic rifted margins and magma emplacement; the chemical composition and evolution of the lower crust and mantle; depth transect reconstruction for a variety of temporal resolutions; research on the Amazon deep-sea fan and associated paleoclimatology; temporal and spatial scales of fluid flow, the role of faults in fluid transport, and the relationships between mechanical state and seismicity in the northern Barbados accretionary prism; and the history of volcanic activity in the Canary Hotspot, the detailed evolution of large volcanic oceanic islands, the growth of volcanic aprons and the filling of the distal Madeira Abyssal Plain. Finally, Leg 158 investigated fluid flow, alteration and mineralization and associated geochemical fluxes, microbiological processes and the subsurface mixture of an active hydrothermal system on a slow spreading, sediment-free mid-ocean ridge (TAG area -- Mid Atlantic Ridge).

Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Coyne, J.C.; McPherson, R.G.; Merrill, R.B.; Olivas, R.E. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-12-01

339

Solids-free drilling systems  

SciTech Connect

The drilling fluid industry has based its marketing, merchandising, and engineering emphasis on gel and barite as principal components in drilling fluid systems for the domestic oil industry. The detrimental effects of five drill solids in drilling fluid systems on the rotary drilling environment is well known. The development and application of clear unweighted and weighted drilling fluids has reached are advanced stage and progressive oil operators should consider the application of solids-free drilling fluids in future drilling projects. The advantages of using clear drilling fluids are pointed out.

Roberts, C.

1984-07-01

340

Geophysics: ancient air, ozone, and faults.  

PubMed

Researchers who gathered in San Francisco in December at the annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union heard the usual variety of talks treating everything from Earth's core to the tenuous wisps of solar particles far beyond Pluto. Earthquakes, the local California variety in particular, figured prominently, as did the currently popular subjects of ancient air trapped in amber and the deepening Antarctic ozone hole. PMID:17732975

Kerr, R A

1988-01-01

341

ODP drilling at the East Pacific Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of the ocean crust by scientific drilling at the axes of mid-ocean ridges is a high priority in the Earth science community, as reflected in the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Long Range Plan, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES) Lithosphere Panel's White Paper, and several reports of the Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE) program. The ODP Long Range Plan provides for over a dozen drilling legs at and near mid-ocean ridges prior to the year 2002, including a multileg drilling program at the East Pacific Rise (EPR).ODP Leg 142 (February-March 1992) was the first of this multi-leg effort and was devoted primarily to continued testing and development of the engineering systems needed for successful drilling of bare rock at mid-ocean ridges. At the same time, it was hoped that drilling would result in cores that could be used to study volcanic and hydrothermal processes, volcanic architecture, fluid flow, and other processes occurring at the active EPR axis.

Storms, M. A.; Reudelhuber, D. H.; Holloway, G. L.; Allan, J.; Batiza, R.

342

Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

Not Available

1986-12-01

343

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

SciTech Connect

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-06-30

344

Drilling Automation Demonstrations in Subsurface Exploration for Astrobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project proposes to study subsurface permafrost microbial habitats at a relevant Arctic Mars-analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada) while developing and maturing the subsurface drilling and drilling automation technologies that will be required by post-2010 missions. It builds on earlier drilling technology projects to add permafrost and ice-drilling capabilities to 5m with a lightweight drill that will be automatically monitored and controlled in-situ. Frozen cores obtained with this drill under sterilized protocols will be used in testing three hypotheses pertaining to near-surface physical geology and ground H2O ice distribution, viewed as a habitat for microbial life in subsurface ice and ice-consolidated sediments. Automation technologies employed will demonstrate hands-off diagnostics and drill control, using novel vibrational dynamical analysis methods and model-based reasoning to monitor and identify drilling fault states before and during faults. Three field deployments, to a Mars-analog site with frozen impact crater fallback breccia, will support science goals, provide a rigorous test of drilling automation and lightweight permafrost drilling, and leverage past experience with the field site s particular logistics.

Glass, Brian; Cannon, H.; Lee, P.; Hanagud, S.; Davis, K.

2006-01-01

345

Drilling Square Holes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

Smith, Scott G.

