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Sample records for geophysical drill cores

  1. Preliminary Fracture Description from Core, Lithological Logs, and Borehole Geophysical Data in Slimhole Wells Drilled for Project Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project (Project Hotspot) seeks to assess the potential for geothermal energy development in the Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho. Three deep slimhole wells are drilled at the Kimama, Kimberly, and Mountain Home sites in the central SRP. The Kimama and Kimberly wells are complete and the Mountain Home well is in progress. Total depth at Kimama is 1,912 m while total depth at Kimberly is 1,958 m. Mountain Home is expected to reach around 1,900 m. Full core is recovered and complete suites of wireline borehole geophysical data have been collected at both Kimama and Kimberly sites along with vertical seismic profiles. Part of the geothermal assessment includes evaluating the changes in the nature of fractures with depth through the study of physical core samples and analysis of the wireline geophysical data to better understand how fractures affect permeability in the zones that have the potential for geothermal fluid migration. The fracture inventory is complete for the Kimama borehole and preliminary analyses indicate that fracture zones are related to basaltic flow boundaries. The average fracture density is 17 fractures/3 m. The maximum fracture density is 110 fractures/3 m. Fracture density varies with depth and increases considerably in the bottom 200 m of the well. Initial indications are that the majority of fractures are oriented subhorizontally but a considerable number are oriented subvertically as well. We expect to statistically evaluate the distribution of fracture length and orientation as well as analyze local alteration and secondary mineralization that might indicate fluid pathways that we can use to better understand permeability at depth in the borehole. Near real-time temperature data from the Kimama borehole indicate a temperature gradient of 82°C/km below the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at a depth of 960 m bgs. The measured temperature at around 1,400 m depth is 55°C and the projected temperature at 2,000 m depth is 102°C. The rock types at Kimama and Kimberly are primarily basalt and rhyolite, respectively, with interbedded thin sedimentary layers. We identify anomalies in the physical properties of igneous rocks using porosity logs (neutron and acoustic), lithology logs (gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility) and fracture/saturation logs (televiewer and electrical resistivity). The core will be used to constrain the geophysical data and confirm the ability to identify permeability in fracture zones and saturated zones through analysis of the wireline log data. The matrix porosity of these igneous lithologies is near zero aside from porosity from vugs and vesicles. However, open and sealed fractures indicate that mineralizing fluids form connected pathways in the rock. Core samples show a series of alteration phases, including amygdaloidal fine-grained calcite and secondary clays. The geophysical data will be used to predict anomalies in lithology and identify open fractures and saturated zones with high permeability.

  2. Geologic, geotechnical, and geophysical properties of core from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Donley S.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary core study from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming, revealed that the upper portion of the core had been baked by a fire confined to the underlying Monarch coal bed. The baked (clinkered) sediment above the Monarch coal bed was determined to have higher point-load strength values (greater than 2 MPa) than the sediment under the burned coal

  3. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7 do not include long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous-potential, or single-point resistivity. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7A include only caliper and natural-gamma logs.

  4. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

  5. A Model of the Chicxulub Impact Basin Based on Evaluation of Geophysical Data, Well Logs, and Drill Core Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.; Carney, John D.; Lee, Scott; Ryder, Graham; Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Sikora, Paul; Spudis, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Abundant evidence now shows that the buried Chicxulub structure in northern Yucatan, Mexico, is indeed the intensely sought-after source of the ejecta found world-wide at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. In addition to large-scale concentric patterns in gravity and magnetic data over the structure, recent analyses of drill-core samples reveal a lithological assemblage similar to that observed at other terrestrial craters. This assemblage comprises suevite breccias, ejecta deposit breccias (Bunte Breccia equivalents), fine-grained impact melt rocks, and melt-matrix breccias. All these impact-produced lithologies contain diagnostic evidence of shock metamorphism, including planar deformation features in quartz, feldspar, and zircons; diaplectic glasses of quartz and feldspar; and fused mineral melts and whole-rock melts. In addition, elevated concentrations of Ir, Re, and Os, in meteoritic relative proportions, have been detected in some melt-rock samples from the center of the structure. Isotopic analyses, magnetization of melt-rock samples, and local stratigraphic constraints identify this crater as the source of K/T boundary deposits.

  6. Comparison of hydrogeochemical logging of drilling fluid during coring with the results from geophysical logging and hydraulic testing Example of the Morte-Mérie scientific borehole, Ardèche-France, Deep Geology of France Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilina, L.; Eberschweiler, C.; Perrin, J.; Deep Geology of France Team

    1996-11-01

    A 980-m-deep well was cored on the Ardèche border of the Southeastern basin of France as part of the Deep Geology of France (GPF) programme. Hydrogeochemical logging was carried out during drilling, which involved the monitoring of physico-chemical parameters (pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity), and chemical parameters (concentrations of He, Rn, CO 2, CH 4, O 2 Ca, Cl and SiO 2) of the drilling fluid permanently circulating in the well. This logging programme was complemented by geophysical logging and two hydraulic tests. The combination of these measurements enabled identification of a transmissive interval due to fractures in the Jurassic carbonates, and of fluid inflow both at the base of the porous and slightly permeable Triassic sandstones and from an open fracture in the Permian conglomerates. These intervals are marked by changes in the drilling-fluid chemistry, such as an increase in chemical species content, or a drop in pH. The degree of modification depends on the natural permeability of the fractures and the salinity of the fluids. The porous and permeable intervals are also marked by He anomalies, which act as a tracer for these zones. Comparison between the geophysical and hydrogeochemical logs reveals that the latter provide information on the liquid phase, whether the fractures are productive or not, whereas the geophysical logs are more directly related to the solid phase.

  7. Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Downhole geophysical data from recent deep drilling in the center of the Thuringian Basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methe, Pascal; Goepel, Andreas; Kukowski, Nina

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the INFLUINS (Integrated Fluid Dynamics in Sedimentary Basins) project, a 1.179 meter deep scientific borehole was drilled in summer 2013. The drill site is situated in the north of Erfurt, in the center of the Thuringian Basin on the crossing point of two seismic reflection profiles, which were acquired in 2011. An almost complete sequence from Keuper to the base of the Buntsandstein was drilled. Drilling, geophysical measurements and well construction were conducted for three depth intervals. First, drilling was undertaken to a depth of 313 m down to the top of the Middle Muschelkalk. Then, the Middle and Upper Muschelkalk were drilled to a depth of 515 m and the third part of the drilling campaign was finished at a depth of 1.179 m at the base of the Lower Buntsandstein. Coring was done in the depth intervals of 285 m to 420 m and 520 m to 914 m. With the help of the borehole geophysical measurements, which were done along the entire depth, stratigraphic information obtained through core samples can be extrapolated from cored sections into those depth sections, where no coring was done. Immediately after finishing drilling through a certain depth interval, borehole geophysical measurements were conducted in the open hole. Using the caliper and inclination instruments, the geometry of the well was determined. In addition, milieu, gamma-ray, spectral gamma-ray, acoustic borehole television, sonic, susceptibility, dipmeter, gamma-gamma, neutron-neutron and the dual latero-log were measured to get information about rock properties. Within rock-salt bearing depth intervals, embedded cm-thin layers of clay can be geophysically resolved. This will e.g. enable to determine and contrast the physical properties of these alternating sequences with high accuracy. Besides the in-situ well measurements rock-physical parameters of the core samples were acquired with a Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL). Here, we present the new data set and discuss some preliminary results. Unexpectedly and contrary to them being prominent aquifers, like at the edges of the Thuringian Basin, the Middle Muschelkalk and Middle Buntsandstein sequences are characterized by very low porosities and no macroscopically recognizable fluid transport here.

  9. Geophysical investigations in deep horizontal holes drilled ahead of tunnelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Deep horizontal drill holes have been used since 1967 by the Defense Nuclear Agency as a primary exploration tool for siting nuclear events in tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Geological Survey had developed geophysical logging techniques for obtaining resistivity and velocity in these holes, and to date 33 horizontal drill holes in excess of 300 m in depth have been successfully logged. The deepest hole was drilled to a horizontal depth of 1125 m. The purposes of the logging measurements are to define clay zones, because of the unstable ground conditions such zones can present to tunnelling, and to define zones of partially saturated rock, because of the attenuating effects such zones have on the shock wave generated by the nuclear detonation. Excessive attenuation is undesirable because the shock wave is used as a tunnel closure mechanism to contain debris and other undesirable explosion products. Measurements are made by pumping resistivity, sonic and geophone probes down the drill string and out of the bit into the open hole. Clay zones are defined by the electrical resistivity technique based on empirical data relating the magnitude of the resistivity measurement to qualitative clay content. Rock exhibiting resistivity of less than 20 ??-m is considered potentially unstable, and resistivities less than 10 ??-m indicate appreciable amounts of clay are present in the rock. Partially saturated rock zones are defined by the measurement of the rock sound speed. Zones in the rock which exhibit velocities less than 2450 m/sec are considered of potential concern. ?? 1980.

  10. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    SciTech Connect

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-08-08

    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing.

  11. Buckling and dynamic analysis of drill strings for core sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-15

    This supporting document presents buckling and dynamic stability analyses of the drill strings used for core sampling. The results of the drill string analyses provide limiting operating axial loads and rotational speeds to prevent drill string failure, instability and drill bit overheating during core sampling. The recommended loads and speeds provide controls necessary for Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic field operations.

  12. Barberton drilling project - Buck Reef Chert core BARB3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Axel; Karykowski, Bartosz; Mason, Paul; Chunnet, Gordon; Arndt, Nick

    2013-04-01

    As part of the ICDP-sponsored Barberton drilling project a single drill core (BARB3) with a total length of 899 m was obtained from the c. 3.4 Ga old Buck Reef Chert (BRC). The BRC is an unusually thick (up to 350 m) sequence of predominantly black-and-white banded chert and banded ferruginous chert that are steeply dipping. It overlies a shallow intrusive to extrusive sequence of dacitic volcanic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation and is separated from ultramafic lapillistone of the Kromberg Formation by a >150 m thick ultramafic sill. Drilling commenced in the ultramafic sill at an angle of c. 45° and c. 200 m of serpentinized peridotite were intersected. The remaining c. 700 m of the core include a great variety of chert lithofacies and minor intrusive mafic to intermediate igneous rocks. The base of the BRC was not intersected. Geophysical logging was done up to a depth of 847 m and included acoustic televiewer, gamma ray, resistivity, magnetic field and caliper logs. Stratigraphic and geophysical logs will be presented that will form the basis of follow-up studies on the BARB3 core. Abundance of organic matter, sulphides and Fe-bearing carbonates in specific intervals or associated with specific facies of the chert succession reflect changes in the oceanic, environmental and/or hydrothermal conditions in a shallow marine early Archaean setting. Evaluating the different processes will require a combined sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical approach that will provide insights into the habitat of early life, geochemical cycles and marine/hydrothermal conditions.

  13. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank, Brian D.; Smith, Nicole

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag, seismic, and gravity data sets are in good agreement, illustrating two or more major range-bounding faults and buried northwest trending faults. The intersections of these fault systems provide the primary targets for drilling.

  14. Concepts and Benefits of Lunar Core Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Bogard, D. D.; Derkowski, B. J.; George, J. A.; Askew, R. S.; Lindsay, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding lunar material at depth is critical to nearly every aspect of NASA s Vision and Strategic Plan. As we consider sending human s back to the Moon for brief and extended periods, we will need to utilize lunar materials in construction, for resource extraction, and for radiation shielding and protection. In each case, we will be working with materials at some depth beneath the surface. Understanding the properties of that material is critical, thus the need for Lunar core drilling capability. Of course, the science benefit from returning core samples and operating down-hole autonomous experiments is a key element of Lunar missions as defined by NASA s Exploration Systems Architecture Study. Lunar missions will be targeted to answer specific questions concerning lunar science and re-sources.

  15. ROPEC - ROtary PErcussive Coring Drill for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Spring, Justin; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The ROtary Percussive Coring Drill is a light weight, flight-like, five-actuator drilling system prototype designed to acquire core material from rock targets for the purposes of Mars Sample Return. In addition to producing rock cores for sample caching, the ROPEC drill can be integrated with a number of end effectors to perform functions such as rock surface abrasion, dust and debris removal, powder and regolith acquisition, and viewing of potential cores prior to caching. The ROPEC drill and its suite of end effectors have been demonstrated with a five degree of freedom Robotic Arm mounted to a mobility system with a prototype sample cache and bit storage station.

  16. Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact age, cratering, target-impactite stratigraphy, ejecta, impact dynamics, hydrothermal alterations and post-impact processes are presented. The challenges and perspectives of drilling studies of impact craters are discussed.

  17. An innovative optical and chemical drill core scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöqvist, A. S. L.; Arthursson, M.; Lundström, A.; Calderón Estrada, E.; Inerfeldt, A.; Lorenz, H.

    2015-05-01

    We describe a new innovative drill core scanner that semi-automatedly analyses drill cores directly in drill core trays with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, without the need for much sample preparation or operator intervention. The instrument is fed with entire core trays, which are photographed at high resolution and scanned by a 3-D profiling laser. Algorithms recognise the geometry of the core tray, number of slots, location of the drill cores, calculate the optimal scanning path, and execute a continuous XRF analysis of 2 cm width along the core. The instrument is equipped with critical analytical components that allow an effective QA/QC routine to be implemented. It is a mobile instrument that can be manoeuvred by a single person with a manual pallet jack.

  18. Cretaceous shallow drilling, US Western Interior: Core research

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, M.A.

    1993-02-17

    This project is a continuing multidisciplinary study of middle to Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate and clastic rocks in the Utah-Colorado-Kansas corridor of the old Cretaceous seaway that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Arctic during maximum Cretaceous transgressions. It is collaborative between in the US Geological Survey (W.E. Dean, P.I.) and University researchers led by The Pennsylvania State University(M.A. Arthur, P.I.) and funded by DOE and the USGS, in part. Research focusses on the Greenhom, Niobrara and lower Pierre Shale units and their equivalents, combining biostratigraphic/paleoecologic studies, inorganic, organic and stable isotopic geochemical studies, mineralogical investigations and high-resolution geophysical logging. This research requires unweathered samples and continuous smooth exposures'' in the form of cores from at least 4 relatively shallow reference holes (i.e. < 1000m) in transect from east to west across the basin. The major initial effort was recovery in Year 1 of the project of continuous cores from each site in the transect. This drilling provided samples and logs of strata ranging from pelagic sequences that contain organic-carbon-rich marine source rocks to nearshore coal-bearing units. This transect also will provide information on the extent of thermal maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in organic-carbon-rich strata along a burial gradient.

  19. Commercial geophysical well logs from the USW G-1 drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, D.C.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-1 was drilled at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, as part of the ongoing exploration program for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Contract geophysical well logs run at USW G-1 show only limited stratigraphic correlations, but correlate reasonably well with the welding of the ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs. Rocks in the upper part of the section have highly variable physical properties, but are more uniform and predictably lower in the section.

  20. Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Dolgin, Benjamin; Askin, Steve; Peterson, Thomas M.; Bell, Bill; Kroh, Jason; Pal, Dharmendra; Krahe, Ron; Du, Shu

    2003-01-01

    Two apparatuses now under development are intended to perform a variety of deep-drilling, coring, and sensing functions for subsurface exploration of rock and soil. These are modified versions of the apparatuses described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. In comparison with the drilling equipment traditionally used in such exploration, these apparatuses weigh less and consume less power. Moreover, unlike traditional drills and corers, these apparatuses function without need for large externally applied axial forces.

  1. Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the cores were scanned for compositional variations using an XRF core scanner at the BGR lab and scan images of the slabbed surfaces were performed. The average core recovery rate was very high at nearly 100%. Altogether, we gained 533 m of excellent core material including sandstones, siltstones and claystones, carbonates, sulfates and chlorides. This provides valuable insight into the stratigraphic column of the Thuringian Syncline.

  2. Coring technologies for scientific drilling projects: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.

    1985-08-01

    This report outlines the well-developed continuous diamond-coring technology of the minerals industry and the deep-spot-coring procedures that have been optimized for petroleum exploration. The coring hardware, procedures, and technology developed for the sea floor sampling by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) are presented as an example of a hybrid core drilling system adopted for scientific coring purposes. The important features and limitations of conventional coring technologies are set forth, and the alternate approaches that will optimize core quality and reduce time and costs are illustrated. Surface rotary drives and downhole motor drives are contrasted and compared. The most significant factors of long core bit life and continuous wireline core retrieval are stressed, and their influence on reduction of operating time and costs is indicated. Several types of core bits are illustrated, both those for slim hole mining and those for oil and gas applications, as well as several core bit designs that have been developed for scientific coring projects. Finally, after concepts, applications, and hardware have been considered, drilling strategies are recommended for deep, scientific coring in hard crustal rocks.

  3. GEOPHYSICS: Core Takes a Page From the Sea Floor.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    2000-11-17

    On page 1338, a group of geophysicists suggests that the mysterious boundary between Earth's molten iron core and its rocky mantle most resembles an inverted sea floor, with liquid-iron-laced sediments collecting on the roof of the core. They argue that a slow, inverted rain of precipitates rising to the core-mantle boundary and settling into a kilometers-thick layer might explain a variety of observations, from a subtle nodding of Earth's axis to seismic speed zones at the boundary. Their story will be difficult to verify, however, because painting a portrait of the core-mantle boundary depends on very indirect geophysical evidence. PMID:17787225

  4. Stress orientations of Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) hole-A as observed from geophysical logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, H.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Zoback, M.; Boness, N.; Ito, H.; Hung, J.-H.; Hickman, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled a 2-km-deep research borehole to investigate the structure and mechanics of the Chelungpu Fault that ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Geophysical logs of the TCDP were carried out over depths of 500-1900 in, including Dipole Sonic Imager (DSI) logs and Formation Micro Imager (FMI) logs in order to identify bedding planes, fractures and shear zones. From the continuous core obtained from the borehole, a shear zone at a depth of 1110 meters is interpreted to be the Chelungpu fault, located within the Chinshui Shale, which extends from 1013 to 1300 meters depth. Stress-induced borehole breakouts were observed over nearly the entire length of the wellbore. These data show an overall stress direction (???N115??E) that is essentially parallel to the regional stress field and parallel to the convergence direction of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. Variability in the average stress direction is seen at various depths. In particular there is a major stress orientation anomaly in the vicinity of the Chelungpu fault. Abrupt stress rotations at depths of 1000 in and 1310 in are close to the Chinshui Shale's upper and lower boundaries, suggesting the possibility that bedding plane slip occurred during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Geophysical well-log measurements in three drill holes at Salt Valley, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.J.; Hite, R.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Three exploratory drill holes were drilled at Salt Valley, Utah, to study the geologic, physical, geochemical, and hydrologic properties of the evaporite sequence in the Permian Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The results of these studies will be used to help to determine the suitability of salt deposits in the Paradox basin as a storage medium for radioactive waste material. The following geophysical well-log measurements were made in each of the three drill holes: (1) density, (2) neutron, (3) acoustic velocity, (4) normal resistivity, and (5) gamma ray. Widely spaced resistivity and conductivity well-log measurements were made in the deep drill hole. Each of these well-log measurements shows the division of the evaporite sequence into halite and interbed sections. At the present time the most useful well-logging measurements for determining the individual lithologies in an evaporite sequence are gamma ray, neutron, density, and acoustic velocity. The high resistivity contrast between the drilling fluid (0.5 ohm-m) and salt (10,000 ohm-m) makes it difficult to obtain quantitative measurements of electrical properties in an evaporite sequence. Tests of widely spaced electrode configurations show that the effects of the brine on the resistivity measurements can be reduced, and the depth of investigation increased, by increasing the source-receiver electrode spacing. Tests of a single-coil induction probe show good resolution of the contrasting electrical properties of the various interbed lithologies.

  7. Stratigraphy of the Apollo 15 drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G.; Duke, M.; Fryxell, R.; Nagle, J. S.; Scott, R.; Sellers, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The crew of Apollo 15 collected at 242-centimeter-long core of the regolith of the moon developed on the surface of Palus Putredinis 3 deg 39 min 20 sec E, 26 deg 26 min 00 sec N. The 2.04-centimeter-diameter core, which has a mass of 1333.2 grams, consists of 42 major textural units, with thicknesses ranging from a few milliliters to 13 centimeters thick. The regolith is not homogeneous and is composed of many layers that are mostly ejecta from impact events.

  8. Drilling report and core logs for the 1981 drilling of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, with comparative notes on earlier (1967-1979) drilling experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Helz, R.T.; Wright, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose is: (1) to describe the 1981 drilling of Kilauea Iki lava lake, (2) to present the logs for the drill core recovered during the 1981 drilling, and (3) to present a summary of some of the field observations made during the 1967, 1975, 1976 and 1979 drillings that are relevant to the crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake. This report supplements logs for the 1967-1979 core presented in Helz et al. (1980). 21 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Discarded Drill Cores from the Blackbird Cobalt-Copper Mine

    Blocks of biotitic meta-sandstone from the lower part of the Gunsight Formation, and drill core from the underlying banded siltite unit of the Apple Creek Formation, lying on the dump of the lower workings of the Copper Queen mine, southeast of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine area....

  10. Fixing mechanism for a wireline core barrel of core drilling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nenkov, N.D.; Petrov, I.B.; Peev, S.P.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a wireline mechanism for removing a core barrel containing a core from within a hollow drill string carrying a hollow drill crown cutter on its lower end while the drill string is in position in the earth. The mechanism comprises a cylindrical fixer adapted to be mounted within the drill string coaxially thereof. A cap for attachment to a flexible elongated core-removing member is secured to the upper end of the fixer, a cylindrical hollow body is adapted to be mounted within the drill string coaxially thereof and generally below the fixer. A lower portion of the fixer is adapted to be telescoped within the upper portion of the cylindrical hollow body, a longitudinally extending stopper bar is connected to the upper part of the cylindrical hollow body, a locking bar and a nut connect the fixer to the lower part of the cylindrical hollow body.

  11. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H.; Duffield, W.A.; Janik, C.J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  12. Depositional history of the Apollo 16 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gose, W. A.; Morris, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic hysteresis loop measurements were performed on 212 samples from the Apollo 16 deep drill core. The total iron content is generally uniform with a mean value of 5.7 plus or minus 0.9 wt%. The soils range in maturity from immature to mature. Two major contacts were observed. The contact at 13 cm depth represents a fossil surface whereas the contact at 190 cm depth has no time-stratigraphic significance. The data suggest that the core section below 13 cm depth was deposited in a single impact event and subjected to meteoritic gardening for about 450 m.y. However, our data do not preclude deposition by a series of closely spaced events. About 50 m.y. ago, the top 13 cm were added. Comparison with the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/60010 does not yield any evidence for a stratigraphic correlation with the deep drill core.

  13. Managing Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Risks Drilling Geothermal Exploration and Delineation Wells with Small-Footprint Highly Portable Diamond Core Drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Listi, R.; Combs, J.; Welch, V.; Reilly, S.

    2012-12-01

    Small hydraulic core rigs are highly portable (truck or scow-mounted), and have recently been used for geothermal exploration in areas such as Nevada, California, the Caribbean Islands, Central and South America and elsewhere. Drilling with slim diameter core rod below 7,000' is common, with continuous core recovery providing native-state geological information to aid in identifying the resource characteristics and boundaries; this is a highly cost-effective process. Benefits associated with this innovative exploration and delineation technology includes the following: Low initial Capital Equipment Cost and consumables costs Small Footprint, reducing location and road construction, and cleanup costs Supporting drill rod (10'/3meter) and tools are relatively low weight and easily shipped Speed of Mobilization and rig up Reduced requirements for support equipment (cranes, backhoes, personnel, etc) Small mud systems and cementing requirements Continuous, simplified coring capability Depth ratings comparable to that of large rotary rigs (up to ~10,000'+) Remote/small-location accessible (flown into remote areas or shipped in overseas containers) Can be scow or truck-mounted This technical presentation's primary goal is to share the technology of utilizing small, highly portable hydraulic coring rigs to provide exploratory drilling (and in some cases, production drilling) for geothermal projects. Significant cost and operational benefits are possible for the Geothermal Operator, especially for those who are pursuing projects in remote locations or countries, or in areas that are either inaccessible or in which a small footprint is required. John D. Tuttle Sinclair Well Products jtuttle@sinclairwp.com

  14. Comparison of core control and geophysical investigations, silica sand deposits, Dawmat Al Jandal, Al Jawf at Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsulaimani, Ghassan Salem

    This thesis is a summary of a comprehensive geophysical investigation in southern Dawmat Al Jandal, Al Jawf in Saudi Arabia. This research demonstrates that the acquisition of both core control and geophysical data is superior to the acquisition of core control alone. Coring is expensive and is limited in subsurface coverage. Geophysical surveying, however, is a relatively rapid and cost-effective means of deriving information about the subsurface between core holes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), and Seismic Refraction methods were used as exploration techniques to locate surficial mineral deposits within the study area. During the course of these investigations, the author tries to review the acquired 1620 meters of ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to image internal reflections (if any) within the sand and the top of the underlying sandstone; 27 MASW field records were acquired at each core hole location, which generated 1-D and 2-D shear wave velocity profiles, and 27 seismic refraction profiles were acquired, which did not image the top of the sandstone. The purpose was to estimate the thickness of the sand and to map bedding planes within the sand to better understand depositional environments under the same conditions, based on the high-resolution 2-D surveys, mostly performed in mining areas. The Geophysical investigations were successful and proved to be useful methods for the exploration of shallow subsurface areas where the results are equal to, or slightly different from, the corresponding with of the core holes' values. Therefore, geophysical surveying does not remove the need for core control, but when it is properly applied it can optimize exploration rating programs by maximizing the rate of ground coverage and minimizing the amount of core drilling that is required.

  15. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data From the USGS Dixon Core, Onslow County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Gonzalez, Wilma Aleman B.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Weems, Robert E.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Durand, Colleen T.

    2009-01-01

    In October through November 2006, scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Region Earth Surface Processes Team (EESPT) and the Raleigh (N.C.) Water Science Center (WSC), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Onslow County Water and Sewer Authority (ONWASA), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Onslow County, N.C. The Dixon corehole was cored on ONWASA water utility property north of the town of Dixon, N.C., in the Sneads Ferry 7.5-minute quadrangle at latitude 34deg33'35' N, longitude 77deg26'54' W (decimal degrees 34.559722 and -77.448333). The site elevation is 66.0 feet (ft) above mean sea level as determined using a Paulin precision altimeter. The corehole attained a total depth of 1,010 ft and was continuously cored by the USGS EESPT drilling crew. A groundwater monitoring well was installed in the screened interval between 234 and 254 ft below land surface. The section cored at this site includes Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments. The Dixon core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh. The Dixon corehole is the fourth and last in a series of planned North Carolina benchmark coreholes drilled by the USGS Coastal Carolina Project. These coreholes explore the physical stratigraphy, facies, and thickness of Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene Coastal Plain sediments in North Carolina. Correlations of lithologies, facies, and sequence stratigraphy can be made with the Hope Plantation corehole, N.C., near Windsor in Bertie County (Weems and others, 2007); the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, N.C., in Bladen County (Self-Trail and others, 2004b); the Smith Elementary School corehole, near Cove City, N.C., in Craven County (Harris and Self-Trail, 2006; Crocetti, 2007); the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, N.C., in New Hanover County (Self-Trail and others, 2004a); the Esso#1, Esso #2, Mobil #1, and Mobil #2 cores in Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds, N.C. (Zarra, 1989); and the Cape Fear River outcrops in Bladen County, N.C. (Farrell, 1998; Farrell and others, 2001). This report contains the lithostratigraphic summary recorded at the drill site, core photographs, geophysical data, and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic correlations.

  16. Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea floor drilling rig MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, T.; Wefer, G.

    2013-12-01

    The sea floor drill rig MeBo (acronym for Meeresboden-Bohrgerät, German for sea floor drill rig) is a robotic drill rig that is deployed on the sea floor and operated remotely from the research vessel to drill up to 80 m into the sea floor. It was developed at the MARUM Research Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at Bremen University. The complete system - comprising the drill rig, winch, control station, and the launch and recovery system - is transported in six containers and can be deployed worldwide from German and international research ships. It was the first remote-controlled deep sea drill rig to use a wireline coring technique. Compared to drilling vessels this technology has the advantage of operating from a stable platform at the sea bed, which allows for optimal control over the drilling process. Especially for shallow drillings in the range of tens to hundreds of metres, sea bed drill rigs are time-efficient since no drill string has to be assembled from the ship to the sea floor before the first core can be taken. The MeBo has been successfully operated, retrieving high-quality cores at the sea bed for a variety of research fields, including slope stability studies and palaeoclimate reconstructions. Based on experience with the MeBo, a rig is now being built that will be able to drill to a depth of 200 m.

  17. Drilling and geophysical logs of the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site, Central Venango County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.; Anderson, J. Alton

    2014-01-01

    Collection and integrated analysis of drilling and geophysical logs provided an efficient and effective means for characterizing the geohydrologic framework and conditions penetrated by the tophole at the selected oil-and-gas well site. The logging methods and lessons learned at this well site could be applied at other oil-and-gas drilling sites to better characterize the shallow subsurface with the overall goal of protecting freshwater aquifers during hydrocarbon development.

  18. Development of a drilling and coring test-bed for lunar subsurface exploration and preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Deng, Zongquan; Quan, Qiquan; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Drill sampling has been widely employed as an effective way to acquire deep samples in extraterrestrial exploration. A novel sampling method, namely, flexible-tube coring, was adopted for the Chang'e mission to acquire drilling cores without damaging stratification information. Since the extraterrestrial environment is uncertain and different from the terrestrial environment, automated drill sampling missions are at risk of failure. The principles of drilling and coring for the lunar subsurface should be fully tested and verified on earth before launch. This paper proposes a test-bed for conducting the aforementioned experiments on earth. The test-bed comprises a rotary-percussive drilling mechanism, penetrating mechanism, drilling medium container, and signal acquisition and control system. For granular soil, coring experiments indicate that the sampling method has a high coring rate greater than 80%. For hard rock, drilling experiments indicate that the percussive frequency greatly affects the drilling efficiency. A multi-layered simulant composed of granular soil and hard rock is built to test the adaptability of drilling and coring. To tackle complex drilling media, an intelligent drilling strategy based on online recognition is proposed to improve the adaptability of the sampling drill. The primary features of this research are the proposal of a scheme for drilling and coring a test-bed for validation on earth and the execution of drilling experiments in complex media.

  19. Petrophysical and paleomagnetic data of drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbra, T.; Kontny, A.; Pesonen, L. J.; Schleifer, N.; Schell, C.

    Physical properties from rocks of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, Central Africa, are essential to understand the formation of the relatively young (1.07 Ma) and small (10.5 km) impact crater and to improve its geophysical modeling. Results of our petrophysical studies of deep drill cores LB-07A and LB-08A reveal distinct lithological patterns but no depth dependence. The most conspicuous difference between impactites and target lithologies are the lower bulk densities and significantly higher porosities of the suevite and lithic breccia units compared to meta-graywacke and metapelites of target lithologies. Magnetic susceptibility shows mostly paramagnetic values (200-500 × 10-6 SI) throughout the core, with an exception of a few metasediment samples, and correlates positively with natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and Q values. These data indicate that magnetic parameters are related to inhomogeneously distributed ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite. The paleomagnetic data reveals that the characteristic direction of NRM has shallow normal (in a few cases shallow reversed) polarity, which is in agreement with the Lower Jaramillo N-polarity chron direction, and is carried by ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite. However, our study has not revealed the expected high magnetization body required from previous magnetic modeling. Furthermore, the LB-07A and LB08-A drill cores did not show the predicted high content of melt in the rocks, requiring a new interpretation model for magnetic data.

  20. Axel rover NanoDrill and PowderDrill: Acquisition of cores, regolith and powder from steep walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Chu, P.; Hedlund, M.; Spring, J.; Osborne, L.; Matthews, J.; Zarzhitsky, D.; Nesnas, I. A.; Szwarc, T.; Indyk, S.

    This paper describes development and testing of low-mass, low-power drills for the Axel rover. Axel is a two-wheeled tethered rover designed for the robotic exploration of steep cliff walls, crater walls and deep holes on earth and other planetary bodies. The Axel rover has a capability to deploy scientific instruments and/or samplers in the areas of interest to scientists currently inaccessible by conventional robotic systems. To enable sample recovery, we developed two drills: NanoDrill for acquisition of 25 mm long and 7 mm diameter cores and PowderDrill for acquisition of either in situ regolith/soil or drilled cuttings from depths of up to 15 mm. Both drills have been successfully tested in laboratory in limestone and sandstone rocks and on-board the Axel rover in the Mars Yard at NASA JPL. The drills managed to acquire limestone and sandstone cores and powder, with an average power of less than 5 Watts. The penetration rate of the NanoDrill was ~2 mm/min and of the PowderDrill it was ~9 mm/min. After sample acquisition, both drills successfully ejected of the acquired samples (cores and powder).

  1. Core formation and core composition from coupled geochemical and geophysical constraints.

    PubMed

    Badro, James; Brodholt, John P; Piet, Hélène; Siebert, Julien; Ryerson, Frederick J

    2015-10-01

    The formation of Earth's core left behind geophysical and geochemical signatures in both the core and mantle that remain to this day. Seismology requires that the core be lighter than pure iron and therefore must contain light elements, and the geochemistry of mantle-derived rocks reveals extensive siderophile element depletion and fractionation. Both features are inherited from metal-silicate differentiation in primitive Earth and depend upon the nature of physiochemical conditions that prevailed during core formation. To date, core formation models have only attempted to address the evolution of core and mantle compositional signatures separately, rather than seeking a joint solution. Here we combine experimental petrology, geochemistry, mineral physics and seismology to constrain a range of core formation conditions that satisfy both constraints. We find that core formation occurred in a hot (liquidus) yet moderately deep magma ocean not exceeding 1,800 km depth, under redox conditions more oxidized than present-day Earth. This new scenario, at odds with the current belief that core formation occurred under reducing conditions, proposes that Earth's magma ocean started oxidized and has become reduced through time, by oxygen incorporation into the core. This core formation model produces a core that contains 2.7-5% oxygen along with 2-3.6% silicon, with densities and velocities in accord with radial seismic models, and leaves behind a silicate mantle that matches the observed mantle abundances of nickel, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium. PMID:26392555

  2. Core formation and core composition from coupled geochemical and geophysical constraints

    PubMed Central

    Badro, James; Brodholt, John P.; Piet, Hélène; Siebert, Julien; Ryerson, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Earth’s core left behind geophysical and geochemical signatures in both the core and mantle that remain to this day. Seismology requires that the core be lighter than pure iron and therefore must contain light elements, and the geochemistry of mantle-derived rocks reveals extensive siderophile element depletion and fractionation. Both features are inherited from metal−silicate differentiation in primitive Earth and depend upon the nature of physiochemical conditions that prevailed during core formation. To date, core formation models have only attempted to address the evolution of core and mantle compositional signatures separately, rather than seeking a joint solution. Here we combine experimental petrology, geochemistry, mineral physics and seismology to constrain a range of core formation conditions that satisfy both constraints. We find that core formation occurred in a hot (liquidus) yet moderately deep magma ocean not exceeding 1,800 km depth, under redox conditions more oxidized than present-day Earth. This new scenario, at odds with the current belief that core formation occurred under reducing conditions, proposes that Earth’s magma ocean started oxidized and has become reduced through time, by oxygen incorporation into the core. This core formation model produces a core that contains 2.7–5% oxygen along with 2–3.6% silicon, with densities and velocities in accord with radial seismic models, and leaves behind a silicate mantle that matches the observed mantle abundances of nickel, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium. PMID:26392555

  3. Research core drilling in the Manson impact structure, Iowa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Hartung, J. B.; Roddy, D. J.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Manson impact structure (MIS) has a diameter of 35 km and is the largest confirmed impact structure in the United States. The MIS has yielded a Ar-40/Ar-39 age of 65.7 Ma on microcline from its central peak, an age that is indistinguishable from the age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In the summer of 1991 the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau and U.S. Geological Survey initiated a research core drilling project on the MIS. The first core was beneath 55 m of glacial drift. The core penetrated a 6-m layered sequence of shale and siltstone and 42 m of Cretaceous shale-dominated sedimentary clast breccia. Below this breccia, the core encountered two crystalline rock clast breccia units. The upper unit is 53 m thick, with a glassy matrix displaying various degrees of devitrification. The upper half of this unit is dominated by the glassy matrix, with shock-deformed mineral grains (especially quartz) the most common clast. The glassy-matrix unit grades downward into the basal unit in the core, a crystalline rock breccia with a sandy matrix, the matrix dominated by igneous and metamorphic rock fragments or disaggregated grains from those rocks. The unit is about 45 m thick, and grains display abundant shock deformation features. Preliminary interpretations suggest that the crystalline rock breccias are the transient crater floor, lifted up with the central peak. The sedimentary clast breccia probably represents a postimpact debris flow from the crater rim, and the uppermost layered unit probably represents a large block associated with the flow. The second core (M-2) was drilled near the center of the crater moat in an area where an early crater model suggested the presence of postimpact lake sediments. The core encountered 39 m of sedimentary clast breccia, similar to that in the M-1 core. Beneath the breccia, 120 m of poorly consolidated, mildly deformed, and sheared siltstone, shale, and sandstone was encountered. The basal unit in the core was another sequence of sedimentary clast breccia. The two sedimentary clast units, like the lithologically similar unit in the M-1 core, probably formed as debris flows from the crater rim. The middle, nonbrecciated interval is probably a large, intact block of Upper Cretaceous strata transported from the crater rim with the debris flow. Alternatively, the sequence may represent the elusive postimpact lake sequence.

  4. Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea-floor drilling rig MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, T.; Wefer, G.

    2013-07-01

    Sampling of the upper 50 to 200 m of the sea floor to address questions relating to marine mineral resources and gas hydrates, for geotechnical research in areas of planned offshore installations, to study slope stability, and to investigate past climate fluctuations, to name just a few examples, is becoming increasingly important both in shallow waters and in the deep sea. As a rule, the use of drilling ships for this kind of drilling is inefficient because before the first core can be taken a drill string has to be assembled extending from the ship to the sea floor. Furthermore, movement of the ship due to wave motion disturbs the drilling process and often results in poor core quality, especially in the upper layers of the sea floor. For these reasons, the MeBo drilling rig, which is lowered to the sea floor and operated remotely from the ship to drill up to 80 m into the sea floor, was developed at the MARUM Research Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at Bremen University. The complete system, comprising the drill rig, winch, control station, and the launch and recovery system, is transported in six containers and can be deployed worldwide from German and international research ships. It was the first remote-controlled deep sea drill rig that uses a wireline coring technique. Based on the experiences with the MeBo a rig is now being built that will be able to drill to a depth of 200 m.

  5. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were estimated, including volume of clay matrix, volume of matrix other than clay, density of matrix other than clay, density of matrix, intrinsic permeability, specific yield, and specific storage. Geophysical logs were used to (1) determine lithology, (2) correlate lithologic and permeable zones, (3) calibrate seismic reprocessing, (4) calibrate transient-electromagnetic surveys, and (5) calibrate uphole-survey interpretations. Logs were used at the drill site to (1) determine permeability zones, (2) determine dissolved-solids content, which is a function of water resistivity, and (3) design wells accordingly. Data and properties derived from logs were used to determine transmissivity and specific yield of aquifer materials.

  6. Geophysical well logs for eleven drill holes at the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine Site, Idaho Springs, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The following geophysical well log measurements were made in eleven drill holes above the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado: (1) acoustic velocity (2) resistivity, (3) caliper, (4) gamma-gamma density, (5) neutron-thermal neutron, (6) gamma ray, (7) induced polarization (IP), (8) self potential (SP), and magnetic susceptibility. The density and acoustic velocity logs indicate extensive fracturing in each of the drill holes. Variations in the relative amount of felsic or mafic mineral components in the rocks can be inferred from the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray well log responses. Zones containing metallic sulfide mineralization are interpreted from the IP well log response.

  7. Radionuclide sorption on drill core material from the Canadian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergraat, T.T.; Abry, D.R.

    1982-06-01

    The sorption of four radionuclides, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 237/Pu, on drill core material from two rock formations in the Canadian Shield has been studied as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. For all four radionuclides, sorption increased with increased mafic mineral content of the rock. Autoradiographic investigations showed enhanced sorption on dark, or mafic, minerals and high sorption on chlorite infilling material in a closed fracture. Desorption was less complete than sorption after the same equilibration time, indicating a degree of irreversible sorption, or slower desorption kinetics. The effect of surface roughness (measured by mercury porosimetry) on sorption was not as great as that of the chemical and mineral composition of the rock.

  8. Preliminary physical stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and geophysical data of the USGS South Dover Bridge Core, Talbot County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alemán González, Wilma B.; Powars, David S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Durand, Colleen T.; Schultz, Arthur P.; McLaughlin, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    The South Dover Bridge (SDB) corehole was drilled in October 2007 in Talbot County, Maryland. The main purpose for drilling this corehole was to characterize the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the aquifers and confining units of this region. The data obtained from this core also will be used as a guide to geologic mapping and to help interpret well data from the eastern part of the Washington East 1:100,000-scale map near the town of Easton, Md. Core drilling was conducted to a depth of 700 feet (ft). The Cretaceous section was not penetrated due to technical problems during drilling. This project was funded by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Eastern Geology and Paleoclimate Science Center (EGPSC) as part of the Geology of the Atlantic Watersheds Project; this project was carried out in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) through partnerships with the Aquifer Characterization Program of the USGS’s Maryland-Delaware-District of Columbia Water Science Center and the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The SDB corehole was drilled by the USGS drilling crew in the northeastern corner of the Trappe 7.5-minute quadrangle, near the type locality of the Boston Cliffs member of the Choptank Formation. Geophysical logs (gamma ray, single point resistance, and 16-inch and 64-inch normal resistivity) were run to a depth of 527.5 ft; the total depth of 700.0 ft could not be reached because of the collapse of the lower part of the hole. Of the 700.0 ft drilled, 531.8 ft of core were recovered, representing a 76 percent core recovery. The elevation of the top of the corehole is approximately 12 ft above mean sea level; its coordinates are lat 38°44′49.34″N. and long 76°00′25.09″W. (38.74704N., 76.00697W. in decimal degrees). A groundwater monitoring well was not installed at this site. The South Dover Bridge corehole was the first corehole that will be used to better understand the geology and hydrology of the Maryland Eastern Shore.

  9. Physical-Property Measurements on Core samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.; Watt, Janet T.; Casteel, John; Logsdon, Grant

    2009-01-01

    From May to June 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and measured physical properties on 36 core samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 1 (DB-1) and 46 samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 2 (DB-2) along the west side of Blue Mountain about 40 km west of Winnemucca, Nev. These data were collected as part of an effort to determine the geophysical setting of the Blue Mountain geothermal prospect as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of geothermal systems throughout the Great Basin. The physical properties of these rocks and other rock types in the area create a distinguishable pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies that can be used to infer their subsurface geologic structure. Drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 were spudded in alluvium on the western flank of Blue Mountain in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and are about 1 km apart. Drill-hole DB-1 is at a ground elevation of 1,325 m and was drilled to a depth of 672 m and drill-hole DB-2 is at a ground elevation of 1,392 m and was drilled to a depth of 1522 m. Diameter of the core samples is 6.4 cm. These drill holes penetrate Jurassic and Triassic metasedimentary rocks predominantly consisting of argillite, mudstone, and sandstone; Tertiary diorite and gabbro; and younger Tertiary felsic dikes.

  10. Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1984-11-15

    Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

  11. Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laul, J. C.; Smith, M. R.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.

