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1

Preliminary Fracture Description from Core, Lithological Logs, and Borehole Geophysical Data in Slimhole Wells Drilled for Project Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project (Project Hotspot) seeks to assess the potential for geothermal energy development in the Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho. Three deep slimhole wells are drilled at the Kimama, Kimberly, and Mountain Home sites in the central SRP. The Kimama and Kimberly wells are complete and the Mountain Home well is in progress. Total depth at Kimama is 1,912 m while total depth at Kimberly is 1,958 m. Mountain Home is expected to reach around 1,900 m. Full core is recovered and complete suites of wireline borehole geophysical data have been collected at both Kimama and Kimberly sites along with vertical seismic profiles. Part of the geothermal assessment includes evaluating the changes in the nature of fractures with depth through the study of physical core samples and analysis of the wireline geophysical data to better understand how fractures affect permeability in the zones that have the potential for geothermal fluid migration. The fracture inventory is complete for the Kimama borehole and preliminary analyses indicate that fracture zones are related to basaltic flow boundaries. The average fracture density is 17 fractures/3 m. The maximum fracture density is 110 fractures/3 m. Fracture density varies with depth and increases considerably in the bottom 200 m of the well. Initial indications are that the majority of fractures are oriented subhorizontally but a considerable number are oriented subvertically as well. We expect to statistically evaluate the distribution of fracture length and orientation as well as analyze local alteration and secondary mineralization that might indicate fluid pathways that we can use to better understand permeability at depth in the borehole. Near real-time temperature data from the Kimama borehole indicate a temperature gradient of 82°C/km below the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at a depth of 960 m bgs. The measured temperature at around 1,400 m depth is 55°C and the projected temperature at 2,000 m depth is 102°C. The rock types at Kimama and Kimberly are primarily basalt and rhyolite, respectively, with interbedded thin sedimentary layers. We identify anomalies in the physical properties of igneous rocks using porosity logs (neutron and acoustic), lithology logs (gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility) and fracture/saturation logs (televiewer and electrical resistivity). The core will be used to constrain the geophysical data and confirm the ability to identify permeability in fracture zones and saturated zones through analysis of the wireline log data. The matrix porosity of these igneous lithologies is near zero aside from porosity from vugs and vesicles. However, open and sealed fractures indicate that mineralizing fluids form connected pathways in the rock. Core samples show a series of alteration phases, including amygdaloidal fine-grained calcite and secondary clays. The geophysical data will be used to predict anomalies in lithology and identify open fractures and saturated zones with high permeability.

Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D.

2011-12-01

2

HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

2002-11-01

3

New Drilling Core Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Department of Energy (DOE) facility, dedicated to curating samples, cores, and other materials obtained under the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP), will become available early in 1985 in Grand Junction, Colo. The facility will be operated by DOE in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation. The three agencies are working together on continental scientific drilling in the United States under their formally adopted Interagency Accord on Scientific Drilling.From the time they are gathered at the drill site, these samples and routine logging data will be protected under Curatorial Policy Guidelines and Procedures. These guidelines and procedures are intended to provide maximum sample study opportunity, to preserve samples for future study, and to ensure longrange continuing service to the principle investigator and to the geoscience community.

4

Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane  

SciTech Connect

Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr. (ed.)

1987-04-01

5

Creating Classroom Activities About Ocean Drilling Geophysics Through Scientist-Teacher Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can examples of geophysical data used in research be effectively taught to middle and high school students with only general science knowledge? Logging data, or logs, are continuous measurements of physical properties made in situ and at high resolution by lowering instruments into boreholes after completion of coring. As part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) \\

M. J. Passow; G. Guerin

2007-01-01

6

Deep Rotary Core Drilling in Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotary drilling equipment was modified and used to obtain cores from glaciers in Northwest Greenland, Byrd Station and Little America V, Antarctica. Using cold compressed air, specially designed bits and other modifications, cores were obtained to 1345 fe...

G. R. Lange

1973-01-01

7

Wenchuan Fault Scientific Drilling Borehole No.1---Geophysical Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wenchuan Earthquake (May.12, 2008, M8.0) was located at the Longmenshan Fault, eastern margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The main rupture of the great earthquake had been drilled through at the mid of 2009 and the borehole was named as Borehole 1 of Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD-1). Geophysical tests and experiments, including logging, vertical seismic profile (VSP) and periodic temperature measurement and etc., have been carried out in WFSD-1. Analysis combined data in geology, seismology, rock mechanism, geochemistry, fluid activity and rheology shows that at the depth of the main fault plane, some of geophysical parameters including seismic velocity decrease, the characteristics of amplitude response, the frequency of seismic waves, borehole temperature and etc. changed significantly. The observation and experiments have helped us to understand more about the physical and chemical process at the depth of the rupture during and after the great earthquakes, which would provide more information about the rupture-and-healing process near the fault plane and about the mechanism of the earthquakes at this fault. Key Words: Wenchuan earthquake; fault plane; geophysical characteristics

Yu, C.; Ma, D.; Li, H.; Yang, W.; Su, D.

2010-12-01

8

A New Paradigm for Ice Core Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for answers to questions about the changing climate has created an urgent need to discover past climate signatures archived in glaciers and ice sheets, and to understand current ice sheet behavior. Recognizing that U.S. scientific productivity in this area depends upon a mechanism for ensuring continuity and international cooperation in ice coring and drilling efforts, along with the availability of appropriate drills, drilling expertise, and innovations in drilling technology, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) has established the Ice Drilling Program Office (IDPO) and its partner, the Ice Drilling Design and Operations group (IDDO), together known as IDPO/IDDO (Figure 1). This approach to integrated research and technology planning and delivery replaces the prior approach to drilling, which involved a series of NSF contracts with the Polar Ice Coring Office (PICO) and Ice Coring and Drilling Services (ICDS). This contracting approach lacked integrated planning. Previously, NSF had no way to forecast what science the community would propose—it would get compelling climate proposals that needed ice cores for data, but in many cases no existing drill could retrieve the core needed in the proposal. Constructing the needed drill—a process that takes years—forced science objectives to be put on hold. Now the science community is able to give feedback on its needs to IDPO/IDDO continually, allowing those who develop drilling technology to begin designing and constructing drills that scientists will need for the science proposals that they will submit years in the future. As such, IDPO/IDDO represents a new paradigm for integrated science and science support.

Albert, Mary; Bentley, Charles; Twickler, Mark

2010-09-01

9

Geophysical investigations in deep horizontal holes drilled ahead of tunnelling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deep horizontal drill holes have been used since 1967 by the Defense Nuclear Agency as a primary exploration tool for siting nuclear events in tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Geological Survey had developed geophysical logging techniques for obtaining resistivity and velocity in these holes, and to date 33 horizontal drill holes in excess of 300 m in depth have been successfully logged. The deepest hole was drilled to a horizontal depth of 1125 m. The purposes of the logging measurements are to define clay zones, because of the unstable ground conditions such zones can present to tunnelling, and to define zones of partially saturated rock, because of the attenuating effects such zones have on the shock wave generated by the nuclear detonation. Excessive attenuation is undesirable because the shock wave is used as a tunnel closure mechanism to contain debris and other undesirable explosion products. Measurements are made by pumping resistivity, sonic and geophone probes down the drill string and out of the bit into the open hole. Clay zones are defined by the electrical resistivity technique based on empirical data relating the magnitude of the resistivity measurement to qualitative clay content. Rock exhibiting resistivity of less than 20 ??-m is considered potentially unstable, and resistivities less than 10 ??-m indicate appreciable amounts of clay are present in the rock. Partially saturated rock zones are defined by the measurement of the rock sound speed. Zones in the rock which exhibit velocities less than 2450 m/sec are considered of potential concern. ?? 1980.

Carroll, R. D.; Cunningham, M. J.

1980-01-01

10

Geothermal temperature gradient core drill, Santiam Pass  

SciTech Connect

DOE is proposing to share in the cost of drilling a 3000-ft core hole to evaluate temperature gradients, subsurface geology and the geothermal potential of an area in the Cascade Mountains. The proposed core hole will be located in the Deschutes National Forest in Oregon, near Santiam Pass. The proposed action has been described in the Environmental Assessment (EA) for Geothermal Temperature Gradient Core Drill Santiam Pass Area (No. OR-050-9-51) prepared by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). DOE has determined that the BLM EA adequately addresses the impacts of the proposal and is hereby adopting the EA in partial fulfillment of its NEPA responsibilities. Based upon a review of the EA and an independent analysis, DOE has concluded that the proposed corehole drilling project does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, an environmental impact statement will not be prepared.

Not Available

1989-01-01

11

Test report for core drilling ignitability testing  

SciTech Connect

Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing.

Witwer, K.S.

1996-08-08

12

A New Paradigm for Ice Core Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for answers to questions about the changing climate has created an urgent need to discover past climate signatures archived in glaciers and ice sheets, and to understand current ice sheet behavior. Recognizing that U.S. scientific productivity in this area depends upon a mechanism for ensuring continuity and international cooperation in ice coring and drilling efforts, along with the

Mary Albert; Charles Bentley; Mark Twickler

2010-01-01

13

Buckling and dynamic analysis of drill strings for core sampling  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document presents buckling and dynamic stability analyses of the drill strings used for core sampling. The results of the drill string analyses provide limiting operating axial loads and rotational speeds to prevent drill string failure, instability and drill bit overheating during core sampling. The recommended loads and speeds provide controls necessary for Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic field operations.

Ziada, H.H., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-15

14

Results of USGS oil-shale core drilling in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah: Red Wash-1 drill hole  

SciTech Connect

Two oil-shale core holes were drilled in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah by the US Geological Survey during the fall and winter of 1981-1982. These holes were drilled for the purpose of oil-shale resource evaluation in the presumed depositional center of the rich oil-shale sequence in the basin. The drilling operations were contracted by the US Geological Survey to Connors Drilling, Inc. of Lakewood, Colorado, and the field descriptions of the cuttings and core were done by Ameraldo Resources, Inc. of Denver, Colorado, with revisions by the US Geological Survey. Geophysical logging was done by BPB, Inc. of Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Fischer assay analysis of the core was performed by Dickinson Laboratories, Inc. of El Paso, Texas. The water quality data were made available by Walt Holmes and Mike Enright of the US Geological Survey in Salt Lake City, Utah. Future work with the core material from the Red Wash-1 (RW-1) drill hole includes analysis of a composite standard sample of oil shale from the Mahogany oil-shale zone (which, in this hole, includes material from 2600.0 feet deep to 2733.0 feet deep) for major, minor, and trace elements by the US Geological Survey. The core material is stored at the US Geological Survey core storage facility in Arvada, Colorado. 3 figures, 1 table.

Scott, R.W. Jr.; Pantea, M.P.

1982-01-01

15

Results of USGS oil-shale core drilling in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah: Coyote Wash-1 drill hole  

SciTech Connect

Two oil-shale core holes were drilled in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, by the US Geological Survey (USGS) during the fall and winter of 1981-1982. These holes were drilled for the purpose of oil-shale resource evaluation in the presumed depositional center of the rich oil-shale sequence in the basin. The drilling operations were contracted by the US Geological Survey to Connors Drilling, Inc. of Lakewood, Colorado, and the field descriptions of the cuttings and core were done by Ameralda Resources, Inc. of Denver, Colorado, with revisions by the USGS. Geophysical logging was done by BPB, Inc. of Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Fischer assay analysis of the core was performed by Dickenson Laboratories, Inc. of El Paso, Texas. The water quality data were made available by Walt Holmes and Mike Enright of the USGS in Salt Lake City, Utah. Future work with the core material from the Coyote Wash-1 (CW-1) drill hole includes analysis of a composite standard sample of oil shale from the Mahogany oil-shale zone (which, in this hole, includes material from 2195.0 feet deep to 2323.0 feet deep) for major, minor, and trace elements. The core material is stored at the USGS core storage facility in Arvada, Colorado. 3 figures, 1 table.

Scott, R.W. Jr.; Pantea, M.P.

1982-01-01

16

Creating Classroom Activities About Ocean Drilling Geophysics Through Scientist-Teacher Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can examples of geophysical data used in research be effectively taught to middle and high school students with only general science knowledge? Logging data, or logs, are continuous measurements of physical properties made in situ and at high resolution by lowering instruments into boreholes after completion of coring. As part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) "School of Rock 2007" (http://www.joilearning.org/schoolofrock2007), we created a classroom activity to introduce pre-college students to representative logging data collected by the R/V JOIDES Resolution during expeditions of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). The synergistic model for curriculum development involving a research scientist (Guerin) and classroom teacher (Passow) provides an efficient strategy to disseminate technical research methods and results more widely with students and teachers. The "School of Rock 2007" brought 18 educators and 12 scientists together at the Texas A and M IODP Gulf Coast Observatory for a week in July to learn about techniques in sea floor exploration and advances in understanding the Earth's climate using geophysics, biostratigraphy, geomagnetics, and more. Teachers and researchers then collaborated to produce classroom activities that will add to the existing collection of educational resources available through JOI Learning (http://www.joiscience.org/learning). The activity we developed introduces students to general concepts of downhole logging, then presents sample data from three sites. Using guiding information provided, students engage in simplified interpretation of the data to identify such features as sedimentary layers, igneous rocks, or gas hydrate-bearing formations. Activities include questions about geography, identifying patterns within the data, recognizing distinctive features in gamma ray, resistivity, density and porosity logs. The curriculum materials will be tested with students and teachers in various setting during Fall 2007, including as part of the Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers (http://www.earth2class.org) and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Open House (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu.)

Passow, M. J.; Guerin, G.

2007-12-01

17

A new 122 mm electromechanical drill for deep ice-sheet coring (DISC): 4. Drill cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep ice-sheet coring (DISC) drill developed by Ice Coring and Drilling Services (ICDS) under contract with the US National Science Foundation requires a drill cable capable of transmitting high amounts of electrical power as well as high rates of data. The DISC cable was designed and manufactured by the Rochester Corporation to core ice to depths of 4000 m.

Alexander J. Shturmakov; Paul J. Sendelbach

2007-01-01

18

Integrated deep drilling, coring, downhole logging, and data management in the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact structures in the solar system are mainly recognized and explored through remote sensing and, on Earth, through geophysical deep sounding. To date, a continuous scientific sampling of large impact craters from cover rocks to target material has only seldom been performed. The first project to deep-drill and core into one of the largest and well-preserved terrestrial impact structures was executed in the winter of 2001/2002 in the 65 Myr-old Chicxulub crater in Mexico using integrated coring sampling and in situ measurements. The combined use of different techniques allows a three-dimensional insight and a better understanding of impact processes. Here, we report the integration of conventional rotary drilling techniques with wireline mining coring technology that was applied to drill the 1510 m-deep Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) well about 40 km southwest of Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. During the course of the project, we recovered approximately 900 m of intact core samples including the transitions of reworked ejecta to post-impact sediments, and that one from large blocks of tilted target material to impact-generated rocks, i.e., impact melt breccias and suevites. Coring was complemented by wireline geophysical measurements to obtain a continuous set of in situ petrophysical data of the borehole walls. The data acquired is comprised of contents of a natural radioactive element, velocities of compressional sonic waves, and electrical resistivity values. All the digital data sets, including technical drilling parameters, initial scientific sample descriptions, and 360° core pictures, were distributed during the course of the operations via Internet and were stored in the ICDP Drilling Information System (http://www.icdp-online.org), serving the global community of cooperating scientists as a basic information service.

Wohlgemuth, Lothar; Bintakies, Eckhard; Kück, Jochem; Conze, Ronald; Harms, Ulrich

2004-06-01

19

Chattanooga shale (Devonian and Mississippian) from the Tennessee Division of Geology: U. S. Department of Energy cored drill holes Number 4 and 5, Hawkins County, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tennessee Division of Geology under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has drilled eight NX coreholes in eastern Tennessee. The coring program was designed to retrieve continuous cores for a detailed study of the character of the Chattanooga Shale. The geophysical wire-line logging of the NX drill holes was performed by the

J. B. Roen; L. G. Wallace; R. C. Milici

1980-01-01

20

Characterization of Seismogenic Faults of Central Japan by Geophysical Survey and Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated investigations on seismogenic faults by geophysical survey and drilling are indispensable to better understand deep structure and physical properties of a fault fracture zone. In central Japan, three large active faults, Neodani, Atotsugawa and Atera faults, exist and are remarkable for research because of the potentiality of a scale of magnitude 7 to 8 class earthquake and the different characteristics of the seismogenic activities in these faults. Each individual fault shows its own characteristic features, which may reflect different stages in an earthquake cycle. High seismicity is concentrated with a clear lineation on and around the Atotsugawa fault, which is recognized as aftershocks from the latest event of the 1858 Hida earthquake (M=7.0). On the other hand, extremely low seismicity is found around the Atera fault, of which some parts seemed to be dislocated by the 1586 Tensyo earthquake (M=7.9). As an example of the results of study at the Atera fault, we obtained a wide variety of fault structures, composed materials, states of crustal stress and strengths of the fault from the geophysical survey (resistivity and gravity) and in-situ borehole experiments. Our findings are as follows: (1) The fracture zone around the Atera fault shows a very wide and complex fracture structure, from approximately 1 km to 4 km wide. (2) The average slip rate was estimated to be 5.3 m /1000 yr by the distribution of basalt in the age of 1.5 Ma as determined by radioactive dating. We inferred that the Atera fault has been repeatedly active in recent geologic time; however, it is in a very weak state at present. (3) Stress magnitude decreases in the area closer to the center of the fracture zone. These are important results to evaluate fault activity. Recent in-situ downhole measurements and coring through active faults have provided us with new insights into the physical properties of fault zones. In the vicinity of the epicenter of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake, we have conducted an integrated study by using 1,000 m to 1,800 m deep drilling wells. In particular, the Nojima-Hirabayashi borehole was drilled to a depth of 1,838 m and directly intersected the Nojima fault. Three possible fault strands were detected at depths of 1,140 m, 1,313 m and 1,800 m. Major results obtained from this study include the following: (1) Shear stress around the fault zone is very small, and the orientation of the maximum horizontal compression is perpendicular to the surface trace of faults. (2) From the results of a heat flow study, the lower cut-off depth of the aftershocks was estimated to be roughly 300 _E#8249;C. (3) Cores were classified into several types of fault rocks, and an asymmetric distribution pattern of these fault rocks in the fracture zones was identified. (4) Country rock is characterized by very low permeability and high strength. (5) Resistivity structure can be explained by a model of a fault extending to greater depths but with low resistivity. The integrated study by geophysical survey, drilling and core analyses, downhole measurements and long-term monitoring directly within these fault zones, provide us with characteristic features and dynamics of active faults.

Ikeda, R.; Omura, K.; Matsuda, T.

2004-12-01

21

Learning Activities Developed at The University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics Using Ocean Drilling Science, Technology and Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NSF GK-12 Fellows at The University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) actively contribute to K-12 education by linking K-12 students and teachers to research scientists and recent discoveries, and by developing hands-on learning activities designed primarily for secondary school learning environments. The excitement of the new Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), an international research program that explores the history and structure of the Earth by studying the sediments and rocks beneath the seafloor, has provided UTIG's GK-12 Fellows with an incentive to develop new, and revise existing, inquiry-based learning activities based on the science, technology and/or data of scientific ocean drilling. These activities, grouped into a curriculum module, address the mechanics of collecting cores, fossil identification and age relationships within a core, and the interpretation of geophysical logs. They expose teachers and students to the exciting science and advanced technology of the IODP and the achievements of the Ocean Drilling Program, which preceded IODP. UTIG scientists active in the IODP guided the development of the module's science content. The module activities are aligned with U.S. educational standards, but could be adapted for use in other countries that participate in the IODP. Where this isn't possible, they can serve as an example of educational curriculum materials that underscore the vital nature of international collaboration.

Bailey, D. M.; Stevens, J.; Clarke, D.; Ellins, K.; Tynes, G.; Petkovsek, M.

2004-12-01

22

Liquid sodium model of geophysical core convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective motions in Earth's outer core are responsible for the generation of the geomagnetic field. We present liquid sodium convection experiments in a spherical vessel, designed to model the convective state of planetary cores such as the Earth's. Heat transfer, azimuthal fluid velocities, and properties of temperature fluctuations were measured for different rotation rates and temperature drops across the convecting

Woodrow L. Shew; Daniel P. Lathrop

2005-01-01

23

Liquid sodium model of geophysical core convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective motions in Earth’s outer core are responsible for the generation of the geomagnetic field. We present liquid sodium convection experiments in a spherical vessel, designed to model the convective state of planetary cores such as the Earth’s. Heat transfer, azimuthal fluid velocities, and properties of temperature fluctuations were measured for different rotation rates and temperature drops across the convecting

Woodrow L. Shew; Daniel P. Lathrop

2005-01-01

24

The mechanics of diamond core drilling of rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 36 laboratory drilling tests were conducted to study the mechanics of diamond coring in rocks. The drillability of a surface-set drill bit was assessed based on the penetration rate, applied torque, and specific kerfing energy. Factors governing efficiency of the diamond core drilling included wight-on-bit, core bit rotational speed, and rock types.Results of the experiment indicated that

S. L. Huang; Z. W. Wang

1997-01-01

25

Method and apparatus for geophysical exploration in drill holes by means of very low frequency waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for geophysical exploration that does not require the installation of a low-frequency transmission source in the proximity of the drill hole are disclosed. A surface pick-up detects the magnetic field component of a low-frequency signal, which, after amplification and filtering, is supplied as one input of a comparator. A pick-up disposed in a drill hole detects

Millon

1976-01-01

26

Ice Core Quality in Electro-Mechanical Drilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using an electro-mechanical drill working on the principle developed by J. Rand and H. Rufli, four holes have been drilled in different locations. In each of these drillings it has been observed that the core quality was excellent in the firn, but the ice...

F. Gillet D. Donnou C. Girard A. Manouvrier C. Rado

1984-01-01

27

The Berkner Island (Antarctica) ice-core drilling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a project to retrieve a 948 m deep ice core from Berkner Island, Antarctica. Using relatively lightweight logistics and a small team, the drilling operation over three austral summer seasons used electromechanical drilling technology, described in detail, from a covered shallow pit and a fluid-filled borehole. A basal temperature well below pressure-melting point meant that no drilling problems

Robert Mulvaney; Olivier Alemany; Philippe Possenti

2007-01-01

28

Characterization of Seismogenic Faults of Central Japan by Geophysical Survey and Drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated investigations on seismogenic faults by geophysical survey and drilling are indispensable to better understand deep structure and physical properties of a fault fracture zone. In central Japan, three large active faults, Neodani, Atotsugawa and Atera faults, exist and are remarkable for research because of the potentiality of a scale of magnitude 7 to 8 class earthquake and the different

R. Ikeda; K. Omura; T. Matsuda

2004-01-01

29

Cretaceous shallow drilling, US Western Interior: Core research  

SciTech Connect

This project is a continuing multidisciplinary study of middle to Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate and clastic rocks in the Utah-Colorado-Kansas corridor of the old Cretaceous seaway that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Arctic during maximum Cretaceous transgressions. It is collaborative between in the US Geological Survey (W.E. Dean, P.I.) and University researchers led by The Pennsylvania State University(M.A. Arthur, P.I.) and funded by DOE and the USGS, in part. Research focusses on the Greenhom, Niobrara and lower Pierre Shale units and their equivalents, combining biostratigraphic/paleoecologic studies, inorganic, organic and stable isotopic geochemical studies, mineralogical investigations and high-resolution geophysical logging. This research requires unweathered samples and continuous smooth exposures'' in the form of cores from at least 4 relatively shallow reference holes (i.e. < 1000m) in transect from east to west across the basin. The major initial effort was recovery in Year 1 of the project of continuous cores from each site in the transect. This drilling provided samples and logs of strata ranging from pelagic sequences that contain organic-carbon-rich marine source rocks to nearshore coal-bearing units. This transect also will provide information on the extent of thermal maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in organic-carbon-rich strata along a burial gradient.

Arthur, M.A.

1993-02-17

30

Rotary drilling and borehole coring apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an apparatus and method of coring a borehole drilled with a rotary rig, the coring or sample-taking projectile will return to the barrel or casing irrespective of how far the projectile enters the formation. A collar in the drill string adjacent the bit contains a number of sample-taking devices and means for firing the devices responsive to a remotely

Bannister

1966-01-01

31

Latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene cyclostratigraphy: using core photographs for reconnaissance geophysical logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a new method for reconnaissance cyclostratigraphic study of continuously cored boreholes: the generation of detailed sediment color logs by digitizing Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) core photographs. The reliability of the method is tested by comparison with the spectrophotometer color log for the uppermost Paleocene-lowermost Eocene section (Chron C24r) at ODP Hole 1051A. The color log generated from Hole 1051A core photographs is essentially identical to the spectrophotometer log. The method is applied to the Chron C24r section at Holes 1051A and 690B, producing the first high-resolution geophysical log for the latter section. I calculate astronomically calibrated durations between bio- and chemostratigraphic events within Chron C24r by correlating the cyclostratigraphies for Holes 1051A and 690B. These durations are significantly different from previous estimates, indicating that the chronology of events surrounding the Paleocene/Eocene boundary will have to be revised. This study demonstrates that useful geophysical logs can be generated from digitized ODP and DSDP core photographs. The method is of practical use for sections lacking high-resolution logs, as is the case for most lower Paleogene sections.

Cramer, B. S.

2001-03-01

32

Antifreeze thermal ice core drilling: an effective approach to the acquisition of ice cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifreeze thermal electric drills have a long history of ice drilling in temperate, subpolar and polar glaciers. Shallow, intermediate and deep ice cores have been obtained in Arctic, Antarctic and on high elevation glaciers. Many merits and drawbacks of antifreeze thermal technology have been discovered over the past 25 years. A modified version of the antifreeze thermal electric ice coring

V Zagorodnov; L. G Thompson; J. J Kelley; B Koci; V Mikhalenko

1998-01-01

33

Geophysical investigations of subglacial Antarctic lakes: identifying drill sites for lake access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subglacial lakes are regarded as viable habitats for novel microbial life forms and may contain sedimentary palaeo-environmental records which would provide critical insights into the glacial history of Antarctica. In-situ sampling and analysis is the only way to explore these lake environments. In order to successfully plan access programs detailed geophysical investigations, in particular seismic measurements of water depth, are required to identify suitable drill sites. Prior to the austral summer of 2006/07 measurements of water depths only existed for Subglacial Lake Vostok, and spatial coverage was limited due to the size of the lake. More recently, active source seismic experiments have been carried out over three subglacial lakes, South Pole Lake, Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) and Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW). With drilling programs now funded for SLW (access planned for 2011/12) and SLE (access planned for 2012/13) we present results from the geophysical experiments at SLE and SLW to allow the identification of primary drill sites. The two lakes are very different. Geophysical results from SLE suggest that the lake is over 155 m deep and has been a stable system for much of the Holocene. We propose that in order to optimize the chances of successful access and sampling, the entry site should be located in an area with a melting interface near the centre of the lake where water depths are in the order of 100 m. This is away from the down-lake end which shows a higher possibility for basal freezing, with the consequent risk to equipment deployment and retrieval. In contrast, SLW is characterized by dynamic filling and draining over short (2-3 year periods) and most likely has a shallow water column (currently estimated to be in the order of 5-10 m). We suggest that the most suitable location for access will be the centre of the elevation change anomaly recorded over the lake. This point is near equidistant from the lake shoreline features identified from a radio-echo sounding profile. Here, even during a period of deflation, the water column is likely to be deepest allowing appropriate deployment and retrieval of probes and samples. The geophysical surveys from SLE and SLW allow general conclusions to be made about appropriate data requirements for planning current and future access projects. The limitations of the geophysical techniques will also be addressed, allowing consideration of uncertainty associated with the selection of appropriate drill sites.

Woodward, J.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Smith, A.; Walter, J.; Ross, N.; Fricker, H. A.; Siegert, M. J.; Pettersson, R.; Thoma, M.; Corr, H.; King, E. C.; Vaughan, D.

2009-12-01

34

Stratigraphy of the APOLLO 15 Drill Core.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The crew of Apollo 15 collected at 242-centimeter-long core of the regolith of the moon developed on the surface of Palus Putredinis 3 deg 39 min 20 sec E, 26 deg 26 min 00 sec N. The 2.04-centimeter-diameter core, which has a mass of 1333.2 grams, consis...

G. Heiken M. Duke R. Fryxell J. S. Nagle R. Scott

1972-01-01

35

Stress orientations of Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) hole-A as observed from geophysical logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled a 2-km-deep research borehole to investigate the structure and mechanics of the Chelungpu Fault that ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Geophysical logs of the TCDP were carried out over depths of 500-1900 m, including Dipole Sonic Imager (DSI) logs and Formation Micro Imager (FMI) logs in order to identify bedding planes, fractures and shear zones. From the continuous core obtained from the borehole, a shear zone at a depth of 1110 meters is interpreted to be the Chelungpu fault, located within the Chinshui Shale, which extends from 1013 to 1300 meters depth. Stress-induced borehole breakouts were observed over nearly the entire length of the wellbore. These data show an overall stress direction (~N115°E) that is essentially parallel to the regional stress field and parallel to the convergence direction of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. Variability in the average stress direction is seen at various depths. In particular there is a major stress orientation anomaly in the vicinity of the Chelungpu fault. Abrupt stress rotations at depths of 1000 m and 1310 m are close to the Chinshui Shale's upper and lower boundaries, suggesting the possibility that bedding plane slip occurred during the Chi-Chi earthquake.

Wu, Hung-Yu; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Zoback, Mark; Boness, Naomi; Ito, Hisao; Hung, Jih-Hao; Hickman, Stephen

2007-01-01

36

Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America  

SciTech Connect

Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

37

Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation

James G Moore

2001-01-01

38

Depositional history of the Apollo 16 deep drill core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic hysteresis loop measurements were performed on 212 samples from the Apollo 16 deep drill core. The total iron content is generally uniform with a mean value of 5.7 plus or minus 0.9 wt%. The soils range in maturity from immature to mature. Two major contacts were observed. The contact at 13 cm depth represents a fossil

W. A. Gose; R. V. Morris

1977-01-01

39

Drilling-induced core fractures and in situ stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the shapes of drilling-induced core fractures and the in situ state of stress is developed. The stress concentrations at the well bore bottom are first determined using a complete three-dimensional finite element analysis. Existing in situ compressional stresses generate large tensions in the immediate vicinity of the bottom hole which are sufficient to rupture the rock. Tensile

Yongyi Li; Douglas R. Schmitt

1998-01-01

40

Drilling report and core logs for the 1981 drilling of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, with comparative notes on earlier (1967-1979) drilling experiences  

SciTech Connect

The purpose is: (1) to describe the 1981 drilling of Kilauea Iki lava lake, (2) to present the logs for the drill core recovered during the 1981 drilling, and (3) to present a summary of some of the field observations made during the 1967, 1975, 1976 and 1979 drillings that are relevant to the crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake. This report supplements logs for the 1967-1979 core presented in Helz et al. (1980). 21 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

Helz, R.T.; Wright, T.L.

1983-01-01

41

Drilling-induced core fractures and in situ stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the shapes of drilling-induced core fractures and the in situ state of stress is developed. The stress concentrations at the well bore bottom are first determined using a complete three-dimensional finite element analysis. Existing in situ compressional stresses generate large tensions in the immediate vicinity of the bottom hole which are sufficient to rupture the rock. Tensile fracture trajectories within these concentrated stress fields are predicted using a simple model of fracture propagation. These modeled fracture trajectories resemble well the observed shapes of drilling-induced core disking, petal, and petal-centerline fractures. Further, this agreement suggests that both the shape of the drilling-induced fracture and the location at which it initiates depends on the in situ stress state existing in the rock mass prior to drilling; the core fractures contain substantial information on in situ stress conditions. In all faulting regimes the coring-induced fractures initiate near the bit cut except for most cases under thrust faulting regime where the fracture initiates on the well bore axis. Further, under thrust faulting conditions only disk fractures appear possible. Both petal and disking fractures can be produced in strike-slip and normal faulting regimes depending upon the relative magnitudes between the least compressive horizontal principal stress and the vertical overburden stress. The predicted fracture shapes are in good qualitative agreement with observations of drilling-induced fractures described in the literature from laboratory experiments and field programs in which in situ stresses are measured by other means. The relationship of the morphology of coring induced fractures and in situ stresses suggests that the fractures can be used as independent complementary indicators in identifying stress regimes.

Li, Yongyi; Schmitt, Douglas R.

1998-03-01

42

The Chicxulub Multiring Impact Crater and the Cretaceous/Paleogene Boundary: Results From Geophysical Surveys and Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chicxulub crater has attracted considerable attention as one of the three largest terrestrial impact structures and its association with the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary (K/Pg). Chicxulub is a 200 km-diameter multi-ring structure formed 65.5 Ma ago in the Yucatan carbonate platform in the southern Gulf of Mexico and which has since been buried by Paleogene and Neogene carbonates. Chicxulub is one of few large craters with preserved ejecta deposits, which include the world-wide K/Pg boundary clay layer. The impact has been related to the global major environmental and climatic effects and the organism mass extinction that mark the K/Pg boundary, which affected more than 70 % of organisms, including the dinosaurs, marine and flying reptiles, ammonites and a large part of the marine microorganisms. The impact and crater formation occur instantaneously, with excavation of the crust down to 25 km depths in fractions of second and lower crust uplift and crater formation in a few hundreds of seconds. Energy released by impact and crustal deformation generates seismic waves traveling the whole Earth, and resulting in intense fracturing and deformation at the target site. Understanding of the physics of impacts on planetary surfaces and modeling of processes of crustal deformation, rheological behavior of materials at high temperatures and pressures remain a major challenge in geosciences. Study of the Chicxulub crater and the global effects and mass extinction requires inter- and multidisciplinary approaches, with researchers from many diverse fields beyond the geosciences. With no surface exposures, geophysical surveys and drilling are required to study the crater. Differential compaction between the impact breccias and the surrounding carbonate rocks has produced a ring-fracture structure that at the surface reflects in a small topographic depression and the karstic cenote ring. The crater structure, located half offshore and half on-land, has been imaged by different geophysical aerial, land and marine methods including gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics and seismic refraction and reflection. The impact lithologies and carbonate sequence have been cored as part of several drilling projects. Here we analyze the stratigraphy of Chicxulub from borehole logging data and core analyses, with particular reference to studies on CSDP Yaxcopoil-1 and UNAM Santa Elena boreholes. Analyses of core samples have examined the stratigraphy of the cover carbonate sequence, impact breccia contact and implications for impact age, K/Pg global correlations and paleoenvironmental conditions following impact. The K/Pg age for Chicxulub has been supported from different studies, including Ar/Ar dating, magnetic polarity stratigraphy, geochemistry and biostratigraphy. A Late Maastrichtian age has also been proposed for Chicxulub from studies in Yaxcopoil-1 basal Paleocene carbonates, with impact occurring 300 ka earlier predating the K/Pg boundary. This proposal calls attention to the temporal resolution of stratigraphic and chronological methods, and the need for further detailed analyses of the basal carbonate sections in existing boreholes and new drilling/coring projects. Stratigraphy of impact ejecta and basal sediments in Yaxcopoil-1 and UNAM boreholes indicates a hiatus in the basal sequence. Modeling of post- impact processes suggest erosion effects due to seawater back surge, block slumping and partial rim collapse of post-impact crater modification. Analyses of stable isotopes and magnetostratigraphic data for the Paleocene carbonate sequences in Yaxcopoil-1 and Santa Elena boreholes permit to investigate the post- impact processes, depositional conditions and age of basal sediments. Correlation of stable isotopes with the global pattern for marine carbonate sediments provides a stratigraphic framework for the basal Paleocene carbonates. The analyses confirm a K/Pg boundary age for the Chicxulub impact. References: Collins et al, 2008. Earth Planetary Science Letters 270, 221-230; Gulick et al, 2008. Nature Geoscience 1, 131-135; Hild

Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Perez-Cruz, Ligia

2010-03-01

43

Axel rover NanoDrill and PowderDrill: Acquisition of cores, regolith and powder from steep walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes development and testing of low-mass, low-power drills for the Axel rover. Axel is a two-wheeled tethered rover designed for the robotic exploration of steep cliff walls, crater walls and deep holes on earth and other planetary bodies. The Axel rover has a capability to deploy scientific instruments and/or samplers in the areas of interest to scientists currently inaccessible by conventional robotic systems. To enable sample recovery, we developed two drills: NanoDrill for acquisition of 25 mm long and 7 mm diameter cores and PowderDrill for acquisition of either in situ regolith/soil or drilled cuttings from depths of up to 15 mm. Both drills have been successfully tested in laboratory in limestone and sandstone rocks and on-board the Axel rover in the Mars Yard at NASA JPL. The drills managed to acquire limestone and sandstone cores and powder, with an average power of less than 5 Watts. The penetration rate of the NanoDrill was ~2 mm/min and of the PowderDrill it was ~9 mm/min. After sample acquisition, both drills successfully ejected of the acquired samples (cores and powder).

Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Chu, P.; Hedlund, M.; Spring, J.; Osborne, L.; Matthews, J.; Zarzhitsky, D.; Nesnas, I. A.; Szwarc, T.; Indyk, S.

44

Geophysical well logs for eleven drill holes at the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine Site, Idaho Springs, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The following geophysical well log measurements were made in eleven drill holes above the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado: (1) acoustic velocity (2) resistivity, (3) caliper, (4) gamma-gamma density, (5) neutron-thermal neutron, (6) gamma ray, (7) induced polarization (IP), (8) self potential (SP), and magnetic susceptibility. The density and acoustic velocity logs indicate extensive fracturing in each of the drill holes. Variations in the relative amount of felsic or mafic mineral components in the rocks can be inferred from the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray well log responses. Zones containing metallic sulfide mineralization are interpreted from the IP well log response.

Daniels, J. J.; Scott, J. H.

1984-01-01

45

Results of USGS oil-shale core drilling in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah: Red Wash1 drill hole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two oil-shale core holes were drilled in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah by the US Geological Survey during the fall and winter of 1981-1982. These holes were drilled for the purpose of oil-shale resource evaluation in the presumed depositional center of the rich oil-shale sequence in the basin. The drilling operations were contracted by the US Geological Survey to Connors

R. W. Jr. Scott; M. P. Pantea

1982-01-01

46

Results of USGS oil-shale core drilling in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah: Coyote Wash1 drill hole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two oil-shale core holes were drilled in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, by the US Geological Survey (USGS) during the fall and winter of 1981-1982. These holes were drilled for the purpose of oil-shale resource evaluation in the presumed depositional center of the rich oil-shale sequence in the basin. The drilling operations were contracted by the US Geological Survey to

R. W. Jr. Scott; M. P. Pantea

1982-01-01

47

Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea-floor drilling rig MeBo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sampling of the upper 50 to 200 m of the sea floor to address questions relating to marine mineral resources and gas hydrates, for geotechnical research in areas of planned offshore installations, to study slope stability, and to investigate past climate fluctuations, to name just a few examples, is becoming increasingly important both in shallow waters and in the deep sea. As a rule, the use of drilling ships for this kind of drilling is inefficient because before the first core can be taken a drill string has to be assembled extending from the ship to the sea floor. Furthermore, movement of the ship due to wave motion disturbs the drilling process and often results in poor core quality, especially in the upper layers of the sea floor. For these reasons, the MeBo drilling rig, which is lowered to the sea floor and operated remotely from the ship to drill up to 80 m into the sea floor, was developed at the MARUM Research Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at Bremen University. The complete system, comprising the drill rig, winch, control station, and the launch and recovery system, is transported in six containers and can be deployed worldwide from German and international research ships. It was the first remote-controlled deep sea drill rig that uses a wireline coring technique. Based on the experiences with the MeBo a rig is now being built that will be able to drill to a depth of 200 m.

Freudenthal, T.; Wefer, G.

2013-07-01

48

Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains abbreviated course notes from a geophysics class at California State University at Sacramento. The notes contain topic summaries and formulas, including gravity, Newton's laws, radioactivity, radioactive decay, Rb/Sr dating, Uranium-Thorium-Lead dating, uses of Lead, fission-track dating, Potassium-Argon dating, Carbon dating, heat, magnetism, seismology and earthquake prediction.

Slaymaker, Susan

49

Best practices in core and data management for lake drilling projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

LacCore, the National Lacustrine Core Facility, was founded a decade ago by the US National Science Foundation and the University of Minnesota in part to support lake drilling projects made possible by the parallel advent of the Global Lake Drilling (GLAD) platform and tools. Since that time, LacCore has participated in 8 of the 11 GLAD projects, assisting with planning,

A. J. Noren; K. L. Brady; A. Myrbo; E. Ito

2009-01-01

50

Ice core drilling, processing and initial data of the 3029m deep Dome Fuji Antarctic ice core  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 2006, the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition succeeded in drilling a 3029 m deep ice core at Dome Fuji in East Antarctica. Dome Fuji is the third place where a more than 3000 m deep ice core was collected in Antarctica, after Vostok (3623 m in depth, 1998) and Dome C (3270 m in depth, 2004). The drilling will

S. Fujita

2006-01-01

51

Laboratory measurements of the seismic velocities and other petrophysical properties of the Outokumpu deep drill core samples, eastern Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrophysical, in particular seismic velocity, measurements of the Outokumpu deep drill core (depth 2.5 km) have been carried out to characterize the geophysical nature of the Paleoproterozoic crustal section of eastern Finland and to find lithological and geophysical interpretations to the distinct crustal reflectors as observed in seismic surveys. The results show that different lithological units can be identified based on the petrophysical data. The density of the samples remained nearly constant throughout the drilled section. Only diopside-tremolite skarns and black schists exhibit higher densities. The samples are dominated by the paramagnetic behaviour with occasional ferromagnetic signature caused by serpentinitic rocks. Large variations in seismic velocities, both at ambient pressure and under in situ crustal conditions are observed. The porosity of the samples, which is extremely low, is either intrinsic by nature or caused by decompaction related to fracturing during the core retrieval. It is noteworthy that these microfractures have dramatically lowered the VP and VS values. From the measured velocities and density data we have calculated the seismic impedances, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios for the lithological units of the Outokumpu section and from these data the reflection coefficients for the major lithological boundaries, evident in the surveyed section, were determined. The data show that the strong and distinct reflections visible in wide-angle seismic surveys are caused by interfaces between diopside-tremolite skarn and either serpentinites, mica schist or black schist.

Elbra, Tiiu; Karlqvist, Ronnie; Lassila, Ilkka; Høgström, Edward; Pesonen, Lauri J.

2011-01-01

52

Cretaceous shallow drilling, US Western Interior: Core research. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

This project is a continuing multidisciplinary study of middle to Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate and clastic rocks in the Utah-Colorado-Kansas corridor of the old Cretaceous seaway that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Arctic during maximum Cretaceous transgressions. It is collaborative between in the US Geological Survey (W.E. Dean, P.I.) and University researchers led by The Pennsylvania State University(M.A. Arthur, P.I.) and funded by DOE and the USGS, in part. Research focusses on the Greenhom, Niobrara and lower Pierre Shale units and their equivalents, combining biostratigraphic/paleoecologic studies, inorganic, organic and stable isotopic geochemical studies, mineralogical investigations and high-resolution geophysical logging. This research requires unweathered samples and continuous smooth ``exposures`` in the form of cores from at least 4 relatively shallow reference holes (i.e. < 1000m) in transect from east to west across the basin. The major initial effort was recovery in Year 1 of the project of continuous cores from each site in the transect. This drilling provided samples and logs of strata ranging from pelagic sequences that contain organic-carbon-rich marine source rocks to nearshore coal-bearing units. This transect also will provide information on the extent of thermal maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in organic-carbon-rich strata along a burial gradient.

Arthur, M.A.

1993-02-17

53

Scientific plan for deep ice core drilling in central Greenland (GISP 2: Greenland Ice Sheet Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice sheets are natural archival systems that continously collect and preserve the physical and chemical history of the Earth's atmosphere. Ice cores drilled from the ice sheets offer a practical way to study the layers of ice. Deep ice cores have been drilled to bedrock only three times: at Camp Century, Greenland, in 1966 (1,384 meters), at Byrd Station, Antarctica,

E. Mosley-Thompson; A. J. Gow; M. M. Herron; K. Jezek; B. Kamb

1985-01-01

54

Sampling process waste sludge in underground storage tanks by rotary core drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A core driller was developed for coring hard sludge in underground tanks, and sludge samples were taken from the Purex 241-A-103 tank. The development, design, and operation of the drill are described. An electric conductivity probe was used to stop the drill when it contacted the tank bottom. Qualitative observations are given on the physical properties of the sludge in

J. P. Duckworth; V. P. Kelly; J. D. Lodge; J. R. Raymond

1962-01-01

55

Use of Tracers To Investigate Drilling-Fluid Invasion and Oil Flushing During Coring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work develops a method in which chemical tracers in the drilling fluid help determine mud filtrate invasion and the degree of oil flushing during coring of steamed and unsteamed heavy-oil formations. Salts of iodide and bromide were added to the drilling fluid while Well TO3 was cored through the Lombardi and Aurignac zones at San Ardo field in California.

A. Brown; F. T. Marriott

1988-01-01

56

Drilling and Coring of Frozen Ground in Northern Alaska, Spring 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Frozen samples of perennially frozen ground were obtained from 33 holes drilled at six locations in the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska in the spring of 1979. Total depth of drilling was 510 m (1670 ft), of which 178 m (584 ft) was cored. The objectiv...

D. E. Lawson B. Brockett

1980-01-01

57

Possible reasons of shock melt deficiency in the Bosumtwi drill cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-drilling numerical modeling of the Bosumtwi impact event predicted a 200 m thick coherent melt layer, as well as abundant highly shocked target material within the central part of the crater structure. However, these predictions are in disagreement with data from drill core obtained in 2004-2005. Here I provide a brief overview of previous results and discuss possible reasons behind

N. Artemieva

2007-01-01

58

A new 122 mm electromechanical drill for deep ice-sheet coring (DISC): 5. Experience during Greenland field testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill developed by Ice Coring and Drilling Services under contract with the US National Science Foundation is an electromechanical ice-drill system designed to take 122 mm ice cores to depths of 4000 m. The new drill system was field-tested near Summit camp in central Greenland during the spring\\/summer of 2006. Testing was conducted to

Jay A. Johnson; William P. Mason; Alexander J. Shturmakov; Scott T. Haman; Paul J. Sendelbach; Nicolai B. Mortensen; Laurent J. Augustin; Kristina R. Dahnert

2007-01-01

59

Workshop on Core and Sample Curation for the National Continental Scientific Drilling Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Workshop on Core and Sample Curation was held to discuss the best means of handling, distributing, and advertising samples and data collected during a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) and to establish better communication between sample ...