1993-01-01

346

Reverse laser drilling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

1984-01-01

347

International Collaboration in Data Management for Scientific Ocean Drilling: Preserving Legacy Data While Implementing New Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2003-2013 initial phase) is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP: 1968-1983) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP: 1985-2003). These earlier scientific drilling programs amassed collections of sediment and rock cores (over 300 kilometers stored in four repositories) and data organized in distributed databases and in print or electronic publications. International members

F. R. Rack

2005-01-01

348

Advanced drilling systems  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is ubiquitous in oil, gas, geothermal, minerals, water well, and mining industries. Drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing power from geothermal energy. Reduced drilling costs will reduce the cost of electricity produced from geothermal resources. Undoubtedly, there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied. However, the breadth and depth of previous efforts in this area almost guarantee that any new efforts will at least initially build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts, coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems, provide the basis for this study.

Pierce, K.G.; Finger, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants, San Diego, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

349

Advanced drilling systems study.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)

1996-05-01

350

Geophysical investigation, Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical surveys were conducted in 1992 and 1993 on 21 sites at the Salmon Site (SS) located in Lamar County, Mississippi. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by IT Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). During the 1960s, two nuclear devices and two chemical tests were detonated 826 meters (in) (2710 feet [ft]) below the ground surface in the salt dome underlying the SS. These tests were part of the Vela Uniform Program conducted to improve the United States capability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The RI/FS is being conducted to determine if any contamination is migrating from the underground shot cavity in the salt dome and if there is any residual contamination in the near surface mud and debris disposal pits used during the testing activities. The objective of the surface geophysical surveys was to locate buried debris, disposal pits, and abandoned mud pits that may be present at the site. This information will then be used to identify the locations for test pits, cone penetrometer tests, and drill hole/monitor well installation. The disposal pits were used during the operation of the test site in the 1960s. Vertical magnetic gradient (magnetic gradient), electromagnetic (EM) conductivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to accomplish these objectives. A description of the equipment used and a theoretical discussion of the geophysical methods are presented Appendix A. Because of the large number of figures relative to the number of pages of text, the geophysical grid-location maps, the contour maps of the magnetic-gradient data, the contour maps of the EM conductivity data, and the GPR traverse location maps are located in Appendix B, Tabs I through 22. In addition, selected GPR records are located in Appendix C.

NONE

1995-02-01

351

Geophysics News 1991  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the second consecutive year, AGU has published Geophysics News, a collection of short articles about new research findings from the past year. The primary target for this publication is science journalists, who can make constructive use of clearly written, accessible stories by spreading them to an even wider audience. The special spin on articles in Geophysics News is that research findings are placed in their proper scientific perspective with relevant policy implications described as well.The full contents of Geophysics News 1991 will be run in Eos over the next several weeks, beginning with this issue. This is being done for two reasons. First, these articles present AGU members with a wonderful opportunity to learn about the “hot news” in research areas outside of their own expertise. And, as examples of science writing for a broad audience, these articles are meant to encourage other AGU members to also make the effort to write about their science for the general public.

Knopman, Debra S.

1992-01-01

352

A Treasure Chest of Cores  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the years, the combined ocean drilling programs (Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) have recovered thousands of cores from beneath the ocean floor. Students can study a brief synopsis of some of the most important discoveries made from these cores by clicking on an interactive map which shows sampling locations where major discoveries were made. Each link provides access to a photograph of a core section which is accompanied by a description of the events or phenomena preserved in the sediment. Important discoveries preserved in these cores include the asteroid impact at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, mineral-bearing hydrothermal deposits from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, evidence of plate tectonics, and evidence of climate change.

353

Drilling optimization using drilling simulator software  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................................................78 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Trip rate derived from actual well data shows difference for trip in and out................ 4 2 Surface and 3D ROP map for Layer 15... Estimation....................................................... 5 2 Drilling Model Bit Coefficients ..................................................................................16 3 Chip Hold-Down Premeability Coefficients...

Salas Safe, Jose Gregorio

2004-09-30

354

DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY Drilling for seawater  

E-print Network

Water Desalination Fuel Production Waste Water Treatment Increased CO2 Absorbtion Agriculture & Mari) of cold water pipe WAS LOST 3 TIMES before demonstrating power generation #12;DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY BACKGROUND After a 2006 earthquake on the Big Island The NELHA cold water pipe cracked allowing warm water

355

Engineering report on drilling in the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red River Valley drilling project consisted of 32 drill holes. The objective was to investigate uranium favorability in Precambrian through Cretaceous rocks in a 20,000-square-mile area of eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota. A total of 18,262 ft was drilled; 1,083 ft were cored. The average depth of the holes was 570 ft. Core recovery averaged 64 percent. All