    1984-11-01

    Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

  12. Joint laboratory investigations of the physical and mechanical properties of the COSC-1 drill core, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Lebedev, Maxim; Ask, Maria; Wenning, Quinn; Zappone, Alba; Berthet, Théo; Malehmir, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    The Caledonian orogen is an early to middle Paleozoic mountain chain with size dimension similar to the Alpine-Himalayan orogen. Parts of the Caledonian orogen have been deeply eroded and provide excellent exposure of rocks that were emplaced into the middle and lower crust during orogenesis. These exposed rock units therefore provide the possibility to study processes of mountain building that are often inaccessible in more modern orogens, and represent the targets for the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides deep drilling project (COSC-1). The main target of COSC-1 was the high grade Seve nappe complex. Temperature estimates indicate granulite facies conditions at the top of this nappe, grading to lower amphibolitic conditions downwards through the nappe. Discovery of micro-diamond included in garnets from the nearby Åreskutan mountain hints at an ultra-high pressure origin in parts of the Seve nappe complex. The COSC-1 deep drilling project presents a unique opportunity to study the laboratory physical properties of a 2.5 km drill core, which can be correlated to downhole logging measurements and for the interpretation of surface geophysical experiments. In a joint effort that comprises five laboratories, the physical properties the COSC drill core are investigated. Measurement schemes and preliminary results from this cooperative effort are presented. The physical properties suite of measurements on the core includes (i) density, (ii) porosity, (iii) ultrasonic wave velocity and anisotropy at elevated confining pressure, (iv) seismic attenuation and (v) permeability (and anisotropy of permeability). Mechanical properties include uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength at different confining pressures, and subsequent calculation of internal and residual friction angles. The joint investigations will also serve to cross-validate and calibrate different laboratory techniques that are used to measure physical properties. The rock units investigated includes layers of gneiss, amphibolite, calc-silicates, migmatite and sparse meta-gabbro and marble. More mafic units (amphibolite and meta-gabbro) can be separated from the gneisses and migmatite based on density and sonic velocities, measured with active gamma log and full wave form sonic log. Deformation is prevalent in rocks throughout the 2500 m deep borehole, but a more than 300 m thick package of strongly sheared mylonites stands out at the bottom of the borehole. Laboratory measurements of density and ultrasonic velocities are critical on core material that comes from depths greater than 1600 m, because borehole density and sonic logs are lacking at these depths. In addition, the ultrasonic laboratory measurements serve as the only method to directly evaluate seismic anisotropy in the solid rock mass. Additional results and analysis are expected to yield data that will be useful for integration with surface and downhole geophysical data (e.g. vertical seismic profiling data), constraining the state of in-situ stress, and provide insights into the emplacement processes of the Seve nappe complex, and its relationship to the underlying lower-grade Särv and Jämtlandian nappes.

  13. Cretaceous shallow drilling, US Western Interior: Core research. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, M.A.

    1993-02-17

    This project is a continuing multidisciplinary study of middle to Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate and clastic rocks in the Utah-Colorado-Kansas corridor of the old Cretaceous seaway that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Arctic during maximum Cretaceous transgressions. It is collaborative between in the US Geological Survey (W.E. Dean, P.I.) and University researchers led by The Pennsylvania State University(M.A. Arthur, P.I.) and funded by DOE and the USGS, in part. Research focusses on the Greenhom, Niobrara and lower Pierre Shale units and their equivalents, combining biostratigraphic/paleoecologic studies, inorganic, organic and stable isotopic geochemical studies, mineralogical investigations and high-resolution geophysical logging. This research requires unweathered samples and continuous smooth ``exposures`` in the form of cores from at least 4 relatively shallow reference holes (i.e. < 1000m) in transect from east to west across the basin. The major initial effort was recovery in Year 1 of the project of continuous cores from each site in the transect. This drilling provided samples and logs of strata ranging from pelagic sequences that contain organic-carbon-rich marine source rocks to nearshore coal-bearing units. This transect also will provide information on the extent of thermal maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in organic-carbon-rich strata along a burial gradient.

  14. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, James G.

    2001-12-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55±0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01±0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67±0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89±0.17 and 2.97±0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing downward the hyaloclastite absorbs less water and becomes better cemented. This change is apparently due to palagonitization of glass and addition of secondary minerals in the deeper older hyaloclastite, a process favored by the increase of temperature with depth. The cementation is largely complete at 1800 m depth where the temperature attains about 20°C. The zone of freshest, uncemented hyaloclastite represents the weakest rock in the drill hole and is a likely level for tectonic or landslide disruption.

  15. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55 ?? 0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01 ?? 0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67 ?? 0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89 ?? 0.17 and 2.97 ?? 0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing downward the hyaloclastite absorbs less water and becomes better cemented. This change is apparently due to palagonitization of glass and addition of secondary minerals in the deeper older hyaloclastite, a process favored by the increase of temperature with depth. The cementation is largely complete at 1800 m depth where the temperature attains about 20??C. The zone of freshest, uncemented hyaloclastite represents the weakest rock in the drill hole and is a likely level for tectonic or landslide disruption. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. The Chicxulub Multiring Impact Crater and the Cretaceous/Paleogene Boundary: Results From Geophysical Surveys and Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Perez-Cruz, Ligia

    2010-03-01

    The Chicxulub crater has attracted considerable attention as one of the three largest terrestrial impact structures and its association with the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary (K/Pg). Chicxulub is a 200 km-diameter multi-ring structure formed 65.5 Ma ago in the Yucatan carbonate platform in the southern Gulf of Mexico and which has since been buried by Paleogene and Neogene carbonates. Chicxulub is one of few large craters with preserved ejecta deposits, which include the world-wide K/Pg boundary clay layer. The impact has been related to the global major environmental and climatic effects and the organism mass extinction that mark the K/Pg boundary, which affected more than 70 % of organisms, including the dinosaurs, marine and flying reptiles, ammonites and a large part of the marine microorganisms. The impact and crater formation occur instantaneously, with excavation of the crust down to 25 km depths in fractions of second and lower crust uplift and crater formation in a few hundreds of seconds. Energy released by impact and crustal deformation generates seismic waves traveling the whole Earth, and resulting in intense fracturing and deformation at the target site. Understanding of the physics of impacts on planetary surfaces and modeling of processes of crustal deformation, rheological behavior of materials at high temperatures and pressures remain a major challenge in geosciences. Study of the Chicxulub crater and the global effects and mass extinction requires inter- and multidisciplinary approaches, with researchers from many diverse fields beyond the geosciences. With no surface exposures, geophysical surveys and drilling are required to study the crater. Differential compaction between the impact breccias and the surrounding carbonate rocks has produced a ring-fracture structure that at the surface reflects in a small topographic depression and the karstic cenote ring. The crater structure, located half offshore and half on-land, has been imaged by different geophysical aerial, land and marine methods including gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics and seismic refraction and reflection. The impact lithologies and carbonate sequence have been cored as part of several drilling projects. Here we analyze the stratigraphy of Chicxulub from borehole logging data and core analyses, with particular reference to studies on CSDP Yaxcopoil-1 and UNAM Santa Elena boreholes. Analyses of core samples have examined the stratigraphy of the cover carbonate sequence, impact breccia contact and implications for impact age, K/Pg global correlations and paleoenvironmental conditions following impact. The K/Pg age for Chicxulub has been supported from different studies, including Ar/Ar dating, magnetic polarity stratigraphy, geochemistry and biostratigraphy. A Late Maastrichtian age has also been proposed for Chicxulub from studies in Yaxcopoil-1 basal Paleocene carbonates, with impact occurring 300 ka earlier predating the K/Pg boundary. This proposal calls attention to the temporal resolution of stratigraphic and chronological methods, and the need for further detailed analyses of the basal carbonate sections in existing boreholes and new drilling/coring projects. Stratigraphy of impact ejecta and basal sediments in Yaxcopoil-1 and UNAM boreholes indicates a hiatus in the basal sequence. Modeling of post- impact processes suggest erosion effects due to seawater back surge, block slumping and partial rim collapse of post-impact crater modification. Analyses of stable isotopes and magnetostratigraphic data for the Paleocene carbonate sequences in Yaxcopoil-1 and Santa Elena boreholes permit to investigate the post- impact processes, depositional conditions and age of basal sediments. Correlation of stable isotopes with the global pattern for marine carbonate sediments provides a stratigraphic framework for the basal Paleocene carbonates. The analyses confirm a K/Pg boundary age for the Chicxulub impact. References: Collins et al, 2008. Earth Planetary Science Letters 270, 221-230; Gulick et al, 2008. Nature Geoscience 1, 131-135; Hildebrand et al, 1991. Geology 19: 867-871; Hildebrand, A.R. et al, 1998. Geological Society Sp. Publ 140, 153-173; Kring et al., 2004. Meteoritics Planetary Science 39, 879-897; Sharpton et al, 1992. Nature 359: 819-821; Urrutia Fucugauchi et al, 2004. Meteoritics Planetary Science 39: 787-790; Urrutia Fucugauchi et al, 2008. Comptes Rendus Geosciences 341, 801-810; Urrutia Fucugauchi & Perez Cruz, 2009. International Geology Review 51, doi: 10.1080/00206810902867161.

  17. Core drill's bit is replaceable without withdrawal of drill stem - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushing, F. C.; Simon, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Drill bit is divided into several sectors. When collapsed, the outside diameter is forced down the drill stem, when it reaches bottom the sectors are forced outward and form a cutting bit. A dulled bit is retracted by reversal of this procedure.

  18. Surface elevation change artifact at the NEEM ice core drilling site, North Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg Larsen, Lars; Schøtt Hvidberg, Christine; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Lilja Buchardt, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    The NEEM deep drilling site (77.45°N 51.06°W) is located at the main ice divide in North Greenland. For the ice core drilling project, a number of buildings was erected and left on the snow surface during the five-year project period. The structures created snowdrifts that formed accordingly to the predominant wind direction on the lee side on the buildings and the overwintering cargo. To get access to the buildings, the snowdrifts and the accumulated snow were removed and the surface in the camp was leveled with heavy machinery each summer. In the camp a GPS reference pole was placed as a part of the NEEM strain net, 12 poles placed in three diamonds at distances of 2,5 km, 7,5 km and 25 km they were all measured with high precision GPS every year. Around the reference pole, a 1 km x 1 km grid with a spacing of 100 m was measured with differential GPS each year. In this work, we present results from the GPS surface topography measurements in and around the campsite. The mapping of the topography in and around the campsite shows how the snowdrifts evolve and are the reason for the lift of the camp site area. The accumulated snowdrifts are compared to the dominant wind directions from year to year. The annual snow accumulation at the NEEM site is 0.60 m. The reference pole in the camp indicates an additional snow accumulation of 0.50 m per year caused by collected drifting snow. The surface topography mapping shows that this artificially elevated surface extends up to several kilometers out in the terrain. This could have possible implications on other glaciological and geophysical measurements in the area i.e. pit and snow accumulation studies.

  19. Drilling on Mars---Mathematical Model for Rotary-Ultrasonic Core Drilling of Brittle Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Mera Fayez

    The results from the Phoenix mission led scientists to believe it is possible that primitive life exists below the Martian surface. Therefore, drilling in Martian soil in search for organisms is the next logical step. Drilling on Mars is a major engineering challenge due to the drilling depth requirement. Mars lacks a thick atmosphere and a continuous magnetic field that shield the planet's surface from solar radiation and solar flares. As a result, the Martian surface is sterile and if life ever existed, it must be found below the surface. In 2001, NASA's Mars Exploration Payload Advisory Group proposed that drilling should be considered as a priority investigation on Mars in an effort of finding evidence of extinct or extant life. On August 6, 2012, the team of engineers landed the spacecraft Curiosity on the surface of Mars by using a revolutionary hovering platform. The results from the Curiosity mission suggested the next logical step, which is drilling six meters deep in the red planet in search of life. Excavation tools deployed to Mars so far have been able to drill to a maximum depth of 6.5 cm. Thus, the drilling capabilities need to be increased by a factor or approximately 100 to achieve the goal of drilling six meters deep. This requirement puts a demand on developing a new and more effective technologies to reach this goal. Previous research shows evidence of a promising drilling mechanism in rotary-ultrasonic for what it offers in terms of high surface quality, faster rate of penetration and higher material removal rate. This research addresses the need to understand the mechanics of the drill bit tip and rock interface in rotary-ultrasonic drilling of brittle materials. A mathematical model identifying all contributing independent parameters, such as drill bit design parameters, drilling process parameters, ultrasonic wave amplitude and rocks' material properties, that have effect on rate of penetration is developed. Analytical and experimental results are presented to show the effect of the variation of different parameters on rate of penetration performance.

  20. Application of drilling, coring, and sampling techniques to test holes and wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shuter, Eugene; Teasdale, Warren E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide ground-water hydrologists with a working knowledge of the techniques of test drilling, auger drilling, coring and sampling, and the related drilling and sampling equipment. For the most part, the techniques discussed deal with drilling, sampling, and completion of test holes in unconsolidated sediments because a hydrologist is interested primarily in shallow-aquifer data in this type of lithology. Successful drilling and coring of these materials usually is difficult, and published research information on the subject is not readily available. The authors emphasize in-situ sampling of unconsolidated sediments to obtain virtually undisturbed samples. Particular attention is given to auger drilling and hydraulic-rotary methods of drilling because these are the principal means of test drilling performed by the U.S. Geological Survey during hydrologic studies. Techniques for sampling areas contaminated by solid or liquid waste are discussed. Basic concepts of well development and a detailed discussion of drilling muds, as related to hole conditioning, also are included in the report. The information contained in this manual is intended to help ground-water hydrologists obtain useful subsurface data and samples from their drilling programs.

  1. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  3. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data of the USGS Hope Plantation Core (BE-110), Bertie County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Wrege, Beth M.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Prowell, David C.; Durand, Colleen; Cobbs, Eugene F., III; McKinney, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In March and April, 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Raleigh Water Resources Discipline (WRD), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Bertie County, North Carolina (fig. 1). The Hope Plantation test hole (BE-110-2004) was cored on the property of Hope Plantation near Windsor, North Carolina. The drill site is located on the Republican 7.5 minute quadradrangle at lat 36?01'58'N., long 78?01'09'W. (decimal degrees 36.0329 and 77.0192) (fig. 2). The altitude of the site is 48 ft above mean sea level as determined by Paulin Precise altimeter. This test hole was continuously cored by Eugene F. Cobbs, III and Kevin C. McKinney (USGS) to a total depth of 1094.5 ft. Later, a ground water observation well was installed with a screened interval between 315-329 feet below land surface (fig. 3). Upper Triassic, Lower Cretaceous, Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments were recovered from the site. The core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh, North Carolina. In this report, we provide the initial lithostratigraphic summary recorded at the drill site along with site core photographs, data from the geophysical logger, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic correlations (Table 1) and initial hydrogeologic interpretations. The lithostratigraphy from this core can be compared to previous investigations of the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, North Carolina in Bladen County (Self-Trail, Wrege, and others, 2004), the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, North Carolina in New Hanover County (Self-Trail, Prowell, and Christopher, 2004), the Esso #1, Esso #2, Mobil #1 and Mobil #2 cores in the Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds (Zarra, 1989), and the Cape Fear River outcrops in Bladen County (Farrell, 1998; Farrell and others, 2001). This core is the third in a series of planned benchmark coreholes that will be used to elucidate the physical stratigraphy, facies, thickness, and hydrogeology of the Tertiary and Cretaceous Coastal Plain sediments of North Carolina.

  4. Deep Rotary-Ultrasonic Core Drill for Exploration of Europa and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G. L.; Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Beegle, L. W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Mellerowicz, B.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Ibarra, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since water is an important requisite for life as we know it, likely exobiologic exploration targets in our Solar System include Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, where water/ice is known to exist. Because of oxidizing nature of Mars atmosphere, as well as increased radiation at the surfaces of Mars, Europa and Enceladus, samples must be acquired from the subsurface at greater depths, presenting a great challenge to off-world drilling design. For the past 3 years, we have been developing a prototype wireline coring drill, called the Auto-Gopher, for the capability to acquire samples from hundreds of meters depth. The drill is capable of penetrating both rock and ice. However, because of large geological uncertainty on Mars and issues related to borehole collapse, we specifically target ice formations present on Europa and Enceladus. The main feature of the Auto-Gopher is its wireline operation. The drill is essentially suspended on a tether and the motors and mechanisms are built into a tube that ends with a coring bit. The tether provides the mechanical connection to a rover/lander on a surface as well as power and data communication. Upon penetrating to a target depth, the drill (plus core) is retracted from the borehole by a pulley system (the pulley system can be either on the surface or integrated into a top part of the drill itself). Once on the surface, the core is deposited into a sample transfer system, and the drill is lowered back into the hole in order to drill the next segment. Each segment is typically 10 cm long. Wireline operation sidesteps one of the major drawbacks of traditional continuous drill string systems by obviating the need for multiple drill sections. With traditional continuous drill string systems (the major competition to the Autor-Gopher), new drill sections need to be added to the string as the drill gets deeper. This of course requires multiple drill sections, which add significantly to the mass of the system very quickly, and requires a complicated drill string feeding and coupling mechanism, thus increasing the system complexity. The Auto-gopher has been successfully tested in a lab environment in rock to a depth of 2 meters and in the field. The average drilling power was in the range of 100-150 Watt, while penetration rate was approximately 1 cm/min.

  5. Exploring ice core drilling chips from a cold Alpine glacier for cosmogenic radionuclide (10Be) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipf, Lars; Merchel, Silke; Bohleber, Pascal; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, Andreas

    Ice cores offer unique multi-proxy paleoclimate records, but provide only very limited sample material, which has to be carefully distributed for various proxy analyses. Beryllium-10, for example, is analysed in polar ice cores to investigate past changes of the geomagnetic field, solar activity, and the aerosol cycle, as well as to more accurately date the material. This paper explores the suitability of a drilling by-product, the so-called drilling chips, for 10Be-analysis. An ice core recently drilled at a cold Alpine glacier is used to directly compare 10Be-data from ice core samples with corresponding drilling chips. Both sample types have been spiked with 9Be-carrier and identically treated to chemically isolate beryllium. The resulting BeO has been investigated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for 10Be/9Be-ratios to calculate 10Be-concentrations in the ice. As a promising first result, four out of five sample-combinations (ice core and drilling chips) agree within 2-sigma uncertainty range. However, further studies are needed in order to fully demonstrate the potential of drilling chips for 10Be-analysis in alpine and shallow polar ice cores.

  6. Core formation, evolution, and convection - A geophysical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A model for the formation and evolution of the earth's core, which provides an adequate energy source for maintaining the geodynamo, is proposed. A modified inhomogeneous accretion model is proposed which leads to initial iron and refractory enrichment at the center of the planet. The probable heat source for melting of the core is the decay of Al-26. The refractory material is emplaced irregularly in the lowermost mantle with uranium and thorium serving as a long-lived heat source. Fluid motions in the core are driven by the differential heating from above and the resulting cyclonic motions may be the source of the geodynamo.

  7. Core formation, evolution, and convection: A geophysical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A model is proposed for the formation and evolution of the Earth's core which provides an adequate energy source for maintaining the geodynamo. A modified inhomogeneous accretion model is proposed which leads to initial iron and refractory enrichment at the center of the planet. The probable heat source for melting of the core is the decay of Al. The refractory material is emplaced irregularly in the lowermost mantle with uranium and thorium serving as a long lived heat source. Fluid motions in the core are driven by the differential heating from above and the resulting cyclonic motions may be the source of the geodynamo.

  8. Core Cracking and Hydrothermal Circulation Profoundly Affect Ceres' Geophysical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2014-11-01

    The dwarf planet (1)Ceres is about to be visited by the Dawn spacecraft [1]. In addition to a recent report of water vapor emission [2], observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock [3,4].Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code [5], we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia [4], by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The heating effect from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via “temperature resets”, global cooling events lasting ~50 Myr, followed by ~1 Gyr periods during which Ceres' interior is nearly isothermal and its hydrosphere largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) suggests that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter [1] could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.References:[1] Russell C. T. & Raymond C. A. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 3-23.[2] Küppers M. et al. (2014) Nature 505, 525-527.[3] Rivkin A. et al. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 95-116.[4] Castillo-Rogez J. C. & McCord T. B. (2010) Icarus 205, 443-459.[5] Neveu M., Desch S. J. & Castillo-Rogez J. C., submitted.

  9. Coring to the West Antarctic ice sheet bed with a new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. R.; Taylor, K. C.; Shturmakov, A. J.; Mason, W. P.; Emmel, G. R.; Lebar, D. A.

    2005-05-01

    As a contribution to IPY 2007-2008, the U.S. ice core research community, supported by the National Science Foundation, plans to core through the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) at the ice-flow divide between the Ross Sea and Amundsen Sea drainage systems. The aim is to develop a unique series of interrelated climatic, ice-dynamic, and biologic records focused on understanding interactions among global earth systems. There will be approximately 15 separate but synergistic projects to analyze the ice and interpret the records. The most significant expected outcome of the WAIS Divide program will be climate records for the last ~40,000 years with an annually resolved chronology (through layer counting), comparable to the records from central Greenland. The data will also extend, at lower temporal resolution, to approximately 100,000 BP. These records will permit comparison of environmental conditions between the northern and southern hemispheres, and study of greenhouse gas concentrations in the paleoatmosphere, with unprecedented detail. To accomplish the coring, an innovative new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill is being built at the University of Wisconsin. The modular design of the bore-hole assembly (sonde) provides high flexibility for producing a 122 mm diameter ice core to depths of 4,000 m with maximum core lengths of 4 m. The DISC drill has a rotating outer barrel that can be used with or without an inner barrel designed to improve core recovery in brittle ice. Separate and independent motors for the drill and pump allow cutter speeds from 0 to 150 rpm and pump rates from 0 to 140 gpm. The high pumping rate should alleviate problems drilling in warm ice near the bed; it also helps make tripping speeds several times faster than with the old US drill. Other innovations include vibration and acoustic sensors for monitoring the drilling process, a segmented core barrel to avoid the formerly persistent problem of bent core barrels, and a high-speed data acquisition system, which allows the real-time monitoring of 30 parameters for operational and scientific use. Data are transmitted from the sonde to the surface through optical fibers contained in the drill cable, which also provides power to the sonde. The entire drilling process utilizes a user-friendly "expert" control system. Quick connectors allow for fast core removal and sonde servicing. The drill tower is a tilting tower utilizing modular truss construction for flexibility and portability. We expect higher quality cores than produced by the old drill, because of a straighter barrel, the independently controlled drill and pump motors, and better monitoring and control of the drilling process. The drill is scheduled for testing in Greenland in the summer of 2006 and for first drilling at the WAIS Divide site late in the 2006-07 austral field season.

  10. GRED STUDIES AND DRILLING OF AMERICULTURE STATE 2, AMERICULTURE TILAPIA FARM LIGHTNING DOCK KGRA, ANIMAS VALLEY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, James

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the GRED drilling operations in the AmeriCulture State 2 well with an overview of the preliminary geologic and geothermal findings, from drill cuttings, core, geophysical logs and water geochemical sampling.

  11. Fischer Assays of Oil Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Piceance Basin, Colorado - 2009 Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Self, Jesse G.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM includes updated files containing Fischer assays of samples of core holes and cuttings from exploration drill holes drilled in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. A database was compiled that includes more than 321,380 Fischer assays from 782 boreholes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 1,042 core and rotary holes, oil and gas tests, as well as a few surface sections are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. These assays are part of a larger collection of subsurface information held by the U.S. Geological Survey, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, and chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses having to do with the Green River oil shale deposits in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM disc containing updated Fischer assay data for the Piceance Basin oil shale deposits in northwestern Colorado is being released to the public.

  12. Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data are from analyses performed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, with some analyses made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet that is included in the CD-ROM. These Wyoming Fischer assays and histograms are part of a much larger collection of oil-shale information, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses on the Green River oil-shale deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming held by the U.S. Geological Survey. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM containing Fischer assay data and oil-yield histograms for the Green River oil-shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming is being released to the public. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets included with Chapter 2 contain the Fischer assay data from the 426 holes and data on the company name and drill-hole name, and location. Histograms of the oil yields obtained from the Fischer assays are presented in both Grapher and PDF format. Fischer assay text data files are also included in the CD-ROM.

  13. The ICDP Hotspot Scientific Drilling Program: Overview of geophysical logging and seismic imaging through basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Liberty, L. M.; Kessler, J. A.; Kueck, J.; Kofman, R. S.; Bishop, R. A.; Shervais, J. W.; Evans, J. P.; Champion, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    The recently completed ICDP Hotspot drilling program consisted of drilling of three scientific drill holes each to at least 1800 m depth across the Snake River Plain of Idaho. The three boreholes include i) Kimama: thick sequences of basalt flows with sediment interbeds; ii) Kimberley: near surface basalt flows overlying rhyolite deposits, and iii) Mountain Home: geothermally altered basalts overlain by lacustrine sediments. The program consisted of high resolution 2D surface tied to vertical and walk-a-way borehole seismic profiles and an extensive suite of full waveform sonic, ultrasonic televiewer, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and hydrogen index neutron logging. There are a number of highlights out of this work. First, seismic imaging beneath basalt flows is a classic problem in reflection seismology and has long been believed to be due to rapid attenuation of the downgoing seismic pulse. Here, however, we observed strong arrivals at all depths suggesting that seismic energy is penetrating such formations and that issues in imaging may be a result of the heterogeneous nature of the formations. Second, the neutron log responses correlate well with the structure of individual basalt flows. High and low backscattered neutron counts correspond to massive low porosity basalt rock and with the higher porosity and sediment filled flow tops, respectively. Third, the ultrasonic borehole televiewer information is being used to orient the nearly complete sets of core in order to obtain information on the azimuths of natural and drilling induced core fractures. This together with examination of borehole breakouts and drilling induced tensile fractures on the wellbore wall will allow for semi-quantitative stress estimates across the Snake River Plain. Finally, the Mountain Home borehole provides an unique opportunity to study the geothermally altered basalts. There are a number of correlations between, for example, the sonic and electrical logs that must relate to the style of alteration.

  14. Chattanooga shale (Devonian and Mississippian) from the Tennessee Division of Geology: U. S. Department of Energy cored drill holes Number 4 and 5, Hawkins County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Roen, J.B.; Wallace, L.G.; Milici, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Tennessee Division of Geology under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has drilled eight NX coreholes in eastern Tennessee. The coring program was designed to retrieve continuous cores for a detailed study of the character of the Chattanooga Shale. The geophysical wire-line logging of the NX drill holes was performed by the US Geological Survey. The lithologic and wire-line log data in conjunction with two seismic surveys will be used to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the Chattanooga Shale in northeastern Tennessee. The purpose of this report is to present a detailed lithologic description and gamma-ray log of the Tennessee Division of Geology and US Department of Energy cored drill holes no. 4 and 5 (TDG-DOE no. 4 and no. 5). In spite of the overlap, no distinct marker beds were found to facilitate a positive correlation between the two cores. Reconstruction of the total Chattanooga section was based on detailed field mapping of the uppermost dark-gray shale below the base of the Grainger Formation and the projection of the beds. The total thickness of the Chattanooga Shale at the coring locations is estimated to be 1650 to 1700 ft.

  15. Paleomagnetism of the Astrobiology Drilling Project 8 drill core, Pilbara, Western Australia: implications for the early geodynamo and Archean tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, K.; Weiss, B.; Carporzen, L.; Anbar, A.; Buick, R.

    2008-12-01

    Paleomagnetic measurements from the Archean Pilbara craton have recently been used to argue for the presence of a substantial magnetic field at 3.2 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2007), as well as for extremely fast plate motions or true polar wander (Strik et al., 2003, Suganuma et al., 2006). Paleomagnetic records in the Archean are fundamentally limited by the scarcity of well-preserved, low metamorphic grade Archean rocks. Where such rocks are exposed, paleomagnetic sampling is often difficult or impossible due to pervasive lightning remagnetization and deep weathering of the cratonic surface. More pristine samples can potentially be obtained from shallow drill cores like those obtained by the Astrobiology Drilling Project (ABDP). We present a paleomagnetic analysis of the ~350 m deep ABDP-8 drill core, which was drilled in the East Strelley greenstone belt and which penetrated the Double Bar Formation of the Warrawoona Group, as well as the unconformably overlying Euro Basalt and Strelley Pool Chert units of the Kelly Group. Full sample orientation (declination and inclination) was achieved through the use of a Ballmark orientation system. A strong drilling overprint was removed for most samples by alternating field demagnetization to 20 mT. Subsequent thermal demagnetization revealed single-polarity magnetic directions within the Euro Basalt and Double Bar Formation carried by magnetite. The directions from these two Formations are statistically different to >95% confidence, which constitutes a positive unconformity test and indicates that the Euro Basalt direction is primary. Upon tilt correction, the ~3.34-3.37 Ga Euro Basalt direction is indistinguishable from the tilt-corrected direction found previously in the ~3.46 Ga Duffer Formation of the Warrawoona Group (McElhinny and Senanayake, 1980). The Euro Basalt direction, if taken at face value, implies small relative motion of the Pilbara Craton from ~3.46 Ga to ~3.34 Ga. This is inconsistent with the apparent polar wander path presented for the ~3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member of the Towers Formation (Suganuma et al., 2006). The lack of reversals in the sequence is consistent with a low reversal frequency in early Earth history, as has been suggested by dynamo models for the Earth with a small inner core (Coe and Glatzmaier, 2006).

  16. Petrologic studies of drill cores USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Caporuscio, F.; Vaniman, D.; Bish, D.; Broxton, D.; Arney, B.; Heiken, G.; Byers, F.; Gooley, R.; Semarge, E.

    1982-07-01

    The tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation as a possible deep geologic site for high-level radioactive waste disposal. This report characterizes tuff retrieved in core from two drill holes, USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, at the Yucca Mountain block. The USW-G2 drill core is from the northernmost extent of the block, whereas UE25b-1H is adjacent to an earlier drill hole, UE25a-1. The drill cores USW-G2 and UE25b-1H bottomed at 6000 and 4200 ft, respectively. Petrographic and x-ray diffraction studies of the two drill cores are presented in this report and indicate that tuffs (composed primarily of variably welded ash flows) are partially recrystallized to secondary minerals. Correlations of stratigraphy are also made with previous drill cores from Yucca Mountain.

  17. Permeability and of the San Andreas Fault core and damage zone from SAFOD drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbun, A. P.; Fry, M.; Kitajima, H.; Song, I.; Carpenter, B. M.; Marone, C.; Saffer, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying fault-rock permeability is important toward understanding both the regional hydrologic behavior of fault zones, and poro-elastic processes that may affect faulting and earthquake mechanics by mediating effective stress. These include persistent fluid overpressures hypothesized to reduce fault strength, as well as dynamic processes that may occur during earthquake slip, including thermal pressurization and dilatancy hardening. To date, studies of permeability on fault rocks and gouge from plate-boundary strike-slip faults have mainly focused on samples from surface outcrops. We report on permeability tests conducted on the host rock, damage zone, and a major actively creeping fault strand (Central Deformation Zone, CDZ) of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), obtained from coring across the active SAF at ~2.7 km depth as part of SAFOD Phase III. We quantify permeability on subsamples oriented both perpendicular and parallel to the coring axis, which is nearly perpendicular to the SAF plane, to evaluate permeability anisotropy. The fault strand samples were obtained from the CDZ, which accommodates significant creep, and hosts ~90% of the observed casing deformation measured between drilling phases. The CDZ is 2.6 m thick with a matrix grain size < 10 μm and ~5% vol. clasts, and contains ~80% clay, of which ~90% is smectite. We also tested damage zone samples taken from adjacent core sections within a few m on either side of the CDZ. Permeability experiments were conducted in a triaxial vessel, on samples 25.4 mm in diameter and ~20-35 mm in length. We conducted measurements under isotropic stress conditions, at effective stress (Pc') of ~5-70 MPa. We measure permeability using a constant head flow-through technique. At the highest Pc', low permeability of the CDZ and damage zone necessitates using a step loading transient method and is in good agreement with permeabilities obtained from flow-through experiments. We quantify compression behavior by monitoring the volumetric and axial strain in response to changes in effective stress. Permeability of the CDZ is systematically lower than that of the damage zone or wall rock, and decreases from 2x10 -19m 2 at 5 MPa effective stress to 5x10-21 m 2 at 65 MPa. Some damage zone samples exhibit permeabilities as low as the CDZ, but most values are ~10-30 times higher. For both the damage zone and CDZ, permeability anisotropy is negligible. Volumetric compressibility (mv) decreases from ~1x10-9 Pa-1 to ~1x10-10 Pa-1 and hydraulic diffusivity decreases from ~2x10-7 m2/s to 1.7x10-8 m2/s over a range of effective stresses from 10 to 65 MPa. Our results are consistent with published geochemical data from SAFOD mud gas monitoring, and from inferred pore pressures during drilling [Zoback et al., 2010], which together suggest that the fault has a low permeability and is a barrier to regional fluid flow along. Our results also demonstrate that the diffusivity of the fault core of CDZ is sufficiently low to result in effectively undrained behavior over timescales of minutes to hours, thus facilitating dynamic hydrologic processes that may impact fault slip, including thermal pressurization and dilatancy hardening.

  18. Geophysical constraints on extensional deformation at slow-spreading rate ridges and the evolution of oceanic core complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Antony; Pressling, Nicola; Gee, Jeffrey; John, Barbara; MacLeod, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip extensional detachment faults. The common occurrence of these structures in slow and ultra-slow spreading oceanic crust suggests they accommodate a significant component of plate divergence. However, the sub-surface geometry of oceanic detachment faults remains unclear. Competing models involve either: (a) displacement on planar, low-angle faults with little tectonic rotation; or (b) progressive shallowing by rotation of initially steeply dipping faults as a result of flexural unloading (the "rolling-hinge" model). We address this debate using paleomagnetic remanences to test for tectonic rotation of a unique 1.4 km long footwall section of gabbroic rocks recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 304/305 to Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). This forms an inside-corner bathymetric high at the intersection of the Atlantis Transform Fault and the MAR. The central dome of the massif exposes the corrugated detachment fault surface, which has tectonically unroofed a faulted and complexly layered footwall section dominated by gabbroic lithologies with minor ultramafic rocks. The core (IODP Hole U1309D) reflects the interplay between magmatism and deformation prior to, during, and subsequent to a period of footwall displacement and denudation associated with slip on the detachment fault. Palaeomagnetic remanence directions are routinely used as markers for tectonic rotation in a variety of tectonic settings, However, in ODP and IODP hard rock core materials their utility is limited by the lack of azimuthal control on the orientation of core samples. Individual core pieces are free to rotate within the core barrel, effectively randomising remanence declinations and allowing only the inclination of the magnetic vector to be used in tectonic analyses. In these circumstances, tectonic rotation may be inferred from differences between observed and reference inclinations, but the amount of rotation and the orientation of the rotation axis cannot be constrained directly. Robust, quantitative constraints on tectonic rotation parameters can only be obtained from fully oriented palaeomagnetic data (i.e. both remanence declination and inclination), yet current IODP hard rock drilling technologies do not permit collection of oriented drill core samples. For the first time we have overcome this limitation by independently reorienting core pieces to a true geographic reference frame by correlating structures within individual pieces with those identified from oriented geophysical imagery of the borehole wall. This allows reorientation of paleomagnetic data and subsequent tectonic interpretation without the need for a priori assumptions on the azimuth of the rotation axis. The resulting dataset from Atlantis Massif indicates a 466 counterclockwise rotation of the footwall around a MAR-parallel horizontal axis trending 0116. This provides unequivocal confirmation of the key prediction of flexural, rolling-hinge models for oceanic core complexes. The data demonstrate that the Atlantis Massif detachment fault initiated at a dip of at least 50 and subsequently rotated to its present day low angle geometry during extensional deformation and unroofing.

  19. A Mentoring Program Drills down on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Emily; Sinclair, Steve; Gschwend, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Santa Cruz/Silicon Valley New Teacher Project--under the aegis of the New Teacher Center--devised a program to train teacher mentors to help new teachers incorporate the Common Core standards into their teaching. The three-year program yielded five critical lessons: Mentors need ongoing support to develop their readiness and willingness to

  20. A Mentoring Program Drills down on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Emily; Sinclair, Steve; Gschwend, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Santa Cruz/Silicon Valley New Teacher Project--under the aegis of the New Teacher Center--devised a program to train teacher mentors to help new teachers incorporate the Common Core standards into their teaching. The three-year program yielded five critical lessons: Mentors need ongoing support to develop their readiness and willingness to…

  1. Diaplectic transformation of minerals: Vorotilov drill core, Puchezh-Katunki impact crater, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, V. I.

    1992-01-01

    The Vorotilov core was drilled in the central uplift of the Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme to a depth of 5.1 km. Impactites are revealed in the rocks of the core beginning from a depth of 366 m: suevites (66 m), allogenic breccias (112 m), and autogenic breccias (deeper than 544 m). These rocks are represented by shocked-metamorphic gneisses, schists, amphibolites of Archean age, and magmatic rocks (dolerites, olivines, and peridotites) that lie between them.

  2. The remarkable chemical uniformity of Apollo 16 layered deep drill core section 60002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, D. F.; Philpotts, J. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Atomic absorption and colorimetric spectrophotometers were used to determine major- and minor-element abundances in 12 samples from layered section 60002 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. It is suggested that gardening of a relatively thick local unit produced the layering in this section in such a manner that the proportions of materials of different compositions remained virtually unchanged.

  3. Pervasive, high temperature hydrothermal alteration in the RN-17B drill core, Reykjanes Geothermal System-Iceland Deep Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Reed, M. H.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2010-12-01

    In November 2008, 9.5 m of core were recovered from Reykjanes production well RN-17B at a depth of 2800m. The core consists mainly of hyaloclastite breccias, hetrolithic breccias with clasts of crystalline basalt, and volcaniclastic sandstones/siltstones. Much of the material appears to have been transported and redeposited, but homolithic breccias and hyaloclastites, some with upright flow lobes of basalt with quenched rims, are interpreted to have erupted in situ. Fine-scale features (glass rims, quench crystals, vesicles, phenocrysts) are well preserved, but all lithologies are pervasively hydrothermally altered such that primary clinopyroxene is ubiquitously uralitized and primary plagioclase (An42-80) is replaced by albite and/or more calcic plagioclase. In contrast, cuttings of similar lithologies, recovered by rotary drilling in intervals immediately above and below the core, exhibit much lesser degrees of hydrothermal alteration and commonly contain igneous plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Vitric clasts in the core are recrystallized into aggregates of chlorite and actinolite. In some breccias, cm-scale metadomains are composed of patchy albite or actinolite/magnesiohornblende giving the core a green and white spotted appearance. Minor amounts (<1%) of disseminated pyrite occur throughout the core, but two intervals with more abundant sulfide contain chalcopyrite and sphalerite in addition to pyrite. Amygdales and vugs in the breccias, initially filled with chlorite, actinolite, epidote, and/or albite, have been partly overprinted with hornblende and anorthite. The core is cut in places by < 1 cm- wide veins composed of early epidote + actinolite + titanite and later anorthite + magnesiohornblende/pargasite. Quartz is not present in any alteration domains observed in the core, although it is reported from virtually all of the cutting intervals above and below the cored section. Seawater-basalt reaction calculations suggest that albite formed during early burial at T<300 is replaced by more calcic plagioclase at higher temperature. Texturally, hydrothermal anorthite (An90-98) and pargasite (up to 13.5 wt % Al2O3) appear to have grown at the expense of earlier formed epidote + chlorite + actinolite. Measured downhole temperature at 2800m in RN-17B following reequilibration was 320°C, although amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry imply that anorthite + pargasite, if in equilibrium, should have formed at much higher temperatures. The differences in extent and intensity of alteration inferred from examination of cuttings compared to drill core indicate that selective recovery and mixing of cuttings from multiple depths may be a larger problem than presently appreciated. Previous work has shown that the Reykjanes geothermal system has evolved from a meteoric water-dominated system to higher salinity system dominated by seawater-recharge. The paragenetic relationships that are discernible in the core hopefully will allow us to quantify the alteration processes related to the change in salinity.

  4. Compositions of On-Site Monitoring on Dissolved Gas of Drilling Mud Flow and Pore-Gases of Drilled Cores of TCDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. F.; Walia, V.; Lee, H.; Song, S.; Wang, C.

    2005-12-01

    Using a degasser device, we continuously pump the dissolved gas from drilling mud water to monitor the dissolved gas composition of drilling mud flow at TCDP drilling site through an automatic monitoring station equipped with quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and radon detector. Besides the gas monitoring, we also extract gas samples in situ from the drilled cores to further check their gas composition and sources at different depths. The results show that the dissolved gases of drilling mud and pore gases of drilled samples are mainly composed of N2, O2, Ar, which are atmospheric air composition. However, some distinct CO2, CH4 and radon enriched zones can be recognized at various depths. It implies that CO2 and CH4 are main gas sources underneath the region and can be detected at high porosity zone, where are usually fractural and/or fault zones. From the variations of gas composition along the drilling depth, we are able to detect some possible fracture and fault zones in different depth which can correlate well with the logging data and drilling cores.

  5. Mineral and Lithology Mapping of Drill Core Pulps Using Visible and Infrared Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G. R.

    2000-12-15

    A novel approach for using field spectrometry for determining both the mineralogy and the lithology of drill core pulps (powders) is developed and evaluated. The methodology is developed using material from a single drillhole through a mineralized sequence of rocks from central New South Wales. Mineral library spectra are used in linear unmixing routines to determine the mineral abundances in drill core pulps that represent between 1 m and 3 m of core. Comparison with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses shows that for most major constituents, spectrometry provides an estimate of quantitative mineralogy that is as reliable as that provided by XRD. Confusion between the absorption features of calcite and those of chlorite causes the calcite contents determined by spectrometry to be unreliable. Convex geometry is used to recognize the spectra of those samples that are extreme and are representative of unique lithologies. Linear unmixing is used to determine the abundance of these lithologies in each drillhole sample and these abundances are used to interpret the geology of the drillhole. The interpreted geology agrees well with conventional drillhole logs of the visible geology and photographs of the split core. The methods developed provide a quick and cost-effective way of determining the lithology and alteration mineralogy of drill core pulps.

  6. Best practices in core and data management for lake drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noren, A. J.; Brady, K. L.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.

    2009-12-01

    LacCore, the National Lacustrine Core Facility, was founded a decade ago by the US National Science Foundation and the University of Minnesota in part to support lake drilling projects made possible by the parallel advent of the Global Lake Drilling (GLAD) platform and tools. Since that time, LacCore has participated in 8 of the 11 GLAD projects, assisting with planning, field, lab, and archival phases as required by each project. This experience has informed work on future projects, for which we encourage science groups to utilize existing, proven resources and relationships within ICDP, DOSECC, and LacCore to achieve project goals efficiently. Bringing people from these groups together early in the planning process is critical to obtaining a thorough understanding of the resources available to projects, and for identifying new project-specific needs. In the planning stage, this experience allows for rapid generation of supplies lists and budget estimates, and avoidance of costly logistical mistakes. In the field, LacCore personnel serve as an effective interface among drillers and scientists, and provide critical institutional memory between projects with different PIs and drillers. Standard procedures and equipment for core handling and data capture at the drill site vastly simplify core and data management downstream. In the lab, optimization of core processing techniques, an array of high-end instrumentation, and ample personnel and both work- and storage space maximize the efficiency of core processing and sampling. Unique project-specific requirements drive continual adaptation and expansion of the resources available to subsequent groups. These established resources free PIs from some of the enormous logistical burden created by these large-scale projects.

  7. Core- and log-based geophysical investigations of Neogene deposition on continental margins of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handwerger, David Allen

    Geophysical studies were undertaken during two Ocean Drilling Program cruises in and around the Southern Ocean. Log data were collected during Legs 181 and 188, and rock-magnetic data were collected from samples taken during Leg 181. A combination of downhole logging and continuous-core geophysical measurements was used to create synthetic seismograms to ground-truth seismic profiles recorded in Prydz Bay, Antarctica, and to derive high-resolution mass accumulation rate (MAR) curves of Neogene deposition around the margins of the Southern Ocean. The synthetic seismograms identify the causes of several major regional reflectors in the Prydz Bay region by tying the reflectors to observed petrophysical changes in holes drilled on the continental shelf and rise. The MAR curves document changes in the extent of Antarctic glacial ice and its relationship to deep current activity in the surrounding Southern Ocean. Also recorded in the MAR curves are movements of oceanographic fronts, the northward drift of Australia and Tasmania from Antarctica, changes in the climate of New Zealand and the desertification of Australia. Rock-magnetic models were created with synthetic-magnetite hysteresis data. They suggest that for broad lognormal grain size distributions, centered around the pseudo-single domain size range, changes in hysteresis parameters are not a reliable indicator of changes in mean magnetic grain size. Extending this concept to the use of relative magnetic grain size as a proxy for relative terrigenous grain size, natural sediments tend to have lognormal grain size distributions sufficiently broad that this is an issue. Therefore, hysteresis parameters are a problematical proxy for relative changes in mean terrigenous grain size. Parameters sensitive to the abundance of magnetic material, however, are good proxies for terrigenous concentration. These predictions were explored (1) by Leg 181 studies, (2) by combined rock-magnetic measurements, statistical analysis of wireline logs, and conventional grain size analyses, and (3) by evaluation of all three as indicators of terrigenous grain size and abundance. The results were used to document changes in the intensity of the Deep Western Boundary Current east of New Zealand, expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and acceleration of the tectonic uplift of the Southern Alps.