S. Goff G. Heiken

1982-01-01

60

Report on ignitability testing of flammable gasses in a core sampling drill string  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results from testing performed at the Pittsburgh Research Center to determine the effects of an ignition of flammable gasses contained in a core sampling drill string. Testing showed that 1) An ignition of stoichiometric hydrogen and air in a vented 30 or 55 ft length of drill string will not force 28`` or more of water out the bottom of the drill string, and 2) An ignition of this same gas mixture will not rupture a vented or completely sealed drill string.

Witwer, K.S., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-12-01

61

Test and evaluation of aluminum drill pipe for deep-water coring: design and use of heavy-wall drilling joints for bending stress reduction. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The report includes two papers dealing with means of extending the drill string depth capability and lowering stresses at the top of the drill string. The first paper reports on the operational use of a 2000 foot section of aluminum drill pipe in a mixed aluminum/steel drill string. The report also discusses metallurgical laboratory tests and assesses the potential of mixed strings for use in wireline coring operations to 30,000 feet. The second deals with the development and test of drilling joints used to reduce stresses at the upper end of the drill string.

Peterson, M.N.A.

1984-02-01

62

Integration of various geophysical data with geological and geochemical data to determine additional drilling for copper exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, three data-driven methods (i.e., Bayesian, k-nearest neighbour (k-nn) and neural network classifiers) are used to generate a prospectivity map for porphyry-Cu deposits. Different data layers of geological, geophysical and geochemical themes are integrated to evaluate the Now Chun porphyry-Cu deposit, located in the Kerman province of Iran, and to prepare a prospectivity map for mineral exploration. Both the Bayesian and k-nn methods showed correct classification rates (CCR) of 52.38% for 21 boreholes divided into five classes. Three types of the neural networks including multi-layer perceptron, radial based function (RBF) and probabilistic neural network are applied to evaluate the result. Among neural networks used, the RBF neural network generated the highest CCR equal to 80.95%. Multi-classification of the prospect for detailed study could increase the resolution of the prospectivity map and decrease the drilling risk.

Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

2012-08-01

63

Coring to the West Antarctic ice sheet bed with a new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a contribution to IPY 2007-2008, the U.S. ice core research community, supported by the National Science Foundation, plans to core through the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) at the ice-flow divide between the Ross Sea and Amundsen Sea drainage systems. The aim is to develop a unique series of interrelated climatic, ice-dynamic, and biologic records focused on understanding interactions among global earth systems. There will be approximately 15 separate but synergistic projects to analyze the ice and interpret the records. The most significant expected outcome of the WAIS Divide program will be climate records for the last ~40,000 years with an annually resolved chronology (through layer counting), comparable to the records from central Greenland. The data will also extend, at lower temporal resolution, to approximately 100,000 BP. These records will permit comparison of environmental conditions between the northern and southern hemispheres, and study of greenhouse gas concentrations in the paleoatmosphere, with unprecedented detail. To accomplish the coring, an innovative new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill is being built at the University of Wisconsin. The modular design of the bore-hole assembly (sonde) provides high flexibility for producing a 122 mm diameter ice core to depths of 4,000 m with maximum core lengths of 4 m. The DISC drill has a rotating outer barrel that can be used with or without an inner barrel designed to improve core recovery in brittle ice. Separate and independent motors for the drill and pump allow cutter speeds from 0 to 150 rpm and pump rates from 0 to 140 gpm. The high pumping rate should alleviate problems drilling in warm ice near the bed; it also helps make tripping speeds several times faster than with the old US drill. Other innovations include vibration and acoustic sensors for monitoring the drilling process, a segmented core barrel to avoid the formerly persistent problem of bent core barrels, and a high-speed data acquisition system, which allows the real-time monitoring of 30 parameters for operational and scientific use. Data are transmitted from the sonde to the surface through optical fibers contained in the drill cable, which also provides power to the sonde. The entire drilling process utilizes a user-friendly "expert" control system. Quick connectors allow for fast core removal and sonde servicing. The drill tower is a tilting tower utilizing modular truss construction for flexibility and portability. We expect higher quality cores than produced by the old drill, because of a straighter barrel, the independently controlled drill and pump motors, and better monitoring and control of the drilling process. The drill is scheduled for testing in Greenland in the summer of 2006 and for first drilling at the WAIS Divide site late in the 2006-07 austral field season.

Bentley, C. R.; Taylor, K. C.; Shturmakov, A. J.; Mason, W. P.; Emmel, G. R.; Lebar, D. A.

2005-05-01

64

Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data are from analyses performed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, with some analyses made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet that is included in the CD-ROM. These Wyoming Fischer assays and histograms are part of a much larger collection of oil-shale information, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses on the Green River oil-shale deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming held by the U.S. Geological Survey. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM containing Fischer assay data and oil-yield histograms for the Green River oil-shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming is being released to the public. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets included with Chapter 2 contain the Fischer assay data from the 426 holes and data on the company name and drill-hole name, and location. Histograms of the oil yields obtained from the Fischer assays are presented in both Grapher and PDF format. Fischer assay text data files are also included in the CD-ROM.

U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

2008-01-01

65

First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)\\/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC1): Drilling report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock\\/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at

J. Rowley; W. Hawkins; J. Gardner

1987-01-01

66

3. A SYNOPSIS OF THE BAHAMAS DRILLING PROJECT: RESULTS FROM TWO DEEP CORE BORINGS DRILLED ON THE GREAT BAHAMA BANK 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two continuous cores (Unda and Clino) drilled during the initial phase of the Bahamas Drilling Project on top of the west- ern Great Bahama Bank (GBB) penetrated proximal portions of prograding seismic sequences. As such, these cores provide the shallow-water record of sea-level changes and fluid flow of the Bahamas Transect that was completed with the deeper water sites of

G. P. Eberli; P. K. Swart; D. F. McNeill; J. A. M. Kenter; F. S. Anselmetti; L. A. Melim; R. N. Ginsburg

67

Chattanooga shale (Devonian and Mississippian) from the Tennessee Division of Geology: U. S. Department of Energy cored drill holes Number 4 and 5, Hawkins County, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Tennessee Division of Geology under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has drilled eight NX coreholes in eastern Tennessee. The coring program was designed to retrieve continuous cores for a detailed study of the character of the Chattanooga Shale. The geophysical wire-line logging of the NX drill holes was performed by the US Geological Survey. The lithologic and wire-line log data in conjunction with two seismic surveys will be used to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the Chattanooga Shale in northeastern Tennessee. The purpose of this report is to present a detailed lithologic description and gamma-ray log of the Tennessee Division of Geology and US Department of Energy cored drill holes no. 4 and 5 (TDG-DOE no. 4 and no. 5). In spite of the overlap, no distinct marker beds were found to facilitate a positive correlation between the two cores. Reconstruction of the total Chattanooga section was based on detailed field mapping of the uppermost dark-gray shale below the base of the Grainger Formation and the projection of the beds. The total thickness of the Chattanooga Shale at the coring locations is estimated to be 1650 to 1700 ft.

Roen, J.B.; Wallace, L.G.; Milici, R.C.

1980-01-01

68

Characteristics and paleoenvironmental significance of lacustrine sediments in the El'gygytgyn drill core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake El'gygytgyn is a 12 km diameter, 175 m deep lake filling a meteorite impact crater that formed ca. 3.6 million years ago in Chukutko, northeastern Siberia (67°30' N, 172°05' E). An international team under the aegis of the Inter Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled three overlapping cores at a site near the center of the lake. The lacustrine sediment

T. Cook; V. Wennrich; M. Kukkonen; M. Melles; J. Brigham-Grette; El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

2010-01-01

69

Effects of lithology and depth on the permeability of core samples from the Kola and KTB drill holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeability measurements were conducted on intact core samples from the Kola drill hole in Russia and the Continental Deep Well Drilling Program (KTB) drill hole in Germany. Samples included granodiorite gneisses, basalts and amphibolites from depths up to 11 km. The tests were intended to determine the pressure sensitivity of permeability and to compare the effects of stress relief and

C. Morrow; D. Lockner; S. Hickman; M. Rusanov; T. Roeckel

1994-01-01

70

Drilling and coring methods that minimize the disturbance of cuttings, core, and rock formation in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A drilling-and-casing method (Odex 115 system) utilizing air as a drilling fluid was used successfully to drill through various rock types within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper describes this method and the equipment used to rapidly penetrate bouldery alluvial-colluvial deposits, poorly consolidated bedded and nonwelded tuff, and fractured, densely welded tuff to depths of about 130 meters. A comparison of water-content and water-potential data from drill cuttings with similar measurements on rock cores indicates that drill cuttings were only slightly disturbed for several of the rock types penetrated. Coring, sampling, and handling methods were devised to obtain minimally disturbed drive core from bouldery alluvial-colluvial deposits. Bulk-density values obtained from bulk samples dug from nearby trenches were compared to bulk-density values obtained from drive core to determine the effects of drive coring on the porosity of the core. Rotary coring methods utilizing a triple-tube core barrel and air as the drilling fluid were used to obtain core from welded and nonwelded tuff. Results indicate that the disturbance of the water content of the core was minimal. Water-content distributions in alluvium-colluvium were determined before drilling occurred by drive-core methods. After drilling, water-content distributions were determined by nuclear-logging methods. A comparison of the water-content distributions made before and after drilling indicates that Odex 115 drilling minimally disturbs the water content of the formation rock. 10 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; McDaniel, J.C.

1985-12-31

71

Heat generated by cutting ice in deep ice-core drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand and solve the 'warm-ice problem' in deep ice-core drilling, we applied the metal-cutting theory to ice and estimated the heat generated during ice coring taking into account the mechanical and thermal properties of the ice and cutters. We found that (1) most of the heat in cutting is generated by shear deformation at the shear plane

Nobuhiko Azuma; Ikuo Tanabe; Hideaki Motoyama

2007-01-01

72

Timescale Calculations for Ice Core Drilling Sites on the Temperate Ice Caps in Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling of age vs. depth profiles and annual-layer thickness changes with depth in ice sheets forms part of the investigations carried out prior to the selection of ice core drilling sites. The well known Nye model, which assumes a constant vertical strain rate with depth in an ice sheet of thickness H is generally applicable in the upper half of

T. Thorsteinsson; B. Einarsson

2005-01-01

73

Discoveries Within the Ice: Plans of the Ice Coring and Drilling Science Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for answers to questions about our changing climate creates an urgent need to discover the clues to the past archived in glaciers and ice sheets, and to understand current ice sheet behavior. Recognizing that U.S. scientific productivity in this area depends upon a mechanism for ensuring continuity and international cooperation in ice coring and drilling efforts, along with

M. R. Albert; C. R. Bentley; M. Twickler

2010-01-01

74

Workshop on core and sample curation for the National Continental Scientific Drilling Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Workshop on Core and Sample Curation was held to discuss the best means of handling, distributing, and advertising samples and data collected during a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) and to establish better communication between sample curators regarding common problems. It was geneerally agreed that CSDP samples should be handled, on a regional basis, by existing data systems and

S. Goff; G. Heiken

1981-01-01

75

The Glomar Explorer as a Deep Ocean Drilling and Coring Ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 1977 Global Marine Development Inc. (GMDI) conducted a study for the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to determine the feasibility of utilizing the GLOMAR EXPLORER for deep water scientific drilling and coring. The large physical size, the massive load handling capability and the large center well of the GLOMAR EXPLORER allow a

S. Wetmore; J. McNary

1979-01-01

76

AN INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING AS APPLIED TO CORE DRILLING BERYLLIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applicability of the electrical discharge machining process to core ; drilling zirconium beryllide (ZrBeââ) and niobium beryllide (NbBeââ) ; was investigated. Test series were designed to investigate the effects of the ; following variables on the machinability and physical characteristics of the ; beryllides: electrode material; current densities; electrode design; ; servomechanism feed rates; electrode dielectric pressures; and proximity of

1960-01-01

77

Best practices in core and data management for lake drilling projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LacCore, the National Lacustrine Core Facility, was founded a decade ago by the US National Science Foundation and the University of Minnesota in part to support lake drilling projects made possible by the parallel advent of the Global Lake Drilling (GLAD) platform and tools. Since that time, LacCore has participated in 8 of the 11 GLAD projects, assisting with planning, field, lab, and archival phases as required by each project. This experience has informed work on future projects, for which we encourage science groups to utilize existing, proven resources and relationships within ICDP, DOSECC, and LacCore to achieve project goals efficiently. Bringing people from these groups together early in the planning process is critical to obtaining a thorough understanding of the resources available to projects, and for identifying new project-specific needs. In the planning stage, this experience allows for rapid generation of supplies lists and budget estimates, and avoidance of costly logistical mistakes. In the field, LacCore personnel serve as an effective interface among drillers and scientists, and provide critical institutional memory between projects with different PIs and drillers. Standard procedures and equipment for core handling and data capture at the drill site vastly simplify core and data management downstream. In the lab, optimization of core processing techniques, an array of high-end instrumentation, and ample personnel and both work- and storage space maximize the efficiency of core processing and sampling. Unique project-specific requirements drive continual adaptation and expansion of the resources available to subsequent groups. These established resources free PIs from some of the enormous logistical burden created by these large-scale projects.

Noren, A. J.; Brady, K. L.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.

2009-12-01

78

Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain indicating that very unusual microbes can be contained in a drilling fluid. All this testifies that kerosene film is indeed hard to remove and everyone should be aware on bacteria introduced with any drilling fluid. Our results demonstrate the necessity to have a drilling fluid data base when studying the microbial contents of ice cores.

Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

2003-04-01

79

Coring project in Bighorn Basin: Drilling phase complete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have begun a new project to recover and study sediment cores in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming to investigate the high-frequency climatic and biotic variability of a continental depositional system during past episodes of greenhouse conditions. The project, called the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP), focuses on the early Paleogene (?50-65 million years ago), the most recent interval of Earth history characterized by greenhouse climate conditions. During the early Paleogene, global mean annual temperatures were up to 10°C higher than today, and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may have been more than 1000 parts per million [Zachos et al., 2008] compared with the roughly 390 parts per million today. Superimposed on this background greenhouse climate state were a series of short-term extreme warming events called hyperthermals. The best known early Paleogene hyperthermal event is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ?56 million years ago), which is characterized by a large global carbon isotope excursion and coincides with major changes to marine and continental ecosystems [McInerney and Wing, 2011]. At present, the causes of these hyperthermal events remain unknown, although several hypotheses exist.

Clyde, William C.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Wing, Scott L.

2012-01-01

80

Core drilling provides information about Santa Fe Group aquifer system beneath Albuquerque's West Mesa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Core samples from the upper ???1500 ft of the Santa Fe Group in the Albuquerque West Mesa area provide a first-hand look at the sediments and at subsurface stratigraphic relationships in this important part of the basin-fill aquifer system. Two major hydrostratigraphic subunits consisting of a lower coarse-grained, sandy interval and an overlying fine-grained, interbedded silty sand and clay interval lie beneath the water table at the 98th St core hole. Borehole electrical conductivity measurements reproduce major textural changes observed in the recovered cores and support subsurface correlations of hydrostratigraphic units in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system based on geophysical logs. Comparison of electrical logs from the core hole and from nearby city wells reveals laterally consistent lithostratigraphic patterns over much of the metropolitan area west of the Rio Grande that may be used to delineate structural and related stratigraphic features that have a direct bearing on the availability of ground water.

Allen, B. D.; Connell, S. D.; Hawley, J. W.; Stone, B. D.

1998-01-01

81

Preliminary geologic and geophysical data of the UE25a-3 exploratory drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UE25a-3 drill hole, located in the Calico Hills area, was drilled as part of an effort to evaluate the Calico Hills area as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The purpose of the drill hole was to verify the existence of an intrusive crystalline body in the subsurface and to determine the stratigraphy, structure, and nature of fractures of

F. Maldonado; D. C. Muller; J. N. Morrison

1979-01-01

82

Use of tracers to investigate drilling-fluid invasion and oil flushing during coring  

SciTech Connect

This work develops a method in which chemical tracers in the drilling fluid help determine mud filtrate invasion and the degree of oil flushing during coring of steamed and unsteamed heavy-oil formations. Salts of iodide and bromide were added to the drilling fluid while Well TO3 was cored through the Lombardi and Aurignac zones at San Ardo field in California. Vertical core plugs, taken from the periphery to the center of the retrieved whole core, were analyzed for tracer concentration. Tracer analyses indicated minimal filtrate invasion in the not-yet-steamflooded Lombardi zone and complete filtrate invasion in the steamflooded Aurignac zone. Tracer and oil saturation analyses showed the Lombardi zone to be uniform from top to bottom with an average oil saturation of 42.5% and an average porosity of 31.1%. Interpretation of tracer and oil saturation data permitted the construction of a layered model for the Aurignac zone. The layers ranged from an average oil saturation of 8% in the steamflooded layer to 37% in the bottom layer. The data showed that significant oil flushing (6%) occurred only in cores taken from the hot-waterflooded layer just below the steam zone. Vertical core-plug porosities and saturations, as determined by a unique calculating scheme, were compared with conventional and Elkins-corrected values. The comparison indicated that misapplication of the Elkins method in high-temperature formations may result in significant errors.

Brown, A.; Marriott, F.T. (Texaco, Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1988-11-01

83

Characteristics of crushed rocks observed in drilled cores in landslide bodies located in accretionary complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of high-quality boring, which uses foam surfactants, has made it possible to examine the detailed geological constitution and structure of landslide bodies. However, geological information related to landslides has not been obtained appropriately even from undisturbed high-quality drilled cores. Moreover, it has been difficult to distinguish between rocks crushed by landslide movement and the fault breccia in accretionary complexes. We examined the detailed geology of high-quality drilled cores of landslide bodies on the Shimanto Belt and the Chichibu Belt. The fault breccia near the landslide bodies was found to exhibit planar fabrics while the crushed breccias in the landslide bodies showed a random fabric. We discovered that classifying the degree of crushing and inspecting the planar fabrics of rocks are effective in the geological determination of landslide bodies.

Wakizaka, Yasuhiko

2013-10-01

84

Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China Jiren Xu1 (+86-10-68992879; xujiren@ccsd.org.cn) Zhixin Zhao1 (+86-10-68999734; zhaozhixin@ccsd.org.cn) Hiroshi Ishii2 (+81-0572-67-3105; ishii@tries.gr.jp Tsuneo Yamauchi3 (+81-052-789-3045; yamauchi@seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp) 1 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China 2 Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES), Japan 3 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) site is located in the Donghai area of the Dabie-Sulu belt, which is the largest UHPM belt in the world. The drilling of the main borehole with 5000m will finish in next year. Three satellite boreholes, PP1, PP2 and PP3 were drilled and various surveys have been performed in the Donghai area about 6 years ago. We are going to install a newly developed Multi-component Instrument for borehole observations in main hole near the large Tanlu fault, and establish a long-term underground observation laboratory, which is the first noiseless one in China. The seismic activity and various geophysical fields, viz. strain, geomagnetism, geothermy, tilt, pore pressure etc. will be investigated. Data from the underground laboratory will be open to scientific, engineering and public services. We will measure the initial stress in various depths of the borehole by overcoring method using a new developed wireless intelligent type strainmeter of in-situ stress. Establishing a long-term noiseless underground observation laboratory at deep borehole and investigating crustal movement in East China are important for observing the physical conditions of the earth¡_s interior and solving many social problems, such as resources, disasters and environment. Multiple geophysical observations and the study in deep borehole will speed up and develop the study on tectonics and geodynamics. The accomplishment of this project may enrich the knowledge on the geophysics and geology.

Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Ishii, H.; Yamauchi, T.

2004-12-01

85

Very low TI \\/VLT\\/ basalts - A new mare rock type from the Apollo 17 drill core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phaneritic fragments, vitrophyres, and glass beads of a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt are found in the Apollo 17 drill core. VLT lithic fragments are characterized by TiO2 content of approximately 0.5%, Mg\\/(Mg + Fe) of approximately 0.52, CaO\\/Al2O3 of approximately 0.9, and low alkali content. Although mineral systematics and modal composition of VLT basalt are similar to

D. T. Vaniman; J. J. Papike

1977-01-01

86

Revised magnetostratigraphic chronologies for New Harbour drill cores, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taylor Valley (DVDP-10, -11) and Ferrar Fiord (CIROS-2) drill cores offer a window into the evolution of southern Victoria Land glaciers and the Antarctic climate system during the late-Neogene. Here we present new magnetostratigraphic chronologies, which we use to correlate the drill core successions with onshore dry-valleys geomorphic records and offshore deep-ocean records. Magnetostratigraphies were constructed using stepwise AF and/or thermal demagnetisation of discrete specimens from the drill cores. Correlation of magnetostratigraphies with the magnetic polarity timescale was guided by biostratigraphic and radiometric constraints. We recognise five styles of sedimentation in the Taylor/Ferrar fiords, which we correlate with discrete climate phases. During the latest Miocene-early Pliocene, wet based glaciers filled the Taylor and Ferrar fiords with active sedimentation in the Taylor Fiord and erosion of basement rocks in the Ferrar Fiord. Glaciers retreated during the Pliocene warm period leaving open marine conditions and deep fiords (> 300 m) at a time when the Ross Sea was free of ice and sea surface temperatures around Antarctica were at least 5 °C warmer than today. We recognise the first significant cooling in DVDP-11 post 2.6 Ma by a shift to current winnowed sediments sourced from the Ross Sea rather than from East Antarctic glaciers. Post 1.7 Ma, lacustrine sediments were deposited behind ice-dammed lakes, which formed when West Antarctic ice expanded and grounded across the Ross Embayment and abutted the Transantarctic Mountains.

Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary

2012-02-01

87

Reprint of: Revised magnetostratigraphic chronologies for New Harbour drill cores, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taylor Valley (DVDP-10, -11) and Ferrar Fiord (CIROS-2) drill cores offer a window into the evolution of southern Victoria Land glaciers and the Antarctic climate system during the late-Neogene. Here we present new magnetostratigraphic chronologies, which we use to correlate the drill core successions with onshore dry-valleys geomorphic records and offshore deep-ocean records. Magnetostratigraphies were constructed using stepwise AF and/or thermal demagnetisation of discrete specimens from the drill cores. Correlation of magnetostratigraphies with the magnetic polarity timescale was guided by biostratigraphic and radiometric constraints. We recognise five styles of sedimentation in the Taylor/Ferrar fiords, which we correlate with discrete climate phases. During the latest Miocene-early Pliocene, wet based glaciers filled the Taylor and Ferrar fiords with active sedimentation in the Taylor Fiord and erosion of basement rocks in the Ferrar Fiord. Glaciers retreated during the Pliocene warm period leaving open marine conditions and deep fiords (> 300 m) at a time when the Ross Sea was free of ice and sea surface temperatures around Antarctica were at least 5 °C warmer than today. We recognise the first significant cooling in DVDP-11 post 2.6 Ma by a shift to current winnowed sediments sourced from the Ross Sea rather than from East Antarctic glaciers. Post 1.7 Ma, lacustrine sediments were deposited behind ice-dammed lakes, which formed when West Antarctic ice expanded and grounded across the Ross Embayment and abutted the Transantarctic Mountains.

Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary

2012-10-01

88

[Clarification of breast lesions using core-cut, drill and fine needle biopsy].  

PubMed

Interest in needle biopsy methods (core cut-, drill-, and fine-needle biopsy) has recently increased considerably because of the rise in screening mammography and new developments in the therapy of breast cancer. In order to achieve adequate results using needle biopsy and to avoid complications, certain technical details must be strictly adhered to. An experienced surgeon can achieve a sensitivity of above 90% in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma with all three methods. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of these three methods of needle biopsy, we prefer--based on our own experience--high-speed core-cut biopsy for the morphological evaluation of breast lesions. PMID:8516437

Junkermann, H; Anton, H W; Krapfl, E; Harcos, A; von Fournier, D

1993-05-01

89

Magmatic history of the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii based on drill core from SOH 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep drilling has allowed for the first time an examination of most of the shield stage of a Hawaiian volcano when it is centered over the hotspot and most of its volume is produced. We determined the lithologies, ages, geochemical characteristics and accumulation rates of rocks from the continuously cored, ?1.7km deep Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) 1, which was drilled

S. L. Quane; M. O. Garcia; H. Guillou; T. P. Hulsebosch

2000-01-01

90

Subsurface Profiles of Organics Obtained by Core Drilling in Jurassic Sediments at a Mars Analog Site in Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained rock cores (0.6-1.6 m depth) from ancient (150 m.y. old) sediments at a Mars analog site in Utah using a prototype Mars drill. We report the depth profile of organics from these samples to illustrate the utility of drilling on Mars.

Stoker, C. R.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Valdivia-Silva, J.; Foing, B.

2012-03-01

91

Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality.

K. Meeker; F. Goff; J. N. Gardner; P. E. Trujillo; D. Counce

1990-01-01

92

High permafrost ice contents in Holocene slope deposits as observed from shallow geophysics and a coring program in Pangnirtung, Nunavut, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of permafrost conditions was undertaken in the Hamlet of Pangnirtung, Nunavut, by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) and Université Laval's Centre d'études nordiques (CEN) to support decision makers in their community planning work. The methods used for this project were based on geophysical and geomorphological approaches, including permafrost cores drilled in surficial deposits and ground penetrating radar surveys using a GPR Pulse EKKO 100 extending to the complete community area and to its projected expansion sector. Laboratory analysis allowed a detailed characterization of permafrost in terms of water contents, salinity and grain size. Cryostratigraphic analysis was done via CT-Scan imagery of frozen cores using medical imaging softwares such as Osiris. This non destructive method allows a 3D imaging of the entire core in order to locate the amount of the excess ice, determine the volumetric ice content and also interpret the ice-formation processes that took place during freezing of the permafrost. Our new map of the permafrost conditions in Pangnirtung illustrates that the dominant mapping unit consist of ice-rich colluvial deposits. Aggradationnal ice formed syngenitically with slope sedimentation. Buried soils were found imbedded in this colluvial layer and demonstrates that colluviation associated with overland-flow during snowmelt occurred almost continuously since 7080 cal. BP. In the eastern sector of town, the 1 to 4 meters thick colluviums cover till and a network of ice wedges that were revealed as spaced hyperbolic reflectors on GPR profiles. The colluviums also cover ice-rich marine silt and bedrock in the western sector of the hamlet; marine shells found in a permafrost core yielded a radiocarbon date of 9553 cal. BP which provides a revised age for the local deglaciation and also a revised marine submergence limit. Among the applied methods, shallow drilling in coarse grained permafrost, core recovery and CT-Scan allowed the discovery of the importance of Holocene slope processes on shaping the surface of the terrain and leading to the observed cryostructures and ice contents in the near surface permafrost.

Carbonneau, A.; Allard, M.; L'Hérault, E.; LeBlanc, A.

2011-12-01

93

Interpretation of geophysical well-log measurements in drill hole UE25a-1, Nevada Test Site, Radioactive Waste Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory hole (UE25a-1) was drilled at Nevada Test Site (NTS) to determine the suitability of pyroclastic deposits as storage sites for radioactive waste. Studies have been conducted to investigate the stratigraphy, structure, mineralogy, petrology, and physical properties of the tuff units encountered in the drill hole. This report deals with the interpretation of physical properties for the tuff units

J. T. Hagstrum; J. J. Daniels; J. H. Scott

1980-01-01

94

Lithologic and Geophysical Logs of Selected Drill Holes in Eastern Area 7, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a compilation of drill hole data from holes completed between December 1979 and June 1982 (this includes a 1972 drill hole described geologically in May 1981) in eastern Area 7, Nevada Test Site. Data presented in this report includes hole ...

J. L. Gonzales S. L. Drellack W. J. Davies

1982-01-01

95

Preliminary Palaeomagnetic Results from ICDP Barberton Greenstone Belt Scientific Drill Cores.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four drill cores from the ICDP Barberton Greenstone Belt Scientific Drilling Project have been sampled for palaeomagnetic analysis. Some 350 oriented mini-samples (10mm diameter) were collected from cores BARB1 to BARB 4, allowing units from the Onverwacht (Komatii and Hooggenoeg Formations) and Fig Tree Groups to be studied. Previous work has indicated that rocks from the Noisy and Hooggenoeg Formations have the potential to record a near-primary direction of remanence and suggest the presence of a reversing geomagnetic field of similar magnitude to the recent field at ca. 3.5Ga. Previous paleomagnetic studies carried out on the Komatii Formation have yielded one of the oldest paleomagnetic poles and intensities in the world but these results are even more questionable. So far, no paleomagnetic work has been carried out on the Buck Reef Chert Formation or the Fig Tree Group. This sampling forms part of a larger study aiming, firstly to constrain the reliability of previous results by performing improved field stability tests. A positive fold test would constrain the age of the magnetic signal recorded by the Komatii and Hooggenoeg Formations to older than 3.2 Ga. Confirmation of the presence of a viable and reversing field during the Palaeoarchean would place a strong constraint on processes occurring in the outer core during this time with implications for planetary evolution. Rates of polar wander will also be constrained by the directional findings, shedding some light on mantle convection processes at the time. Preliminary directional work on samples from drill cores will be presented here.

Roberts Artal, Laura; Biggin, Andy; Langereis, Cor; Wilson, Allan; Arndt, Nicholas; Hill, Mimi

2013-04-01

96

Scientific Drilling at Sulphur Springs, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Core Hole VC 2A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific core hole has been drilled into the western ring fracture zone of the Valles Caldera, N.Mex. Hole VC-2A, the second scientific core hole in the caldera, was cored through a faulted and brecciated sequence of intracaldera tuffs and volcaniclastic rocks to a depth of 528 m at Sulphur Springs. As of November 1, 1986, the unequilibrated bottom hole temperature was 212°C. The rocks that have been penetrated are intensely altered and contain molybdenite mineralization (MnC>2) that is less than or equal to 1.1 m.y. in age. The active hydrothermal system at Sulphur Springs consists of a thin (5-m) acid condensation zone overlying vapor- and water-dominated zones. The latter two zones are apparently separated by a region of tightly sealed rock.

Goff, Fraser; Nielson, Dennis L.; Gardner, Jamie N.; Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Lysne, Peter; Shevenell, Lisa; Rowley, John C.

97

Procedures for use of, and drill cores and cuttings available for study at, the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, established the Lithologic Core Storage Library at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The facility was established to consolidate, catalog, and permanently store nonradioactive drill cores and cuttings from investigations of the subsurface conducted at the INEL, and to provide a location for researchers to examine, sample, and test these materials. The facility is open by appointment to researchers for examination, sampling, and testing of cores and cuttings. This report describes the facility and cores and cuttings stored at the facility. Descriptions of cores and cuttings include the well names, well locations, and depth intervals available. Most cores and cuttings stored at the facility were drilled at or near the INEL, on the eastern Snake River Plain; however, two cores drilled on the western Snake River Plain are stored for comparative studies. Basalt, rhyolite, sedimentary interbeds, and surficial sediments compose the majority of cores and cuttings, most of which are continuous from land surface to their total depth. The deepest core stored at the facility was drilled to 5,000 feet below land surface. This report describes procedures and researchers` responsibilities for access to the facility, and examination, sampling, and return of materials.

Davis, L.C.; Hannula, S.R.; Bowers, B.

1997-03-01

98

Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

2011-01-01

99

Interrelating the breakage and composition of mined and drill core coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle size distribution of coal is important if the coal is to be beneficiated, or if a coal sales contract includes particle size specifications. An exploration bore core sample of coal ought to be reduced from its original cylindrical form to a particle size distribution and particle composition that reflects, insofar as possible, a process stream of raw coal it represents. Often, coal cores are reduced with a laboratory crushing machine, the product of which does not match the raw coal size distribution. This study proceeds from work in coal bore core reduction by Australian investigators. In this study, as differentiated from the Australian work, drop-shatter impact breakage followed by dry batch tumbling in steel cylinder rotated about its transverse axis are employed to characterize the core material in terms of first-order and zeroth-order breakage rate constants, which are indices of the propensity of the coal to degrade during excavation and handling. Initial drop-shatter and dry tumbling calibrations were done with synthetic cores composed of controlled low-strength concrete incorporating fly ash (as a partial substitute for Portland cement) in order to reduce material variables and conserve difficult-to-obtain coal cores. Cores of three different coalbeds--Illinois No. 6, Upper Freeport, and Pocahontas No. 5 were subjected to drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling tests to determine breakage response. First-order breakage, characterized by a first-order breakage index for each coal, occurred in the drop-shatter tests. First- and zeroth-order breakage occurred in dry batch tumbling; disappearance of coarse particles and creation of fine particles occurred in a systematic way that could be represented mathematically. Certain of the coal cores available for testing were dry and friable. Comparison of coal preparation plant feed with a crushed bore core and a bore core prepared by drop-shatter and tumbling (all from the same Illinois No.6 coal mining property) indicated that the size distribution and size fraction composition of the drop-shattered/tumbled core more closely resembled the plant feed than the crushed core. An attempt to determine breakage parameters (to allow use of selection and breakage functions and population balance models in the description of bore core size reduction) was initiated. Rank determination of the three coal types was done, indicating that higher rank associates with higher breakage propensity. The two step procedure of drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling simulates the first-order (volume breakage) and zeroth-order (abrasion of particle surfaces) that occur in excavation and handling operations, and is appropriate for drill core reduction prior to laboratory analysis.

Wilson, Terril Edward

100

Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater, which has been proposed as the source of pyroxene pumice deposits in the Tecuamburro area. TCB-1 is located 300 m south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco; the core hole penetrates the thin edge of a tuff ring surrounding Ixpaco and zones of hydrothermal brecciation within the upper 150 m may be related to the phreatic blast, dated at 2,910 {sup 14}C years. At the time of this writing, the unequilibrated temperature at a depth of 570m was 180{degree}C. Data on fracturing, permeability, hydrothermal alteration, and temperature will be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Goff, S.; Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Duffield, W. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (USA)); Martinelli, L.; Aycinena, S. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

1990-01-01

101

A shallow ice core re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap, western China: recent changes in the Asian high mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 51 m deep ice core was re-drilled on the Dunde Ice Cap of western China in 2002, 15 years after the previous ice core drilling in 1987. Dating by seasonal variations in delta18O and particle concentration showed that this 51 m deep ice core covered approximately the last 150 years. The stratigraphy and density showed that more than 90%

Nozomu Takeuchi; Takayuki Miyake; Fumio Nakazawa; Hideki Narita; Koji Fujita; Akiko Sakai; Masayoshi Nakawo; Yoshiyuki Fujii; Keqin Duan; Tandong Yao

2009-01-01

102

Timescale Calculations for Ice Core Drilling Sites on the Temperate Ice Caps in Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling of age vs. depth profiles and annual-layer thickness changes with depth in ice sheets forms part of the investigations carried out prior to the selection of ice core drilling sites. The well known Nye model, which assumes a constant vertical strain rate with depth in an ice sheet of thickness H is generally applicable in the upper half of polar and temperate ice caps, but the assumption of a constant vertical strain rate is unrealistic near the bed in an ice sheet frozen to bedrock. Dansgaard-Johnsen (D-J) type models assume that the vertical strain rate is constant down to height h above bedrock and then decreases linearly with depth towards zero at the bed. The parameter h can be calibrated according to the way in which the horizontal velocity varies with depth. Here we introduce a new derivation of the D-J model that accounts for bottom melting due to the geothermal heat flux, which averages 200 mW/m2 in Iceland. The model is then applied to five different locations on the temperate ice caps in Iceland, with ice thicknesses varying between 220 m and 850 m and accumulation rates ranging between 2.0 and 3.6 m ice/year. Data from ice cores drilled at three of these sites are used to calibrate the model. For the summit location on the Hofsjokull ice cap (H = 300 m), we find that a D-J model with a relatively high h/H ratio reproduces the timescale from a 100 m ice core better than the Nye model. Results indicate that a continuous precipitation record covering the last 400-500 years could be retrieved at the Hofsjokull summit (1790 m a.s.l.), and the assumption of bottom melting has a large effect on the modelled timescale at this site, yielding 50% lower ages at 90% of the ice depth than model runs that neglect bottom melting. For deeper drillings in Iceland, the ice-filled caldera at Bardarbunga, NW-Vatnajokull (H = 850 m), where a 415 m core was drilled in 1972, is among the most promising sites. Selection of the h/H ratio in the D-J model for timescale calculation within the caldera rims is complicated by an unusual ice-flow pattern but results strongly indicate that a 700-800 m ice core could yield a record covering historical time in Iceland (870 AD - present). Model results predict that by 90% of ice depth, the annual layers have thinned to 17 cm at the Hofsjokull summit and 8 cm within the Bardarbunga caldera. Annual layers of this thickness are detectable with the methods used in pilot ice core drilling and processing efforts in Iceland in recent years.

Thorsteinsson, T.; Einarsson, B.

2005-12-01

103

Melt in the impact breccias from the Eyreville drill cores, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The center of the 35.3 Ma Chesapeake Bay impact structure (85 km diameter) was drilled during 2005/2006 in an ICDP-0USGS drilling project. The Eyreville drill cores include polymict impact breccias and associated rocks (1397-01551 m depth). Tens of melt particles from these impactites were studied by optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and microRaman spectroscopy, and classified into six groups: m1—clear or brownish melt, m2—brownish melt altered to phyllosilicates, m3—colorless silica melt, m4—melt with pyroxene and plagioclase crystallites, m5—dark brown melt, and m6—melt with globular texture. These melt types have partly overlapping major element abundances, and large compositional variations due to the presence of schlieren, poorly mixed melt phases, partly digested clasts, and variable crystallization and alteration. The different melt types also vary in their abundance with depth in the drill core. Based on the chemical data, mixing calculations were performed to determine possible precursors of these melt particles. The calculations suggest that most melt types formed mainly from the thick sedimentary section of the target sequence (mainly the Potomac Formation), but an additional crystalline basement (schist/gneiss) precursor is likely for the most abundant melt types m2 and m5. Sedimentary rocks with compositions similar to those of the melt particles are present among the Eyreville core samples. Therefore, sedimentary target rocks were the main precursor of the Eyreville melt particles. However, the composition of the melt particles is not only the result of the precursor composition but also the result of changes during melting and solidification, as well as postimpact alteration, which must also be considered. The variability of the melt particle compositions reflects the variety of target rocks and indicates that there was no uniform melt source. Original heterogeneities, resulting from melting of different target rocks, may be preserved in impactites of some large impact structures that formed in volatile-rich targets, because no large melt body exists, in which homogenization would have taken place.

Bartosova, Katerina; Hecht, Lutz; Koeberl, Christian; Libowitzky, Eugen; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

2011-03-01

104

Lithologic and Geophysical Logs of Selected Drill Holes in Areas 1, 3, and 6, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a compilation of drill hole data from holes completed between July 1979 and May 1982 in Areas 1, 3, and northern Area 6, Nevada Test Site. Data presented in this report includes hole locations, stratigraphy and lithology penetrated, selecte...

S. L. Drellack J. L. Gonzales W. J. Davies

1982-01-01

105

Characteristics and paleoenvironmental significance of lacustrine sediments in the El'gygytgyn drill core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake El’gygytgyn is a 12 km diameter, 175 m deep lake filling a meteorite impact crater that formed ca. 3.6 million years ago in Chukutko, northeastern Siberia (67°30’ N, 172°05’ E). An international team under the aegis of the Inter Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled three overlapping cores at a site near the center of the lake. The lacustrine sediment fill extends approximately 315 m below the lake floor. Sediment recovery was nearly 100 percent for the uppermost 150 m, but is lower (~63 percent) in the deeper sections of the core. Nonetheless, long (40 m), continuous sections with nearly complete recovery were obtained from the early part of the record. These cores present a unique opportunity to compare sedimentary signatures of glacial/interglacial and Pliocene/Pleistocene environmental conditions in the terrestrial Arctic. The lacustrine sequence has been subdivided into distinct sedimentary facies based on the visual characteristics and color of split core halves, qualitative grain size descriptions, interpretation of radiographs, and microanalysis of thin sections prepared from representative sections of the core. Four fine grained pelagic facies have been differentiated based on the presence or absence and characteristics of fine (<1 mm to 5 mm) laminations. The pelagic sediments are interrupted by distinct graded beds which fine upwards from sand and silt to clay and intervals of disturbed and/or redeposited material likely associated with turbidity flows or mass movements. Deeper sections of the core are also interrupted by poorly sorted, massive deposits containing coarse sand and gravel, the origin of which may challenge prevailing assumptions that the region escaped Quaternary glaciations. Regular variations in the style of pelagic sedimentation likely reflect variations in climate and environmental conditions that have influenced the delivery of fluvial and aeolian sediment to the lake, the length of the ice free season, the temperature and stratification of lake waters, and geochemical and biological conditions within the lake. Continued analysis of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the sediments will help constrain the origin and significance of individual facies.

Cook, T.; Wennrich, V.; Kukkonen, M.; Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

2010-12-01

106

Drilling Induced Fracture (DIF) Characterization and Stress Pattern Analysis of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) Core, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a significant lack of data about present day stress fields in Antarctica. Stresses provide valuable information data about the forces acting on the plates. In Antarctica, stresses may be related to ridge forces such as rifting and/or uplifting, to ice loading/unloading related processes, or both. This project involves the study of drilling induced fractures from core recovered in the Victoria Land rift basin of Antarctica. Drilling induced fractures form ahead of the drill bit during drilling from stress imbalances due to the removal of excess weight pressure around the rock. Because horizontal stresses strike parallel to the planes made by drilling induced fractures, they can be used to measure modern day stress fields. Whole core images obtained during core logging by digitally scanning the outside of the core are stitched into longer intact intervals. Drilling induced fractures in the core are 'picked' in order to obtain their azimuth. Magnetically oriented acoustic images of the inside of the drill hole are then compare side by side with the stitched whole core images and visually scanned for matching features. Once the same set of fractures is found in the core and the borehole is then possible to rotate to core images to match the orientation of the borehole image. This will result on a core image with all the fractures in that interval re-oriented to true north. This final orientation of drilling induced fractures in the core will thus provide the direction of maximum horizontal compressional stress in this area.

Patlan, E.; Wilson, T. J.; Millan, C.

2008-12-01

107

Composition of breccia matrices from the Manson M-1 drill core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven drill cores were recently recovered from the Manson, Iowa, impact structure. Core M-1, which was drilled at the edge of the large central uplift, contains three major impact rock types: sedimentary clast breccia, melt matrix breccia, and fragmental breccia. Breccia matrices from different depths in the M-1 core were investigated by defocused beam electron probe microanalysis. To obtain average compositions, matrix areas free of lithic and mineral clasts were covered with an orthogonal grid of analyses points. Variations in composition have two main causes: differences in source lithology and postimpact processes. With increasing depth distinct changes in composition can be observed. All compositions are highly feldspathic and surprisingly low in SiO2 for putative source lithologies of mostly granitic composition. Within the lithological units containing melt matrix breccia increasing recrystallization can be observed with depth. Compositions in this interval are marginally corundum normative and not as high in normative feldspar as other matrices. The thoroughly recrystallized matrices from the lowest intervals of the melt matrix breccia are more feldpathic, higher in Na/K ratio, and not corundum normative. Unlike the chemical variation between rock types, we tentatively ascribe the chemical changes within the melt matrix breccia to reaction of matrix with clasts. In particular, quartz clasts in breccias with highly recrystallized matrices develop fringes of K-spar, cpx, and ilmenite. The formation of these minerals is presumably accompanied by complementary changes in matrix composition. Factor analysis on data sets of individual melt matrix analyses provides further clues to the influence of source lithology and post impact processes respectively in the chemical makeup of the breccia matrices. The most significant factors are a mafic component and a plagioclase component.

Kracher, A.; Anderson, R. R.; Koeberl, C.

1994-07-01

108

Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

1990-03-01

109

Chattanooga Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) from the Tennessee Division of Geology: U.S. Department of Energy Cored Drill Holes Number 4 and 5, Hawkins County, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tennessee Division of Geology under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has drilled eight NX coreholes in eastern Tennessee. The coring program was designed to retrieve continuous cores for a detailed stu...

J. B. Roen L. G. Wallace R. C. Milici

1980-01-01

110

Preliminary Descriptions of Impact Rocks Recovered by Recent Core Drilling in the Manson Impact Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent drilling program 12 cores totaling over 1200 m were recovered from the Manson Impact Structure. Four principal impact rock types were encountered (1) Sedimentary Clast Breccia (SCB), (2) Crystalline Clast Breccia with Sandy Matrix (CCB-S) and Melt Rock Matrix (CCB-M), (3) Central Peak Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks (CP), and (4) an overturned flap of Impact Ejecta (IE). The SCB is dominated by clasts of Cretaceous marine shale and mudstone, with subordinate Cretaceous sandstones, Paleozoic carbonates, minor Proterozoic Red Clastics, and rare crystalline rock and impact melt-rock clasts in a medium gray, calcareous, sandy shale matrix. Parallel deformation features (PDFs) and other evidence of impact metamorphism are extremely rare. The SCB reaches a maximum thickness in excess of 200 m and is interpreted as a post-impact debris flow that originated at the crater margins. The abundance, large clasts (up to 75 m) and pervasive occurrence of SCB (cored in all regions of the Manson Impact Structure including the Central Peak pit) suggests a high energy emplacement mechanism, possibly water rushing into the crater following an impact in a shallow marine environment. The uppermost unit on the Central Peak, the CCB-M, displays abundant clasts, dominated by quartz grains, most displaying PDFs, shock isotropism, and/or partial melting. Some clasts display accretionary mantling by melt materials, apparently while airborne, with subsequent mixing into the CCB-M. An isotropic melt matrix frequently displays flow-banding and devitrification textures. The CCB-M is interpreted as an impact melt layer, derived primarily from crystalline basement rocks, and may represent CCB-S that experienced sufficient heat to melt the matrix grains. A central zone of the CCB-M displays clusters of sanidine crystals, recrystalized from impact melt in a region that apparently cooled more slowly. The CCB-S is dominated by clasts of basement gneiss and granite in a matrix of sand- to silt-size grains of crystalline rocks and mineral grains derived from disaggregated crystalline rocks. Mineral grains display abundant impact deformation features, and almost all quartz grains display abundant multiple intersecting PDFs. Rare grains of melt rock and sedimentary rock fragments imply minor mixing of overlying materials. The CCB-S is interpreted as the impact- brecciated floor of the Transient Crater, uplifted on the Central Peak. The CPs are Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks that form the core of the central peak. They are dominated by gneisses and granites, but also include minor mafic and ultramafic rocks. In thin section, CPs display abundant PDFs and other shock deformation features. They commonly occur as meters-scale blocks separated by zones of CCB-S and display thin veins of melt material, apparently pseudotachylite. The CPs, CCB-S, and CCB-M display the effects of post-impact hydrothermal alteration. The IE, encountered in one core in the Terrace Terrane, totaled over 200 m of Proterozoic Red Clastics and Paleozoic carbonates and clastics in overturned stratigraphic position. Pre-impact units occur, in reduced thickness, and the sequence is interpreted as an ejecta flap, only partially penetrated by core drilling. Deeper coring in this region would penetrate to the structurally-preserved impact surface, a tempting target for future drilling in this exquisitely-preserved impact structure.