Hesse

1978-01-01

356

Preliminary Drill Sites  

DOE Data Explorer

Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

Michael Lane

357

Drilling constraints on lithospheric accretion and evolution at Atlantis Massif, MidAtlantic Ridge 30N  

E-print Network

Drilling constraints on lithospheric accretion and evolution at Atlantis Massif, MidAtlantic Ridge of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program cored and logged a 1.4 km section of the domal core of Atlantis Massif. 8 Philex Mining Corporation, Pasig City, Philippines. 9 Laboratoire de Géologie, Université Claude

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Demonstrations in Introductory Geophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical concepts are challenging to teach at introductory levels, because students need to understand both the underlying physics and its geological application. To address this, our introductory courses include class demonstrations and experiments to demonstrate underlying physical principles and their geological applications. Demonstrations and experiments have several advantages over computer simulations. First, computer simulations \\

K. A. Schramm; S. Stein; S. van der Lee; L. Swafford; E. Klosko; J. Delaughter; M. Wysession

2005-01-01

359

USGS Geophysical Data Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links and listings of digital geophysical products spanning the regional centers of the USGS. There are surveys and reports on magnetic, gravity, and other forms of data. There are regional, state, quadrangle compilations of data. And there a number of other data and products available.

Team, Crustal I.; Survey, United S.

360

Geophysical signal processing  

SciTech Connect

Draws together a number of areas of knowledge to give unified coverage of the subject: the geophysical applications of digital signal processing. The presentation has a strong applications orientation. The coverage connects and unifies several fields, namely wave propagation, digital signal processing, spectral analysis, and computer methods. The book covers many topics in depth.

Robinson, E.A.; Durrani, T.S.

1986-01-01

361

Principles of applied geophysics  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a survey of modern geophysical methods used in prospecting for oil, minerals and water. Topics covered include the following: magnetic methods; gravitational methods; electrical methods; induced polarization; electromagnetic continuous wave; transient-field and telluric methods; seismic methods; radioactivity methods; well-logging in oil fields; and miscellaneous methods.

Parasnis, D.S.

1986-01-01

362

Computerized geophysical tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized tomography is used as an aid in geophysical exploration. With this method, detailed pictures of electromagnetic properties in the regions between pairs of boreholes can be reconstructed. The spatial distribution of attenuation or propagation velocity is calculated from line integrals along rays in the plane between boreholes, and displayed as a digital picture. In principle, the transmission of seismic

K. A. Dines; R. J. Lytle

1979-01-01

363

Geostatistical study of coal and overburden data from the Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. [R-squared statistics used as measure of correlation between drill cutting samples and core samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis was performed with overburden characterization data that was obtained from a US Forest Service study site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The drilling and overburden characterization program had been performed during 1977 and 1978 and this information was provided to the Laramie Energy Technology Center by the US Forest Service. There were three basic goals that

L. Borgman; W. Quimby; C. Sever; M. Andrew; D. Youngberg; F. Davis

1983-01-01

364

2010 Fellow American Geophysical Union  

E-print Network

2010 Fellow American Geophysical Union Peter Clark, a professor of geosciences in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, has been elected as Fellow of the American Geophysical Union for the chapter on sea level change. Peter Clark Professor, Geology and Geophysics A tidewater glacier losing mass

Kurapov, Alexander

365

2, 637671, 2005 Geophysics and  

E-print Network

BGD 2, 637­671, 2005 Geophysics and geochemistry of seafloor brines S. B. Joye et al. Title Page Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Geophysical and geochemical signatures under a Creative Commons License. 637 #12;BGD 2, 637­671, 2005 Geophysics and geochemistry of seafloor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Drilling constraints on lithospheric accretion and evolution at Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expeditions 304 and 305 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program cored and logged a 1.4 km section of the domal core of Atlantis Massif. Postdrilling research results summarized here constrain the structure and lithology of the Central Dome of this oceanic core complex. The dominantly gabbroic sequence recovered contrasts with predrilling predictions; application of the ground truth in subsequent geophysical processing has produced self-consistent models for the Central Dome. The presence of many thin interfingered petrologic units indicates that the intrusions forming the domal core were emplaced over a minimum of 100-220 kyr, and not as a single magma pulse. Isotopic and mineralogical alteration is intense in the upper 100 m but decreases in intensity with depth. Below 800 m, alteration is restricted to narrow zones surrounding faults, veins, igneous contacts, and to an interval of locally intense serpentinization in olivine-rich troctolite. Hydration of the lithosphere occurred over the complete range of temperature conditions from granulite to zeolite facies, but was predominantly in the amphibolite and greenschist range. Deformation of the sequence was remarkably localized, despite paleomagnetic indications that the dome has undergone at least 45° rotation, presumably during unroofing via detachment faulting. Both the deformation pattern and the lithology contrast with what is known from seafloor studies on the adjacent Southern Ridge of the massif. There, the detachment capping the domal core deformed a 100 m thick zone and serpentinized peridotite comprises ˜70% of recovered samples. We develop a working model of the evolution of Atlantis Massif over the past 2 Myr, outlining several stages that could explain the observed similarities and differences between the Central Dome and the Southern Ridge.