  8. Paleomagnetic Reorientation of Structural Elements in Drill Cores: an example from Tolhuaca Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Flores, P.; Veloso, E. E.; Cembrano, J. M.; Sánchez, P.; Iriarte, S.; Lohmar, S.

    2013-12-01

    Reorientation of mesoscopic faults, veins and fractures recovered from drilling is critical to construct reliable structural models that can account for their architecture and deformation regime. However, oriented cores are expensive and time consuming to drill. Some techniques achieve reorientation by introducing tools into the borehole. Problems arise when boreholes are unstable or collapse. One alternative technique allowing reorientation is to obtain reliable paleomagnetic vectors to reorient each core piece after drilling. Here, we present stable and reliable remnant magnetic vectors calculated from the Tol-1 core to analyze the geometry of the fracture network and its relationship to regional tectonic. Tol-1 core is a vertical, 1073 m deep geothermal well, drilled at the Tolhuaca Geothermal Field in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes by MRP Geothermal Chile Ltda (formerly GGE Chile SpA) in 2009. The core consists of basaltic/andesitic volcanic rocks with subordinate pyroclastic/volcaniclastic units, with probable Pleistocene age. Fault planes with slickenlines and mineral fiber kinematic indicators are common in the upper 700 m of the core. Calcite, quartz and calcite-quartz veins are recognized along of entire core, whereas epidote-quartz and calcite-epidote veins occur in the last 350 m, minor chlorite, anhydrite and clay-minerals are present. Orientations of structural features in the core were measured with a goniometer using the core's axis and a false north for each piece; hence, orientation data has a false strike but a real dip. To achieve total reorientation of the pieces, we collected 200 standard-size paleomagnetic specimens, ensuring that at least four of them were recovered from continuous pieces. Thermal (up to 700°C) and alternating field demagnetization (up to 90mT on steps of 2mT) methods were used to isolate a stable remnant magnetization (RM) vector, and each technique yielded similar results. RM vectors were recovered between 0 to 25mT, and between 0 to 625°C. The declination of RM vectors was used to bring pieces to a common anchor orientation calculated through the Geocentric Axial Dipole Model (GAD). The paleomagnetic technique proved to be reliable to reorient the Tol-1 core. Structural analyses along the core show N50-60E-striking preferential vein orientation. In addition, N40-50E- and N60-70W-striking preferential fault orientations were identified. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data shows a N60E-striking bulk fault plane solution with normal strain regime. The veins and faults orientation show strain axes compatible with published regional stress field (σmax N238E).

  9. Geologic and geophysical data for wells drilled at Raft River Valley, Cassia County, Idaho, in 1977-1978 and data for wells drilled previously

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel; Urban, Thomas C.; Covington, Harry R.

    2014-01-01

    For purposes of defining the thermal anomaly for the geothermal system, temperature gradients are calculated over long depth intervals on the basis of the appearance of reasonable linear segments on a temperature versus plot depth.  Temperature versus depth data for some drill holes can be represented by a single gradient, whereas others require multiple gradients to match the data.  Data for some drill holes clearly reflect vertical flows of water in the formation surrounding the drill holes, and water velocities are calculated for these drill holes.  Within The Narrows area, temperature versus depth data show reversals at different depth in different drill holes.  In the main thermal area, temperatures in intermediate-depth drill holes vary approximately linearly but with very high values of temperature gradient.  Temperature gradients on a map of the area can be reasonable divided into a large area of regional gradients and smaller areas defining the thermal anomalies.

  10. The Apollo 17 drill core - Modal petrology and glass chemistry /sections 70007, 70008, 70009/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of modal petrography the upper, mare basalt-rich portion of the Apollo 17 drill core (sections 70007, 70008, 70009) can be subdivided into three major stratigraphic units. The lower unit (a) falls within 70007, is relatively mature, and contains evidence of an increase in highland component and decrease of mare component within the lower approximately 8 cm. The middle unit (b) is coarse-grained and relatively immature; this unit has the highest concentration of mare basalt lithic and mineral fragments and mare orange/black glasses. The top unit (c) falls within 70009 and is relatively mature. Within these three sections of the drill core, there are compositional clusters of glass beads that correspond to high Ti subfloor basalt (orange/black glass), anorthositic gabbro (clear glass), and a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt (yellow/green glass).

  11. Core drilling provides information about Santa Fe Group aquifer system beneath Albuquerque's West Mesa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, B.D.; Connell, S.D.; Hawley, J.W.; Stone, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Core samples from the upper ???1500 ft of the Santa Fe Group in the Albuquerque West Mesa area provide a first-hand look at the sediments and at subsurface stratigraphic relationships in this important part of the basin-fill aquifer system. Two major hydrostratigraphic subunits consisting of a lower coarse-grained, sandy interval and an overlying fine-grained, interbedded silty sand and clay interval lie beneath the water table at the 98th St core hole. Borehole electrical conductivity measurements reproduce major textural changes observed in the recovered cores and support subsurface correlations of hydrostratigraphic units in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system based on geophysical logs. Comparison of electrical logs from the core hole and from nearby city wells reveals laterally consistent lithostratigraphic patterns over much of the metropolitan area west of the Rio Grande that may be used to delineate structural and related stratigraphic features that have a direct bearing on the availability of ground water.

  12. Mineralogic variation in drill core UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S.J.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction methods have been used to analyze 108 samples from drill core UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This drill hole, located within the imbricate fault zone east of the potential Yucca Mountain repository site, confirms the authors` previous knowledge of gross-scale mineral distributions at Yucca Mountain and provides insight into possible shallow pathways for hydrologic recharge into the potential host rock. Analyses of samples from UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 have shown that the distribution of major zeolitized horizons, of silica phases, and of glassy tuffs are similar to those noted in nearby drill cores. However, the continuous core and closer sample spacing in UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 provide a more exact determination of mineral stratigraphy, particularly in hydrologically important units such as the Paintbrush bedded tuffs above the Topopah Spring Tuff and in the upper vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Tuff. The discovery of matrix zeolitization in the devitrified Topopah Spring Tuff of UE25 UZ{number_sign}16 shows that some unexpected mineralogic features can still be encountered in the exploration of Yucca Mountain and emphasizes the importance of obtaining a more complete three-dimensional model of Yucca Mountain mineralogy.

  13. Characterization of the indigenous microorganisms in Exter Formation sandstone rock cores obtained during deep drilling and evaluation of contamination by drill mud using fluorescein.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzari, Linda; Neumann, Dominik; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-04-01

    Microorganisms are very effective catalysts and have an important function in mineral and elemental distribution within geological formations. CO2 injection may influence the microbial activities by affecting the composition of the rock-fluid system. Reactions like mineral dissolution and precipitation, related to biological processes may influence aquifer injectivity or permeability of faults. In subsurface reservoirs, a baseline characterization of pristine rock cores is required to monitor changes in the indigenous microbial communities and to study interactions with geotechnical installations. However, drilling procedures and technical fluids, particularly drill mud, are sources of core contamination. To measure the penetration of drill mud into the cores the tracer fluorescein was tested under laboratory as well as under field conditions. The actual penetration depths seem to be related to differences in geology, such as structural heterogeneities or microfractures. The application of fluorescein was successfully applied during a deep drilling campaign at the CO2 storage pilot site in Ketzin, Germany, in August 2011. During inner coring, crowns of 17.5 mm were removed from the outside. Fluorescein analysis showed that after an inner coring 45% (five samples out of eleven) were not influenced by drill mud. The results highlight that the use of tracers is indispensable to ensuring the quality of core samples for microbiological and biogeochemical analysis. Core samples of the Exter Formation (sandstone above the caprock, 400-440 m depth) were retrieved in order to investigate the indigenous microbial community and to investigate the interaction between CO2, fluid formation, rock substrate and microorganisms in long term experiments with geochemical and molecularbiological techniques. The microbial baseline characterization for rock cores of Exter Formation before CO2 exposure revealed a similar bacterial community composition in all samples. First results of sequence analyses indicated the presence of bacteria related to Acinetobacter sp., Comamonadaceae and Sphingobium sp. which can be found in various deep subsurface or soil habitats (e.g. Ochrobactrum sp.).

  14. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N. B.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75°37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  15. Lithologic and geophysical logs of drill holes Felderhoff Federal 5-1 and 25-1, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.; Grow, J.A.; Keller, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    Two wildcat oil and gas exploration holes drilled in 1991 on the northern edge of the Amargosa Desert penetrated Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks, alluvium, and basalt, possible Tertiary volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks, and Tertiary (?) and Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The easternmost of the two holes, Felderhoff-Federal 5-1, encountered about 200 feet of alluvium, underlain by 305 feet of basalt breccia and basalt, about 345 feet of probable Tertiary tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and 616 feet of dense limestone and dolomite of uncertain age. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated 240 feet of alluvium and marl (?), and 250 feet of basalt breccia (?) and basalt, 270 feet of tuff (?) and/or tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, 360 feet of slide blocks (?) and large boulders of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and 2,800 feet of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite. The two drill holes are located within a northerly trending fault zone defined largely by geophysical data; this fault zone lies along the east side of a major rift containing many small basalt eruptive centers and, farther north, several caldera complexes. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated an inverted paleozoic rock sequence; drill hole 5-1 encountered two large cavities 24-inches wide or more in dense carbonate rock of uncertain, but probable Paleozoic age. These openings may be tectonic and controlled by a regional system of northeast-striking faults.

  16. First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC-1): Drilling report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.; Hawkins, W.; Gardner, J.

    1987-02-01

    This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at Long Valley, California; Salton Sea, California; and the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy of the core hole, core quality description, core rig specifications, and performance. It is intended to guide future research on the core and in the borehole, as well as have applications to other areas and scientific problems in the Valles Caldera. The primary objectives of this Valles Caldera coring effort were (1) to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow, (2) to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations in the southern ring-fracture zone, and (3) to obtain continuous core samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito rhyolite (approximately 0.1 Ma). All objectives were met. The high percentage of core recovery and the excellent quality of the samples are especially notable. New field sample (core) handling and documentation procedures were successfully utilized. The procedures were designed to provide consistent field handling of the samples and logs obtained through the national CSDP.

  17. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75° 37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that a deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  18. Characters of Faults and Structures Revealed from Cores and Wire-line logs in Hole-A of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Hung, J.; Yeh, E.; Dong, J.

    2005-12-01

    In 2004-2005 two holes (hole-A and B) for Taiwan Chelungpu fault Drilling Project (TCDP) were drilled in Takeng, west-central Taiwan. Hole-A was drilled with continuously coring from 500 to 2003 m. Besides conventional wire-line downhole geophysical logs, Dipole Shear Sonic Imaging (DSI) and high- resolution micro-resistivity image (FMI/FMS) tools were run at the interval of 508 to 1865 m. Among all fault zones, several characters revealed from hole-A indicate that fault zone at depth 1111m is the best candidate for 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Here we present an integrated results from logs and cores including percentage of velocity anisotropy, differential cross energy, lithology, caliper, fast shear azimuth, fracture density and fracture distribution. We use on-site core description, wire-log data (natural gamma ray (GR)), and core images to determine lithology and correlate drilling and log depth. Fractures were picked from `unrolled' core images to obtain fracture density. Average fracture density from 500 to 2003 m is 1.91/m and reaches the highest around FZ1111 with a value of 14/m at 1107 m log depth. Percentage of velocity anisotropy from DSI tool has negative correlation to GR-derived lithology (covariance -0.49) in several sections, especially in sandstone. Mean azimuth of fast shear polarization (FSH) is 113° (95% confidence interval = ±2°) and is roughly parallel to the dip direction of bedding or the direction of regional maximum horizontal principal stress. Compared with overall data, the mean FSH azimuth in the interval of 1050-1200 m rotated toward south with increasing variance (mean resultant = 134°, 95% confidence interval = ±11°). Despite fracture density and distribution variance are high at depth 1050-1200 m, MSD data (mean-square dip analyzed from FMS) keeps the same orientation (103°) with respect to the mean dip direction of bedding and structure, indicating that FSH-Azimuth is less affected by fracture attitude. Besides, compiled data suggested that GR-derived lithology has some connection to maximum cross energy, energy anisotropy, and fast shear azimuth, which might reflect relationship of inherent and stress induced anisotropy with specific formations in the drilling site.

  19. Preliminary Palaeomagnetic Results from ICDP Barberton Greenstone Belt Scientific Drill Cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts Artal, Laura; Biggin, Andy; Langereis, Cor; Wilson, Allan; Arndt, Nicholas; Hill, Mimi

    2013-04-01

    Four drill cores from the ICDP Barberton Greenstone Belt Scientific Drilling Project have been sampled for palaeomagnetic analysis. Some 350 oriented mini-samples (10mm diameter) were collected from cores BARB1 to BARB 4, allowing units from the Onverwacht (Komatii and Hooggenoeg Formations) and Fig Tree Groups to be studied. Previous work has indicated that rocks from the Noisy and Hooggenoeg Formations have the potential to record a near-primary direction of remanence and suggest the presence of a reversing geomagnetic field of similar magnitude to the recent field at ca. 3.5Ga. Previous paleomagnetic studies carried out on the Komatii Formation have yielded one of the oldest paleomagnetic poles and intensities in the world but these results are even more questionable. So far, no paleomagnetic work has been carried out on the Buck Reef Chert Formation or the Fig Tree Group. This sampling forms part of a larger study aiming, firstly to constrain the reliability of previous results by performing improved field stability tests. A positive fold test would constrain the age of the magnetic signal recorded by the Komatii and Hooggenoeg Formations to older than 3.2 Ga. Confirmation of the presence of a viable and reversing field during the Palaeoarchean would place a strong constraint on processes occurring in the outer core during this time with implications for planetary evolution. Rates of polar wander will also be constrained by the directional findings, shedding some light on mantle convection processes at the time. Preliminary directional work on samples from drill cores will be presented here.

  20. Strike-dip determination of fractures in drill cores by an astatic-magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, M.; Furutani, N.

    1982-10-01

    The strike and dip of fractures in drillcores from Well HT-4 drilled in the Hatchobaru geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan, have been determined using an astatic-magnetometer. Since the drill cores consist mainly of younger andesite lavas, the measurements of the declination and inclination of remnant magnetism should yield the strike and dip of the fractures. The results show that they dip generally southward with angles from 40/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ (62.5 on the average), and strike NW-SE or NE-SW. The NW-SE trending fractures predominate in the Pleistocene series, which persists at depths shallower than 1000 m, while the NE-SW trending ones occur in the Neogene system at deeper levels, and are considered to be older than the former. The stress field can also be estimated by the strike-dip data and the direction of lineation on a slickenside.

  1. Carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wszolek, P. C.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores is a function of the surface exposure plus the chemical and mineralogical composition of the individual samples. The depth profiles of carbide and methane yields in the Apollo 15 core show a general decline with depth and correlate with the solar wind noble gas content, percentage agglutinates, track densities, and metallic iron. All horizons examined were exposed for a considerable time on the lunar surface. The Apollo 16 core samples show that chemical and mineralogical composition plays an important role in determining the nature of carbide-like material present in the fines. The higher aluminum and calcium contents and lower iron contents of highlands material result in carbide-like material yielding less CD4 and more C2D2 (deuteroacetylene) upon DF acid dissolution.

  2. The Chicxulub impact structure: What does the Yaxcopoil-1 drill core reveal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbra, T.

    2013-05-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure, one of the largest impact structures on Earth, was formed 65 Ma by hypervelocity impact which led to the large mass-extinction at K-Pg boundary. This well preserved but buried structure has undergone numerous drillings and studies aimed to understand the formation mechanism, structure and age of the crater. The Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) drill core, located in the southern sector of the Chicxulub crater, in the outer part of an annular trough, 62 km from the crater center, was drilled by ICDP in 2001-2002. Petrophysical, rock- and paleomagnetic studies of Yax-1 (Elbra and Pesonen, 2011) showed that physical properties characterize the various lithological units. Dependence on mineral composition rather than fabric was observed in pre-impact lithologies contrarily to the post-impact and impact rocks where the physical properties were dominated by porosity and reflected, in case of impactites, the impact formation mechanism with its numerous features resulting from melting, brecciation and fracturing. Furthermore, while the pre- and post-impact lithologies in Yax-1 are mostly dia- or paramagnetic, the impactite units indicated enhanced magnetizations and the presence of ferromagnetic, probably hydrothermally deposited magnetite and pyrrhotite. The sharp contrast of the impactites to the target and to post-impact lithologies allowed establishing the contact (especially the K-Pg boundary) between. The anisotropy, shape and orientation of the magnetic fraction illustrated the fabric randomization and showed the influence of impact-related redeposition and hydrothermal activity. The paleomagnetic data suggested that the Chicxulub impact occurred during the reverse polarity geomagnetic chron 29R, which is in agreement with the isotopic dates of the Chicxulub impact as well as with expected K-Pg boundary polarity. Reference Elbra, T. and Pesonen, L.J., 2011. Physical properties of the Yaxcopoil-1 deep drill core, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 46, 11, p. 1640-1652.

  3. Rare gases and Ca, Sr, and Ba in Apollo 17 drill-core fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.; Dragon, J. C.; Johnson, N. L.; Bates, A.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Trapped gas isotopic compositions and spallation gas concentrations as functions of depth in the Apollo 17 drill core were determined from mass spectrometer studies by means of correlation techniques. The distribution of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe as well as Ca, Sr, and Ba was investigated, and rare-gas spallation and neutron capture profiles are compared with attention to proposed depositional models for the Taurus-Littrow regolith. The data exclude a sedimentation pattern similar to that found at the Apollo 15 site but are possibly compatible with long-term continuous accretion models or models of very recent rapid accumulation of regolith.

  4. Procedures for use of, and drill cores and cuttings available for study at, the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.C.; Hannula, S.R.; Bowers, B.

    1997-03-01

    In 1990, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, established the Lithologic Core Storage Library at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The facility was established to consolidate, catalog, and permanently store nonradioactive drill cores and cuttings from investigations of the subsurface conducted at the INEL, and to provide a location for researchers to examine, sample, and test these materials. The facility is open by appointment to researchers for examination, sampling, and testing of cores and cuttings. This report describes the facility and cores and cuttings stored at the facility. Descriptions of cores and cuttings include the well names, well locations, and depth intervals available. Most cores and cuttings stored at the facility were drilled at or near the INEL, on the eastern Snake River Plain; however, two cores drilled on the western Snake River Plain are stored for comparative studies. Basalt, rhyolite, sedimentary interbeds, and surficial sediments compose the majority of cores and cuttings, most of which are continuous from land surface to their total depth. The deepest core stored at the facility was drilled to 5,000 feet below land surface. This report describes procedures and researchers` responsibilities for access to the facility, and examination, sampling, and return of materials.

  5. Study of Hydrothermal Mineralization in 2013 Drill Core from Hawaii Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautze, N. C.; Calvin, W. M.; Moore, J.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project (HGRP) drilled a continuously-cored hole to nearly 2 km depth near the Saddle Road between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island in March of 2013. Temperatures at the bottom of the hole were unexpectedly high and reached over 100 C. A study is underway to characterize hydrothermal (secondary) mineralization in the core at depths below ~ 1 km. Secondary mineralization can indicate the presence, chemistry, and temperature of hydrothermal fluids, therein helping to characterize a present and/or past geothermal system. To date, the study is two pronged. In collaboration with University Nevada Reno (UNR) we used an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec instrument to obtain nearly 800 spectra from core depths spanning 3190 to 5785 feet. This device has a 2 cm contact probe that measures from 0.4 to 2.5 mm, and has been used successfully by UNR to identify depth-associated changes in alteration mineralogy and zoning in drill core from other pilot studies. The spectra indicate that rocks above a depth of ~1 km are only weakly altered. At greater depths to the base of the well, chlorite, possibly with some mica, and zeolites are common. The majority of zeolites are spectrally similar to each other at these wavelengths, however analcime and natrolite are uniquely identified in some sections. Epidote was not observed. The secondary mineral assemblages suggest that the alteration was produced by moderate temperature neutral pH fluids. Here, we used the spectral data as a survey tool to help identify and select over 20 sections of core for sampling and more detailed mineralogical analysis using traditional X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and petrographic techniques, conducted in collaboration with University of Utah. This presentation will include mineral maps with depth and results of the petrographic analyses.

  6. Characterization and depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Gose, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    With a depth resolution of about 0.5 cm, the stratigraphy of the approximately 3 m Apollo 17 deep drill core by measurement of the total FeO concentration is characterized along with the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index Is/FeO, the metallic iron concentration Fe-vsm, and the FMR linewidth delta-H. For stratigraphic characterization, the first two parameters are the most important. Most of the core is characterized by a FeO concentration of approximately 15.5 wt. %; there is a more mafic zone in the upper approximately 75 cm where the maximum FeO concentration is approximately 18.5 wt. %, and a more felsic zone between approximately 225 and 260 cm where the minimum FeO concentration is approximately 14.0%. As indicated by Is/FeO, most of the soil in the core is submature to mature; the only immature zone is located between approximately 20 and 60 cm and is one of the most distinctive features in the core. A two stage model for the depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core is proposed: (1) deposition by one event approximately 110 m.y. ago or deposition by a sequence of closely spaced events initating a maximum of approximately 200 m.y. ago and terminating approximately 110 m.y. ago, (2) in situ reworking (gardening) to a depth of approximately 26 cm in the period between approximately 110 m.y. ago and the present day.

  7. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential investigators who can help raise matching funds, e.g. for core description as part of petrological or structural studies or for drill site operations, are encouraged to contact the authors of this abstract.

  8. Geophysical signatures of past and present hydration within a young oceanic core complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Donna K.; Slagle, Angela; Guerin, Gilles; Harding, Alistair

    2014-02-01

    Borehole logging at the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex provides new information on the relationship between the physical properties and the lithospheric hydration of a slow-spread intrusive crustal section. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1309D penetrates 1.4 km into the footwall to an exposed detachment fault on the 1.2 Ma flank of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N. Downhole variations in seismic velocity and resistivity show a strong correspondence to the degree of alteration, a recorder of past seawater circulation. Average velocity and resistivity are lower, and alteration is more pervasive above a fault around 750 m. Deeper, these properties have higher values except in heavily altered ultramafic zones that are several tens of meters thick. Present circulation inferred from temperature mimics this pattern: advective cooling persists above 750 m, but below, conductive cooling dominates except for small excursions within the ultramafic zones. These alteration-related physical property signatures are probably a characteristic of gabbroic cores at oceanic core complexes.

  9. Interrelating the breakage and composition of mined and drill core coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Terril Edward

    Particle size distribution of coal is important if the coal is to be beneficiated, or if a coal sales contract includes particle size specifications. An exploration bore core sample of coal ought to be reduced from its original cylindrical form to a particle size distribution and particle composition that reflects, insofar as possible, a process stream of raw coal it represents. Often, coal cores are reduced with a laboratory crushing machine, the product of which does not match the raw coal size distribution. This study proceeds from work in coal bore core reduction by Australian investigators. In this study, as differentiated from the Australian work, drop-shatter impact breakage followed by dry batch tumbling in steel cylinder rotated about its transverse axis are employed to characterize the core material in terms of first-order and zeroth-order breakage rate constants, which are indices of the propensity of the coal to degrade during excavation and handling. Initial drop-shatter and dry tumbling calibrations were done with synthetic cores composed of controlled low-strength concrete incorporating fly ash (as a partial substitute for Portland cement) in order to reduce material variables and conserve difficult-to-obtain coal cores. Cores of three different coalbeds--Illinois No. 6, Upper Freeport, and Pocahontas No. 5 were subjected to drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling tests to determine breakage response. First-order breakage, characterized by a first-order breakage index for each coal, occurred in the drop-shatter tests. First- and zeroth-order breakage occurred in dry batch tumbling; disappearance of coarse particles and creation of fine particles occurred in a systematic way that could be represented mathematically. Certain of the coal cores available for testing were dry and friable. Comparison of coal preparation plant feed with a crushed bore core and a bore core prepared by drop-shatter and tumbling (all from the same Illinois No.6 coal mining property) indicated that the size distribution and size fraction composition of the drop-shattered/tumbled core more closely resembled the plant feed than the crushed core. An attempt to determine breakage parameters (to allow use of selection and breakage functions and population balance models in the description of bore core size reduction) was initiated. Rank determination of the three coal types was done, indicating that higher rank associates with higher breakage propensity. The two step procedure of drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling simulates the first-order (volume breakage) and zeroth-order (abrasion of particle surfaces) that occur in excavation and handling operations, and is appropriate for drill core reduction prior to laboratory analysis.

  10. The Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP): a high-resolution drill core record from a hominin site in the East African Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommain, R.; Potts, R.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The East African rift valley contains an outstanding record of hominin fossils that document human evolution over the Plio-Pleistocene when the global and regional climate and the rift valley itself changed markedly. The sediments of fossil localities typically provide, however, only short time windows into past climatic and environmental conditions. Continuous, long-term terrestrial records are now becoming available through core drilling to help elucidate the paleoenvironmental context of human evolution. Here we present a 500,000 year long high-resolution drill core record obtained from a key fossil and archeological site - the Olorgesailie Basin in the southern Kenya Rift Valley, well known for its sequence of archeological and faunal sites for the past 1.2 million years. In 2012 two drill cores (54 and 166 m long) were collected in the Koora Plain just south of Mt. Olorgesailie as part of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP) to establish a detailed climate and ecological record associated with the last evidence of Homo erectus in Africa, the oldest transition of Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology, and large mammal species turnover, all of which are documented in the Olorgesailie excavations. The cores were sampled at the National Lacustrine Core Facility. More than 140 samples of tephra and trachytic basement lavas have led to high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating. The cores are being analyzed for a suite of paleoclimatic and paleoecological proxies such as diatoms, pollen, fungal spores, phytoliths, ostracodes, carbonate isotopes, leaf wax biomarkers, charcoal, and clay mineralogy. Sedimentological analyses, including lithological descriptions, microscopic smear slide analysis (242 samples), and grain-size analysis, reveal a highly variable sedimentary sequence of deep lake phases with laminated sediments, diatomites, shallow lake and near shore phases, fluvial deposits, paleosols, interspersed carbonate layers, and abundant volcanic ash deposits. Magnetic susceptibility indicates climatic variation potentially related to precessional cycles.

  11. Borehole logging at the COSC-1 drill hole: a new dataset of in-situ geophysical properties through the lower Seve Nappe Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, Théo; Alm, Per-Gunnar; Wenning, Quinn; Almqvist, Bjarne; Kück, Jochem; Hedin, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) drilling project supported by the International Continental Drilling Program was designed to study mountain building processes in a deeply eroded Paleozoic orogen. The first half of this project, COSC-1, targeted the lower part of the high grade Seve Nappe Complex and its basal thrust zone near Åre in the Jämtland county, Sweden. From May to August 2014, the COSC drilling crew drilled to a depth of 2496 m from the surface with an almost fully recovered core sample. During this drilling period, four borehole-logging runs have been conducted by Lund University with a low impact on drilling schedule and two supplementary ones once the drilling was completed. Three-Arm Caliper, Electrical Logging, Sidewall Density, Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity, High Resolution Acoustic Televiewer and Full Waveform Sonic sondes have been used to investigate in-situ physical properties of the borehole. In addition, the ICDP operational support group has conducted two continuous borehole-logging runs from the surface to the bottom of the COSC-1 borehole in September and October. Due to technical problems, some of the planned logging have not been completed, however natural gamma, rock resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature and fluid conductivity have been measured all along the borehole. We used the continuous natural gamma log from the ICDP logging group as the depth reference to depth-match and stack the composite borehole logging done during the drilling. These borehole logging operations result in reliable continuous data of resistivity, density, velocity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature, fluid conductivity, pressure, diameter as well as an image (amplitude and travel time of reflected ultrasounds) of the borehole till its bottom. Only the density, velocity and image datasets stop at 1600 m depth due to instrumentation limits. Preliminary conclusions from the borehole logging data show a stripped pattern of density correlated with velocity, which underlines the varying composition of the gneisses observed in the first 1600 m core. Pressure and temperature condition at the bottom of the borehole reach almost reach 55°C and 25 MPa. Moreover, some of the fracture zones observed in the borehole image provided by the acoustic televiewer seem to be associated with hydraulic active zones detected by spikes in the fluid conductivity logs and can also be correlated to those seen in the drill core.

  12. Initial Paleomagnetic Results from a New Drill Core from Clear Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, E.; Byrne, R.; Looy, C. V.; Wahl, D.; Noren, A. J.; Verosub, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    We report the initial paleomagnetic results from a new core from Clear Lake, California. Drilling progressed to 160 meters sediment depth at a site close to the location of Core 4 collected by John Sims and his USGS colleagues in 1973. Throughout the core, the NRM has only moderate intensity but directions appear to be stable after demagnetization to 20 mT. A relatively large fluctuation of the geomagnetic field is observed at a depth of about 48.5 meters. The pattern of changes in inclination and declination can be interpreted as a subdued version of the Mono Lake excursion, whose age is between 32,000 and 35,000 years BP. A chronology for the upper third of the Clear Lake core derived from 20 radiocarbon determinations on fossil pollen samples gives an age of about 34,000 years BP for the feature, consistent with the age of the Mono Lake excursion. The observation of the Mono Lake excursion in the Clear Lake core implies that the paleomagnetic directions provide a reliable record of geomagnetic field behavior and that it should be possible to correlate the secular variation record from Clear Lake with secular variation curves from western North America spanning the last hundred thousand years or more. In the lower portion of the Clear Lake core are several 10-20 cm intervals where the NRM intensity increases about an order of magnitude. In some cases, these intervals are associated with rather anomalous directions. Investigations are underway to determine if these high-intensity intervals arise from coring disturbances, large-scale variations in lithology and/or magnetic mineral concentration, or unusual geomagnetic field behavior. These features do not correspond to tephra layers observed in the core.

  13. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J. ); Duffield, W. ); Martinelli, L.; Aycinena, S. ); Castaneda, O. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1990-01-01

    A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater, which has been proposed as the source of pyroxene pumice deposits in the Tecuamburro area. TCB-1 is located 300 m south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco; the core hole penetrates the thin edge of a tuff ring surrounding Ixpaco and zones of hydrothermal brecciation within the upper 150 m may be related to the phreatic blast, dated at 2,910 {sup 14}C years. At the time of this writing, the unequilibrated temperature at a depth of 570m was 180{degree}C. Data on fracturing, permeability, hydrothermal alteration, and temperature will be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Melt in the impact breccias from the Eyreville drill cores, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosova, Katerina; Hecht, Lutz; Koeberl, Christian; Libowitzky, Eugen; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2011-03-01

    The center of the 35.3 Ma Chesapeake Bay impact structure (85 km diameter) was drilled during 2005/2006 in an ICDP-0USGS drilling project. The Eyreville drill cores include polymict impact breccias and associated rocks (1397-01551 m depth). Tens of melt particles from these impactites were studied by optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and microRaman spectroscopy, and classified into six groups: m1—clear or brownish melt, m2—brownish melt altered to phyllosilicates, m3—colorless silica melt, m4—melt with pyroxene and plagioclase crystallites, m5—dark brown melt, and m6—melt with globular texture. These melt types have partly overlapping major element abundances, and large compositional variations due to the presence of schlieren, poorly mixed melt phases, partly digested clasts, and variable crystallization and alteration. The different melt types also vary in their abundance with depth in the drill core. Based on the chemical data, mixing calculations were performed to determine possible precursors of these melt particles. The calculations suggest that most melt types formed mainly from the thick sedimentary section of the target sequence (mainly the Potomac Formation), but an additional crystalline basement (schist/gneiss) precursor is likely for the most abundant melt types m2 and m5. Sedimentary rocks with compositions similar to those of the melt particles are present among the Eyreville core samples. Therefore, sedimentary target rocks were the main precursor of the Eyreville melt particles. However, the composition of the melt particles is not only the result of the precursor composition but also the result of changes during melting and solidification, as well as postimpact alteration, which must also be considered. The variability of the melt particle compositions reflects the variety of target rocks and indicates that there was no uniform melt source. Original heterogeneities, resulting from melting of different target rocks, may be preserved in impactites of some large impact structures that formed in volatile-rich targets, because no large melt body exists, in which homogenization would have taken place.

  15. Geochemical Characteristics of Core Samples from IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Matsuoka, J.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343 drilled three holes through the plate boundary near the Japan Trench to investigate the cause of very large fault slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In this paper, we report trace element compositions of the core samples, including plate-boundary fault rocks, recovered from Hole C0019E. The rocks in the C0019E are lithologically subdivided into seven units (Chester et al., Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Vol. 343/343T, 2013): Units 1 to 3, wedge sediments of upper plate; Unit 4, plate-boundary fault; Units 5 to 7, sediments of lower plate. In this study, we analyzed the rocks from six lithological units except for Unit 7 (chert) using ICP-MS. The core samples analyzed all show trace element characteristics of typical marine sediments, but there exist some differences between the compositions of upper plate sediments, plate-boundary fault rocks and lower plate sediments. The clay-rich plate-boundary fault rocks (Unit 4) are characterized by elevated concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and some refractory metals, and are distinct from any other JFAST samples in terms of trace element characteristics. Brown mudstones of lower plate (Unit 5) show trace element characteristics (e.g. REE pattern) roughly similar to those of upper plate sediments (Units 1 to 3), but they are still distinguishable each other. Varicolored sediments of lower plate (Unit 6) show highly varied trace element compositions. Some of them show large negative Ce anomaly, and are distinct from any other JFAST samples. These observations show clear relationship between the lithological units and the trace element characteristics of the JFAST samples. It seems that in Units 1 to 3 and Units 5 to 7 there is no sedimentary rock equivalent to the protolith of the plate-boundary fault rocks, which provides a key for understanding the origin of the plate-boundary fault at the Japan Trench.

  16. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Ro Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Ro Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

  17. Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Wilkens, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations ot the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. The COSC-1 drill core - a geological sample through a hot allochthon and the underlying thrust zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne; Berthet, Théo; Klonowska, Iwona

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) supported Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project has the aim to study mountain building processes in a major Paleozoic orogen. COSC-1, drilled in 2014 near Åre (Sweden), was planned to sample a section from the hot allochthon of the Lower Seve Nappe through the thrust zone and into the underlying less metamorphic rocks of the Särv and/or Jämtlandian nappes. Diamond core drilling operations resulted in 2396.0 m of drill core with only about 2.5 m documented core loss (technical failure of the core catcher). Down to about 1800 m, the COSC-1 drill hole penetrated a succession that is dominated by gneisses of varying compositions (felsic, amphibole, calc-silicate gneisses, and more), often garnet and diopside bearing. Meta-gabbros and amphibolites are common and apparently correlate well with seismic reflectors between 500 and 1000 m depth. Also marbles, pegmatite dykes and minor mylonites occur. These rocks are highly strained. Small scale structures (e.g. isoclinal folding) are occasionally discernible in the narrow section provided by the drill cores. (Young) Fractures are sparse. Only a set of very steep fractures results in fluid conduction zones at several levels throughout the drill hole. At 175 m and between 1200 and 1300 m, this results in the dissolution of calcite-rich bands in the gneisses to form "micro-karst". First signs of the thrust zone below the Seve Nappe appear just below 1700 m in form of narrow deformation bands and thin mylonites. The mylonites increase in thickness and reach a thickness of around 1 m between 1900 and 2000 m. Below c. 2100 m, mylonites are dominating and garnets become common (but are not present in all mylonites). The deepest rock of mafic origin (possibly amphibolite in the Seve Nappe) was identified at 2314 m, a transition from gneiss into lower grade metasedimentary rocks occurs between 2345 and 2360 m. The lower part of the drill core to TD is dominated by quartzites and meta-arkoses (field name) of unclear tectonostratigraphic position that are mylonitised to varying degree. The drill hole does not penetrate the base of the thrust zone. The rocks sampled in the lowermost part of the drill core are the thickest mylonites encountered, tens of metres thick and (again) rich in garnet. Geological conclusions with relevance to mountain building have to wait for detailed analysis of the drill core. However, direct observations are: - The gneisses of the Lower Seve Nappe are much more homogenous than expected. - Thick (hundreds of metres) mafic bodies (Arnbom 1980, and unpublished geological maps) are absent. The maximum thickness in the drill core is about 30 m. - The thrust zone below the Seve Nappe is much thicker than expected. After more than 500 m the lower boundary was not encountered. - The drill hole seems to leave the Seve Nappe and enter lower grade metamorphic rocks. However, the mylonites at the bottom of the drill hole contain many and large garnets (up to cm size).

  19. Characteristics and paleoenvironmental significance of lacustrine sediments in the El'gygytgyn drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, T.; Wennrich, V.; Kukkonen, M.; Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    Lake Elgygytgyn is a 12 km diameter, 175 m deep lake filling a meteorite impact crater that formed ca. 3.6 million years ago in Chukutko, northeastern Siberia (6730 N, 17205 E). An international team under the aegis of the Inter Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled three overlapping cores at a site near the center of the lake. The lacustrine sediment fill extends approximately 315 m below the lake floor. Sediment recovery was nearly 100 percent for the uppermost 150 m, but is lower (~63 percent) in the deeper sections of the core. Nonetheless, long (40 m), continuous sections with nearly complete recovery were obtained from the early part of the record. These cores present a unique opportunity to compare sedimentary signatures of glacial/interglacial and Pliocene/Pleistocene environmental conditions in the terrestrial Arctic. The lacustrine sequence has been subdivided into distinct sedimentary facies based on the visual characteristics and color of split core halves, qualitative grain size descriptions, interpretation of radiographs, and microanalysis of thin sections prepared from representative sections of the core. Four fine grained pelagic facies have been differentiated based on the presence or absence and characteristics of fine (<1 mm to 5 mm) laminations. The pelagic sediments are interrupted by distinct graded beds which fine upwards from sand and silt to clay and intervals of disturbed and/or redeposited material likely associated with turbidity flows or mass movements. Deeper sections of the core are also interrupted by poorly sorted, massive deposits containing coarse sand and gravel, the origin of which may challenge prevailing assumptions that the region escaped Quaternary glaciations. Regular variations in the style of pelagic sedimentation likely reflect variations in climate and environmental conditions that have influenced the delivery of fluvial and aeolian sediment to the lake, the length of the ice free season, the temperature and stratification of lake waters, and geochemical and biological conditions within the lake. Continued analysis of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the sediments will help constrain the origin and significance of individual facies.

  20. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling risks and costs. This procedure enables a timely, efficient and accurate data access and exchange among the rig site data acquisition system, office-based software applications and data storage. The loading of real-time data has to be quick and efficient in order to refine the model and learn the lessons for the next drilling operations.

  1. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms will be reviewed and discussed including the configurations, capabilities, and challenges.

  2. Petrophysical Properties of Twenty Drill Cores from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.R.; Contreras L., E.; Garcia G., A.; Dominquez A., Bernardo

    1987-01-20

    For this study we selected 20 drill cores covering a wide range of depths (400-3000 m), from 15 wells, that provide a reasonable coverage of the field. Only andesite, the largely predominant rock type in the field, was included in this sample. We measured bulk density, grain (solids) density, effective porosity and (matrix) permeability on a considerable number of specimens taken from the cores; and inferred the corresponding total porosity and fraction of interconnected total porosity. We characterized the statistical distributions of the measured and inferred variables. The distributions of bulk density and grain density resulted approximately normal; the distributions of effective porosity, total porosity and fraction of total porosity turned out to be bimodal; the permeability distribution resulted highly skewed towards very small (1 mdarcy) values, though values as high as 400 mdarcies were measured. We also characterized the internal inhomogeneity of the cores by means of the ratio (standard deviation/mean) corresponding to the bulk density in each core (in average there are 9 specimens per core). The cores were found to present clearly discernible inhomogeneity; this quantitative characterization will help design new experimental work and interpret currently available and forthcoming results. We also found statistically significant linear correlations between total density and density of solids, effective porosity and total density, total porosity and total density, fraction of interconnected total porosity and the inverse of the effective porosity, total porosity and effective porosity; bulk density and total porosity also correlate with elevation. These results provide the first sizable and statistically detailed database available on petrophysical properties of the Los Azufres andesites. 1 tab., 16 figs., 4 refs.

  3. Early Eocene cyclicity in BBCP drill cores, Wyoming: Orbital forcing and environmental response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Bowen, G. J.; Maibauer, B.; Wilkens, R. H.; Clyde, W. C.; Gingerich, P. D.; Wing, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Most detailed stratigraphic records of early Paleogene hyperthermals come from deep-sea sediment sections with relatively few well-resolved continental stratigraphic records available. During the summer of 2011, over 900 meters of core were recovered in 6 holes drilled at 3 sites as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). The Bighorn Basin preserves a highly expanded early Paleogene continental sequence and includes an approximately 40-meter-thick PETM interval. Two of the BBCP sites (Basin Substation and Polecat Bench) target the PETM in different environments, and the third site (Gilmore Hill) targets the younger and smaller hyperthermals known as ETM2 and H2. The BBCP cores make it possible to develop high-resolution (circa 1000-year) proxy records of climate change, carbon cycling, and biotic change from unweathered material to investigate the response of a terrestrial depositional and ecological system to extreme global warming events. We present non-destructive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning data combined with high-resolution core images for all the BBCP holes to test if statistically significant orbital cyclicity is present in the high resolution geochemical records, which is the first application of the methods intensively used for marine cores to continental cores. We will put special emphasis on correlation to outcrop sections and moreover will use these data to better characterize the overall geochemical composition of the sediments, investigate potential diagenetic alteration, and identify potential changes in sediment provenance. We aim to compare our record to coeval marine records to better constrain the duration and position of these hyperthermals in the astronomical time scale to further test the potential role of orbital variations in causing these events.

  4. Early Eocene cyclicity in BBCP drill cores, Wyoming: Orbital forcing and environmental response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Maibauer, Bianca; Wilkens, Roy H.; Clyde, William C.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Wing, Scott L.

    2013-04-01

    Most detailed stratigraphic records of early Paleogene hyperthermals come from deep-sea sediment sections with relatively few well-resolved continental stratigraphic records available. During the summer of 2011, over 900 meters of core were recovered in 6 holes drilled at 3 sites as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). The Bighorn Basin preserves a highly expanded early Paleogene continental sequence and includes an approximately 40-meter-thick PETM interval. Two of the BBCP sites (Basin Substation and Polecat Bench) target the PETM in different environments, and the third site (Gilmore Hill) targets the younger and smaller hyperthermals known as ETM2 and H2. The BBCP cores allow developing high-resolution (circa 1000-year) proxy records of climate change, carbon cycling, and biotic change from unweathered material to investigate the response of a terrestrial depositional and ecological system to extreme global warming events. We present non-destructive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning data combined with high-resolution core images for all the BBCP holes to test if statistically significant orbital cyclicity is present in the high resolution geochemical records, which is the first application of the methods intensively used for marine cores to continental cores. These data will be used to better characterize the overall geochemical composition of the sediments, investigate potential diagenetic alteration, and identify potential changes in sediment provenance. Integration of XRF data with available data from outcrops reveals profound changes in wet-dry cycle thickness due to changes in sedimentation rates. These changes might be related to warming induced changes in the hydrological cycle. Furthermore, the observed cyclicity in our records integrated with marine records will help to better constrain the duration and position of these hyperthermals in the astronomical time scale to further test the potential role of orbital variations in causing these events.

  5. Correction of non-intrusive drill core physical properties data for variability in recovered sediment volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M. H.; Mix, A. C.; Willse, T.; Slagle, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Jaeger, J.; Gulick, S.; LeVay, L.; Kioka, Arata; IODP Expedition 341 Scientific Party

    2015-08-01

    Non-intrusive track-based physical properties measurements of sediment cores recovered during ocean drilling are often biased by imperfect recovery within sediment core liners, particularly in heterogeneous and/or partially lithified sediments. These biases result in misrepresentation in measurements of true sediment physical properties, and can complicate integration of the composite site records assembled from recovered cores with borehole logs of the stratigraphic section. Here we develop a strategy utilizing gamma ray attenuation (GRA) density to generate mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (MS) and natural gamma radiation (NGR) data. Shipboard GRA density is collected in all cores that comprise a site at equivalent or higher resolution than the corresponding MS and NGR data. All instruments are calibrated assuming a volume of sediment in their detector windows equivalent to that present in a perfectly full core liner; changes in sediment bulk density related to compaction, and/or imperfect sediment recovery resulting in a partially filled core liner thus influence all three measurements proportional to their detector sensitivities. In principle it may be possible to correct MS or NGR data for variable sediment volume by normalizing them to GRA measured at equivalent depth on a sensing track, assuming that the volumetric bias is comparable in all three datasets. Because GRA is measured in much greater detail, it must be smoothed by the known measurement windows of the other parameters for the assumption of comparable analytical sediment volume to be true. Normalizing MS or NGR by the equivalently smoothed GRA in down-hole records should thus remove the bias associated with variable sediment volume in the detector windows, allowing for robust mass-specific determination of these volume-based sediment physical properties.