Anderson, R. R.; Witzke, B. J.; Hartung, J. B.

1993-07-01

111

Isotopic Evidence of Fluid Processes in Fault-related Rocks From TCDP Drill Cores in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults and shear zones are generally thought to be major fluid conduits in crustal environment. Fluid circulation and migration may deposit or recrystallize clay or carbonate minerals in fracture within the fault zone. Isotopic signatures of such crack-fill materials will serve as a good indicator of both sources of fluid and processes of fluid-rock interaction. We here report results from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of calcite veins retrieved by Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Program (TCDP), which penetrated the active Chelungpu fault zone at around 1100 m depth. The calcite veins are well observed on both side of the fault zone in the drill cores and the samples between 900 and 1300 m depths have been examined. The cores are composed of the Chinshui Shale and the calcite veins mainly appear in sandstone and siltstone with several mm in width. Calcite vein samples reveal variable ?13C(PDB) values ranging from -7.0 to -2.0 permil, and ?18O(SMOW) values of 15.7 to 19.9 permil. Both of values tend to increase slightly below 1225 m in depth. The ?13C values of calcite veins are between that of marine carbonate and sedimentary rocks. Calculated ?18O values of fluids in chemical equilibrium with calcite veins are ranging from -7.9 to -2.6 permil, which are between that of seawater and meteoric water. The isotopic results indicate that the calcite veins were formed from fluids originating from meteoric water mixed with seawater and carrying bicarbonate dissolved from fossil or diagenetic carbonate. The variation of isotopic composition is not related to the appearance of major shear zone of Chelungpu fault. Depleted oxygen isotopic signature of fluids indicates no contribution of metamorphic or mantle derived sources. Both of them infer that the Chelungpu fault may not serve as a deep fluid conduit or have no widely effect on calcite vein formation in host rocks.

Wang, P.; Wu, J.; Lin, L.; Yeh, E.; Chen, Y.; Song, S.

2005-12-01

112

Invasion of drilling mud into gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Part II: Effects of geophysical properties of sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the dynamic behaviour of drilling-mud invasion into gas-hydrate-bearing sediment (GHBS) and the effects of such an invasion on wellbore stability and the reliability of well logging. The effects of mud properties on mud invasion into the GHBS are detailed in Part I. Here, we discuss the effects of sediment properties on mud invasion by considering the Chinese first gas-hydrate-drilling expedition in the South China Sea and other hydrate projects. Our simulation results further show that mud-invasion coupling hydrate dissociation and reformation is the main unique characteristic observed during mud invasion in GHBS compared with conventional oil/gas sediments. The appearance of a high-saturation hydrate ring during mud-invasion process is related to not only mud density, temperature and salinity but also sediment properties. On the whole, the effective permeability and initial hydrate saturation plays a critical role in mud invasion in GHBS. The effect of initial hydrate saturation, which corresponds to effective permeability and porosity on the mud invasion in SH7 is pronounced because initial hydrate saturations vary greatly. For pore-filling GHBS without fractures, well-logging results in high-saturation hydrate intervals are more reliable and accurate than those in low-saturation hydrate intervals. The log results at the interbeds with low-saturation hydrates are easily distorted by mud invasion.

Ning, Fulong; Wu, Nengyou; Yu, Yibing; Zhang, Keni; Jiang, Guosheng; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Jiaxin; Zheng, Mingming

2013-06-01

113

Workshop on core and sample curation for the National Continental Scientific Drilling Program  

SciTech Connect

The Workshop on Core and Sample Curation was held to discuss the best means of handling, distributing, and advertising samples and data collected during a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) and to establish better communication between sample curators regarding common problems. It was geneerally agreed that CSDP samples should be handled, on a regional basis, by existing data systems and sample repositories judged to have adequate staff and support. Repository design, sample handling procedures, and sample accounting systems were discussed. Across North America, support for curation of geological samples was varied, but it was strongest within states or regions with well-established energy and mineral industries. A well-supported repository pays for itself through the circulation and preservation of samples and stratigraphic information. A national CSDP must have a well-established curatorial policy and system of regional repositories to circulate information and samples throughout the scientific community. Well-curated samples and data are a national resource with considerable benefits for industry and academia. Attendees agreed to form a Society of Geoscience Curators to maintain communication between curators from private, government, and university repositories and core research laboratories.

Goff, S.; Heiken, G. (eds.)

1981-05-06

114

Determination of Stress State in Deep Subsea Formation by Combination of Hydrofracturing Test and Core Analysis - A Case Study in the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 319  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the first expedition of the NanTroSEIZE Stage 2, IODP Expedition 319 was carried out in 2009, and a borehole was drilled to 1603.7 mbsf (meters below seafloor) from seafloor at 2054 m water depth of Site C0009 which is located in a central region of the Kumano forearc basin and the upper plate above the seismogenic and presumed locked portion of the plate boundary thrust system. The upper 700 m was cased, a 12-1/4 inch hole was drilled from 700 to 1510 mbsf and RCB core was cut from 1510 to 1539.9 mbsf. By using the Schlumberger’s Modular Dynamics Tester (MDT) dual packer tool, the hydraulic fracturing (HF) test was carried out to measure in-situ stress at depth of 1532.7 mbsf in the open-hole section. While the HF test provided limited information on stress state, we finally figured out all three principal in-situ stresses and their orientations combining information obtained by other geophysical logging and the analysis of a core sample. The pressure - time curve obtained by the HF test was not typical shape, but we found a small sign of fracture initiation in pressure variation with fluid injection. Then we detected the possible shut-in pressure Ps to be 41.6 MPa. The value of Ps is obviously smaller than the vertical stress computed from the overlying strata, which is 51.8 MPa. This fact suggests that a vertical fracture was induced by the fracturing test, and so Ps should indicate the minimum horizontal stress Sh, i.e. Sh = 41.6 MPa. On the other hand, the reopening pressure Pr of a induced vertical fracture has been applied for estimating the maximum horizontal stress SH. However, for effective measurement of Pr, it is necessary to use the fracturing system with sufficiently small compliance (Ito et al., 1999; 2005; 2006). If not, there is no way to estimate the maximum horizontal stress from Pr. This limitation makes it difficult to apply hydraulic fracturing for the measurement of the maximum horizontal stress, because the compliance of the current fracturing system is generally so large. The present fracturing test was probably influenced by the problem. Thus we applied the core deformation method (Funato and Chen, 2005) for estimating SH. This method assumes that a core sample expands elastically in response to the stress release due to coring. The core sample retrieved from anisotropic in-situ stress field should expand elliptically, the maximum expansion occurs in the direction of SH, and then we can estimate the stress deviation (SH - Sh) from the difference of the major and minor axes of the elliptical core. The core sample retrieved from the depth of 1540 mbsf in the borehole drilled at site C0009 was found to be actually elliptical in shape, and from the measured dimensions of the core sample, the stress deviation (SH - Sh) was estimated to be 8.9 MPa. As a result, the remaining stress component of SH was finally estimated to be 50.5 MPa (=Ps + 8.9 MPa). The orientation of SH was estimated to be N40degW from breakout orientation detected by FMI logging.

Ito, T.; Funato, A.; Ito, H.; Kinoshita, M.

2010-12-01

115

Rapid episodic fluid flow within the San Andreas Fault--based on drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term evolution of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system is recorded in the chemistry of the rocks. The pore fluids have recorded the last fluid event likely related to a stick-slip motion (rupture) while the solid phase chemistry is dominated by the subsequent evolution to a stable-sliding fault (creep). We constrain the timescale of localized fluid flow and mineral formation in the SAF at seismogenic depths (~2700m) near Parkfield, CA, based on drill cores samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project. Helium isotope and concentration data exclude recent upward or perpendicular fluid flow as an explanation for the weakness of the fault. However, our data indicate that shallow oxic meteoric water reached the seismogenic zone on timescales as short as <5ky forming hydrated clay minerals of similar ages that are responsible for the creeping behavior of the SAF.

Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Hemming, S. R.; Winckler, G.

2010-12-01

116

2004 NAI-ADP Deep Diamond Drill Cores: Transects Through Archean Time in the Pilbara Craton, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July-August 2004, the NASA Astrobiology Drilling Program sponsored the coring of 3 deep diamond-drill holes in the Pilbara Craton of northwest Australia. The holes targeted the lowest grade and least deformed sedimentary sections of 4 stratigraphic units: the 2.4-2.6 Ga Hamersley Group, the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation of the Fortescue Group, the 3.4 Ga Warrawoona Group, and the 3.5 Ga Coonterunah Group. ABDP 8 cored the unconformity between the Warrawoona and Coonterunah Groups to a depth of 330 metres, intersecting it at 155 metres. Because of syn-depositional erosion, the Strelley Pool Chert was attenuated and the alteration zone beneath the unconformity was scoured and filled to a depth of 10 metres by quartz arenite. As a result, no definitive lithological determination on its status as a potential paleosol could be made. Secondary oxidative alteration was present in Coonterunah cherts to depths of at least 220 metres down-hole. ABDP 9 cored 984 metres of the lower Hamersley Group, from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation into the Paraburdoo Member of the Wittenoom Formation. Though the hole was intended to penetrate the uppermost Fortescue Group, drilling was terminated early because of equipment damage by fractured rock, loss of water circulation clogging the hole with cuttings and unanticipated thickening of the Paraburdoo Member by dilational fracturing, expansive brecciation and cavity formation. 79 samples for organic geochemical analysis of biomarker syngenesis were collected under clean conditions immediately the core surfaced. A horizon of impact spherules was intersected in the Bee Gorge Member of the Wittenoom Formation; unlike surface exposures, it was markedly silicified and chloritized in drill-core. ABDP 10 cored 210 metres of the Tumbiana Formation, intersecting the entire Meentheena Carbonate Member, the upper Mingah Tuff Member and terminating just below 4 scoriaceous basalt flows. Large and complex calcareous stromatolites, which were partly silificified in surface exposures, contained no chert in drill-core. Ooid grainstone was a prominent lithology, attesting to a shallow subaqueous depositional environment. Pseudomorphs possibly after diagenetic gypsum were encountered in a fine tuffaceous wacke unit, but no other evaporite minerals were evident. 8 samples for biomarker analysis were collected. The cores will be archived at the Geological Survey of Western Australia core library in Perth. They will be cut using non-magnetic saw blades to allow paleomagnetic studies. Quarter-core splits will be sent to the USA and Japan for detailed examination.

Buick, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bonser, L. C.

2004-12-01

117

Results of NanTroSEIZE Expeditions Stages 1 & 2: Deep-sea Coring Operations on-board the Deep-sea Drilling Vessel Chikyu and Development of Coring Equipment for Stage 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nankai-Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) has carried out several drilling expeditions in the Kumano Basin off the Kii-Peninsula of Japan with the deep-sea scientific drilling vessel Chikyu. Core sampling runs were carried out during the expeditions using an advanced multiple wireline coring system which can continuously core into sections of undersea formations. The core recovery rate with the Rotary

Y. Shinmoto; K. Wada; E. Miyazaki; Y. Sanada; I. Sawada; M. Yamao

2010-01-01

118

Hydrothermal mineralogy of core from geothermal drill holes at Newberry Volcano, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrothermal mineralogy studies of specimens collected from nine geothermal drill holes suggest that, at the locations and depths drilled, past temperatures have been hottest (exceeding 300?C) near ring fractures on the south and west sides of Newberry Volcano.

Bargar, Keith E.; Keith, Terry E.

1999-01-01

119

Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP Luminometry provided insights for potential contamination from core-handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths and limits of in-situ/remote observations vs. laboratory measurements. Results from this experiment will also aid the debate on advantages/ disadvantages of manned vs. robotic drilling missions on Mars or other planets. [1] Boston et al., 1997; [2] http://marte.arc.nasa.gov; [3] Stoker, C., et al., 2006 AbSciCon, [4] Stoker et al., submitted; [5] Bonaccorsi., et al., 2006 AbSciCon.

Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

2006-12-01

120

Regional geophysical setting of the Yellowstone Hotspot track along the Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the regional geophysical setting of the Yellowstone Hotspot track along the Snake River Plain (SRP) and surrounding regions in support of a proposed scientific drilling program for one of the world's youngest, best-preserved intra-continental hotspots. The preliminary scientific drilling plan is to core a series of intermediate-depth drill holes near the axes of the western and eastern regions of SRP to understand the lithospheric response to the influence of the Yellowstone Hotspot. Geophysics plays an important role in all aspects of the proposed drilling activities: site selection prior to drilling, measuring physical rock properties during drilling, and perhaps long-term monitoring within one of the completed drill holes. To aid in the site- selection process, we compile existing geophysical data that includes seismic, gravity, magnetic, heat flow, and magnetotelluric data. We also compiled rock property measurements (e.g., density, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic remanence) and geologic data from maps and boreholes. Based on this compilation, we perform a regional assessment of major geophysically-defined structural features in the mid to upper crust of the SRP that may be specific targets for drilling. Such features include the prominent linear magnetic and gravity anomalies in the western SRP that may represent important feeders to early SRP volcanism. In the eastern Snake River Plain, the features include linear and curvilinear magnetic and gravity anomalies that may represent upwelling of mantle material or caldera rims. We present preliminary suggestions for possible areas of drill sites and identify the type of detailed geophysical surveys needed to select a suitable location. Additionally, this data set may serve as the start of a project-wide drilling database.

Glen, J. M.; Payne, S. J.; Bouligand, C.; Helm-Clark, C. M.; Champion, D. E.

2006-12-01

121

Drill report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has approved an industry proposal to conduct reflection seismic studies for oil and gas on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain. The plan submitted by Geophysical Services Inc. (GSI) was approved, subject to modifications aimed at safeguarding the environment. A listing of current drilling activities in Alaska is provided.

Not Available

1983-11-01

122

Lithological Conditions at the Box Canyon Site: Results of Drilling, Coring and Open Borehole Measurements 1995-1997 Data Report  

SciTech Connect

DOE faces the remediation of several contaminated sites in unsaturated fractured basalt where organic and radioactive wastes have migrated downward through fracture pathways that are difficult, if not impossible, to detect. Perched water zones located above zones of low permeability (massive basalt) create a complicated system of hydraulic baffles. Because of these large scale heterogeneities, the characterization of the lithology of the rock and the geometry of the subsurface fracture pattern is a crucial step in the development of a conceptual model of fluid flow and chemical transport, and eventually the design of a remediation system. The purpose of this data report is to compile and document the results of drilling and lithological studies conducted in open boreholes at the Box Canyon site. Lithological templates are included for each well and contain data such as drilling date, drilling method, logging method, well coordinates, Lithological log, gamma measurements, caliper measurements, core run and recovery depth, vesicular intervals, single fracture depths and descriptions, fracture zone depth and descriptions, and general comments about the borehole lithology. The lithological features were mapped for each borehole. The gamma and caliper measurements are presented as separate plots using greater resolution. Color core photos and core descriptions are also included. TV logging was used to map the lithology of the boreholes that were not cored (E, R, and T wells). This information will be further used to create a comprehensive lithological model of the subsurface. The TV logging of cored wells was viewed to compare the resolution and accuracy of TV logging to core logging. The TV logging method accurately showed large scale features such as zones of vesicularity, large fractures, fracture zones, rubble zones, and massive basalt zones, but it was difficult to detect hairline fractures, fracture orientation, and mineralization of fractures. Also, all depth measurements in increments less than 1 ft are estimated. TV logging is not as precise as logging directly from the core, but it is useful for mapping the major lithological features.

Burgess, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Holland, P.; Knutson, C.; Mesa, M.; Sisson, B.

1998-09-01

123

Development of a portable x-ray computed tomographic imaging system for drill-site investigation of recovered core  

SciTech Connect

A portable x-ray computed tomography (CT) system was constructed for imaging core at drill sites. Performing drill-site-based x-ray scanning and CT analysis permits rapid evaluation of core properties (such as density, lithologic structure, and macroporosity distribution) and allows for real-time decision making for additional core-handling procedures. Because of the speed with which scanning is performed, systematic imaging and electronic cataloging of all retrieved core is feasible. Innovations (such as a novel clamshell shielding arrangement integrated with system interlocks) permit safe operation of the x-ray system in a busy core handling area. The minimization of the volume encapsulated with shielding reduces the overall system weight and facilitates instrument portability. The x-ray system as originally fabricated had a 110 kV x-ray source with a fixed 300-micron focal spot size. A 15 cm image intensifier with a cesium iodide phosphor input screen was coupled to a CCD for image capture. The CT system has since been modified with a 130 kV micro-focal x-ray source. With the x-ray system's variable focal spot size, high-resolution studies (10-micron resolution) can be performed on core plugs and coarser (100-micron resolution) images can be acquired of whole drill cores. The development of an aluminum compensator has significantly improved the dynamic range and accuracy of the system. An x-ray filter has also been incorporated, permitting rapid acquisition of multi-energy scans for more quantitative analysis of sample mineralogy. The x-ray CT system has operated reliably under extreme field conditions, which have varied from shipboard to arctic.

Freifeld, Barry M.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Pruess, Jacob

2003-05-01

124

Geophysical evidence for the evolution of the California Inner Continental Borderland as a metamorphic core complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use new seismic and gravity data collected during the 1994 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) to discuss the origin of the California Inner Continental Borderland (ICB) as an extended terrain possibly in a metamorphic core complex mode. The data provide detailed crustal structure of the Borderland and its transition to mainland southern California. Using tomographic inversion as well

Uri S. ten Brink; Jie Zhang; Thomas M. Brocher; David A. Okaya; Kim D. Klitgord; Gary S. Fuis

2000-01-01

125

Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 7: Site investigation: Deep drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the deep drilling program performed on the Sunshine Site from January to August 1979 are presented. The work included continuous core drilling and sampling of the Sykesville to a vertical depth of 2556 ft, in hole geophysical logging, determination of rock permeability and stresses, and rock testing.

1981-04-01

126

Analysis of borehole stability and drilling fluids for SFE (staged field experiment) No. 2. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute's (GRI) Tight Gas Sands program is actively engaged in collecting geophysical data from the Travis Peak formation in the East Texas Basin. Poor-quality electrical wireline measurements and disintegrating core were observed in eight GRI cooperative wells and in the first Staged Field Experiment well. The adverse conditions contributing to the poor-quality data were attributed to unstable borehole conditions resulting from geochemical reactions between formation clays and the drilling-fluid water, causing them to swell. Tests performed on a section of core from a well within one mile of the second Staged Field Experiment well using eight different drilling fluids indicated a water-base drilling fluid with potassium chloride and a shale inhibiting polymer would enhance borehole stability. This drilling fluid system's ability to prevent clay swelling and promote geophysical data quality was determined by analyzing caliper logs, wireline log data quality and whole core.

Monson, E.R.

1988-06-01

127

Effect of Temperature on Heavy-Oil\\/Water Relative Permeabilities in Horizontally and Vertically Drilled Core Plugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil\\/water displacement tests were conducted in preserved core material at reservoir pressure and at various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 522°F (272°C) to evaluate the effect of temperature on relative permeabilities. Both horizontally and vertically drilled plugs were tested to determine the influence of flow direction on relative permeabilities and on their temperature dependence. Results show that temperature influences

B. B. Maini; J. P. Batycky

1985-01-01

128

Rationale and geophysical evidence for quasi-geostrophic rapid dynamics within the Earth's outer core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present arguments supporting the hypothesis that the flow in the Earth's core, for the time scales of the historical secular variation, is well described by a quasi-geostrophic (QG) model, almost invariant along the rotation axis. A previous study showed that for axisymmetric motions, the dimensionless number appropriate to compare magnetic and rotation forces is independent of magnetic diffusivity, increases with decreasing length scales, and takes value much smaller than unity for lengths about 106 m. Here, we extend this result to non-axisymmetric motions, and give a criterion for QG to hold based on length scale, rotation rate and magnetic field intensity. The numerical simulations exhibit a columnar behaviour at parameters representative of the Earth's core, supporting the quasi-geostrophic hypothesis for fast, large length-scale motions. In addition, we present the results of several inversions of the core flow from geomagnetic field models, showing that (a) the energy of the motions symmetrical with respect to the equatorial plane represents about 80% of the total energy when no symmetry is assumed a priori; (b) for the same number of parameters, an equatorially symmetric (QG) flow model explains more of the secular variation than a flow without specified geometry.

Gillet, Nicolas; Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Jault, Dominique

2011-08-01

129

Rationale and geophysical evidence for quasi-geostrophic rapid dynamics within the Earth's outer core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present arguments supporting the hypothesis that the flow in the Earth's core, for the time scales of the historical secular variation, is well described by a quasi-geostrophic (QG) model, almost invariant along the rotation axis. A previous study showed that for axisymmetric motions, the dimensionless number appropriate to compare magnetic and rotation forces is independent of magnetic diffusivity, increases with decreasing length scales, and takes value much smaller than unity for lengths about 106 m. Here, we extend this result to non-axisymmetric motions, and give a criterion for QG to hold based on length scale, rotation rate and magnetic field intensity. The numerical simulations exhibit a columnar behaviour at parameters representative of the Earth's core, supporting the quasi-geostrophic hypothesis for fast, large length-scale motions. In addition, we present the results of several inversions of the core flow from geomagnetic field models, showing that (a) the energy of the motions symmetrical with respect to the equatorial plane represents about 80% of the total energy when no symmetry is assumed a priori; (b) for the same number of parameters, an equatorially symmetric (QG) flow model explains more of the secular variation than a flow without specified geometry.

Gillet, Nicolas; Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Jault, Dominique

2012-08-01

130

Development of Oceanic Core Complexes on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 13-14N: Deep-Towed Geophysical Measurements and Detailed Seafloor Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first scientific cruise of research vessel James Cook in March-April 2007 targeted the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 13-14°N, to investigate details of lithospheric generation and development in a low-magmatic setting. Overall objectives were to 1) investigate the 3D pattern of mantle upwelling and melt focusing; 2) study how plate accretion and separation mechanisms differ between magma-rich and magma-poor areas; and 3) test mechanisms of detachment faulting and extensional strain localisation in the lower crust and upper mantle. Smith et al. (Nature 2006) had shown this to be an area of widespread detachment faulting and formation of oceanic core complexes (OCC), and published bathymetry showed an extensive area of blocky rather than lineated topography, which elsewhere has correlated with areas of low effusive magmatism. We conducted a TOBI deep-towed geophysical survey over a 70 km length of ridge extending to magnetic chron C2n (1.9 Ma) on each flank. This included sidescan sonar and high resolution bathymetry and magnetic measurements on 13 E-W tracks spaced 3 - 6 km apart. The area includes 1 active, 1 dying, and 1 defunct OCC and borders well-lineated, apparently magmatically robust seafloor to the north. The geophysical survey was complimented by recovery of 7 oriented and 18 unoriented core and 29 dredge samples, including some from a probable OCC south of the TOBI survey. Deep-towed sidescan, bathymetry and video show the OCCs typically comprise a steeply outward tilted volcanic ridge marking the breakaway (as suggested by Smith et al., 2006); a high, rugged central massif that is complexly deformed as a result of uplift and bending, and may be separated from the breakaway ridge by what we interpret as a late outward dipping normal fault; and a smooth, corrugated surface that generally dips c. 20° towards the ridge axis at the termination but gradually rotates to horizontal or gently outward dipping near its junction with the central massif. Older OCCs have flatter central areas than the youngest OCC, perhaps as a result of unbending late in their development. They also have steep, ridge-dipping normal faults at or near their terminations that may play a role in ending the detachment faulting. The axial neovolcanic zone is absent or poorly developed opposite the active and dying OCCs, and appears to be propagating towards them, thus playing an important part in terminating OCC activity. We recovered peridotite from the central parts of the three northern OCCs, the median valley walls near 13°00'N, and the neovolcanic ridge near the OCC at 13°20'N. Basalt was recovered from the breakaway ridges and often the central massifs. Most of the corrugated surfaces were extensively covered in sediment and basaltic rubble which prevented us obtaining drill samples, though dredging recovered peridotite, fault rocks and basalt rubble. The toes of the 13°30'N and 13°20'N OCCs showed evidence of extensive and some recent hydrothermal activity. Basalt and fresh glass were recovered from axial volcanic ridges. We recovered very little gabbro. A reasonably coherent magnetic central anomaly is seen in the sea-surface field, but the higher-resolution deep- towed magnetic data reveal a pattern of crustal magnetisation that does not obviously match a simple reversal history, even in areas away from obvious OCCs. We are modelling these results in terms of asymmetric spreading, ridge jumping and tectonic rotations varying in time and space.

Searle, R.; MacLeod, C.; Murton, B.; Mallows, C.; Casey, J.; Achenbach, K.; Unsworth, S.; Harris, M.

2007-12-01

131

Three-dimensional imaging of drill core samples using synchrotron computed microtomography. Year one progress report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental theories of rock structure are limited by the absence of high resolution, pore level, three dimensional images which could be used for statistical analysis. The ability to produce such images in a non-destructive manner would also allow for repeated measurements of dynamic processes such as fluid motion which could be correlated to the medium properties. One aspect of this funded work is the production of cross sectional images of rock drill core samples with one micron resolution. This work is being done by Keith Jones and Per Spanne of Brookhaven National Laboratory using beam lines X-17 and X-26 of the National Synchrotron Light Source. Jones`s annual report will provide a description of the year one progress in this area. The second aspect of this work is the topological and statistical analysis of the pore structure of the three dimensional images provided by our BNL collaborators. We report here on the progress in this area that has been made in year one. Year one effort has focused on the problem of definition of pore space in any given slice (image filtering), analysis of the filtered images via 2-point correlation structure, and on the development of software to trace the connectivity of pores throughout the cross sectional images. The report is divided into the following sections: 2 - a description of the 3D data sets that have been provided by our BNL collaborators; 3 data filtering; 4 - 2-point correlation function analysis; 5 - development of connectivity tracing software; and 6 - proposed work for year two.

Lindquist, B.; Coker, D.; Lee, S.

1993-03-01

132

Three-dimensional imaging of drill core samples using synchrotron computed microtomography  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental theories of rock structure are limited by the absence of high resolution, pore level, three dimensional images which could be used for statistical analysis. The ability to produce such images in a non-destructive manner would also allow for repeated measurements of dynamic processes such as fluid motion which could be correlated to the medium properties. One aspect of this funded work is the production of cross sectional images of rock drill core samples with one micron resolution. This work is being done by Keith Jones and Per Spanne of Brookhaven National Laboratory using beam lines X-17 and X-26 of the National Synchrotron Light Source. Jones's annual report will provide a description of the year one progress in this area. The second aspect of this work is the topological and statistical analysis of the pore structure of the three dimensional images provided by our BNL collaborators. We report here on the progress in this area that has been made in year one. Year one effort has focused on the problem of definition of pore space in any given slice (image filtering), analysis of the filtered images via 2-point correlation structure, and on the development of software to trace the connectivity of pores throughout the cross sectional images. The report is divided into the following sections: 2 - a description of the 3D data sets that have been provided by our BNL collaborators; 3 data filtering; 4 - 2-point correlation function analysis; 5 - development of connectivity tracing software; and 6 - proposed work for year two.

Lindquist, B.; Coker, D.; Lee, S.

1993-01-01

133

Drilling program for Long Valley Caldera  

SciTech Connect

In September of this year, we will begin the first of four drilling phases in the Magma Energy Exploratory Well that is planned to reach a depth near 20,000 feet. This well will be used to verify the configuration of the magma body and to calibrate surface geophysical techniques against downhole data. It will also provide information of several kinds that is of interest to several groups: we will resolve geologic uncertainties---such as the location of fractured and abnormally pressured zones, chemistry of rocks and produced fluids, and magnitude of creep in the deep basement---that affect the drilling of any subsequent well, we will test drilling technology---e. g., high temperature drilling fluid, bits, coring, logging tools and tubulars---in a realistic environment, and we will gain insight on the history of collapse, resurgence, and intrusion in a major young caldera. 4 figs.

Finger, J.T.

1988-01-01

134

Test and evaluation of aluminum drill pipe for deep-water coring: design and use of heavy-wall drilling joints for bending stress reduction. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report includes two papers dealing with means of extending the drill string depth capability and lowering stresses at the top of the drill string. The first paper reports on the operational use of a 2000 foot section of aluminum drill pipe in a mixed aluminum\\/steel drill string. The report also discusses metallurgical laboratory tests and assesses the potential of

1984-01-01

135

Initial results from VC-1, first Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole in Valles caldera, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Charles, R.; Wachs, D.; Maassen, L.; Heiken, G.

1986-02-10

136

Unzen Scientific Drilling Project: Challenging drilling operation into the magmatic conduit shortly after eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling operation was aimed at penetration into the core of the volcano 8 years after eruption of Unzen, including directional drilling in high temperature and with high inclination. The project started with fixing drilling site. Scientists and drilling engineers agreed to settle it at the northern slope of Mt. Unzen at 840 m asl, and the drilling target was set at sea level. Drilling operation was started in Feb. 2003. In the shallow section, frequent lost circulation and accidental side-track occurred due to the unconsolidated zone, and caused_@many troubles. Although the drilling was delayed, we succeeded in drilling down to 396m with the inclination of 25 degree in 17-1/2 inch hole and 13-3/8 inch casing section. 12-1/4 inch hole was drilled using TDS, EM-MWD, and DHM. When the inclination was built up to 75 degree at 795 m, we changed the drilling mode of trajectory control to keep the angle. A large fracture of total loss was encountered at 807m, and serious cuttings bed occurred. The latter made the drilling impossible to continue. Then, we inserted 9-5/8 inch casing down to 796 m. Trajectory correction runs was completed in 8-5/8 inch hole, and 7 inch casing was set down to 1550m. In 6-1/4 inch hole, though EM-MWD and DHM were not used, drilling inclination and azimuth were stable. Spot coring was started at 1582 m, the levels of spot coring depth were chosen based on the data of temperature measurement and cuttings observation. Though the drilling exceeded 1800m, the original target depth, drilling was continued, because we could not encounter the high temperature conduit at that time. Finally, the well reached the 1995 m, and succeeded in taking cores highly probable of magmatic conduit in July 2004. We could carry out geophysical logging mostly throughout the whole sections. Spot coring were done at 16 times; its total length was 75m. Although the highest measured temperature was 155 deg. C, the formation temperature may reach at least 200 deg. C. The reasons of smooth drilling after 9-5/8 inch casing installation were easy hole cleaning due to smaller diameter, least lost circulation, and no gas invasion.

Sakuma, S.; Nakada, S.; Uto, K.

2004-12-01

137

Late Neogene climate and glacial history of the Southern Victoria Land coast from integrated drill core, seismic and outcrop data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Neogene stratigraphy of southern Victoria Land Basin is revealed in coastal and offshore drill cores and a network of seismic data in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. These data preserve a record of ice sheet response to global climate variability and progressive cooling through the past 5 million years. Application of a composite standard age model for diatom event stratigraphy to the McMurdo Sound drill cores provides an internally precise mechanism to correlate stratigraphic data and derive an event history for the basin. These marine records are indirectly compared to data obtained from geological outcrop in the Transantarctic Mountains to produce an integrated history of Antarctic Ice Sheet response to climate variability from the early Pliocene to Recent. Four distinct chronostratigraphic intervals reflect stages and steps in a transition from a relatively warm early Pliocene Antarctic coastal climate to modern cold polar conditions. Several of these stages and steps correlate with global events identified via geochemical proxy data recovered from deep ocean cores in mid to low latitudes. These correlations allow us to consider linkages between the high southern latitudes and tropical regions and establish a temporal framework to examine leads and lags in the climate system through the late Neogene and Quaternary. The relative influence of climate-tectonic feedbacks is discussed in light of glacial erosion and isostatic rebound that also influence the history along the Southern Victoria Land coastal margin.

Levy, Richard; Cody, Rosemary; Crampton, James; Fielding, Christopher; Golledge, Nick; Harwood, David; Henrys, Stuart; McKay, Robert; Naish, Timothy; Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary; Wilson, Terry; Winter, Diane

2012-01-01

138

Geology, drilling, and some hydrologic aspects of seismic hazards program core holes, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Seismic Hazards Investigations Program, we have cored four holes, as follows: SHB-I at TA-55 to 700 feet; SHB-2 at TA-3 to 200 feet; SHB-3 at TA-16 to 860 feet; and, SHB-4 at TA-18 to 200 feet. In that the near-surface seismic velocity structure of the holes is the subject of other reports, we describe here the lithologies, general aspects of drilling, and some hydrologic implications of the core holes. All four holes penetrated variably welded Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff. Beneath two deeper holes encountered thick sequences of epiclastic sands and gravels, with minor interbeds of Cerro Toledo Rhyolite, on top of the dominantly nonwelded Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff. Beneath the Otowi was basalt at TA-55 and Puye Formation sands and gravels at TA-16. Two of the core holes (SHB-3 at TA-16 and SHB-4 at TA-18) appear to have encountered groundwater. The holes were all continuously cored with conventional wireline diamond coring techniques. Maintaining high percentage core recovery in nonwelded tuff and loose formations with air as the circulating fluid proved impossible. Light muds, however, improved recovery in these zones considerably. A variety of bits were tested, but none yielded consistent results in the alternating hard and soft rock conditions found beneath the Laboratory.

Gardner, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kolbe, T.; Chang, S. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Oakland, CA (United States)

1993-01-01

139

Geology, drilling, and some hydrologic aspects of seismic hazards program core holes, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Seismic Hazards Investigations Program, we have cored four holes, as follows: SHB-I at TA-55 to 700 feet; SHB-2 at TA-3 to 200 feet; SHB-3 at TA-16 to 860 feet; and, SHB-4 at TA-18 to 200 feet. In that the near-surface seismic velocity structure of the holes is the subject of other reports, we describe here the lithologies, general aspects of drilling, and some hydrologic implications of the core holes. All four holes penetrated variably welded Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff. Beneath two deeper holes encountered thick sequences of epiclastic sands and gravels, with minor interbeds of Cerro Toledo Rhyolite, on top of the dominantly nonwelded Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff. Beneath the Otowi was basalt at TA-55 and Puye Formation sands and gravels at TA-16. Two of the core holes (SHB-3 at TA-16 and SHB-4 at TA-18) appear to have encountered groundwater. The holes were all continuously cored with conventional wireline diamond coring techniques. Maintaining high percentage core recovery in nonwelded tuff and loose formations with air as the circulating fluid proved impossible. Light muds, however, improved recovery in these zones considerably. A variety of bits were tested, but none yielded consistent results in the alternating hard and soft rock conditions found beneath the Laboratory.

Gardner, J.N. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kolbe, T.; Chang, S. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Oakland, CA (United States))

1993-01-01

140

Estimates of the hydrologic impact of drilling water on core samples taken from partially saturated densely welded tuff  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to determine the extent to which drill water might be expected to be imbibed by core samples taken from densely welded tuff. In a related experimental study conducted in G-Tunnel, drill water imbibition by the core samples was observed to be minimal. Calculations were carried out with the TOUGH code with the intent of corroborating the imbibition observations. Due to the absence of hydrologic data pertaining directly to G-Tunnel welded tuff, it was necessary to apply data from a similar formation. Because the moisture retention curve was not available for imbibition conditions, the drainage curve was applied to the model. The poor agreement between the observed and calculated imbibition data is attributed primarily to the inappropriateness of the drainage curve. Also significant is the value of absolute permeability (k) assumed in the model. Provided that the semi-log plot of the drainage and imbibition moisture retention curves are parallel within the saturation range of interest, a simple relationship exists between the moisture retention curve, k, and porosity ({phi}) which are assumed in the model and their actual values. If k and {phi} are known, we define the hysteresis factor {lambda} to be the ratio of the imbibition and drainage suction pressures for any saturation within the range of interest. If k and {phi} are unknown, {lambda} also accounts for the uncertainties in their values. Both the experimental and modeling studies show that drill water imbibition by the core has a minimal effect on its saturation state. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

1987-09-01

141

Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the southern Victoria Land climate system as seen in New Harbor drill cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taylor Valley (DVDP-10, -11) and Ferrar Fiord (CIROS-2) drill cores offer a window into the history of Southern Victoria Land glaciers and the Antarctic climate system during the late- Neogene. Here we present new paleomagnetic studies from these drill cores which date five phases of sedimentation in the Taylor/Ferrar fiords and reveal a climate modulation of magnetic mineralogy in southern Victoria Land during the late Neogene. Magnetostratigraphies were constructed from stepwise AF and/or thermal demagnetisation of discrete specimens from drill cores. Correlation of magnetostratigraphies with the magnetic polarity timescale was guided by biostratigraphic and radiometric constraints. Environmental magnetic studies were conducted to determine changes in concentration, gainsize and magnetic mineralogy through time. A parallel rock magnetic study was also conducted of regional basement rocks to quantify the source of magnetic minerals. The new ages models and environmental magnetic records indicate that during the latest Miocene - early Pliocene, wet based glaciers filled the Taylor and Ferrar fiords and that glaciers retreated during the Pliocene warm period leaving open marine conditions and deep fiords (>300 m). Magnetic minerals in these sediments are variably oxidised indicating terrestrial soil formation and probably warmer and wetter conditions at a time when the Ross Sea was free of ice and sea surface temperatures were 5°C warmer than today. We recognise the first significant cooling in DVDP-11 after 2.6 Ma by a shift to current winnowed sediments sourced from the Ross Sea. After 1.7 Ma sediments are almost exclusively lacustrine and were deposited in ice dammed lakes which formed when West Antarctic ice expanded across the Ross Embayment and abutted the Transantarctic Mountains. Magnetic mineralogy after ~2.6 Ma is dominated by a ubiquitous, paramagnetic component which coincides with the shift from warmer/wetter, sub-polar conditions to dry, polar dominated conditions.

Ohneiser, C.; Wilson, G. S.

2012-04-01

142

Characterizing Hydrologic Properties of Coal Beds From the Powder River Basin, Southeastern Montana, by Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study designed to evaluate the potential for coal-bed methane development in the Powder River Basin of southeastern Montana, six wells were drilled through Paleocene coal beds of the Fort Union Formation along a 31-km transect within the Tongue River drainage basin. Sets of geophysical logs were recorded in these wells, cores were collected, and a complementary

R. H. Morin

2003-01-01

143

Trace-element analyses of core samples from the 1967-1988 drillings of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents previously unpublished analyses of trace elements in drill core samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake and from the 1959 eruption that fed the lava lake. The two types of data presented were obtained by instrumental neutron-activation analysis (INAA) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The analyses were performed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratories from 1989 to 1994. This report contains 93 INAA analyses on 84 samples and 68 EDXRF analyses on 68 samples. The purpose of the study was to document trace-element variation during chemical differentiation, especially during the closed-system differentiation of Kilauea Iki lava lake.

Helz, Rosalind Tuthill

2012-01-01

144

Stress analysis of jacks, frame and bearing connections, and drill rod for core sampler truck No. 2  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads).

Ziada, H.H.

1995-02-28

145

Climatic Seesaws Across The North Pacific As Revealed By High-Mountain Ice Cores Drilled At Kamchatka And Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We drilled ca. 210-m deep ice cores at Mt. Ushkovsky (Kamchatka: 1998), King Col of Mt. Logan (2002) and Mt. Wrangell (2004). Thanks to the high accumulation rates up to 2 m per year in these mountains, the ice cores are expected to unveil the climate and atmospheric changes in the northern North Pacific during the last several centuries. The

T. Shiraiwa; K. Goto-Azuma; S. Kanamori; S. Matoba; C. S. Benson; Y. D. Muravyev; A. N. Salamatin

2004-01-01

146

Test and Evaluation of Aluminum Drill Pipe for Deep Water Coring: Design and Use of Heavy Wall Drilling Joints for Bending Stress Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes two papers dealing with means of extending the drill string depth capability and lowering stresses at the top of the drill string. The first paper reports on the operational use of a 2000 foot section of aluminum drill pipe in a mixed ...

M. N. A. Peterson

1984-01-01

147

Influence of Steel Reinforcement on In-Situ Stress Evaluation in Concrete Structures by the Core-Drilling Method  

SciTech Connect

The core-drilling method is an emerging technique for evaluating in-situ stress in a concrete structure. A small hole is drilled into the structure, and the deformations in the vicinity of the hole are measured and related via elasticity theory to the stress. The method is similar to the ASTM hole-drilling strain-gauge method excepting that displacements rather than strains are the measured quantities. The technique may be considered nondestructive since the ability of the structure to perform its function is unaffected, and the hole is easily repaired. Displacement measurements in the current work are performed using 3D digital image correlation and industrial photogrammetry. The current paper addresses perturbations in the method caused by steel reinforcement within the concrete. The reinforcement is significantly stiffer than the surrounding concrete, altering the expected displacement field. A numerical investigation performed indicates an under-prediction of stress by as much as 18 percent in a heavily reinforced structure, although the effect is significantly smaller for more common amounts of reinforcement.

McGinnis, M. J.; Pessiki, S. [Lehigh University Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

2006-03-06

148

Extreme Dead Sea drying event during the last interglacial from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICDP funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental record in the Middle East, drilling holes in a deep and a shallow site extending to ~450 meters. The Dead Sea expands during the glacials and contracts during interglacials, and the sediments are an archive of the evolving climatic conditions. During glacials the sediments comprise intervals of marl (aragonite, gypsum and detritus) and during interglacials they are salts and marls. We estimate that the deep site core spans ~200 kyr (to early MIS 7). A dramatic discovery is a ~40 cm interval of rounded pebbles at ~235 m below the lake floor, the only clean pebbly unit in the entire core. It appears to be a beach layer, near the deepest part of the Dead Sea, lying above ~35 meters of mainly salt. If it is a beach layer, it implies an almost complete dry-down of the paleo-Dead Sea. The pebble layer lies within the last interglacial interval. Our initial attempt to estimate the age of the possible dry down shows an intriguing correlation between the salt-mud stratigraphy of the Dead Sea core and the oxygen isotope record of Soreq Cave, whereby excursions to light oxygen in the speleothems correspond to periods of salt deposition. Through this comparison, we estimate that the dry down occurred during MIS 5e. The occurrence of ~35 meters of mainly salt along with the pebble layer demonstrates a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping as all the countries in the area use the runoff. GCM models indicate a more arid future in the region. The core shows that the runoff nearly stopped during a past warm period without human intervention.

Goldstein, S.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.; Yasuda, Y.

2012-04-01

149

Preliminary evaluation of alterant geophysical tomography in welded tuff  

SciTech Connect

The ability of alterant geophysical tomography to delineate flow paths in a welded tuff rock mass has been preliminarily evaluated based on the results of a field experiment. Electromagnetic measurements were made before, during and after a water-based, dye tracer flowed through the rock mass. Alterant geophysical tomographs were generated and compared with independent evidence - borescope logs, neutron logs and dyed rock samples. Anomalies present in the tomograph match the location and orientation of fractures mapped with a borescope. The location of tracer-strained fractures coincides with the location of some image anomalies; other geophysical anomalies exist where tracer-strained fractures were not observed, perhaps due to poor core recovery. Additional drilling to locate stained flow paths and other experiments are planned so that the applicability of the technique can be further evaluated. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

1985-02-01

150

Elemental and Stable Isotope Chemistry of Cuttings and Core Samples From SAFOD Drill Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the major and minor element chemistry and stable isotope composition of samples from the SAFOD drill hole in order to document fluid-rock interactions in the San Andreas and associated fault zones. To date, we have analyzed samples from three sections of the drill hole that contain faults, mineralogical changes, drilling breaks, and/or anomalous gas shows. The elemental chemistry of samples from 10450 to 10530 ft interval (measured depth, MD) does not vary significantly. Only magnesium, yttrium, and barium increase and calcium decreases moderately down hole across this interval. The yttrium and barium variability is potentially due to variable contamination of barite-bearing mud in the cuttings. In samples from 10860 to 11000 ft (MD), iron, magnesium, and potassium increase and calcium decreases moderately down hole. In sample interval 11400 to 11540 ft (MD), iron increases and calcium decreases slightly down hole. The other major and minor elements in the XRF analyses do not vary much across these three intervals. These variations in elemental chemistry correspond to mineralogy changes across these intervals. Carbon and oxygen isotope values of carbonate veins and breccias from the 10450 and 11400 ft intervals range from 0 to +8 per mil (carbon) and 14 to 20 per mil (oxygen), consistent with carbonate precipitation from fluids that had isotopically exchanged with silicates. More work is being done to elucidate the origin of the fluid and the extent of fluid-rock interactions in the fault zones.

Kirschner, D. L.; Evans, J.; Chester, J.; Chester, F.; Solum, J.; Moore, D.