Blackman, D. K.; Ildefonse, B.; John, B. E.; Ohara, Y.; Miller, D. J.; Abe, N.; Abratis, M.; Andal, E. S.; Andreani, M.; Awaji, S.; Beard, J. S.; Brunelli, D.; Charney, A. B.; Christie, D. M.; Collins, J.; Delacour, A. G.; Delius, H.; Drouin, M.; Einaudi, F.; EscartíN, J.; Frost, B. R.; Früh-Green, G.; Fryer, P. B.; Gee, J. S.; Godard, M.; Grimes, C. B.; Halfpenny, A.; Hansen, H.-E.; Harris, A. C.; Tamura, A.; Hayman, N. W.; Hellebrand, E.; Hirose, T.; Hirth, J. G.; Ishimaru, S.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Karner, G. D.; Linek, M.; MacLeod, C. J.; Maeda, J.; Mason, O. U.; McCaig, A. M.; Michibayashi, K.; Morris, A.; Nakagawa, T.; Nozaka, T.; Rosner, M.; Searle, R. C.; Suhr, G.; Tominaga, M.; von der Handt, A.; Yamasaki, T.; Zhao, X.

2011-07-01

367

Terrestrial Planet Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence of a few diehards, we may eventually have a seismic and heat flow network on Mars.

Phillips, R. J.

2008-12-01

368

Dr. Ed Brook, Oregon State University US Ice Drilling Program  

E-print Network

happened before that? #12;Polar Ice Cores WAIS Divide #12;Gases in Ice Cores #12;Gas Extraction measurements Ice sheet elevation from total air content Pre-ice sheet history from basal material #12;WAIS Divide Camp, Antarctica http://www.waisdivide.unh.edu #12;Drilling at WAIS Divide #12;The Human Impact

Schmittner, Andreas

369

The rock melting approach to drilling  

SciTech Connect

During the early and mid-1970`s the Los Alamos National Laboratory demonstrated practical applications of drilling and coring using an electrically-heated graphite, tungsten, or molybdenum penetrator that melts a hole as it is slowly pushed through the rock or soil. The molten material consolidates into a rugged glass lining that prevents hole collapse; minimizes the potential for cross-flow, lost circulation, or the release of hazardous materials without casing operations; and produces no cuttings in porous or low density (<1.7 g/cc) formations. Because there are no drilling fluids required, the rock melting approach reduces waste handling, treatment and disposal. Drilling by rock melting has been demonstrated to depths up to 30 m in caliche, clay, alluvium, cobbles, sand, basalt, granite, and other materials. Penetrating large cobbles without debris removal was achieved by thermal stress fracturing and lateral extrusion of portions of the rock melt into the resulting cracks. Both horizontal and vertical holes in a variety of diameters were drilled in these materials using modular, self-contained field units that operate in remote areas. Because the penetrator does not need to rotate, steering by several simple approaches is considered quite feasible. Melting is ideal for obtaining core samples in alluvium and other poorly consolidated soils since the formed-in-place glass liner stabilizes the hole, encapsulates volatile or hazardous material, and recovers an undisturbed core. Because of the relatively low thermal conductivity of rock and soil materials, the heat-affected zone beyond the melt layer is very small, <1 inch thick. Los Alamos has begun to update the technology and this paper will report on the current status of applications and designs for improved drills.

Cort, G.E.; Goff, S.J.; Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W. Jr.; Dreesen, D.S.; Winchester, W.