  6. Physical properties of the Yaxcopoil-1 deep drill core, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbra, Tiiu; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2011-11-01

    The Chicxulub structure in Mexico, one of the largest impact structures on Earth, was formed 65 Ma by a hypervelocity impact that led to the large mass extinction at the K-Pg boundary. The Chicxulub impact structure is well preserved, but is buried beneath a sequence of carbonate sediments and, thus, requires drilling to obtain subsurface information. The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Program was carried out at Hacienda Yaxcopoil in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program in 2001-2002. The structure was cored from 404 m down to 1511 m, through three intervals: 794 m of postimpact Tertiary sediments, a 100 m thick impactite sequence, and 616 m of preimpact Cretaceous rocks thought to represent a suite of megablocks. Physical property investigations show that the various lithologies, including the impactite units and the K-Pg boundary layer, can be characterized by their physical properties, which depend on either changes in fabric or on mineralogical variations. The magnetic properties show mostly dia- or paramagnetic behavior, with the exception of the impactite units that indicate the presence of ferromagnetic, probably hydrothermally deposited magnetite and pyrrhotite. The magnetic fraction contributes mainly to enhanced magnetization in the impactite lithologies and, in this way, to the observed magnetic anomalies. The shape and orientation of the magnetic grains are varied and reflect inhomogeneous fabric development and the influence of impact-related redeposition and hydrothermal activity. The Chicxulub impact occurred at the time of the reverse polarity geomagnetic chron 29R, and this finding is consistent with the age of the K-Pg boundary.

  7. Predynastic human presence discovered by core drilling at the northern Nile delta coast, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Jean-Daniel; Jorstad, Thomas F.; Pia Bernasconi, Maria; Stanford, Dennis; Jodry, Margaret

    2008-08-01

    A small but significant find made during a geological surveyprovides evidence of the oldest human presence yet discoveredalong the northernmost margin of Egypt's Nile delta. A manuport,a rock fragment carried by human agency to the site, was discoveredin a sediment core section north of Burullus lagoon near theMediterranean coast. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbonanalysis of plant-rich matter in the mud surrounding the objectprovides a date calibrated to 3350-3020 B.C., the latePredynastic period. This long thin manuport, formed of dolomite,had not been deposited by the Nile or the sea but was collectedand transported from an outcrop exposure positioned at least160 km south of the core site. The fragile manuport, used foran undetermined function, lay buried at a depth of 7.4 m indark olive gray mud deposited in a shallow brackish lagoon settingclose to a marsh. This fortuitous find documents an early humanpresence in the middle Holocene wetlands along the delta's paleocoast,a sector where traditional excavation and augering are normallyincapable of reaching occupation levels or zones of activityat considerable subsurface depths. Core drilling provides ameans to help archaeologists locate undetected and potentiallyimportant sites.

  8. U.s. Geological survey core drilling on the atlantic shelf.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, J C; Poag, C W; Valentine, P C; Manheim, F T; Kohout, F A; Bothner, M H; Miller, R E; Schultz, D M; Sangrey, D A

    1979-11-01

    The first broad program of scientific shallow drilling on the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf has delineated rocks of Pleistocene to Late Cretaceous age, including phosphoritic Miocene strata, widespread Eocene carbonate deposits that serve as reflective seismic markers, and several regional unconformities. Two sites, off Maryland and New Jersey, showed light hydrocarbon gases having affinity to mature petroleum. Pore fluid studies showed that relatively fresh to brackish water occurs beneath much of the Atlantic continental shelf, whereas increases in salinity off Georgla and beneath the Florida-Hatteras slope suggest buried evaporitic strata. The sediment cores showed engineering properties that range from good foundation strength to a potential for severe loss of strength through interaction between sediments and man-made structures. PMID:17759411

  9. U.S. geological survey core drilling on the Atlantic shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, J.C.; Poag, C.W.; Valentine, P.C.; Miller, R.E.; Schultz, D.M.; Manheim, F. T.; Kohout, F.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Sangrey, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The first broad program of scientific shallow drilling on the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf has delineated rocks of Pleistocene to Late Cretaceous age, including phosphoritic Miocene strata, widespread Eocene carbonate deposits that serve as reflective seismic markers, and several regional unconformities. Two sites, off Maryland and New Jersey, showed light hydrocarbon gases having affinity to mature petroleum. Pore fluid studies showed that relatively fresh to brackish water occurs beneath much of the Atlantic continental shelf, whereas increases in salinity off Georgia and beneath the Florida-Hatteras slope suggest buried evaporitic strata. The sediment cores showed engineering properties that range from good foundation strength to a potential for severe loss of strength through interaction between sediments and manmade structures. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  10. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    SciTech Connect

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Earthquakes and Ice Cores Point to Wet Feet at the NorthGRIP Deep Drill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Gundestrup, N. S.

    2001-12-01

    A seismic broadband station was placed at the NorthGRIP deep drill site (75N, 42W) on the Greenland Ice Cap for the summer 2000. During the 2 month acquisition period 15 earthquakes with sufficient quality for Receiver Function analysis aimed at crust and mantle structure under NorthGRIP were recorded. The models are consistent with the presence of a thin sedimentary layer at the base of the ice. The seismic velocities in the sediments are lower than in the ice, indicating wet sediments. The results from the deep drilling program reveal high basal temperatures at the base of the 3080 m thick ice at NorthGRIP. The measured temperatures and the observed layer thickness' in the ice core indicate that there is basal melting of the order of 5 mm /yr. and that the geothermal heatflow is of the order of 100 mW/m2 (REF), much higher than expected. A detailed radio echo mapping of the bedrock show that NorthGRIP is located in a large, flat-bottomed valley, suggesting that the sediments observed are lacustrine. The thin layer of sediments cannot account for the unexpected high heatflow causing equally unexpected basal melting. The geology is presumed to be Precambrian. Heatflow determined in a similar way at the GRIP deep drill site (73N, 38W) is 51 mW/ m2 (Dahl-Jensen et al, 1998), more in line with expected values. Magnetic anomaly data do not indicate any volcanic structures, which could help explain the high heatflow. Gravity anomaly data show that NorthGRIP is located at the edge of marked gravity discontinuity. The cause of the discontinuity is not known, but "edge effects" could be speculated upon to be the cause of the high heatflow. D. Dahl-Jensen, N. Gundestrup, H. Miller, O. Watanabe, S.J. Johnsen, J.P. Steffensen, H.B. Clausen, A. Svensson, L.B. Larsen in press: The NorthGRIP drilling program. Annals of Glaciology, vol 35 D. Dahl-Jensen, K Mosegaard, N. Grundestrup, G.D. Clow, S.J. Johnson and N. Balling 1998: Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 282 pp 268-271

  12. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Geology and geochemistry of shallow drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact struture, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamah, D.; Koeberl, C.

    2003-08-01

    The 1.07 Ma well-preserved Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (10.5 km in diameter) formed in 2 Ga-old metamorphosed and crystalline rocks of the Birimian system. The interior of the structure is largely filled by the 8 km diameter Lake Bosumtwi, and the crater rim and region in the environs of the crater is covered by tropical rainforest, making geological studies rather difficult and restricted to road cuts and streams. In early 1999, we undertook a shallow drilling program to the north of the crater rim to determine the extent of the ejecta blanket around the crater and to obtain subsurface core samples for mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of ejecta of the Bosumtwi impact structure. A variety of impactite lithologies are present, consisting of impact glass- rich suevite and several types of breccia: lithic breccia of single rock type, often grading into unbrecciated rock, with the rocks being shattered more or less in situ without much relative displacement (autochthonous?), and lithic polymict breccia that apparently do not contain any glassy material (allochtonous?). The suevite cores show that melt inclusions are present throughout the whole length of the cores in the form of vesicular glasses with no significant change of abundance with depth. Twenty samples from the 7 drill cores and 4 samples from recent road cuts in the structure were studied for their geochemical characteristics to accumulate a database for impact lithologies and their erosion products present at the Bosumtwi crater. Major and trace element analyses yielded compositions similar to those of the target rocks in the area (graywacke-phyllite, shale, and granite). Graywacke-phyllite and granite dikes seem to be important contributors to the compositions of the suevite and the road cut samples (fragmentary matrix), with a minor contribution of Pepiakese granite. The results also provide information about the thickness of the fallout suevite in the northern part of the Bosumtwi structure, which was determined to be 15 m and to occupy an area of ~1.5 km2. Present suevite distribution is likely to be caused by differential erosion and does not reflect the initial areal extent of the continuous Bosumtwi ejecta deposits. Our studies allow a comparison with the extent of the suevite at the Ries, another well-preserved impact structure.

  14. High permafrost ice contents in Holocene slope deposits as observed from shallow geophysics and a coring program in Pangnirtung, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonneau, A.; Allard, M.; L'Hérault, E.; LeBlanc, A.

    2011-12-01

    A study of permafrost conditions was undertaken in the Hamlet of Pangnirtung, Nunavut, by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) and Université Laval's Centre d'études nordiques (CEN) to support decision makers in their community planning work. The methods used for this project were based on geophysical and geomorphological approaches, including permafrost cores drilled in surficial deposits and ground penetrating radar surveys using a GPR Pulse EKKO 100 extending to the complete community area and to its projected expansion sector. Laboratory analysis allowed a detailed characterization of permafrost in terms of water contents, salinity and grain size. Cryostratigraphic analysis was done via CT-Scan imagery of frozen cores using medical imaging softwares such as Osiris. This non destructive method allows a 3D imaging of the entire core in order to locate the amount of the excess ice, determine the volumetric ice content and also interpret the ice-formation processes that took place during freezing of the permafrost. Our new map of the permafrost conditions in Pangnirtung illustrates that the dominant mapping unit consist of ice-rich colluvial deposits. Aggradationnal ice formed syngenitically with slope sedimentation. Buried soils were found imbedded in this colluvial layer and demonstrates that colluviation associated with overland-flow during snowmelt occurred almost continuously since 7080 cal. BP. In the eastern sector of town, the 1 to 4 meters thick colluviums cover till and a network of ice wedges that were revealed as spaced hyperbolic reflectors on GPR profiles. The colluviums also cover ice-rich marine silt and bedrock in the western sector of the hamlet; marine shells found in a permafrost core yielded a radiocarbon date of 9553 cal. BP which provides a revised age for the local deglaciation and also a revised marine submergence limit. Among the applied methods, shallow drilling in coarse grained permafrost, core recovery and CT-Scan allowed the discovery of the importance of Holocene slope processes on shaping the surface of the terrain and leading to the observed cryostructures and ice contents in the near surface permafrost.

  15. Trace elements profiles, notably Hg, from a preliminary study of the Apollo 15 deep-drill core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The possible thermal gradient near the surface during a lunation is considered together with the heat flow from the interior, the physical process of Hg migration, the results from core and trench samples from previous missions, and other temperature sensitive phenomena that may help understand the processes. U, Os, and Ru concentrations in the deep drill core samples are of potential interest and are summarized in a table. The Os tends to parallel the Hg profile with depth.

  16. The ICDP Dead Sea deep drill cores: records of climate change and tectonics in the Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G. H.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea drainage basin sits at the boundary of the Mediterranean and the Saharan climate zones, and the basin is formed by the Dead Sea transform fault. The ICDP-funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental and paleo-seismic record in the Middle East, drilling holes of ~450 and ~350 meters in deep (~300 m below the lake level) and shallow sites (~3 m), respectively, and. The sediments record the evolving environmental conditions (e.g. droughts, rains, floods, dust-storms), as well as tectonics (earthquake layers). The core can be dated using 14C on organic materials, U-Th on inorganic aragonite, stable isotopes, and layer counting. They were opened, described, and XRF-scanned during June to November 2011, the first sampling party took place in July 2012, and study is now underway. Some important conclusions can already be drawn. The stratigraphy reflects the climate conditions. During wet climate intervals the lithology is typically varve-like laminated aragonite and detritus (aad), reflecting summer and winter seasons, respectively, and sequences of mud. Gypsum layers reflect more arid climate, and salt (halite) indicates extreme aridity. The Dead Sea expands during glacials, and the portion of the core that corresponds to the last glacial Lisan Formation above the shoreline is easily recognized in the core based on the common lithological sequence, and this allows us to infer a broad scale age model. Interglacials show all the lithologic facies (aad, mud, gypsum, salt), reflecting extreme climate variability, while glacials contain the aad, mud, and gypsum but lack salt layers. Thus we estimate that the deep site hole extends into MIS 7 (to ~200,000 years). Thin (up to several cm thick) seismic layers occur throughout the core, but thick (up to several meters) landslide deposits only occur during glacial intervals. The most dramatic discovery is evidence of an extreme dry interval during MIS 5 at the deep site. There is a ~40 cm thick interval of partly rounded pebbles in the core at ~235 m below the lake floor. It is the only clean pebbly unit in the core, and resembles a beach deposit. Below the layer there is ~45 meters of mainly salt. These observations indicate a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping at rates >1m/year, as all the countries in the area are using all the runoff. GCM models indicate a more arid future in the region. The core shows that the runoff nearly stopped during the last interglacial without human intervention. Dating is underway to constrain the timing of the extreme drydown.

  17. Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Roger H.; Wilkens, Roy H.

    2005-07-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations of the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole.

  18. Hydrothermal mineralogy of core from geothermal drill holes at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.; Keith, Terry E.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrothermal mineralogy studies of specimens collected from nine geothermal drill holes suggest that, at the locations and depths drilled, past temperatures have been hottest (exceeding 300?C) near ring fractures on the south and west sides of Newberry Volcano.

  19. Workshop on core and sample curation for the National Continental Scientific Drilling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Heiken, G.

    1981-05-06

    The Workshop on Core and Sample Curation was held to discuss the best means of handling, distributing, and advertising samples and data collected during a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) and to establish better communication between sample curators regarding common problems. It was geneerally agreed that CSDP samples should be handled, on a regional basis, by existing data systems and sample repositories judged to have adequate staff and support. Repository design, sample handling procedures, and sample accounting systems were discussed. Across North America, support for curation of geological samples was varied, but it was strongest within states or regions with well-established energy and mineral industries. A well-supported repository pays for itself through the circulation and preservation of samples and stratigraphic information. A national CSDP must have a well-established curatorial policy and system of regional repositories to circulate information and samples throughout the scientific community. Well-curated samples and data are a national resource with considerable benefits for industry and academia. Attendees agreed to form a Society of Geoscience Curators to maintain communication between curators from private, government, and university repositories and core research laboratories.

  20. Mapping alteration minerals at prospect, outcrop and drill core scales using imaging spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Fred A.; L. Bedell, Richard; Taranik, James V.; Peppin, William A.; Weatherbee, Oliver; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer data (also known as ‘hyperspectral imagery’ or HSI) are well established for detailed mineral mapping from airborne and satellite systems. Overhead data, however, have substantial additional potential when used together with ground-based measurements. An imaging spectrometer system was used to acquire airborne measurements and to image in-place outcrops (mine walls) and boxed drill core and rock chips using modified sensor-mounting configurations. Data were acquired at 5 nm nominal spectral resolution in 360 channels from 0.4 to 2.45 μm. Analysis results using standardized hyperspectral methodologies demonstrate rapid extraction of representative mineral spectra and mapping of mineral distributions and abundances in map-plan, with core depth, and on the mine walls. The examples shown highlight the capabilities of these data for mineral mapping. Integration of these approaches promotes improved understanding of relations between geology, alteration and spectral signatures in three dimensions and should lead to improved efficiency of mine development, operations and ultimately effective mine closure. PMID:25937681

  1. Analysis of hydrologic structures within Mauna Kea volcano using diamond wireline core drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Haskins, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project was undertaken on the Island of Hawaii in an effort to characterize the hydrologic structures controlling groundwater movement and storage within the dry (~430 mm/year annual rainfall) saddle region between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes. The project drilled a 1764 m, continuously-cored, borehole from an elevation of 1946 m amsl. The shallow stratigraphy consisted of alluvial outwash of clastic debris, of both volcanic and glacial origin, from the upper slopes of Mauna Kea, and was underlain by highly permeable post-shield lavas to depths of a few hundred meters. Below this depth, shield stage lavas were dominated by highly-fractured and permeable pahoehoe lavas and (less common) a'a flows and occasional soil and ash accumulations at flow boundaries. As depths increased below 1000 m, progressive compaction of fragmental material was found at the flow boundaries and, by depths of ~1500 m, much of the void space in the flow boundaries had been collapsed and compacted. Increasing secondary mineralization was observed below about 1000 m depth that was exacerbated by rising temperatures and temperature gradients toward the bottom of the hole. Hydrologic conditions were strikingly different from those predicted by conventional models for ocean islands: the formation was dry down to only ~150 m where the first, thin, perched aquifer was encountered; a second, more substantial, perched aquifer was reached at only ~220 m depth that extended to ~360 m where a sequence of (remarkably thin) perching formations were recovered in the core down to about 420 m where unsaturated rocks were again encountered. Saturated conditions resumed at 550 m depth that continued to the total depth drilled; this latter zone is inferred to be the basal aquifer for Mauna Kea within this region of the island. Our initial analysis of the core suggests that thin, clay-rich, perching formations in the shallow stratigraphic column play a much larger role in groundwater transport than has generally been recognized; in the deeper interior of the volcano, compaction of flow boundaries (the major water carriers in the shallow stratigraphy) leads to a progressive decrease in permeability and reduction in the transport rates of recharge toward the shoreline aquifers.

  2. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP Luminometry provided insights for potential contamination from core-handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths and limits of in-situ/remote observations vs. laboratory measurements. Results from this experiment will also aid the debate on advantages/ disadvantages of manned vs. robotic drilling missions on Mars or other planets. [1] Boston et al., 1997; [2] http://marte.arc.nasa.gov; [3] Stoker, C., et al., 2006 AbSciCon, [4] Stoker et al., submitted; [5] Bonaccorsi., et al., 2006 AbSciCon.

  3. Faulting processes in active faults - Evidences from TCDP and SAFOD drill core samples

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Wenk, H. -R.; Morales, L.; Naumann, R.; Kienast, M.; Song, S. -R.; Dresen, G.

    2014-08-20

    The microstructures, mineralogy and chemistry of representative samples collected from the cores of the San Andreas Fault drill hole (SAFOD) and the Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling project (TCDP) have been studied using optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF analyses. SAFOD samples provide a transect across undeformed host rock, the fault damage zone and currently active deforming zones of the San Andreas Fault. TCDP samples are retrieved from the principal slip zone (PSZ) and from the surrounding damage zone of the Chelungpu Fault. Substantial differences exist in the clay mineralogy of SAFOD and TCDP fault gouge samples. Amorphous material has been observed in SAFOD as well as TCDP samples. In line with previous publications, we propose that melt, observed in TCDP black gouge samples, was produced by seismic slip (melt origin) whereas amorphous material in SAFOD samples was formed by comminution of grains (crush origin) rather than by melting. Dauphiné twins in quartz grains of SAFOD and TCDP samples may indicate high seismic stress. The differences in the crystallographic preferred orientation of calcite between SAFOD and TCDP samples are significant. Microstructures resulting from dissolution–precipitation processes were observed in both faults but are more frequently found in SAFOD samples than in TCDP fault rocks. As already described for many other fault zones clay-gouge fabrics are quite weak in SAFOD and TCDP samples. Clay-clast aggregates (CCAs), proposed to indicate frictional heating and thermal pressurization, occur in material taken from the PSZ of the Chelungpu Fault, as well as within and outside of the SAFOD deforming zones, indicating that these microstructures were formed over a wide range of slip rates.

  4. Faulting processes in active faults - Evidences from TCDP and SAFOD drill core samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Wenk, H.-R.; Morales, L.; Naumann, R.; Kienast, M.; Song, S.-R.; Dresen, G.

    2014-08-01

    The microstructures, mineralogy and chemistry of representative samples collected from the cores of the San Andreas Fault drill hole (SAFOD) and the Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling project (TCDP) have been studied using optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF analyses. SAFOD samples provide a transect across undeformed host rock, the fault damage zone and currently active deforming zones of the San Andreas Fault. TCDP samples are retrieved from the principal slip zone (PSZ) and from the surrounding damage zone of the Chelungpu Fault. Substantial differences exist in the clay mineralogy of SAFOD and TCDP fault gouge samples. Amorphous material has been observed in SAFOD as well as TCDP samples. In line with previous publications, we propose that melt, observed in TCDP black gouge samples, was produced by seismic slip (melt origin) whereas amorphous material in SAFOD samples was formed by comminution of grains (crush origin) rather than by melting. Dauphiné twins in quartz grains of SAFOD and TCDP samples may indicate high seismic stress. The differences in the crystallographic preferred orientation of calcite between SAFOD and TCDP samples are significant. Microstructures resulting from dissolution-precipitation processes were observed in both faults but are more frequently found in SAFOD samples than in TCDP fault rocks. As already described for many other fault zones clay-gouge fabrics are quite weak in SAFOD and TCDP samples. Clay-clast aggregates (CCAs), proposed to indicate frictional heating and thermal pressurization, occur in material taken from the PSZ of the Chelungpu Fault, as well as within and outside of the SAFOD deforming zones, indicating that these microstructures were formed over a wide range of slip rates.

  5. 2004 NAI-ADP Deep Diamond Drill Cores: Transects Through Archean Time in the Pilbara Craton, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bonser, L. C.

    2004-12-01

    In July-August 2004, the NASA Astrobiology Drilling Program sponsored the coring of 3 deep diamond-drill holes in the Pilbara Craton of northwest Australia. The holes targeted the lowest grade and least deformed sedimentary sections of 4 stratigraphic units: the 2.4-2.6 Ga Hamersley Group, the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation of the Fortescue Group, the 3.4 Ga Warrawoona Group, and the 3.5 Ga Coonterunah Group. ABDP 8 cored the unconformity between the Warrawoona and Coonterunah Groups to a depth of 330 metres, intersecting it at 155 metres. Because of syn-depositional erosion, the Strelley Pool Chert was attenuated and the alteration zone beneath the unconformity was scoured and filled to a depth of 10 metres by quartz arenite. As a result, no definitive lithological determination on its status as a potential paleosol could be made. Secondary oxidative alteration was present in Coonterunah cherts to depths of at least 220 metres down-hole. ABDP 9 cored 984 metres of the lower Hamersley Group, from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation into the Paraburdoo Member of the Wittenoom Formation. Though the hole was intended to penetrate the uppermost Fortescue Group, drilling was terminated early because of equipment damage by fractured rock, loss of water circulation clogging the hole with cuttings and unanticipated thickening of the Paraburdoo Member by dilational fracturing, expansive brecciation and cavity formation. 79 samples for organic geochemical analysis of biomarker syngenesis were collected under clean conditions immediately the core surfaced. A horizon of impact spherules was intersected in the Bee Gorge Member of the Wittenoom Formation; unlike surface exposures, it was markedly silicified and chloritized in drill-core. ABDP 10 cored 210 metres of the Tumbiana Formation, intersecting the entire Meentheena Carbonate Member, the upper Mingah Tuff Member and terminating just below 4 scoriaceous basalt flows. Large and complex calcareous stromatolites, which were partly silificified in surface exposures, contained no chert in drill-core. Ooid grainstone was a prominent lithology, attesting to a shallow subaqueous depositional environment. Pseudomorphs possibly after diagenetic gypsum were encountered in a fine tuffaceous wacke unit, but no other evaporite minerals were evident. 8 samples for biomarker analysis were collected. The cores will be archived at the Geological Survey of Western Australia core library in Perth. They will be cut using non-magnetic saw blades to allow paleomagnetic studies. Quarter-core splits will be sent to the USA and Japan for detailed examination.

  6. Investigation of origin for seawater intrusion using geophysical well logs and absolute ages of volcanic cores in the eastern part of Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun

    2010-05-01

    Jeju located in the southern extremity of Korea is volcanic island, one of best-known tourist attractions in Korea. Jeju Province operates the monitoring boreholes for the evaluation of groundwater resources in coastal area. Major rock types identified from drill cores are trachybasalt, acicular basalt, scoria, hyalocastite, tuff, unconsolidated U formation, and seoguipo formation and so on. Various conventional geophysical well loggings including radioactive logs (natural gamma log, dual neutron log, and gamma-gamma log), electrical log (or electromagnetic induction log), caliper log, fluid temperature/ conductivity log, and televiewer logs have been conducted to identify basalt sequences and permeable zone, and verify seawater intrusion in monitoring boreholes. The conductivity logs clearly show the fresh water-saline water boundaries, but we find it hard to identify the permeable zones because of the mixed groundwater within the boreholes. Temperature gradient logs are mostly related with lithologic boundaries and permeable zones intersected by boreholes of eastern coasts. The wide range of periodic electrical conductivity logging in the deeper depth of monitoring boreholes indicates the possibility of submarine groundwater discharge. However we did not clearly understand the origin of seawater intrusion in the eastern coast until now. So we analysis the electrical conductivity profiles, record of sea-level change and 40Ar/39Ar absolute ages of volcanic rock cores from twenty boreholes in east coast. From comparing absolute ages of volcanic rock cores and sea-level of their ages, we find that the almost ages of depth showing high salinity groundwater are about 100 Ka, and from 130Ka to about 180Ka. The former is after the interglacial period and the latter is illinoian. These results indicate that the abrupt raising of sea level after illinoian formed the regional coast, and the zone of present seawater intrusion also are above the depth of illinoin period. So we conclude that the origin of seawater intrusion in eastern coast is caused mainly by the sea-level change.

  7. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  8. Thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities of core samples obtained from the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weiren; Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.; Tadai, Osamu; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Tanikawa, Wataru; Kinoshita, Masataka

    2014-12-01

    We report thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities determined by a transient plane heat source method for four whole-round core samples obtained by the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343. These thermal properties are necessary for the interpretation of a temperature anomaly detected in the vicinity of the plate boundary fault that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and other thermal processes observed within the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project temperature observatory. Results of measured thermal conductivities are consistent with those independently measured using a transient line source method and a divided bar technique. Our measurements indicate no significant anisotropy in either thermal conductivity or thermal diffusivity.

  9. Empirical relations of rock properties of outcrop and core samples from the Northwest German Basin for geothermal drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyer, D.; Philipp, S. L.

    2014-09-01

    Information about geomechanical and physical rock properties, particularly uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), are needed for geomechanical model development and updating with logging-while-drilling methods to minimise costs and risks of the drilling process. The following parameters with importance at different stages of geothermal exploitation and drilling are presented for typical sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Northwest German Basin (NWGB): physical (P wave velocities, porosity, and bulk and grain density) and geomechanical parameters (UCS, static Young's modulus, destruction work and indirect tensile strength both perpendicular and parallel to bedding) for 35 rock samples from quarries and 14 core samples of sandstones and carbonate rocks. With regression analyses (linear- and non-linear) empirical relations are developed to predict UCS values from all other parameters. Analyses focus on sedimentary rocks and were repeated separately for clastic rock samples or carbonate rock samples as well as for outcrop samples or core samples. Empirical relations have high statistical significance for Young's modulus, tensile strength and destruction work; for physical properties, there is a wider scatter of data and prediction of UCS is less precise. For most relations, properties of core samples plot within the scatter of outcrop samples and lie within the 90% prediction bands of developed regression functions. The results indicate the applicability of empirical relations that are based on outcrop data on questions related to drilling operations when the database contains a sufficient number of samples with varying rock properties. The presented equations may help to predict UCS values for sedimentary rocks at depth, and thus develop suitable geomechanical models for the adaptation of the drilling strategy on rock mechanical conditions in the NWGB.

  10. Lithostratigraphic and petrographic analysis of ICDP drill core LB-07A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coney, Louise; Gibson, Roger L.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Koeberl, Christian

    Lithostratigraphic and petrographic studies of drill core samples from the 545.08 m deep International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) borehole LB-07A in the Bosumtwi impact structure revealed two sequences of impactites below the post-impact crater sediments and above coherent basement rock. The upper impactites (333.38-415.67 m depth) comprise an alternating sequence of suevite and lithic impact breccias. The lower impactite sequence (415.67-470.55 m depth) consists essentially of monomict impact breccia formed from meta-graywacke with minor shale, as well as two narrow injections of suevite, which differ from the suevites of the upper impactites in color and intensity of shock metamorphism of the clasts. The basement rock (470.55-545.08 m depth) is composed of lower greenschist-facies metapelites (shale, schist and minor phyllite), meta-graywacke, and minor meta-sandstone, as well as interlaminated quartzite and calcite layers. The basement also contains a number of suevite dikelets that are interpreted as injection veins, as well as a single occurrence of granophyric-textured rock, tentatively interpreted as a hydrothermally altered granitic intrusion likely related to the regional pre-impact granitoid complexes. Impact melt fragments are not as prevalent in LB-07A suevite as in the fallout suevite facies around the northern crater rim; on average, 3.6 vol% of melt fragments is seen in the upper suevites and up to 18 vol% in the lower suevite occurrences. Shock deformation features observed in the suevites and polymict lithic breccias include planar deformation features in quartz (1 to 3 sets), rare diaplectic quartz glass, and very rare diaplectic feldspar glass. Notably, no ballen quartz, which is abundant in the fallout suevites, has been found in the within-crater impact breccias. An overall slight increase in the degree of shock metamorphism occurs with depth in the impactites, but considerably lower shock degrees are seen in the suevites of the basement rocks, which show similar features to each other. The bulk of the suevite in LB-07A appears to have been derived from the <35 GPa shock zone of the transient crater.

  11. Development of a portable x-ray computed tomographic imaging system for drill-site investigation of recovered core

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Pruess, Jacob

    2003-05-01

    A portable x-ray computed tomography (CT) system was constructed for imaging core at drill sites. Performing drill-site-based x-ray scanning and CT analysis permits rapid evaluation of core properties (such as density, lithologic structure, and macroporosity distribution) and allows for real-time decision making for additional core-handling procedures. Because of the speed with which scanning is performed, systematic imaging and electronic cataloging of all retrieved core is feasible. Innovations (such as a novel clamshell shielding arrangement integrated with system interlocks) permit safe operation of the x-ray system in a busy core handling area. The minimization of the volume encapsulated with shielding reduces the overall system weight and facilitates instrument portability. The x-ray system as originally fabricated had a 110 kV x-ray source with a fixed 300-micron focal spot size. A 15 cm image intensifier with a cesium iodide phosphor input screen was coupled to a CCD for image capture. The CT system has since been modified with a 130 kV micro-focal x-ray source. With the x-ray system's variable focal spot size, high-resolution studies (10-micron resolution) can be performed on core plugs and coarser (100-micron resolution) images can be acquired of whole drill cores. The development of an aluminum compensator has significantly improved the dynamic range and accuracy of the system. An x-ray filter has also been incorporated, permitting rapid acquisition of multi-energy scans for more quantitative analysis of sample mineralogy. The x-ray CT system has operated reliably under extreme field conditions, which have varied from shipboard to arctic.

  12. Lithological Conditions at the Box Canyon Site: Results of Drilling, Coring and Open Borehole Measurements 1995-1997 Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Holland, P.; Knutson, C.; Mesa, M.; Sisson, B.

    1998-09-01

    DOE faces the remediation of several contaminated sites in unsaturated fractured basalt where organic and radioactive wastes have migrated downward through fracture pathways that are difficult, if not impossible, to detect. Perched water zones located above zones of low permeability (massive basalt) create a complicated system of hydraulic baffles. Because of these large scale heterogeneities, the characterization of the lithology of the rock and the geometry of the subsurface fracture pattern is a crucial step in the development of a conceptual model of fluid flow and chemical transport, and eventually the design of a remediation system. The purpose of this data report is to compile and document the results of drilling and lithological studies conducted in open boreholes at the Box Canyon site. Lithological templates are included for each well and contain data such as drilling date, drilling method, logging method, well coordinates, Lithological log, gamma measurements, caliper measurements, core run and recovery depth, vesicular intervals, single fracture depths and descriptions, fracture zone depth and descriptions, and general comments about the borehole lithology. The lithological features were mapped for each borehole. The gamma and caliper measurements are presented as separate plots using greater resolution. Color core photos and core descriptions are also included. TV logging was used to map the lithology of the boreholes that were not cored (E, R, and T wells). This information will be further used to create a comprehensive lithological model of the subsurface. The TV logging of cored wells was viewed to compare the resolution and accuracy of TV logging to core logging. The TV logging method accurately showed large scale features such as zones of vesicularity, large fractures, fracture zones, rubble zones, and massive basalt zones, but it was difficult to detect hairline fractures, fracture orientation, and mineralization of fractures. Also, all depth measurements in increments less than 1 ft are estimated. TV logging is not as precise as logging directly from the core, but it is useful for mapping the major lithological features.

  13. The Apollo 17 drill core - Chemistry of size fractions and the nature of the fused soil component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the Apollo 17 drill core 70009-70001 is heterogeneous with depth, containing five stratigraphic units, and has a bulk soil chemistry governed by the coarse fractions because of their greater weight proportions. The four components (1) KREEP, (2) anorthositic gabbro, (3) mare basalt, and (4) orange glass are used to model the compositions of the coarse and fine fractions of the entire drill core. It is found that the chemistry of the fused soil component in the five stratigraphic units is more similar to the chemistry of the fine, less than 20-micron fractions than the coarse fraction, suggesting that agglutinates may prefferentially meld and replicate the chemistry of the finer size fractions. The sources of Zn are the orange/black glasses, and the Zn profile is anticorrelated with the maturity index of Morris et al (1979), indicating the liberation of Zn during soil maturation.

  14. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

  15. Results of NanTroSEIZE Expeditions Stages 1 & 2: Deep-sea Coring Operations on-board the Deep-sea Drilling Vessel Chikyu and Development of Coring Equipment for Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinmoto, Y.; Wada, K.; Miyazaki, E.; Sanada, Y.; Sawada, I.; Yamao, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Nankai-Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) has carried out several drilling expeditions in the Kumano Basin off the Kii-Peninsula of Japan with the deep-sea scientific drilling vessel Chikyu. Core sampling runs were carried out during the expeditions using an advanced multiple wireline coring system which can continuously core into sections of undersea formations. The core recovery rate with the Rotary Core Barrel (RCB) system was rather low as compared with other methods such as the Hydraulic Piston Coring System (HPCS) and Extended Shoe Coring System (ESCS). Drilling conditions such as hole collapse and sea conditions such as high ship-heave motions need to be analyzed along with differences in lithology, formation hardness, water depth and coring depth in order to develop coring tools, such as the core barrel or core bit, that will yield the highest core recovery and quality. The core bit is especially important in good recovery of high quality cores, however, the PDC cutters were severely damaged during the NanTroSEIZE Stages 1 & 2 expeditions due to severe drilling conditions. In the Stage 1 (riserless coring) the average core recovery was rather low at 38 % with the RCB and many difficulties such as borehole collapse, stick-slip and stuck pipe occurred, causing the damage of several of the PDC cutters. In Stage 2, a new design for the core bit was deployed and core recovery was improved at 67 % for the riserless system and 85 % with the riser. However, due to harsh drilling conditions, the PDC core bit and all of the PDC cutters were completely worn down. Another original core bit was also deployed, however, core recovery performance was low even for plate boundary core samples. This study aims to identify the influence of the RCB system specifically on the recovery rates at each of the holes drilled in the NanTroSEIZE coring expeditions. The drilling parameters such as weight-on-bit, torque, rotary speed and flow rate, etc., were analyzed and conditions such as formation, tools, and sea conditions which directly affect core recovery have been categorized. Also discussed will be the further development of such coring equipment as the core bit and core barrel for the NanTroSEIZE Stage 3 expeditions, which aim to reach a depth of 7000 m-below the sea floor into harder formations under extreme drilling conditions.

  16. Can tephra be recognized in Hawaiian drill core, and if so, what can be learned about the explosivity of Hawaiian volcanoes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautze, N. C.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 6000 feet of drill core was recently recovered from the Pohakula Training Area (PTA) near the Saddle Road between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island. Drilling was funded by the US Army with an objective to find a potable water source; the rock core was logged and archived thanks to funding from the National Science Foundation. Within the first few hundred meters, alluvial outwash from the slopes of Mauna Kea is underlain by post-shield Mauna Kea lavas. Below this depth the core is predominantly pahoehoe and to a lesser extent a'a lavas expected to be from Mauna Kea's shield stage volcanism. During the logging effort, and throughout the core, a number of suspect-pyroclastic deposits were identified (largely based on particle texture). These deposits will be examined in more detail, with results presented here. An effort will be made to determine whether explosive deposits can, in fact, be unequivocally identified in drill core. Two anticipated challenges are differentiating between: scoria and 'clinker' (the latter associated with a'a lava flows), and primary volcanic ash, loess, and glacial sediments. Recognition of explosive deposits in the PTA drill core would lend insight into Mauna Kea's explosive history, and potentially that of other Big Island volcanoes as well. If the characteristics of tephra in Hawaiian drill core can be identified, core from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) and Scientific Observation Holes (SOH-1,2,4) may also be examined.

  17. InSAR Time Series Analysis and Geophysical Modeling of City Uplift Associated with Geothermal Drillings in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motagh, M.; Lubitz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Geothermal energy is of increasing importance as alternative, environmentally friendly technology for heat management. Direct interaction with the subsurface requires careful implementation, in particular in geological complex regions. The historical city Staufen im Breisgau, SW Germany, has attracted national attention as a case of implementation failure with severe consequences, causing debates on the applicability and security of this sustainable technique. Located at the eastern transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif, the geothermal potential is high at Staufen due to strong temperature gradients. In September 2007, seven boreholes for geothermal probes were drilled up to a depth of 140 m to provide a new heat management for the city hall. Within five years an uplift phenomenon has been observed in Staufen reaching more than 40 cm in places and 269 buildings were damaged. Hydro-chemical driven anhydrite-gypsum transformation in the subsurface was identified as the cause leading to volume increase that is observable as surface uplift. This process is associated with the geothermal drilling activities that have crossed several groundwater levels. In this work, we summarize and present the findings of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) analysis of the uplift in Staufen over the last five years from July 2008 through July 2013. By applying the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method, we find a localized elliptical-shaped deformation field in NE-SW orientation. Area of maximum uplift is located 50 m NNE of the drilling zone. At this location, we observe a cumulative uplift of approx. 13.7 cm ± 0.34 cm (mean value within an area of 30 m by 30 m) from July 2008 to July 2009, which reduced to cumulative uplift of 3 cm ± 0.25 cm from July 2012 to July 2013. The deceleration can be related to applied countermeasures as borehole sealing and groundwater pumping. The observed ground surface response was compared to regularly performed leveling measurements and shows indications of significant symmetric horizontal motions, which were further investigated by a combined analysis of SAR imagery from ascending and descending orbits. Moreover, InSAR observations were inverted using geophysical models to derive first order characteristics of deformation source at depth.

  18. Development of a seismic borehole sonde for high resolution geophysical exploration ahead and around the drill bit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, K.; Giese, R.; Kopf, M.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of exploration with high resolution increases more and more because reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are characterized of small-scale geological structures. Today, surface seismic surveys were often combined with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD to improve the velocity model and to image the structures with higher resolution. The accuracy of structure localization depends strongly on the surveying depth. There is the need for resolution of such small-scale structures in the range of meters to explore deeper structures with a high resolution. In the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD) a new approach for a seismic exploration method in boreholes will be examined. SPWD comprises the seismic sources and receivers in one device. This allows an exploration with a resolution independent from depth and a system development for an exploration ahead and around the drill bit. At first a prototype of a borehole device for dry horizontal boreholes in a mine was developed and tested. The source device consists of four magnetostrictive vibrators emitting sweep signals from 500 Hz to 5000 Hz. To achieve a radiation pattern for focusing the seismic wave energy in predefined directions the signals of each vibrator must be independently controlled in amplitude and phase. The adjustment of amplitudes and phases of each sweep signal resulting in constructive interference with a predefined direction. A control of the emitted signals is retained by 30 three-component receivers mounted along the surrounding galleries in distances of up to 50 m. In measurements several parameters were examined to control the radiation pattern. The enhancement and diminishment of the wave amplitudes in the predefined directions of the radiation pattern is clearly exhibited also a dependency of the frequency. Using a three-component Fresnel-Volume-Migration to image the reflected wave field the results show clearly the effect of the radiation pattern on the distribution of the seismic wave energy. The migration of the reflected wave field reveals an amplification of the reflected amplitudes at the galleries corresponding to the radiation pattern of the complex borehole source. Also, structures passing through the borehole can be detected with an additional characterization by different radiation patterns. Further improvements were realized in focusing the seismic energy with advances in technical devices and also in the control of the vibrators. As a next step a wireline prototype for borehole measurements was designed and constructed. Currently the manufacturing is in progress. This prototype will be used in vertical boreholes up to 2000 m depth. After completion first measurements are planned to verify the exploration method for a directional investigation in boreholes. The measurements will take place in different geologies of hard and soft rocks and also depths. Also the mine was expanded with a 70 m vertical borehole for further research aspects. This project is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry.

  19. Strontium Isotopic Variations in the Koolau Volcanic Series, Oahu, Hawaii: Results from KSDP Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. M.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    Surface samples of the Koolau tholeiite series, from the eastern side of the island of Oahu, Hawaii, have long been noted for their unusually high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (up to 0.7042) and other extreme geochemical parameters, as compared to both earlier and later Oahu lavas, values from other Hawaiian islands, and lavas from the Waianae volcano on west Oahu. It has been assumed that the geochemistry of the surface samples of Koolau applied to most of the volcano and that the extreme features were a relatively long-lived characteristic of the Hawaiian mantle plume at the time that the Koolau lavas were being erupted about 3 million years ago. The Koolau Scientific Drilling Project, which returned nearly continuous core from depths of 350 to 670 meters below sea level, provided an opportunity to probe deeper into the Koolau edifice (Haskins and Garcia, CMP, 147, 2004). We present new Sr isotope data on thirty whole rock samples from KSDP, which complement other isotopic data that have been reported recently (Salters and Blichert-Toft, submitted). The KSDP samples have variable, but generally significant, amounts of post-eruption weathering and hence the samples were strongly acid-leached before TIMS isotopic analysis in order to remove any seawater-derived strontium. The 87Sr/86Sr values in the core samples vary from values near 0.7040 at the top of the core to 0.7035 near the bottom. There is a general trend of increasing 87Sr/86Sr upsection as well as oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0003. The Sr isotope ratios correlate reasonably well with Nd and Hf isotope ratios. The data show that the Koolau surface samples are not representative of the volcano as a whole, and that the extreme geochemistry of the surface samples may represent only a minor component of the Hawaiian plume. The normal trend of Sr isotope ratios in the waning stages of shield building is from high values to low (as in Mauna Kea, Kohala, East Molokai and Haleakala). A trend toward higher ratios is seen elsewhere only in Late Pleistocene to recent Mauna Loa lavas. Models of lava accumulation rates for Hawaiian volcanoes suggest that the time interval of the KSDP core is probably 40 to 60 kyr, so the large shift of Sr isotope ratios happens over a short time; this is also true of the similar shift seen in Mauna Loa. The oscillations are also rapid - with cycle times of about 10 kyr. These rapid changes are difficult to account for with magma generation models; they seem to suggest either that there are very large amplitude variations in the mantle magma source, or that the magma extraction process is discontinuous. In general, there is a consistent pattern in Hawaiian volcanoes that the lava sections with the highest Sr isotope ratios also show the most internal isotopic variability. A simple interpretation of this trend is that the mantle sources with lower 87Sr/86Sr (ca. 0.7035) represent mantle that has been stirred by convection for a longer time than those with 87Sr/86Sr > 0.7038.

  20. Stratigraphy, correlation, depositional setting, and geophysical characteristics of the Oligocene Snowshoe Mountain Tuff and Creede Formation in two cored boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Daniel; Nelson, Philip H.