2005-12-01

151

Geochemical studies of the SUBO 18 (Enkingen) drill core and other impact breccias from the Ries crater, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suevite and melt breccia compositions in the boreholes Enkingen and Polsingen are compared with compositions of suevites from other Ries boreholes and surface locations and discussed in terms of implications for impact breccia genesis. No significant differences in average chemical compositions for the various drill cores or surface samples are noted. Compositions of suevite and melt breccia from southern and northeastern sectors of the Ries crater do not significantly differ. This is in stark contrast to the published variations between within-crater and out-of-crater suevites from northern and southern sectors of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana. Locally occurring alteration overprint on drill cores—especially strong on the carbonate-impregnated suevite specimens of the Enkingen borehole—does affect the average compositions. Overall, the composition of the analyzed impact breccias from Ries are characterized by very little macroscopically or microscopically recognized sediment-clast component; the clast populations of suevite and impact melt breccia are dominated consistently by granitic and intermediate granitoid components. The Polsingen breccia is significantly enriched in a dioritic clast component. Overall, chemical compositions are of intermediate composition as well, with dioritic-granodioritic silica contents, and relatively small contributions from mafic target components. Selected suevite samples from the Enkingen core have elevated Ni, Co, Cr, and Ir contents compared with previously analyzed suevites from the Ries crater, which suggest a small meteoritic component. Platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations for some of the enriched samples indicate somewhat elevated concentrations and near-chondritic ratios of the most immobile PGE, consistent with an extraterrestrial contribution of 0.1-0.2% chondrite-equivalent.

Reimold, Wolf Uwe; McDonald, Iain; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas; Hansen, Birgit; Jacob, Juliane; Koeberl, Christian

2013-09-01

152

Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques  

SciTech Connect

This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

2002-07-24

153

Noble gases in olivine phenocrysts from drill core samples of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) pilot and main holes (Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, Hawaii)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined concentrations and isotopic compositions of all noble gases in olivine phenocrysts from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) drill core, comprising Mauna Loa lavas in the top 247 m and Mauna Kea lavas down to the preliminary depth of 3109 m. Our aim was to describe the long-term isotopic evolution of noble gases over a significant time fraction of the active life of a major Hawaiian volcano. The He isotopic signature displays a clear temporal trend: 3He/4He ratios increase from MORB-like 9 RA in the youngest lavas to 15 RA in the Mauna Loa section and from ~7 RA to ~12 RA in the subaerial Mauna Kea deposits. They remain close to 12 RA in most of the submarine Mauna Kea samples, except for a few excursions with 3He/4He ratios of up to 21 RA in borehole depths between 2000 and 2600 m. The average 3He/4He ratio of 12 RA is lower than that observed in recent eruptions of Kilauea and Loihi seamount and supports the idea of a concentrically zoned Hawaiian plume [Kurz et al., 1996]. The Ne isotopic signature does not show a temporal evolution. It remains plume-like (plotting close to the Loihi-Kilauea correlation line in a Ne three-isotope diagram) over the whole Mauna Kea section in those samples which are not dominated by air-like Ne. Maximum 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios reach 12.10 +/- 0.36 and 0.0360 +/- 0.0042, respectively. 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary widely between 360 and ~3300 in the >=1000°C release steps due to variable atmospheric contributions. In at least one sample, a 40Ar/36Ar ratio of 14,300 +/- 910 demonstrates the presence of a MORB-like Ar component. Kr and Xe isotopic compositions are atmospheric throughout. We discuss several possibilities on how to explain the isotopic trends of the noble gases and their correlation to other geochemical parameters. Simple admixture of MORB-like noble gases to the plume component cannot account for the observations. We favor a model involving early melt extraction from the outer plume sections, followed by radiogenic ingrowth and, possibly, some interaction with ambient mantle material.

Althaus, Tilmann; Niedermann, Samuel; Erzinger, Jörg

2003-01-01

154

Noble gases in olivine phenocrysts from drill core samples of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) pilot and main holes (Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, Hawaii)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have determined concentrations and isotopic compositions of all noble gases in olivine phenocrysts from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) drill core, comprising Mauna Loa lavas in the top 247 m and Mauna Kea lavas down to the preliminary depth of 3109 m. Our aim was to describe the long-term isotopic evolution of noble gases over a significant time fraction of the active life of a major Hawaiian volcano. The He isotopic signature displays a clear temporal trend: 3He/4He ratios increase from MORB-like 9 RA in the youngest lavas to 15 RA in the Mauna Loa section and from ˜7 RA to ˜12 RA in the subaerial Mauna Kea deposits. They remain close to 12 RA in most of the submarine Mauna Kea samples, except for a few excursions with 3He/4He ratios of up to 21 RA in borehole depths between 2000 and 2600 m. The average 3He/4He ratio of 12 RA is lower than that observed in recent eruptions of Kilauea and Loihi seamount and supports the idea of a concentrically zoned Hawaiian plume [, 1996]. The Ne isotopic signature does not show a temporal evolution. It remains plume-like (plotting close to the Loihi-Kilauea correlation line in a Ne three-isotope diagram) over the whole Mauna Kea section in those samples which are not dominated by air-like Ne. Maximum 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios reach 12.10 ± 0.36 and 0.0360 ± 0.0042, respectively. 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary widely between 360 and ˜3300 in the ?1000°C release steps due to variable atmospheric contributions. In at least one sample, a 40Ar/36Ar ratio of 14,300 ± 910 demonstrates the presence of a MORB-like Ar component. Kr and Xe isotopic compositions are atmospheric throughout. We discuss several possibilities on how to explain the isotopic trends of the noble gases and their correlation to other geochemical parameters. Simple admixture of MORB-like noble gases to the plume component cannot account for the observations. We favor a model involving early melt extraction from the outer plume sections, followed by radiogenic ingrowth and, possibly, some interaction with ambient mantle material.

Althaus, Tilmann; Niedermann, Samuel; Erzinger, JöRg

2003-01-01

155

Project Hotspot: Mineral chemistry of high-MgO basalts from the Kimama core, Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral compositions can be used to deduce magma crystallization temperatures and to infer key characteristics of magma source regions including delving into the plume or no-plume sources of intraplate basalts. To this end, mineral compositions in basalt acquired by the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project have been analyzed by electron microprobe. The samples are from the Kimama drill hole on the axis of the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho which was drilled through 1912 m of basalt and interbedded sediments. Five of the least evolved basalt flows (i.e., low Fe, Ti, and high Ni and Cr) were chosen based on semiquantitative analyses using a Bruker Tracer IV handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Phenocryst phases include olivine and plagioclase; many olivine phenocrysts also contain inclusions of Cr-Al-rich spinel. Groundmass phases are olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite, and ilmenite. Olivine phenocrysts are normally zoned with cores of Fo 81-70; the rims of Fo 70-50 overlap with the compositions of olivine in the groundmass. Spinels included in olivines in the most MgO-rich lavas are Al-rich (up to 34 wt% Al2O3), similar to those in ocean island basalts (Barnes and Roeder, 2001) and some zone to higher Fe and Ti. Plagioclase phenocryst cores (An 76-65) overlap significantly with the compositions of groundmass plagioclase (An 72-40). Clinopyroxene is confined to the groundmass and creates an ophitic texture. Pyroxene compositions are typically: Wo 45-37, En 42-30, Fs 30-15 and more evolved pyroxenes trend towards Craters of the Moon pyroxenes which have lower Ca. Temperature and oxygen fugacity were calculated from magnetite-ilmenite pairs using QUILF (Anderson et al., 1993), which yielded temperatures of 750-1000°C and fO2 near or just below the QFM buffer. The magnetite-ilmenite pairs are all groundmass phases; thus, these are post-eruption temperatures and fO2 estimates. Olivine compositions were used to test if the source of the Snake River Plain basalts contains a subducted oceanic crustal component as suggested by Sobolev et al. (2005) and Herzberg (2011). The olivines in the Kimama core have Mn, Fe/Mn, and Ca concentrations that are similar to Hawaiian shield-building basalts, and are consistent with derivation of their parent magmas from pyroxenite sources, such as those hypothesized for some mantle plumes. However, Ni concentrations (500-1500 ppm) in olivines from Kimama are relatively low, and the olivines are too evolved (Fo <81) to be definitive with regard to the presence or absence of pyroxenite in the source.

Bradshaw, R. W.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M. J.; Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.

2011-12-01

156

Drill core LB-08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Geochemistry of fallback breccia and basement samples from the central uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which measures 10.5 km in diameter and is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, is associated with one of four currently known tektite strewn fields. Two boreholes were drilled to acquire hard-rock samples of the deep crater moat and from the flank of the central uplift (LB-07A and LB-08A, respectively) during a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project. Here we present results of major and trace element analysis of 112 samples from drill core LB-08A. This core, which was recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level, contains polymict lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment. The basement is dominated by meta-graywacke (from fine-grained to gritty), but also includes some phyllite and slate, as well as suevite dikelets and a few units of a distinct light greenish gray, medium-grained meta-graywacke. Most of the variations of the major and trace element abundances in the different lithologies result from the initial compositional variations of the various target rock types, as well as from aqueous alteration processes, which have undeniably affected the different rocks. Suevite from core LB-08A (fallback suevite) and fallout suevite samples (from outside the northern crater rim) display some differences in major (mainly in MgO, CaO, and Na2O contents) and minor (mainly Cr and Ni) element abundances that could be related to the higher degree of alteration of fallback suevites, but also result from differences in the clast populations of the two suevite populations. For example, granite clasts are present in fallout suevite but not in fallback breccia, and calcite clasts are present in fallback breccia and not in fallout suevite. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element abundance patterns for polymict impact breccia and basement samples are very similar to each other. Siderophile element contents in the impact breccias are not significantly different from those of the metasediments, or compared to target rocks from outside the crater rim. So far, no evidence for a meteoritic component has been detected in polymict impact breccias during this study, in agreement with previous work.

Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Mader, Dieter

157

Preliminary Results from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 324: Coring Shatsky Rise to Test Models of Oceanic Plateau Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located ~1500 km east of Japan, Shatsky Rise is a large oceanic plateau with an area roughly equivalent to Japan or California. The plateau formed at a rapidly-spreading triple junction during the late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Some evidence, such as the inferred duration of initial eruptions, the “capture” of the triple junction, and the transition from massive initial eruptions to a smaller trail of volcanism have been taken to support the idea that Shatsky Rise was emplaced by the head of a starting mantle plume. In contrast, other evidence, such as MORB-like geochemistry of existing samples, favor a plate boundary formation. With characteristics that could fit either type of model, Shatsky Rise is an ideal place to learn what makes an oceanic plateau. A major roadblock to understanding Shatsky Rise has been the paucity of suitable samples. The few dredge samples available from the plateau are highly altered, giving little insight into primary geochemistry and no usable radiometric dates. Only one Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) hole has penetrated into the igneous complex (Site 1213), yielding intriguing data, but raising as many questions as answers. During September-November 2009, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 324 will core at 5 locations along Shatsky Rise with the primary goal of recovering igneous rocks for study. Three of the five are sites situated on the largest volcanic edifice, TAMU Massif, the massive volcano that represents initial eruptions. In addition, one site will be drilled on both ORI and Shirshov Massifs, which are smaller, younger volcanoes in central and northern Shatsky Rise. In all, expedition plans call for coring ~800 m of igneous basement rock for various studies, including geochronology to examine the timing of eruptions, isotope and geochemical studies to investigate source type and depth, physical volcanology to learn about plateau eruptions, and paleomagnetism to determine paleolatitude and subsequent drift. Additionally, sediments cored above the basement rocks will be used to estimate paleoenvironment (e.g., depth) and eruption age of the plateau.

Sager, W. W.; Sano, T.; Geldmacher, J.

2009-12-01

158

Shock metamorphic studies on suevite from the ICDP-USGS Eyreville drill core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chesapeake Bay impact structure (85 km in diameter and 35 Ma old) belongs to the largest and best preserved impact structures on Earth [1]. In 2005-2006, three cores were drilled as part of the International ICDP-USGS Chesapeake Bay impact structure drilling project, at Eyreville farm, in Northampton County (Virginia). The lithologies cored from top to bottom comprise sedimentary-clast breccia and sedimentary blocks of the Exmore beds, a granitic and an amphibolitic megablock, gravelly sand, impact breccia, and granite/pegmatite and mica schist [1]. A stratigraphic column for the impact breccia section was established by [2]. Shock metamorphic effects in rock and mineral clasts were studied in the impact breccia section of the drill core (1397-1551 m; e.g., [3]). Rare shocked quartz grains and relatively abundant melt particles, mostly concentrated in specific depth intervals, were found also in the Exmore breccia [4]. The shock and related features in the minerals of the impact breccia interval comprise abundant planar deformation features (PDFs) and rare planar fractures (PFs) in quartz, ballen quartz, rare PDFs in feldspar, and (not shock diagnostic) kink banding in mica. Also melt particles are very abundant, especially in the upper part of the impact breccia section. Previous investigations of the proportions of shocked quartz grains (i.e., grains with PFs and/or PDFs) did not reveal any trends with depth [3], but noted that the average proportion of shocked grains in sedimentary clasts was higher compared to the crystalline clasts [3]. Here we present a more detailed study investigating the relative proportions of shocked quartz grains in clasts (of different lithologies) in suevite samples. The clasts show different proportions of shocked quartz grains, from 0 to about 60 rel% of all quartz grains. Generally, clasts with higher proportion of shocked quartz grains become less abundant with increasing depth. Clasts with more abundant shocked quartz grains were noted especially in the upper part of the impact breccia section (above 1450 m). Polycrystalline quartz clasts are relatively more shocked. Slightly metamorphosed clasts (i.e., metasandstones) and schist/gneiss clasts are relatively less shocked. The quartz grains display (under the optical microscope) mostly one or two, rarely three or more, sets of PDFs per grain. First results of the universal stage measurements show that the most common crystallographic orientation of PDFs is the {10

Bartosova, K.; Ferrière, L.; Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W. U.

2009-04-01

159

Drill String Failure Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains analyses of major drill string failures incurred during 15 years of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) wireline coring operations. Operating experience and means to reduce such losses is also described. This operational experience and fa...

M. N. A. Peterson

1983-01-01

160

Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of core catcher samples from the ICDP deep drilling at Laguna Potrok Aike (Patagonia, Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICDP project PASADO aims to develop a detailed paleoclimatic record for the southern part of the South American continent from sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike (51°58'S, 70°23'W), situated in the Patagonian steppe east of the Andean cordillera and north of the Street of Magellan. The precursor project SALSA recovered the Holocene and Late Glacial sediment infill of Laguna Potrok Aike and developed the environmental history of the semi-arid Patagonian steppe by a consequent interdisciplinary multi-proxy approach (e.g. Haberzettl et al., 2007). From September to November 2008 the ICDP deep drilling took place and successfully recovered in total 510 m of sediments from two sites resulting in a composite depth of 106 m for the selected main study Site 2. A preliminary age model places the record within the last 50.000 years. During the drilling campaign, the core catcher content of each drilled core run (3 m) was taken as separate sample to be shared and distributed between involved laboratories long before the main sampling party. A total of 70 core catcher samples describe the sediments of Site 2 and will form the base for more detailed investigations on the palaeoclimatic history of Patagonia. We here report on the organic carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of bulk sediment and plant debris of the core catcher samples. Similar investigations were performed for Holocene and Late Glacial sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike revealing insights into the organic matter dynamics of the lake and its catchment as well as into climatically induced hydrological variations with related lake level fluctuations (Mayr et al., 2009). The carbon and nitrogen content of the core catcher fine sediment fraction (<200 µm) is low to very low (around 1 % and 0.1 %, respectively) and requires particular attention in isotope analysis. The carbon isotope composition shows comparably little variation around a value of -26.0 per mil. The positive values of the Holocene and the Late Glacial (up to 22.0 per mil) are only sporadically reached down core. Compared to this, separated moss debris is remarkably 13C depleted with a minimum at 31.5 per mil. The nitrogen isotope ratios of glacial Laguna Potrok Aike sediments are lower (2.5 per mil) than those of the younger part of the record. The core catcher samples indicate several oscillations between 0.5 and 3.5 per mil. Data suggest a correlation between nitrogen isotopes and C/N ratios, but no linear relation between carbon isotopes and carbon content and an only weak relationship between carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Increasing nitrogen isotope values from 8000 cm downwards could probably be related to changed environmental conditions of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) compared to Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS 2). This will be further evaluated with higher resolution from the composite profile including a detailed study of discrete plant debris layers. References Haberzettl, T. et al. (2007). Lateglacial and Holocene wet-dry cycles in southern Patagonia: chronology, sedimentology and geochemistry of a lacustrine record from Laguna Potrok Aike, Argentina. The Holocene, 17: 297-310. Mayr, C. et al. (2009). Isotopic and geochemical fingerprints of environmental changes during the last 16,000 years on lacustrine organic matter from Laguna Potrok Aike (southern Patagonia, Argentina). Journal of Paleolimnology, 42: 81-102.

Luecke, Andreas; Wissel, Holger; Mayr*, Christoph; Oehlerich, Markus; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd; Pasado Science Team

2010-05-01

161

Interpretation of geophysical well-log measurements in drill holes UE25a-4, -5, -6, and -7, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory holes UE25a-4, UE25a-5, UE25a-6, and UE25a-7 were drilled at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to determine the suitability of pyroclastic deposits as storage sites for radioactive waste. Studies have been conducted to investigate the stratigraphy, structure, mineralogy, petrology, and physical properties of the tuff units encountered in the drill hole. Ash-flow and bedded tuff sequences at NTS comprise complex

J. J. Daniels; J. H. Scott; J. T. Hagstrum

1981-01-01

162

Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of cores from a 26 meter deep borehole drilled in Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the month of January of 2008 a borehole (Permamodel-Gulbenkian 1 — PG1) 26 m deep was drilled on the top of Mount Reina Sofia (275 m a.s.l.) near the Spanish Antarctic Station of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Cores from 1.5 m to about 26 m deep were collected for measuring several physical properties. The objective of the present work is to report the values of the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity that were measured in the cores from the borehole and the heat production that was estimated for the geological formations intercepted by it. Seven cores were selected to measure the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity. The measured values for the thermal conductivity vary from 2.6 W/mK to 3.3 W/mK while the measured values for the thermal diffusivity vary from 1.1 × 10- 6 m2/s to 1.6 × 10- 6 m2/s. Both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, on average, show a slight increase with depth. Average heat production was also estimated for two portions of the borehole: one from 2 to 12 m and the other from 12 to 25 m. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to estimate the concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium of the cores, from which the heat production per unit volume was calculated. The estimated heat production for the first half of the borehole is 2.218 ?W/m3 while for the second half it is 2.173 ?W/m3; these heat production values are compatible with acidic rock types. Porosity and density were also estimated for the same cores.

Correia, A.; Vieira, G.; Ramos, M.

2012-06-01

163

Rock-Magnetic Properties of Drill Core LOC-9 from the Lockne Crater, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides a precise analysis of the rock magnetic properties, including characterization of the magnetic phases and identification of them for samples from the LOC-9 core from the Lockne impact crater, Sweden.

Melero Asensio, I.; Martín-Hernández, F.; Ormö, J.

2011-03-01

164

Glaciological and climatic significance of Hercules Dome, Antarctica: An optimal site for deep ice core drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present glaciological and climatological characteristics of Hercules Dome, Antarctica (86°S, 105°W), which demonstrate its potential as a deep ice core site. Annual layering in deltaD ratios from a 72 m ice core collected by the US-ITASE 2002 traverse indicate accumulation rates of 0.16-0.20 m\\/yr ice equivalent over the last 300 years. Age control from stratigraphy seen in the radio-echo

Robert W. Jacobel; Brian C. Welch; Eric J. Steig; David P. Schneider

2005-01-01

165

Glaciological and climatic significance of Hercules Dome, Antarctica: An optimal site for deep ice core drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present glaciological and climatological characteristics of Hercules Dome, Antarctica (86°S, 105°W), which demonstrate its potential as a deep ice core site. Annual layering in ?D ratios from a 72 m ice core collected by the US-ITASE 2002 traverse indicate accumulation rates of 0.16–0.20 m\\/yr ice equivalent over the last 300 years. Age control from stratigraphy seen in the radio-echo

Robert W. Jacobel; Brian C. Welch; Eric J. Steig; David P. Schneider

2005-01-01

166

Description and hydrogeologic implications of cored sedimentary material from the 1975 drilling program at the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of sedimentary material from interbeds between basalt flows and from fractures in the flows, taken from two drill cores at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were analyzed for (1) particle-size dribution, (2) bulk mineralogy, (3) clay mineralogy, (4) cation-exchange capacity, and (5) carbonate content. Thin sections of selected sediment material were made for petrographic examination. Preliminary interpretations indicate that (1) it may be possible to distinguish the various sediment interbeds on the basis of their mineralogy, (2) the presence of carbonate horizons in sedimentary interbeds may be utilized to approximate the time of exposure and the climate while the surface was exposed (which affected the hydrogeologic character of the sediment), and the type and orientation of fracture-filling material may be utilized to determine the mechanism by which fractures were filled. (USGS)

Rightmire, C. T.

1984-01-01

167

In-situ rock melting applied to lunar base construction and for exploration drilling and coring on the moon  

SciTech Connect

An excavation technology based upon melting of rock and soil has been extensively developed at the prototype hardware and conceptual design levels for terrestrial conditions. Laboratory and field tests of rock-melting penetration have conclusively indicated that this excavation method is insensitive to rock, soil types, and conditions. Especially significant is the ability to form in-place glass linings or casings on the walls of boreholes, tunnels, and shafts. These factors indicate the unique potential for in situ construction of primary lunar base facilities. Drilling and coring equipment for resource exploration on the moon can also be devised that are largely automated and remotely operated. It is also very likely that lunar melt-glasses will have changed mechanical properties when formed in anhydrous and hard vacuum conditions. Rock melting experiments and prototype hardware designs for lunar rock-melting excavation applications are suggested.

Rowley, J.C.; Neudecker, J.W.

1984-01-01

168

Overview of Ice Drilling Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant advances in ice drilling technology since the Ice-Core Drilling technology since the Ice-Core Drilling Symposium at Lincoln, Neb., in August 1974 are reviewed. Three examples are: the flame jet and hot water drilling through the Ross Ice Shelf...

B. L. Hansen

1984-01-01

169

Technologies for measurement while drilling  

SciTech Connect

Technology for measurement while drilling in the ocean margin drilling program is discussed. Mud pulse telemetry, hardwire telemetry, detection needs for well control, pressure measurements downhole while drilling, and continuous wave mud telemetry are considered. Data utilization from measurement while drilling in seismic calibrations, drilling efficiency measurements, directional control with regard to telemetry, and measurement while coring are also reviewed.

Not Available

1982-01-01

170

Technologies for Measurement While Drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology for measurement while drilling in the ocean margin drilling program is discussed. Mud pulse telemetry, hardwire telemetry, detection needs for well control, pressure measurements downhole while drilling, and continuous wave mud telemetry are considered. Data utilization from measurement while drilling in seismic calibrations, drilling efficiency measurements, directional control with regard to telemetry, and measurement while coring are also reviewed.

171

Erosion and filling of glacially-overdeepened troughs in the Northern Alpine Foreland as recorded in a deep drill core from Northern Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the major weather divide in Europe, the Alps represent one of the most interesting areas for understanding past climate change and its impact on continental environments. However, our knowledge of the Quaternary environmental history of the region is still rather limited, especially for the time preceding the last glaciation of the Alps. Geological and geophysical studies in the Wehntal, 20 km northwest of Zurich, Switzerland, in 2007 and 2008 have revealed the existence of a glacially overdeepened trough cut into Miocene molasse bedrock, which is today filled with ~90 to 180 m of Pleistocene sediments. In March 2009, a 93.6 m long sediment core (NW09/1) has been drilled east of the famous mammoth-site Niederweningen. This record is one of the very few sites in the northern Alpine Foreland that provides crucial insights into the timing of the erosion and infilling history of pre-Eemian glacially overdeepened troughs and also helps to understand the climate and environmental history. Based on chronological data deduced from the nearby, but shorter, 2007 core and on new multi-proxy data, the NW09/1 record is interpreted as: 4.1 m of in-situ molasse bedrock, overlain by 3.4 m of diamictic till. These glacial deposits were deposited by a Linth glacier lobe during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 (Rissian), although, the possibility that an even older glaciation was responsible cannot currently be excluded (e.g. MIS 8, luminescence dating, pollen interpretations, and palaeomagnetic studies in progress). It is suggested that this extensive ice advance, which once covered the entire Wehntal valley, caused the final erosion of the bedrock. The till is overlain by a 29.5 m thick sequence of laminated, carbonate-rich, fine-grained siliciclastic sediments that are interpreted as proglacial lake sediments. It is supposed that this unit was deposited in a proximal setting to a calving glacier-front confirmed by the presence of numerous dropstones. The damming of this Wehntal palaeolake was most likely caused by a terminal moraine located ~3 km to the northwest of the drill site. The overlying 37.9 m of fine-grained lake sediments are comparable to the former unit, but the absence of dropstones and the occurrence of multiple interstratified sand layers (up to 40 cm in thickness) indicate a more distal proglacial lake facies and thus, a melting of the feeding glacier lobe. The subsequent 9.5 m of fine-grained material are characterised by a striking drop in carbonate content (from ~50 to 20 wt%), which is interpreted as a decoupling of the Wehntal catchment from the Linth glacier system that originates in a carbonate-rich hinterland. Furthermore, the top of this unit documents the gradual infilling of the palaeolake and the onset of biological productivity due to climate warming. This is also documented by occurrence of pyrite and siderite concretions. The prominent environmental change culminates in the abrupt accumulation of peat (1.8 m) during the interglacial MIS 5e (late Eemian). Afterwards, the Wehntal was recaptured by a younger palaeolake after which the peat became flooded. The resulting 4.9 m of silty sediments have carbonate contents of ~25 wt% and also show post-sedimentary pyrite and siderite concretions. The source of sediment is interpreted as derived from the molassic Zurich Highlands and the Jurassic limestone of the Lägern mountain, which borders the Wehntal valley to the south. The cause of the rise in water level subsequent to deposition of the MIS 5e peat, however, has not yet been identified. Eventually, the younger palaeolake was filled, resulting in the accumulation of 0.7 m of fossil rich Middle Würmian peat (‘Mammoth peat'). This peat was finally covered with 2.0 m of post-Würmian-to-recent silts and sands.

Dehnert, Andreas; Axel Kemna, Hans; Anselmetti, Flavio; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Graf, Hans Rudolf; Lowick, Sally; Preusser, Frank; Züger, Andreas; Furrer, Heinz

2010-05-01

172

Geophysical studies of marine gas hydrate in northern cascadia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the extensive geophysical studies and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) results that have provided constraints on the occurrence, distribution, and concentration of gas hydrate and underlying free gas beneath the continental slope of the northern Cascadia subduction zone. On this margin there is a large clastic accretionary sedimentary prism, the most common environment for high concentrations of marine gas hydrates. Most information on the gas hydrate has come from a wide range of seismic surveys, including mapping the area of the characteristic bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), determining the depth distribution of hydrate and underlying free gas, and the geological controls of hydrate formation. BSRs are evident beneath about half of the mid-continental slope. Special seismic studies include BSR reflection coefficients, the frequency dependence of the BSR amplitude, BSR amplitude-versus-offset (AVO), and full waveform inversions. Additional information on hydrate concentration is provided by electrical resistivity profiling, and measurements of seafloor compliance. Detailed heat flow surveys have mapped the thermal regime that controls the depth to which gas hydrate is stable. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 146 drilled through the gas hydrate on the midcontinental slope and a reference hole in the adjacent deep sea Cascadia basin. Downhole geophysical logs and core analyses have constrained the concentrations of hydrate and free gas at the drill sites, and provided calibration of the regional geophysical data. In the region of the ODP site, the estimated concentration of hydrate from both geophysical and borehole data is 20-30% of the pore space (10-15% of total volume) over 100 m above the BSR, with an underlying 10-20 m layer of less than 1% free gas.

Hyndman, R. D.; Spence, G. D.; Chapman, R.; Riedel, M.; Edwards, R. N.

173

Cretaceous shallow drilling, U.S. Western Interior: Core research. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the project is to construct a subsurface transect of Cretaceous strata that were deposited in the Kansas-Colorado-Utah corridor, going from marine sequences that contain organic-carbon-rich hydrocarbon source rocks in Kansas and eastern Colorado to nearshore coal-bearing units in western Colorado and Utah. The drilling transect will provide continuous, unweathered samples for inorganic, organic, and isotopic geochemical studies and mineralogical investigations to determine the characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks. This transect also will provide information on the extent of thermal maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in organic-carbon-rich strata along a burial gradient. In addition, the eastern Colorado hole will provide characteristics of an important fractured reservoir (the Pierre Shale) in the Florence oil field, the oldest continuously producing field in the United States (>100 years; 600 wells; >14 Mbbls).

Arthur, M.A.

1998-07-08

174

Physical-Property Measurements on Core Samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From May to June 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and measured physical properties on 36 core samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 1 (DB-1) and 46 samples from drillhole Deep Blue No. 2 (DB-2) along the west side of Blue Mountain about 4...

D. A. Ponce G. Logsdon J. Casteel J. T. Watt

2009-01-01

175

Amino acid diagenesis in deep sea drilling project cores: Kinetics and mechanisms of some reactions and their applications in geochronology and in paleotemperature and heat flow determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several amino acid diagenetic reactions, which take place in the deep-sea sedimentary environment, were investigated, using various Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) cores. Initially it was found that essentially all the amino acids in sediments are bound in peptide linkages; but, with increasing age, the peptide bonds undergo slow hydrolysis that results in an increasingly larger fraction of amino acids

Jeffrey L. Bada; Eugene H. Man

1980-01-01

176

A mobile NMR device for measurements of porosity and pore size distributions of drilled core samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mobile NMR scanner has been designed with a Halbach magnet for measurements of porosity and pore-size distributions of water-saturated cylindrical geo- logical cores with diameters up to 60 mm. It is light (8 kg) and has a sufficiently homogeneous magnetic field in a large and accessible cylindrical volume. Practical aspects of the sensor construction are described. First experimental

S. Anferova; V. Anferov; D. G. Rata; B. BLUMICH; J. Arnold; C. Clauser; P. BLUMLER; H. Raich

2004-01-01

177

National Geophysical Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), located in Boulder, Colorado is a project of the US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, and National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service. This site is an informational resource for glaciology, marine geology and geophysics, paleoclimatology, solar-terrestrial physics, and solid earth geophysics. The glaciology section is linked to the National Snow and Ice Data Center website, which offers resources for those interested in studying snow and ice and their relation to Earth systems. The other four sections contain data (often searchable), images, reports, publications and general information on a variety of areas such as bathymetry, ocean drilling/seafloor sediment/rock sample data, the geomagnetic field, solar and upper atmospheric data, global climate, heatflow, and much more.

1997-01-01

178

Teaching Marine Geoscience at Sea: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's School of Rock Explores Cascadia Subduction Zone - Cores, Logs, and ACORKs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For twelve days this past September, seventeen formal and informal educators from the US, UK, and France joined six instructors and a small science party on the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)’s Cascadia ACORK Expedition. The educators were part of the annual “School of Rock (SOR)” education program. SOR is coordinated by the U.S. Implementing Organization (USIO) of IODP and is designed to engage participants in seagoing Earth systems research and education workshops onboard the JOIDES Resolution and on shore at the Gulf Coast Core Repository in Texas. The scientific objective of the Cascadia ACORK expedition was to install a new permanent hydrologic observatory at ODP Site 889 to provide long-term monitoring of the pressure at the frontal part of the Cascadia accretionary prism. This year’s SOR workshop focused on how cores, logs, and ACORKs shed light on the hydrology and geology of the Cascadia subduction zone in the Northeast Pacific. In addition to observing the deployment of the ACORK, the SOR participants conducted daily hands-on analyses of archived sediment and hard-rock cores with scientists and technicians who specialize in IODP research using the lab facilities on the ship. Throughout the expedition, participants engaged in different activities and lessons designed to explore the deep biosphere, methane hydrates, paleoceanography, sedimentology, biostratigraphy, seafloor spreading, and drilling technology. The workshop also provided participants with “C3” time; time to communicate their experience using the successful joidesresolution.org website and other tools, make connections to their prior knowledge and expertise, and to be creative in developing and planning new education and outreach activities based on their new knowledge and research. As part of participating in the expedition, participants committed to further developing and testing their education and outreach products after the expedition, conducting post-expedition projects in conjunction with the U.S. Implementing Organization and their own institutions, and to participating actively in post-cruise evaluation. Since its inception in 2005, 75 SOR graduates and staff have conducted over 150 workshops and short courses for 3,000 participants in more than 30 U.S. states and five other nations. Integral to the success of the program is the evaluation process that takes place during and after each SOR. In particular, SOR evaluations take advantage of the power of video data collection to demonstrate the transformative nature of SOR expeditions. Video evaluations offer a unique opportunity to collect and preserve participant “voice” to document true transformative broader impacts. Along with video evaluations, the program also employs more traditional evaluation methods such as internal evaluator observations, open-ended questionnaires, and participant journals.

Reagan, M.; Collins, J.; Ludwig, K. A.; Slough, S.; Delaney, M. L.; Hovan, S. A.; Expedition 328 Scientists

2010-12-01

179

Interpretation of Geophysical Well-LOG Measurements in Drill Holes UE25a-4, -5, -6, and -7, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exploratory holes UE25a-4, UE25a-5, UE25a-6, and UE25a-7 were drilled at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to determine the suitability of pyroclastic deposits as storage sites for radioactive waste. Studies have been conducted to investigate the stratigraphy, s...

J. J. Daniels J. H. Scott J. T. Hagstrum

1981-01-01

180

Lithologic and Geophysical Logs of Selected Drill Holes in Eastern Area 4, and Western Area 7, Nevada Test Site. Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a compilation of drill hole data from holes completed between November 1979 and August 1982 in eastern Area 4 and western Area 7, Nevada Test Site. Data presented in this report includes hole locations, stratigraphy and lithology penetrated...

W. J. Davies J. L. Gonzales S. L. Drellack

1982-01-01

181

Brief: Active damping of downhole vibrations while drilling and coring with a hydraulic topdrive  

SciTech Connect

A new, active damping system eliminates ``stick/slip`` torsional drillstring vibrations. The system controls the energy flow through a hydraulic topdrive and makes it react as a vibration damper. The control algorithm is programmed in the electronic control system for the pump unit of the topdrive. Field testing of the system took place in a deep exploration well, where it contributed to excellent coring performance.

Jansen, J.D. [A/S Norske Shell, Kristiansund (Norway); Steen, L. van den; Zachariassen, E.

1995-02-01

182

Drilling and Coring Methods That Minimize the Disturbance of Cuttings, Core, and Rock Formation in the Unsaturated Zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A drilling-and-casing method (Odex 115 system) utilizing air as a drilling fluid was used successfully to drill through various rock types within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper describes this method and the equipment used to ra...

D. P. Hammermeister D. O. Blout J. C. McDaniel

1985-01-01

183

Effects of fluids on faulting within active fault zones - evidence from drill core samples recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature microstructures observed in samples from SAFOD drill cores indicate fluid-related deformation and chemical reactions occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations, document open pores that formed in-situ during or after deformation. In TEM images, many pores with high aspect ratio appear to be unconnected. They were possibly filled with formation water and/or hydrothermal fluids suggesting that elevated pore fluid pressure exist in the fault gouge, preventing pore collapse. The chemical influence of fluids on mineralogical alteration and geomechanical processes in fault rocks is visible in pronounced dissolution-precipitation processes (stylolites, solution seams) as well as in the formation of new phases. Detrital quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved and replaced by authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) mixed-layer clay minerals. TEM imaging of these grains reveals that the alteration processes initiated within pores and small intra-grain fissures. In few samples syntectonic fluid-assisted overgrowth of chlorite-rich films on slickensides partly replaced sedimentary quartz grains. Quartz and feldspar grains are partially dissolved with sutured boundaries. Newly-formed phyllosilicates are illite-smectite phases, Mg-rich smectites and chlorite minerals. They are very fine-grained (down to 20 nm) and nucleate at grain surfaces (interfaces), which in many cases are pore or fracture walls. These relatively straight or curved crystals grow into open pore spaces and fractures. They are arranged in a card-house fabric with open pore spaces between the flakes. Locally, clay flakes are bent, folded or show sigmoidal shapes indicating that they were involved in faulting. The clay particles do not show a preferred shape orientation. The predominantly random orientation distribution of the clay minerals was confirmed by x-ray synchrotron texture analysis. Pole figures show very weak textures with maxima around 1.2 m.r.d. and minima around around 0.8 m.r.d., indicating that a majority of crystals are oriented randomly. The dominance of randomly oriented clay particles, characterized by weak fabrics, may influence the mechanical stability of fault zone rocks. Formation of secondary calcite cement reveals fluid-assisted fracture healing. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows at least three different generations of calcite veins confined to lithoclasts, displaying dissolution seams. Additionally, crack and seal processes in K-feldspar are identified. The calcite grains exhibit different degrees of deformation with evidence for twinning and crystal plasticity.

Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Kienast, M.; Morales, L. G.; Rybacki, E.; Wenk, H.; Dresen, G. H.

2011-12-01

184

Geophysical Logging of the Harwell Boreholes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estim...

M. A. Brightman

1983-01-01

185

Age Determination for Deep-Sea Cores: Inquiry-based Learning with Authentic Scientific Ocean Drilling Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine sediment cores are some of our best archives of past climate change. Imagine that you have access to deep-sea core material from a region of interest. After describing the cores, what next? What would you like to know? Determining the relative age of the sediments provides historical context for the changes observed or measured in the cores. Age also provides a means of correlation to other regions, and it provides temporal calibration for rates of processes, such as sediment accumulation. Establishing an age model for deep-sea cores is a first-order priority in ocean-climate research. We have developed a suite of inquiry-based modules specifically designed for undergraduate geoscience classes that incrementally demonstrate to students how age can be established for marine sediment records using authentic scientific ocean drilling data. Two four-part modules cover the topics of biostratigraphy, and paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy. There are other tangible topics investigated in these modules including ecology, evolution, and biogeography, as well as seafloor spreading and the development of the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale. Both units complement companion modules built by our team on the nature and distribution of marine sediments and stable isotopes as tools in paleoclimate research, as well as specific records of Cenozoic ocean-climate change from Antarctica, the deep-sea, and Arctic. All modules are designed so students explore the process of science by making observations and interpretations, plotting and analyzing data, posing hypotheses and investigating ways to test their hypotheses. The modules can be used as a series of short exercises in both small and large lecture settings, or they can be used as a comprehensive package for laboratory sections. Instructors can use parts of a module in class and assign other parts as homework assignments. While the biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy modules provide valuable lessons on how scientists establish the age control for our proxy records of global change, they also provide broader connections to the process of science and discovery, both past and present.

Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; St. John, K.; Pound, K. S.

2008-12-01

186

Core drilling through the ross ice shelf (antarctica) confirmed Basal freezing.  

PubMed

New techniques that have been used to obtain a continuous ice core through the whole 416-meter thickness of the Ross Ice Shelf at Camp J-9 have demonstrated that the bottom 6 meters of the ice shelf consists of sea ice. The rate of basal freezing that is forming this ice is estimated by different methods to be 2 centimeters of ice per year. The sea ice is composed of large vertical crystals, which form the waffle-like lower boundary of the shelf. A distinct alignment of the crystals throughout the sea ice layer suggests the presence of persistent long-term currents beneath the ice shelf. PMID:17779616

Zotikov, I A; Zagorodnov, V S; Raikovsky, J V

1980-03-28

187

Multiple sulfur isotope characteristics of 3.46-2.7 Ga sedimentary rocks from drill cores of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP), we have determined the multiple sulfur isotope ratios and examined the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the sulfur-bearing minerals (e.g., pyrite, sphalerite, barite) and the host rocks (e.g., major and trace element chemistry; Corg, Ccarb and S contents; ?13Corg and ?13Ccarb) of >100 samples of sedimentary rocks from five ABDP drill cores in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The total ranges of ?33S and ?34S values of the studied samples are -0.9 to +1.2‰ and -4 to +8‰, respectively. We have found that the ?33S and ?34S relationships show unique values depending on their depositional environment: (1) Pyrites in the 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member (ABDP #1), which were formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids, show no AIF-S (anomalously fractionated sulfur isotope) signatures: ?33S = -0.08 to +0.08‰ and ?34S = -3.3 to +0.6‰ (n = 5). This indicates that the H2S presented in the submarine hydrothermal fluid, which was partly generated through seawater sulfate reduction by Fe2+, did not possess AIF-S signatures. (2) Pyrites in organic C-poor lacustrine shales of the 2.76 Ga Hardey Formation (ABDP #3) also show no or very little AIF-S signatures: ?33S = -0.38 to +0.25‰ and ?34S = -2.7 to +1.9‰ (n = 18). (3) Pyrites in organic C-poor marine shales of the 2.92 Ga Mosquito Creek Formation (ABDP#5) show no or small negative AIF-S signatures: ?33S = -0.59 to 0.19 ‰ and all positive ?34S = +1.4 to +7.7‰ (n = 24). (4) Pyrites in organic C-rich (> 1 wt%) and hydrothermally altered marine shales in the 3.46 Ga Panorama Formation (ABDP #2) show constant and small positive AIF-S signatures (+0.44 to +0.61‰) and the smallest variation in ?34S (-1.1 to +1.6‰) (n = 35). In contrast, pyrites in organic C-rich shales in the 2.72 Ga Mt. Roe Basalt show negative ?33S = -0.50 to -0.10‰ and ?34S = -3.7 to 1.8‰ (n = 10). (5) Pyrites in stromatolitic carbonates of the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation (ABDP #10), which deposited in shallow evaporating marine basins, possess the largest variation in AIF-S signatures among five ABDP cores: ?33S = -0.86 to 1.19‰ and ?34S = -3.2 to +1.5‰ (n = 10). (6) Compared to the negative ?33S values (-1.28 to -0.47‰) of barites in the 3.2 Ga Dresser Formation (e.g., Ueno et al., 2009), ?33S values of barites in the 3.46 Ga Panorama Formation (ABDP #2) are all positive (+0.55 to +0.61‰) and identical to those of reduced sulfur species (sphalerite and pyrite) in the same sample. The observed relationships between AIF-S signatures and depositional environments, and the abundance of samples with no AIF-S signatures, are difficult to explain by the current popular model that links AIF-S to atmospheric UV reactions. However, the data can be best explained by our model that links AIF-S to thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) by various solid phases and S-bearing aqueous/gaseous species (e.g., TSR by organic matter; replacement of iron oxides by pyrite) under hydrothermal conditions in a local and/or regional (basin wide) scale. Therefore, the AIF-S record of sedimentary rocks may be linked to the Earth’s thermal and biological evolution, rather than to the atmospheric evolution.

Watanabe, Y.; Ohmoto, H.

2010-12-01

188

Reconstruction of 3.2 GA Ocean Floor Environment from Cores of Dxcl Drilling Project, Pilbara, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3.2Ga low-grade Dixon Island and the Cleaverville Formations lie at coastal Pilbara greenstone belt of Western Australia. In 2007 summer, we conducted scientific drilling (DXCL) in the Cleaverville Beach to understand relative deep marine environments in Mesoarchean. In DXCL, we obtained three fresh drill cores (DX, CL2 and CL1 in ascending order). The DX, totally 100m long and covers the upper part of the Dixon Island Formation, is composed of black shale, gray chert and pyrite. The gray chert contains very fine lamination of siliceous-black organic matters. Thin pyrite layers in DX are divided into two types, massive and graded layers. Massive layer shows pinch and swell structure that is tensioned parallel to bedding. Graded layer shows gradually increase in the amount of pyrite crystals. Pyrite crystals have three different shapes; spherical, hollow and cubic types. Spherical type is observed in both massive and graded layers. Hollow type has a small spherical hollow in the center and typically found in the massive layer. Cubic type has inner hollow and coexists with hollow type at the edges of massive layer. CL1 and CL2, which are totally 100m long, contain massive black shale, banded pyrite and thin volcanic sandstone, with graded pyrite layers. Massive black shale in CL is thicker than that in DX and is composed of siltstone with organic matter. Partially preserved thin pyroclasitic layers were composed of fine grain volcaniclastis with cross-lamination. Lithological variations from DX to CL cores are characterized by black shale layers thickening upward from DX to CL1 with pyrite layers in DX thinning upward from bottom to the top. In addition, CL contains few thinner layers and thin volcaniclastic layers in the upper part. The ?34S values are -1.9 to +12.9 ‰ in DX, +1.7 to +24.9 ‰ in CL1 and +4.4 to +26.8 ‰ in CL2. Such ?34S values, ranging more than 27 ‰ in total, indicate very active microbial sulfate reduction at ocean floor where supply of sulfate was limited. Based on these observations, Dixon Island-Cleaverville Formations formed in calm and deep anoxic environment that changed into slightly shallow setting with distal volcanism. Three crystal types of laminated pyrite indicate their formation in early diagenetic stage. We conclude that sulfate reduction and pyrite crystallization proceeded in the stagnant ocean floor 3.2Ga ago.

Sakamoto, R.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Naraoka, H.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Suganuma, Y.

2010-12-01

189

Characterizing ocean basalt reservoirs for CO2 sequestration - Ocean drilling and geophysical logging at DSDP/ODP/IODP Sites 1256 and 504  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, sequestration of CO2 in ocean basalt reservoirs offers the potential for long-term storage in large, highly porous and permeable aquifers. Global assessments of ocean reservoirs suggest that the sediment-draped basalt flows along the flanks of mid-ocean ridges are promising sites for the injection and ultimate mineralization of CO2. These sites provide the additional advantages of gravity and hydrate trapping mechanisms that further reduce the risk of post-injection leakage. Ocean drilling and borehole logging in the eastern equatorial Pacific at Deep Sea Drilling Project/Ocean Drilling Program/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1256 and 504 provide data with which to characterize and evaluate the shallow (upper 1 km) oceanic crust. In this study, we identify six distinct intervals at Sites 1256 and 504 as potential reservoirs, with new and reprocessed porosities as great as 14% and permeability estimates as high as 10-14 m2. High-resolution electrical resistivity images in these boreholes provide evidence of the lava types (dominantly fractured flows, breccias, and pillow basalts) as well as the structure of fracture networks and pore spaces that exist within these reservoirs. Calculations of potential carbon storage capacity, using specific reservoir thickness and new porosity estimates, indicate that ~2,300 Gt-C could be stored as solid carbonate minerals in the combined reservoirs near Site 1256 and ~1,400 Gt-C could be stored in the combined reservoirs near Site 504. Even the smallest of these reservoirs could provide storage capacity for decades of global carbon emissions. Further in situ hydrogeologic experimentation is required to test these estimates of porosity, permeability, and carbon storage capacity. Such studies would confirm the potential for future CO2 sequestration in these reservoirs and could be used to predict similar properties at other mid-ocean ridge sites.