1993-09-01

370

World oil's 1988 drill bit classifier  

SciTech Connect

Whether drilling soft, swelling gumbo formations along the Gulf Coast, harder Green River shales in Wyoming or really tough and abrasive quartzite, basalt or Devonian chert deposits in the Permian basin, choosing the best bit for the job is important if optimum drilling and cost efficiency are to be maintained. To make the selection process easier, WORLD OIL has compiled a guide for classifying bits. In formatting the tables, six major formation categories were identified, roughly corresponding to those used by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Within these are listed virtually all commonly available drilling and coring bits by type and manufacturer. To use the guide, simply identify the formation to be drilled, decide whether a rock, diamond, PDC or hybrid bit is most appropriate, choose the manufacturer and scan the bits available. In fact, bits from all manufacturers can readily be compared. Companies are listed alphabetically, and bit models are given alphanumerically. IADC codes are listed as well as size range, suggested weight on bit and rotary speed. Crown profiles are given for diamond and PDC products. And special features or uses and other ancillary information are referenced in the far right-hand column and correspond with the nomenclature that follows here. Data contained in the tables were compiled from surveys of the companies included and their product literature.

Not Available

1988-06-01

371

Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines  

E-print Network

Department of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 http://www.geophysics of Geophysics Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 http://www.geophysics.mines.edu/cgem Defended: May 11 (Geophysics) On Original Copies Dr. Terence K. Young Professor and Head Department of Geophysics Approved

372

Probing the Architecture of the Weathering Zone in a Tropical System in the Rio Icacos Watershed (Puerto Rico) With Drilling and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering processes in rapidly eroding systems such as humid tropical environments are complex and not well understood. The interface between weathered material (regolith) and non-weathered material (bedrock) is particularly important in these systems as it influences water infiltration and groundwater flow paths and movement. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of this interface is highly heterogeneous and difficult to image with conventional techniques such as direct coring and drilling. In this work we present results from a preliminary geophysical study in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) located in the rain forest in the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico. The Luquillo Mountains are composed of volcaniclastic rocks which have been uplifted and metamorphosed by the Tertiary Rio Blanco quartz diorite intrusion. The Rio Blanco quartz diorite weathers spheroidally, creating corestones of relatively unweathered material that are surrounded by weathered rinds. A number of boreholes were drilled near the top of the Rio Icacos watershed, where the corestones are thought to be in the primary stages of formation, to constrain the regolith/bedrock interface and to provide an understanding of the depth to which corestones form. The depth of the water table was also a target goal in the project. Drilling reveals that corestones are forming in place, separated by fractures, even to depths of 10s of meters below ground surface. One borehole was drilled to a depth of about 25 meters and intersected up to 7 bedrock blocks (inferred to be incipient corestones) and the water table was measured at about 15 meters. Ground Penetrating Radar surveys were conducted in the same location to determine if GPR images variable thicknesses of saprolite overlying corestones. GPR common offset measurements and common midpoint surveys with 50, 100, and 200 MHz antenna frequencies were combined with borehole drillings in order to constrain geophysical results. We will compare drilling observations to GPR data to understand: 1) the lateral extent of the regolith-bedrock interface; 2) distribution of rindlets or spheroidal fracturing around corestones; and 3) presence and extent of corestones. This work has implications for understanding the rate of weathering advance and changes in permeability across rapidly eroding watersheds.

Orlando, J.; Comas, X.; Mount, G. J.; Brantley, S. L.

2012-12-01

373

Drilling Productivity Report  

EIA Publications

Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

2014-01-01

374

Deep-Sea Drilling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

White, Stan M.

1979-01-01

375

Review of horizontal drilling  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has drilled 350 horizontal wells in the past 8 years in 33 different oil and gas fields. Since the first wells were drilled the technology and its applications have evolved considerably. The paper describes that rapid evolution using four fields as examples. There has been a diversification of well designs as the authors have learnt how to tailor horizontal drilling most effectively to different situations. In many cases wells can be drilled faster and cheaper than 5 years ago, but there are also examples where more elaborate designs have been applied. The geological targeting and evaluation of the wells has also improved. Further evolution is planned with the next step likely to be the wider use of multi-wellbore horizontals.

Ishak, I.B.; Steele, R.P.; Macaulay, R.C.; Stephenson, P.M.; Al Mantheri, S.M.

1995-11-01

376

Rock drilling, cooling liquids  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Rock drilling, cooling liquids Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : October 23 ... antifreeze agents at Linneaus Terrace, Wright Valley (Site of Special Scientific Interest No. 19 ...

377

Ocean drilling ship chosen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

Richman, Barbara T.