    2000-01-01

    Core descriptions and geophysical logs from two boreholes (CCM-1 and CCM-2) in the Oligocene Snowshoe Mountain Tuff and Creede Formation, south-central Colorado, are used to interpret sedimentary and volcanic facies associations and their physical properties. The seven facies association include a mixed sequence of intracaldera ash-flow tuffs and breccias, alluvial and lake margin deposits, and tuffaceous lake beds. These deposits represent volcanic units related to caldera collapse and emplacement of the Snowshoe Mountain Tuff, and sediments and pyroclastic material deposited in the newly formed caldera basin, Early sedimentation is interpreted to have been rapid, and to have occurred in volcaniclastic fan environments at CCM-1 and in a variery of volcaniclastic fan, braided stream shallow lacustrine, and mudflat environments at CCM-2. After an initial period of lake-level rise, suspension settling, turbidite, and debris-flow sedimentation occurred in lacustrine slope and basin environments below wave base. Carbonate sedimentation was initially sporadic, but more continuous in the latter part of the recorded lake history (after the H fallout tuff). Sublacustrine-fan deposition occurred at CCM-1 after a pronounced lake-level fall and subsequent rise that preceded the H tuff. Variations in density, neutron, gamma-ray, sonic, and electrical properties of deposits penetrated oin the two holes reflect variations in lithology, porosity, and alteration. Trends in the geophysical properties of the lacustrine strata are linked to downhole changes in authigenic mineralology and a decrease in porosity interpreted to have resulted primarily from diagenesis. Lithological and geophysical characteristics provide a basis for correlation of the cores; however, mineralogical methods of correlation are hampered by the degree of diagenesis and alteration.

  1. Hawaiian Volcano Flank Stability Appraised From Strength Testing the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's (HSDP) 3.1-km Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, N.; Watters, R. J.; Schiffman, P.

    2005-12-01

    Strength results from limited testing of HSDP core samples reveal significant differences in their unconfined compressive and shear strength. The median strength values show a progressive increase from the incipient (2.4 MPa) to smectitic (4.2 MPa) to palagonitic (9.4 MPa) alteration zones. The strength differences include differences among hyaloclastites as a function of their alteration, as well as differences between hyaloclastites and the various forms of lava flows and intrusive bodies. The unconfined compressive strengths of extrusive submarine and subaerial lavas and intrusive rocks from the HSDP core samples are much greater than that of any of the hyaloclastites, and range from 82 to 150 MPa. The cohesive shear strengths of hyaloclastites increase successively with depth and type of alteration (from 0.9 MPa for the incipient zone to 3.2 MPa for the palagonite zone). Conversely, the frictional strengths of the hyaloclastites show a decrease with increasing depth and alteration zone (from 17.6° for hyaloclastites from the incipient zone to 13.7° for the palagonitic zone). The Mohr strength envelope changes from a linear relationship at shallow depth to become curvilinear with increasing depth and consequently shows higher cohesion and lower friction. Comparison of the three groups of the altered hyaloclastites showed that they had p values < 0.05, and that the mean strength results from the incipient, smectitic and palagonitic altered hyaloclastites were significantly different from each other. The greatest difference was calculated between the mean value of the palagonitic alteration and the mean values from the smectitic and incipient alteration though subsequent statistical testing showed that the means of the incipient and smectitic alteration were not significantly different from each other. The palagonitic mean remains significantly different from both the incipient and smectitic means. No statistically significant difference was found in comparing the means of the basaltic flows, intrusive and pillow lava values. The test results imply that shallow rotational slumps that develop within the upper few kilometers of spreading Hawai'ian volcanoes within low strength, poorly-consolidated, smectite-rich hyaloclastites are similar to those we have found from the incipient and smectitic alteration zones of the HSDP cores. Deeper slumps might be directed through over-pressured pillow lava units as a result of the stronger pillow lava units permitting deeper failure surfaces to develop. Petrographically the Mauna Kea hyaloclastites appear similar to those from actively spreading Hawai'ian shield volcanoes. Alteration processes apparently affect the strength of these hyaloclastites. In the shallower zones of incipient and smectitic alteration, hyaloclastites generally retain their high primary porosities. In the deeper, palagonitic zone of alteration, the hyaloclastites gain both compressive and shear strength, primarily through consolidation and zeolitic cementation. The marked strength contrast between hyaloclastites, and the lavas that overlie and underlie them is significant, and may be a primary factor in localizing the destabilization of the flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes.

  2. Detailed petrophysical and geophysical characterization of core samples from the potential caprock-reservoir system in the Sulcis Coal Basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Silvana; Ligas, Paola; Cuccuru, Francesco; Maggio, Enrico; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of the CO2 geologic storage site requires a robust experimental database especially with respect to spatial petrophysical heterogeneities. The integrated analysis of minero-petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters (e.g. longitudinal and transversal propagation velocity, VpVs ratio, dynamic elastic moduli, etc.) of the rocks that make up a caprock-reservoir system can substantially reduce the geologic uncertainity in the storage site characterization and in the geological and numerical modelling for the evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity. In this study the Middle Eocene - Lower Oligocene Cixerri Formation made up of siliciclastic rocks and the Upper Thanetian - Lower Ypresian Miliolitico Carbonate Complex in the Sulcis coal basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy) have been identified respectively as potential caprock and reservoir for the CO2 storage. The petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters of the above mentioned geological Formations (Cixerri and Milolitico) were investigated to improve the geological model aimed at verifying the geological CO2 storage capacity within the carbonate reservoir rocks, in order to guarantee an efficient use of the reservoir, and to improve the numerical simulation of CO2 behaviour in the short, medium and long term after its injection in single or multiple wells. . The petrographical characteristics of the caprock-reservoir rocks were determined by optical and SEM analyses of core samples representing the different facies of the Cixerri Formation and of the Miliolitico Carbonate Complex, provided by Carbosulcis S.p.A.. Porosity analysis was completed by mercury porosimeter determinations which also provided quantitative information on the permeability of the study rocks and on the tortuosity of their pore system. Further physical properties, such as dry and saturated density and porosity, and water absorption were determined on the cylindrical core samples of intact rocks (ISRM, 1979) from wells drilled in the northern part of the Sulcis Coal Basin (Nuraxi Figus area). The propagation velocity of longitudinal (Vp) and transversal (Vs) waves was also determined on the same samples by a portable ultrasonic non-destructive digital indicating tester (P.U.N.D.I.T. plus) (ISRM, 1978). Starting from the P and S wave velocity, the dynamic elastic moduli (Young modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio) were determined using the well-known relationship involving the longitudinal (Vp) and shear wave (Vs) velocity and the rock bulk density. The elastic properties (Vp, Vs, elastic moduli) have been correlated with physical properties such as porosity and bulk density. The analysis of the above mentioned relations reveals that the geological formations that make up the caprock-reservoir system are affected by a high spatial heterogeneity in their petrophysical properties and then in their intrinsic characteristics. The petrophysical and geophysical parameter analysis also allowed to identify different lithologic types for the caprock (e.g. litharenites, siltites) and the reservoir (e.g. limestones, dolomitic limestones, calcareous dolomites). These data enhanced the interpretation of the surface reflection seismic data on the same area helping in distinguishing separate features. Acknowledgments: We thank Carbosulcis S.p.A. for providing us the core samples and the reflection seismic data used for this study.

  3. The Last Interglacial in the Levant: Perspective from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Torfstein, A.; Stein, M.; Kushnir, Y.; Enzel, Y.; Haug, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Sediments recovered by the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project provide a new perspective on the climate history of the Levant during the last interglacial period MIS5. They record the extreme impacts of an intense interglacial characterized by stronger insolation, warmer mean global temperatures, and higher sea-levels than the Holocene. Results show both extreme hyper-aridity during MIS5e, including an unprecedented drawdown of Dead Sea water levels, and the impacts of a strong precession-driven African monsoon responsible for a major sapropel event (S5) in the eastern Mediterranean. Hyper-arid conditions at the beginning of MIS5e prior to S5 (~132-128 ka) are evidenced by halite deposition, indicating declining Dead Sea lake levels. Surprisingly, the hyper-arid phase is interrupted during the MIS5e peak (~128-120 ka), coinciding with the S5 sapropel, which is characterized by a thick (23 m) section of silty detritus (without any halite) whose provenance indicates southern-sourced wetness in the watershed. Upon weakening of the S5 monsoon (~120-115 ka), the return of extreme aridity resulted in an unprecedented lake level drawdown, reflected by massive salt deposition, and followed by a sediment hiatus (~115-100 ka) indicating prolonged low lake level. The resumption of section follows classic Levant patterns with more wetness during cooler MIS5b and hyper-aridity during warmer MIS5a. The ICDP core provides the first evidence for a direct linkage between an intense precession-driven African monsoon and wetness at the high subtropical latitude (~30N) of the Dead Sea watershed. Combined with coeval deposition of Negev speleothems and travertines, and calcitification of Red Sea corals, the evidence indicates a wet climatic corridor that could facilitate homo sapiens migration out of Africa during the MIS5e peak. In addition, the MIS 5e hyper-arid intervals may provide an important cautionary analogue for the impact of future warming on regional water resources.

  4. Neogene deformation in the West Antarctic Rift in the McMurdo Sound region from studies of the ANDRILL and Cape Roberts drill cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, T. S.; Wilson, T. J.; Jarrard, R. D.; Millan, C.; Saddler, D.; Läufer, A.; Pierdominici, S.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic studies indicate that the West Antarctic rift system records at least two distinct periods of Cenozoic rifting (Paleogene and Neogene) within the western Ross Sea. Natural fracture data from ANDRILL and Cape Roberts drill cores are revealing a picture of the geodynamic patterns associated with these rifting episodes. Kinematic indicators along faults recovered in drill cores document dominant normal faulting, although reverse and strike-slip faults are also present. Ongoing studies of mechanically twinned calcite in veins recovered in the drill cores yield predominantly vertical shortening strains with horizontal extension, consistent with a normal fault regime. In the Cape Roberts Project drill core, faults of inferred Oligocene age document a dominant NNE maximum horizontal stress associated with Paleogene rifting within the Victoria Land Basin. The NNE maximum horizontal stress at Cape Roberts is at an oblique angle to Transantarctic Mountain front, and consistent with previous interpretations invoking Cenozoic dextral transtensional shear along the boundary. In the ANDRILL SMS (AND-2A) drill core, faults and veins presumably associated with Neogene rifting document a dominant NNW to NE faulting of an expanded Lower Miocene section, although subsidiary WNW faulting is also present within the upper sections of oriented core. In the ANDRILL MIS (AND-1B) drill core, natural fractures are consistently present through the core below c. 450 mbsf, the estimated depth of the ‘B-clino’ seismic reflector. This is consistent with the presence of seismically-detectable faults below this horizon, which record the major faulting episode associated with Neogene rifting in the Terror Rift. Sedimentary intrusions and steep veins folded by compaction indicate that deformation occurred prior to complete lithification of the strata, suggesting that deformation was at least in part coeval with deposition. Faults and associated veins intersected in the AND-1B drill core also cut Pliocene and Pleistocene strata, suggesting that deformation has continued to the recent or may perhaps ongoing.

  5. Core cracking and hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' geophysical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2015-02-01

    Observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock. Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code, we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia, by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The effect of heating from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via "temperature resets," core cooling events lasting ˜50 Myr during which Ceres' interior temperature profile becomes very shallow and its hydrosphere is largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) would suggest that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter, whose arrival at Ceres is imminent, could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.

  6. Initial results from VC-1, First Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole in Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Rowley, John; Gardner, Jamie N.; Hawkins, Ward; Goff, Sue; Charles, Robert; Wachs, Daniel; Maassen, Larry; Heiken, Grant

    1986-02-01

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphie information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, arid to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the Battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  7. Initial results from VC-1, first Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Charles, R.; Wachs, D.; Maassen, L.; Heiken, G.

    1986-02-10

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  8. Estimates of the hydrologic impact of drilling water on core samples taken from partially saturated densely welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the extent to which drill water might be expected to be imbibed by core samples taken from densely welded tuff. In a related experimental study conducted in G-Tunnel, drill water imbibition by the core samples was observed to be minimal. Calculations were carried out with the TOUGH code with the intent of corroborating the imbibition observations. Due to the absence of hydrologic data pertaining directly to G-Tunnel welded tuff, it was necessary to apply data from a similar formation. Because the moisture retention curve was not available for imbibition conditions, the drainage curve was applied to the model. The poor agreement between the observed and calculated imbibition data is attributed primarily to the inappropriateness of the drainage curve. Also significant is the value of absolute permeability (k) assumed in the model. Provided that the semi-log plot of the drainage and imbibition moisture retention curves are parallel within the saturation range of interest, a simple relationship exists between the moisture retention curve, k, and porosity ({phi}) which are assumed in the model and their actual values. If k and {phi} are known, we define the hysteresis factor {lambda} to be the ratio of the imbibition and drainage suction pressures for any saturation within the range of interest. If k and {phi} are unknown, {lambda} also accounts for the uncertainties in their values. Both the experimental and modeling studies show that drill water imbibition by the core has a minimal effect on its saturation state. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Trace-element analyses of core samples from the 1967-1988 drillings of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, Rosalind Tuthill

    2012-01-01

    This report presents previously unpublished analyses of trace elements in drill core samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake and from the 1959 eruption that fed the lava lake. The two types of data presented were obtained by instrumental neutron-activation analysis (INAA) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The analyses were performed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratories from 1989 to 1994. This report contains 93 INAA analyses on 84 samples and 68 EDXRF analyses on 68 samples. The purpose of the study was to document trace-element variation during chemical differentiation, especially during the closed-system differentiation of Kilauea Iki lava lake.

  10. Influence of Steel Reinforcement on In-Situ Stress Evaluation in Concrete Structures by the Core-Drilling Method

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M. J.; Pessiki, S.

    2006-03-06

    The core-drilling method is an emerging technique for evaluating in-situ stress in a concrete structure. A small hole is drilled into the structure, and the deformations in the vicinity of the hole are measured and related via elasticity theory to the stress. The method is similar to the ASTM hole-drilling strain-gauge method excepting that displacements rather than strains are the measured quantities. The technique may be considered nondestructive since the ability of the structure to perform its function is unaffected, and the hole is easily repaired. Displacement measurements in the current work are performed using 3D digital image correlation and industrial photogrammetry. The current paper addresses perturbations in the method caused by steel reinforcement within the concrete. The reinforcement is significantly stiffer than the surrounding concrete, altering the expected displacement field. A numerical investigation performed indicates an under-prediction of stress by as much as 18 percent in a heavily reinforced structure, although the effect is significantly smaller for more common amounts of reinforcement.

  11. Unzen Scientific Drilling Project: Challenging drilling operation into the magmatic conduit shortly after eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, S.; Nakada, S.; Uto, K.

    2004-12-01

    Drilling operation was aimed at penetration into the core of the volcano 8 years after eruption of Unzen, including directional drilling in high temperature and with high inclination. The project started with fixing drilling site. Scientists and drilling engineers agreed to settle it at the northern slope of Mt. Unzen at 840 m asl, and the drilling target was set at sea level. Drilling operation was started in Feb. 2003. In the shallow section, frequent lost circulation and accidental side-track occurred due to the unconsolidated zone, and caused_@many troubles. Although the drilling was delayed, we succeeded in drilling down to 396m with the inclination of 25 degree in 17-1/2 inch hole and 13-3/8 inch casing section. 12-1/4 inch hole was drilled using TDS, EM-MWD, and DHM. When the inclination was built up to 75 degree at 795 m, we changed the drilling mode of trajectory control to keep the angle. A large fracture of total loss was encountered at 807m, and serious cuttings bed occurred. The latter made the drilling impossible to continue. Then, we inserted 9-5/8 inch casing down to 796 m. Trajectory correction runs was completed in 8-5/8 inch hole, and 7 inch casing was set down to 1550m. In 6-1/4 inch hole, though EM-MWD and DHM were not used, drilling inclination and azimuth were stable. Spot coring was started at 1582 m, the levels of spot coring depth were chosen based on the data of temperature measurement and cuttings observation. Though the drilling exceeded 1800m, the original target depth, drilling was continued, because we could not encounter the high temperature conduit at that time. Finally, the well reached the 1995 m, and succeeded in taking cores highly probable of magmatic conduit in July 2004. We could carry out geophysical logging mostly throughout the whole sections. Spot coring were done at 16 times; its total length was 75m. Although the highest measured temperature was 155 deg. C, the formation temperature may reach at least 200 deg. C. The reasons of smooth drilling after 9-5/8 inch casing installation were easy hole cleaning due to smaller diameter, least lost circulation, and no gas invasion.

  12. Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

  13. On the joint inversion of geophysical data for models of the coupled core-mantle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1991-01-01

    Joint inversion of magnetic, earth rotation, geoid, and seismic data for a unified model of the coupled core-mantle system is proposed and shown to be possible. A sample objective function is offered and simplified by targeting results from independent inversions and summary travel time residuals instead of original observations. These data are parameterized in terms of a very simple, closed model of the topographically coupled core-mantle system. Minimization of the simplified objective function leads to a nonlinear inverse problem; an iterative method for solution is presented. Parameterization and method are emphasized; numerical results are not presented.

  14. Whole-rock analyses of core samples from the 1988 drilling of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, Rosalind Tuthill; Taggart, Joseph E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents and evaluates 64 major-element analyses of previously unanalyzed Kilauea Iki drill core, plus three samples from the 1959 and 1960 eruptions of Kilauea, obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis during the period 1992 to 1995. All earlier major-element analyses of Kilauea Iki core, obtained by classical (gravimetric) analysis, were reported and evaluated in Helz and others (1994). In order to assess how well the newer data compare with this earlier suite of analyses, a subset of 24 samples, which had been analyzed by classical analysis, was reanalyzed using the XRF technique; those results are presented and evaluated in this report also. The XRF analyses have not been published previously. This report also provides an overview of how the chemical variations observed in these new data fit in with the chemical zonation patterns and petrologic processes inferred in earlier studies of Kilauea Iki.

  15. CAT-scan analysis in scientific drilling: effective routine data acquisition and processing of whole cores, split cores and u-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, G.; Francus, P.; Labrie, J.; Beauvais, Q.; Velle, J. H.; Fortin, D.; Mix, A. C.; Jaeger, J. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Bahlburg, H.; Forwick, M.; Zolitschka, B.

    2014-12-01

    CAT-scan analysis of sediment cores provides a rapid, high-resolution and non destructive method to visualise sedimentary structures, coring-induced artefacts, as well as to derive a continuous downcore CT number profile primarily associated with changes in bulk density. Here, we will briefly overview how we now routinely use CAT-scan analysis for paleoenvironmental and sedimentological purposes. We will present some advances in data processing, as well as a few case studies from lacustrine and marine sedimentary sequences measured using either whole cores, split cores and u-channels in order to highlight the advantages and complementarity of CAT-Scan measurements with other continuous downcore high-resolution physical or magnetic measurements. We will also illustrate how effective data acquisition and processing have now enabled the use of CAT-scan for the continuous interpretation of long drilled sequences from IODP (Exp. 341 - Gulf of Alaska) and ICDP (PASADO - Laguna Potrok Aike, Southern Patagonia) previously hampered by the large number of core sections and derived images.

  16. Brines and interstitial brackish water in drill cores from the deep gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manheim, F T; Sayles, F L

    1970-10-01

    Marked increases in interstitial salinity occur in two drill holes located in the Gulf of Mexico at a water depth of more than 3500 meters. The increases probably arose through diffusion of salt from buried evaporites. In one hole, however, brackish water was encountered on penetrating the oil-permeated cap rock of a salt dome. The phenomenon is attributed to production of fresh water during oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons and decomposition of gypsum to form native sulfur. PMID:17734668

  17. Brines and interstitial brackish water in drill cores from the deep gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Sayles, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    Marked increases in interstitial salinity occur in two drill holes located in the Gulf of Mexico at a water depth of more than 3500 meters. The increases probably arose through diffusion of salt from buried evaporites. In one hole, however, brackish water was encountered on penetrating the oil-permeated cap rock of a salt dome. The phenomenon is attributed to production of fresh water during oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons and decomposition of gypsum to form native sulfur.

  18. Bibliography, geophysical data locations, and well core listings for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    To date, comprehensive basin analysis and petroleum system modeling studies have not been performed on any of the basins in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Of these basins, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been selected for study because it is the most petroliferous basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, small- and medium-size companies are drilling the majority of the exploration wells. These companies do not have the resources to perform basin analysis or petroleum system modeling research studies nor do they have the resources to undertake elaborate information searches through the volumes of publicly available data at the universities, geological surveys, and regulatory agencies in the region. The Advanced Geologic Basin Analysis Program of the US Department of Energy provides an avenue for studying and evaluating sedimentary basins. This program is designed to improve the efficiency of the discovery of the nation`s remaining undiscovered oil resources by providing improved access to information available in the public domain and by increasing the amount of public information on domestic basins. This report provides the information obtained from Year 1 of this study of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. The work during Year 1 focused on inventorying the data files and records of the major information repositories in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and making these inventories easily accessible in an electronic format.

  19. Drill core LB-08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Petrographic and shock metamorphic studies of material from the central uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    During a recent drilling project sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Progam (ICDP), two boreholes (LB-07A and LB-08A) were drilled into the crater fill of the Bosumtwi impact structure and the underlying basement, into the deep crater moat and the outer flank of the central uplift, respectively. The Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which is 10.5 km in diameter and 1.07 Myr old, is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi. Here we present the lithostratigraphy of drill core LB-08A (recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level) as well as the first mineralogical and petrographic observations of samples from this core. This drill core consists of approximately 25 m of polymict, clast-supported lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment that displays a large variation in lithology and grain size. The lithologies present in the central uplift are metasediments composed dominantly of fine-grained to gritty meta-graywacke, phyllite, and slate, as well as suevite and polymict lithic impact breccia. The suevites, principally present between 235.6 and 240.5 m and between 257.6 and 262.2 m, display a fine-grained fragmental matrix (about 39 to 45 vol%) and a variety of lithic and mineral clasts that include meta-graywacke, phyllite, slate, quartzite, carbon-rich organic shale, and calcite, as well as melt particles, fractured quartz, unshocked quartz, unshocked feldspar, quartz with planar deformation features (PDFs), diaplectic quartz glass, mica, epidote, sphene, and opaque minerals). The crater-fill suevite contains calcite clasts but no granite clasts, in contrast to suevite from outside the northern crater rim. The presence of melt particles in suevite samples from the uppermost 25 meters of the core and in suevite dikelets in the basement is an indicator of shock pressures exceeding 45 GPa. Quartz grains present in suevite and polymict lithic impact breccia abundantly display 1 to (rarely) 4 sets of PDFs per grain. The shock pressures recorded by the PDFs in quartz grains in the polymict impact breccia range from 10 to ~30 GPa. We also observed a decrease of the abundance of shocked quartz grains in the brecciated basement with increasing depth. Meta-graywacke samples from the basement are heterogeneously shocked, with shock pressures locally ranging up to 25-30 GPa. Suevites from this borehole show a lower proportion of melt particles and diaplectic quartz glass than suevites from outside the northern crater rim (fallback impact breccia), as well as a lack of ballen quartz, which is present in the external breccias. Similar variations of melt-particle abundance and shockmetamorphic grade between impact-breccia deposits within the crater and fallout impact breccia outside the crater have been observed at the Ries impact structure, Germany.

  20. Core hole drilling and the ''rain current'' phenomenon at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C.A.; Walkey, W.C.; Combs, J.

    1988-09-10

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole Geo N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mW m/sup -2/, reflecting subsurface temperatures, sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mW m/sup -2/, is less encouraging. We emphasize the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Cole hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite, basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Caving and sloughing were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes. The uppermost regime is isothemal at mean air temperature down to about 900-1000 m (the rain curtain).

  1. Online drilling mud gas monitoring and sampling during drilling the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Almqvist, Bjarne; Klonowska, Iwona; Lorenz, Henning

    2015-04-01

    The COSC project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) drilled a 2496 m deep hole in re (Sweden) to deliver insights into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes from continent-continent collision, to improve our understanding of the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state and geothermal gradient of the mountain belt and to study the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement. COSC was the first slimhole drilling project where online gasmonitoring of drilling mud was conducted during continuous wireline coring. Gas was continuously extracted at the surface from the circulating drilling mud with a gas-water separator, pumped in a nearby laboratory container and analysed in real-time with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for argon, methane, helium, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and krypton. Gas samples were taken from the gas line for laboratory studies on chemical composition of hydrocarbons, noble gas isotopes and stable isotopes. Every drill core created a gas peak identified in the drilling mud ~20-30 min after core arrival at the surface. With known core depth and surface arrival time, these gas peaks could be attributed to depth. As a result, nearly complete gas depth profiles at three meter intervals were obtained from 662 m (installation of the gas-water separator) to 2490 m depth. Maximum concentrations of non-atmospheric gasses in drilling mud were ~200 ppmv helium, ~300 ppmv methane and ~2 vol-% hydrogen. Helium peaks between ~900 m and 1000 m and correlates with enhanced concentrations of methane. Methane and hydrogen exhibit maximum concentrations below 1630 m depth where helium concentrations remain low. Integration of the drilling mud gas monitoring dataset with data from geophysical downhole logging and core analysis is ongoing to help clarifying provenances and origin of gasses.

  2. The 1997 core drilling through Ordovician and Silurian strata at Röstånga, S. Sweden: preliminary stratigraphic assessment and regional comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, Stig M.; Huff, W.D.; Koren', T.; Larsson, K.; Ahlberg, P.; Kolata, Dennis R.

    1999-01-01

    A core drilling at Ro??sta??nga, the first such drilling ever undertaken in this classical Lower Paleozoic outcrop area in W-central Scania, penetrated an approximately 96 m thick succession of Lower Silurian-upper Middle Ordovician marine rocks. The drilling was stopped at a depth of 132.59 m in an interval of crushed rocks, probably a prominent fault zone, that proved impossible to drill through. The core contains a stratigraphical sequence from the basal Upper Llandoverian (Telychian Stage) to the upper Middle Ordovician (Harjuan Stage). The following units are recognized in descending stratigraphic order (approximate thickness in parenthesis): Kallholn Formation (35 m), Lindega??rd Mudstone (27 m), Fja??cka Shale (13 m), Mossen Formation (0.75 m), Skagen Formation (2.5 m), and Sularp Shale (19 m+). Except for the Skagen Formation, the drilled sequence consists of shales and mudstones with occasional thin limestone interbeds and is similar to coeval successions elsewhere in Scania. There are 11 K-bentonite beds in the Kallholn Formation, 2(3?) in the Lindega??rd Mudstone, 1 in the Mossen Formation, 7 in the Skagen Formation, and 33 in the Sularp Shale. The core serves as an excellent Lower Silurian-upper Middle Ordovician reference standard not only for the Ro??sta??nga area but also for southernmost Sweden in general because the cored sequence is the stratigraphically most complete one known anywhere in this region.

  3. Petrology and hydrothermal mineralogy of US Geological Survey Newberry 2 drill core from Newberry Caldera, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Bargar, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    USGS Newberry 2 was drilled to a depth of 932 m within Newberry caldera. The bottom-hole temperature of 265??C is the highest reported temperature of any drill hole in the Cascades region of the US. The upper part of the stratigraphic section penetrated by Newberry 2 consists of caldera fill below which are increasingly more mafic lavas ranging from rhyodacite at 501 m to basalt at 932 m. Measured temperatures shallower than 300 m are less than 35??C, and rock alteration consists of hydration of glass and local palagonitization of basaltic tuffs. Incipient zeolitization and partial smectite replacement of ash and pumice occurred of basaltic tuffs. Incipient zeolitization and partial smectite replacement of ash and pumice occurred throughout the pumiceous lithic tuffs from 300 to 500 m. Higher-temperature alteration of the tuffs to chlorite and mordenite occurs adjacent to a rhyodacite sill at 460-470 m; alteration minerals within the sill consist of pyrrhotite, pyrite, quartz, calcite, and siderite. Below 697 m the rocks are progressively more altered with depth mainly because of increased temperature along a conductive gradient from 100??C at 697 m to 265??C at 930 m. -from Authors

  4. Project Hotspot: Mineral chemistry of high-MgO basalts from the Kimama core, Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, R. W.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M. J.; Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral compositions can be used to deduce magma crystallization temperatures and to infer key characteristics of magma source regions including delving into the plume or no-plume sources of intraplate basalts. To this end, mineral compositions in basalt acquired by the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project have been analyzed by electron microprobe. The samples are from the Kimama drill hole on the axis of the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho which was drilled through 1912 m of basalt and interbedded sediments. Five of the least evolved basalt flows (i.e., low Fe, Ti, and high Ni and Cr) were chosen based on semiquantitative analyses using a Bruker Tracer IV handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Phenocryst phases include olivine and plagioclase; many olivine phenocrysts also contain inclusions of Cr-Al-rich spinel. Groundmass phases are olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magnetite, and ilmenite. Olivine phenocrysts are normally zoned with cores of Fo 81-70; the rims of Fo 70-50 overlap with the compositions of olivine in the groundmass. Spinels included in olivines in the most MgO-rich lavas are Al-rich (up to 34 wt% Al2O3), similar to those in ocean island basalts (Barnes and Roeder, 2001) and some zone to higher Fe and Ti. Plagioclase phenocryst cores (An 76-65) overlap significantly with the compositions of groundmass plagioclase (An 72-40). Clinopyroxene is confined to the groundmass and creates an ophitic texture. Pyroxene compositions are typically: Wo 45-37, En 42-30, Fs 30-15 and more evolved pyroxenes trend towards Craters of the Moon pyroxenes which have lower Ca. Temperature and oxygen fugacity were calculated from magnetite-ilmenite pairs using QUILF (Anderson et al., 1993), which yielded temperatures of 750-1000°C and fO2 near or just below the QFM buffer. The magnetite-ilmenite pairs are all groundmass phases; thus, these are post-eruption temperatures and fO2 estimates. Olivine compositions were used to test if the source of the Snake River Plain basalts contains a subducted oceanic crustal component as suggested by Sobolev et al. (2005) and Herzberg (2011). The olivines in the Kimama core have Mn, Fe/Mn, and Ca concentrations that are similar to Hawaiian shield-building basalts, and are consistent with derivation of their parent magmas from pyroxenite sources, such as those hypothesized for some mantle plumes. However, Ni concentrations (500-1500 ppm) in olivines from Kimama are relatively low, and the olivines are too evolved (Fo <81) to be definitive with regard to the presence or absence of pyroxenite in the source.

  5. Drill core LB-08A, Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Geochemistry of fallback breccia and basement samples from the central uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Mader, Dieter

    The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana (West Africa), which measures 10.5 km in diameter and is largely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, is associated with one of four currently known tektite strewn fields. Two boreholes were drilled to acquire hard-rock samples of the deep crater moat and from the flank of the central uplift (LB-07A and LB-08A, respectively) during a recent ICDP-sponsored drilling project. Here we present results of major and trace element analysis of 112 samples from drill core LB-08A. This core, which was recovered between 235.6 and 451.33 m depth below lake level, contains polymict lithic breccia intercalated with suevite, which overlies fractured/brecciated metasediment. The basement is dominated by meta-graywacke (from fine-grained to gritty), but also includes some phyllite and slate, as well as suevite dikelets and a few units of a distinct light greenish gray, medium-grained meta-graywacke. Most of the variations of the major and trace element abundances in the different lithologies result from the initial compositional variations of the various target rock types, as well as from aqueous alteration processes, which have undeniably affected the different rocks. Suevite from core LB-08A (fallback suevite) and fallout suevite samples (from outside the northern crater rim) display some differences in major (mainly in MgO, CaO, and Na2O contents) and minor (mainly Cr and Ni) element abundances that could be related to the higher degree of alteration of fallback suevites, but also result from differences in the clast populations of the two suevite populations. For example, granite clasts are present in fallout suevite but not in fallback breccia, and calcite clasts are present in fallback breccia and not in fallout suevite. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element abundance patterns for polymict impact breccia and basement samples are very similar to each other. Siderophile element contents in the impact breccias are not significantly different from those of the metasediments, or compared to target rocks from outside the crater rim. So far, no evidence for a meteoritic component has been detected in polymict impact breccias during this study, in agreement with previous work.

  6. Fossils, lithologies, and geophysical logs of the Mancos Shale from core hole USGS CL-1 in Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Bridget A.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Grauch, R.I.; McKinney, K.C.; Livo, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary investigation of Mancos Shale landscapes in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area in Delta and Montrose Counties of western Colorado by the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation, a core of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale was obtained from a borehole, USGS CL-1, in NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 50 N., R. 9 W. (approximately lat 38.61717 degree(s) N., long 107.90174 degree(s) W.), near the town of Olathe. Geophysical records of the borehole include resistivity, gamma ray, and density logs. The core extends between depths of 20 and 557 ft and is about 2.5 in. in diameter. It is composed of calcareous silty shale, as well as scattered beds of limestone and bentonite which were deposited mainly in offshore marine environments during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian Stages of the Cretaceous Series. The strata were sampled and analyzed to obtain geochemical data and to identify constituent fossils. Stratigraphic units within the Mancos in the core include the following members, in ascending order: Bridge Creek Limestone (part), Fairport, Blue Hill, Juana Lopez, Montezuma Valley, and Niobrara (part). Strata herein assigned to the Bridge Creek Limestone are about 18 ft thick and consist of silty shale that contains ammonites, bivalves, and a coral of Late Cenomanian age. Strata assigned to the Fairport are about 22 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenite-bearing, calcareous shale. Fossils in this member include ammonites and bivalves of early middle Turonian age. Overlying the Fairport is the Blue Hill Member, which is about 139 ft thick, and consists of glauconitic, shaley siltstone, and less silty shale. The Juana Lopez Member, overlying the Blue Hill, is about 138 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenitic, silty shale. Beds in this member contain ammonites and bivalves of late middle and early late Turonian ages. Overlying the Juana Lopez is the Montezuma Valley Member, which is about 55 ft thick and consists of calcarenitic, calcareous silty shale. The Montezuma Valley Member contains ammonites and bivalves of late Turonian age. It is overlain by a lower part of the Niobrara Member of the Mancos Shale which is laterally equivalent to the Fort Hays Limestone Member and part of the overlying Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Formation at outcrops in central Colorado. Strata in the core comparable to the Fort Hays are about 39 ft thick and include shaley limestone and calcareous shale, which contain lower Coniacian bivalves. Strata in the core equivalent to part of the Smoky Hill are about 126 ft thick and consist mainly of calcareous silty shale which also contains lower Coniacian bivalves.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of core catcher samples from the ICDP deep drilling at Laguna Potrok Aike (Patagonia, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luecke, Andreas; Wissel, Holger; Mayr*, Christoph; Oehlerich, Markus; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd; Pasado Science Team

    2010-05-01

    The ICDP project PASADO aims to develop a detailed paleoclimatic record for the southern part of the South American continent from sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike (51°58'S, 70°23'W), situated in the Patagonian steppe east of the Andean cordillera and north of the Street of Magellan. The precursor project SALSA recovered the Holocene and Late Glacial sediment infill of Laguna Potrok Aike and developed the environmental history of the semi-arid Patagonian steppe by a consequent interdisciplinary multi-proxy approach (e.g. Haberzettl et al., 2007). From September to November 2008 the ICDP deep drilling took place and successfully recovered in total 510 m of sediments from two sites resulting in a composite depth of 106 m for the selected main study Site 2. A preliminary age model places the record within the last 50.000 years. During the drilling campaign, the core catcher content of each drilled core run (3 m) was taken as separate sample to be shared and distributed between involved laboratories long before the main sampling party. A total of 70 core catcher samples describe the sediments of Site 2 and will form the base for more detailed investigations on the palaeoclimatic history of Patagonia. We here report on the organic carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of bulk sediment and plant debris of the core catcher samples. Similar investigations were performed for Holocene and Late Glacial sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike revealing insights into the organic matter dynamics of the lake and its catchment as well as into climatically induced hydrological variations with related lake level fluctuations (Mayr et al., 2009). The carbon and nitrogen content of the core catcher fine sediment fraction (<200 µm) is low to very low (around 1 % and 0.1 %, respectively) and requires particular attention in isotope analysis. The carbon isotope composition shows comparably little variation around a value of -26.0 per mil. The positive values of the Holocene and the Late Glacial (up to 22.0 per mil) are only sporadically reached down core. Compared to this, separated moss debris is remarkably 13C depleted with a minimum at 31.5 per mil. The nitrogen isotope ratios of glacial Laguna Potrok Aike sediments are lower (2.5 per mil) than those of the younger part of the record. The core catcher samples indicate several oscillations between 0.5 and 3.5 per mil. Data suggest a correlation between nitrogen isotopes and C/N ratios, but no linear relation between carbon isotopes and carbon content and an only weak relationship between carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Increasing nitrogen isotope values from 8000 cm downwards could probably be related to changed environmental conditions of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) compared to Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS 2). This will be further evaluated with higher resolution from the composite profile including a detailed study of discrete plant debris layers. References Haberzettl, T. et al. (2007). Lateglacial and Holocene wet-dry cycles in southern Patagonia: chronology, sedimentology and geochemistry of a lacustrine record from Laguna Potrok Aike, Argentina. The Holocene, 17: 297-310. Mayr, C. et al. (2009). Isotopic and geochemical fingerprints of environmental changes during the last 16,000 years on lacustrine organic matter from Laguna Potrok Aike (southern Patagonia, Argentina). Journal of Paleolimnology, 42: 81-102.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Hurwitz, Shaul; McGeehin, John

    2016-01-01

    To explore the timing of hydrothermal activity at the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park, we obtained seven new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C ages of carbonaceous material trapped within siliceous sinter. Five samples came from depths of 15–152 cm within the Y-1 well, and two samples were from well Y-7 (depths of 24 cm and 122 cm). These two wells, at Black Sand and Biscuit Basins, respectively, were drilled in 1967 as part of a scientific drilling program by the U.S. Geological Survey (White et al., 1975). Even with samples as small as 15 g, we obtained sufficient carbonaceous material (a mixture of thermophilic mats, pollen, and charcoal) for the 14C analyses. Apparent time of deposition ranged from 3775 ± 25 and 2910 ± 30 14C years BP at the top of the cores to about 8000 years BP at the bottom. The dates are consistent with variable rates of sinter formation at individual sites within the UGB over the Holocene. On a basin-wide scale, though, these and other existing 14C dates hint that hydrothermal activity at the UGB may have been continuous throughout the Holocene.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Hurwitz, Shaul; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the timing of hydrothermal activity at the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park, we obtained seven new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C ages of carbonaceous material trapped within siliceous sinter. Five samples came from depths of 15-152 cm within the Y-1 well, and two samples were from well Y-7 (depths of 24 cm and 122 cm). These two wells, at Black Sand and Biscuit Basins, respectively, were drilled in 1967 as part of a scientific drilling program by the U.S. Geological Survey (White et al., 1975). Even with samples as small as 15 g, we obtained sufficient carbonaceous material (a mixture of thermophilic mats, pollen, and charcoal) for the 14C analyses. Apparent time of deposition ranged from 3775 ± 25 and 2910 ± 30 14C years BP at the top of the cores to about 8000 years BP at the bottom. The dates are consistent with variable rates of sinter formation at individual sites within the UGB over the Holocene. On a basin-wide scale, though, these and other existing 14C dates hint that hydrothermal activity at the UGB may have been continuous throughout the Holocene.

  10. Results of core drilling for uranium-bearing carbonaceous shale and lignite in the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mapel, William J.; Hail, William J., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    Thirteen core holes, totaling 2,023 feet, were drilled during the fall of 1953 to explore the grade and extent of uranium-bearing beds of carbonaceous shale and lignite in the east-central part of the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho. The beds tested are interbedded with volcanic ash, bentonite, greenish-gray shale, sandstone, and conglomerate in two fairly well defined zones in the lower part of the Salt Lake formation of lower Pliocene age. Nine holes penetrated carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone, and one hole penetrated carbonaceous shale and lignite beds in zone B, 160 feet stratigraphically below the Barrett zone. The highest concentration of uranium found by drilling is 0.10 percent in the upper part of a 4-foot bed of carbonaceous shale and lignite in zone B. The grade of carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone ranges from 0.044 percent to less than 0.003 percent uranium. Inferred reserves in the district are estimated to be 790,000 tons in beds 1 foot or more thick containing an average of 0.014 percent or 120 tons of uranium.

  11. Hydraulic and acoustic properties of the active Alpine Fault, New Zealand: Laboratory measurements on DFDP-1 drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, B. M.; Kitajima, H.; Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.; Toy, V. G.; Saffer, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on laboratory measurements of permeability and elastic wavespeed for a suite of samples obtained by drilling across the active Alpine Fault on the South Island of New Zealand, as part of the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1). We find that clay-rich cataclasite and principal slip zone (PSZ) samples exhibit low permeabilities (⩽10-18 m), and that the permeability of hanging-wall cataclasites increases (from c. 10-18 m to 10-15 m) with distance from the fault. Additionally, the PSZ exhibits a markedly lower P-wave velocity and Young's modulus relative to the wall rocks. Our laboratory data are in good agreement with in situ wireline logging measurements and are consistent with the identification of an alteration zone surrounding the PSZ defined by observations of core samples. The properties of this zone and the low permeability of the PSZ likely govern transient hydrologic processes during earthquake slip, including thermal pressurization and dilatancy strengthening.

  12. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4.6 x 103μm3 mL-1 (mean: 56μm3 mL-1 ), the unicellular cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 3.0 x 104μm3 mL-1 (mean: 1.2 x 103μm3 mL-1 ), and Green algae varied from 0.0 to 2.3 x 104μm3 mL-1 (mean: 2.2 x 103μm3 mL-1 ). Based on the dating by pollen grains, the 64 m core covers 237 years. The results suggest that the snow algae did not grow every year on the top of the ice cap, and their biomass and community structure varied greatly from year to year. The total biomass after the 1960s was significantly higher than those before the 1950s. This suggested suggests that the surface conditions changed more favorable to the growth of algae in the 1960s. Annal variation of the algal biomass was found to be significantly correlated with air temperature at the nearest observing station from Grigoriev the iIce cap and hydrogen stable isotope (δD) in the ice core. The results suggest that the algal growth is more preferable in warmer year.

  13. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of cores from a 26 meter deep borehole drilled in Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, A.; Vieira, G.; Ramos, M.

    2012-06-01

    During the month of January of 2008 a borehole (Permamodel-Gulbenkian 1 — PG1) 26 m deep was drilled on the top of Mount Reina Sofia (275 m a.s.l.) near the Spanish Antarctic Station of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Cores from 1.5 m to about 26 m deep were collected for measuring several physical properties. The objective of the present work is to report the values of the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity that were measured in the cores from the borehole and the heat production that was estimated for the geological formations intercepted by it. Seven cores were selected to measure the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity. The measured values for the thermal conductivity vary from 2.6 W/mK to 3.3 W/mK while the measured values for the thermal diffusivity vary from 1.1 × 10- 6 m2/s to 1.6 × 10- 6 m2/s. Both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, on average, show a slight increase with depth. Average heat production was also estimated for two portions of the borehole: one from 2 to 12 m and the other from 12 to 25 m. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to estimate the concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium of the cores, from which the heat production per unit volume was calculated. The estimated heat production for the first half of the borehole is 2.218 μW/m3 while for the second half it is 2.173 μW/m3; these heat production values are compatible with acidic rock types. Porosity and density were also estimated for the same cores.

  14. Description and hydrogeologic implications of cored sedimentary material from the 1975 drilling program at the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rightmire, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of sedimentary material from interbeds between basalt flows and from fractures in the flows, taken from two drill cores at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were analyzed for (1) particle-size dribution, (2) bulk mineralogy, (3) clay mineralogy, (4) cation-exchange capacity, and (5) carbonate content. Thin sections of selected sediment material were made for petrographic examination. Preliminary interpretations indicate that (1) it may be possible to distinguish the various sediment interbeds on the basis of their mineralogy, (2) the presence of carbonate horizons in sedimentary interbeds may be utilized to approximate the time of exposure and the climate while the surface was exposed (which affected the hydrogeologic character of the sediment), and the type and orientation of fracture-filling material may be utilized to determine the mechanism by which fractures were filled. (USGS)

  15. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of hydrothermal minerals from Yellowstone drill cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturchio, N.C.; Keith, T.E.C.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199??C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The ??18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, ??-cristobalite, and ??-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8???. About one third of the silica 7samples have ??18O values that are consistent with isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters; most of the other silica samples appear to have precipitated from water enriched in 18O (up to 4.7???) relative to present thermal water, assuming precipitation at present in situ temperatures. Available data on fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures in hydrothermal quartz indicate that silica precipitation occurred mostly at temperatures above those measured during drilling and imply that 15O enrichments in water during silica precipitation were generally larger than those estimated from present conditions. Similarly, clay minerals (celadonite and smectite) have ??18O values higher (by 3.5 to 7.9???) than equilibrium values under present conditions. In contrast, all eight analyzed calcite samples are close to isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters. The frequent incidence of apparent 18O enrichment in thermal water from which the hydrothermal minerals precipitated may indicate that a higher proportion of strongly 18O-enriched deep hydrothermal fluid once circulated through shallow portions of the Yellowstone system, or that a recurring transient 18O-enrichment effect occurs at shallow depths and is caused either by sudden decompressional boiling or by isotopic exchange at low water/rock ratios in new fractures. The mineralogy and apparent 18O enrichments of hydrothermal fracture-filling minerals are consistent with deposition during transient boiling or rock-water exchange (fracturing) events. ?? 1990.