Slagle, A. L.; Goldberg, D.

2011-12-01

190

Comparison between Borehole Geophysical Observations and Sedimentary Facies for Three Long Cores Recovered from the Ulleung Basin, Korea: Insights into the Distribution of Gas Hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In late 2007, a logging-while-drilling (LWD) operation was performed as part of gas hydrate study at five sites in the Ulleung Basin, east of Korea. Of those five sites, long sediment cores were also recovered at three sites (UBGH-4, 9, and 10), allowing us to compare borehole observation results with characteristics of sediment in the cores. In this study, we analyzed the resistivity log and resistivity image recorded using GVR-SONIC-ADN MD200 to see if there exists any meaningful relationship between the borehole data and sedimentary facies described in the cores. The presence of fracture zones and their orientation were also estimated from the resistivity images. Site UBGH-4 shows little evidence of disintegrated mud (DITM), an important source of gas hydrate. No notable changes could be seen in the resistivity log or image at this site. On the other hand, at Site UBGH-9, several peaks in resistivity values and numerous fractures are found at 70-150 mbsf. This depth interval matches with DITM found in the cores. At UBGH-10, DITM facies are found below 175 mbsf, but unfortunately due to error in resistivity and image data, it is unclear as to whether this depth coincides with the location of abundant gas hydrate or not. In summary, the argument that massive gas hydrates generally occur in the mud sections with ample fractures could not be thoroughly tested except for Site UBGH-9 where the two features do correlate.

Lim, H.; Lee, S.; Bahk, J.

2010-12-01

191

Characterization of exposures to nanoscale particles and fibers during solid core drilling of hybrid carbon nanotube advanced composites.  

PubMed

This work investigated exposures to nanoparticles and nanofibers during solid core drilling of two types of advanced carbon nanotube (CNT)-hybrid composites: (1) reinforced plastic hybrid laminates (alumina fibers and CNT); and (2) graphite-epoxy composites (carbon fibers and CNT). Multiple real-time instruments were used to characterize the size distribution (5.6 nm to 20 microm), number and mass concentration, particle-bound polyaromatic hydrocarbons (b-PAHs), and surface area of airborne particles at the source and breathing zone. Time-integrated samples included grids for electron microscopy characterization of particle morphology and size resolved (2 nm to 20 microm) samples for the quantification of metals. Several new important findings herein include generation of airborne clusters of CNTs not seen during saw-cutting of similar composites, fewer nanofibers and respirable fibers released, similarly high exposures to nanoparticles with less dependence on the composite thickness, and ultrafine (< 5 nm) aerosol originating from thermal degradation of the composite material. PMID:21222387

Bello, Dhimiter; Wardle, Brian L; Zhang, Jie; Yamamoto, Namiko; Santeufemio, Christopher; Hallock, Marilyn; Virji, M Abbas

192

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

1992-04-01

193

Why Drill Here? Teaching to Build Student Understanding of the Role Sediment Cores from Polar Regions play in Interpreting Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

That the ocean basins provide a record of past global climate changes through their sediment cores is often a surprise or novel idea for students. Equally surprising to many students is the fact that current research is being undertaken in remote polar regions, even though sedimentary records already exist from the low and mid latitude regions. Students are often also perplexed about how decisions are made regarding the selection of drill sites in the polar regions. Using an inquiry-based approach we are developing a series of simple exercises that are scaffolded to build student understanding around the question "Why Drill Here?" The exercises are based on IODP Expedition 302 (ACEX) in the Arctic, and on the Antarctic Geological Drilling (ANDRILL) program, which are used as case studies. The "Why Drill Here?" question is addressed at multiple levels so students can formulate a scientific rationale behind selection of sites for seafloor drilling in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Technological challenges and solutions to doing field-based science in polar regions are explored. Finally, a subset of research results are investigated and compared with the current scientific paradigm on Cenozoic climate evolution to demonstrate that science is an evolving process. These exercises can be adapted for use in a variety of Introductory Earth Science classes.

Pound, K. S.; St. John, K.; Krissek, L. A.; Jones, M. H.; Leckie, R. M.; Pyle, E. J.

2008-12-01

194

San Andreas drilling sites selected  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new initiative for drilling and coring directly into the San Andreas fault at depths up to 10 km is being proposed by an international team of scientists led by Mark Zoback, Stanford University; Steve Hickman and Bill Ellsworth, U.S. Geological Survey; and Lee Younker, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. In addition to exhuming samples of fault rock and fluids from seismogenic depths, the hole will be used to make a wide range of geophysical measurements within the fault zone and to monitor the fault zone over time. Four areas along the San Andreas have been selected as candidates for deep drilling: the Mojave segment of the San Andreas between Leona Valley and Big Pine, the Carrizo Plain, the San Francisco Peninsula between Los Altos and Daly City, and the Northern Gabilan Range between the Cienga winery and Melendy Ranch. These sites were chosen from an initial list compiled at the International Fault Zone Drilling Workshop held in Asilomar, Calif., in December 1992 and at meetings held this winter and spring in Menlo Park, Calif.

Ellsworth, Bill; Zoback, Mark

195

Unusual garnet-clinopyroxenite core from the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in Donghai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) in Donghai has reached 4360m depth in September, 2004 and recovered more than 80% core samples for scientific investigation. These core samples include both para- and ortho-gneisses with less than 25% eclogitic and garnet peridotitic rocks. Inclusions of coesite and coesite pseudomorph occur in garnet and omphacite of some eclogites and in zircon separates from many gneisses, eclogites and amphibolites; their occurrences suggest in-situ UHP metamorphism. One moderately-oriented garnet-clinopyroxenite (558.65m) occurs as thin layer within rutile-rich eclogites (90m thick) and contains abundant ilmenite (15vol%) together with granoblastic garnet (Pyr29-32Alm42-47Grs16-21Spr1-2Adr2-7; XMg= 0.37-0.42), clinopyroxene (Jd6-13Ac13-24Aug67-73CaTs<4Opx<3; XMg= 0.88-0.97) and minor amount of iron sulfide. Ilmenite occurs as either coarse-grained granoblast ( ˜3mm) in matrix or inclusions in garnet and clinopyroxene; matrix ilmenite contains inclusions of garnet and clinopyroxene. Both matrix and inclusion ilmenite exhibit coarse exsolution lamellae (20-80? m) of hemoilmenite (Ilm71-80) and ilmenohematite (Ilm14-18); the hemoilmenite and ilmenohematite themselves carry further fine-scale exsolution lamellae of hematite and ilmenite (<2?m), respectively. These textural evidences indicate that pre-exsolved ilmenite-hematite solid solution was in equilibrium with garnet and clinopyroxene. Considering those petrologic features and bulk compositions of surrounding eclogite cores, the garnet-clinopyroxenite may initially have been a titanomagnetite-rich ultramafic layer in a coherent Fe-Ti gabbro sequence. Original titanomagnetite may have been oxidized and recrystallized to form Fe3+-rich ilmenite at an UHP condition, and subsequent cooling during exhumation exsolved hematite from ilmenite. The local ultramafic composition may have allowed the occurrence of ilmenite instead of rutile, and oxidation may play an important role to accommodate significant amounts of acmite (Ac>Jd) in clinopyroxene and andradite ( ˜37mol%) in garnet.

Tsujimori, T.; Zhang, R. Y.; Liou, J. G.; Xu, Z. Q.; Yang, J. S.

2004-12-01

196

`Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History': Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made

K. St. John; R. M. Leckie; M. H. Jones; K. S. Pound; E. Pyle; L. A. Krissek

2009-01-01

197

Seismic evidence for the Pleistocene depositional changes in Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia, and implications for the age model and the sediment grain size record of KDP-01 drill core  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to arrive at a consistent interpretation of (1) the age model, (2) the grain size record, and (3) seismic\\u000a reflection data from Lake Hovsgol (a.k.a Khubsugul or Hövsgöl), Mongolia, reported by Fedotov et al. (2007, earlier by Fedotov et al. 2002, 2004). In their most recent contribution, the grain size record of the KDP-01 drill core is interpreted as

Alexander A. Prokopenko; Christopher St. G. C. Kendall

2008-01-01

198

Drilling and Completion of the Urach III HDR Test Well  

SciTech Connect

The hot dry rock (HDR) test well, urach III, was drilled and completed in 1979. The borehole is located in Southwest Germany in the geothermal anomaly of Urach. The purpose of project Urach was to study drilling and completion problems of HDR wells and to provide a test site for a HDR research program. The Urach III borehole was drilled to a total depth of 3,334 meters (10,939 feet), penetrating 1,700 meters (5,578 feet) into the granitic basement. Extensive coring was required to provide samples for geophysical and geochemical studies. Positive displacement downhole motors were used for coring and normal drilling operations. It was found that these motors in combination with the proper bits gave better results than conventional rotary drilling. Loss of circulation was encountered not only in sedimentary rocks but also in the granite. After drilling and completion of the borehole, a number of hydraulic fracturing experiments were performed in the open hole as well as in the cased section of Urach III. A circulation loop was established by using the single-borehole concept. It is not yet clear whether new fractures have actually been generated or preexisting joints and fissures have been reactivated. Evaluation of the results of this first step is almost completed and the planning of Phase II of the Urach project is under way.

Meier, U.; Ernst, P. L.

1981-01-01

199

A two century record of strontium isotopes from an ice core drilled at Mt Blanc, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New techniques which allow small amounts of Sr to be reliably analysed [G.R. Burton, V.I. Morgan, C.F. Boutron, K.J.R. Rosman, High-sensitivity measurements of strontium isotopes in polar ice, Anal. Chim. Acta 469 (2002) 225-233] by TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) have been used to measure the isotopic composition of Sr and the concentration of Rb and Sr at sub-nanogram per gram levels in a Mt Blanc snow and ice core. This two century time series of Sr isotopes is the first to be reported in an Alpine glacier. The Sr and Rb concentrations range from 3 ng/g to 20 pg/g and 1 ng/g to 10 pg/g, respectively, with higher concentrations evident in more recent times. This trend is consistent with that reported previously for other metals such as Cd, Cu and Zn [K. Van de Velde, C. Barbante, G. Cozzi, I. Moret, T. Bellomi, C. Ferrari, C. Boutron, Changes in the occurrence of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and rhodium in Mont Blanc ice and snow since the 18th century, Atmos. Environ. 34 (2000) 3117-3127; K. Van de Velde, C. Boutron, C. Ferrari, T. Bellomi, C. Barbante, S. Rudnev, M. Bolshov, Seasonal variations of heavy metals in the 1960s Alpine ice: sources versus meteorological factors, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164 (1998) 521-533; K.J.R. Rosman, C. Ly, K. Van de Velde, C.F. Boutron, A two century record of lead isotopes in high altitude Alpine snow and ice, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 176 (2000) 413-424]. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios vary between 0.7020 and 0.7176 and display relatively larger variations in recent times which have been attributed to seasonal variations made evident by the increased sampling resolution available at shallower depths. No change with time is evident in this ratio which has a mean value of ˜ 0.712 and is similar to Glacial ice at Summit Greenland, suggesting that aerosols reaching Mt Blanc represent the same mixture of sources. Also, anthropogenic sources would appear to have the same isotopic ratio. The presence of Saharan dust in some samples is confirmed here by their strontium isotopic ratios.

Burton, G. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Van de Velde, K. P.; Boutron, C. F.

2006-08-01

200

Summary of micrographic analysis of fracture coating phases on drill cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The flow path between Pahute Mesa and the groundwater discharge area in Oasis Valley (approximately 18 miles to the southwest) is of concern due to the relatively short travel distance between a recharge area where underground nuclear testing has been conducted and the off-site water users. Groundwater flow and transport modeling by IT Corporation (IT) has shown rapid tritium transport in the volcanic rock aquifers along this flow path. The resultant estimates of rapid transport were based on water level data, limited hydraulic conductivity data, estimates of groundwater discharge rates in Oasis Valley, assumed porosities, and estimated retardation rates. Many of these parameters are poorly constrained and may vary considerably. Sampling and analytical techniques are being applied as an independent means to determine transport rates by providing an understanding of the geochemical processes that control solute movement along the flow path. As part of these geochemical investigations, this report summarizes the analysis of fracture coating mineral phases from drill core samples from the Pahute mesa area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Archived samples were collected based on the presence of natural fractures and on the types and abundance of secondary mineral phases present on those fracture surfaces. Mineral phases present along fracture surfaces are significant because, through the process of water-rock interaction, they can either contribute (as a result of dissolution) or remove (as a result of precipitation or adsorption) constituents from solution. Particular attention was paid to secondary calcite occurrences because they represent a potential source of exchangeable carbon and can interact with groundwater resulting in a modified isotopic signature and apparent water age.

NONE

1998-12-01

201

Sedimentary dynamics on isolated highs in Lake Baikal: evidence from detailed high-resolution geophysical data and sediment cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High- and very-high-resolution seismic data, side-scan sonar mosaics and piston cores from three isolated highs in Lake Baikal (Vydrino Shoulder, Posolsky Bank, Continent Ridge) have allowed to document in unprecedented detail the depositional, re-depositional and tectonic processes and to characterise the overal sedimentary environment on such isolated highs. Our data show that Vydrino Shoulder actually represents a turbidity- or underflow-sourced slope fan, with a distinct channel levee morphology, and affected by tectonics and stratigraphic unconformities. Sediment cores contain up to 90% of terrigenous material. Posolsky Bank is a major tilted fault block, clearly affected by tectonic activity, by stratigraphic unconformities and by mass wasting along its margins. Sedimentation on its crest is undisturbed, but average sedimentation rates are high due to the influence of the nearby Selenga River. Continent Ridge is also affected by active faulting, stratigraphic unconformities and by mass-wasting along its flanks. The area receives only 30% of terrigenous input. There are no signs of sediment reworking due to bottom-currents. Our study thus shows that in comparison with other environments in Lake Baikal, the isolated highs probably hold the best potential to contain a high-quality, continuous, undisturbed and undiluted sedimentary record suitable for paleoclimate research.

Sonic Team; Charlet, F.; Fagel, N.; de Batist, M.; Hauregard, F.; Minnebo, B.; Meischner, D.; SONIC Teamd

2005-04-01

202

Mingling processes at Panarea Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy): results from M73/2 cruise drilled cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last Meteor 73/2 cruise drilled several lava cores in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, close to Panarea Island and surrounding islets (Aeolian archipelago, Italy), at depths comprised between 50 and 70 m bsl. These rocks - unconformably covered by unconsolidated lapilli tuffs - revealed different lithologies and mineralogical assemblages corresponding to different compositions (hereafter A & B), as then evidenced by ICP-MS analyses (major and trace elements) performed on selected rock-samples. The cores also displayed several, cm-sized, rounded enclaves of the A-type dispersed in the B-type. The petrographic study on textures and microprobe analyses on glass shards and mineral phases finally concurred in identifying two magmas with different history and quite complex interaction. Rock A is a holocrystalline shoshonite (SHO) - showing plagioclase (pl - An%=62-74) and clinopyroxene (cpx) as main phases, plus subordinate amphibole and biotite phenocrysts, rare and small olivines (Fo?89%) - which represents the first magma, usually in form of enclaves. Notably, the SHO shows intersertal vesicularity and scarce glass. Rock B is a porphyritic rhyodacite (RD) characterized by pl (An%=32-52), and biotite phenocrysts, with minor cpx phenocrysts and microphenocrysts. Pl and cpx show both alternate and normal zoning, and the former have frequent K-rich reaction rims. Similar mineral phases and frequent sanidine microlites characterize the alkali-trachyte glassy groundmass of rock B. This rock hosts the SHO and represent the most voluminous magma. Overall, these features indicate a quite complex history of magma interaction(s) as well as a polybaric crystallization, which lead the volatiles abundance and behaviour. From the study of the highly irregular edges observed along their contacts, we argue intrusive and visco-plastic relationships between A and B. Moreover, the presence of irregular vesicles and vugs bounded by pl microlites suggest an emplacement at shallow level where cooling favoured both slow degassing and pervasive crystallization. Textural and compositional data concur in indicating that the two magmas mingled at depth. Noteworthy, enclaves of a third rock type - very limited in volume - is present along some of the collected cores. It is a reddish low-porphyritic lava similar to the RD lava in terms of mineralogical composition, but showing a higher amount of microlites with smaller size if compared to the main RD host-rock. This could indicate that at some extent also mixing occurred. The multiple similarities of our rocks with lavas of the Panarea islets or other acid volcanics containing mafic-intermediate enclaves and outcropping on other Aeolian Islands, suggest that mafic magma uprising "within" resident magma with subsequent mingling is a recurrent process in these volcanic systems and may be the trigger for the eruption of acid melts.

De Benedetti, A. A.; De Astis, G.; Raffaele, V.; Esposito, A.; Giordano, G.; Petersen, S.; Monecke, T.

2012-04-01

203

Geophysical Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geophysical Products Web site is maintained and provided by the USGS Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team, who "devise new methods for understanding the Earth and apply these methods in interdisciplinary research projects to solve pressing earth-system problems." This comprehensive accumulation of resources includes Regional and State Grid and Database Compilations, Magnetic Reports and Surveys, Gravity Reports and Surveys, Electrical Reports and Surveys, MagnetoTelluric Reports and Surveys, Multi-Discipline Reports and Surveys, Geophysical Software, Fact Sheets, Geophysical Products available on CD-ROMS, geophysical links, and more. The single page site, although seemingly limited, does offer a great deal of information that should be of use to researchers and professionals.

204

Ages and stable-isotope compositions of secondary calcite and opal in drill cores from Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable-isotope compositions of fracture- and cavity-filling calcite from the unsaturated zone of three drill cores at Yucca Mountain Tertiary volcanic complex indicate that the water from which the minerals precipitated was probably meteoric in origin. A decrease in 18O in the calcite with depth is interpreted as being due to the increase in temperature in drill holes corresponding to an estimated average geothermal gradient of 34?? per kilometer. A few of the calcite samples and all of the opal samples yielded uranium-series ages older than 400 000 yr, although most of the calcite samples yielded ages between 26 000 and 310 000 yr. The stable-isotope and uranium-series dates from precipitated calcite and opal of this reconnaissance study suggest a complex history of fluid movement through the volcanic pile, and episodes of fracture filling predominantly from meteoric water during at least the past 400 000 yr. -Authors

Szabo, B. J.; Kyser, T. K.

1990-01-01

205

Development of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation on a shale dip-slope: Observations from high-quality drill cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed high-quality drill cores with 100% recovery drilled into a gravitationally deformed dip-slope of a shale-dominated sequence of sediments in Japan. The slope had undulating surfaces but no well-defined landslide scarps, suggesting that parts of the slope had undergone gravitational deformation but had not completely separated from the surrounding bedrock. The gravitational deformation of shale and sandstone is characterized by disintegration and brecciation of sediments and the formation of pulverized zones with poorly developed planar structures, jigsaw-like structures, and fracture openings. Shear zones are distributed intermittently within the slope but have not merged discernably into a through-going master sliding surface. Incipient landslide shear zones form openings within coherent rock by shearing along bedding, with these shear zones potentially developing downward in a stepwise manner, which may be related to stress redistribution induced by river incision.

Chigira, M.; Hariyama, T.; Yamasaki, S.

2013-10-01

206

Crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake as seen in drill core recovered in 1967-1979  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption, one of the most picritic eruptions of Kilauea Volcano in the twentieth century. Since 1959 the 110 to 122 m thick lake has cooled slowly, developing steadily thickening upper and lower crusts, with a lens of more molten lava in between. Recent coring dates, with maximum depths reached in the center of the lake, are: 1967 (26.5 m). 1975 (44.2 m), 1976 (46.0 m) and 1979 (52.7 m). These depths define the base of the upper crust at the time of drilling. The bulk of the core consists of a gray, olivine-phyric basalt matrix, which locally contains coarser-grained diabasic segregation veins. The most important megascopic variation in the matrix rock is its variation in olivine content. The upper 15 m of crust is very olivine-rich. Abundance and average size of olivine decrease irregularly downward to 23 m; between 23 and 40 m the rock contains 5-10% of small olivine phenocrysts. Below 40 m. olivine content and average grainsize rise sharply. Olivine contents remain high (20-45%, by volume) throughout the lower crust, except for a narrow (< 6 m) olivine depleted zone near the basalt contact. Petrographically the olivine phenocrysts in Kilauea Iki can be divided into two types. Type 1 phenocrysts are large (1-12 mm long), with irregular blocky outlines, and often contain kink bands. Type 2 crystals are relatively small (0.5-2 mm in length), euhedral and undeformed. The variations in olivine content of the matrix rock are almost entirely variations in the amount of type 1 olivines. Sharp mineral layering of any sort is rare in Kilauea Iki. However, the depth range 41-52 m is marked by the frequent occurrence of steeply dipping (70°-90°) bands or bodies of slightly vuggy olivine-rich rock locally capped with a small cupola of segregation-vein material. In thin section there is clear evidence for relative movement of melt and crystals within these structures. The segregation veins occur only in the upper crust. The most widely distributed (occurring from 4.5-59.4 m) are thin veins (most < 5 cm thick), which cut the core at moderate angles and appear to have been derived from the immediately adjacent wall-rock by filter pressing. There is also a series of thicker (0.1-1.5 m) segregation veins, which recur every 2-3 m, between 20 and 52 m. These have subhorizontal contacts and appear, from similarities in thickness and spacing, to correlate between drill holes as much as 100 m apart. These large veins are not derived from the adjacent wallrock: their mechanism of formation is still problematical. The total thickness of segregation veins in Kilauea Iki is 3-6 m in the central part of the lake, corresponding to 6-11% of the upper crust. Whole-rock compositions for Kilauea Iki fall into two groups: the matrix rock ranges from 20-7.5% MgO, while the segregation veins all contain between 6.0 and 4.5% MgO. There are no whole-rock compositions of intermediate MgO content. Samples from < 12 m show eruption-controlled chemistry. Below that depth, matrix rock compositions have higher Al2O3, TiO2 and alkalies, and lower CaO and FeO, at a given MgO content than do the eruption pumices. The probable causes of this are assimilation of low-melting components from foundered crust, plus removal of olivine, plus removal of minor augite, for rocks with MgO contents of < 8.0%. Given the observed rate of growth of the upper crust, one can infer that significant removal of the type 1 olivine phenocrysts from the upper part of the lake began in 1963 and ceased sometime prior to 1972. The process. probably gravitative settling, appears to have been inhibited earlier by gas streaming from the lower part of the lens of melt. The olivine cumulate zone, which extends into the upper crust, contains relatively few (25-40%) olivine crystals, few of which actually touch each other. The diffuseness of the cumulate zone raises the possibility that the crystals were coated with a relatively visous boundary layer of melt which moved with them. Calculations of the Stokes’ law settling rates

Helz, R. T.

1980-12-01

207

Crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake as seen in drill core recovered in 1967-1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption, one of the most picritic eruptions of Kilauea Volcano in the twentieth century. Since 1959 the 110 to 122 m thick lake has cooled slowly, developing steadily thickening upper and lower crusts, with a lens of more molten lava in between. Recent coring dates, with maximum depths reached in the center of the lake, are: 1967 (26.5 m). 1975 (44.2 m), 1976 (46.0 m) and 1979 (52.7 m). These depths define the base of the upper crust at the time of drilling. The bulk of the core consists of a gray, olivine-phyric basalt matrix, which locally contains coarser-grained diabasic segregation veins. The most important megascopic variation in the matrix rock is its variation in olivine content. The upper 15 m of crust is very olivine-rich. Abundance and average size of olivine decrease irregularly downward to 23 m; between 23 and 40 m the rock contains 5-10% of small olivine phenocrysts. Below 40 m. olivine content and average grainsize rise sharply. Olivine contents remain high (20-45%, by volume) throughout the lower crust, except for a narrow (< 6 m) olivine depleted zone near the basalt contact. Petrographically the olivine phenocrysts in Kilauea Iki can be divided into two types. Type 1 phenocrysts are large (1-12 mm long), with irregular blocky outlines, and often contain kink bands. Type 2 crystals are relatively small (0.5-2 mm in length), euhedral and undeformed. The variations in olivine content of the matrix rock are almost entirely variations in the amount of type 1 olivines. Sharp mineral layering of any sort is rare in Kilauea Iki. However, the depth range 41-52 m is marked by the frequent occurrence of steeply dipping (70??-90??) bands or bodies of slightly vuggy olivine-rich rock locally capped with a small cupola of segregation-vein material. In thin section there is clear evidence for relative movement of melt and crystals within these structures. The segregation veins occur only in the upper crust. The most widely distributed (occurring from 4.5-59.4 m) are thin veins (most < 5 cm thick), which cut the core at moderate angles and appear to have been derived from the immediately adjacent wall-rock by filter pressing. There is also a series of thicker (0.1-1.5 m) segregation veins, which recur every 2-3 m, between 20 and 52 m. These have subhorizontal contacts and appear, from similarities in thickness and spacing, to correlate between drill holes as much as 100 m apart. These large veins are not derived from the adjacent wallrock: their mechanism of formation is still problematical. The total thickness of segregation veins in Kilauea Iki is 3-6 m in the central part of the lake, corresponding to 6-11% of the upper crust. Whole-rock compositions for Kilauea Iki fall into two groups: the matrix rock ranges from 20-7.5% MgO, while the segregation veins all contain between 6.0 and 4.5% MgO. There are no whole-rock compositions of intermediate MgO content. Samples from < 12 m show eruption-controlled chemistry. Below that depth, matrix rock compositions have higher Al2O3, TiO2 and alkalies, and lower CaO and FeO, at a given MgO content than do the eruption pumices. The probable causes of this are assimilation of low-melting components from foundered crust, plus removal of olivine, plus removal of minor augite, for rocks with MgO contents of < 8.0%. Given the observed rate of growth of the upper crust, one can infer that significant removal of the type 1 olivine phenocrysts from the upper part of the lake began in 1963 and ceased sometime prior to 1972. The process. probably gravitative settling, appears to have been inhibited earlier by gas streaming from the lower part of the lens of melt. The olivine cumulate zone, which extends into the upper crust, contains relatively few (25-40%) olivine crystals, few of which actually touch each other. The diffuseness of the cumulate zone raises the possibility that the crystals were coated with a relatively visous boundary layer

Helz, R. T.

1980-01-01

208

Age Determination for Deep-Sea Cores: Inquiry-based Learning with Authentic Scientific Ocean Drilling Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sediment cores are some of our best archives of past climate change. Imagine that you have access to deep-sea core material from a region of interest. After describing the cores, what next? What would you like to know? Determining the relative age of the sediments provides historical context for the changes observed or measured in the cores. Age also

R. M. Leckie; M. H. Jones; K. St. John; K. S. Pound

2008-01-01

209

Reprint of: Late Neogene climate and glacial history of the Southern Victoria Land coast from integrated drill core, seismic and outcrop data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Neogene stratigraphy of southern Victoria Land Basin is revealed in coastal and offshore drill cores and a network of seismic data in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. These data preserve a record of ice sheet response to global climate variability and progressive cooling through the past 5 million years. Application of a composite standard age model for diatom event stratigraphy to the McMurdo Sound drill cores provides an internally precise mechanism to correlate stratigraphic data and derive an event history for the basin. These marine records are indirectly compared to data obtained from geological outcrop in the Transantarctic Mountains to produce an integrated history of Antarctic Ice Sheet response to climate variability from the early Pliocene to Recent. Four distinct chronostratigraphic intervals reflect stages and steps in a transition from a relatively warm early Pliocene Antarctic coastal climate to modern cold polar conditions. Several of these stages and steps correlate with global events identified via geochemical proxy data recovered from deep ocean cores in mid to low latitudes. These correlations allow us to consider linkages between the high southern latitudes and tropical regions and establish a temporal framework to examine leads and lags in the climate system through the late Neogene and Quaternary. The relative influence of climate-tectonic feedbacks is discussed in light of glacial erosion and isostatic rebound that also influence the history along the Southern Victoria Land coastal margin.

Levy, Richard; Cody, Rosemary; Crampton, James; Fielding, Christopher; Golledge, Nick; Harwood, David; Henrys, Stuart; Mckay, Robert; Naish, Timothy; Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary; Wilson, Terry; Winter, Diane

2012-10-01

210

Palaeoglaciology of the Alexander Island ice cap, western Antarctic Peninsula, reconstructed from marine geophysical and core data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glacial history of the continental shelf northwest of Alexander Island is not well known, due mainly to a lack of targeted marine data on Antarctica's palaeo-ice sheets in their inter-ice-stream areas. Recently it has been argued that the region was ice-free at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and thus a potential site for glacial refugia. In this paper, multibeam swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiles and sediment cores are used to map the Alexander Island sector of the Antarctic Peninsula margin, in order to reconstruct the shelf's palaeoglaciology. Sea-floor bedforms provide evidence that an independent ice cap persisted on Alexander Island through the LGM and deglaciation. We show that this ice cap drained via two major, previously-undescribed tidewater outlets (Rothschild and Charcot Glaciers) sourced from an ice dome centred over the west of the island and near-shore areas. The glaciers grounded along deep, fjord-like cross-shelf troughs to within at least ˜10-20 km of the shelf edge, and probably reached the shelf break. Only one small outer-shelf zone appears to have remained free of ice throughout an otherwise extensive LGM. During retreat, grounding-line geomorphology indicates periodic stabilisation of Charcot Glacier on the mid-shelf after 13,500 cal yrs BP, while Rothschild Glacier retreated across its mid-shelf by 14,450 cal yrs BP. The timing of these events is in phase with retreat in nearby Marguerite Trough, and we take this as evidence of a common history and forcing with the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet. The fine details of ice flow documented by our new reconstruction highlight the importance of capturing complex ice flow patterns in models (e.g. in inter-stream areas), for understanding how region-specific parts of Antarctica may change in the future. Moreover, the reconstruction shows that glacial refugia, if present, cannot have been extensive on the Alexander Island shelf at the LGM as indicated by previous biological studies; instead, we argue that any ice-free refugia were probably restricted to isolated outer-shelf pockets, that opened, closed, or were maintained through diachronous ice-sheet advance and retreat.

Graham, Alastair G. C.; Smith, James A.

2012-03-01

211

Ocean Drilling Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The ODP conducts basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. There are also links to photographs, core data, and educational material on the site.

Program, Ocean D.; Texas A&M University

212

Polar organic compounds in pore waters of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Eyreville core hole: Character of the dissolved organic carbon and comparison with drilling fluids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores recovered at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, were analyzed to characterize the dissolved organic carbon. After squeezing or centrifuging, a small volume of pore water, 100 ??L, was taken for analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Porewater samples were analyzed directly without filtration or fractionation, in positive and negative mode, for polar organic compounds. Spectra in both modes were dominated by low-molecular-weight ions. Negative mode had clusters of ions differing by -60 daltons, possibly due to increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. The numberaverage molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight values for the pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure are higher than those reported for other aquatic sources of natural dissolved organic carbon as determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In order to address the question of whether drilling mud fluids may have contaminated the pore waters during sample collection, spectra from the pore waters were compared to spectra from drilling mud fluids. Ions indicative of drilling mud fluids were not found in spectra from the pore waters, indicating there was no detectable contamination, and highlighting the usefulness of this analytical technique for detecting potential contamination during sample collection. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Rostad, C. E.; Sanford, W. E.

2009-01-01

213

Core lithology, Valles caldera No. 1, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Vallas caldera No. 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program research core hole in the Vallas caldera and the first continuously cored hole in the region. The hole penetrated 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera-fill ignimbrites, 35 m of volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales with over 95% core recovery. The primary research objectives included coring through the youngest rhyolite flow within the caldera; obtaining structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring-fracture zone and the pre-caldera Jemez fault zone; and penetrating a high-temperature hydrothermal outflow plume near its source. This report presents a compilation of lithologic and geophysical logs and photographs of core that were collected while drilling VC-1. It is intended to be a reference tool for researchers interested in caldera processes and associated geologic phenomena.

Gardner, J.N.; Goff, F.; Goff, S.; Maassen, L.; Mathews, K.; Wachs, D.; Wilson, D.

1987-04-01

214

Teaching Marine Geoscience at Sea: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's School of Rock Explores Cascadia Subduction Zone - Cores, Logs, and ACORKs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For twelve days this past September, seventeen formal and informal educators from the US, UK, and France joined six instructors and a small science party on the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)'s Cascadia ACORK Expedition. The educators were part of the annual ``School of Rock (SOR)'' education program. SOR is coordinated by the U.S.

M. Reagan; J. Collins; K. A. Ludwig; S. Slough; M. L. Delaney; S. A. Hovan

2010-01-01

215

Interpretation of Core and Well Log Physical Property Data From Drill Hole UPH-3, Stephenson County, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and well log physical property measurements show variations in the mineralogy with depth in UPH-3. Gamma ray values generally decrease with depth in the drill hole, corresponding to a decrease in the felsic mineral components of the granite. Correspondingly, an increase with depth in mafic minerals in the granite is indicated by the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray measurements.

Jeffrey J. Daniels; Gary R. Olhoeft; James H. Scott

1983-01-01

216

Interpretation of core and well log physical property data from drill hole UPH-3, Stephenson County, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and well log physical property measurements show variations in the mineralogy with depth in UPH-3. Gamma ray values generally decrease with depth in the drill hole, corresponding to a decrease in the felsic mineral components of the granite. Correspondingly, an increase with depth in mafic minerals in the granite is indicated by the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray measurements.

Jeffrey J. Daniels; Gary R. Olhoeft; James H. Scott

1983-01-01

217

Significance of nickel-rich sulfides in drilled core samples of the 2.7 Ga Mt. Roe sedimentary rocks: TEM and magnetic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mt. Roe Basalt is considered to be a 2.7 Ga flood basalt, widely occurring in the northern Pilbara area of Western Australia. Sedimentary rocks interbedded in the basaltic flows have been recognized by previous investigators. However, their sedimentation environments are poorly understood. Sedimentary sections of the Mt. Roe Basalt were directly drilled during the course of this study, and here we report on unknown and unique characteristics of organic carbon rich sediments in these core samples. Six basaltic lava flows of 3 to 10 m in thickness are recognized around the drilled site, about 10 km southeast from Whim Creek. Two sedimentary sections of ca. 10 m thickness are found on specific lava flows. These sedimentary rocks are rich in clastic components, and contain cross laminations and ripple marks, suggesting rapid change in the paleo-current of shallow ocean water. These sedimentary rocks and basalts were drilled and ca. 300 m successive core sections were recovered. Surprisingly organic carbon- and sulfide-rich shale was found in the two sedimentary sections. To identify the sulfide mineral assemblages, chemical composition and crystal structure analyses were carried out by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) with analytical electron microscopy. Sulfides occur as complex mineral assemblages: pyrrhotite, pyrite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These were not recognized in the heavily weathered outcrop samples. Pyrrhotite was a dominant mineral in the assemblage. Notable features of these sulfides was the development of crystal defects in Fe-sulfides (po and py), and their abnormally high nickel concentrations (po: ˜3 wt.%; py: ˜1 wt.%). These crystal habits are most likely diagenetic features rather than a later low-grade metamorphic signature. Magnetic intensities of the basalts and sedimentary rocks were also measured in the drilled core samples, varying from 1 x 10-3 to 1 x 102 A/m. It is remarkable that the magnetic intensities of the sulfide-rich sedimentary rocks in the lower sedimentary section are higher than those of fresh basalt samples. Such magnetism is preserved in the Fe-sulfide minerals and crystal habits and magnetic intensities are highly correlated. Because of the high probability for a diagenetic origin of the examined sulfides, the 2.7 Ga geomagnetic field was probably recorded and preserved in the Fe-sulfide minerals. This is the first attempt to indicate that Archean diagenetic sulfides are useful to tool to reconstruct the ancient geomagnetic field.

Niitsuma, S.; Kakegawa, T.; Nagase, T.; Nedachi, M.

2004-12-01

218

Seismic velocities and anisotropy of core samples from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling borehole in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of seismic properties (P and S wave velocities, hysteresis, anisotropy and shear wave splitting) has been carried out on a unique suite of deep borehole core samples from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project, which penetrated 5158 m into the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic terrane (China). Seismic velocities of the deep core samples are more and less sensitive to pressure in the low pressure (<200-300 MPa) nonlinear and high pressure (>200-300 MPa) linear regimes, respectively, than samples from the surface. The comparison suggests that the high pressure data from the core samples are much more reliable for extrapolation to deeper crust than the data from surface analogs that have been subjected to long histories of weathering and alteration along intergranular and transgranular cracks. The significant increases in the pressure sensitivity of seismic velocities for the core samples in the nonlinear regime indicate that drilling-induced and stress-relief microcracks with small aspect ratios are fresh and clean without secondary mineral in-fillings, and are thus easy to close completely under the applied hydrostatic pressure conditions of the laboratory. The data also elucidate that the velocity-pressure data can successfully provide important hints about the preferred orientation of microcracks that causes P wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave splitting in cracked rocks, and that the effect of compression on the Vp/Vsratios is negligible for crack-free compacted rocks. The seismic velocities of equivalent isotropic (fabric-free) and crack-free crystalline aggregates calculated from room pressure single crystal elastic constants using the Voigt average are in good agreement with the laboratory data at ˜200 MPa. Comparison of the seismic reflection image from the vicinity of the borehole with the normal-incidence reflection coefficient profile computed from the laboratory-measured velocities and densities infers that the seismic reflections originate from mafic (eclogite and retrograde eclogite) or ultramafic units within dominantly felsic rocks.

Sun, Shengsi; Ji, Shaocheng; Wang, Qian; Xu, Zhiqin; Salisbury, Matthew; Long, Changxing

2012-01-01

219

Construction diagrams, geophysical logs, and lithologic descriptions for boreholes USGS 103, 105, 108, 131, 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, summarizes construction, geophysical, and lithologic data collected from about 4,509 feet of core from seven boreholes deepened or drilled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office, from 2006 to 2009 at the INL. USGS 103, 105, 108, and 131 were deepened and cored from 759 to 1,307 feet, 800 to 1,409 feet, 760 to 1,218 feet, and 808 to 1,239 feet, respectively. Boreholes USGS 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16 were drilled and continuously cored from land surface to 1,198, 759, and 425 feet, respectively. Cores were photographed and digitally logged by using commercially available software. Borehole descriptions summarize location, completion date, and amount and type of core recovered.

Hodges, Mary K.V.; Orr, Stephanie M.; Potter, Katherine E.; LeMaitre, Tynan

2012-01-01

220

Testing the ureilite projectile hypothesis for the El'gygytgyn impact: Determination of siderophile element abundances and Os isotope ratios in ICDP drill core samples and melt rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geochemical nature of the impactites from International Continental Scientific Drilling Project—El'gygytgyn lake drill core 1C is compared with that of impact melt rock fragments collected near the western rim of the structure and literature data. Concentrations of major and trace elements, with special focus on siderophile metals Cr, Co, Ni, and the platinum group elements, and isotope ratios of osmium (Os), were determined to test the hypothesis of an ureilite impactor at El'gygytgyn. Least squares mixing calculations suggest that the upper volcanic succession of rhyolites, dacites, and andesites were the main contributors to the polymict impact breccias. Additions of 2-13.5 vol% of basaltic inclusions recovered from drill core intervals between 391.6 and 423.0 mblf can almost entirely account for the compositional differences observed for the bottom of a reworked fallout deposit at 318.9 mblf, a polymict impact breccia at 471.4 mblf, and three impact melt rock fragments. However, the measured Os isotope ratios and slightly elevated PGE content (up to 0.262 ng g-1 Ir) of certain impactite samples, for which the CI-normalized logarithmic PGE signature displays a relatively flat (i.e., chondritic) pattern, can only be explained by the incorporation of a small meteoritic contribution. This component is also required to explain the exceptionally high siderophile element contents and corresponding Ni/Cr, Ni/Co, and Cr/Co ratios of impact glass spherules and spherule fragments that were recovered from the reworked fallout deposits and from terrace outcrops of the Enmyvaam River approximately 10 km southeast of the crater center. Mixing calculations support the presence of approximately 0.05 wt% and 0.50-18 wt% of ordinary chondrite (possibly type-LL) in several impactites and in the glassy spherules, respectively. The heterogeneous distribution of the meteoritic component provides clues for emplacement mechanisms of the various impactite units.

Goderis, S.; Wittmann, A.; Zaiss, J.; Elburg, M.; Ravizza, G.; Vanhaecke, F.; Deutsch, A.; Claeys, P.

2013-07-01

221

Geostatistical study of coal and overburden data from the Wasatch Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. [R-squared statistics used as measure of correlation between drill cutting samples and core samples  

SciTech Connect

A statistical analysis was performed with overburden characterization data that was obtained from a US Forest Service study site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The drilling and overburden characterization program had been performed during 1977 and 1978 and this information was provided to the Laramie Energy Technology Center by the US Forest Service. There were three basic goals that were accomplished during this study. First, find out how overburden data obtained from drill cuttings compares with overburden data obtained from core samples. Second, determine the basic chemical and physical characteristics of the overburden. Third, determine the minimum drill hole spacing required to adequately characterize the overburden. The R-Squared statistic was used as a measure of correlation between drill cutting samples and core samples. Most R-Squared values were less than 50%, therefore, it was concluded that geostatistical structure cannot be predicted accurately during an overburden study when drill cuttings are used. Principal component R-Mode factor analysis with Varimax rotation was used to characterize the overburden. Thirty-one variables were used in the factor analysis. The factor analysis yielded twelve distinct factors which explained ninety percent of the total variation. A two state sequential drilling procedure was developed that moves in a stepwise manner towards the goal of a predetermined level of accuracy until that level is reached. Thus, the desired level of accuracy can be reached without over-drilling an area. 7 figures, 11 tables.

Borgman, L.; Quimby, W.; Sever, C.; Andrew, M.; Youngberg, D.; Davis, F.

1983-05-01

222

Drilling tool  

SciTech Connect

A drilling tool is disclosed which has a drilling shaft member, a crown drilling member with an annular wall provided with a plurality of cutting edges and detachably mounted on the shaft member, a center drilling member detachably mounted on the shaft member inside the crown drilling member and having a further cutting edge, and elements for limiting a drilling depth of the tool when the center drilling member is mounted on the shaft member. Thereby, the operator of the drilling tool, after drilling a guiding groove in a rock, is forced to remove the center drilling member from the drilling tool and drill further without the center drilling member, which increases the drilling efficiency.

Baumann, O.; Dohse, H.P.; Reibetanz, W.; Wanner, K.

1983-09-27

223

Light Absorption Spectroscopy as a Paleoclimate and Correlation Technique for the CRP and CIROS-1 Drill Cores, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coring at CIROS-1 and at the three drillsites of the Cape Roberts Project (CRP) provided a record of glacial influence in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. All four sites have well established sequence stratigraphies. Prior analyses of one CRP site, CRP-2, suggested a correlation between sequence stratigraphy and provenance, attributed to a link between local sea level and climate. However, sampling density was low. We have used light absorption spectroscopy (LAS) for high-resolution (0.5-1.0 m spacing) determination of downcore mineralogic variations at the four sites. LAS is a rapid, nondestructive mineral identification technique that measures the absorption spectrum, in visible and near-infrared bands (350-2500 nm), of light reflected from any surface. At these drillsites, relative abundance of smectite and illite is thought to reflect warm/humid (smectite-rich) versus cold/dry (illite-rich) paleoclimates. The 3300 LAS-based measurements of smectite/illite variations, confirmed by widely spaced XRD determinations, exhibit a pattern of generally higher smectite contents within highstand system tracts, suggesting that warmer climates correspond to higher local sea levels. Conversion of these high-resolution records from core depth to age is hampered by correlation uncertainties between the CIROS-1 and CRP cores. The smectite/illite curves, as well as other spectral characteristics, are very useful in correlating these Antarctic drill cores.

Vanden Berg, M. D.; Jarrard, R. D.