378

Log response of ultrasonic imaging and its significance for deep mineral prospecting of scientific drilling borehole-2 in Nanling district, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hole NLSD-2, one of the deepest scientific drilling projects in the metallic ore districts of China, is the second scientific drilling deep hole in the Nanling district. Its ultimate depth is 2012.12 m. This hole was created through the implementation of continuous coring, and the measuring of a variety of geophysical well logging methods was performed over the course of the drilling process. This paper analyzes the characteristic responses of the fracture and fractured zone by ultrasonic imaging log data, and characterizes various rules of fracture parameters which change according to drilling depth. It then discusses the denotative meaning of the log results of polymetallic mineralization layers. The formation fractures develop most readily in a depth of 100~200 m, 600~850 m and 1450~1550 m of the hole NLSD-2, and high angle fractures develop most prominently. The strike direction of the fractures is mainly NW-SE, reflecting the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress. For the polymetallic mineralization layer that occurred in the fractured zone, the characteristic response of ultrasonic imaging log is a wide dark zone, and the characteristic responses of conventional logs displayed high polarizability, high density, high acoustic velocity and low resistivity. All the main polymetallic mineralization layers are developed in fractures or fractured zones, and the fractures and fractured zones can be identified by an ultrasonic imaging log, thus the log results indirectly indicate the occurrence of polymetallic mineralization layers. Additionally, the relationship between the dip direction of fractures and the well deviation provides guidance for straightening of the drilling hole.

Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Yue, Xuyuan; Zhou, Xinpeng; Li, Jianguo; Zhao, Bin

2014-10-01

379

February 2002 OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM  

E-print Network

February 2002 OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 204 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS DRILLING GAS HYDRATES ON HYDRATE Richter Leg Project Manager and Staff Scientist Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Ocean Drilling Program, which is managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., under contract

380

Apparatus in a drill string  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable spirally welded metal tube is disposed within the drill

David R. Hall; Scott Dahlgren; Hall Jr. Tracy H; Joe Fox; David S. Pixton

2007-01-01

381

Biostratigraphic data for the Cretaceous marine sediments in the USGS-St. George no. 1 core (DOR-211), Dorchester County, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS-St. George corehole was drilled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) by a commercial drilling company during 1982. The corehole is located within the Coastal Plain Province in northern Dorchester County, South Carolina, about three miles southeast of the town of St. George near the village of Byrd (fig. 1). Coordinates for the corehole are 33o09'25'N latitude and 80o31'18'W longitude; ground elevation at the site is +78 feet (Reid and others, 1986). The St. George corehole is designated as USGS drill hole DOR-211. The St. George corehole was drilled to a total depth of 2,067 ft. The hole was cored continuously with generally good recovery from 300 ft to its total depth. Spot cores were taken at selected intervals between the top of the hole and a depth of 300 ft (50-55 ft, 100-110 ft, 150-165 ft, 200-205 ft, and 250-255 ft); however, recovery was poor in most of these intervals. The St. George core currently is stored at the USGS National Center, Reston, VA (March, 1997). The St. George corehole bottomed in basalt of probable early Mesozoic age beneath an Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedi-mentary section. Reid and others (1986) placed the top of basalt saprolite at 1,962 ft in the hole. Our examination of the geophysical logs and original core descriptions suggests that the top of the saprolite is higher in the hole, at about 1,939 ft. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was placed at or near 550 ft in the core by Reid and others (1986) and by Habib and Miller (1989). In this report, we provide paleontologic data for marine sediments in the upper part of the Upper Cretaceous section in the St. George core. Biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental data and interpretations based on the study of calcareous nannofossils and ostracodes from the Cretaceous section are discussed.

Self-Trail, Jean M.; Gohn, Gregory S.

1997-01-01

382

Earth Rotational Variations Excited by Geophysical Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern space geodetic measurement of Earth rotation variations, particularly by means of the VLBI technique, has over the years allowed studies of Earth rotation dynamics to advance in ever-increasing precision, accuracy, and temporal resolution. A review will be presented on our understanding of the geophysical and climatic causes, or "excitations". for length-of-day change, polar motion, and nutations. These excitations sources come from mass transports that constantly take place in the Earth system comprised of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and the cores. In this sense, together with other space geodetic measurements of time-variable gravity and geocenter motion, Earth rotation variations become a remote-sensing tool for the integral of all mass transports, providing valuable information about the latter on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Future prospects with respect to geophysical studies with even higher accuracy and resolution will be discussed.

Chao, Benjamin F.

2004-01-01