  16. Minerals in fractures of the saturated zone from drill core USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.

    1987-04-01

    The minerals in fractures in drill core USW G-4, from the static water level (SWL) at 1770 ft to the base of the hole at 3000 ft, were studied to determine their identity and depositional sequence and to compare them with those found above the SWL in the same drill hole. There is no change in mineralogy or mineral morphology across the SWL. The significant change in mineralogy and relationship to the host rock occurs at 1381 ft, well above the present water table. Below 1381 ft clinoptilolite appears in the fractures and rock matrix instead of heulandite, and the fracture mineralogy correlates with the host rock mineralogy. Throughout most of the saturated zone (below the SWL) in USW G-4, zeolites occur in fractures only in zeolitic tuff; however, zeolites persist in fracture below the base of the deepest zeolitic tuff interval. Nonzeolitic intervals of tuff have fewer fractures, and many of these have no coatings; a few have quartz and feldspar coatings. One interval in zeolitic tuff (2125-2140 ft) contains abundant crisobalite coatings in the fractures. Calcite occurs in fractures from 2575 to 2660 ft, usually with the manganese mineral hollandite, and from 2750 to 2765 ft, usually alone. Manganese minerals occur in several intervals. The spatial correlation of zeolites in fractures with zeolitic host rock suggests that both may have been zeolitized at the same time, possibly by water moving laterally through more permeable zones in the tuff. The continuation of zeolites in fractures below the lowest zeolitic interval in this hole suggests that vertical fracture flow may have been important in the deposition of these coatings. Core from deeper intervals in another hole will be examined to determine if that relationship continues. 17 refs., 19 figs.

  17. Early Miocene Antarctic glacial history: new insights from heavy mineral analysis from ANDRILL AND-2A drill core sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacoviello, Francesco; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Turbanti Memmi, Isabella; Passchier, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    The present study deals with heavy mineral analysis of late Early Miocene marine sediments recovered in the McMurdo Sound region (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during the ANDRILL—SMS Project in 2007. The main objective is to investigate how heavy mineral assemblages reflect different source rocks and hence different provenance areas. These data contribute to a better understanding of East Antarctica ice dynamics in the Ross Sea sector during the Early Miocene (17.6-20.2 Ma), a time of long-term global warming and sea level rise. The AND-2A drill core recovered several stratigraphic intervals that span from Early Miocene to Pleistocene and it collected a variety of terrigenous lithologies. The heavy mineral assemblages of the lower 650-m-thick sedimentary succession were analyzed through SEM observations and SEM-EDS microanalyses on heavy mineral grains. The heavy mineral analysis shows that the sediments are a mix of detritus dominated by McMurdo Volcanic Group sources most likely located in the present-day Mount Morning area (Proto-Mount Morning) with minor contribution from Transantarctic Mountains source rocks located west of the drill site. The heavy mineral assemblages in Interval 1 indicate that between 20.2 and 20.1 Ma, the grounding line of the ice sheet advanced to a position near the present-day Mount Morning volcanic center. During deposition of Interval 2 (20.1-19.3 Ma), the ice sheet most likely experienced a dynamic behavior with interval of ice advance alternating with periods of ice retreat, while Interval 3 (19.3-18.7 Ma) records further retreat to open water conditions. A dynamic behavior is noted in Interval 4 (18.7-17.6 Ma) with a decreasing contribution of materials derived from the basalts of the Mount Morning volcanic center located to the south of the drill site and a consequent increasing contribution of materials derived from the Transantarctic Mountains to the west of the drill site.

  18. Petrography, geochemistry, and Hf-Nd isotope evolution of drill core samples and target rocks from the El'gygytgyn impact crater, NE Chukotka, Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Schulz, Toni; Koeberl, Christian; Hoffmann, J. Elis; Münker, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    El'gygytgyn in northeast Chukotka (Russia) is a 3.6 Ma, 18-km-diameter impact structure. The impact crater was recently drilled in the framework of a project sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Target rocks at the El'gygytgyn area are dominated by the felsic members of the Late Cretaceous Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt (OCVB). Such a target lithology is unique among terrestrial impact craters, thereby providing the opportunity to study shock metamorphism in siliceous volcanic rocks. Here, we present a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of the section of the drill core underneath the lacustrine sediments, extending from ˜316 m to 517 m below the lake bottom (blb). The drill core stratigraphy includes ˜80 m of suevite and a cross section through a volcanic suite, which consists of (1) a middle section (˜390-423 mblb) with dominant felsic tuffs and a few mafic members, and (2) a welded rhyolitic-dacitic ignimbrite (˜423-517 mblb). The melt fragments embedded in the suevite are interpreted as being impact-related by comparison with impact glasses from the crater and in opposition to the target rock, which does not include similar melts. A suevitic dyke crosscuts the lower section of the core at the depth 471.40 mblb. Evidence for shock metamorphism is concentrated in the upper 10 m of the drill core and almost limited to the suevitic breccia. The geochemical and isotope (Nd and Hf) composition of samples from the target and the drill core reveals relationships to the "Berlozhya magmatic assemblage" (BMA) arguing for similar source magmas. The primitive upper mantle (PUM)-normalized trace element plot of rocks investigated here confirms a subduction-related signature, as previously proposed for rocks from both OCVB and BMA.

  19. Dynamics of the late Plio-Pleistocene West Antarctic Ice Sheet documented in subglacial diamictites, AND-1B drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Ellen A.; Christoffersen, Poul; Powell, Ross D.; Talarico, Franco M.

    2014-08-01

    Geologic studies of sediment deposited by glaciers can provide crucial insights into the subglacial environment. We studied muddy diamictites in the ANtarctic geological DRILLing (ANDRILL) AND-1B drill core, acquired from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf in McMurdo Sound, with the aim of identifying paleo-ice stream activity in the Plio-Pleistocene. Glacial advances were identified from glacial surfaces of erosion (GSEs) and subglacial diamictites within three complete sequences were investigated using lithofacies associations, micromorphology, and quartz sand grain microtextures. Whereas conditions in the Late Pliocene resemble the modern Greenland Ice Sheet where fast flowing glaciers lubricated by surface meltwater terminate directly in the sea (interval 201-212 mbsl) conditions in the Late Pleistocene are similar to modern West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) ice streams (38-49 mbsl). We identify the latter from ductile deformation and high pore-water pressure, which resulted in pervasive rotation and formation of till pellets and low relief, rounded sand grains dominated by abrasion. In the transitional period during the Mid-Pleistocene (55-68 mbsf), a slow moving inland ice sheet deposited tills with brittle deformation, producing lineations and bi-masepic and unistrial plasma fabric, along with high relief, conchoidally fractured quartz grains. Changes in the provenance of gravel to cobble-size clasts support a distant source area of Byrd Glacier for fast-flowing paleo-ice streams and a proximal area between Darwin and Skelton Glaciers for the slow-moving inland ice sheet. This difference in till provenance documents a shift in direction of glacial flow at the core site, which indirectly reflects changes in the size and thickness of the WAIS. Hence, we found that fast ice streaming motion is a consequence of a thicker WAIS pushing flow lines to the west and introducing clasts from the Byrd Glacier source area to the drill site. The detailed analysis of diamictites in AND-1B demonstrates that Pliocene glacial intervals were warmer than in the Pleistocene when polar ice sheets grew from local inland ice to regional ice streams.

  20. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  1. Detrital dating on drill-core records from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zattin, M.; Andreucci, B.; Balestrieri, M.; Olivetti, V.; Pace, D.; Reiners, P. W.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F.; Thomson, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of Antarctic ice sheets on the global climate system during the Cenozoic has been intensely investigated in the last years, especially after the successful drilling projects off-shore the western Ross Sea. While the role of the Western Ice Sheet (WAIS) during the Miocene it is not clear, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) has been suggested to be more or less stable and cold for the last 14 Ma. Records from drilling projects in syn-tectonic basins located on the continental shelf along the western margin of the West Antarctica Rift System (DSDP, CIROS, CRP and ANDRILL projects) may provide crucial information on the tectonic and paleo-climatic evolution of that region during Cenozoic. The drilled sedimentary records have been therefore investigated by detrital geochronology which, integrated by sandstone and gravel petrography, can provide valuable information on the dynamics of the ice sheets as provenance data are sensitive to variations in the ice-flow patterns. Apatite fission-track (AFT) data from ANDRILL and CRP records show multiple peaks in most of the samples. In the AND-2A well, whose stratigraphic record spans the last 20 Ma, the grain-age distributions are dominated by grains between 20 and 40 Ma. A young peak with a comparable age has been also episodically detected in CRP wells where conversely the most relevant population is made by grain ages between 45 and 70 Ma. Samples from Late Miocene-Pleistocene sediments of AND-1B well show a completely different AFT age distribution as a single peak is usually detected and ages are younger than 20 Ma. The AFT age range is well represented in bedrock data along the entire Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The main denudation phase in the TAM began at 55-50 Ma but the occurrence of a young peak in the detrital data at ca. 35 Ma indicates the presence of an Oligocene pulse, as testified also by the small gap between AFT and some (U-Th-Sm)/He ages that have been detected on AND-2A samples. Such young ages are absent in the onshore portion of the TAM proximal to wells while they are present in regions located to the south. This suggests that the TAM are segmented by transversal lineaments and that significant vertical displacements occurred south of the so-called Discovery Accommodation Zone during the Oligocene. Single grain U-Pb ages on apatites from AND-2A well testify that some volcanism was concurrent with this exhumation event. The location of the volcanic centers is unknown, but aeromagnetic anomalies suggest the presence of subglacial volcanic centers beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and the WAIS. After the Oligocene, the TAM have been in a post-orogenic decay, with exhumation rates of the order of 0.1 km/Ma. As a whole, detrital ages and petrographic data agree on the idea of an ice pattern dominated by south to north trending flow lines parallel to the TAM front. Our record supports the presence of large-scale advance of WAIS across the Ross Sea. Local ice lobes from the TAM glaciers were able to transport debris only during glacial-minima settings while during periods with presence of large ice volumes, W-E flows from the TAM were obstructed by the major flow running S to N.

  2. Visible-Near Infrared Point Spectrometry of Drill Core Samples from Río Tinto, Spain: Results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) Drilling Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  3. Petrographic variation of the Topopah Spring tuff matrix within and between cored drill holes, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, F.M. Jr.; Moore, L.M.

    1987-02-01

    Our study extends the petrographic zonation of the devitrified rhyolitic tuff matrix of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff observed in USW G-4 to four other cored holes in the Yucca Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site: UE-25a No. 1, USW G-1, USW G-2, and USW GU-3. The four petrographic zones occur above the basal vitrophyre and in ascending order are the lower nonlithophysal (ln); the lower lithophysal (ll); the middle nonlithophysal (mn); and the upper lithophysal (ul). Drill hole USW G-2, about two miles north of the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Block, differs significantly from the other four cored holes within or near the block; it has essentially one thick microlitic zone, largely lithophysal, above the vitrophyre. Textural attributes (from coarsest to finest) are phenocrysts, lithics, granophyre, amygdules, spherulites, and cryptocrystalline groundmass. Among individual phenocrysts, only quartz shows significant decrease upward. The four petrographic zones agree fairly well with those defined by contacts placed by USGS geologists and, with minor reservations, can be correlated between the four cored holes in the vicinity of the exploration block. The ln zone is characterized by dense welding, upwardly decreasing cryptocrystallinity, common lithics, and quartz phenocrysts. The ll zone is largely spherulitic with 1 to 13% granophyre generally increasing upward and shard texture becoming less distinct upward. The mn zone is similar to the ln zone except for the moderate welding and fewer quartz and lithic fragments present in the mn zone. The ul and ll zones are similar in microscopic texture, but the ul has more amygdules with tridymite rather than cristobalite and can generally be recognized by its "Swiss cheese" appearance in core or hand specimens. A series of discriminatory statistical analyses were made with the thin section modal data to test variation in textural type and quartz phenocrysts.

  4. New palaeomagnetic results from outcrop and drill core samples of the 3.47 billion year old Komati Formation, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, L.; Biggin, A.; Mac Niocaill, C.; De Wit, M.; Langereis, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Arndt, N.

    2013-12-01

    Palaeomagnetic results obtained in the 1980s and 1990s from the Komati Formation in the Palaeoarchaean Onverwacht Group in the Barberton Greenstone Belt constitute the world's oldest unrefuted palaeomagnetic pole. This pole has been crucial in arguing for the existence of a viable geomagnetic field early in the Earth's history but does not yet have the support of rigorous field tests in constraining its age and viability. Here we will present new palaeomagnetic data from a hitherto unexamined locality where these komatiites crop out along the Komati River and where two 400m drill cores have recently been extracted by an International Continental Drilling Programme (ICDP) project. Oriented samples have been taken from both of the deep drill cores and also from surface outcrops allowing detailed comparisons to take place between the new and old datasets. The implications of these new results for our understanding of the early Earth's geomagnetic field will be discussed.

  5. Manson impact structure, Iowa: First geochemical results for drill core M-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, Raymond R.; Hartung, Jack B.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1993-01-01

    The Manson Impact Structure is a large complex impact crater centered ca. S km north of the town of Manson, Iowa. It is the largest intact impact structure recognized in the United States (35 km in diameter). Its Ar-40/Ar-39 age is indistinguishable from that of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. The Manson structure may be one element of the events at the K-T boundary. The crater is completely covered by Quaternary glacial sedimentary deposits that are normally underlain by Cretaceous clastic sediments and flat-lying carbonate sediments of Phanerozoic age, as well as Proterozoic red clastic, metamorphic, volcanic, and plutonic rock sequences. The study of a reflection seismic profile, provided by Amoco, was critical in interpreting the structure. In the 35 km diameter zone that marks the extension of the crater the normal rock sequence is disturbed due to the impact, and at the center of the structure granitic basement rocks are present that have been uplifted from about 4 km depth. Our studies consist of detailed petrological and geochemical characterization of all cores, with emphasis on a detailed description of all rock types found in the core samples and their relationship to target rocks. Geochemical data on samples from the Manson M-1 core are presented.

  6. Clay-mineral assemblages from some levels of K-118 drill core of Maha Sarakham evaporites, northeastern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanich, Parkorn

    Clay-mineral assemblages in Middle Clastic, Middle Salt, Lower Clastic, Potash Zone, and Lower Salt, totalling 13 samples from K-118 drill core, in the Maha Sarakham Formation, Khorat Basin, northeastern Thailand were studied. The clay-size particles were separated from the water-soluble salt by water leaching. Then the samples were leached again in the EDTA solution and separated into clay-size particles by using the timing sedimentation. The EDTA-clay residues were divided and analyzed by using the XRD and XRF method. The XRD peaks show that the major-clay minerals are chlorite, illite, and mixed-layer corrensite including traces of rectorite? and paragonite? The other clay-size particles are quartz and potassium feldspar. The XRF results indicate Mg-rich values and moderate MgAl atom ratio values in those clay minerals. The variable Fe, Na, and K contents in the clay-mineral assemblages can explain the environment of deposition compared to the positions of the samples from the core. Hypothetically, mineralogy and the chemistry of the residual assemblages strongly indicate that severe alteration and Mg-enrichment of normal clay detritus occurred in the evaporite environment through brine-sediment interaction. The various Mg-enrichment varies along the various members reflecting whether sedimentation is near or far from the hypersaline brine.

  7. Acoustic investigations of lakes as justification for optimal core drilling and sampling location in paleomagnetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Pavel; Nourgaliev, Danis; Yasonov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments contain a long, high-resolution record of sedimentation processes associated with changes in the environment. Paleomagnetic studies of the sediments properties provide a detailed trace of changes in paleoenvironment. However, there are factors such as landslides, earthquakes, and the presence of gas in sediments affecting the distributing sediment stratification. Seismic profiling allows investigating in details the bottom relief and getting information about the thickness and structure of deposits, which makes this method ideally suitable for determining the configuration of the lake basin and the overlying lake sediment stratigraphy. Most seismic studies have concentrated on large and deep lakes containing a thick sedimentary sequence, but small and shallow lakes containing a thinner sedimentary column located in key geographic locations and geological settings can also provide a valuable record of Holocene history. Seismic data is crucial in choosing optimal core sampling location. Thus, continuous seismic profiling should be used regularly before coring lake sediments for the reconstruction of paleoclimate. We have carried out seismic profiling on lakes Balkhash (Kazakhstan), Yarovoye, Kangrykyl, Aslykul, Kisigach, Plescheevo, Sunukyl and Chebarkul (Russia).

  8. A chronostratigraphic framework for Neogene drill cores from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica and application to paleoclimatic and tectonic studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R.; Cody, R.; Crampton, J.; Fielding, C.; Harwood, D.; Henrys, S.; Mackay, R.; Wilson, G.; Winter, D.

    2009-04-01

    New age and correlation models for Late Neogene drill cores from the McMurdo Sound Region (AND-1B, CIROS-2, and DVDP-10 and 11) have been developed using constrained optimisation, a computer assisted quantitative biostratigraphic technique. These models are used to establish ties between lithostratigraphic units and hiatuses in the cores and provide a mechanism to evaluate the regional signature of climatic variability and tectonic episodes during the Plio-Pleistocene. The models also allow us to focus on key events including warm periods and periods of increased basin subsidence. In addition these high-precision models allow us to examine the glacial-interglacial signature preserved during isochronous intervals at different locations in the basin and enable us to begin to evaluate regional response of the East and West Antarctic Ice Sheets to climate change. Several regional seismic reflectors have been mapped throughout the southern portion of the Victoria Land Basin (VLB) and are tied to the McMurdo Sound drill cores. In this study we focus on a major sequence boundary (red reflector) that forms the base of a prominent interval of clinoform sets in the southern portion of the VLB. The age of the red reflector is 4.7-4.3 Ma based on a tie to AND-1B. Although the surface cannot be tied directly to coastal margin cores (CIROS-2, and DVDP-10 and 11) our correlation models provide a framework to examine the lithostratigraphic signature of the sediments that likely encase the sequence boundary at these sites. For example, a transition from marine to terrestrial sediments is preserved in DVDP-10. This transition occurred between 4.8-4.3 Ma and indicates that the red reflector is associated with relative sea-level fall resulting from ice-sheet growth and/or tectonic uplift. Age correlative sediments preserved in AND-1B indicate regional climatic warmth, which suggests that the red reflector is more likely related to a tectonic event than significant ice volume increase. Furthermore, the onset of sediment accumulation at CIROS-2 post-dates 4.5 Ma suggesting that local subsidence and creation of accommodation space began at this time. In addition to age constraint on regional seismic reflectors, correlation models for the AND-1B and CIROS-2 cores provide an opportunity to examine sedimentation patterns across a coastal-offshore transect. Current models produce results that indicate an ‘alternating' pattern of accumulation at each site. Intervals of increased sediment accumulation at the CIROS-2 site are often tied to condensed intervals at AND-1B and vice versa. These accumulation patterns may reflect glacial-interglacial dynamics, tectonic episodes, or a combination of both. Ongoing integrated studies will focus on producing models to further examine and explain these observations.

  9. Integrated Geologic, Hydrologic, and Geophysical Investigations of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia, USA: A Multi-Agency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohn, G. S.; Bruce, T. S.; Catchings, R. D.; Emry, S. R.; Johnson, G. H.; Levine, J. S.; McFarland, E. R.; Poag, C. W.; Powars, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is the focus of an ongoing federal-state-local research program. Recent core drilling and geophysical surveys address the formative processes and hydrogeologic properties of this major "wet-target" impact. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Impact-related dike breccia lithologies in the ICDP drill core Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, A.; Kenkamnn, T.; Schmitt, R. T.; Hecht, L.; Stöffler, D.

    2004-06-01

    Petrographic descriptions of three dike breccia lithologies from drill core Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) are presented. They occur within allochthonous units of displaced sedimentary megablocks of the Chicxulub impact structure. The suevitic dike breccias are the uppermost dike lithology. They contain melt rock particles and melt injections into the dike groundmass. Shock features occur ubiquitously and indicate a strong thermal annealing. Flow textures suggest a highly energetic emplacement process, possibly during the excavation stage as a ground-surge related deposit. The impact melt rock dikes are present in a strongly brecciated megablock interval as flow textured, anastomozing veinlets of impact melt rock that were altered to clay minerals. The melt impregnated a dolomitic host rock, indicating a low viscosity and, thus, high initial temperatures. Brecciation of the impact melt rock dikes occurred while they were still below the glass transition temperature, suggesting that dynamic conditions prevailed shortly after the emplacement process. Major element data indicates that the impact melt rock dikes differ in composition from the homogenized impact melt rock of Chicxulub. This could point to an emplacement during the late compression or early excavation stages of cratering. The clastic polymict dike breccias are coeval with pervasive brittle fracturing of the host rocks. They bear clasts including some crystalline basement and possible melt rock particles in a fine-grained dolomite matrix with turbulent flow textures. Fabric and texture indicate a granular flow at ambient pressures. Such conditions could be envisaged for the excavation phase while the transient cavity grew and fractures opened.

  11. Constraints on magma ascent, emplacement, and eruption: geochemical and mineralogical data from drill-core samples at Obsidian dome, Inyo chain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.; Younker, L.W.; Schuraytz, B.C.

    1987-05-01

    Systematic chemical and mineralogical variability occurs in samples from drill holes through Obsidian dome, the conduit to the dome, and a nearby associated feeder dike. The drill-hole samples from the margins of the conduit and most of the lower part of the dome are high-Ba, low-silica rhyolites; they contain two populations of phenocrysts and represent commingled magmas, whereas samples from the dike and upper parts of the dome are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites that do not reflect commingled magmas. Samples from the center of the conduit are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites that are only slightly mixed. A major part of the variability within the drill-core samples of the dome and conduit reflects the juxtaposition and commingling of two distinct magmas during their passage through the conduit.

  12. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

    2002-07-24

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

  13. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  14. A two century record of strontium isotopes from an ice core drilled at Mt Blanc, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, G. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Van de Velde, K. P.; Boutron, C. F.

    2006-08-01

    New techniques which allow small amounts of Sr to be reliably analysed [G.R. Burton, V.I. Morgan, C.F. Boutron, K.J.R. Rosman, High-sensitivity measurements of strontium isotopes in polar ice, Anal. Chim. Acta 469 (2002) 225-233] by TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) have been used to measure the isotopic composition of Sr and the concentration of Rb and Sr at sub-nanogram per gram levels in a Mt Blanc snow and ice core. This two century time series of Sr isotopes is the first to be reported in an Alpine glacier. The Sr and Rb concentrations range from 3 ng/g to 20 pg/g and 1 ng/g to 10 pg/g, respectively, with higher concentrations evident in more recent times. This trend is consistent with that reported previously for other metals such as Cd, Cu and Zn [K. Van de Velde, C. Barbante, G. Cozzi, I. Moret, T. Bellomi, C. Ferrari, C. Boutron, Changes in the occurrence of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and rhodium in Mont Blanc ice and snow since the 18th century, Atmos. Environ. 34 (2000) 3117-3127; K. Van de Velde, C. Boutron, C. Ferrari, T. Bellomi, C. Barbante, S. Rudnev, M. Bolshov, Seasonal variations of heavy metals in the 1960s Alpine ice: sources versus meteorological factors, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164 (1998) 521-533; K.J.R. Rosman, C. Ly, K. Van de Velde, C.F. Boutron, A two century record of lead isotopes in high altitude Alpine snow and ice, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 176 (2000) 413-424]. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios vary between 0.7020 and 0.7176 and display relatively larger variations in recent times which have been attributed to seasonal variations made evident by the increased sampling resolution available at shallower depths. No change with time is evident in this ratio which has a mean value of ˜ 0.712 and is similar to Glacial ice at Summit Greenland, suggesting that aerosols reaching Mt Blanc represent the same mixture of sources. Also, anthropogenic sources would appear to have the same isotopic ratio. The presence of Saharan dust in some samples is confirmed here by their strontium isotopic ratios.

  15. Teaching Marine Geoscience at Sea: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's School of Rock Explores Cascadia Subduction Zone - Cores, Logs, and ACORKs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M.; Collins, J.; Ludwig, K. A.; Slough, S.; Delaney, M. L.; Hovan, S. A.; Expedition 328 Scientists

    2010-12-01

    For twelve days this past September, seventeen formal and informal educators from the US, UK, and France joined six instructors and a small science party on the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)’s Cascadia ACORK Expedition. The educators were part of the annual “School of Rock (SOR)” education program. SOR is coordinated by the U.S. Implementing Organization (USIO) of IODP and is designed to engage participants in seagoing Earth systems research and education workshops onboard the JOIDES Resolution and on shore at the Gulf Coast Core Repository in Texas. The scientific objective of the Cascadia ACORK expedition was to install a new permanent hydrologic observatory at ODP Site 889 to provide long-term monitoring of the pressure at the frontal part of the Cascadia accretionary prism. This year’s SOR workshop focused on how cores, logs, and ACORKs shed light on the hydrology and geology of the Cascadia subduction zone in the Northeast Pacific. In addition to observing the deployment of the ACORK, the SOR participants conducted daily hands-on analyses of archived sediment and hard-rock cores with scientists and technicians who specialize in IODP research using the lab facilities on the ship. Throughout the expedition, participants engaged in different activities and lessons designed to explore the deep biosphere, methane hydrates, paleoceanography, sedimentology, biostratigraphy, seafloor spreading, and drilling technology. The workshop also provided participants with “C3” time; time to communicate their experience using the successful joidesresolution.org website and other tools, make connections to their prior knowledge and expertise, and to be creative in developing and planning new education and outreach activities based on their new knowledge and research. As part of participating in the expedition, participants committed to further developing and testing their education and outreach products after the expedition, conducting post-expedition projects in conjunction with the U.S. Implementing Organization and their own institutions, and to participating actively in post-cruise evaluation. Since its inception in 2005, 75 SOR graduates and staff have conducted over 150 workshops and short courses for 3,000 participants in more than 30 U.S. states and five other nations. Integral to the success of the program is the evaluation process that takes place during and after each SOR. In particular, SOR evaluations take advantage of the power of video data collection to demonstrate the transformative nature of SOR expeditions. Video evaluations offer a unique opportunity to collect and preserve participant “voice” to document true transformative broader impacts. Along with video evaluations, the program also employs more traditional evaluation methods such as internal evaluator observations, open-ended questionnaires, and participant journals.

  16. Environmental Health Research Recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Patrick N.; Gray, Kathleen; Howarth, Marilyn; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) (which include hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) supply an energy source that is potentially cleaner than liquid or solid fossil fuels and may provide a route to energy independence. However, significant concerns have arisen due to the lack of research on the public health impact of UNGDO. Objectives: Environmental Health Sciences Core Centers (EHSCCs), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), formed a working group to review the literature on the potential public health impact of UNGDO and to make recommendations for needed research. Discussion: The Inter-EHSCC Working Group concluded that a potential for water and air pollution exists that might endanger public health, and that the social fabric of communities could be impacted by the rapid emergence of drilling operations. The working group recommends research to inform how potential risks could be mitigated. Conclusions: Research on exposure and health outcomes related to UNGDO is urgently needed, and community engagement is essential in the design of such studies. Citation: Penning TM, Breysse PN, Gray K, Howarth M, Yan B. 2014. Environmental health research recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations. Environ Health Perspect 122:1155–1159; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408207 PMID:25036093

  17. Physical properties of fault zone rocks from SAFOD: Tying logging data to high-pressure measurements on drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2005, Phase 2 of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole was completed and logged with wireline tools including a dipole sonic tool to measure P- and S-wave velocities. A zone of anomalously low velocity was detected from 3150 to 3414 m measured depth (MD), corresponding with the subsurface location of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ). This low velocity zone is 5-30% slower than the surrounding host rock. Within this broad low-velocity zone, several slip surfaces were identified as well as two actively deforming shear zones: the southwest deformation zone (SDZ) and the central deformation zone (CDZ), located at 3192 and 3302 m MD, respectively. The SAFZ had also previously been identified as a low velocity zone in seismic velocity inversion models. The anomalously low velocity was hypothesized to result from either (a) brittle deformation in the damage zone of the fault, (b) high fluid pressures with in the fault zone, or (c) lithological variation, or a combination of the above. We measured P- and S-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequencies on saturated 2.5 cm diameter core plug samples taken from SAFOD core obtained in 2007 from within the low velocity zone. The resulting values fall into two distinct groups: foliated fault gouge and non-gouge. Samples of the foliated fault gouge have P-wave velocities between 2.3-3.5 km/s while non-gouge samples lie between 4.1-5.4 km/s over a range of effective pressures from 5-70 MPa. There is a good correlation between the log measurements and laboratory values of P-and S wave velocity at in situ pressure conditions especially for the foliated fault gouge. For non-gouge samples the laboratory values are approximately 0.08-0.73 km/s faster than the log values. This difference places the non-gouge velocities within the Great Valley siltstone velocity range, as measured by logs and ultrasonic measurements performed on outcrop samples. As a high fluid pressure zone was not encountered during SAFOD drilling, we use the ultrasonic velocities of SAFOD core and analogous outcrop samples to determine if the velocity reduction is due to lithologic variations or the presence of deformational fabrics and alteration in the fault zone. Preliminary analysis indicates that while the decrease in velocity across the broad fault zone is heavily influenced by fractures, the extremely low velocities associated with the actively deforming zones are more likely caused by the development of scaly fabric with clay coatings on the fracture surfaces. Analysis of thin sections and well logs are used to support this interpretation.

  18. Resources for Computational Geophysics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keers, Henk; Rondenay, Stéphane; Harlap, Yaël.; Nordmo, Ivar

    2014-09-01

    An important skill that students in solid Earth physics need to acquire is the ability to write computer programs that can be used for the processing, analysis, and modeling of geophysical data and phenomena. Therefore, this skill (which we call "computational geophysics") is a core part of any undergraduate geophysics curriculum. In this Forum, we share our personal experience in teaching such a course.

  19. Drill Core Mineral Analysis by Means of the Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer HySpex, XRD and Asd in Proximity of the MÝTINA Maar, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerting, F.; Rogass, C.; Kaempf, H.; Lubitz, C.; Harms, U.; Schudack, M.; Kokaly, R.; Mielke, C.; Boesche, N.; Altenberger, U.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging spectroscopy is increasingly used for surface mapping. Therefore different expert systems are being utilized to identify surface cover materials. Those expert systems mainly rely on the spectral comparison between unknown and library spectra, but their performances were only limited qualified. This study aims on the comparative analysis of drill core samples from the recently discovered maar system in the Czech Republic. Drill core samples from the surrounding area of the Mýtina maar were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and the hyperspectral spectrometer HySpex. Additionally, soil samples were measured in-situ by the ASD FieldSpec4 and in the laboratory by the HySpex VNIR/SWIR spectrometer system. The data was then analyzed by the MICA-algorithm and the results were compared to the results of the XRD -analysis. The XRD-analysis served here as validation basis. The results of the hyperspectral and the XRD analyses were used to densify a volcanic map that also integrates in-situ soil measurements in the surrounding area of Mýtina. The comparison of the XRD- and solaroptical remote sensing results showed a good correlation of qualified minerals if the soil organic carbon content was significantly low. Contrary to XRD, smectites and muscovites were also straightforward identified that underlines the overall performance of the approach to identify minerals. Basically, in this work an operable approach is proposed that enables the fast, repeatable and detailed analysis of drill cores, drill core samples and soil samples and, hence, provides a higher performance than state-of-the-art XRD-analyses.

  20. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M.; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H.; Moyer, Craig L.; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

  1. Preliminary evaluation of alterant geophysical tomography in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1985-02-01

    The ability of alterant geophysical tomography to delineate flow paths in a welded tuff rock mass has been preliminarily evaluated based on the results of a field experiment. Electromagnetic measurements were made before, during and after a water-based, dye tracer flowed through the rock mass. Alterant geophysical tomographs were generated and compared with independent evidence - borescope logs, neutron logs and dyed rock samples. Anomalies present in the tomograph match the location and orientation of fractures mapped with a borescope. The location of tracer-strained fractures coincides with the location of some image anomalies; other geophysical anomalies exist where tracer-strained fractures were not observed, perhaps due to poor core recovery. Additional drilling to locate stained flow paths and other experiments are planned so that the applicability of the technique can be further evaluated. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Petrophysical characterization of first ever drilled core samples from an active CO2 storage site, the German Ketzin Pilot Site - Comparison with long term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. These parameters may change during and/or after the CO2 injection due to geochemical reactions in the reservoir system that are triggered by the injected CO2. Here we present petrophysical data of first ever drilled cores from a newly drilled well at the active CO2 storage site - the Ketzin pilot site in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. By comparison with pre-injection baseline data from core samples recovered prior to injection, the new samples provide the unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of CO2 on pore size related properties of reservoir and cap rocks at a real injection site under in-situ reservoir conditions. After injection of 61 000 tons CO2, an additional well was drilled and new rock cores were recovered. In total 100 core samples from the reservoir and the overlaying caprock were investigated by NMR relaxation. Permeability of 20 core samples was estimated by nitrogen and porosity by helium pycnometry. The determined data are comparable between pre-injection and post-injection core samples. The lower part of the reservoir sandstone is unaffected by the injected CO2. The upper part of the reservoir sandstone shows consistently slightly lower NMR porosity and permeability values in the post-injection samples when compared to the pre-injection data. This upper sandstone part is above the fluid level and CO2 present as a free gas phase and a possible residual gas saturation of the cores distorted the NMR results. The potash-containing drilling fluid can also influence these results: NMR investigation of twin samples from inner and outer parts of the cores show a reduced fraction of larger pores for the outer core samples together with lower porosities and T2 times. The drill mud penetration depth can be controlled by the added fluorescent tracer. Due to the heterogeneous character of the Stuttgart Formation it is difficult to estimate definite CO2 induced changes from petrophysical measurements. The observed changes are only minor. Several batch experiments on Ketzin samples drilled prior injection confirm the results from investigation of the in-situ rock cores. Core samples of the pre-injection wells were exposed to CO2 and brine in autoclaves over various time periods. Samples were characterized prior to and after the experiments by NMR and Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP). The results are consistent with the logging data and show only minor change. Unfortunately, also in these experiments observed mineralogical and petrophysical changes were within the natural heterogeneity of the Ketzin reservoir and precluded unequivocal conclusions. However, given the only minor differences between post-injection well and pre-injection well, it is reasonable to assume that the potential dissolution-precipitation processes appear to have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behaviour. This is also in line with the continuously recorded injection operation parameter. These do not point to any changes in reservoir injectivity.|

  3. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  4. Evolution of fluid-rock interaction in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland: Evidence from Iceland Deep Drilling Project core RN-17B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter; Marks, Naomi; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

    2015-09-01

    We describe the lithology and present spatially resolved geochemical analyses of samples from the hydrothermally altered Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) drill core RN-17B. The 9.3 m long RN-17B core was collected from the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The nature of fluids and the location of the Reykjanes geothermal system make it a useful analog for seafloor hydrothermal processes, although there are important differences. The recovery of drill core from the Reykjanes geothermal system, as opposed to drill cuttings, has provided the opportunity to investigate evolving geothermal conditions by utilizing in-situ geochemical techniques in the context of observed paragenetic and spatial relationships of alteration minerals. The RN-17B core was returned from a vertical depth of ~ 2560 m and an in-situ temperature of ~ 345 °C. The primary lithologies are basaltic in composition and include hyaloclastite breccia, fine-grained volcanic sandstone, lithic breccia, and crystalline basalt. Primary igneous phases have been entirely pseudomorphed by calcic plagioclase + magnesium hornblende + chlorite + titanite + albitized plagioclase + vein epidote and sulfides. Despite the extensive hydrothermal metasomatism, original textures including hyaloclastite glass shards, lithic clasts, chilled margins, and shell-fragment molds are superbly preserved. Multi-collector LA-ICP-MS strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) measurements of vein epidote from the core are consistent with seawater as the dominant recharge fluid. Epidote-hosted fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and freezing point depression measurements suggest that the RN-17B core records cooling through the two-phase boundary for seawater over time to current in-situ measured temperatures. Electron microprobe analyses of hydrothermal hornblende and hydrothermal plagioclase confirm that while alteration is of amphibolite-grade, it is in disequilibrium and the extent of alteration is dependent upon protolith type and water/rock ratio. Alteration in the RN-17B core bares many similarities to that of Type II basalts observed in Mid-Atlantic Ridge samples.

  5. Drilling and Completion of the Urach III HDR Test Well

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, U.; Ernst, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    The hot dry rock (HDR) test well, urach III, was drilled and completed in 1979. The borehole is located in Southwest Germany in the geothermal anomaly of Urach. The purpose of project Urach was to study drilling and completion problems of HDR wells and to provide a test site for a HDR research program. The Urach III borehole was drilled to a total depth of 3,334 meters (10,939 feet), penetrating 1,700 meters (5,578 feet) into the granitic basement. Extensive coring was required to provide samples for geophysical and geochemical studies. Positive displacement downhole motors were used for coring and normal drilling operations. It was found that these motors in combination with the proper bits gave better results than conventional rotary drilling. Loss of circulation was encountered not only in sedimentary rocks but also in the granite. After drilling and completion of the borehole, a number of hydraulic fracturing experiments were performed in the open hole as well as in the cased section of Urach III. A circulation loop was established by using the single-borehole concept. It is not yet clear whether new fractures have actually been generated or preexisting joints and fissures have been reactivated. Evaluation of the results of this first step is almost completed and the planning of Phase II of the Urach project is under way.

  6. The metamorphic evolution of the eclogitic rocks from the 100-2000m core of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Z.; Su, S.; Liang, F.; Zhang, Z.

    2004-12-01

    On the basis of petrographic study of the metamorphic rocks from 100-2000m in the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) it is revealed that the major lithological types are: (1)Eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites; (2)Eclogitic gneisses; (3)Garnet peridotites; (4)Biotite (hornblende) two-feldspar gneiss (granitic gneiss) and (5) Fault breccia and mylonites. Most of the eclogites and eclogitic gneisses had a long residence history in the crust before the deep subduction of the continental slab. However the garnet clinopyroxenites are closely related with garnet peridotites which occur within 607-783m of the drill hole. Based on their mineralogical and petrochemical characteristics they were ultramafic-mafic complexes incorporated into the subducted slab from the overlying mantle wedge during the subduction of the continental slab and had undergone ultrahigh"Cpressure metamorphism (UHPM). The eclogitic gneisses, equivalent partly to paragneiss as called by some geologists, are UHPM rocks of intermediate acidic protolith associated with crustal eclogites. The granitic gneisses are of diverse origin, most of them are products of decompressive melting of the retrogressive amphibolite and biotite gneiss derived from eclogitic rocks. The metamorphic evolution of the eclogitic rocks can be divided into 3 major stages. The first (M1) is the ultrahigh pressure metamorphism (UHPM) as evidenced by coesite inclusions within garnet and omphacite grains in eclogites. The second (M2) is a retrogressive stage sequence during which most of the UHPM rocks were turned to rocks of high-pressure eclogite facies, amphibolite facies and then epidote amphibolite facies. At this stage the eclogites are characterized by the growth of symplectites and coronas. The eclogitic gneiss is retrograded to be biotite (hornblende) plagioclase gneiss and epidote biotite (amphibole) gneiss. The granitic rocks are turned to biotite hornblende two feldspar gneiss (so-call orthogneiss) due to partial melting or K-metasomatism of the HP supercritical fluid. Some of them are allanite (Ce)"Cbearing, the La/Ce=0.42¡ª0.72. The allanite are zonal and are rimmed by epidote, representing the later overprint of epidote amphibolite facies retrometamorphism. The third stage (M3) is characterized by the formation of tectonic breccia and mylonites in response to the brittle and ductile-brittle deformation related with uplift. The matrix of these tectonites containing chlorite, actinolite and calcite indicates the greenschist facies of metamorphism (M3). All of the above-mentioned 3 stages of metamorphism are records of the tectonic processes surpassed by these eclogitic rocks. They delineate a clock-wise metamorphic PTt D path of the Donghai UHP terrane which is comparable in pattern with those of Dabieshan. The metamorphic evolution and the successive deformational events found in the 100¡ª2000m core from the CCSD main hole confirms that during the collision of the two (Yangtze and North China) plates voluminous crustal materials including granitic rocks can deeply be subducted to mantle depth and then rapidly returned back to the earth surface. Acknowledgement: This work is sponsored by the Major State Key Project to CCSD: 2003CB716501 and major project from NSFC: 40399142.

  7. New palaeomagnetic results from outcrop and drill core samples of the 3.47 billion year old Komati Formation, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts Artal, Laura; Biggin, Andy; MacNiocaill, Conall; de Wit, Maarten; Langereis, Cor; Wilson, Allan; Arndt, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Palaeomagnetic results obtained in the 1980s and 1990s from the Komati Formation in the Palaeoarchaean Onverwacht Group in the Barberton Greenstone Belt constitute the world's oldest unrefuted palaeomagnetic pole. This pole has been crucial in arguing for the existence of a viable geomagnetic field early in the Earth's history but does not yet have the support of rigorous field tests in constraining its age and viability. Here we present new palaeomagnetic data from a hitherto unexamined locality where these komatiites crop out along the Komati River and where two 400m drill cores have recently been extracted by an International Continental Drilling Programme (ICDP) project. Oriented samples have been taken from both of the deep drill cores and also from surface outcrops allowing detailed comparisons to take place between the new and old datasets. Two ancient components have been identified. One of these is dual polarity and may be associated with widespread intrusive activity at 3.2 Gyr. The other is older and has a direction in agreement with previous results from the Komati Formation. The implications of these new results for our understanding of the early Earth's geomagnetic field will be discussed.

  8. Crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake as seen in drill core recovered in 1967-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption, one of the most picritic eruptions of Kilauea Volcano in the twentieth century. Since 1959 the 110 to 122 m thick lake has cooled slowly, developing steadily thickening upper and lower crusts, with a lens of more molten lava in between. Recent coring dates, with maximum depths reached in the center of the lake, are: 1967 (26.5 m). 1975 (44.2 m), 1976 (46.0 m) and 1979 (52.7 m). These depths define the base of the upper crust at the time of drilling. The bulk of the core consists of a gray, olivine-phyric basalt matrix, which locally contains coarser-grained diabasic segregation veins. The most important megascopic variation in the matrix rock is its variation in olivine content. The upper 15 m of crust is very olivine-rich. Abundance and average size of olivine decrease irregularly downward to 23 m; between 23 and 40 m the rock contains 5-10% of small olivine phenocrysts. Below 40 m. olivine content and average grainsize rise sharply. Olivine contents remain high (20-45%, by volume) throughout the lower crust, except for a narrow (< 6 m) olivine depleted zone near the basalt contact. Petrographically the olivine phenocrysts in Kilauea Iki can be divided into two types. Type 1 phenocrysts are large (1-12 mm long), with irregular blocky outlines, and often contain kink bands. Type 2 crystals are relatively small (0.5-2 mm in length), euhedral and undeformed. The variations in olivine content of the matrix rock are almost entirely variations in the amount of type 1 olivines. Sharp mineral layering of any sort is rare in Kilauea Iki. However, the depth range 41-52 m is marked by the frequent occurrence of steeply dipping (70??-90??) bands or bodies of slightly vuggy olivine-rich rock locally capped with a small cupola of segregation-vein material. In thin section there is clear evidence for relative movement of melt and crystals within these structures. The segregation veins occur only in the upper crust. The most widely distributed (occurring from 4.5-59.4 m) are thin veins (most < 5 cm thick), which cut the core at moderate angles and appear to have been derived from the immediately adjacent wall-rock by filter pressing. There is also a series of thicker (0.1-1.5 m) segregation veins, which recur every 2-3 m, between 20 and 52 m. These have subhorizontal contacts and appear, from similarities in thickness and spacing, to correlate between drill holes as much as 100 m apart. These large veins are not derived from the adjacent wallrock: their mechanism of formation is still problematical. The total thickness of segregation veins in Kilauea Iki is 3-6 m in the central part of the lake, corresponding to 6-11% of the upper crust. Whole-rock compositions for Kilauea Iki fall into two groups: the matrix rock ranges from 20-7.5% MgO, while the segregation veins all contain between 6.0 and 4.5% MgO. There are no whole-rock compositions of intermediate MgO content. Samples from < 12 m show eruption-controlled chemistry. Below that depth, matrix rock compositions have higher Al2O3, TiO2 and alkalies, and lower CaO and FeO, at a given MgO content than do the eruption pumices. The probable causes of this are assimilation of low-melting components from foundered crust, plus removal of olivine, plus removal of minor augite, for rocks with MgO contents of < 8.0%. Given the observed rate of growth of the upper crust, one can infer that significant removal of the type 1 olivine phenocrysts from the upper part of the lake began in 1963 and ceased sometime prior to 1972. The process. probably gravitative settling, appears to have been inhibited earlier by gas streaming from the lower part of the lens of melt. The olivine cumulate zone, which extends into the upper crust, contains relatively few (25-40%) olivine crystals, few of which actually touch each other. The diffuseness of the cumulate zone raises the possibility that the crystals were coated with a relatively visous boundary layer

  9. U-Th and ESR dating of drilled cores from a giant hydrothermal mounds in South Mariana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamasa, A.; Nakai, S.; Sato, F.; Toyoda, S.; Ishibashi, J.