2001-12-01

224

Petrology of impactites from El'gygytgyn crater: Breccias in ICDP-drill core 1C, glassy impact melt rocks and spherules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractEl'gygytgyn is a 18 km diameter, 3.6 Ma old impact crater in NE Siberia. International Continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program—El'gygytgyn hole 1C was <span class="hlt">drilled</span> on the frozen crater lake, 2.3 km from the crater center to a final depth of 517 m below the lake floor. Petrographic and geochemical analyses of 26 <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> samples, three impact melt rocks from the surface, and seven glass spherules from surface deposits outside the crater are used to characterize the impactite inventory at El'gygytgyn. The bottom 98 m of hole 1C intersected monomict brecciated, unshocked, rhyolitic ignimbrite with minor intercalations of polymict breccia and mafic inclusions. These lithologies are overlain by 89 m of polymict breccia whose components occasionally exhibit scarce, low-degree shock metamorphic features. This unit is succeeded by 10 m of suevite that contains about 1 vol% glassy impact melt shards <1 cm in size and a low amount of shock metamorphosed lithic clasts. The suevite is capped by a reworked fallout deposit that constitutes a transition over 4 m into lacustrine sedimentation. A higher abundance of shock metamorphosed lithic clasts, and glass spherules, some with Ni-rich spinel and admixture of an ultramafic component, characterize this unit. We tentatively interpret this impactite section as allochthonous breccia in the vicinity of El'gygytgyn's central ring uplift. The geochemical compositions of seven glass spherules from terrace deposits 2 km outside the crater and eight spherules from the reworked fallout deposit in hole 1C show far greater variability than the composition of impact melt shards and impact melt rocks. Some of these spherules also show strong enrichments in siderophile elements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wittmann, Axel; Goderis, Steven; Claeys, Philippe; Vanhaecke, Frank; Deutsch, Alexander; Adolph, Leonie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE91002067"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of Phase 1 postburn <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and <span class="hlt">coring</span>, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn <span class="hlt">coring</span> of the RM1 UCG site ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. R. Lindblom J. R. Covell R. L. Oliver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMIN11A1150R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automated Classification and Correlation of <span class="hlt">Drill</span> <span class="hlt">Cores</span> using High-Resolution Hyperspectral Images and Supervised Pattern Classification Algorithms. Applications to Paleoseismology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The standard methodology to describe, classify and correlate geologic materials in the field or lab rely on physical inspection of samples, sometimes with the assistance of conventional analytical techniques (e. g. XRD, microscopy, particle size analysis). This is commonly both time-consuming and inherently subjective. Many geological materials share identical visible properties (e.g. fine grained materials, alteration minerals) and therefore cannot be mapped using the human eye alone. Recent investigations have shown that ground- based hyperspectral imaging provides an effective method to study and digitally store stratigraphic and structural data from <span class="hlt">cores</span> or field exposures. Neural networks and Naive Bayesian classifiers supply a variety of well-established techniques towards pattern recognition, especially for data examples with high- dimensionality input-outputs. In this poster, we present a new methodology for automatic mapping of sedimentary stratigraphy in the lab (<span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span>, samples) or the field (outcrops, exposures) using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral images and these two supervised classification algorithms. High-spatial/spectral resolution data from large sediment samples (<span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span>) from a paleoseismic excavation site were collected using a portable hyperspectral scanner with 245 continuous channels measured across the 960 to 2404 nm spectral range. The data were corrected for geometric and radiometric distortions and pre-processed to obtain reflectance at each pixel of the images. We built an example set using hundreds of reflectance spectra collected from the sediment <span class="hlt">core</span> images. The examples were grouped into eight classes corresponding to materials found in the samples. We constructed two additional example sets by computing the 2-norm normalization, the derivative of the smoothed original reflectance examples. Each example set was divided into four subsets: training, training test, verification and validation. A multi-layer perceptron with variable architecture and a Naive Bayesian classifier were trained to construct the classification models. Then, we computed the classification accuracy of our models using the validation sets. For the original reflectance set, our best model achieved a 98.4 % classification accuracy. The 2-norm normalized reflectance training set produced 97 % classification accuracy and the derivatives training sets generated models with 97 % (every point derivative) and 97.6 % (every five points derivative) classification accuracy. The outputs of the best model were used to classify the <span class="hlt">core</span> images. We generated classification images of all the samples and compared them against the real samples for an ultimate qualitative verification of the classification. The results of this work show that reflectance spectra combined with neural networks or Naive Bayesian classifieres can be used to properly discern and classify sediments of very similar composition and grain size. Quantitative identification of geological materials can be used as a fast and objective method to describe samples, <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span>, trench exposures and outcrops.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ragona, D. E.; Minster, B.; Rockwell, T.; Jasso, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6659034"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cascade geothermal <span class="hlt">drilling</span>/corehole N-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two <span class="hlt">core</span> holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. <span class="hlt">Core</span> hole GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. <span class="hlt">Core</span> hole GEO N-1 was <span class="hlt">cored</span> to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. <span class="hlt">Core</span> hole GEO N-3 was <span class="hlt">cored</span> to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both <span class="hlt">core</span> holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult <span class="hlt">drilling</span> conditions were encountered in both <span class="hlt">core</span> holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both <span class="hlt">core</span> holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swanberg, C.A.; Combs, J. (Geothermal Resources International, Inc., San Mateo, CA (USA)); Walkey, W.C. (GEO Operator Corp., Bend, OR (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-07-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6565005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cascade geothermal <span class="hlt">drilling</span>/corehole N-3</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two <span class="hlt">core</span> holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. <span class="hlt">Core</span> holes GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commercial exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. <span class="hlt">Core</span> hole GEO N-1 was <span class="hlt">cored</span> to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. <span class="hlt">Core</span> hole GEO N-3 was <span class="hlt">cored</span> to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both <span class="hlt">core</span> holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult <span class="hlt">drilling</span> conditions were encountered in both <span class="hlt">core</span> holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both <span class="hlt">core</span> holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swanberg, C.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-07-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047525"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correction to “Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on <span class="hlt">core</span> and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) <span class="hlt">drilling</span> phases 1 and 2”</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article corrects: Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on <span class="hlt">core</span> and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) <span class="hlt">drilling</span> phases 1 and 2. Vol. 114, Issue B11, Article first published online: 5 NOV 2009.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tembe, Sheryl; Lockner, David; Wong, Teng-fong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60262382"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of Phase 1 postburn <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and <span class="hlt">coring</span>, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn <span class="hlt">coring</span> of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. R. Lindblom; J. R. Covell; R. L. Oliver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61227352"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of Phase 2 postburn <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, <span class="hlt">coring</span>, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn <span class="hlt">coring</span> of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute`s Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. L. Oliver; S. R. Lindblom; J. R. Covell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60170843"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of Phase 2 postburn <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, <span class="hlt">coring</span>, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn <span class="hlt">coring</span> of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute's Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. L. Oliver; S. R. Lindblom; J. R. Covell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE93011473"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geology, <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, and some hydrologic aspects of seismic hazards program <span class="hlt">core</span> holes, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Seismic Hazards Investigations Program, we have <span class="hlt">cored</span> four holes, as follows: SHB-I at TA-55 to 700 feet; SHB-2 at TA-3 to 200 feet; SHB-3 at TA-16 to 860 feet; and, SHB-4 at TA-18 to 200 feet. In that the n...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. N. Gardner T. Kolbe S. Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61324158"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developers set <span class="hlt">drilling</span> pace</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner <span class="hlt">core</span> of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and production platforms. The majority of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McNally</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED24A..01S"> <span id="translatedtitle">‘Building <span class="hlt">Core</span> Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History’: Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean <span class="hlt">drilling</span> data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment <span class="hlt">core</span> archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made accessible' is the essence of this goal. Our team consists of research and education specialists from institutions ranging from R1 research to public liberal arts to community college. We address relevant and timely ‘Big Ideas’ with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. The exercises are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to <span class="hlt">cores</span>, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygen-isotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, <span class="hlt">drill</span> site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment <span class="hlt">cores</span>, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, or assigned as homework. All exercises utilize authentic data. Students work with scientific uncertainty, practice quantitative and problem-solving skills, and expand their basic geologic and geographic knowledge. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation strategies, as well as providing links to other supplementary materials and examples for assessment. Preliminary assessment data indicates positive gains in student attitudes towards science, and in their content knowledge and scientific skills. In addition, student outcomes appear to depend somewhat on students’ motivation for taking the course and their institution, but are generally independent of students’ class rank or GPA. Our classroom-tested learning materials are being disseminated through a variety of outlets including instructor workshops and eventually to the web.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">St. John, K.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E.; Krissek, L. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH31A1100H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural geology of cuttings and <span class="hlt">cores</span> recovered from below the Kumano forearc basin, Nankai accretionary margin of Japan: Expedition 319 of the Integrated Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program (IODP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geologic materials below the Kumano Basin provide critical information for understanding the geologic evolution of Japan’s Nankai margin and its earthquake hazards. Riser-based <span class="hlt">drilling</span> at IODP Site C0009 recovered these geologic materials in cuttings from 704-1604 mbsf, and in ~70 m of <span class="hlt">core</span> from 1510-1594 mbsf. The >4-mm size fraction of cuttings from 1332-1482 mbsf contains abundant vein structures in moderately consolidated, coarse-siltstones. Vein structures are <1 mm-wide granular rearrangements, possibly paleoseismites, and are mostly restricted to the late Miocene section below a significant unconformity at ~1300 mbsf. At Site C0002, close to the southeastern edge of the forearc basin, vein structures were also localized to a narrow depth interval in a slightly younger (Pliocene age) section. The <span class="hlt">cored</span> interval at Site C0009 is from below a prominent unconformity at ~1360 mbsf and comprises finely (~10 cm-scale) interbedded, unmetamorphosed, and moderately cohesive silt- and sandstone. Bedding in the <span class="hlt">cored</span> interval generally dips NNW in logging data and increases in dip from ~20° to ~ 60° with depth in both the FMI and the <span class="hlt">core</span> data. A set of dominantly thrust-sense shear zones cuts and locally imbricates bedding, with dips <20° to >40°. The shear zones are 1-2 cm-wide, exhibit granular rather than cataclastic (fracture-dominated) microstructures, and though dark in appearance and bright in tomographic images (and thus likely higher density than the surrounding <span class="hlt">core</span>), they are mineralogically similar to the surrounding material. The shear zones may have formed during tectonically induced dewatering and consolidation. In many places the shear zones define the center of a gradient in stretched and folded sedimentary structures. Younger faults also appear dark relative to the surrounding <span class="hlt">core</span>, but are <1-mm wide, with a range of geometries and cross cutting relationships; there are likely at least two generations of these thin faults. The youngest faults are in many cases slickensided, exhibit a range of kinematic indicators (thrust, strike-slip, and normal), and have a bimodal dip distribution, ~20° and ~60°. The younger structures may have developed during forearc development of, or beneath the Kumano basin whereas the shear zones likely formed within the frontal region of the late Miocene accretionary prism or possibly along the faulted slope apron.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayman, N. W.; Byrne, T. B.; Huftile, G.; McNeill, L. C.; Kanamatsu, T.; Saffer, D.; Araki, E.; Eguchi, N. O.; Toczko, S.; Takahashi, K.; Scientists, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55371465"> <span id="translatedtitle">Piggyback <span class="hlt">drilling</span> in Kansas: An example for the Continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the development of plate tectonic theory has provided a framework within which to interpret new geological and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data, the need for an organized deep-<span class="hlt">drilling</span> effort on the continents has become apparent. Since the expense of such a venture will be large, it is important to perform as many scientific experiments as practical on each hole <span class="hlt">drilled</span>. This paper</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donald W. Steeples; M. E. Bickford</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B53B0996W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial Ecosystem In The Oldest Freshwater Lake Revealed From A <span class="hlt">Drill</span> <span class="hlt">Core</span> Of The 2.76 Ga Hardey Formation, Pilbara District, Western Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Hardey Formation in the Pilbara district of Western Australia, is the oldest known (2.76 Ga) lacustrine deposit, was one of eight targets of the Archean Biosphere <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project (ABDP). Rocks in the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> area have been subjected to very low-grade metamorphism (zeolites facies). The recovered <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> (~145 m in depth) is divisible into two depth zones: (1) the upper zone (<~80 m), comprising mostly coare-grained, gray, arkosic sandstones, and (2) the lower zone, comprising alternating layers of finely laminated, black shales and calcareous sandstones. We selected 26 samples from the lower zone at 2.5-m intervals, and conducted petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations (e.g., chemical mapping of major and trace element (including REEs); organic and carbonate C, and S contents; C isotope). Bedding planes are well preserved, comprising alternating layers of organic-C rich clay and organic-C poor carbonate (10-20 µm). Presence of cross-lamination suggests a low energy depositional environment, probably a shallow lake. Major and trace element contents of all samples are quite homogeneous. Organic C- and pyrite S contents fall in narrow ranges, from 0.2 to 0.7wt% (a mean value = 0.5wt% and s.d. = 0.1wt%) and from 0.01 to 0.1wt% (a mean value = 0.04 wt%; s.d. = 0.02 wt%), respectively. Compared to average Archean marine shales (organic C = 0.45 wt%; S = 0.1 wt%), the Hardy shales are comparable in organic C but are much depleted in pyrite S contents. The low S/C ratios of the Hardy shales concur with a freshwater depositional interpretation. The C isotope values for the organic C vary from -36.6 to -27.6% (a mean value = -32.7%; s.d. = 1.8%). There is no stratigraphic trend, but theycorrelate well with the lithology: -31.9 to -27.6% (a mean value = -30.4%) for disseminated-grains and seams of organic C in calcareous sandstone; and -36.6 to 32.6% (a mean value = -33.4%) for finely-laminated black shales. The heavier values may represent microbial communities in shallow water, while the lighter values represent microbial communities in deeper water. The carbon isotope systematics in the Hardy Formation are essentially identical to those of the 2.75 Ga marine shales at Kidd Creek, Ontario, Canada. These data suggest that the fresh-water ecosystems were already as diversed as marine ecosystems at 2.76 Ga ago.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watanabe, Y.; Bevacqua, D. C.; Ohmoto, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HydJ...19..237A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Helium measurements of pore fluids obtained from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD, USA) <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">4He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) <span class="hlt">drilling</span> in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk 4He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 ± 1.3 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 at 21°C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 × 10-18 cm2 s-1 (21°C) to 3.0 × 10-15 cm2 s-1 (150°C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of 4Hewater for matrix porosity (˜3%) and tortuosity (˜6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 (21°C) and 1 × 10-7 (120°C), effectively isolating pore fluid 4He from the 4He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 ± 0.4% (SD, n = 4) and mudstones 3.1 ± 0.8% (SD, n = 4).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE95628830"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep <span class="hlt">drilling</span> KLX 02. <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this report the preparation and execution of the deep <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span> KLX 02 is described. The hole was <span class="hlt">drilled</span> with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span> a diameter 215 mm pilot hole wa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. Andersson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=UCRL81901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cross-Borehole <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Probing for Site Characterization.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ground structure is commonly estimated from <span class="hlt">core</span> samples taken from boreholes. However, knowledge of the structure exterior to the borehole can only be extrapolated from <span class="hlt">core</span> data. By using seismic and electromagnetic cross-borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> probing, r...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. Lytle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10137641"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of Phase 2 postburn <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, <span class="hlt">coring</span>, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn <span class="hlt">coring</span> of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute`s Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the <span class="hlt">coring</span> was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5583585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of Phase 2 postburn <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, <span class="hlt">coring</span>, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn <span class="hlt">coring</span> of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute's Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the <span class="hlt">coring</span> was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60396412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative interpretation of geological and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> well data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> and geological properties of rocks are analyzed using a search for internal consistency between <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> log measurements, composition estimates from <span class="hlt">core</span> or cuttings, stratigraphically controlled predictions of properties from adjacent wells, comprehensive interpretation equations, and rigorous solution uncertainty estimates. The analysis technique is tested on a <span class="hlt">cored</span> interval of the Dakota Sandstone, in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989EOSTr..70V.615."> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> benefits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An agreement signed May 6 between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. creates new opportunities for joint <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> research programs. Dallas Peck, director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Erich Bloch, director of the National Science Foundation signed two agreements for basic scientific research with the Soviets to establish links between between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Soviet Ministry of Geology and between the National Science Foundation and the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The USGS agreement also establishes a connection with the Soviet Academy of Sciences.The Memoranda of Understanding are the first to be developed under the Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Basic Scientific Research signed in January, by then Secretary of State George Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze. The agreements address cooperation in basic rather than applied science and establish a formal mechanism for access to research facilities and support involving NSF, universities, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, USGS, and the Soviet Ministry of Geology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6286387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of Phase 1 postburn <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and <span class="hlt">coring</span>, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn <span class="hlt">coring</span> of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the <span class="hlt">coring</span> was completed in the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. In relation to the seven objectives, WRI determined that (1) the ELW cavity extends farther to the west and the CRIP cavity was located 5--10 feet farther to the south than anticipated; (2) roof collapse was contained within unit A in both modules; (3) samples of all major rock types were recovered; (4) insufficient data were obtained to characterize the outflow channels, but cavity stratigraphy was well defined; (5) bore holes near the CRIP points and ignition point did not exhibit characteristics significantly different from other bore holes in the cavities; (6) a fault zone was detected between VIW=1 and VIW-2 that stepped down to the east; and (7) PW-1 was only 7--12 feet below the top of the coal seam in the eastern part of the ELW module area; and CIW-1 was located 18--20 feet below the top of the coal seam in the CRIP module area. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.; Oliver, R.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GPC....75...31S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The record of Miocene climatic events in AND-2A <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> (Antarctica): Insights from provenance analyses of basement clasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper includes the results of a detailed quantitative provenance investigation on gravel-size clasts occurring within the late Early to Late Miocene sedimentary glacimarine section recovered for the first time by the AND-2A <span class="hlt">core</span> in the SW sector of the Ross Sea (southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica). This period of time is of crucial interest, as it includes two of the major Cenozoic events in the global climatic evolution: the mid-Miocene climatic optimum and the middle Miocene climate transition. Petrographical and mineral chemistry data on basement clasts allow to individuate two different diagnostic clast assemblages, which clearly suggest two specific sectors of southern Victoria Land as the most likely sources: the Mulock-Skelton glacier and the Koettlitz-Blue glacier regions. Distribution patterns reveal high fluctuations of the detritus source areas throughout the investigated <span class="hlt">core</span> interval, variations which can be interpreted as the direct result of an evolving McMurdo Sound paleogeography during the late Early to Late Miocene. Consistently with sedimentological studies, gravel-fraction clast distribution patterns clearly testify that the Antarctic ice sheet experienced a dramatic contraction at ca. 17.35 ± 0.14 Ma (likely correlated to the onset of the climatic optimum), and in a < ca. 100 ka time window passing from a glacial scenario comparable to the last glacial maximum (Phase 1) to a very dynamic glacial environment (Phase 2). Phase 2 conditions persisted through the early Middle Miocene (to ca. 14.2 Ma), when a major expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet is hypothesized, likely contemporaneously to the onset of the middle Miocene climate transition. Therefore, provenance and distribution studies of gravel-fraction clasts show that the variations of paleoenvironmental drivers characterising this period were able to exert deep transformation of the Antarctic ice sheet and reveal the methodology to be a powerful tool for the reconstruction of paleo-glacial-flow direction and paleogeographic scenarios.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandroni, Sonia; Talarico, Franco M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835830"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">GEOPHYSICAL</span> WELL LOG/<span class="hlt">CORE</span> DESCRIPTIONS, CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal <span class="hlt">drilling</span> program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been <span class="hlt">drilled</span> in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal <span class="hlt">drilling</span> from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T62A1295B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organic Matter and ? 13C Throughout a Sub-Basement Red Soil Unit in Hole 1206A <span class="hlt">Cored</span> During Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program Leg 197 (Koko Seamount): First Results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the discovery of deep red-brown paleosols during Deep Sea <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project (DSDP) and Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program (ODP) legs dates back to the 80's [1-3], the potential for preservation of organic matter in these igneous-derived silty-claystone units has been overlooked, and depositional settings have been inferred from only petrologic observations. This work aims to present the first geochemical (TOC, N total) and carbon isotope (? 13C) data of a metre-thick paleosol Unit (<span class="hlt">Core</span> 197-1206A-40R-1, 101 cm, to 40R-3, 77 cm; Subunits 18A and 18B, 307.5 to 309.9 mbsf) <span class="hlt">cored</span> at Site 1206 (Koko Seamount) during ODP Leg 197 (Emperor Seamounts, north Pacific transect)[4-5]. Study of the sources and variation with depth of organic matter in sub-basement Fe-oxide-rich paleosol units from Leg 197 contributes to understanding the palaeoenvironmental history of the Emperor Seamounts prior to, during and after their burial and subsidence (ca. >48 to 56 Ma). Furthermore, preserved organic traces in such an isolated deep Earth system make them a useful test bed for future deep Earth's biosphere-relevant investigations [5-6]. Throughout <span class="hlt">Core</span> 197-1206A-40R soil unit, Corg (TOC = 0.03-0.07%; 0.049 \\pm 0.011, n=7) and total nitrogen (Ntot = 0.00-0.06 %) are within the range (TOC = 0.05% to 0.12%, n=38) measured for the sub-basement paleosoil/rock units found at Site 1205 [4-5]. The ? 13C (bulk organic matter) values for the paleosol regularly decrease downcore from -25.3 \\permil (Sample 197-1206-40R-1, 103-104, at 307.54 mbsf) to -26.2 \\permil (Sample 197-1206A-40R-2, 130-131; at 308.92 mbsf) in contrast to an exposed Hawaiian oxisol sample (e.g., Ohau-2, 100-105 cm-depth with ? 13C = -23.0 \\permil). Typical uncertainties for these measurements were <\\pm 0.1\\permil to <\\pm 0.3\\permil. It is proposed that ? 13C org values of ca. -25 \\permil to ca. -26 \\permil support a terrestrial, rather than marine source [e.g., 7-8] of organics preserved in the paleosol interbed from <span class="hlt">Core</span> 197-1206A-40R. Thus, providing additional evidence for red claystone units as soil horizons subaerially formed on the top of Koko and Nintoku Seamounts, and buried by erupted lava flowing in a nearshore environment [1,3-4]. Also, since some bacterial-induced changes in the pristine (?humic) organic compounds may have occurred over time [5], the ? 13C org values could reflect mixing between primary terrestrial/lacustrine and/or primary/secondary (bacterial) organic matter. However, ? 13C alone is inadequate at distinguishing among different carbon sources (i.e., lacustrine algae and C3 land plants, [e.g., 8)]; further use of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS) for measuring ? 15N tot in these interesting paleosols is underway. {References: [1] Karpoff, A.M., 1980. Init. Repts. DSDP, 55: Washington, 707-711; [2]Shipboard Scientific Party, 1993a Site 871, Proc. ODP, Init. Repts. 144, 41-103; [3] Holmes, M.A., 1995. Proc. ODP, Scientific Results, v. 144: 381-398; [4] Shipboard Scientific Party, 2002, Proc. ODP, Init. Repts. 197: College Station, TX; [5] Bonaccorsi, R., et al. 2002, Abstract, IAU 2002 Bioastronomy Symposium; [6] Furnes, H., et al., 2001, Abstract, GSA 2001 Annual Meeting; [7] Meyers, P.A., 1994. Chemical Geology, 144, 289-302; [8] Meyers, P.A., 1997. Org. Geochem., 27, 5/6:213-259</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonaccorsi, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6939211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oil field slim hole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> technology improving</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent advances in slim hole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> technology have improved the application of this <span class="hlt">drilling</span> technique to oil and gas exploration and development wells. These advancements include Optimization of slim hole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> hydraulics, Application of a small particle weighing agent to improve well control and <span class="hlt">coring</span> operations, Use of slim hole techniques to <span class="hlt">drill</span> horizontal wells, Use of a new polycrystalline diamond compact cutter to allow economical re-entry of small diameter wells in hard rock. Slim hole continuous <span class="hlt">coring</span> and <span class="hlt">drilling</span> is becoming more accepted as a viable <span class="hlt">drilling</span> method, especially as exploration budgets become smaller. Typical applications for slim hole equipment include <span class="hlt">drilling</span> in frontier areas where logistics can be a problem and reentry operations in which the existing well has a small diameter. Typically, slim hole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operations use technology borrowed from the mining industry. The rigs are smaller and <span class="hlt">drill</span> with much higher rotational speeds. Definitions of slim holes vary from a well with 90% <span class="hlt">drilled</span>, with a diameter of less than 7 in. To a well with 70% <span class="hlt">drilled</span> with less than 5 in. A goal of slim hole, however it is defined, is the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> of a well with a diameter smaller than that used on conventional wells in the area. The reduced diameter helps cut rig time and cost and reduces the cost of the tubulars. Another goal of slim hole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> is the ability to retrieve <span class="hlt">cores</span> from the entire well during <span class="hlt">drilling</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..148H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Permeability Distribution In A Confined Fracture Flow Aquifer Using Hydraulic Testing and Borehole <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Groundwater is one of the main drinking water resources in the United Kingdom and the Chalk aquifer contributes over 50 % of the abstracted amount. The Chalk consists of a highly porous matrix which is intersected by hydraulically conductive fractures representing the main flow pathways. Hydraulic testing and borehole <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> were carried out at a test site in East Yorkshire (Northern England), in order to characterise the permeability distribution at the site prior to conducting tracer tests. The Chalk at the fieldsite is confined by about 11m glacial and postglacial lacustrine deposits, and the upper 12m of Chalk has been affected by periglacial weathering. Five boreholes were <span class="hlt">drilled</span> to 70 to 80m depth; one of these was <span class="hlt">cored</span>. The intact Chalk contains stylolites (pressure dissolution surfaces), marl bands up to 1.5cm thick, faults, and several sets of inclined joints. The <span class="hlt">core</span> and acoustic televiewer images from all five boreholes show a high fracture density in the depth interval from 25 to 32m, and discrete fractured zones below this depth. Packer tests on the <span class="hlt">cored</span> borehole yielded hydraulic conductivities of 6.6OE10-5 to 3.7OE10-6m/s, which agree with the average hydraulic conductivity obtained from the pumping test. Fluid temperature and con- ductivity logging combined with static and pumped borehole flow logging showed that minor inflows and outflows were present throughout, but that several horizons of higher inflow/outflow were detected, which corresponded to highly fractured zones seen in acoustic televiewer images. Both packer tests and borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> log- ging indicate that most of the permeability of the aquifer is in the upper, highly frac- tured zone, but that discrete zones of high permeability are also present at depth. The acoustic televiewer was able to detect steep fractures that were not recognisable in the <span class="hlt">core</span>, because the <span class="hlt">core</span> was broken and fragmented during <span class="hlt">drilling</span> due to the presence of these fractures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hartmann, S.; Odling, N. E.; West, L. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr78799"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geologic and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data from Osceola National Forest, Florida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ten <span class="hlt">core</span> holes were <span class="hlt">drilled</span> as part of a hydrologic study of Osceola National Forest. This report describes the detailed lithology of the <span class="hlt">cores</span> taken from test <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, illustrates gamma-ray logs obtained from the test holes and from wells near the forest, and lists the microfauna obtained and identified from the <span class="hlt">cores</span>. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, James Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/report.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-01.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-02.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-03.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-04.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-05.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-06.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-07.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-08.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-09.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-10.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-11.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-12.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-13.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-14.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-15.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-16.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-17.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-18.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-19.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-20.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-21.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-22.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-23.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-24.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-25.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/0592/plate-26.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Test <span class="hlt">drilling</span> for potash resources: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site, Eddy County, New Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twenty-one borings to augment existing information on potash resources at the proposed site for a waste isolation pilot plant in eastern Eddy County, N. Mex., were <span class="hlt">drilled</span> and logged in an 11-week period, mid-August to November 1976. The basic data developed from the borings are tabulated in the present report. The tabulation includes lithologic and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logs of all the borings, as well as the results of chemical analyses, X-ray determinations, and calculations to establish a modal mineralogical composition of <span class="hlt">core</span> samples from potash ore zones and mineralized salt beds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, C. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ngdc.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">National <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Data Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To say that the National <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Data Center (NGDC) brings a wide range of scientific materials together in one location online would perhaps be a bit of an understatement. This site brings together over 300 digital and analog databases, which include those that deal with marine conditions, lake <span class="hlt">cores</span>, seismic reflection, and ecosystems. Visitors can feel free to browse around in this list of databases via the "Data and Information" tab located on the top of the site's homepage, or they can also perform a more detailed search as well. It is worth noting that there are six featured types of databases on the homepage, which include solar events, geomagnetic data, and natural hazards. Additionally, a good way to keep abreast of new materials on the site is by looking at their "News and Features" area, which profiles data sets of note.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGE.....1......"> <span id="translatedtitle">EDITORIAL: The interface between <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> and engineering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Journal of <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> and Engineering (JGE) aims to publicize and promote research and developments in <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> and in related areas of engineering. As stated in the journal scope, JGE is positioned to bridge the gap between earth physics and geo-engineering, where it reflects a growing trend in both industry and academia. JGE covers those aspects of engineering that bear closely on <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> or on the targets and problems that <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> addresses. Typically this will be engineering focused on the subsurface, particularly petroleum engineering, rock mechanics, <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> software engineering, <span class="hlt">drilling</span> technology, remote sensing, instrumentation and sensor design. There is a trend, visible throughout academia, for rapid expansion in cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary working. Many of the most important and exciting problems and advances are being made at the boundaries between traditional subject areas and, increasingly, techniques from one discipline are finding applications in others. There is a corresponding increasing requirement for researchers to be aware of developments in adjacent areas and for papers published in one area to be readily accessible, both in terms of location and language, to those in others. One such area that is expanding rapidly is that at the interface between <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> and engineering. There are three principal developments. <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span>, and especially applied <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>, is increasingly constrained by the limits of technology, particularly computing technology. Consequently, major advances in <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> are often predicated upon major developments in engineering and many research geophysicists are working in multi-disciplinary teams with engineers. Engineering problems relevant to the sub-surface are increasingly looking to advances in <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> to provide part of the solution. Engineering systems, for example, for tunnel boring or petroleum reservoir management, are using high-resolution <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> imaging to reduce uncertainty and associated risk. In the economically dominant area of petroleum exploration and production, the focus has moved dramatically from exploration to production. This shift is leading increasingly to integration between petroleum geoscience and petrophysics on the one hand, and petroleum engineering and rock mechanics on the other. This integration means that petroleum engineers need to be aware of developments in <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>, and geophysicists need to be aware of the problems and requirements of the reservoir engineer. Journal of <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> and Engineering has been established firmly in that context, and we expect this trend to strengthen and extend far into the future. The Editors welcome your submissions, and comments on this first issue of JGE.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ocean+AND+floor&pg=3&id=ED365555"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Simulation Activity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment <span class="hlt">cores</span> obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18598141"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the <span class="hlt">drilled</span> cuttings. In rotary <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve <span class="hlt">drilling</span> performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, most planetary <span class="hlt">drilling</span> systems conduct dry <span class="hlt">drilling</span> with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. <span class="hlt">Drill</span> bits can be divided into <span class="hlt">coring</span> bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical <span class="hlt">cores</span> are generally superior as scientific samples, and <span class="hlt">coring</span> <span class="hlt">drills</span> have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a <span class="hlt">core</span> requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">drilling</span> are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of <span class="hlt">drilled</span> samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on <span class="hlt">drilling</span> depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface <span class="hlt">drills</span>, 1-meter class <span class="hlt">drills</span>, 10-meter class <span class="hlt">drills</span>, and deep <span class="hlt">drills</span>) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8983Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> investigations at the ancient town of Palea Epidavros, Greece.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ancient town of Palea Epidavros, inhabited since the 3rd millennium B.C., has not been systematically excavated; however, numerous ruins, from different eras, outcrop all over the so-called "Nisi", which is the Greek term for island, peninsula. Thus, several questions are still open concerning the palaeogeographic evolution of the area and especially the strait of Nisi. Towards this scope a non-invasive <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> and stratigraphy study was carried out in the broader area of Palea Epidavros, in order to investigate the possible presence of a marine channel between the Nisi peninsula and the main coast. The fieldwork comprised vertical electric soundings, measurements of the total magnetic field and <span class="hlt">drilling</span> of two exploratory boreholes, reaching 12.16m and 14.40m respectively. The locations of the fieldwork activities were determined in collaboration with archaeologists from the 4th E.P.C.A. Detailed textural examination was carried out for the <span class="hlt">drilled</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span> and laboratory magnetic measurements were performed on samples: low and high field magnetic susceptibility, frequency dependence calculation, isothermal remanence acquisition and thermomagnetic analyses. The data management and cartographic representation was performed using Geographic Information Systems, where a geographic database was created, including all available information for the broader Palea Epidavros area: local geology, topographic features, satellite images and archaeological data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zananiri, Irene; Hademenos, Vassilios; Piteros, Christos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787164"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> with applications to subsurface waste disposal: Case history</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent development in <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> methods allows us to accurately map the distribution of seismic velocity, density and electrical conductivity beneath the surface and between boreholes. These physical properties are dependent on porosity, fluid saturation, fluid conductivity, pressure, temperature, clay content, and in some circumstances, permeability. Hydrological parameters may be measured or inferred from <span class="hlt">drill</span> hole experiments or directly from <span class="hlt">core</span> samples. The point measurements in a <span class="hlt">drill</span> hole are then interpolated to the interwell volume using either statistical properties of the local geology or reasonable estimates of the geological structure and lithology. More direct evidence is obtained from well tests, and interference tests between multiple wells, but these are ill posed inverse problems when it comes to defining the properties of the entire interwell volume. Furthermore such tests are impossible in the vadose zone. The interpolation of well data is often inaccurate or misleading and the central problem for all these studies is the lack of these fundamental parameters throughout the subsurface volume of interest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, K.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-08-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS11A1178M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies on formation mechanism and source depth of mud volcanoes by using of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span> in the Kumano forearc basin, SW Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Submarine mud volcanoes are formed as conical mounds composed of erupted unconsolidated or partially consolidated sediments from mud diapirs which are induced by high pore-fluid pressure and buoyancy developed in the deep underground. Most of them were discovered around subduction zones. Mud diapir that brings deep underground materials to seafloor has an important role for material circulations in subduction zones. Moreover, methane seepages at mound summits are suggested by existences of chemosynthetic biological communities, and accumulation of methane hydrate is expected from <span class="hlt">core</span> samples and seismic reflection studies. Therefore, mud volcano is also significant in terms of global warming and energy resource. In order to understand material circulations by mud volcanoes, information about formation mechanism, source layer and its depth is important. In addition, despite mud diapir is generally regarded as rising phenomenon by buoyancy and abnormal high pore pressure, those physical properties are not well investigated. In this study, we discuss the formation mechanism and source depth of mud diapir by using of samples derived form mud volcanoes. We obtained <span class="hlt">drilling</span> samples from two sites at the summit of the mud volcano in the Kumano Trough, off Kii Peninsula, SW Japan, during CK09-01 using Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Vessel CHIKYU, in March, 2009. Those sites are near the central part of the vent of the mud volcano. To understand formation process of mud volcano, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, vitrinite reflectance, density, geological description of breccia are conducted. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility shows particle arrangement within samples to understand sedimentation and deformation fabrics. While muddy sediments usually exhibit the ellipsoidal body characterized by oblate shape, the samples from the mud volcano show prolate shape rather than oblate shape. Moreover, long axis of the ellipsoidal body shows mostly vertical direction. Therefore, we expected that the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> site is influenced by vertical material flow. Porosity of the matrix from the mud volcano is almost constant around 50%. In contrast, the porosity from deposits of the normal basin sediment decreases with the depth and show larger values than those of the mud volcano within 20 m below seafloor. Constant value of porosity of mud volcanoes indicates recent eruption without gravitational compaction. On the other hand, the porosity of breccias shows 20-40 %. These values are smaller than those of the surface basin sediment and the matrix of the mud volcano suggesting their derivations from consolidated host formations. We measured vitrinite reflectances of breccias and estimated absolute maximum temperature of breccias using nanno fossil age by a previous study. The source depth of a breccia is calculated to be 2000 meters using the temperature from vitrinite reflectance and the geothermal gradient of this area. Therefore, it can be said that the source depth of the mud volcano is more than 2000 meters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muraoka, S.; Ashi, J.; Kanamatsu, T.; Sakaguchi, A.; Inagaki, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1009M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of Ferrichromite of Extraterrestrial Origin by Means of Rock Magnetic Studies from the LOC-9 <span class="hlt">Drill</span> <span class="hlt">Core</span> (lockne Crater, Sweden)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Lockne (456 Ma) marine-target impact structure is a concentric with a 7.5 km wide inner crater in the crystalline basement, and an up to 3.5 km wide brim where the sedimentary target succession is partially or completely removed. Much of the crater is covered by sediments deposited during the resurge of seawater, as well as by secular sediments. The LOC-9 <span class="hlt">core</span> is 31.04m long and was <span class="hlt">drilled</span> into the crystalline crater brim and the proximal ejecta flap of the inner crater. The ejecta flap at this location is mainly brecciated basalt with some blending of dark shale just at the contact with the more intact granitic basement. Published studies of the resurge deposits by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) show the presence of ferrichromite particles interpreted to be meteoritic material. Here we combine complete rock magnetic characterization of the magnetic signal along the <span class="hlt">core</span> with the characterization of the ferrichromite phase. Rock magnetic analysis includes low-field magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loops, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition curves, coercivity spectra derived from IRM acquisition curves, back field IRM demagnetization curves and thermomagnetic curves. Additionally, a compositional analysis of a magnetic extract with SEM-EDX was done in order to identify the dominant magnetic fraction. Magnetite and titanomagnetite with different Ti content are identified as the main carriers of the magnetic signal along the <span class="hlt">core</span>, based on the thermomagnetic curves, the saturation magnetization measured in the hysteresis loops, and the IRM acquisition curves. Pyrite is indicated by the thermomagnetic curve at one location in the <span class="hlt">core</span>. A high coercivity phase is also observed in some samples. The coercivity spectral analysis shows one single population of magnetic minerals that dominates the magnetic signal at a level where the magnetic susceptibility is particularly high. The median destructive field is consistent with values reported at positions in the <span class="hlt">core</span> with lower susceptibility and the dispersion parameter is well constrained with average values suggesting no significant diagenesis. The level immediately above the brecciated basement is composed of a relatively high amount of target material. At this depth, thermomagnetic curves reveal the presence of a magnetic phase with low Curie unblocking temperature (˜ 100 °C). No evidence of transformation of goethite into hematite is noted, which suggests the ferrichromite to be of extraterrestrial origin. This exotic phase is characterized by rock magnetic parameters derived from thermomagnetic curves, IRM acquisition curves, and hysteresis loops. The estimated Curie temperature is also consistent with a 50% content Cr, as reported by previous SEM studies of material from the Lockne crater. We conclude that rock magnetic studies complement other methods in the detection of potential extraterrestrial component in impactites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melero Asensio, I.; Martin Hernandez, F.; Örmo, J.; Guerrero-Suarez, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/897433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sampling and Interpretation of <span class="hlt">Drill</span> Cuttings from Geothermal Wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Drill</span> cuttings from geothermal and mineral exploration boreholes, by contrast with those from most petroleum wells, commonly are derived highly fractured and faulted, hydrothermally altered igneous and metamorphic rock sequences, and are likely to be severely contaminated. Characterization of a subsurface resource from cuttings thus requires not only especially careful sample collection, preparation, storage and examination, but also a thorough knowledge of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> technology, local geology and the full range of potential borehole contaminants. Accurate identification of lithology from cuttings is critical for recognition and correlation of rock types likely to selectively host the desired commodity. However, many of the rocks encountered in geothermal and mineral exploration boreholes (such as gneisses and granitic rocks) can resemble one another closely as cuttings even though dissimilar in outcrop or <span class="hlt">core</span>. In such cases, the actual rock type(s) in a cuttings sample generally can be determined by comparison with simulated cuttings of representative surface rocks, and with various <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> and other well logs. Many other clues in cuttings, such as diagnostic metamorphic mineralogy, or sedimentary rounding and sorting, may help identify subsurface lithologies. Faults and fractures commonly are the dominant physical controls on geothermal and mineral resources. Faults occasionally can be recognized directly in cuttings by the presence of slickensiding, gouge, or other crushed material. More commonly, however, the ''gouge'' observed in cuttings actually is pseudo-gouge created beneath a bit during <span class="hlt">drilling</span>. Since most faults and all fractures produce no direct evidence apparent in cuttings, they are best recognized indirectly, either by commonly associated hydrothermal alteration, or by responses on appropriate <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> well logs. Hydrothermal alteration, useful for locating and defining a geothermal or mineral resource, is far more difficult to recognize and interpret in cuttings than in <span class="hlt">core</span> or outcrop. Alteration textures and paragenetic relationships can be obscured or obliterated as cuttings are produced. Less resistant alteration (and rock-forming) minerals can be disaggregated during <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and lost from cuttings during sampling or washing. Relict and contemporary alteration can be indistinguishable, and a wide variety of borehole contaminants can closely resemble natural alteration products encountered during <span class="hlt">drilling</span>. These contaminants also can produce confusing geochemical signatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Sibbett, Bruce S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PalOc...9..835H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and stable isotope stratigraphy of an Upper Miocene <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> from the Salé Briqueterie (northwestern Morocco): A high-resolution chronology for the Messinian stage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a high-resolution stable isotope, carbonate, magnetostratigraphic, and biostratigraphic record from a 175-m <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> from the Salé Briqueterie, which is part of the Bou Regreg section in northwestern Morocco. The Salé <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> spans the interval from paleomagnetic Chron C4n partim to C3r (earliest Gilbert), which represents the time leading up to and including the isolation and desiccation of the Mediterranean (i.e., the Messinian salinity crisis). During Chrons C3An and C3Ar (6.935 to 5.894 Ma) the isotope and carbonate signals display quasi-periodic variations with estimated periods of 40 and 100 kyr, respectively. We interpret the 40-kyr ?18O variations as reflecting changes in global ice volume caused by obliquity-induced changes (41 kyr) in solar insolation in polar regions. The 100-kyr carbonate variations probably represent long-term modulation of the amplitude of the precessional cycle (˜21 kyr), which is not resolved by our sampling frequency. The cyclic nature of the oxygen isotope signal permits us to extend the isotope nomenclature of Shackleton et al. (1994a) from stage TG24 in Chron C3r (earliest Gilbert) to stage C3Ar.?18O.18 at the base of Chron C3Ar (6.935 Ma). A major change in paleoceanographic conditions is recorded across the Tortonian/Messinian boundary, which we correlate to Chron C3Bn at 7.04 Ma. Benthic foraminiferal ?18O values increased by an average of 0.4‰ in two steps at 7.17 Ma and 6.8 Ma and ?13C values decreased by 0.7-0.8‰ between 7.1 and 6.8 Ma, representing the late Miocene carbon shift. The first step in ?18O values coincides with an inferred reversal in deep water circulation through the Rifian Corridor, and the second correlates with the base of the Tripoli Formation and onset of "crisis conditions" in the Mediterranean. We suggest that the increase in ?18O values represents, at least in part, an increase in global ice volume that lowered sea level and contributed to the establishment of a negative water budget in the Mediterranean. Average ?18O values remained high throughout most of Chrons C3Ar and C3An, reaching maximum ?18O values during isotope stages TG20 and 22 in Chron C3r (earliest Gilbert). The glacio-eustatic falls associated with these events may have resulted in the complete isolation of the Mediterranean from the world ocean (Shackleton et al., 1994a). Following stage TG12 in the Salé record, there exists a trend toward progressively lower ?18O values that may represent a series of marine transgressions that eventually reflooded the Mediterranean and ended the Salinity Crisis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hodell, David A.; Benson, Richard H.; Kent, Dennis V.; Boersma, Anne; Rakic-El Bied, Kruna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9317235"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Methods: An Overview.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Becker N. E. Goldstein K. H. Lee E. L. Majer H. F. Morrison</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023989"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial scale analysis in <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> - Integrating surface and borehole <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> in groundwater studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Integration of <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data obtained at various scales can bridge the gap between localized data from boreholes and site-wide data from regional survey profiles. Specific approaches to such analysis include: 1) comparing <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> measurements in boreholes with the same measurement made from the surface; 2) regressing <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data obtained in boreholes with water-sample data from screened intervals; 3) using multiple, physically independent measurements in boreholes to develop multivariate response models for surface <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> surveys; 4) defining subsurface cell geometry for most effective survey inversion methods; and 5) making <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> measurements in boreholes to serve as independent verification of <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> interpretations. Integrated analysis of surface electromagnetic surveys and borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logs at a study site in south Florida indicates that salinity of water in the surficial aquifers is controlled by a simple wedge of seawater intrusion along the coast and by a complex pattern of upward brine seepage from deeper aquifers throughout the study area. This interpretation was verified by <span class="hlt">drilling</span> three additional test boreholes in carefully selected locations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paillet, F. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19669589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> (940 m depth).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31(T), was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a <span class="hlt">drilling</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l(-1)) and MgCl2 x 6 H2O (3 g l(-1)). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was LL: -diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45 degrees C, with an optimum between 35 and 40 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31(T) (=NCIMB 14440(T) = DSM 21240(T)). PMID:19669589</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finster, K W; Cockell, C S; Voytek, M A; Gronstal, A L; Kjeldsen, K U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-009-9367-y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> (940 m depth)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31T, was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a <span class="hlt">drilling</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l-1) and MgCl2???6H 2O (3 g l-1). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45??C, with an optimum between 35 and 40??C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31T (=NCIMB 14440T = DSM 21240T). ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finster, K. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Voytek, M. A.; Gronstal, A. L.; Kjeldsen, K. U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1979/0585/report.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> information across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, Karnes County, Texas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> studies across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, South Texas, show the three geochemical environments often associated with uranium roll-type deposits: an altered (oxidized) zone, an ore zone, and an unaltered (reduced) zone. Mineralogic analysis of the total sulfides contained in the <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> shows only slight changes in the total sulfide content among the three geochemical regimes. However, induced polarization measurements on the <span class="hlt">core</span> samples indicate that samples obtained from the reduced side of the ore zone are more electrically polarizable than those from the oxidized side of the ore zone, and therefore probably contain more pyrite. Analysis of the clay-size fraction in <span class="hlt">core</span> samples indicates that montmorillonite is the dominant clay mineral. High resistivity values within the ore zone indicate the presence of calcite cement concentrations that are higher than those seen outside of the ore zone. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements show the presence of an extensive zone of calcite cement within the ore zone, and electrical polarizable material (such as pyrite) within and on the reduced side of the ore zone. A quantitative analysis of the between-hole resistivity data, using a layered-earth model, and a qualitative analysis of the between-hole induced polarization measurements showed that mineralogic variations among the three geochemical environments were more pronounced than were indicated by the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> and geologic well logs. Uranium exploration in the South Texas Coastal Plain area has focused chiefly in three geologic units: the Oakville Sandstone, the Catahoula Tuff, and the Jackson Group. The Oakville Sandstone and the Catahoula Tuff are of Miocene age, and the Jackson Group is of Eocene age (Eargle and others, 1971). Most of the uranium mineralization in these formations is low grade (often less than 0.02 percent U3O8) and occurs in shallow deposits that are found by concentrated exploratory <span class="hlt">drilling</span> programs. The sporadic occurrence of these deposits makes it desirable to develop borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> techniques that will help to define the depositional environments of the uranium ore, which is characterized by geochemical changes near the uranium deposits. Geochemical changes are accompanied by changes in the physical characteristics of the rocks that can be detected with borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> tools. This study is concerned with a uranium deposit within the Jackson Group that is located just east of Karnes City, Tex. Five holes were <span class="hlt">drilled</span> on this property to obtain borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data and <span class="hlt">cores</span>. The <span class="hlt">cores</span> were analyzed for mineralogic and electrical properties. The borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> information at this property included induced polarization, resistivity, gamma-gamma density, neutron-neutron, gamma-ray, caliper, and single-point-resistance logs. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements were made between hole pairs across the ore deposit and off the ore deposit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Scott, James Henry; Smith, Bruce D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9667U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Focused view of bedrock structures nearby EPICA <span class="hlt">drilling</span> (Dome C, Antarctica)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last decades the study of Dome Concordia (Antarctica, 123° 20' E, 75° 20" S) represented a turning point especially for glaciology and climatology studies. <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> surveys played a fundamental role on several important issues like as the positioning of the EPICA <span class="hlt">drilling</span> (European Project for Ice <span class="hlt">Coring</span> in Antarctica) and revealing the physical assessment of the bedrock in the surrounding area. In this presentation, we show the last results pointed out by Radio Echo Sounding (RES) data collected during 2009, 2011 and 2012 Italian Antarctic Expeditions. The aim of these short-range campaigns was to obtain a high resolution image of the area surrounding the EPICA <span class="hlt">drilling</span> site in order to enhance the knowledge on physical condition of ice bottom. The results revealed the presence of small scale bedrock structures. Nevertheless, the data acquired in 2011 and 2012 campaigns, showed unexpected characteristics that provide additional information on the nature of the interface between ice bottom and bedrock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Urbini, Stefano; Cafarella, Lili; Tabacco, Ignazio; Baskaradas, James; Zirizzotti, Achille</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5807J"> <span id="translatedtitle">> Exploring the Scandinavian Mountain Belt by Deep <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> (COSC)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project proposes to <span class="hlt">drill</span> two fully <span class="hlt">cored</span> scientific boreholes, both to c. 2.5 km depth, in the Swedish Caledonides, one near the town of Åre (COSC 1) and the other further east (COSC 2). Together they will provide a c. 5 km deep high-resolution mid-crustal section through this major mid-Palaeozoic orogen. Main project objectives include (i) improved understanding of mountain building processes (orogeny), (ii) investigation of the geothermal gradient and its response to palaeoclimatic influences, (iii) the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state of the mountain belt, (iv) the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement, and (v) calibration of surface <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> and geology. The Caledonide Orogen is comparable in size and many other respects to today's Himalayan mountain belt. Silurian collision with underthrusting of the paleo-continent Baltica below Laurentia resulted in widespread formation of eclogite. Major allochthons were transported many hundreds of kilometers onto the Baltoscandian Platform, including high-grade metamorphic rocks and migmatites which were generated during continental margin subduction and emplaced ductilely at mid-crustal levels. COSC will provide detailed insight into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes and further our understanding of past, present and future orogen dynamics. Located in a key-area for Caledonian geology, it is close to a major <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> transect across the mountain belt which has been complemented recently with high-resolution reflection seismics and aerogeophysics for site-selection. The COSC research program is being developed by five working groups, geology, <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>, geothermics, hydrogeology and microbiology. It has direct relevance for society by improving our understanding of mountain building processes, hydrological-hydrochemical regimes in mountain areas and Precambrian shields, deep subsurface conditions for underground engineering, ore genesis and assessment of geothermal potential. After a general scientific workshop supported by ICDP in 2010, the hydrogeological aspects of deep <span class="hlt">drilling</span> were the topic of a separate workshop last year; orogen dynamics will provide a focus at EGU; and geothermics research will be addressed at a workshop in Autumn 2012. The geothermics workshop will be announced on the ICDP homepage. Partial funding for the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> has been achieved through national sources and ICDP. Additional funding (c. 500000€) is being sought to allow <span class="hlt">drilling</span> to commence in 2013. Scientific and financial partners, both from academia and industry, are welcome to the project. The presentation will review the current status of the COSC project and the research leading up to the site selection for COSC 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.-F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T71C1186M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clay mineral analysis of the Hirabayashi NIED <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> on the Nojima fault that ruptured in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, southwest Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 1800-m-deep borehole was <span class="hlt">drilled</span> at Nojima Hirabayashi and penetrated the Nojima fault that was activated at the time of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake (Kobe Earthquake) in Japan. Three possible fracture zones were detected at depths of about 1140 m, 1300 m, and 1800 m. At first, we analyzed the mode of distribution of rocks, minerals and chemical elements in them. There is a foliated blue-gray gouge at a depth of 1140 m. So we infer that this is the central fault plane, and began our fracture zone analysis there, as follows. The degree of fracturing is evidently greater in the hanging wall than in the footwall. We estimated the relative amounts of minerals qualitatively, and we detected not only quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase, biotite and hornblende in the parent rock (granodiorite), but also kaolinite, smectite, laumontite, stilbite, calcite, ankerite and siderite, which are related to hydrothermal alteration. Biotite notably disappears in both the hanging wall and footwall across the central fault plane, although it disappears over a significantly greater distance in the hanging wall than in the footwall. Equally, we estimated the amounts of major chemical elements quantitatively. Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, TiO2, and P2O5 all decrease throughout this interval, except at a few points. H2O_{ and CO2 increase throughout the interval. Na2O increases in the region adjacent to the central fault plane, while MgO and CaO increase in the hanging wall and decrease in the footwall. SiO2 and K2O decrease in the hanging wall and increase in the footwall. Next, we particularly investigated about the clay minerals such as smectite. From the <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span>, we separated the clay-size fraction and analyzed it by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). Incidentally, particle-size separations are based on Stokes_fs law. We prepared oriented samples for XRD and to make it, we used the glass slide method. We measured it both in the air-dried and ethylene glycol-solvated conditions. We analyzed the other fracture zones along this fault in the same way. As a result, about the mode of distribution of rocks minerals and chemical elements, the fracture zone at 1140 m depth is very similar to the fracture zone at 1800 m depth and differs significantly from the fracture zone at 1300 m depth. But, the results of the clay minerals are different among each fracture zone. In air-dried condition, d (001) of smectite are 15 angstrom (at 1140 m depth), 14 angstrom (at 1300 m depth), 14~12 angstrom (at 1800 m depth), respectively (In ethylene glycol-solvated conditions, they are all 17 angstrom). It may suggest the existence of different fluid circulation between shallower and deeper fracture zones.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsuda, T.; Omura, K.; Ikeda, R.; Awaji, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11557253"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment <span class="hlt">cores</span> from San Francisco Bay 1 Institute of <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> and Planetary Physics Contribution Number: 4214. 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sediment <span class="hlt">cores</span> of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT=2,4?- and 4,4?-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4?- and 4,4?-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4–21 ng\\/g and constitute a major fraction (>84%) of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. I. Venkatesan; R. P. de Leon; A. van Geen; S. N. Luoma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59032862"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilled</span> Shafts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This session will provide an overview of <span class="hlt">drilled</span> shaft design and construction, including general design principles, construction methods, and construction quality assurance. Project examples will be used to illustrate the types of bridge structures and subsurface conditions where <span class="hlt">drilled</span> shafts should be considered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elizabeth Dwyre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5666867"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Toa Baja <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project, Puerto Rico: Scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span> into a non-volcanic island arc massif</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Toa Baja <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project was a broad, interdisciplinary experiment to document the in situ geology and <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> of a non-volcanic island arc massif. This overview provides a brief summary of oil exploration on Puerto Rico that lead up to the present investigation, and summarizes some of the problems addressed by <span class="hlt">drilling</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larue, D.K. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.astrobio.net/interview/1209/drilling-on-autopilot"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> on Autopilot</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and life-detection system. Her team is <span class="hlt">drilling</span> into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://astrobiology.nasa.gov/articles/2004/09/23/drilling-on-autopilot/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> on Autopilot</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This magazine article features an interview with Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) scientist Carol Stoker. In this final session of the four-part series, Stoker talks about MARTE's technology objective: developing a fully automated <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and life-detection system. Her team is <span class="hlt">drilling</span> into the pyrite subsurface of Spain's Rio Tinto in search for microbes existing in an iron-sulfur-based energy system, similar to that of Mars. She discuses the technical and monetary challenges of developing both the hardware and software for the first ever completely robotic system to do <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and sample analysis autonomously. The resource includes images from the Mars rover project, links to related web sites, and an MP3 Audio Machine text-to-speech option.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bortman, Henry; Stoker, Carol; Magazine, Astrobiology</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JGR....93.6077H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program <span class="hlt">core</span> hole VC-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An unusual breccia sequence penetrated in the lower 30 m of Continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program <span class="hlt">core</span> hole VC-1 (total depth 856 m) records a complex hydrothermal history culminating in hydraulic rock rupture and associated alteration at the edge of the Quaternary Valles caldera. The breccias, both tectonic and hydrothermal in origin, were formed in the Jemez fault zone, near the intersection of this major regional structure with the caldera's ring-fracture margin. Tectonic breccias in the sequence are contorted, crushed, and sheared. Coexisting hydrothermal breccias lack such frictional textures but display matrix flow foliation and prominent clast rounding, features characteristic of fluidization. These hydrothermal breccias were intensely altered, during at least five major stages, to quartz-illite-phengite-pyrite aggregates; traces of molybdenite occur locally. This assemblage indicates interaction with hydrothermal fluid at temperatures in excess of 200°C. The extrapolated present maximum temperature of 184°C in the breccia zone therefore represents considerable cooling since these phases were formed. Fluid inclusions in the breccias also preserve evidence of the prior passage of hotter fluids. The inclusions are principally two phase, liquid rich, secondary in origin, and concentrated in hydrothermal quartz. Older, high-salinity inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, homogenize in the temperature range 189°-246°C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize in the temperature range 230°-283°C; locally coexisting liquid- and vapor-rich inclusions document periodic boiling of the dilute fluids. These fluid-inclusion data, along with the probable age of the hydrothermal breccias (<1.5 Ma), the assumed depth at which they developed (about 515 m), and the contemporaneous state of stress (extensional) can be combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site. The minimum fluid pressure (Pfr) required to hydrofracture these rocks was probably about 7.5 MPa (0.0146 MPa/m). A boiling point versus depth curve based on these Pfr values graphically defines the physical conditions prevailing when the breccias were formed. When fluid pressure at the assumed depth of brecciation exceeded that curve, in response to rapid release of confining pressure possibly augmented by renewed heating, flashing hydrothermal fluid fractured the enclosing rock. Large overpressures, most likely induced by sudden seismic cracking of a hydrothermally sealed portion of the Jemez fault zone, led to local fluidization of the resulting breccias. Late quartz veining, hydrothermal alteration, and molybdenite mineralization were probably produced by the fluids responsible for brecciation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nielson, Dennis L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60102251"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> logging case history of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> to evaluate the geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley began in 1974 and resulted in the discovery of a geothermal reservoir at a depth of approximately 1523 m (500 ft). Several organizations and companies have been involved in the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logging program. There is no comprehensive report on the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logging, nor has there been a complete interpretation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. K. Applegate; T. A. Moens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T54D..02Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> on the Diamond-Bearing Luobusa Ophiolite, Tibet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The "Selecting Continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Sites and Experimenting with <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Technology Project" is the fifth project of the SinoProbe Program (SinoProbe-5). This project will focus on 7 critical tectonic and mineral resource regions, including the Jinchuan Cu-Ni sulfide deposits in Gansu province, the Luobusa ophiolite in Tibet, the Tengchong volcano-thermal tectonic zone in Yunnan, the boundary of the North China and South China blocks in the Laiyang basin of Shandong province, the Yudu-Ganxian polymetallic deposits in Jiangxi province, the Tongling polymetallic deposit and the Luzhong volcanic basin and mineral deposit district in Anhui province. Scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, along with geological and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> investigations, will help to reveal the composition and structure of the continental crust, verify the results of <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> explorations and establish standards for deep <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> exploration. On the basis of pilot-hole <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, surface studies and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> investigations, the Luobusa scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span> project is focused on the Luobusa ophiolitic diamond-bearing ultramafic massif along the Yarlung-Zangbo suture between the Indian and Eurasia plates. The main purposes of this work are to investigate the distribution and conditions of formation UHP mantle minerals and podiform chromitites in ophiolites and to develop prospecting criteria for ophiolite-type chromite deposits. The Luobusa pilot-hole (LBS-ZK1) was completed in 2010 to a depth of 1478.8 m with an average <span class="hlt">core</span> recovery of 93.6%. The second hole (LBS-ZK2) reached a depth of 967.5 m on August 1, 2011 with an average <span class="hlt">core</span> recovery of about 90%. The ultimate target depth for this hole is 2000 m. Hole LBS-ZK2 penetrated 70 m of Triassic sandstone, marble and chlorite schist strata above the ultramafic body. The contact between the two is a fault marked by extensive shearing and serpentinization but lacking evidence of thermal metamorphism. A preliminary profile of the ultramafic rocks in hole LBS-ZK1 shows that the sequence can be subdivided into three main sections. The first 1260 m consist chiefly of harzburgite with minor dunite, representing a depleted mantle sequence. The lower part of this sequence (from 890 m to 1260 m) is highly serpentinized. The second sequence, from 1260 m to 1414 m, consists mainly of dunite with minor harzburgite, probably representing a cumulate ultramafic section. From 1414 m to the base of the hole is a 350-m-thick sequence of cumulate gabbro. The presence of gabbro beneath the ultramafic rocks without a fault contact supports the interpretation that the entire sequence has been overturned, as suggested by earlier field studies. Detailed studies in mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and isotope dating are undergoing and will be basically presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, J.; Li, J.; Xu, X.; Ba, D.; Li, Z.; Li, Y.; Zhao, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNS41B..06M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground Truth for Geological and <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Mapping of New York Harbor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of the project to deepen the harbors of the Ports of New York, Newark, and Elizabeth to 50 feet, we are mapping the geology of New York and New Jersey harbor, particularly the eastern edge of the Newark Basin, with <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> measurements and <span class="hlt">core</span> borings. The results are geological cross-sections, stratigraphic columns, and geological maps with resolutions approaching 1 foot. Sonar images map the surface of the bottom. Multichannel and single-channel, reflection seismic methods penetrate the sediment and rock to 100 feet below mean low water (MLW). The subsurface materials include black silt, gray silt, gray sands, Pleistocene till, Pleistocene varves, Jurassic diabase, Triassic sands and shales, Ordovician serpentinite, Cambro-Ordovician schist. We measure formation properties including lateral extent, thickness, strike and dip, contamination, fracture density, and diggability. The range of compressional velocity among these materials is a factor of six. Fundamental axioms of mapping, causality, equipresence, and frame indifference require sampling by <span class="hlt">core</span> borings. Sampling is straightforward yet rarely required. We calibrate the water column for bathymetric studies and the subsurface for geotechnical studies. We measure Blow counts (or <span class="hlt">drill</span> rate) Recovery efficiency Lithological description Digital photographs Rock quality designation (RQD) Fractures per foot Ultrasonic compressional wave velocity Unconfined compressive strength The measurements provide Ground truth Stratigraphic calibration Velocity modeling for time-to-depth conversion Material for correlation and experimentation The acoustic properties of the materials involved vary as a function of season. A sensitive issue is stability of the sediments in the channel slope. We place the hundreds of <span class="hlt">core</span> borings into a single reference frame with the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> measurements. The geological maps and cross-sections follow from the interpretation of the processed <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murphy, W.; Ward, W. B.; Boyd, B.; Fleming, G.; Nolen-Hoeksema, R.; Murphy, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.igsoc.org/annals/47/a47a007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> comparison in 'warm ice' and <span class="hlt">drill</span> design comparison</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the deep ice-<span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span> community, the 2005\\/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep <span class="hlt">drillings</span> approached bedrock (the ice-water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004\\/05).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Augustin; H. Motoyama; F. Wilhelms; S. Johnsen; S. B. Hansen; P. Talalay; N. Vasiliev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5631816"> <span id="translatedtitle">PDC bits find applications in Oklahoma <span class="hlt">drilling</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> in Oklahoma is difficult by any standards. Polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) bits, with proven success <span class="hlt">drilling</span> soft, homogenous formations common in the North Sea and U.S. Gulf Coast regions, have found some significant ''spot'' applications in Oklahoma. Applications qualified by bit design and application development over the past two (2) years include slim hole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> in the deep Anadarko Basin, deviation control in Southern Oklahoma, <span class="hlt">drilling</span> on mud motors, <span class="hlt">drilling</span> in oil base mud, <span class="hlt">drilling</span> cement, sidetracking, <span class="hlt">coring</span> and some rotary <span class="hlt">drilling</span> in larger hole sizes. PDC bits are formation sensitive, and care must be taken in selecting where to run them in Oklahoma. Most of the successful runs have been in water base mud <span class="hlt">drilling</span> hard shales and soft, unconsolidated sands and lime, although bit life is often extended in oil-base muds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Offenbacher, L.A.; McDermaid, J.D.; Patterson, C.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V41B2069E"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Iceland Deep <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project (IDDP): (I) <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> for Supercritical Hydrothermal Fluids is Underway</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The IDDP is being carried out by an international industry-government consortium in Iceland (consisting of three leading Icelandic power companies, together with the National Energy Authority), Alcoa Inc. and StatoilHydro) with the objective of investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal fluids. This will require <span class="hlt">drilling</span> to temperatures of 400-600°C and depths of 4 to 5 km. Modeling suggests that supercritical water could yield an order of magnitude greater power output than that produced by conventional geothermal wells. The consortium plans to test this concept in three different geothermal fields in Iceland. If successful, major improvements in the development of high-temperature geothermal resources could result worldwide. In June 2008 preparation of the first deep IDDP well commenced in the Krafla volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. Selection of the first <span class="hlt">drill</span> site for this well was based on geological, <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> and geochemical data, and on the results of extensive geothermal <span class="hlt">drilling</span> since 1971. During 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred in the caldera, involving 9 volcanic eruptions. In parts of the geothermal field acid volcanic gases made steam from some of the existing wells unsuitable for power generation for the following decade. A large magma chamber at 3-7 km depth was detected by S-wave attenuation beneath the center of the caldera, believed to be the heat source of the geothermal system. A recent MT-survey has confirmed the existence of low resistivity bodies at shallow depths within the volcano. The IDDP well will be <span class="hlt">drilled</span> and cased to 800m depth in September, before the winter snows, and in spring 2009 it will be <span class="hlt">drilled</span> and cased to 3.5km depth and then deepened to 4.5 km in July. Several spot <span class="hlt">cores</span> for scientific studies will be collected between 2400m and the total depth. After the well heats, it will be flow tested and, if successful, a pilot plant for power production should follow in 2010. During 2009-19 two new wells, ~4 km deep, will be <span class="hlt">drilled</span> at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in southern Iceland, and subsequently deepened into the supercritical zone. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater on the Reykjanes peninsula, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes on land. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be more similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems. Because of the considerable international scientific opportunities afforded by the IDDP, the US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program will jointly fund the <span class="hlt">coring</span> and sampling for scientific studies. Research is underway on samples from existing wells in the targeted geothermal fields, and on active mid-ocean ridge systems that have conditions believed to be similar to those that will be encountered in deep <span class="hlt">drilling</span> by the IDDP. Some of these initial scientific studies by US investigators are reported in the accompanying papers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1071/"> <span id="translatedtitle">GIS of selected <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> and <span class="hlt">core</span> data in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope collected by the U.S. Geological Survey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1982 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected a large amount of surficial and shallow subsurface geologic information in the deep-water parts of the US EEZ in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These data, released with the publication, include digital sidescan sonar imagery, digital seismic-reflection data, and descriptions and analyses of piston and gravity <span class="hlt">cores</span>. The data were collected during several different projects that addressed surficial and shallow subsurface geologic processes. Some of these datasets have already been published, but the growing interest in the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico warrants integrating these existing USGS datasets and associated interpretations into a GIS to provide regional background information for ongoing and future gas hydrate research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Winters, William J.; Hart, Patrick E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=867746"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fiber optic <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fiber optic <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Homuth, Emil F. (Los Alamos, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/slaymaker/Archives/SQgeophysics.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study Questions for <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This website hosts over fifty practice questions relating <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>. Topics covered in these questions include gravity, earthquake waves and seismicity, Earth's structure, geochronology, anomalies, viscosity, and polar wandering.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Slaymaker, Susan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6339774"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> head</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> head incorporating downwardly facing lip type bearing seals, stationary seal cartridge for head seal, rotating replaceable seal bushing for head seal, and optional screw connection for removable side outlet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young, D. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-07-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5086221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Production <span class="hlt">drilling</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is actually a composite of two papers dealing with automation and computerized control of underground mining equipment. The paper primarily discusses <span class="hlt">drills</span>, haulage equipment, and tunneling machines. It compares performance and cost benefits of conventional equipment to the new automated methods. The company involved are iron ore mining companies in Scandinavia. The papers also discusses the different equipment using air power, water power, hydraulic power, and computer power. The different <span class="hlt">drill</span> rigs are compared for performance and cost.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMOS13A1166E"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Iceland Deep <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project (IDDP):(I) <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> at Krafla encountered Rhyolitic Magma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The IDDP aims to produce supercritical hydrothermal fluids from depths of 4-5 km and temperatures of >400°C as modeling suggests that supercritical water could generate an energy output about 10 times that of a typical geothermal well. This could lead to major improvements in developing high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The first IDDP well was located in the Krafla caldera in the active central rift zone of NE Iceland, where during 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred that involved 9 distinct volcanic eruptions. At Krafla there has been extensive production <span class="hlt">drilling</span> since 1971 to supply steam to a geothermal power plant. Within the caldera a large magma chamber was detected by S-wave attenuation at 3-7 km depth, and a recent MT-survey determined its location. The IDDP-1 was located to reach to 4.5 km to end above the magma chamber. When the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> had reached 2075 m depth multiple <span class="hlt">drilling</span> problems ensued, including a failed <span class="hlt">coring</span> attempt, twist offs, and sidetracks to bypass <span class="hlt">drill</span> string lost in the hole. An anchor casing was set at 1950 m to case off the trouble zones. However <span class="hlt">drilling</span> problems continued and another twist off and sidetrack followed. <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> then penetrated a mixture of fresh basalt and granophyre until 24th June 2009, when at about 2100 m the bit became stuck. However, circulation was maintained and rhyolitic glass was returned to the surface. Rhyolitic magma flowed into the <span class="hlt">drill</span> hole filling the bottom 10 m. The glass cuttings returned were at first pumiceous then homogeneous, sparsely phyric obsidian. The petrology of this glass is described in accompanying posters. The intrusion responsible was evidently below the resolution of available <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> surveys. We decided to terminate <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and test the well and so a 9 5/8 inch sacrificial production casing was cemented inside the anchor casing with a 9 5/8 inch slotted liner below. The well is now heating, and will be flow tested in late November 2009. If the flow tests are successful, a pilot plant to test power production could follow in 2010. The IDDP has engendered considerable scientific interest. Some of the research underway on samples from the IDDP-1 and from other wells at Krafla and from wells in the Reykjanes geothermal field, also targeted by the IDDP, is reported in accompanying posters. Subject to funding, two new IDDP wells, >4 km deep, are to be <span class="hlt">drilled</span> at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields during 2010-2012 to search for supercritical fluid. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system in SW Iceland, on the landward extension of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, produces hydrothermally modified seawater. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be quite similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmunsson, A.; Gudmundsson, B.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://crcleme.org.au/Educ/rgg/docs/Hatch_et_al.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">TEMPORAL MONITORING OF FLOODPLAIN HYDROGEOLOGY USING ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC <span class="hlt">GEOPHYSICAL</span> METHODS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Input data for these models consist of <span class="hlt">drill</span> hole information, pump tests, water levels, etc. Analysis of <span class="hlt">drill</span> hole samples tells us a great deal about the materials in that hole, but do not tell us much about the area away from the hole. We can image further from the hole by <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logging of the hole, but most techniques</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Hatch; Graham Heinson; Tim Munday</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61285516"> <span id="translatedtitle">Well <span class="hlt">cored</span> to 9,800 ft in Paraguay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mining industry's slim hole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> rigs have proven applicable to primary oil exploration. These machines are smaller than conventional <span class="hlt">drilling</span> rigs and can be transported with relative ease to remote locations. A typical rig <span class="hlt">drills</span> an entire well by <span class="hlt">coring</span>, with the <span class="hlt">cores</span> retrieved by wire line without tripping the pipe. The <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span> system is specially suited to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gunn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5073F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor <span class="hlt">drill</span> rigs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow <span class="hlt">drilling</span>. However, <span class="hlt">drill</span> ships are mostly used for deep <span class="hlt">drillings</span>, both because the effort of building up a <span class="hlt">drill</span> string from a <span class="hlt">drill</span> ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on <span class="hlt">drill</span> bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating <span class="hlt">drill</span> string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated <span class="hlt">drill</span> rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated <span class="hlt">Drill</span>, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor <span class="hlt">drill</span> rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These <span class="hlt">drill</span> rigs reach <span class="hlt">drilling</span> depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow <span class="hlt">drillings</span> remotely operated <span class="hlt">drill</span> rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of <span class="hlt">drill</span> ships and have the major advantage that the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor <span class="hlt">drill</span> rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor <span class="hlt">drill</span> rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of <span class="hlt">drill</span> bits and <span class="hlt">core</span> catcher depend on the expected geology. The required <span class="hlt">drill</span> tools are stored on one or two magazines on the <span class="hlt">drill</span> rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated <span class="hlt">drill</span> rig world wide that can use wire line <span class="hlt">coring</span> technique. This method is much faster than conventional <span class="hlt">drilling</span>. It has the advantage that the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string stays in the <span class="hlt">drilled</span> hole during the entire <span class="hlt">drilling</span> process and prevents the <span class="hlt">drilled</span> hole from collapsing while the inner <span class="hlt">core</span> barrels comprising the <span class="hlt">drilled</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> sections are hooked up inside the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string using a wire.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54763016"> <span id="translatedtitle">Paleoenvironment of cold-water coral initiation in the NE Atlantic:Implications from a deep-water carbonate mound <span class="hlt">drilling</span> <span class="hlt">core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The understanding of the paleo-environment during initiation and early development of deep-water carbonate mounds in the NE Atlantic is still under debate. The Integrated Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program Expedition 307 sailed in 2005 to the Porcupine Seabight in order to investigate for the first time sediments from the base of a giant carbonate mound (Challenger Mound, 155 m). These results indicate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Raddatz; A. Rüggeberg; W.-Chr. Dullo; S. Margreht</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/484551"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basalt features observed in outcrops, <span class="hlt">cores</span>, borehole video imagery and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three <span class="hlt">cores</span> at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bennecke, W.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51345067"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> methods: an overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Becker; N. E. Goldstein; K. H. Lee; E. L. Majer; H. F. Morrison; L. Myer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/60693"> <span id="translatedtitle">Petrography and phenocryst chemistry of volcanic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A comparison of outcrop and <span class="hlt">drill</span> hole samples</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is a compilation of petrographic and mineral chemical data for stratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. It supports a possible peer review of Yucca Mountain <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> by summarizing the available data in a form that allows comparison of stratigraphic units in <span class="hlt">drill</span> holes with surface outcrops of the same units. Petrographic and mineral chemical data can be used in conjunction with other geologic and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> information to determine if stratigraphic relations in Yucca Mountain <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> are geologically reasonable and compare well with relations known from extensive surface studies. This compilation of petrographic and mineral chemical data is complete enough for most stratigraphic units to be used in a peer review of Yucca Mountain <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span>. Additional data must be collected for a few units to complete the characterization. Rock units at Yucca Mountain have unique petrographic and mineral chemical characteristics that can be used to make accurate stratigraphic assignments in <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> samples. Stratigraphic units can be differentiated on the basis of petrographic characteristics such as total phenocryst abundances, relative proportions of phenocryst minerals, and type and abundances of mafic and accessory minerals. The mineral chemistry of phenocrysts is also an important means of differentiating among stratigraphic units, especially when used in conjunction with the petrographic data. Sanidine phenocrysts and plagioclase rims have narrow compositional ranges for most units and often have well-defined dominant compositions. Biotite compositions are useful for identifying groups of related units (e.g., Paintbrush Tuff Members vs Crater Flat Tuff Members) and for providing an important check on the consistency of the data. 21 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Broxton, D.E.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Warren, R.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823392"> <span id="translatedtitle">RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) <span class="hlt">DRILLING</span> AND <span class="hlt">CORING</span> METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> and <span class="hlt">Coring</span> Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> and <span class="hlt">Coring</span> workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997eeg..book.....S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental and Engineering <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, self-potential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, ground-probing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> borehole logging. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable textbook for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>, a supplementary course book for students of geology, engineering <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharma, Prem V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6201981"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> head</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">drilling</span> head comprises a tubular body adapted for connection above a well head and having a removable side outlet with a replaceable wear bushing. An assembly removably secured in the head includes a stator and rotor with bearing means and rotating seal means therebetween. A replaceable tubular, kelly seal boot or stripper carried by the rotor includes an enlarged upper end which diverts <span class="hlt">drilling</span> mud away from the rotating seal and toward the side outlet. Lubricating means is provided for the rotating seal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garrett, W. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-11-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ESASP.302..229M"> <span id="translatedtitle">First impressions of the comet <span class="hlt">drilling</span> problem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Preliminary impressions gained from the workshop by someone with no prior knowledge of comets or space technology are presented. Ideas on the composition and density of comet material are suggested as needing refinement in order to give the <span class="hlt">drill</span> designer a fair chance of success. Comments on the subsurface sampling, power allocation, static force and torque for <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, design limits for <span class="hlt">drilling</span> rate, materials for cutting tools clearing <span class="hlt">drill</span> cuttings, anchoring the lander, positioning the <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drill</span>, inertial <span class="hlt">drilling</span> systems and testing are given. The influence of the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and sampling needs on the basic design of the lander and return capsule are called into question. A warning of possible flaws in the comments due to insufficient understanding of the problem is given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mellor, Malcom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53114617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clay mineral analysis of the Hirabayashi NIED <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> on the Nojima fault that ruptured in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, southwest Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 1800-m-deep borehole was <span class="hlt">drilled</span> at Nojima Hirabayashi and penetrated the Nojima fault that was activated at the time of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake (Kobe Earthquake) in Japan. Three possible fracture zones were detected at depths of about 1140 m, 1300 m, and 1800 m. At first, we analyzed the mode of distribution of rocks, minerals and chemical elements</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Matsuda; K. Omura; R. Ikeda; D. Awaji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=10104864"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fiber optic <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This invention is comprised of a fiber optic <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Homuth, E.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=6103009"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fiber optic <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This invention is comprised of a fiber optic <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Homuth, E.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=7027163"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fiber optic <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fiber optic <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Homuth, E.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-03-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5776354"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of <span class="hlt">drill</span> cuttings from geothermal wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Problems in interpreting <span class="hlt">drill</span> cuttings, as opposed to <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span>, and methods to solve these problems are outlined. The following are covered: identification of lithology; recognition of faults and fractures; interpretation of hydrothermal alteration; geochemistry; sample collection; sample preparple examination; and sample storage. (MHR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hulen, J.B.; Sibbett, B.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42061419"> <span id="translatedtitle">Connecting Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> and Human Evolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> for Human Origins: Exploring the Application of <span class="hlt">Drill</span> <span class="hlt">Core</span> Records to Understanding Hominin Evolution; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-21 November 2008; How did environmental history, particularly climate, affect the evolution of our hominin ancestors and closely related species? The formulation of testable hypotheses about the climate-evolution connection is impeded by limited numbers of hominin specimens and the geographic and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrew Cohen; Mohammed Umer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60211926"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> head</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">drilling</span> head is disclosed that includes a tubular body having removable means for sealing the body to a kelly or other drive tube, a drive bushing releasably mounted in the sealing means to turn the sealing means with the drive tube, the sealing means including a seal tube having a rotating seal means for sealing with the body and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60242732"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> head</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">drilling</span> head comprises a tubular body adapted for connection above a well head and having a removable side outlet with a replaceable wear bushing. An assembly removably secured in the head includes a stator and rotor with bearing means and rotating seal means therebetween. A replaceable tubular, kelly seal boot or stripper carried by the rotor includes an enlarged</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61319915"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drainhole <span class="hlt">drilling</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a method for <span class="hlt">drilling</span> from a primary wellbore at least one lateral drainhole wellbore, the drainhole extending out into a liquid producing geologic formation which is overlaid with a gas cap, the improvement is described comprising hydraulically fracturing the formation to form fractures which extend above and below the drainhole, the fracturing being carried out using a fracturing liquid</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emery</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N20050161944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planetary <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> and Tectonics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data analysis of gravity, topogr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Zuber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE93618119"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radioactivity and <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations. (...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Radvanyi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ofmpub.epa.gov/sor_internet/registry/termreg/searchandretrieve/glossariesandkeywordlists/search.do?details=&glossaryName=Env%20Geophysics%20Glossary"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> Glossary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transducer:  Any device that converts an input signal to an output signal of a different form; it can be a transmitter or receiver in a logging probe.   From Environmental <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing "transducer"</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/474860"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Core</span>-tube data logger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wireline <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, increasingly used for geothermal exploration, employs a <span class="hlt">core</span>-tube to capture a rock <span class="hlt">core</span> sample during <span class="hlt">drilling</span>. Three types of <span class="hlt">core</span>-tube data loggers (CTDL) have been built and tested to date by Sandia national Laboratories. They are: (1) temperature-only logger, (2) temperature/inclinometer logger and (3) heat-shielded temperature/inclinometer logger. All were tested during <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operations using standard wireline diamond <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span> equipment. While these tools are designed for <span class="hlt">core</span>-tube deployment, the tool lends itself to be adapted to other <span class="hlt">drilling</span> modes and equipment. Topics covered in this paper include: (1) description on how the CTDLs are implemented, (2) the components of the system, (3) the type of data one can expect from this type of tool, (4) lessons learned, (5) comparison to its counterpart and (6) future work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.; Knudsen, S.; Drumheller, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2871R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Paleo-environment of cold-water coral initiation in the NE Atlantic:Implications from a deep-water carbonate mound <span class="hlt">drilling</span> <span class="hlt">core</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The understanding of the paleo-environment during initiation and early development of deep-water carbonate mounds in the NE Atlantic is still under debate. The Integrated Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program Expedition 307 sailed in 2005 to the Porcupine Seabight in order to investigate for the first time sediments from the base of a giant carbonate mound (Challenger Mound, 155 m). These results indicate that the initiation and start-up phase of this carbonate mound coincides with the beginning of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) at around 2.6 Ma (Kano et al. 2007). Further carbonate mound development seems to be strongly dependent on rapid changes in paleo-oceanographic and climatic conditions around the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary, especially characterized and caused by intermediate water masses. To characterise the paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological setting favourable for the initial coral colonization at 2.6 Ma, we use well-developed proxies such as ?18O and ?13C of planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and of a collection of benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Discanomalina coronata, Cibicides lobatulus, Lobatulua antarctica, Planulina ariminensis), benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as grain size analysis. These proxies indicate variability in seawater temperature, salinity and density of intermediate water masses from southern origin (Mediterranean, Bay of Biscay) supporting cold-water coral settlement and initial development in the Porcupine Seabight. References: Kano et al. (2007) Age constraints on the origin and growth history of a deep-water coral mound in the northeast Atlantic <span class="hlt">drilled</span> during Integrated Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program Expedition 307. Geology, 35(11):1051-1054.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raddatz, J.; Rüggeberg, A.; Dullo, W.-Chr.,; Margreht, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GPC....96..118R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a precise and accurate age-depth model based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of volcanic material in the ANDRILL (1B) <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span>, Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High precision 40Ar/39Ar dates on a variety of volcanic materials from the AND-1B <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> provide pinning points for defining the chronostratigraphy for the <span class="hlt">core</span>. The volcanic materials dated include 1) felsic and basaltic tephra, 2) interior of a ~ 3 m thick intermediate submarine lava flow, and 3) felsic and basaltic volcanic clasts. In the upper 600 m of the <span class="hlt">core</span>, two felsic tephra, two basaltic tephra and the intermediate laval flow yield precise and depositional ages, with further maximum age constraints from volcanic clasts. Below 600 m in the <span class="hlt">core</span>, tephric intervals are significantly altered and maximum age constraints only are available from volcanic clasts. The ages for eight stratigraphic intervals are 1) 17.17-17.18 mbsf, basaltic clast (maximum depositional age 0.310 ± 0.039 Ma, all errors quoted at 2?), 2) 52.80-52.82 mbsf, three basaltic clasts (maximum depositional age 0.726 ± 0.052 Ma), 3) 85.27-85.87 mbsf felsic tephra (1.014 ± 0.008 Ma), 4) ~ 112-145 mbsf sequence of basaltic tephra (1.633 ± 0.057 to 1.683 ± 0.055 Ma), 5) 480.97-481.96 mbsf pumice-rich mudstone (4.800 ± 0.076 Ma), 6) 646.30-649.34 mbsf intermediate lava flow (6.48 ± 0.13 Ma), 7) 822.78 mbsf kaersutite phenocrysts from volcanic clasts (maximum depositional age 8.53 ± 0.53 Ma) and 8) ~ 1280 mbsf, three volcanic clasts (maximum depositional age 13.57 ± 0.13 Ma). Minimum average sediment accumulation rates or 102 and 87 m/Ma for the upper and lower 650 m of <span class="hlt">core</span>, respectively were calculated using the 40Ar/39Ar analyses. The volcanic material recovered from AND-1B also reveals a general northward progression of volcanism in Southern McMurdo Sound.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ross, J. I.; McIntosh, W. C.; Dunbar, N. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41099636"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> signatures of some recently discovered large (> 40 ha) kimberlite pipes on the Alto Cuilo concession in northeastern Angola</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a comparison of <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> responses from several large kimberlite complexes discovered and delineated on the Alto Cuilo concession in the diamond fields of northeastern Angola in the years 2005 to 2008. Several <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> methods were used in combination with geochemical and mineralogical prioritization techniques to guide exploratory, delineation and bulk sample <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, in order to rapidly identify</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wayne Pettit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985utia.rept.....S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uranium, thorium isotopic analyses and uranium-series ages of calcite and opal and stable isotopic compositions of calcite from <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span> UE25a no. 1, USR G-2 and USW G-3/GU-3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fracture and cavity filling calcite and opal in the unsaturated zone of three <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span> at Yucca Mountain were analyzed for uranium and stable isotope contents, and were dated by the uranium-series method. Stable isotope data indicate that the water from which the calcite precipitated was meteoric in origin. The decrease in O-18 and increase in C-13 with depth are interpreted as being due to the increase in temperature in <span class="hlt">drill</span> holes corresponding to an estimated maximum geothermal gradient of 43 deg per km. Of the eighteen calcite and opal deposits dated, four of the calcite and all four of the opal deposits yield dates older than 400,000 years and ten of the remaining calcite deposits yield dates between 26,000 and 310,000 years. The stable isotope and uranium data together with the finite uranium-series dates of precipitation suggest a complex history of fluid movements, rock and water interactions, and episodes of fracture filling during the last 310,000 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Szabo, B. J.; Kyser, T. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/59706"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uranium, thorium isotopic analyses and uranium-series ages of calcite and opal, and stable isotopic compositions of calcite from <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span> UE25a No. 1, USW G-2 and USW G-3/GU-3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fracture and cavity filling calcite and opal in the unsaturated zone of three <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">cores</span> at Yucca Mountain were analyzed for uranium and stable isotope contents, and were dated by the uranium-series method. Stable isotope data indicate that the water from which the calcite precipitated was meteoric in origin. The decrease in {sup 18}O and increase in {sup 13}C with depth are interpreted as being due to the increase in temperature in <span class="hlt">drill</span> holes corresponding to an estimated maximum geothermal gradient of 43{sup 0} per km. Of the eighteen calcite and opal deposits dated, four of the calcite and all four of the opal deposits yield dates older than 400,000 years and ten of the remaining calcite deposits yield dates between 26,000 and 310,000 years. The stable isotope and uranium data together with the finite uranium-series dates of precipitation suggest a complex history of fluid movements, rock and water interactions, and episodes of fracture filling during the last 310,000 years. 10 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Szabo, B.J.; Kyser, T.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geomo.201..335H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two-dimensional geomorphological characterization of a filled abandoned meander using <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> methods and soil sampling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> methods for the geomorphological characterization of subsurface features has numerous advantages over traditional exploration methods, because of their noninvasive and rapid nature. In this study, we compared the results of four <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> methods with each other. We also discuss their possibilities and limitations in a geomorphological investigation. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), refraction seismic (RS), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) methods were applied at an abandoned meander in northern Saxony to map a predefined structure. By combining these methods, we were able to characterize and delineate subsurface features of the abandoned meander, including a point bar, a channel, and a cutbank. <span class="hlt">Core</span> samples obtained from sonic <span class="hlt">drilling</span> were used to validate the findings of both seismic methods. However, we found that electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar lacked penetration depth and could only be used to resolve shallower subsurface layers. The ERT, GPR, RS, and MASW can be used to gather images of subsurface structures. The MASW in particular provides supplementary information about the channel's internal structure (with respect to lateral and vertical resolution). Besides fluvial–morphological features, we also detected inverse velocity structures within the channel. This allowed us to characterize the abandoned meander using information about its layer distribution and material composition. However, we were only able to characterize and delineate the subsurface features of the abandoned meander by combining all of the aforementioned methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hausmann, Jörg; Steinel, Hannes; Kreck, Manuel; Werban, Ulrike; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6791568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program curatorial needs: a report to the National Academy of Sciences, National Research council, and Continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Committee</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Cores</span>, cuttings, and other samples produced during the Continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program (CSDP) will be of interest to scientists in many disciplines. In order to circulate and yet protect these samples, some form of curation will be necessary. A uniform policy of curation must be established that addresses who receives the samples, curator's responsibilities, and standard procedures of description and handling of samples. Curators will be responsible for maintaining data files on samples, in cooperation with the CSDP data center and the NOAA-National <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center. Through the use of newsletters and trade publications, the existence of these samples must be advertised to stimulate their use. We are recommending that the CSDP establish regional repositories at existing facilities and that the budget for curation be about five per cent of the budget for the total program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heiken, G.; Goff, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6898S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Petrographic interpretation of <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> anomalies in the metamorphic rock complex of the Volga-Ural petroleum province</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The crystalline basement of the Volga-Ural petroleum province is currently considered a promising potential area of new hydrocarbon deposits. This concept is based on the presence of numerous loosely aggregated zones (or so called "destruction zones") with high permeability and porosity. During production <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, these zones can be detected by downhole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> surveys including gamma-ray (GR) logging and neutron gamma-ray (NGR) logging. Diagraphic data on crystalline basement rocks from a number of deep wells of the region have identified some anomalous zones. However, interpretation of anomalous data for the crystalline basement requires a detailed petrographic basis. The authors have performed point sidewall <span class="hlt">core</span> sampling during downhole logging to obtain petrographic data on the GR and NGR anomalies. Petrographic analysis of the <span class="hlt">core</span> samples correlated with the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> anomalies permits the identification of false and real anomalies. False GR and NGR anomalies are caused by elevated concentrations of radioactive minerals, such as zircon and monazite, produced by metamorphic processes. Real anomalies of these parameters are caused by clay minerals prevailing in the metamorphic substratum of the destruction zones and formed by the alteration of the high-grade metamorphic material of the basement by low-temperature hydrothermal solutions. These anomalies are characterised by a high degree of correlation of gamma activity and neutron absorption, which can be explained by the geochemistry of clay minerals of the destruction zones that are considered potential reservoirs of hydrocarbon fluids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sitdikova, L.; Khamidullin, D.; Izotov, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1087B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facies reconstruction of a hydrothermally altered dacite extrusive sequence: Evidence from <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> downhole logging data (ODP Leg 193)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ODP Leg 193 <span class="hlt">drilled</span> into the PACMANUS hydrothermal field (Papua New Guinea), which is an active hydrothermal vent field associated with felsic magmatism in a convergent geodynamic setting. The PACMANUS hydrothermal field is part of the eastern Manus Basin and is located near the crest of Pual Ridge, a 500 to 700 meters high felsic neo-volcanic ridge. Two sites, Snowcap (Site 1188) and Roman Ruins (Site 1189), were <span class="hlt">drilled</span> approximately 800 m apart. Although low <span class="hlt">core</span> recovery limited the examination of the subsurface geology, <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> downhole measurements provided continuous records of in-situ physical properties with depth and were used to reconstruct lithostratigraphic profiles. Downhole logging operations included standard wire line logging and Logging While <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> (LWD) measurements. Electrical resistivity images of the borehole wall were examined to find characteristic textures and three different volcanic facies were distinguished: coherent dacite, volcaniclastic dacite and brecciated dacite. In addition, intervals with sulfide mineralization were identified based on characteristic responses of the photoelectric factor log. A comparison of the reconstructed profiles from both sites shows considerable differences in the proportions of facies and the thickness of individual layers. Thick units of coherent facies are predominant at Snowcap and indicate a proximal position of the site within the volcanic system of Pual Ridge. At Roman Ruins, thin individual layers with rapid changes in volcanic facies and a higher proportion of volcaniclastic and brecciated dacite suggest a medial position. These differences in volcanic facies show that the volcanic architecture at Pual Ridge is characterized by small-scale facies changes, emplacement of small-volume individual lava flows and complex geometries of individual emplacement units. <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> logging data suggest that subseafloor hydrothermal activity is focused to the area around one hole at Roman Ruins. Downhole logs from this hole show characteristic cyclic patterns in the electrical resistivity and photoelectric factor logs indicating that hydrothermal sulfide mineralization is concentrated at the tops of individual lava flows representing paleo-seafloor positions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartetzko, Anne; Paulick, Holger; Iturrino, Gerardo; Arnold, Juliane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3714230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span> reveals geochemical heterogeneity within the Ko’olau shield, Hawai’i</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Koolau Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project (KSDP) was initiated to determine if the distinctive geochemistry of Koolau lavas is a near-surface feature. This project successfully deepened a recent, ~351 m deep, tri-cone rotary-<span class="hlt">drilled</span> water well by <span class="hlt">coring</span> another ~328 m. Three Ar–Ar plateau ages of 2.8 to 2.9 Ma from the <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> section of 103 flows confirm stratigraphic interpretations that <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span> recovered</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric H. Haskins; Michael O. Garcia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.odplegacy.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program Legacy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program (ODP) conducted basic research into Earth processes by recovering sediment and rock samples from below the ocean floor and using the resulting holes to perform downhole measurements and experiments. The program, which lasted from 1983 to 2003, published thousands of pages of data and reports, which are now available online. The materials include information on sampling procedures, permanent <span class="hlt">core</span> archives, repositories, and micropaleontological reference centers. Available publications include ODP proceedings and scientific results; initial and preliminary reports; technical notes and reports; citations; the ODP bibliography, dictionary, and editorial guide; and issues of the JOIDES (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling) Journal from 1975 to 2004. There are also links to ODP <span class="hlt">core</span> data and logs and extensive data documentation. Other links access ODP outreach materials, information on engineering and science operations, cruise leg summaries and discovery highlights, and information on the administration of the program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5953845"> <span id="translatedtitle">The physics of the earth's <span class="hlt">core</span>: An introduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book is a reference text providing information on physical topics of recent developments in internal <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>. The text summarizes papers covering theoretical <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>. Basic formulae, definitions and theorems are not explained in detail due to the limited space. The contents include applications to geodesy, <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>, astronomy, astrophysics, <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> and planetary physics. The formal contents include: The Earth's model; Thermodynamics; Hydrodynamics; Geomagnetism; <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> implications in the Earth's <span class="hlt">core</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melchior, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ntlr.work...10B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> methods: an overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017167"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala: exploration geothermal gradient <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala, indicate that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 300??C. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, fracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient <span class="hlt">core</span> hole (TCB-1) was <span class="hlt">drilled</span> to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. The hole is located 300 m south of a 300m-diameter phreatic crater. Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2910 years. TCB-1 temperature logs do not indicate isothermal conditions at depth and the calculated thermal gradient from 500-800 m is 230??C/km. Bottom hole temperature is close to 240??C. Calculated heat flow values are around 350-400 mW/m2. Fluid-inclusion and secondary-alteration studies indicate that veins and secondary minerals were formed at temperatures equal to or slightly less than present temperatures; thus, the Tecuamburro geothermal system may still be heating up. The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient <span class="hlt">core</span> hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for geothermal resource development. ?? 1992.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goff, S. J.; Goff, F.; Janik, C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69...43G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pre-<span class="hlt">drilling</span> data review and synthesis for the Long Valley Caldera, California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 2-day symposium was held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on March 17-18, 1987, to review a large body of scientific investigations for the Long Valley Caldera and to discuss concepts and models for the present-day magmatic-hydrothermal system. Speakers at the symposium also addressed the problem of where to locate future scientific <span class="hlt">drill</span> holes in the caldera.Deep scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span> projects such as those being contemplated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Division (GTD), under the Magma Energy Program, and by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) along with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Science Foundation (NSF), under the Continental Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program (CSDP), will be major and expensive national undertakings that will require strong support from geoscientists and engineers and from industry and government-supported laboratories. DOE/OBES is sponsoring a program of relatively shallow <span class="hlt">core</span> holes (less than 1 km) in the caldera, and DOE/GTD is considering the start of a deep (6-km) hole for <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> observations and sampling of the near-magmatic environment as early as fiscal year (FY) 1988.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldstein, N. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6577745"> <span id="translatedtitle">Old Maid Flat geothermal exploratory hole No. 7A <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and completion report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> and testing efforts for a 6000-foot geothermal exploratory hole on the western approaches to Mount Hood, near Portland, Oregon were completed. The intent of the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> was to encounter a hydrothermal reservoir in a postulated fracture system and confirm the existence of a moderate-temperature (200/sup 0/F) geothermal resource in the Old Main Flat (OMF) vicinity of Mount Hood. The exploratory hole, OMF No. 7A, was completed to a total depth of 6027 feet in 54 days using conventional rotary <span class="hlt">drilling</span> techniques. The hole was found to be incapable of producing fluids with the desired temperatures. A maximum hole temperature of about 235/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth and a temperature gradient of about 3.3/sup 0/F/100 feet was exhibited over the lower 1000 feet of hole. A variety of technical data, including physical samples such as <span class="hlt">cores</span>, cuttings, and borehole fluids, plus <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> well logs were acquired. Data analyses are continuing, with results to be made available through future separate reports.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54897205"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of Ground Penetrating Radar and Geodetics to the Selection of an Ice <span class="hlt">Core</span> <span class="hlt">Drill</span> Site on the Kahiltna Glacier of Mount McKinley, Alaska</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interest in global climate change continues to fuel the search for more sources of quality paleo-climate information in hopes of accurately reconstructing and predicting past and future climates respectively. Ice <span class="hlt">core</span> records from the Arctic and Antarctic have provided some of the most reliable data for paleo-climate modeling however, the validity of these data and models rely heavily on a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. W. Campbell; K. J. Kreutz; C. P. Wake; E. C. Osterberg; S. A. Arcone; K. Volkening; M. Lurie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55031518"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why <span class="hlt">Drill</span> Here? Teaching to Build Student Understanding of the Role Sediment <span class="hlt">Cores</span> from Polar Regions play in Interpreting Climate Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">That the ocean basins provide a record of past global climate changes through their sediment <span class="hlt">cores</span> is often a surprise or novel idea for students. Equally surprising to many students is the fact that current research is being undertaken in remote polar regions, even though sedimentary records already exist from the low and mid latitude regions. Students are often also</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. S. Pound; K. St. John; L. A. Krissek; M. H. Jones; R. M. Leckie; E. J. Pyle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5999198"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> fluid additives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The addition of magnesium oxide to a <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluid additive comprising bentonite and ferrochrome lignosulfonate, the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluid additive having a pH of about 9.5 to 12, increases the usefulness of such a <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluid additive and increases considerably the yield point of the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluid containing this <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluid additive.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forster, J.W.; Roper, L.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-06-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60404655"> <span id="translatedtitle">Roof <span class="hlt">drilling</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A roof-<span class="hlt">drilling</span> system for use in subterranean mining applications and the like in which the <span class="hlt">drill</span> head of a roof <span class="hlt">drilling</span> machine is arranged such that the receiving cavity of its chuck is configured having a lost motion association with the drive-in portion of starter and driver <span class="hlt">drill</span> steel rods. The lower surface of a retainer fixed to the <span class="hlt">drill</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McSweeney</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22mems%22&pg=4&id=ED013042"> <span id="translatedtitle">WRITING ORAL <span class="hlt">DRILLS</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|ALL ORAL LANGUAGE <span class="hlt">DRILLS</span> MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION <span class="hlt">DRILLS</span> OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE <span class="hlt">DRILLS</span>. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION <span class="hlt">DRILLS</span>. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE <span class="hlt">DRILL</span> IS PUT. IN ANY…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NEY, JAMES W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/353294"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drill</span> string gas data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank <span class="hlt">core</span> sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as <span class="hlt">drill</span>-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from <span class="hlt">core</span>-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` <span class="hlt">drill</span> string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, <span class="hlt">Drill</span>-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siciliano, E.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-05-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6069993"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> head</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">drilling</span> head is disclosed that includes a tubular body having removable means for sealing the body to a kelly or other drive tube, a drive bushing releasably mounted in the sealing means to turn the sealing means with the drive tube, the sealing means including a seal tube having a rotating seal means for sealing with the body and a non-rotating seal means for sealing with the drive tube, both seal means being releasably held to the seal tube by common retainer means, such sealing means being rotatably mounted on the body on removable outboard mono-stratum double acting antifriction thrust bearing means at the top of the body, the outer bearing race being held between annular flanges, one flange being integral with the body and the other releasably connected to the body, and the inner bearing race being held between annular plates releasably connected to the seal tube, the body having a side outlet and flange connection for the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluid return line substantially flush with the body.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garrett, W.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-08-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6627803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical monitoring of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluids; A powerful tool to forecast and detect formation waters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a method based on the difference between the chemical compositions of formation and <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluids for analyzing <span class="hlt">drilling</span> mud to forecast fluid-producing zones. The method was successfully applied in three boreholes in crystalline rocks in France. Subsequent <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logs and hydraulic tests confirmed the occurrence of flowing fractures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vuataz, F.D. (Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland)); Brach, M.; Criaud, A. (Ciments Francais (FR)); Fouillac, C. (Joint Institute for Geothermal Research (FR))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE200515014417"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Model Research and Results.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> models constitute an important component of calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring. We will focus on four major topics: (1) a priori <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> models, (2) surface wave models, (3) receiver function derived profiles, and (4) stochastic ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. E. Pasyanos W. R. Walter H. Tkalcic G. A. Franz M. P. Flanagan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5599735"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shaft <span class="hlt">drilling</span> rig</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A shaft <span class="hlt">drilling</span> rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a <span class="hlt">drill</span> string having a plurality of components for <span class="hlt">drilling</span> a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for <span class="hlt">drilling</span> at least to a <span class="hlt">drill</span> bit on the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string, the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further <span class="hlt">drill</span> string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string for further <span class="hlt">drilling</span>; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further <span class="hlt">drill</span> string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further <span class="hlt">drill</span> string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further <span class="hlt">drill</span> string component is to be added to the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string and a parking position spaced laterally of the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string which has been separated from the upper part of the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string preparatory to adding the further <span class="hlt">drill</span> string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> direction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-06-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45593"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> investigation, Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> surveys were conducted in 1992 and 1993 on 21 sites at the Salmon Site (SS) located in Lamar County, Mississippi. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by IT Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). During the 1960s, two nuclear devices and two chemical tests were detonated 826 meters (in) (2710 feet [ft]) below the ground surface in the salt dome underlying the SS. These tests were part of the Vela Uniform Program conducted to improve the United States capability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The RI/FS is being conducted to determine if any contamination is migrating from the underground shot cavity in the salt dome and if there is any residual contamination in the near surface mud and debris disposal pits used during the testing activities. The objective of the surface <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> surveys was to locate buried debris, disposal pits, and abandoned mud pits that may be present at the site. This information will then be used to identify the locations for test pits, cone penetrometer tests, and <span class="hlt">drill</span> hole/monitor well installation. The disposal pits were used during the operation of the test site in the 1960s. Vertical magnetic gradient (magnetic gradient), electromagnetic (EM) conductivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to accomplish these objectives. A description of the equipment used and a theoretical discussion of the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> methods are presented Appendix A. Because of the large number of figures relative to the number of pages of text, the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> grid-location maps, the contour maps of the magnetic-gradient data, the contour maps of the EM conductivity data, and the GPR traverse location maps are located in Appendix B, Tabs I through 22. In addition, selected GPR records are located in Appendix C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7379R"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span> infrastructure in Sweden</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span> infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span> projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The <span class="hlt">drill</span> rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span> community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span>. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline <span class="hlt">core-drilling</span> rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small <span class="hlt">drill</span> sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic <span class="hlt">drilling</span> equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity <span class="hlt">coring</span>, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and <span class="hlt">core</span> size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and <span class="hlt">core</span> size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and <span class="hlt">core</span> size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete <span class="hlt">core</span> retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) <span class="hlt">drill</span> rods covering the maximum <span class="hlt">drilling</span> depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While <span class="hlt">Drilling</span>). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer (BOP). Deviation tools. Wireline packers. And more.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54295322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrated provenance-detrital thermochronology studies in ANDRILL AND2A <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span>: first evidence of an Oligocene exhumation episode (McMurdo Sound, Antarctica)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An integrated investigation including provenance analysis of the gravel-fraction and detrital apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology on the AND-2A <span class="hlt">core</span> provides new results to constrain the exhumation history of source regions and the reconstruction of sediment provenance models in the Ross Embayment in Late Cenozoic time. All the AFT ages, from 20 samples, evenly distributed in the uppermost 1000 m of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Zattin; F. M. Talarico; S. Sandroni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Marine Geology and <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website provides bathymetry, topography and relief data; digital coastlines; an interactive coastline extractor; ocean mapping; the geomorphology and bathymetry of the Great Lakes; geological data of the seafloor, and total sediment thickness; and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data, including trackline measurements of gravity, and magnetics from global ocean areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5718347"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> applications of squids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Present and potential <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> applications of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) include remote reference magnetotellurics, controlledsource electromagnetic sounding, airborne gradiometry, gravity gradiometers, rock magnetism, paleomagnetism, piezomagnetism, tectonomagnetism, the location of hydrofractures for hot dry rock geothermal energy and enhanced oil and gas recovery, the detection of internal ocean waves, and underwater magnetotellurics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clarke, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5216693"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> signal processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Draws together a number of areas of knowledge to give unified coverage of the subject: the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> applications of digital signal processing. The presentation has a strong applications orientation. The coverage connects and unifies several fields, namely wave propagation, digital signal processing, spectral analysis, and computer methods. The book covers many topics in depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, E.A.; Durrani, T.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/05_01_2009_v06Du22tso_05_01_2009_8"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Equipment & Methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">USGS hydrologists monitor data collection during a <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> survey using the horizontal-to-vertical ambient-noise seismic method. This method can be used to estimate unconsolidated sediment thickness and map the bedrock surface as part of groundwater investigations. The survey was conducted as pa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://crustal.usgs.gov/geophysics/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">USGS <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Data Products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This website contains links and listings of digital <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> products spanning the regional centers of the USGS. There are surveys and reports on magnetic, gravity, and other forms of data. There are regional, state, quadrangle compilations of data. And there a number of other data and products available.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Team, Crustal I.; Survey, United S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1493862"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> applications of SQUIDS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Present and potential <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> applications of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) include remote reference magnetotellurics, controlledsource electromagnetic sounding, airborne gradiometry, gravity gradiometers, rock magnetism, paleomagnetism, piezomagnetism, tectonomagnetism, the location of hydrofractures for hot dry rock geothermal energy and enhanced oil and gas recovery, the detection of internal ocean waves, and underwater magnetotellurics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Clarke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60103946"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> lineaments of Arizona</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photolineaments seen on satellite images are usually expressions of deep crustal ruptures. However, photolineaments are omnipresent and an independent expression of regional discontinuities is needed to help rank the photolineaments. Published gravity and magnetic contour maps of Arizona were analyzed to produce a single <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> lineament map to indicate trends of regional basement structures. This map shows that the southwestern</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lepley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_20_2009_j41Qht6GGb_03_20_2009_0"> <span id="translatedtitle">Borehole <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Logging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">USGS hydrologist conducts borehole <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.P44B..01P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial Planet <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Terrestrial planet <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence of a few diehards, we may eventually have a seismic and heat flow network on Mars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phillips, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6137993"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean <span class="hlt">drilling</span> program: Recent results and future <span class="hlt">drilling</span> plans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean <span class="hlt">drilling</span> in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operations, ODP expeditions <span class="hlt">cored</span> Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); <span class="hlt">drilled</span> in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean <span class="hlt">drilling</span> campaign.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/255020"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vale exploratory slimhole: <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> and testing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, <span class="hlt">drilled</span> a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During <span class="hlt">drilling</span> we performed several temperature logs, and after <span class="hlt">drilling</span> was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous <span class="hlt">core</span> (with detailed log); daily <span class="hlt">drilling</span> reports from Sandia and from <span class="hlt">drilling</span> contractor personnel; daily <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells <span class="hlt">drilled</span> in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation <span class="hlt">drilled</span>, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMPP23B1432S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fulfilling the Promise of the DSDP/ODP Legacy with Multiparameter Logging of Archive <span class="hlt">Cores</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1968, the Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project (DSDP) and the Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program (ODP) have been storing their recovered sediment and rock <span class="hlt">cores</span> in purpose-built, refrigerated repositories. Approximately 300 km of <span class="hlt">core</span> was recovered by DSDP and ODP at an estimated average cost of $2,000,000/km. Half of every <span class="hlt">core</span> recovered is kept as an archive half, normally only available for viewing (subsampling requires special permissions). Sound archiving policies and storage techniques over the years have ensured that these half <span class="hlt">cores</span> have remained well preserved for analyses that were not made, or were not technically possible, at the time of recovery. The archive half-<span class="hlt">cores</span> are well suited for automated non-destructive <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> measurements ("<span class="hlt">core</span> logging"), including many of those that provide essential data for reconstructing Earth's climatic history, such as high-resolution magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma spectroscopy, and UV/VIS/IR spectrophotometry. Most of the <span class="hlt">cores</span> have either not been logged for all the relevant parameters or have not been logged at the spatial intervals necessary for high resolution climatic studies. Consequently, a very large, untapped reservoir of paleoclimatic and other data awaits extraction from these well-preserved archive half-<span class="hlt">cores</span>. Recently we used a new Geotek MSCL-XYZ <span class="hlt">core</span> logger at the IODP West Coast Repository to log archive <span class="hlt">core</span> halves recovered by D/V Glomar Challenger in 1983. We wished to obtain a high-resolution paleoclimate record for DSDP Site 594, east of New Zealand, Southwest Pacific, to complement the record obtained more recently from nearby ODP Site 1119, <span class="hlt">cored</span> in 1998. The new MSCL-XYZ system is specifically designed to allow multiparameter, non-destructive <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data to be collected easily at high spatial resolutions from archive <span class="hlt">core</span> halves. Because the data acquisition from archive <span class="hlt">cores</span> can be slow, either because of the measurement itself or the frequency at which the data is required, the system holds multiple 1.5 m-long <span class="hlt">core</span> sections (currently up to 9) and can be left to run unattended for hours or days at a time. We obtained complete data sets of natural gamma, magnetic susceptibility, spectral color and RGB digital line scan images for the top 150m of the sediment column at Site 594 . No useful <span class="hlt">core</span> log data was previously available for this site. The data set of primary interest was natural gamma, which will be compared with the downhole natural gamma record from Site 1119. To our knowledge this is the first time that a high-resolution natural gamma data log has been recovered from an archive <span class="hlt">core</span> half. Detailed magnetic susceptibility records were also obtained despite low signal levels, using 10 sec sampling time throughout. The excellent quality of the spectral color and RGB image data, despite the partially ephemeral nature of these properties, is a testament to the <span class="hlt">core</span> storage techniques employed over 21 years. As <span class="hlt">core</span> working halves become depleted, pressure is mounting to allow subsampling from the archive <span class="hlt">core</span>-halves. The community now has the tools necessary to take advantage of what could be a final opportunity to collect continuous <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data on ocean <span class="hlt">cores</span> <span class="hlt">drilled</span> over the past three decades.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schultheiss, P. J.; Holland, M. E.; Francis, T. J.; Roberts, J. A.; Carter, R. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8203F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectrum Gamma Ray bore hole logging while tripping with the sea floor <span class="hlt">drill</span> rig MARUM-MeBo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The robotic Sea Floor <span class="hlt">Drill</span> Rig MARUM-MeBo developed at the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen was used to retrieve long sediment <span class="hlt">cores</span> at two sites in the northern South China Sea. Both sites are located in about 1000 m water depth in southeasterly and southwesterly direction of the Pearl River mouth, respectively. South East Asian Monsoon variability controls terrigenous material transport by rivers into the South China Sea. The Pearl River is one of the largest rivers of the region that discharges into the northern South China Sea. The terrigenous fraction of marine sediments of the northern South China Sea therefore provides an excellent archive for reconstructing past variability of the South East Asian Monsoon system. In analogy to the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> strategy within the Integrated Ocean <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Program IODP multiple holes were <span class="hlt">drilled</span> in order to generate continuous spliced records at both sites. Overall the MARUM-MeBo <span class="hlt">drilled</span> 374 m during 5 deployments with a maximum <span class="hlt">drilling</span> depth of 80.85 m and an average <span class="hlt">core</span> recovery of 94 %. Here we present first results of bore hole logging conducted during 4 of the 5 deployments with a spectrum gamma ray (SGR) probe adapted for the use with MARUM-MeBo. This probe is an autonomous slim hole probe that is used in the logging while tripping mode. This method is especially favorable for remote controlled <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and logging operation. The probe is equipped with its own energy source and data storage. The probe is lowered into the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string after the target wire-line <span class="hlt">coring</span> depth is reached and after the last inner <span class="hlt">core</span> barrel has been retrieved. When the probe has landed on the shoulder ring at the bottom of the hole, the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string is pulled out and disassembled. The probe, while being raised with the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string, continuously measures the <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> properties of the in situ sediments and rocks. Since the bore hole is stabilized during the tripping process by the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string in the vicinity of the logging probe, logging while tripping can also be used for unstable bore hole conditions e.g. in unconsolidated sediments. At both <span class="hlt">drill</span> sites two profiles were measured during separate deployments of the MeBo. A close correlation of the profiles was observed at both sites. Natural gamma ray intensity varies between 38 and 91 API. The variations in natural gamma ray intensity are mainly attributed to changes in concentrations of potassium (0,5 - 1,6 %) and thorium (3,6 - 13,2 ppm), while the concentrations of uranium are fairly low (1,2 - 3,2 ppm). Clays are the main host minerals for thorium in marine sediments. Potassium may be incorporated both into clay and feldspar minerals. The variability in the natural gamma ray intensity can therefore be interpreted as an indicator of changes in terrestrial sediment input into the South China Sea. The observation of severe variability of the K/Th ratio and its correlation with sedimentary calcium content measured by XRF-scanning points to the fact that not only changes in the amount but also changes in the composition of the terrigenous fraction is elucidated by the SGR bore hole logging and will help reconstructing past changes in the South East Asian monsoon system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Freudenthal, Tim; Steinke, Stephan; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wefer, Gerold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........74B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater flow in an intermountain basin: Hydrological, <span class="hlt">geophysical</span>, and geological exploration of South Park, Colorado</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Groundwater in the intermountain basins of the American West is increasingly of interest with respect to water supply, ecosystem integrity, and contaminant and heat transport processes. These basins are defined by their heterogeneity through large topographic relief, substantial climatic variability, and permeability distributions made complex through variations in lithology and deformation over the orogenic history of these regions, leading to folded and faulted aquifers. This dissertation focuses on the influence of these heterogeneities on the groundwater flow system of the South Park basin in central Colorado, USA. The influence of faults on shallow groundwater flow was examined at two locations along the mapped trace of the Elkhorn fault, a Laramide reverse fault that juxtaposes crystalline and sedimentary rocks in eastern South Park. At the first location, electromagnetic, resistivity, self-potential, and hydraulic data were collected at an existing well field straddling the fault trace. Integrated analysis suggested the fault behaves as combined conduit barrier to groundwater in flow the upper 60 m. A second location along the mapped trace was selected through additional <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> exploration. New boreholes were <span class="hlt">drilled</span> to make direct geologic, hydrologic, and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> observations of the fault zone. However, these boreholes did not intersect the Elkhorn fault despite passing through rocks with similar electrical resistivity signatures to the first study location. Analyses of <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data indicate that the mineralogical composition of the crystalline rocks strongly influences their resistivity values, and the resistivity contrasts associated with the rock juxtaposition created by the Elkhorn fault is not unique. A steady-state, three-dimensional groundwater flow model of the South Park basin was developed to explore the influence of complex topography, recharge, and permeability structure on regional groundwater flow. Geologic complexity and the associated permeability structure are controlling factors in recharge and discharge patterns. Most groundwater circulates in the upper 1 km in local and intermediate flow systems, although mountain block recharge does make notable contributions to the main valley. Regional scale flow processes were found to be relatively insensitive to heterogeneity in recharge or fault zone permeability, although both can have localized impacts to groundwater flow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ball, Lyndsay Brooke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6562428"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cores</span> from the Salton Sea scientific <span class="hlt">drilling</span> program: Metamorphic reaction progress as a function of chemical and thermal environment: Final report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study investigated the downhole progressive metamorphism at the Salton Sea site by monitoring and evaluating discontinuous and continuous metamorphic reactions. The main emphasis was placed on: (1) the addition of petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical data to the Salton Sea data base; (2) determination of downhole reactions; (3) evaluation of the progress of individual continuous reaction (epsilon) and the overall reaction progress (epsilon/sub T/) during the transition from one metamorphic zone to the next; and (4) evaluation and correlation of mineral reactions and reaction progress with mineral phase and organic material geothermometry. To these ends, thirty-three samples from the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">core</span> were analyzed for: (1) quantitative modal mineralogy using the x-ray diffraction reference intensity method (RIM), (2) 30 major and trace elements in the whole rock and (3) mineral chemistry and structural state. In addition, a subset of these samples were used for temperature determinations using vitrinite reflectivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papike, J.J.; Shearer, C.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-05-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Geo....30.1043W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrated chronostratigraphic calibration of the Oligocene-Miocene boundary at 24.0 ± 0.1 Ma from the CRP-2A <span class="hlt">drill</span> <span class="hlt">core</span>, Ross Sea, Antarctica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An expanded Oligocene-Miocene boundary interval recovered in the Cape Roberts Project CRP-2A <span class="hlt">core</span> from beneath the Ross Sea, Antarctica, has yielded a high-resolution integrated chrono stratigraphy that has, in turn, enabled a new, more direct, calibra tion of magnetic polarity and biostratigraphic events. The Oligocene-Miocene boundary interval in the CRP-2A <span class="hlt">core</span> comprises three ˜60-m-thick, rapidly deposited (>0.5 m/k.y.) sedimentary sequences (sequences 9, 10, and 11). In sequences 10 and 11, single-crystal, laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar analyses of anorthoclase phenocrysts from two tephra horizons independently calibrate the CRP-2A magnetic-polarity stratigraphy and age model. Sequences 10 and 11 encompass subchron C6Cn.3n, which is dated as 24.3 ± 0.1 to 24.16 ± 0.1 Ma. Sequence 9 is interpreted to encompass subchron C6Cn.2n and the Oligocene-Miocene boundary, which is dated as 24.0 ± 0.1 Ma. These ages are ˜0.2 m.y. older than those of the geomagnetic polarity time scale calibrated from seafloor-spreading ridges and ˜0.9 1.3 m.y. older than the newly proposed astronomically calibrated ages. We contend that the discrepancy with the astronomically calibrated ages arises from a mismatch of three 406 k.y. eccentricity cycles or a 1.2 m.y. modulation of obliquity amplitude in the astronomical calibration of the Oligocene Miocene time scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson, Gary S.; Lavelle, Mark; McIntosh, William C.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Harwood, David M.; Watkins, David K.; Villa, Giuliana; Bohaty, Steven M.; Fielding, Chris R.; Florindo, Fabio; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Naish, Timothy R.; Scherer, Reed P.; Verosub, Kenneth L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60044029"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drill</span> string shock absorber</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A telescopic shock absorber for use in a <span class="hlt">drill</span> string includes a resilient arrangement to cushion telescopic contraction and extension of the shock absorber in response to shock loads and vibrations imparted during <span class="hlt">drilling</span>. The shock absorber operates independently of the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluid pressure conducted through the structure during <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operations. A dampening system assists in cushioning the shock loads</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. A. Anderson; D. D. Webb</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60245188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blind shaft <span class="hlt">drilling</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the mining of various minerals from the earth, large mining shafts extending from the surface down to the deposited mineral layers or seams in the earth can be provided through the use of large diameter bore hole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> equipment. With the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> equipment stationed on the surface of the earth, a <span class="hlt">drilling</span> member is <span class="hlt">drilled</span> down into the earth</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Richardson; D. C. Albers; D. A. Whitley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60287295"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drilling</span> symposium 1987</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book presents the papers given at a conference on the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> of oil and natural gas wells. Topics considered at the conference included the biodegradation of oilbased <span class="hlt">drilling</span> muds and production pit sludges, a centrifuging technique for oilfield production pit closure, waste disposal, <span class="hlt">drilling</span> fluid hydrodynamics, the friction factor for <span class="hlt">drilling</span> muds, gas seal tightness, the design of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/270771"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> background and as-built target characteristics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) has provided a facility for DOE, other Government agencies, and the private sector to evaluate and document the utility of specific <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> measurement techniques for detecting and defining cultural and environmental targets. This facility is the Rabbit Valley <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> Performance Evaluation Range (GPER). <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> surveys prior to the fiscal year (FY) 1994 construction of new test cells showed the primary test area to be relatively homogeneous and free from natural or man-made artifacts, which would generate spurious responses in performance evaluation data. Construction of nine new cell areas in Rabbit Valley was completed in June 1994 and resulted in the emplacement of approximately 150 discrete targets selected for their physical and electrical properties. These targets and their <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> environment provide a broad range of performance evaluation parameters from ``very easy to detect`` to ``challenging to the most advanced systems.`` Use of nonintrusive investigative techniques represents a significant improvement over intrusive characterization methods, such as <span class="hlt">drilling</span> or excavation, because there is no danger of exposing personnel to possible hazardous materials and no risk of releasing or spreading contamination through the characterization activity. Nonintrusive <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> techniques provide the ability to infer near-surface structure and waste characteristics from measurements of physical properties associated with those targets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allen, J.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/geophysics/activities/18910.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> in the community</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a culminating project in Applied <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span>, students plan, design, deploy and analyze independent <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> field surveys at the university or within the town. These surveys may be on campus (i.e. using GPR or seismic refraction to investigate the likelihood of landsliding near a campus road), or within the greater community. In many cases, potential projects are brought to the class by community groups such as the local Department of Public Works or environmental firms. Recent projects include looking for evidence of an underground storage tank beneath a downtown sidewalk, using GPR to identify debris flows on a nearby alluvial fan, and documentation of ancient tribal gravesites in a local cemetery). Students work in small (2-4 person) groups and where appropriate collaborate with community members to plan the survey and ensure that the appropriate data are collected. Students first submit a project proposal, which gives them experience in developing a hypothesis and justifying their proposed work. Following data collection and analysis, the students write a summary report of the project, a copy of which is given to the community member or organization (in an unofficial context). Students present their work to the class in a short Powerpoint presentation. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> to solve problems in other fields</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5433153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drainhole <span class="hlt">drilling</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a method for <span class="hlt">drilling</span> from a primary wellbore at least one lateral drainhole wellbore, the drainhole extending out into a liquid producing geologic formation which is overlaid with a gas cap, the improvement is described comprising hydraulically fracturing the formation to form fractures which extend above and below the drainhole, the fracturing being carried out using a fracturing liquid which has a viscosity which is not substantially greater than that of diesel oil. The fracturing liquid carries a solid subdivided propping agent to be deposited in the fractures to prevent same from closing, whereby due to the low viscosity of the fracturing liquid the propping agent preferentially settles into fractures which extend downwardly from the drainhole thereby allowing fractures which extend upwardly from the drainhole to close up and prevent premature flow of gas into the drainhole by way of the upwardly extending fractures while leaving the downwardly extending fractures permanently propped open for enhanced production of liquid from the formation into the drainhole.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emery, L.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-02-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21017105"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rotary blasthole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> update</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blasthole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient <span class="hlt">drills</span>. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing <span class="hlt">drilling</span> accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole <span class="hlt">drill</span>, P & H's C-Series <span class="hlt">drills</span> and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole <span class="hlt">drill</span> rig. <span class="hlt">Drill</span>Nav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fiscor, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5990894"> <span id="translatedtitle">The reservoir geology and <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> of the Hibernia field, offshore Newfoundland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Hibernia field is located 315 km (195 mi) east of St. John's, Newfoundland. The field was discovered in 1979. Pre-production investment, which includes the construction of a concrete gravity base structure (GBS), is currently estimated at approximately $5 billion Canadian. The plateau production rate is expected to average 17,480 m{sup 3}/day (110,000 b/day). To date, there is no hydrocarbon production from offshore eastern Canada. Hibernia field is located in the northwest sector of the rifted Jeanne d'Arc basin. The integrated geological and <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> interpretation of the field is based upon the results of 10 wells and 460 km{sup 2} (177 mi{sup 2}) of three-dimensional seismic data. The trap, as seismically defined, is an arcuate anticline created by rollover into the basin-bounding Murre fault. A complex system of faults divides the structure into numerous horsts and grabens. An estimated recoverable resource of 83 million m{sup 3} (525 million bbl) occurs in two Lower Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. Berriasian- to Valanginian-age Hibernia sandstones are the primary reservoirs occurring at an average <span class="hlt">drill</span> depth of 3,720 m (12,200 ft). Average porosity is 16%; permeability ranges up to 2 d. Sedimentological interpretation of <span class="hlt">core</span> indicates that the dominant reservoir facies was deposited as high bed-load channels in a fluvially dominated deltaic complex. Reservoir sandstones are interpreted to be elongated and relatively continuous in a southwest-northeast direction. Concurrent crestal gas injection and downdip water injection will be used to maximize recovery. Barremian- to Albian-age Ben Nevis/Avalon sandstones are the secondary reservoirs and occur at an average <span class="hlt">drill</span> depth of 2,345 m (7,700 ft). <span class="hlt">Core</span> studies indicate deposition within transgressive shoreface and offshore shallow-marine environments. Thin bed stratigraphy predominates in this reservoir.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hurley, T.J.; Kreisa, R.D.; Taylor, G.G.; Yates, W.R.L. (Mobil Oil Canada, Calgaary, Alberta (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7066864"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">drilling</span>/operating methods boost efficiency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The industry has not had viable alternatives for solving several major operating problems in areas of downhole and surface <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operations, and facility and equipment maintenance. However, recent introductions and proven application of innovative problem solving techniques have removed these dilemmas for many operators. Four such technology advances are shown here. These include: (1) novel, clear protectors and compound that allow visual pipe thread inspection, (2) foam-<span class="hlt">core</span> insulation for preserving Arctic ice <span class="hlt">drill</span> pads, (3) a mobile system for producing multiple stripper wells, (4) a tool to retrieve data from a stuck logging recorder, and (5) a complete surface/downhole slimhole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22geochemistry%22&pg=2&id=ED265062"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geophysics</span>: The Earth in Space. A Guide for High School Students.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> is the application of physics, chemistry, and mathematics to the problems and processes of the earth, from its innermost <span class="hlt">core</span> to its outermost environs in space. Fields within <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> include the atmospheric sciences; geodesy; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; hydrology; oceanography; planetology; seismology; solar-planetary…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/471403"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal <span class="hlt">drilling</span> technology update</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal <span class="hlt">drilling</span> research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock <span class="hlt">drill</span> bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole <span class="hlt">drilling</span> technology, Geothermal <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Organization (GDO) projects, and <span class="hlt">drilling</span> systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glowka, D.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=10144273"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Drill</span> string enclosure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This invention is comprised of a <span class="hlt">drill</span> string enclosure which consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic <span class="hlt">drill</span> casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the <span class="hlt">drill</span> string length. The <span class="hlt">drill</span> string enclosure allows for an efficient <span class="hlt">drill</span> and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRB..117.6101Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Paleoclimatic implications of magnetic susceptibility in Late Pliocene-Quaternary sediments from deep <span class="hlt">drilling</span> <span class="hlt">core</span> SG-1 in the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lake sediments are important archives of paleoclimate change and erosion history. A 938.5 m long <span class="hlt">core</span> (SG-1) of lacustrine sediments, dated at 2.77 Ma to 0.1 Ma, was obtained from the western Qaidam Basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, consisting of dark grayish mudstone and grayish siltstone, intercalated with salts and fine sandstones in the upper part. Magnetic susceptibility data, combined with detailed rock magnetic properties, were analyzed for revealing the significance of ferro(i)magnetic concentration for past changes of climate and erosion. Mass-specific susceptibility (?) shows a striking cyclic and long-term variation. Samples with high ? values are dominated by magnetite and maghemite with pseudo-single-domain properties. In contrast, samples with low ? values contain maghemite from single-domain to multidomain and, additionally, a significant fraction of hematite. The driving mechanism of ? variation can be explained by three alternative models: (1) different source regions with alternations of wind and cryoclastic erosion in a wider hinterland (dry-cold climate) and surface runoff erosion from a narrower area (more humid climate) and (2 and 3) low-temperature oxidation, occurring either in the lake sediments (dry climate) or in the catchment area during weathering (more humid climate). Trends of ? match with changes in sedimention rates and are roughly synchronous with the deep-sea ?18O record on a glacial-interglacial timescale. Therefore, the concentration of magnetic minerals in the western Qaidam Basin sediments is likely controlled by both tectonic influence and paleoenvironmental changes but can be best interpreted by alternations and trends of dry-cold and more humid periods due to Asian drying and global cooling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Weilin; Appel, Erwin; Fang, Xiaomin; Yan, Maodu; Song, Chunhui; Cao, Liwan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5244363"> <span id="translatedtitle">The IPOD geological/<span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data bank</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The IPOD Data Bank has served the JOIDES community since 1975 by finding and collating existing marine geological/<span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data in the vicinity of prospective IPOD <span class="hlt">drill</span> sites or transects of sites, archiving all data collected under the auspices of the IPOD Site Survey program, providing folios of data to the designed co-chief scientists on D/V GLOMAR CHALLENGER (and on request to the various JOIDES subject panels), and supporting the JOIDES and DSDP Safety Panels by providing data packets to its members. At the Data Bank, U.S. institutional site survey data is stored digitally in NGSCD ''mergedmerged'' format and is available either in the form of a magnetic tape or a computer plot of annotated <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> (bathymetry, magnetics, and gravity) values along track. In addition, seismic profiles collected during the surveys are also archived. Contour maps, heat flow charts, bottom photographs, and other forms of data presentation compiled in the course of the production of a cruise report are also often archived.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rabinowitz, P.D.; Brenner, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V13D2141S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Final Phase of <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> of the Hawaii Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The principal goal of the Hawaii Scientific <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> Project (HSDP) was to <span class="hlt">core</span> continuously deep into the flank of a Hawaiian volcano and to investigate the petrology, geochemisty, geochronology, magnetics, etc. of the recovered samples. <span class="hlt">Drilling</span> in Hilo, on the island of Hawaii proceeded in three phases. A 1.06 km pilot hole was <span class="hlt">core-drilled</span> in 1993; a second hole was <span class="hlt">core-drilled</span> to 3,098 meters below sea level (mbsl) in 1999, then deepened in 2004-2007 to 3,509 mbsl. Although the final phase of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> was at times technically challenging, <span class="hlt">core</span> recovery was close to 100%. All rocks from the final phase of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> were emplaced below sea level and are from the Mauna Kea volcano. On-site <span class="hlt">core</span> logging identified 45 separate units (the 1999 phase of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> yielded 345 units). Five lithologies were identified: pillows (~60%); pillow breccias (~10%); massive lavas (~12%); hyaloclastites (~17%); intrusives (~1%; these are mostly multiple thin (down to cm scale) fingers of magma with identical lithologies occurring over narrow depth intervals). The rocks are primarily tholeiitic, ranging from aphyric to highly olivine-phyric lavas (up to ~25% olivine phenocrysts), with considerable fresh glass and olivine; clays and zeolites are present throughout the <span class="hlt">core</span>. Forty whole-rock samples were collected as a reference suite and sent to multiple investigators for study. Additionally, glass was collected at roughly 3 m intervals for electron microprobe analysis. Although continuous and consistent with the shallower rocks from the previous phase of <span class="hlt">coring</span>, there are several noteworthy features of the deepest <span class="hlt">core</span>: (1) Glasses from shallower portions of the <span class="hlt">core</span> exhibited bimodal silica contents, a low SiO2 group (~48-50 wt.%) and a high SiO2 group (~50.5- 52 wt.%). Glasses from the last phase of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> are essentially all in the high-silica group and are somewhat more evolved than the high-silica glasses from the shallower portion of the <span class="hlt">core</span> (5.1-7.6 vs. 5.1-10.4 wt.% MgO). (2) The expected sequence of lithologies with depth in the <span class="hlt">core</span> is subaerial lava flows, hyaloclastites (formed by debris flows carrying glass and lithic fragments from the shoreline down the submarine flanks of the volcano), and finally pillow lavas. This sequence was generally observed in the earlier phases of <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, and it appeared that the deepest rocks from the 1999 phase of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> were essentially all formed from pillow lavas (i.e., there were no more hyaloclastites). However, thick hyaloclastites reflecting long distance transport from the ancient shoreline reappear in the bottom ~100 m of the <span class="hlt">drill</span> hole. Although it may be coincidence, pillow breccias occur in the shallower parts of the <span class="hlt">core</span> from the final phase of <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, but not in the deeper parts in which the hyaloclastites reappear. (3) Intrusive rocks make up a lower fraction (~1%) of samples from the final phase of <span class="hlt">coring</span> than in the deeper parts of the section from the 1999 phase of <span class="hlt">drilling</span> (3.8%). It had been suggested that intrusives might become more common the deeper the <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, but this is not the case at depths down to 3.5 km. (4) There are three units classified as "massive" including one relatively thick (~40 m), featureless (no internal boundaries, no evidence of mixing or internal differentiation), moderately olivine-phyric basalt.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stolper, E.; Depaolo, D.; Thomas, D.; Garcia, M.; Haskins, E.; Baker, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42060178"> <span id="translatedtitle">International Symposium on Airborne <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Airborne <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> dates from the mid-1940s</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toru Mogi; Hisatoshi Ito; Hideshi Kaieda; Kenichiro Kusunoki; Richard W. Saltus; David V. Fitterman; Shigeo Okuma; Tadashi Nakatsuka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S11B1713S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real Time Seismic Prediction while <span class="hlt">Drilling</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efficient and safe <span class="hlt">drilling</span> is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if <span class="hlt">drilling</span> enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> allows reducing the risk during <span class="hlt">drilling</span> and construction operation. In <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while <span class="hlt">drilling</span> which is seen as a prerequisite while using <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> methods in modern <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the <span class="hlt">drilling</span>. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operation. First experiments indicate that parts of the ISIS system can be used for smaller diameters e.g. in vertical <span class="hlt">drilling</span>. In unconsolidated rocks S-waves are strongly attenuated. For the Sonic Softground Probing (SSP) system P-waves are used. A vibration-seismic correlation positioning system was developed. One transmitter and several receiver are placed within the cutting wheel. During <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, a specially coded transmitter signal is sent directly from the cutterhead via the face support medium in the direction of tunneling. With this geometry, boulders can be detected 50 m ahead of the working face. Fracture zones and other discontinuities can be localized, and the physical properties of the upcoming rocks can be partly determined nearly in real time, while using sound velocity and attenuation as indicators. All evaluation is based on real time 3D velocity models which are determined during the <span class="hlt">drilling</span> operation. Different technologies allow a seismic prediction while <span class="hlt">drilling</span> in various rock types and geologies. Seismic prediction during vertical <span class="hlt">drilling</span> will significantly profit from the lesson learned from state of the art tunneling systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/4/tst08_075_06_54"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ice <span class="hlt">Core</span> Investigations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice <span class="hlt">Core</span> Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, and air pollution to create a meaningful science learning experience for students.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Air+pollution%22&id=EJ809662"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ice <span class="hlt">Core</span> Investigations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice <span class="hlt">Core</span> Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice <span class="hlt">core</span> <span class="hlt">drilling</span>, and air…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61329805"> <span id="translatedtitle">An efficient simulation model for nuclear <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nuclear measurements that provide data related to <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> parameters have been used for many years in well-logging, surface surveys, and laboratory <span class="hlt">core</span> studies. The measurement process can be considered in two parts: (1) the transport of nuclear radiation from source to detector; and (2) the interaction of the transported radiation with the detector. For certain measurement problems, the radiation transport</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. D. Wilson; T. K. Cook; S. H. Dean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eos.ubc.ca/%257Efjones/aglosite/index.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">AGLO - Applied <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> Learning Objects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The AGLO project focuses on developing materials for the subject of applied <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>. Three types of learners were targeted: (i) students with general backgrounds; (ii) geoscience students, and (iii) students studying more detailed aspects of applied <span class="hlt">geophysics</span>. The activities published on their website are focussed more on the process of applying <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> and less on physical and mathematical details of the techniques. Each individual resource is presented in the context of a well defined seven-step framework for applying <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> to practical problems. The collection of learning activities can be accessed by emailing the site creator and obtaining a password.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, University O.; Sciences, Department O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H11G..06C"> <span id="translatedtitle">HMF-<span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> - An Update</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is growing recognition of the challenges we face, in many parts of the world, in finding and maintaining clean sources of water for human consumption and agricultural use, while balancing the needs of the natural world. Advancements in hydrologic sciences are needed in order to develop an improved understanding of the controls on the quantity, movement, and quality of water, thus enhancing our ability to better protect and manage our water resources. <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> methods can play a central role in these investigations. CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences) is developing, with the support of the National Science Foundation, a Hydrologic Measurement Facility (HMF), which contains a <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> module, referred to as HMF-<span class="hlt">Geophysics</span>. The <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> module will support and advance the use of <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> for hydrologic applications. Currently in second year of a 3 year pilot study, the main aim of HMF-<span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> is to develop the infrastructure necessary to provide <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> techniques and the expertise to apply them correctly for the hydrological community. The current working model consists of a central HMF-<span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> facility and a number of volunteer nodes. The latter consists of individuals at universities who have volunteered to be part of HMF-<span class="hlt">Geophysics</span> by using their equipment, and/or software, and expertise, in research partnerships with hydrologists. In response to an inquiry the central facility takes on the evaluation of the potential of <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> to the area of research/watershed. The central facility can then undertake a feasibility study to determine how/if <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> methods could be of use, and to evaluate the "value-added" by <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> to the science. Once it is clear that the <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> can contribute in a significant way to addressing the science questions the central facility works with the hydrologist to set up the next step. Our assumption is that at this point, the hydrologist (perhaps with a <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> partner) will apply to NSF, or elsewhere, for funding. With the feasibility study complete, they will be in a position to show that <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> can provide valuable information at their site. This is a very important step, and a key contribution that can be made by HMF-<span class="hlt">Geophysics</span>. We present here some initial findings from 4 such feasibility studies conducted over summer 2007 in collaboration with a number of the WATERS test-bed sites. These were conducted in a range of environments, from urban to pristine headwater watersheds, with a range of differing hydrogeological aims.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crook, N.; Knight, R.; Robinson, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EOSTr..87..187M"> <span id="translatedtitle">International Symposium on Airborne <span class="hlt">Geophysics</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Airborne <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne <span class="hlt">geophysics</span> dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7368774"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapid <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> surveyor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rapid <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced <span class="hlt">geophysical</span> data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. <span class="hlt">Geophysical</span> surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1984/0449/report.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geohydrologic and <span class="hlt">drill</span>-hole data for test well USW H-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="resul