    2012-12-01

    The time scale for hydrothermal activity is an important factor controlling the size of hydrothermal ore deposits and the evolution of chemosynthesis-based communities in a submarine hydrothermal system. We determined the age of hydrothermal deposits samples, both collected samples by submersible and drilled core samples from South Mariana Trough. Samples were collected from four hydrothermal sites, Snail (near the spreading axis), Archean ( 1.5km from the axis), Pika ( 4.9km from the axis) and Urashima ( 4.9km from the axis). 230Th-234U radioactive disequilibrium dating was applied to hydrothermal sufide minerals consisting of pyrite and sphalerite while electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was applied to barite. For 230Th-234U radioactive disequilibrium dating, we carried out magnetic separation for bulk samples, then we digested samples with nitric acid. U and Th were purified by two-step column separations, and isotopic compositions of spiked and unspiked U and Th were measured by a MC-ICP-MS. Analytical methods for ESR age determination were described in a companion abstract by Toyoda et al. We found that the magnetic fractions had significantly higher U/Th ratios, which enabled 230Th-234U age determinations as precise as ±2% (2σ). This probably reflects that pyrite enriched in magnetic fractions has high U/Th ration. In a sulfide crust sample collected from Archean site, the 230Th-234U ages of the sulfide minerals (0.3-2.2 ka) were compared with ESR ages of barites separated from 12 subsamples of the same sulfide crust. ESR ages (0.27 - 1.7 ka) show a spatial pattern broadly resembling that observed in 230Th-234U dating method. While there are some significant offsets, these results illustrate the potential of the two methods for use in provide information on evolution history of a hydrothermal system. Samples from Pika, Archean and Snail sites yield from 0.5 to ~9 ka, from 0.1 to 3 ka and < ~90 a, respectively. The oldest ages from each site are correlated with the distance from spreading axis.

  10. Ages and stable-isotope compositions of secondary calcite and opal in drill cores from Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Kyser, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    Stable-isotope compositions of fracture- and cavity-filling calcite from the unsaturated zone of three drill cores at Yucca Mountain Tertiary volcanic complex indicate that the water from which the minerals precipitated was probably meteoric in origin. A decrease in 18O in the calcite with depth is interpreted as being due to the increase in temperature in drill holes corresponding to an estimated average geothermal gradient of 34?? per kilometer. A few of the calcite samples and all of the opal samples yielded uranium-series ages older than 400 000 yr, although most of the calcite samples yielded ages between 26 000 and 310 000 yr. The stable-isotope and uranium-series dates from precipitated calcite and opal of this reconnaissance study suggest a complex history of fluid movement through the volcanic pile, and episodes of fracture filling predominantly from meteoric water during at least the past 400 000 yr. -Authors

  11. Development of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation on a shale dip-slope: Observations from high-quality drill cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, M.; Hariyama, T.; Yamasaki, S.

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed high-quality drill cores with 100% recovery drilled into a gravitationally deformed dip-slope of a shale-dominated sequence of sediments in Japan. The slope had undulating surfaces but no well-defined landslide scarps, suggesting that parts of the slope had undergone gravitational deformation but had not completely separated from the surrounding bedrock. The gravitational deformation of shale and sandstone is characterized by disintegration and brecciation of sediments and the formation of pulverized zones with poorly developed planar structures, jigsaw-like structures, and fracture openings. Shear zones are distributed intermittently within the slope but have not merged discernably into a through-going master sliding surface. Incipient landslide shear zones form openings within coherent rock by shearing along bedding, with these shear zones potentially developing downward in a stepwise manner, which may be related to stress redistribution induced by river incision.

  12. Water Depth Estimates Using the Volatile Content of Volcanic Glass from the AND-1B Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, B. I.; Krans, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Volatile contents of volcanic glass from the ocean floor and subglacial environments can help determine water depth or ice thickness, respectively, owing to the pressure-dependence of volatile solubility in magma. The higher the pressure (i.e., the greater the water depth or ice thickness), the greater the concentration of volatiles dissolved in the magma. The existence of volcanic glass in the AND-1B drill core erupted subaqueously or even subglacially affords the possibility of constraining water depth by measuring the volatile content of the glass. Water depth is a critical variable required for the ANDRILL climate models. Glass samples studied come from Lithostratigraphic Unit (LU) 1 at ~25 m depth and from LU 2 between 92 and 145 m depth. The samples from LU1 were fresh-looking basanitic/phonotephritic glassy sands. The glass and tachylite was very blocky suggesting a near-source subaquatic eruption origin rather than a subaerial eruptive process. The vesiculated nature of the glass indicates eruption into shallow water. The black and well sorted sands from subunit 2.4 were more likely derived from subaerial Hawaiian/Strombolian type eruptions. The graded bedding exposed in this subunit may result from fallout of tephra through the water column. Small chips of fresh glass were picked from the volcanic sediment in order to make mounts for major element study by electron microprobe and doubly polished glass wafers for volatile analysis by synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectrometry. S and Cl concentrations determined by electron microprobe range from 0.02 to 0.16 wt% (Dunbar, pers. comm.). Magmatic tephra from Iceland typically contain 0.03-0.06 wt% S indicating near complete degassing of the magma upon eruption. The range of S concentrations in the upper part of AND-1B support the textural interpretation indicating both subaerial and subaqueous eruptions. H2O contents calculated from FTIR spectra depend on absorbance, density of the glass, and thickness of the glass wafer. Volatile measurements here have determined wafer thickness using interference fringes on spectra collected in reflectance mode on the FTIR. H2O contents measured in the volcanic glasses from the upper 120 m of AND-1B range from 0.21 to 0.87 wt%. One sample from 25.64 m depth from LU 1 was measured to have 0.56 wt% H2O by FTIR. No carbonate peaks were observed in the spectra indicating the glass contained less than the detection limit of ~30 ppm CO2. On-ice participants interpret the volcanic glass in the black sands from the core as a product of subaqueous eruptions. Assuming a SiO2 content of 47 wt% for the glass and a temperature of 1000°C, 0.56 wt% H2O yields a saturation pressure of 33.5 bars. An eruption pressure of 33.5 bars translates into a water depth of 342 m assuming 0 ppm CO2 in the glass. The water depth calculation depends significantly on the CO2 content, however small. A CO2 concentration of 20 ppm CO2 indicates a depth of 578 m. Future studies will concentrate on whether the measured H2O contents are truly magmatic values. Step-heating hydrogen isotopic measurements and H2O content maps of glassy clasts using synchrotron FTIR can help determine the true magmatic H2O content.

  13. Drilling through the largest magma chamber on Earth: Bushveld Igneous Complex Drilling Project (BICDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbull, R. B.; Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Veksler, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    A scientific drilling project in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa has been proposed to contribute to the following scientific topics of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP): large igneous provinces and mantle plumes, natural resources, volcanic systems and thermal regimes, and deep life. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from eight countries met in Johannesburg to exchange ideas about the scientific objectives and a drilling strategy to achieve them. The workshop identified drilling targets in each of the three main lobes of the Bushveld Complex, which will integrate existing drill cores with new boreholes to establish permanently curated and accessible reference profiles of the Bushveld Complex. Coordinated studies of this material will address fundamental questions related to the origin and evolution of parental Bushveld magma(s), the magma chamber processes that caused layering and ore formation, and the role of crust vs. mantle in the genesis of Bushveld granites and felsic volcanic units. Other objectives are to study geophysical and geodynamic aspects of the Bushveld intrusion, including crustal stresses and thermal gradient, and to determine the nature of deep groundwater systems and the biology of subsurface microbial communities.

  14. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  15. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface model (2D), and solid model (3D). Both measurements and models are derived from O&M sampling features that may be linked to sampling procedures and observation results. Geophysical products are output of complex procedures and can precisely be described as chains of consecutive O&M observations. For describing geophysical processes and results the data model both supports the use of OGC standard XML encoding (SensorML, SWE, GML) and traditional industry standards (SPS, UKOOA, SEG formats). To control the scope of the model and to harmonize terminology an initial set of extendable code lists was developed. The attempt to create a hierarchical SKOS vocabulary of terms for geophysical methods, resource types, processes, properties and technical parameters was partly based on the work done in the eContentPlus GEOMIND project. The result is far from being complete, and the work must be continued in the future.

  16. Comparison between Borehole Geophysical Observations and Sedimentary Facies for Three Long Cores Recovered from the Ulleung Basin, Korea: Insights into the Distribution of Gas Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Lee, S.; Bahk, J.

    2010-12-01

    In late 2007, a logging-while-drilling (LWD) operation was performed as part of gas hydrate study at five sites in the Ulleung Basin, east of Korea. Of those five sites, long sediment cores were also recovered at three sites (UBGH-4, 9, and 10), allowing us to compare borehole observation results with characteristics of sediment in the cores. In this study, we analyzed the resistivity log and resistivity image recorded using GVR-SONIC-ADN MD200 to see if there exists any meaningful relationship between the borehole data and sedimentary facies described in the cores. The presence of fracture zones and their orientation were also estimated from the resistivity images. Site UBGH-4 shows little evidence of disintegrated mud (DITM), an important source of gas hydrate. No notable changes could be seen in the resistivity log or image at this site. On the other hand, at Site UBGH-9, several peaks in resistivity values and numerous fractures are found at 70-150 mbsf. This depth interval matches with DITM found in the cores. At UBGH-10, DITM facies are found below 175 mbsf, but unfortunately due to error in resistivity and image data, it is unclear as to whether this depth coincides with the location of abundant gas hydrate or not. In summary, the argument that massive gas hydrates generally occur in the mud sections with ample fractures could not be thoroughly tested except for Site UBGH-9 where the two features do correlate.

  17. Innovative hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based techniques applied to end-of-life concrete drill core characterization for optimal dismantling and materials recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Picone, Nicoletta; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of EOL concrete disposal in landfills, together with a lower exploitation of primary raw materials, generates a strong interest to develop, set-up and apply innovative technologies to maximize Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) conversion into useful secondary raw materials. Such a goal can be reached starting from a punctual in-situ efficient characterization of the objects to dismantle in order to develop demolition actions aimed to set up innovative mechanical-physical processes to recover the different materials and products to recycle. In this paper an innovative recycling-oriented characterization strategy based on HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is described in order to identify aggregates and mortar in drill core samples from end-of-life concrete. To reach this goal, concrete drill cores from a demolition site were systematically investigated by HSI in the short wave infrared field (1000-2500 nm). Results obtained by the adoption of the HSI approach showed as this technology can be successfully applied to analyze quality and characteristics of C&DW before dismantling and as final product to reutilise after demolition-milling-classification actions. The proposed technique and the related recognition logics, through the spectral signature detection of finite physical domains (i.e. concrete slice and/or particle) of different nature and composition, allows; i) to develop characterization procedures able to quantitatively assess end-of-life concrete compositional/textural characteristics and ii) to set up innovative sorting strategies to qualify the different materials constituting drill core samples.

  18. Polar organic compounds in pore waters of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Eyreville core hole: Character of the dissolved organic carbon and comparison with drilling fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Sanford, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores recovered at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, were analyzed to characterize the dissolved organic carbon. After squeezing or centrifuging, a small volume of pore water, 100 ??L, was taken for analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Porewater samples were analyzed directly without filtration or fractionation, in positive and negative mode, for polar organic compounds. Spectra in both modes were dominated by low-molecular-weight ions. Negative mode had clusters of ions differing by -60 daltons, possibly due to increasing concentrations of inorganic salts. The numberaverage molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight values for the pore waters from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure are higher than those reported for other aquatic sources of natural dissolved organic carbon as determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In order to address the question of whether drilling mud fluids may have contaminated the pore waters during sample collection, spectra from the pore waters were compared to spectra from drilling mud fluids. Ions indicative of drilling mud fluids were not found in spectra from the pore waters, indicating there was no detectable contamination, and highlighting the usefulness of this analytical technique for detecting potential contamination during sample collection. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Quaternary evolution of the delta systems and the coast line of Lake Ohrid (FYROM/Albania) revealed by shallow geophysical and drilling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Reicherter, Klaus; Gruetzner, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    The Lake Ohrid Basin (40°54´ - 41°10`N, 20°38`- 20°48`E) is a cross boundary lake (FYROM/Albania) stretching over a length of c. 30 km and a width of c. 15 km. It is situated in a karstic environment in the Balkanides, an active tectonic region. The general geodynamic setting of the Lake Ohrid area can be described as a "basin and range" situation which is influenced by the northern part of the Hellenic trench and is underlain by ongonig extension so that the Ohrid basin is still actively subsiding. Typical sedimentation patterns supported by the topography give evidence for a tectonically controlled regime. Inactive, Pleistocene lobe-shaped fans are cut off relatively linear by the lake. Drowned alluvial fans along the west coast give evidence for lake-level fluctuations or tectonic subsidence along the western basin margin. In contrast the Struga plain in the North is a vast dried up area, which acts either as a sedimentary catchment for a fan system or as a tectonic basement which is subject to subsidence. Thus, the investigation areas concentrated close to the shorelines including extensive parts at the west coast, in the Struga Plain to the North, the deltas of the inflowing rivers and mass movement bodies at the east coast. Ground Penetrating Radar and Electric Resistivity have been applied, as a non-invasive shallow subsurface mapping methods, to image the sedimentary and tectonic structures. Sediment cores were taken and grain size and sediment composition were analysed. In the aggradation and deltaic plains of the Dajan river in the north and of the Cerava river in the south sets of channels cutting into horizontal layers were identified close to the shoreline. Several S-ward dipping foreset-like structures were found in the north near Struga. The cores show sequences of grain sizes varying between clay and gravel intersected by intervals that are fining upward, and are interpreted as fluvial sediments. No evidences for a higher lake-level were found, such as fine-grained limnic sediments, organic material or shells in the cores. In conclusion, during the Pleistocene higher erosion rates are observed around Lake Ohrid, but no evidence for higher lake-level was found in the plains north and south of the lake. Thus the Pleistocene sediments are affected by erosion and by fault activity, mainly along N-S striking normal faults. Flooding of the Struga plain is only subject to a lower ground level presuming that the old shorelines where limited by the deposits of the fans.

  20. The ICDP Lake Bosumtwi impact crater scientific drilling project (Ghana): Core LB-08A litho-log, related ejecta, and shock recovery experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Alexander; Luetke, Sabine; Heinrich, Volker

    The 1.07 Myr old Lake Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana was drilled within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Project (ICDP). Hole LB-08A, drilled into the outer flank of the central uplift and with a total depth of 451 m, yielded 215.71 m of impact-related rocks. This paper summarizes observations of the lithological logging on core LB-08A. Between a depth of 235.6 and ~260 m, the section consists of a melt-bearing allochthonous, polymict, and mostly clast-supported impact breccia. Down to ~418 m, the section comprises a rather uniform unit of metagraywacke alternating with phyllite to slate (lower greenschist facies); few (par-) autochthonous impact breccia bodies and rare impact dike breccias are present. The lowermost part of the section contains several centimeter- to decimeter-thick melt-bearing breccia dikes in country rocks identical to those occurring above. Omnipresent fracturing was mapped in a qualitative manner. Most prominent shock effects in the uplifted target rocks comprise planar fractures and deformation elements in quartz and polysynthetic twinning in carbonate minerals; the maximum shock pressure as evidenced by quartz is below 26 GPa. The allochthonous breccias occasionally contain a few vol% of melt particles. Suevites occur outside the crater rim, carrying diaplectic crystals, coesite, and ballen quartz as well as true melt glasses and a variety of lithic clasts, among those spectacular staurolite-rich mica-schists. The recorded shock level in the uplifted target rocks is lower than expected and modeled. Shock recovery experiments with analogue carbonaceous graywackes at 34 and 39.5 GPa yielded nearly complete transformation of quartz into diaplectic glass. We therefore exclude a specific shock behavior of the soft, fluid-rich target material (carbonaceous graywackes, shales, slates) in core LB-08A as the prime or only reason for the melt deficit and the generally low shock levels recorded inside the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater.

  1. Shock metamorphism investigations of quartz grains in clasts from impact breccia of the Eyreville B drill core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosova, Katerina; Koeberl, Christian

    2011-05-01

    The Chesapeake Bay impact structure, approximately 85 km in diameter, has been drilled in 2005-2006 at Eyreville (Virginia, USA), to a total depth of 1766 m. In the drill cores, the abundance of shock metamorphosed material is very variable with depth. Shocked mineral and lithic clasts, as well as melt particles, are most abundant in suevitic impact breccia section (1397-1451 m depth). Shocked quartz (i.e., quartz grains with planar fractures and/or planar deformation features) and melt particles, although rare, are also dispersed in the Exmore Formation unit (444-867 m depth). Other lithologies in the Eyreville drill cores show no clear evidence of shock metamorphism. Here, we report on the investigations of 40 samples from the impact breccia section. A total of more than 27,000 quartz grains were examined in about 200 clasts. The abundance of highly shocked clasts tends to decrease with increasing depth. Crystalline clasts derived from the crystalline basement are commonly only slightly shocked (contain generally <10 rel% of shocked quartz grains). The clasts of metamorphosed sediments show a low proportion of shocked quartz grains (mostly <10 rel%). Sedimentary clasts show a wide range of proportions of shocked quartz grains, with several of them being highly shocked clasts (most values between 0 and 40 rel%). Conglomerates show the highest proportion of shocked quartz grains of all types of clasts (up to 83 rel%). Polycrystalline quartz clasts are also commonly highly shocked (contain mostly between 10 and 40 rel% of shocked quartz grains). These hard nonporous clasts are possibly more liable to show evidence of shock. The investigations suggest that the intensity of shock metamorphism is the result of several parameters, such as original position in the target (both horizontal and vertical) and the properties of each lithology (e.g., grain size, porosity, and amount of matrix). According to the universal-stage investigations, the dominant orientations of planar deformation features in quartz are ?, ?, and also ?.

  2. High resolution petrophysical and geomechanical logging of drill cores as a tool for the evaluation of dimension stone quality and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Petružálek, Matěj

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical and geomechanical properties are significant functional properties of natural stone. In the recent study, an approach employing the entire non-disturb parts of drill cores for determination of the key petrophysical and geomechanical parameters is presented. The drill cores have been obtained during exploration campaign for Carboniferous arkoses and arkosic sandstones to conglomerates in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic). The test procedure consists of the sequence of non-destructive methods including determination of index properties, ultrasonic characteristics (speed of longitudinal and transversal waves, recording of the full waveforms). Once non-destructively tested, the specimens are subjected to standard compressive and/or tensile tests encompassing recording of stress-strain behaviour. Broad range of values obtained reflects quite complex petrographical character of rocks investigated. Variable grain size, grain size homogeneity, degree of cementation, overall rock microfabric, and/or presence and distribution of inter- and intraparticle porosity seem to be determinative factors. Once calibrated for a particular petrographical characteristics, high resolution petrophysical and geomechanical logging (HRPGL) can serve as an effective tool for precise evaluation of exploitable natural stone quality.

  3. Nanometer quartz grains and rapid cooling melt in fault gouge during earthquake process - observed from the WFSD-1 drilling core sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Li, H.; Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling into active faults is an effective way to get data and materials at depth that help to understand the material properties, physical mechanisms and healing processes of the faults. The Wenchuan earthquake fault scientific drilling project (WFSD) was conducted immediately after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9). The first borehole of the project (WFSD-1) penetrates the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault with a final depth of 1201.15 m and meet the principal slip zone (PSZ) of Wenchuan earthquake at depth of 589.2 m. About 183.3 m-thick fault rocks are recognized in the WFSD-1 drilling core from 575.7 to 759 m-depth, which was confirmed as the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault zone with a real thickness of about 100 m due to the borehole inclination of 11°. In this research we got samples from WFSD-1 drilling core at the depth of 732.4-732.8 m, in which black gouge, gray gouge, fine-grained fault breccia and coarse-grained fault breccia layers can be distinguished clearly. Slickensides were developed in the surface of the black gouge layer. The protolith of this segment is sandstone. Based on detailed microstructural analysis using electron optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). An about 1 mm-thick amorphous material layer containing small quartz grains was observed. Circles with different densities were observed in the amorphous material indicate a melt-origin. Cracks are developed in the amorphous material, which are suggested to be caused by general volume reduction as a result of rapid cooling contraction. TEM-EDX analysis of the amorphous material indicates mainly feldspar composition, implying the melting temperature was >1230℃, while quartz grains did not melt indicating a temperature <1700℃. Nano-scale quartz grains were observed in a very small layer showing a different structure at the edge of the amorphous layer, indicating that nano quartz grains were formed by the comminution during earthquake, which is very important in earthquake energy budgets calculation. These microstructural analysis results reveal that the amorphous layer may formed by rapid cooling of the frictional melt material caused by high-velocity slip during a large earthquake, and fluid flow may played an important role in the rapid cooling process.

  4. Iron-oxide Magnetic, Morphologic, and Compositional Tracers of Sediment Provenance and Ice Sheet Extent in the ANDRILL AND-1B Drill Core, Ross Sea, Antarctica (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, S. A.; Pinzon, J.; Darley, J. S.; Sagnotti, L.; Kuhn, G.; Florindo, F.; Wilson, G. S.; Ohneiser, C.; Monien, D.; Joseph, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The first drilling season of the Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) recovered a 13.57 million year Miocene through Pleistocene record of paleoclimate change (core AND-1B) within the Ross Sea. The magnetic mineral assemblage records the varying contributions of biological productivity, changing sediment sources, the emergence of volcanic centers, and post-depositional diagenesis. Characterization of bedrock samples from the McMurdo Volcanic Group (MVG) and Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) lithologic units allows us to construct fingerprints for the major source rocks bordering the Ross Sea, and identify their signatures within the AND-1B sediment. Key parameters that can be traced from source rock to sediment for the MVG-derived sediment include a 100-200 C order-disorder transition, titanomaghemite grains with homogenous textures but with substantial Al and Mg content, Fe-spinels with substantial Al, Cr, Mg, and Ti content, and titanomagnetite host grains with 1-3 swarms of ilmenite lamellae (both with variable amounts of oxidation). Distinctive signatures in TAM lithologies include low S-ratios in Koettlitz Group gneisses and Fe-sulfides with magnetite intergrowths in Byrd Glacier basement samples. The Cambrian Granite Harbor Intrusive Complex is characterized by coarse, homogeneous Mn-bearing ilmenite and nearly pure magnetite. The Jurassic dolerites and basalts of the Ferrar Group contain pseudo single domain to stable single domain-sized Fe-oxides with low-Ti content and homogeneous textures. Cu-Fe sulfides are also present in the Ferrar Group. Diamictites in the Pliocene-Pleistocene section of the AND-1B drill core contains Fe-oxide assemblages with MVG-type rock magnetic and textural characteristics, while the Miocene diamictites contain TAM-type signatures. These observations can be explained by increased ice flow from the west during the Miocene and/or the absence of MVG volcanic centers, which had not yet reached a significant size. During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, ice flow was from the south, entraining sediment from MVG volcanic centers south of the drill site. This work demonstrates the utility of using the combination of rock magnetic and electron microscopy signatures of Fe-oxides and Fe-sulfides to serve as provenance tracers in both ice proximal and distal sedimentary units, aiding in the study of ice sheet dynamics, and the identification of ice rafted debris sources and dispersal patterns in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica.

  5. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  6. Petrology and hydrothermal mineralogy of U. S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 drill core from Newberry caldera, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Bargar, K.E.

    1988-09-10

    U.S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 was drilled to a depth of 932 m within Newberry caldera. The bottom-hole temperature of 265/sup 0/C is the highest reported temperature of any drill hole in the Cascades region of the United States. The upper part of the stratigraphic section pentrated by Newberry 2 consists of caldera fill below which are increasingly more mafic lavas ranging from rhyodacite at 501 m to basalt at 932 m. Measured temperatures shallower than 300 m are less than 35/sup 0/C, and rock alteration consists of hydration of glass and local palagonitization of basaltic tuffs. Incipient zeolitization and partial smectite replacement of ash and pumice occurred throughout the pumiceous lithic tuffs from 300 to 500 m. Higher-temperature alteration of the tuffs to chlorite and mordenite occurs adjacent to a rhyodacite sill at 460--470 m; alteration minerals within the sill consist of pyrrhotite, pyrite, quartz, calcite, and siderite. Below 697 m the rocks are progressively more altered with depth mainly because of increased temperature along a conductive gradient from 100/sup 0/C at 697 m to 265/sup 0/C at 930 m. Fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite indicate that temperature in the past have been higher than at present, most likely due to local confining pressures between impermeable lava flows.

  7. Lithological control on shear-wave velocity anisotropy in core samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, Fabien; Louis, Laurent; Barnes, Christophe; Robion, Philippe; David, Christian; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2012-06-01

    The present study provides laboratory constrains on the in situ source of shear wave birefringence in siltstone and sandstone lithologies from the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP). Bench top measurements at ambient pressure and temperature are performed across the end faces of vertically drilled samples while the polarization angle of the source and receiver is rotated from 0 to 360° in azimuth. Shear wave birefringence in siltstone is low (˜3.5%) and controlled by low angle (˜30°) bedding dip. The sandstone samples exhibit moderate (˜15%) shear wave anisotropy due to a network of vertical microcracks with normal about the bedding strike direction. As related studies infer that the microcracks responsible for shear wave birefringence in sandstone are also open at depth, our results suggest that anisotropy in borehole measurements can simply be accounted for by the observed siltstone and sandstone microstructures, i.e., without invoking larger scale objects, nor randomly oriented cracks/fractures subjected to triaxial stress state.

  8. Longhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes new drilling equipment used to drill blasting holes for underground mining operations. Although this method was originally designed for caving or stopping, it is now suitable for all highly mechanized mining operations. It describes the automated methods to monitor drilling progress, align drill holes, and handling of drill rods. It also gives some case examples of the use of this equipment showing the reduction in mining costs, increase in safety, and increase in productivity at an Australian gold mine.

  9. Parallelization of GeoClaw code for modeling geophysical flows with adaptive mesh refinement on many-core systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, S.; Yuen, D.A.; Zhu, A.; Song, S.; George, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We parallelized the GeoClaw code on one-level grid using OpenMP in March, 2011 to meet the urgent need of simulating tsunami waves at near-shore from Tohoku 2011 and achieved over 75% of the potential speed-up on an eight core Dell Precision T7500 workstation [1]. After submitting that work to SC11 - the International Conference for High Performance Computing, we obtained an unreleased OpenMP version of GeoClaw from David George, who developed the GeoClaw code as part of his PH.D thesis. In this paper, we will show the complementary characteristics of the two approaches used in parallelizing GeoClaw and the speed-up obtained by combining the advantage of each of the two individual approaches with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), demonstrating the capabilities of running GeoClaw efficiently on many-core systems. We will also show a novel simulation of the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami waves inundating the Sendai airport and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants, over which the finest grid distance of 20 meters is achieved through a 4-level AMR. This simulation yields quite good predictions about the wave-heights and travel time of the tsunami waves. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lance Prothro, Sigmund Drellack, Margaret Townsend

    2009-03-25

    The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

  11. Geochemistry of core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG{number_sign}3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.

    1996-07-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff of Miocene age is composed of crystal-poor, high-silica rhyolite overlain by a crystal-rich zone that is gradational in composition from high-silica rhyolite to quartz latite. Each of these zones is divided into subzones that have distinctive physical, mineralogical, and geochemical features.Accurate identification of these subzones and their contacts is essential for detailed mapping and correlation both at the surface and in the subsurface in drill holes and in the exploratory studies facility (ESF). This report presents analyses of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) in core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG {number_sign}3. The concentrations of most of these elements are remarkably constant throughout the high-silica rhyolite, but at its upper contact with the crystal-rich zone, Ti, Zr, Ba, Ca, Sr, La, Ce, and K begin to increase progressively through the crystal-rich zone. In contrast, Rb and Nb decrease, and Y remains essentially constant. Initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios are relatively uniform in the high-silica rhyolite with a mean value of 0.7117, whereas initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios decrease upward in the quartz latite to values as low as 0.7090.

  12. Study of the organic matter in the DSDP /JOIDES/ cores, legs 10-15. [Deep Sea Drilling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The composition of the organic matter collected on legs 10 to 15 of the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) is described. Distributions of various alkanes, carboxylic acids, steroids and terpenoids, isoprenoid ketones and olefins, and aromatic polycyclic compounds are given. Samples analyzed had terrigenous clay components, with variable organic carbon contents and thus diverse solvent soluble matter. The distribution patterns for the various compound series monitored were of marine derivation, with the terrigenous components superimposed. Diagenesis of steroids appeared to proceed via both stanones and stanols to their respective steranes. Degradative processes were observed to be operative: oxidative products, mainly ketones derived from steroids and phytol, were identified, probably due to microbial alteration prior to or during sedimentation. Loss of alkane and fatty acid C preferences and presence of polycyclic aromatics evinced maturation. Results indicate that the accumulation, degradation, diagenesis and maturation of organic matter occurs in various steps in the deep sea environment.

  13. Footwall Structure of Oceanic Core Complexes: New Insights from Geophysical Data for Footwall Capture of Ascending Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallows, C.; Searle, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are the footwalls of long-lived detachment faults which form in response to magma-poor crustal accretion processes along the mid-ocean ridge. Although OCC formation is expected to occur at intermediate levels of melt supply to the ridge axis (e.g. Buck et al., 2005), sidescan sonar data have shown that surficial volcanism is absent during part of the OCC life cycle (MacLeod et al., 2009). This implies that footwall capture of ascending melt is an active process during OCC formation. Here, we present the results of a shipboard gravity and deep-towed magnetic survey across actively forming OCCs on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 12-14°N. Forward modelling of magnetic data show that the oldest parts of OCCs generally have zero magnetisation, and thus we interpret these areas as comprising non- or low-magnetic upper crustal material such as sheeted dikes and gabbros. In contrast, the younger, domal sections of OCCs often record a very heterogeneous magnetisation pattern, indicative of significant local variations in footwall magnetisation and/or composition over distances of < 6 km (our track spacing). Furthermore, 2.5D and 3D modelling of gravity data reveal a zone of relatively low density material within the ultramafic footwalls of near-axis OCCs. For a density of 2900 kg/m^3, this low density zone (LDZ) must extend for ~3-4 km beneath the seafloor. We interpret this LDZ as comprising a mixture (based on magnetic results) of serpentinised peridotite and gabbroic material that has accreted within the OCC footwall as the detachment fault has captured ascending melt beneath the ridge axis. Older near-axis OCCs in the region are generally associated with a thicker LDZ, which most likely represents more pervasive serpentinisation and melt accumulation with age. References: Buck, W. R., L. L. Lavier & A. N. B. Poliakov, 2005. Modes of faulting at mid-ocean ridges, Nature, 434, 719-723. MacLeod, C. J., R. C. Searle, B. J. Murton, J. F. Casey, C. Mallows, S. C. Unsworth, K. L. Achenbach & M. Harris, 2009. Life cycle of oceanic core complexes, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 287, 333-344.

  14. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  15. Petrography of sandstones from drill cores BARB4 and BARB5, Paleoarchean Mapepe Formation, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa: Implications for provenance and tectonic reconstructions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabon, N.; Lowe, D. R.; Heubeck, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions in the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) are challenged by syn- and post-depositional tectonics. The Barberton Drilling Project extracted two drill cores from the sedimentary rocks of the 3.26-3.22 Ga Mapepe Formation of the Fig Tree Group. The cores were taken from the Manzimnyama Syncline (BARB4) and the Barite Valley structural belt (BARB5), which are separated by belts of faulted older Onverwacht and younger Moodies strata. Stratigraphically, there is no clear correlation of Mapape strata in these two belts. Both BARB4 and BARB5 contain 25 to 300 m thick units of lithic sandstone that may represent correlative units. A comparative provenance analysis allows testing a possible correlation and evaluating the nature of tectonic uplifts that sourced the sediments. The sandstones have experienced pervasive metasomatic alteration and most primary silicate minerals except coarse quartz have been transformed into micromosaics of microquartz, phyllosilicates, and trace impurities. The majority of framework grains are chert, impure chert, and lithic grains while monocrystalline quartz and altered feldspar are minor components. The single thick sandstone in BARB4 displays a relatively uniform framework mode with average 38.7 % total quartz, 2.4% feldspars, and 58.9 % lithics and an increasing percentage of mafic to ultramafic grains upsection. In contrast, BARB5 includes three distinct sandstones with varying framework modes. The litharenite at 0 to 95m core depth was mainly sourced from an immediately underlying dacitic tuff. The chertarenite at 320 to 390m core depth is composed of 73% carbonaceous chert grains. All grain types appear to have been derived by erosion of sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the BGB as well as penecontemporaneous volcanism. Erosion did not reach deeper-seated plutonic rocks. The framework mode of the BARB4 sandstones represents a composite of common silicified BGB rocks and resembles those of other sediments in the southern domain of the BGB. In contrast, BARB5 sandstones derived locally by shallow erosion of underlying volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The distinct signatures suggest that these units are not correlative and were not derived from a common source. They may be a result of local uplifts of different parts of the greenstone sequence.

  16. Iron oxide tracers of ice sheet extent and sediment provenance in the ANDRILL AND-1B drill core, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, Stefanie; Pinzon, Juliana; Darley, Jason; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Kuhn, Gerhard; Florindo, Fabio; Wilson, Gary; Ohneiser, Christian; Monien, Donata; Joseph, Leah

    2013-11-01

    The AND-1B drill core recovered a 13.57 million year Miocene through Pleistocene record from beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf in Antarctica (77.9°S, 167.1°E). Varying sedimentary facies in the 1285 m core indicate glacial-interglacial cyclicity with the proximity of ice at the site ranging from grounding of ice in 917 m of water to ice free marine conditions. Broader interpretation of climatic conditions of the wider Ross Sea Embayment is deduced from provenance studies. Here we present an analysis of the iron oxide assemblages in the AND-1B core and interpret their variability with respect to wider paleoclimatic conditions. The core is naturally divided into an upper and lower succession by an expanded 170 m thick volcanic interval between 590 and 760 m. Above 590 m the Plio-Pleistocene glacial cycles are diatom rich and below 760 m late Miocene glacial cycles are terrigenous. Electron microscopy and rock magnetic parameters confirm the subdivision with biogenic silica diluting the terrigenous input (fine pseudo-single domain and stable single domain titanomagnetite from the McMurdo Volcanic Group with a variety of textures and compositions) above 590 m. Below 760 m, the Miocene section consists of coarse-grained ilmenite and multidomain magnetite derived from Transantarctic Mountain lithologies. This may reflect ice flow patterns and the absence of McMurdo Volcanic Group volcanic centers or indicate that volcanic centers had not yet grown to a significant size. The combined rock magnetic and electron microscopy signatures of magnetic minerals serve as provenance tracers in both ice proximal and distal sedimentary units, aiding in the study of ice sheet extent and dynamics, and the identification of ice rafted debris sources and dispersal patterns in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica.

  17. Drilling gas hydrates with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Wefer, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    Large amounts of methane are bound in marine gas hydrate deposits. Local conditions like pressure, temperature, gas and pore water compositions define the boundaries of gas hydrate stability within the ocean sediments. Depending on those conditions gas hydrates can occur within marine sediments at depth down to several hundreds of meters up to sea floor. These oceanic methane deposits are widespread along continental margins. By forming cement in otherwise soft sediments gas hydrates are stabilizing the seafloor on continental slopes. Drilling operations are required for understanding the distribution of gas hydrates as well as for sampling them to study the composition, microstructure and its geomechanical and geophysical properties. The sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo200 has the capability to drill down to 200 m below sea floor well within the depth of major gas hydrate occurrences at continental margins. This drill rig is a transportable sea floor drill rig that can be deployed from a variety of multi-purpose research vessels. It is deployed on the sea bed and controlled from the vessel. It is the second generation MeBo (Freudenthal and Wefer, 2013) and was developed from 2011 to 2014 by MARUM in cooperation with BAUER Maschinen GmbH. Long term experiences with the first generation MeBo70 that was operated since 2005 on 15 research expeditions largely contributed to the development of MeBo200. It was first tested in October 2014 from the research vessel RV SONNE in the North Sea. In this presentation the suitability of MARUM-MeBo for drilling marine gas hydrates is discussed. We report on experiences drilling gas hydrates on two research expeditions with MeBo70. A research expedition for sampling gas hydrates in the Danube Paleodelta with MeBo200 as well as technical developments for improving the suitability of MeBo for gas hydrate exploration works are planned within the project SUGAR3 funded by the Federal Government for Economy and Energy (BMWi). Freudenthal, T and Wefer, G (2013) Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea floor drilling rig MeBo. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 2(2). 329-337. doi:10.5194/gi-2-329-2013

  18. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  19. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  20. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  1. Correction to “Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tembe, Sheryl; Lockner, David; Wong, Teng-Fong

    2010-01-01

    This article corrects: Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2. Vol. 114, Issue B11, Article first published online: 5 NOV 2009.

  2. Drill report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    North Slope drilling activity is described. As of November 14, 1984, four rigs were actively drilling in the Kuparuk River field with another two doing workovers. Only one rig was drilling in the Prudhoe Bay field, with another doing workovers and one on standby.

  3. Structural geology of cuttings and cores recovered from below the Kumano forearc basin, Nankai accretionary margin of Japan: Expedition 319 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayman, N. W.; Byrne, T. B.; Huftile, G.; McNeill, L. C.; Kanamatsu, T.; Saffer, D.; Araki, E.; Eguchi, N. O.; Toczko, S.; Takahashi, K.; Scientists, E.

    2009-12-01

    The geologic materials below the Kumano Basin provide critical information for understanding the geologic evolution of Japan’s Nankai margin and its earthquake hazards. Riser-based drilling at IODP Site C0009 recovered these geologic materials in cuttings from 704-1604 mbsf, and in ~70 m of core from 1510-1594 mbsf. The >4-mm size fraction of cuttings from 1332-1482 mbsf contains abundant vein structures in moderately consolidated, coarse-siltstones. Vein structures are <1 mm-wide granular rearrangements, possibly paleoseismites, and are mostly restricted to the late Miocene section below a significant unconformity at ~1300 mbsf. At Site C0002, close to the southeastern edge of the forearc basin, vein structures were also localized to a narrow depth interval in a slightly younger (Pliocene age) section. The cored interval at Site C0009 is from below a prominent unconformity at ~1360 mbsf and comprises finely (~10 cm-scale) interbedded, unmetamorphosed, and moderately cohesive silt- and sandstone. Bedding in the cored interval generally dips NNW in logging data and increases in dip from ~20° to ~ 60° with depth in both the FMI and the core data. A set of dominantly thrust-sense shear zones cuts and locally imbricates bedding, with dips <20° to >40°. The shear zones are 1-2 cm-wide, exhibit granular rather than cataclastic (fracture-dominated) microstructures, and though dark in appearance and bright in tomographic images (and thus likely higher density than the surrounding core), they are mineralogically similar to the surrounding material. The shear zones may have formed during tectonically induced dewatering and consolidation. In many places the shear zones define the center of a gradient in stretched and folded sedimentary structures. Younger faults also appear dark relative to the surrounding core, but are <1-mm wide, with a range of geometries and cross cutting relationships; there are likely at least two generations of these thin faults. The youngest faults are in many cases slickensided, exhibit a range of kinematic indicators (thrust, strike-slip, and normal), and have a bimodal dip distribution, ~20° and ~60°. The younger structures may have developed during forearc development of, or beneath the Kumano basin whereas the shear zones likely formed within the frontal region of the late Miocene accretionary prism or possibly along the faulted slope apron.

  4. Manganese-oxide minerals in fractures of the Crater Flat Tuff in drill core USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1990-07-01

    The Crater Flat Tuff is almost entirely below the water table in drill hole USW G-4 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Manganese-oxide minerals from the Crater Flat Tuff in USW G-4 were studied using optical, scanning electron microscopic, electron microprobe, and x-ray powder diffraction methods to determine their distribution, mineralogy, and chemistry. Manganese-oxide minerals coat fractures in all three members of the Crater Flat Tuff (Prow Pass, Bullfrog, and Tram), but they are most abundant in fractures in the densely welded devitrified intervals of these members. The coatings are mostly of the cryptomelane/hollandite mineral group, but the chemistry of these coatings varies considerably. Some of the chemical variations, particularly the presence of calcium, sodium, and strontium, can be explained by admixture with todorokite, seen in some x-ray powder diffraction patterns. Other chemical variations, particularly between Ba and Pb, demonstrate that considerable substitution of Pb for Ba occurs in hollandite. Manganese-oxide coatings are common in the 10-m interval that produced 75% of the water pumped from USW G-4 in a flow survey in 1983. Their presence in water-producing zones suggests that manganese oxides may exert a significant chemical effect on groundwater beneath Yucca Mountain. In particular, the ability of the manganese oxides found at Yucca Mountain to be easily reduced suggests that they may affect the redox conditions of the groundwater and may oxidize dissolved or suspended species. Although the Mn oxides at Yucca Mountain have low exchange capacities, these minerals may retard the migration of some radionuclides, particularly the actinides, through scavenging and coprecipitation. 23 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-3

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C.A.

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core holes GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commercial exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table.

  6. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-1

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C.A.; Combs, J. ); Walkey, W.C. )

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Why Drill More than One Ice Core? Paleoclimate Reconstruction along a Vertical Transect in the Saint Elias Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, C. P.; Yalcin, K.; Kreutz, K. J.; Mayewski, P. A.; Fisher, D.; Holdsworth, G.

    2004-05-01

    The Arctic represents one of the key regions on Earth in our efforts to document and understand global change. The St. Elias mountain range in the southwestern Yukon Territory has recently been the focus of an international ice core research.. The broad elevational extent of snow accumulation zones in this region (ranging from 2500 to 5300 m asl) allows for the detailed investigation of environmental change extending from the planetary boundary layer through to the free troposphere via the collection and analysis of ice cores from different elevations. Multi-parameter, high resolution glaciochemical records are currently available from the Northwest Col on Mt. Logan (5340 m asl, 103 m deep; 270 year record;) and from three cores recovered from the Eclipse Icefield (3107 m asl) in 1996 (160 m deep; 100 year record) and in 2002 (345 m and 140 m deep). Snow accumulation rates at Eclipse are about 5 times larger than the summit average of 0.30 m water equivalent. Despite their close proximity, the climate signals recorded on the summit of Mt. Logan also differ from those at Eclipse. For example, while the Mt. Logan record shows no increase in sulfate or nitrate deposition over the past 100 years, all three Eclipse cores shows a clear increase in nitrate and sulfate deposition beginning in the late 1940s due to an increase in anthropogenic emissions in Eurasia during this time period. Over the last century, the sulfate time-series from Eclipse records from 32 discrete volcanic events, primarily from Alaskan, Aleutian, or Kamchatkan eruptions, while the summit site only records 8 volcanic events. The Eclipse summer d18O record displays a significant positive relationship with summer temperatures at both coastal and interior Alaskan sites, while the Mt. Logan d18O time-series does not correlate well with instrumental temperature records or most circum-Arctic paleoclimate records. Conversely, the summit ice core accumulation time-series strongly correlates with instrumental precipitation records from Japan and with indices of the El Nino- Southern Oscillation on both interannual and interdecadal time scales suggesting the summit records are uniquely situated for studies of global teleconnection patterns. Our results to date indicate that the two sites sample different air masses and that boundary layer dynamics play an important role in the glaciochemical signals preserved at each location. The Northwest Col and Eclipse records, in conjunction with analysis of new ice cores already recovered from Prospector-Russell Col (5300 m; 187 m; circa 35,000 years) by the Geological Survey of Canada and King Col (4135 m asl; 220 m deep; circa 2,000 year record) on the Logan Massif by the National Institute for Polar Research (Japan) offers an unprecedented opportunity for paleoclimate reconstruction along a vertical transect in the St. Elias Mountains and should provide a rich and multi-layered contribution to our understanding boundary layer dynamics and Holocene environmental change in the region.

  8. Project Hotspot: Temporal Compositional Variation in Basalts of the Kimama Core and Implications for Magma Source Evolution, Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.; Champion, D.; Duncan, R. A.; Christiansen, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Project Hotspot produced continuous core from three drill sites in the Snake River plain, including 1912 m of core from the Kimama drill site on the axis of the plain. Ongoing major and trace element chemical characterization of the Kimama core and new 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic age data demonstrate temporal variations in the evolution of Snake River Plain volcanism. Cyclic fluctuations in magma chemistry identify over a hundred chemically distinct basalt flow groups (comprising 550 individual lava flows) within 54 periods of volcanic activity, separated by hiatuses of decades to many millennia. From a surface age of 700 ka to a bottom-hole age of 6.5 Ma, the Kimama core records the presence of several nearly coeval but compositionally different lava flows, ranging from highly evolved lavas to non-evolved tholeiites. Determining whether Kimama lavas are genetically unrelated or extreme differentiates of a single magma batch relies upon a combination of detailed chemostratigraphy and absolute and relative age data. Age and geochemical data introduce new ideas on the role of multiple magma sources and/or differentiation processes in the development of central Snake River Plain volcanic systems. The relatively short gestation of evolved liquids is demonstrated throughout the Kimama core, with evidence for cyclic fractionation of mafic lavas at depths of 318 m, 350 m, 547 m, and 1078 m. Here, highly evolved lava flows (FeOT 16.0-18.4 wt %; TiO2 3.43-4.62 wt %) are stratigraphically bounded by more primitive tholeiitic basalts (FeOT 9.9-14.8 wt%; TiO2 1.22-3.56 wt%) within the same inclination range, suggesting that cyclic fractionation is a regular feature of shield volcano development on the central Snake River Plain. Between 1.60 ± 0.13 Ma (453.5 m depth) and 1.54 ± 0.15 Ma (320.0 m depth), Kimama lavas ranged in composition from primitive tholeiite (FeOT 11.7 wt %; TiO2 1.76 wt %) to evolved basalt (FeOT 16.0 wt %; TiO2 4.00 wt %). At depths of 1119 m and 1138 m, evolved lava flows (FeOT 17.2 and 17.0 wt %; TiO2 4.20 and 4.09 wt %, respectively) of negative polarity are stratigraphically bounded by more primitive tholeittic lava flows (FeOT 13.6 and 14.5 wt %; TiO2 2.92 and 3.24 wt %, respectively) of positive polarity, a chronological transition that may represent many millennia and magma source variability. Kimama core stratigraphy as well as paleomagnetic, and radiometric age data demonstrate that mafic volcanism on the central Snake River Plain has been relatively continuous for the last 6.5 Ma. The compositional variability in Kimama basalts introduces broader implications for the timing of cyclic fractionation processes and the development of regional magma sources.

  9. Microbial Ecosystem In The Oldest Freshwater Lake Revealed From A Drill Core Of The 2.76 Ga Hardey Formation, Pilbara District, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Bevacqua, D. C.; Ohmoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    The Hardey Formation in the Pilbara district of Western Australia, is the oldest known (2.76 Ga) lacustrine deposit, was one of eight targets of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). Rocks in the drilling area have been subjected to very low-grade metamorphism (zeolites facies). The recovered drill core (~145 m in depth) is divisible into two depth zones: (1) the upper zone (<~80 m), comprising mostly coare-grained, gray, arkosic sandstones, and (2) the lower zone, comprising alternating layers of finely laminated, black shales and calcareous sandstones. We selected 26 samples from the lower zone at 2.5-m intervals, and conducted petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations (e.g., chemical mapping of major and trace element (including REEs); organic and carbonate C, and S contents; C isotope). Bedding planes are well preserved, comprising alternating layers of organic-C rich clay and organic-C poor carbonate (10-20 µm). Presence of cross-lamination suggests a low energy depositional environment, probably a shallow lake. Major and trace element contents of all samples are quite homogeneous. Organic C- and pyrite S contents fall in narrow ranges, from 0.2 to 0.7wt% (a mean value = 0.5wt% and s.d. = 0.1wt%) and from 0.01 to 0.1wt% (a mean value = 0.04 wt%; s.d. = 0.02 wt%), respectively. Compared to average Archean marine shales (organic C = 0.45 wt%; S = 0.1 wt%), the Hardy shales are comparable in organic C but are much depleted in pyrite S contents. The low S/C ratios of the Hardy shales concur with a freshwater depositional interpretation. The C isotope values for the organic C vary from -36.6 to -27.6% (a mean value = -32.7%; s.d. = 1.8%). There is no stratigraphic trend, but theycorrelate well with the lithology: -31.9 to -27.6% (a mean value = -30.4%) for disseminated-grains and seams of organic C in calcareous sandstone; and -36.6 to 32.6% (a mean value = -33.4%) for finely-laminated black shales. The heavier values may represent microbial communities in shallow water, while the lighter values represent microbial communities in deeper water. The carbon isotope systematics in the Hardy Formation are essentially identical to those of the 2.75 Ga marine shales at Kidd Creek, Ontario, Canada. These data suggest that the fresh-water ecosystems were already as diversed as marine ecosystems at 2.76 Ga ago.

  10. Ries Bunte Breccia revisited: Indications for the presence of water in Itzing and Otting drill cores and implications for the emplacement process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrek, Alexa; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    We reassessed two drill cores of the Bunte Breccia deposits of the Ries crater, Germany. The objectives of our study were the documentation of evidence for water in the Bunte Breccia, the evaluation of how that water influenced the emplacement processes, and from which preimpact water reservoir it was derived. The Bunte Breccia in both cores can be structured into a basal layer composed mainly of local substrate material, overlain by texturally and compositionally diverse, crater-derived breccia units. The basal layer is composed of the youngest sediments (Tertiary clays and Upper Jurassic limestone) and has a razor-sharp boundary to the upper breccia units, which are composed of older rocks of Upper Jurassic to Upper Triassic age. Sparse material exchange occurred between the basal layer and the rest of the Bunte Breccia. Fluids predominantly came from the Tertiary and the Upper Triassic sandstone formation. In the basal layer, Tertiary clays were subjected to intense, ductile deformation, indicating saturation with water. This suggests that water was mixed into the matrix, creating a fluidized basal layer with a strong shear localization. In the upper units, Upper Triassic sandstones are intensely deformed by granular flow. The texture requires that the rocks were disaggregated into granular sand. Vaporization of pore water probably aided fragmentation of these rocks. In the Otting core, hot suevite (T > 600 °C) covered the Bunte Breccia shortly after its emplacement. Vertically oriented gas escape pipes in suevite partly emanate directly at the contact to the Bunte Breccia. They indicate that the Bunte Breccia contained a substantial amount of water in the upper part that was vaporized and escaped through these vents.

  11. Rhyolites in the Kimberly Drill Core, Project Hotspot: First Intracaldera Ignimbrite from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, E. H.; McCurry, M. O.; Champion, D. E.; Bolte, T.; Holtz, F.; Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The rhyolites on the track of the Yellowstone hotspot are the classic examples of continental hotspot volcanism and the study of surface outcrops is maturing rapidly. However, in the central part of the track, where silicic volcanism is most voluminous, compositionally distinctive, and isotopically most anomalous, study of these large magma systems has been hindered because eruptive sources are buried. The 2 km Kimberly core helps fill that gap; it penetrates through surficial basalt, deep into the rhyolitic underpinnings on the southern margin of the province. The Kimberly core is dominated by thick sections of rhyolite lava and welded ignimbrite, with basalt-sediment intercalations between 241 m and 424 m depth. We tentatively interpret the core to include a thick intracaldera tuff. Our preliminary studies suggest that there are three major rhyolite units in the core. Rhyolite 3, the uppermost unit, is a nearly 130 m thick, low-silica rhyolite lava. Rhyolite 2 is the most highly evolved with ~75% silica and distinctively resorbed quartz. Rhyolite 1 is at least 1,340 m thick (the base was not cut by the core), has no apparent flow contacts or cooling breaks, and may represent a single, thick intracaldera ignimbrite. Paleomagnetic inclinations form a curious V-shaped profile, shallowing by about 18○ between 700 and 1700 m depth. We interpret this to be the result of slower cooling of the mid-part of the thick intracaldera ignimbrite. The lower unit is a low-silica rhyolite with high concentrations of Fe2O3 and TiO2--among the highest of any known ignimbrite on the SRP. It is chemically distinct from the upper units, very homogeneous, not vertically zoned, and lacks multiple populations of phenocrysts. It somewhat resembles the regionally extensive ~10 Ma outflow tuff of Wooden Shoe Butte. However, this is one of several large, petrologically similar ignimbrites as young as 8.6 Ma exposed in the Cassia Mountains south of the hole, so further work is needed. Like most rhyolites from the Snake River Plain, all 3 units have the characteristics of A-type rhyolites with high concentrations of alkalies, high Fe/Mg and TiO2/MgO ratios, as well as high concentrations Nb, Y, Zr and Ga. Initial analyses of plag, cpx, and qtz show that all three units are low δ18O rhyolites, like most from the Central Snake River Plain-- δ18O in feldspar ranges from 1‰ in Rhyolite 1 to 3‰ in Rhyolites 2 and 3. In the thick lower ignimbrite, whole-rock δ18O increases systematically from the base upward (0.5‰ to as much as 9‰ in the altered top and δD ranges from -140 to -180‰). Whole rock variations correlate with water content, apparently controlled by secondary clay. We suggest that these characteristics were largely imposed by their derivation from partial melting of basaltic sills and surrounding older crust. The low δ18O values reflect recycling of hydrothermally altered crustal rocks and indicate progressive incorporation of more hydrothermally altered material into the younger magmas. More work is needed to establish correlation with regional units, understand the emplacement of the rhyolites and their volcanic setting, and ascertain the origin of these distinctive low δ18O, A-type rhyolites.

  12. Core lithology, Valles caldera No. 1, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.N.; Goff, F.; Goff, S.; Maassen, L.; Mathews, K.; Wachs, D.; Wilson, D.

    1987-04-01

    Vallas caldera No. 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program research core hole in the Vallas caldera and the first continuously cored hole in the region. The hole penetrated 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera-fill ignimbrites, 35 m of volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales with over 95% core recovery. The primary research objectives included coring through the youngest rhyolite flow within the caldera; obtaining structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring-fracture zone and the pre-caldera Jemez fault zone; and penetrating a high-temperature hydrothermal outflow plume near its source. This report presents a compilation of lithologic and geophysical logs and photographs of core that were collected while drilling VC-1. It is intended to be a reference tool for researchers interested in caldera processes and associated geologic phenomena.

  13. NanTroSEIZE: The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, H.; Kinoshita, M.; Kimura, G.; Underwood, M.; Ashi, J.; Saffer, D.; Brown, K.; Henry, P.; Suyehiro, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program has recently accepted NanTroSEIZE as a multi-year, multi-phase drilling and observatory installation project of unprecedented scope. NanTroSEIZE is an integrated program of geophysical studies, drilling, and instrumentation designed to investigate the aseismic to seismic transition of the megathrust system and the processes of earthquake propagation and tsunami generation at the Nankai Trough subduction zone. The fundamental goal is the creation of a distributed observatory spanning the up-dip limit of seismogenic and tsunamigenic behavior. This will involve sampling and instrumenting key elements of the active plate boundary fault system at several locations off the Kii Peninsula, Japan. Here, the plate interface and active mega-splay faults are accessible to drilling within the region of coseismic rupture and tsunami source in the 1944 Tonankai M8 great earthquake. The ultimate objective is to access and instrument the Nankai plate interface to advance our knowledge of fundamental aseismic and seismic faulting processes and controls on the transition between them. NanTroSEIZE will test models for the frictional behavior of fault rocks across the aseismic - seismogenic transition, the composition of faults and fluids and associated pore pressure and state of stress, partitioning of strain spatially between basal interface and splays, temporally between coseismic and interseismic periods, and between infraseismic and aseismic events vs. seismic events. Long-term borehole observations potentially will ultimately test whether interseismic variations or detectable precursory phenomena exist prior to great subduction earthquakes. Drilling and instrumentation will span the zone from input of sediment, crust, and fluids at the trench through the mega-splay and decollement fault systems at up to 6 km below the sea floor. Eight distinct drilling sites are targeted, with a comprehensive program of coring, geophysical logging, downhole geophysical and hydrological experiments. Opportunities exist for many new researchers to become involved in the NanTroSEIZE effort.

  14. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Shelander, D.; Dai, J.; McConnell, D.; Shedd, W.; Frye, M.; Ruppel, C.; Boswell, R.; Jones, E.; Collett, T.S.; Rose, K.; Dugan, B.; Wood, W.; Latham, T.

    2008-07-01

    In the late spring of 2008, the Chevron-led Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) expects to conduct an exploratory drilling and logging campaign to better understand gas hydrate-bearing sands in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The JIP Site Selection team selected three areas to test alternative geological models and geophysical interpretations supporting the existence of potential high gas hydrate saturations in reservoir-quality sands. The three sites are near existing drill holes which provide geological and geophysical constraints in Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system in an area characterized by seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and abundant seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets ponded sheet sands and associated channel/levee deposits within a minibasin, making this a non-structural play. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. Drilling locations have been selected at each site to 1) test geological methods and models used to infer the occurrence of gas hydrate in sand reservoirs in different settings in the northern Gulf of Mexico; 2) calibrate geophysical models used to detect gas hydrate sands, map reservoir thicknesses, and estimate the degree of gas hydrate saturation; and 3) delineate potential locations for subsequent JIP drilling and coring operations that will collect samples for comprehensive physical property, geochemical and other analyses.

  15. Tectonic and paleoclimate evolution at the NE Tibetan Plateau from 2.8 to 0.1 Ma deduced from a drill-core in Qaidam Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, E.; Fang, X.; Zhang, W.; Song, C.; Pross, J.; Koutsodendris, A.; Li, M.; Han, W.; Hu, S.; Cirpka, O. A.; Wang, J.; Yang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Two drillings into the lacustrine sediments of the western Qaidam Basin, with a core recovery rate of about 95%, were performed by a joint Sino-German project in order to obtain high-resolution information on paleoclimate and tectonic evolution at the NE Tibetan Plateau. Using detailed magnetostratigraphy and OSL the ca. 940 m long core SG-1 was dated at 0.1 to 2.8 Ma while the ca. 720 m long core SG-1b (located in a 20 km distant anticline) spans the period from 1.7 to 7.2 Ma. For SG-1 a high average sediment accumulation rate (SAR) of 35.1 cm/kyr is determined with two maximum SAR intervals between 2.6-2.2 Ma and after 0.8 Ma indicating two episodic erosional events, which we relate to pulse tectonic uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau with subsequent global cooling. Using spectral characteristics of magnetic susceptibility within sliding windows allows refining changes of SAR along the core SG-1. Both cores comprise mostly fine grained sediments (mudstone, clay, sandy clay) and in SG-1 frequent salt layers occur in the upper part. A trend of increasing aridification is observed in SG-1, with nearly twenty dry stages since ca. 1 Ma detected by evaporite minerals and extreme aridification from ca. 0.5 to 0.3 Ma onwards. These trends and stepwise drying events are supported by an increasing mean grain size towards younger ages. Palynofloras in SG-1 show an excellent degree of preservation. They can be attributed to two main biomes representing (i) mixed coniferous forests and woodlands that grew in the mountains surrounding the Qaidam basin, and (ii) a grass-steppe-like environment likely to be attributed to the basin itself. The long-term fluctuations of these main biomes allow insights into the monsoon dynamics of the Qaidam region, with a weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon and a strengthening of the winter monsoon during the past 2.8 Ma. A first set of high-resolution data provides insights into the climate variability during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19, which with regard to orbital boundary conditions represents the closest analogue to the Holocene within the "100-kyr world". Hence, they may yield information on the natural climate and ecosystem variability of the Holocene in the Qaidam region as they would be expected without anthropogenic forcing.

  16. Preliminary Results from the AIDP-2 and AIDP-3 Drill Cores Hint at Systematic Mo Enrichments in the ~2.65 Ga Roy Hill Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Ostrander, C. M.; Lyons, T. W.; Olson, S. L.; Buick, R.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand the timing of the earliest oxygenation of Earth's surface environment, we are pursuing a multi-proxy investigation of paleoredox conditions in diamond drill cores through sedimentary rocks of the Archean Fortescue & Hamersley Groups. These cores were recovered in 2012 by the Agouron Institute from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The AIDP-2 core samples a stratigraphic succession of carbonate and sulfidic, organic-rich shale in the Carawine Dolomite and Jeerinah Formation representing a shallow near-shore depositional setting. Core AIDP-3 samples a transition from BIF in the Marra Mamba Formation to organic-rich shales in the underlying Jeerinah Formation representing a deeper offshore depositional setting. We have analyzed 322 black shale samples from the Roy Hill Member of the Jeerinah Formation deposited just before the transition from the Fortescue to Hamersley Group. Roy Hill black shale units are mostly pyritic in AIDP-3, but are less so in AIDP-2. The Roy Hill Member of AIDP-3 extends from 2.629 Ga to2.676 Ga and contains the 2.632Ga Jeerinah impact layer, whereas the Roy Hill member of AIDP-2 is slightly older, lying beneath the Jeerinah impact layer, and has been dated to 2.636 Ga to >2.643 Ga [1]. Our initial findings reveal that Mo concentrations range between 0.7 and 7 ppm in the Roy Hill black shale member of AIDP-2 and AIDP-3. Corresponding Mo/Al ratios range between 1-9×10-5 ppm/ppm, indicating slight Mo enrichment relative to average continental crust. These results are consistent with a previous study by Scott et al. [2], which suggested little or no Mo enrichment. However, the higher resolution sampling in this study allows us to clearly resolve the Mo/Al depth profiles in these late Archean cores. These data suggest that the variations we see are not due to analytical scatter or sample variability, but instead represent real variations in Mo scavenged into these sediments. Ongoing work is focused on obtaining additional complementary datasets including Fe-speciation, TOC, and traditional and non-traditional isotopes. These data will provide the additional constraints needed to understand the origin and significance of Mo enrichments in these Archean sediments. [1] Rasmussen & Fletcher (2010) Geology, 38: 299-302 [2] Scott et al. (2011) Geology, 39:119-122.

  17. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  18. Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.; Oliver, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed in the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. In relation to the seven objectives, WRI determined that (1) the ELW cavity extends farther to the west and the CRIP cavity was located 5--10 feet farther to the south than anticipated; (2) roof collapse was contained within unit A in both modules; (3) samples of all major rock types were recovered; (4) insufficient data were obtained to characterize the outflow channels, but cavity stratigraphy was well defined; (5) bore holes near the CRIP points and ignition point did not exhibit characteristics significantly different from other bore holes in the cavities; (6) a fault zone was detected between VIW=1 and VIW-2 that stepped down to the east; and (7) PW-1 was only 7--12 feet below the top of the coal seam in the eastern part of the ELW module area; and CIW-1 was located 18--20 feet below the top of the coal seam in the CRIP module area. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Remarkably, drilling in Landsvirkjun Co.'s geothermal field in Krafla Caldera, Iceland has encountered rhyolite magma or hypersolidus rhyolite at 2.1-2.5 km depth in 3 wells distributed over 3.5 km2, including Iceland Deep Drilling Program's IDDP-1 (Mortensen, 2012). Krafla's most recent rifting and eruption (basalt) episode was 1975-1984; deformation since that time has been simple decay. Apparently rhyolite magma was either emplaced during that episode without itself erupting or quietly evolved in situ within 2-3 decades. Analysis of drill cuttings containing quenched melt from IDDP-1 yielded unprecedented petrologic data (Zierenberg et al, 2012). But interpreting active processes of heat and mass transfer requires knowing spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics at the margin of the magma body, and that requires retrieving core - a not-inconceivable task. Core quenched in situ in melt up to 1150oC was recovered from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii by the Magma Energy Project >30 years ago. The site from which IDDP-1 was drilled, and perhaps IDDP-1 itself, may be available to attempt the first-ever coring of rhyolite magma, now proposed as the Krafla Magma Drilling Project (KMDP). KMDP would also include geophysical and geochemical experiments to measure the response of the magma/hydrothermal system to fluid injection and flow tests. Fundamental results will reveal the behavior of magma in the upper crust and coupling between magma and the hydrothermal system. Extreme, sustained thermal power output during flow tests of IDDP-1 suggests operation of a Kilauea-Iki-like freeze-fracture-flow boundary propagating into the magma and mining its latent heat of crystallization (Carrigan et al, EGU, 2014). Such an ultra-hot Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) might be developable beneath this and other magma-heated conventional hydrothermal systems. Additionally, intra-caldera intrusions like Krafla's are believed to produce the unrest that is so troubling in populated calderas (e.g., Campi Flegrei, Italy). Experiments with the live system will aid in hazard assessment and eruption forecasting for this most difficult of volcano hazard problems. We will report on an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop held to assess feasibility and to develop a plan for KMDP.

  20. Synthesis of borehole geophysical data at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, W.S.

    1984-07-01

    A suite of borehole-geophysical logs, supported by core data, was used to describe the rock matrix and fractures in a granitic pluton near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. The site is being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, as an underground research laboratory to conduct geotechnical research and to validate predictive models as part of Canada's nuclear-fuel, waste-management program. However, the site is not planned to be used for waste disposal. Geophysical well logs were used to distinguish and correlate rock types and fractures between drill holes. Two significant fracture zones that are two of the major zones of ground-water movement at the site were identified by acoustic-televiewer logs. A new heat-pulse flowmeter provided repeatable measurements of very low-velocity, vertical flow in drill holes which enabled the identification of specific fractures that were transmitting water. Borehole gamma spectra showed that some fractures are enriched in uranium, and others may be depleted. This study demonstrates some of the advantages of synthesizing available borehole-geophysical logs at a site in fractured plutonic rocks and indicates how this information can contribute to an understanding of the geophysical conditions at the site.

  1. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core students are the geophysics Honours students (~4th year undergraduates). In addition, up to 8 students from all over Africa are included in the program to help address practical training in Africa. The final cohort are minority students from the USA. Participants spend a week planning and costing out surveys, a week in the field collecting data using different methods including: gravity, DGPS, magnetics, resistivity, refraction seismic, EM methods, core logging and physical property measurements. The final week is spent interpreting and integrating their results. Graduate students are given the opportunity to instruct on the field school and manage the logistics for a particular method. The field school is unique in Africa and satisfies a need for practical training with limited resources, with a rare blend of cultural interactions!

  2. Construction diagrams, geophysical logs, and lithologic descriptions for boreholes USGS 103, 105, 108, 131, 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, Mary K.V.; Orr, Stephanie M.; Potter, Katherine E.; LeMaitre, Tynan

    2012-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, summarizes construction, geophysical, and lithologic data collected from about 4,509 feet of core from seven boreholes deepened or drilled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office, from 2006 to 2009 at the INL. USGS 103, 105, 108, and 131 were deepened and cored from 759 to 1,307 feet, 800 to 1,409 feet, 760 to 1,218 feet, and 808 to 1,239 feet, respectively. Boreholes USGS 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16 were drilled and continuously cored from land surface to 1,198, 759, and 425 feet, respectively. Cores were photographed and digitally logged by using commercially available software. Borehole descriptions summarize location, completion date, and amount and type of core recovered.

  3. Drill bit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) is seeking proposals by January 15, 1997, for its next cycle of scientific projects.Started in February 1996 as a joint program between Germany's GeoForschungsZentrum-Potsdam, the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF), and China's Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources, ICDP was created to support scientific research of global importance that requires access to continental drilling capability. ICDP is currently funding projects to drill volcanic sequences in Hawaii and the Chicxulub Impact Crater in the Yucatan Peninsula. The program also is supporting workshops on lake drilling for high-resolution records of environmental and tectonic change; drilling the high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Dabieshan Mountains in China; and drilling the feeder of the dacite dome that has intruded into the vent of the Unzen Volcano in Japan.

  4. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  5. Fluid-rock interactions in seismic faults: Implications from the structures and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of drilling cores from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Chen, Jianye; Chen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    We describe the structural features and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the fault rocks recovered from boreholes at the Golden River site on the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, which activated and slipped along a 240 km-long main surface rupture zone during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The fault, which accommodated co-seismic slip, cuts granitic rocks from the Pengguan complex, in which this earthquake most likely nucleated. Fault rocks, including cohesive cataclasite, unconsolidated breccia and three fault gouges with distinct colors, were identified from the drilling cores. On-going uplift and erosion in the area means that the fault rocks, formed at different depth, were exhumed to the shallow surface during the uplift history of the Longmenshan fault zone. A clear change from fracturing and comminution in the cataclasites and breccia to more pervasive shear/formation of fine grained materials in the gouges has been observed. The gouges are distinct and have accommodated significant displacement in multiple increments of shear. Furthermore, fault rocks recovered from the boreholes display numerous features indicative of fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interaction. Toward the fault core, clay minerals have replaced feldspars. The element enrichment/depletion patterns of the fault rocks show general fluid infiltration trends, such as 1) mobile elements are generally depleted in the fault rocks, 2) the microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical results of the fault rocks consistently indicate that pervasive fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interactions altered feldspars and mafic minerals to clay minerals. The fluid was Mg2 +- and Fe2 +-rich, facilitating formation of chlorite. Isocon analyses further reveal that a large rock volume has been lost, which is attributed to the removal of mobile elements associated with fluid infiltration and perhaps enhanced by pressure solution. These results reflect the accumulated effects of cataclasis and fluid infiltration/fluid-rock interaction during the long evolution history of the Longmenshan fault zone.

  6. Orbitally tuned age model for the late Pliocene-Pleistocene lacustrine succession of drill core SG-1 from the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, Christian; Appel, Erwin; Voigt, Silke; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Pross, Jörg; Zhang, Weilin; Fang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    The availability of accurate and reliable age control is a crucial prerequisite for palaeoclimate studies, particularly when different archives are to be compared. Here we present a detailed depth-to-time transformation for the lacustrine sediments of a ˜940-m-long drill core (SG-1) from the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau). To establish a more precise age model than the one previously available, which was based solely on magnetostratigraphic dating using polarity boundaries as tie points, we applied time-series analysis on magnetic susceptibility (χ) variation. The χ data are available in high resolution and are considered to be closely linked to orbital forcing. Since the sediment accumulation rate (SAR) varies strongly throughout the succession of core SG-1, conventional cyclostratigraphy by bandpass filtering cannot be applied. We present two alternative age models based on spectral characteristics and orbital tuning. The first age model (TPspec) is based on the assumption that changes in SAR occurred when the frequency spectra revealed obviously different characteristics in the spectral pattern. For the second age model (SARA), SAR was adjusted every 2 m by comparing observed with expected orbital cycles in accordance with the age of magnetic reversals. This age model appears more robust and shows the most convincing spectral results in the frequency and wavelet power spectrum of χ. According to the SARA age model, SAR varies between 14 and 73 cm kyr-1, and the bottom of SG-1 has an age of 2.69 Ma. Our results show that orbital tuning can be successfully applied for sequences with strongly variable SAR. The age model SARA can be used for a more detailed analysis of the existing multiproxy data set in terms of palaeoclimate evolution. The most prominent feature of χ spectra using the SARA age model is the identification of the middle Pleistocene transition.

  7. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, Stephen; Younker, Leland; Zobeck, Mark; Cooper, George

    1994-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through an integrated program of coring, fluid sampling, in-situ and laboratory experimentation and long-term monitoring, we hope to provide fundamental constraints on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300??C; 2) continuous coring of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6 and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of seismicity and a broad range of physical and chemical properties over periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the regions of greatest scientific interest.

  8. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, we hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300°C; 2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

  9. Elastic anisotropy of core samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP): direct 3-D measurements and weak anisotropy approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Laurent; David, Christian; Špaček, Petr; Wong, Teng-Fong; Fortin, Jérôme; Song, Sheng Rong

    2012-01-01

    The study of seismic anisotropy has become a powerful tool to decipher rock physics attributes in reservoirs or in complex tectonic settings. We compare direct 3-D measurements of P-wave velocity in 132 different directions on spherical rock samples to the prediction of the approximate model proposed by Louis et al. based on a tensorial approach. The data set includes measurements on dry spheres under confining pressure ranging from 5 to 200 MPa for three sandstones retrieved at a depth of 850, 1365 and 1394 metres in TCDP hole A (Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project). As long as the P-wave velocity anisotropy is weak, we show that the predictions of the approximate model are in good agreement with the measurements. As the tensorial method is designed to work with cylindrical samples cored in three orthogonal directions, a significant gain both in the number of measurements involved and in sample preparation is achieved compared to measurements on spheres. We analysed the pressure dependence of the velocity field and show that as the confining pressure is raised the velocity increases, the anisotropy decreases but remains significant even at high pressure, and the shape of the ellipsoid representing the velocity (or elastic) fabric evolves from elongated to planar. These observations can be accounted for by considering the existence of both isotropic and anisotropic crack distributions and their evolution with applied pressure.

  10. Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is low in the natural gamma ray isotopes uranium, thorium, and potassium, while rhyolites produce high total gamma ray responses. Sediment interbeds become apparent as the radioactivity associated with fine grained minerals is significantly higher than that of the host rock (e.g. basalt) due to high hydrogen concentration within the crystal structure of clays. Basalt lacks conductive minerals and results in high resistivity but moderate magnetic susceptibility. The sediments on the other hand are highly conductive and have a low magnetic susceptibility. The basalt and rhyolite units are relatively massive except for fractures which become apparent in the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. Signal is lost in soft sediments resulting in dark regions when full amplitude is displayed for the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. The massive basalt shows short P- and S-wave travel times and therefore a high sonic velocity, while the sediments display only P-wave first arrivals.

  11. Disaster Drill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    Bus disaster drills have been held all over country for years. A drill in Blairsville, Pennsylvania, taught officials important lessons: (1) keep roster of students and stops in designated area on bus, and ensure emergency workers know where location; (2) send at least three school officials to accident scene; (3) provide school officials with…

  12. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  13. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  14. Drilling and general petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Forty-nine papers are included in the Drilling and General Petroleum Engineering Volume of the SPE Annual Conference and Exhibition proceedings. The conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 25-28, 1994. The papers cover such topics as: extended reach well drilling, development of marginal satellite fields, slim hole drilling, pressure loss predictions, models for cuttings transport, ester-based drilling fluid systems, borehole stability, cementing, operations, bit failures, roller core bits, well tracking techniques, nitrogen drilling systems, plug failures, drill bit and drillstring dynamics, slim hole vibrations, reserve estimates, enhanced recovery methods, waste disposal, and engineering salary trends. A separate abstract and indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Results from exploratory drill hole UE2ce, Northwest Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, near the NASH Event

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1982-03-03

    Exploratory drill hole UE2ce was drilled in January 1977 to determine geologic and geophysical characteristics of this site. This report presents geophysical logs, lithology, geologic structure, water table measurements, and physical properties for this drill hole. The data are then extrapolated to the NASH site, an event in U2ce, 55.6 m due north of UE2ce.

  16. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) provides technologically top-level drilling vessels and platforms that can be used by scientists to address global scientific problems, including the causes and processes responsible for submarine geohazards. Both IODP and ECORD (the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling in collaboration with the European Science Foundation) support scientific initiatives towards submarine geohazards, because the geological record of geohazards can be read and interpreted only through ocean drilling, combined with a broad array of geophysical, geotechnical, and laboratory studies, to identify structures and deposits associated with hazardous phenomena.

  17. Inferring Earthquake Physics from Deep Drilling Projects of Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Kuo, L. W.; Mittempergher, S.; Remitti, F.; Spagnuolo, E.; Mitchell, T. M.; Gualtieri, A.; Hadizadeh, J.; Carpenter, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Deep drilling projects of active faults offer the opportunity to correlate physical and chemical processes identified in core samples with experiments reproducing the seismic cycle in the laboratory and with high-resolution seismological and geophysical data. Here we discuss the constraints about earthquakes source processes at depth gained by fault cores retrieved from the deep drilling projects SAFOD (2.7 km depth, San Andreas Fault), J-FAST (0.9 km depth, following the Mw 9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake), TCDP (1.1 km depth, following the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi 1999 earthquake) and WFSD (1.2 km depth, following the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan 2008 earthquake). Recovered samples were tested at room temperature with the rotary shear apparatus SHIVA installed in Rome (INGV, Italy). All the tested samples were made by clay-rich gouges (usually including smectite/illite), though their bulk mineralogy and modal composition were different (e.g., SAFOD samples included saponite, WFSD carbonaceous materials). The gouges were investigated before and after the experiments with scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, etc. A common behavior of all the tested gouges was that their friction coefficient was low (often less than 0.1) under room-humidity and wet conditions when sheared at slip rates of ca. 1 m/s (seismic deformation conditions). Moreover, when the natural fault rocks next to the principal slipping zones were sheared from sub-seismic (few micrometers/s) to seismic slip rates, the experimental products had similar microstructures to those found in the principal slipping zones of the drilled faults. This included the formation of mirror-like surfaces, graphite-rich materials, foliated gouges, nanograins, amorphous materials, etc. In most cases the mechanical data were consistent with several seismological (> 50 m of seismic slip for the fault zone drilled by J-FAST) and geophysical observations (absence of a thermal anomaly in the fault cores of J-FAST and WFSD) which were attributed to an extremely low coseismic fault strength. However, the deformation mechanisms responsible for the measured weakening in the experiments and for the production of the microstructures similar to those found in drilled seismic faults have not been deciphered yet.

  18. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  19. Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finster, K.W.; Cockell, C.S.; Voytek, M.A.; Gronstal, A.L.; Kjeldsen, K.U.

    2009-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31T, was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l-1) and MgCl2???6H 2O (3 g l-1). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45??C, with an optimum between 35 and 40??C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31T (=NCIMB 14440T = DSM 21240T). ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. Alteration of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase 1 Drill Core: 2. Mass balance of the conversion of sideromelane to palagonite and chabazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Anthony W.; Schiffman, Peter; MacPherson, G. L.

    2005-09-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project 2 Phase 1 core permits study of each stage of alteration of basalt glass during burial because stages of the process are separated vertically. Previous work has shown that alteration of hyaloclastite occurs progressively. The latest stage observed in the Phase 1 core involves marginal replacement of sideromelane in shards with palagonite while simultaneously forming chabazite in pores. The basic reaction at this stage is sideromelane + components from pore waters = palagonite + chabazite + components to pore waters. Mass balance calculations show that Fe was virtually immobile in this process, being retained in palagonite. Na, Ca, Ba, P, Al, and Si were lost during palagonitization and not fully consumed in making chabazite. Mg was lost during palagonitization but retained elsewhere in smectite. K, Rb, and Sr were extracted from pore waters and enriched in the sum of the alteration products. The amount of enrichment depended upon the amount of chabazite present, which depended upon the porosity when chabazite formed. Ti, Y, U, Zr, Nb, REE, and Th were enriched in palagonite, compared to sideromelane, but were absent in chabazite. Mass balance of all phases for the entire alteration process (including earlier stages) was not possible because poorly consolidated samples do not yield accurate modal values of phases, trace element analysis of smectite was not possible, and exchange with lavas and intrusions in the succession cannot be evaluated. Calculations indicate that too little of major oxides, except Na2O, was released during palagonitization to account for the amount of smectite observed in hyaloclastites. The results of this study, and several others published in the literature, indicate that under various circumstances palagonitization will consume particular elements from pore fluid or release them to it. Such mobility implies that the hydrology of the particular system and the composition of the dissolved solids in the pore water will control whether palagonitization is a source or sink of elements. The potential exists that palagonitization of basalt glass is an important source or sink of elements for seawater and fluids circulating in the ocean crust.

  1. Drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-01-10

    Polyethylene glycols in combination with at least one water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier comprising cellulose ethers, cellulose sulfate esters, polyacrylamides, guar gum, or heteropolysaccharides improve the water loss properties of water-based drilling fluids, particularly in hard brine environments.

  2. A Practical Introduction to Borehole Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, George V.

    During 1986, the latest year for which data have been published, 57,036 deep wells were drilled in the United States and Canada in the search for oil and gas, and about 20,000 were drilled in the rest of the world. T he wells in North America penetrated some 46,328 miles into the Earth, providing access to an immense amount of otherwise invisible geology. Wells were also drilled for other reasons, such as the search for water, economic mineral resources, and even scientific information. Considering only the holes drilled for oil and gas, virtually every one has been logged with one or more geophysical surveys. In the last 40 years, several million such geophysical surveys have been run and are now preserved in various data libraries. This data base of geophysical surveys run in boreholes is perhaps the largest data base we have in the Earth sciences, and to date, it has been relatively little utilized for any purpose other than evaluating possible hydrocarbon content in suspected reservoir rocks. In the past decade there has been a growing interest in making more use of this data base, which may well explain the appearance of at least a half dozen books on geophysical well surveying over the last several years.

  3. Chattanooga Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) from the Tennessee Division of Geology - US Department of Energy cored drill hle number 3, Hancock County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Roen, J.B.; Milici, R.C.; Wallace, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents a detailed lithologic description and gamma-ray log of the drill hole which is located on the Calvert Johnson property in the Sneedville 7.5-minute quadrangel, Hancock County. (DLC)

  4. Basic data from five core holes in the Raft River geothermal area, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E. G., (compiler)

    1976-01-01

    meters) were completed in the area (Crosthwaite, 1974), and the Aerojet Nuclear Company, under the auspices of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, was planning some deep drilling 4,000 to 6,000 feet (1,200 to 1,800 meters) (fig. 1). The purpose of the core drilling was to provide information to test geophysical interpretations of the subsurface structure and lithology and to provide hydrologic and geologic data on the shallow part of the geothermal system. Samples of the core were made available to several divisions and branches of the Geological Survey and to people and agencies outside the Survey. This report presents the basic data from the core holes that had been collected to September 1, 1975, and includes lithologic and geophysical well logs, chemical analyses of water (table 1), and laboratory analyses of cores (table 2) that were completed as of the above date. The data were collected by the Idaho District office, Hydrologic Laboratory, Borehole Geophysics Research Project, and Drilling, Sampling, and Testing Section, all of the Water Resources Division, and the Branch of Central Environmental Geology of the Geologic Divison.

  5. Clay mineral analysis of the Hirabayashi NIED drill core on the Nojima fault that ruptured in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, T.; Omura, K.; Ikeda, R.; Awaji, D.

    2002-12-01

    A 1800-m-deep borehole was drilled at Nojima Hirabayashi and penetrated the Nojima fault that was activated at the time of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake (Kobe Earthquake) in Japan. Three possible fracture zones were detected at depths of about 1140 m, 1300 m, and 1800 m. At first, we analyzed the mode of distribution of rocks, minerals and chemical elements in them. There is a foliated blue-gray gouge at a depth of 1140 m. So we infer that this is the central fault plane, and began our fracture zone analysis there, as follows. The degree of fracturing is evidently greater in the hanging wall than in the footwall. We estimated the relative amounts of minerals qualitatively, and we detected not only quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase, biotite and hornblende in the parent rock (granodiorite), but also kaolinite, smectite, laumontite, stilbite, calcite, ankerite and siderite, which are related to hydrothermal alteration. Biotite notably disappears in both the hanging wall and footwall across the central fault plane, although it disappears over a significantly greater distance in the hanging wall than in the footwall. Equally, we estimated the amounts of major chemical elements quantitatively. Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, TiO2, and P2O5 all decrease throughout this interval, except at a few points. H2O_{ and CO2 increase throughout the interval. Na2O increases in the region adjacent to the central fault plane, while MgO and CaO increase in the hanging wall and decrease in the footwall. SiO2 and K2O decrease in the hanging wall and increase in the footwall. Next, we particularly investigated about the clay minerals such as smectite. From the drill core, we separated the clay-size fraction and analyzed it by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). Incidentally, particle-size separations are based on Stokes_fs law. We prepared oriented samples for XRD and to make it, we used the glass slide method. We measured it both in the air-dried and ethylene glycol-solvated conditions. We analyzed the other fracture zones along this fault in the same way. As a result, about the mode of distribution of rocks minerals and chemical elements, the fracture zone at 1140 m depth is very similar to the fracture zone at 1800 m depth and differs significantly from the fracture zone at 1300 m depth. But, the results of the clay minerals are different among each fracture zone. In air-dried condition, d (001) of smectite are 15 angstrom (at 1140 m depth), 14 angstrom (at 1300 m depth), 14~12 angstrom (at 1800 m depth), respectively (In ethylene glycol-solvated conditions, they are all 17 angstrom). It may suggest the existence of different fluid circulation between shallower and deeper fracture zones.

  6. Geochemical characters of Quaternary tephra beds and their stratighraphic position in the sedimentary core drilled at the site U1343 in the central Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Asahi, H.; Nagatsuma, Y.; Kurihara, K.; Fukuoka, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Iijima, K.

    2012-12-01

    The project IODP exp.323 in the Bering Sea focused on analyzing long-term ocean and climate trends during 5 Ma, and drilled seven sites (sites 1339-1345). Up to now, the studies of long-term tephrochronology in this area are very rare, though a part of histories of several volcanoes and late Pleistocene to Holocene volcanisms and studies for geochemistry of magma were reported in detail. Our objectives are to reveal how many widespread tephras are found in the Bering Sea and which of volcanoes or volcanic zones provided them. First of all, we analyzed forty-eight tephra samples in the sedimentary core collected at site U1343, near the Bering self sloop. Sediments in site U1343 (57°33.4'N, 175°49.0'E, water depth 1956 mbsf, core length 779.18 m) include three paleomagnetic events (the BM boundary;0.788 Ma, Jaramillo; 0.998 Ma, Cobb Mountain;1.173 Ma). The bottom datum event is reported as 2.0-2.2 Ma (diatom) at 716.4 m. All tephra samples were washed by flesh water and decanting, dried up naturally, sieved by the mesh of dia.250, 125 and 63 micrometer. We observed every tephra under the binocular/polarizing microscopes, and analyzed major-element composition of volcanic glass shards by EPMA (10nA, 15kV, probe dia.10 micrometer). All samples include many kinds of volcanic glass shards (color: colorless to dark brown, form: bubble-wall type, pumice type, fiber type). Diameter of grain size is normally less 125 micrometer, and volcanic glass size in some layers is concentrated in the less 63 micrometer. Thickness of tephra samples is approximately 0.5 cm to 4 cm. In the basis of geochemicalc analysis of volcanic glass shards in 48 samples, though every sample includes volcanic glass shards, we can distinguish the two groups roughly; glass-rich samples (31 samples) and contaminated samples (17 samples). Contaminated samples include course sands (lithic fragments, rounded minerals, fossil fragments), besides volcanic glass shards. Number of contaminated samples remarkably increases after BM boundary. Furthermore, during middle to late Pleistocene, the oxygen isotopic stratigraphy of benthic foranminiferal fossils in this core is clear and their oscillation is wider than early Pleistocene and Pliocene. So, volcanic glass shards in 'contaminated samples' which are expected to be provided from plural sources might be transported by seasonal sea ices, and ice berg which collapsed from the ice sheet around the Beringia. On the other hand, general character and geochemistry of glass-rich samples is as follows: The size of every tephra material is under 250 micrometer and there are rarely heavy minerals. Color of tephras has many varieties (white, brown, gray, and black) by geochemistry of volcanic glass shards. Content of SiO2 in volcanic glass shards varied approximately 58-72 wt%, Na2O is ~5.2 wt%, and K2O is ~3.2 wt% (basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite). There is no sample in alkali rock series, 5 samples in tholeiitic rock series and the other 26 samples in calc-alkalic rock series. Six tephra layers of 0.378Ma, 0.518-0.529Ma, 0.822-0.824Ma, 1.008Ma, 1.108Ma, and 1.547Ma are several centimeters thickness, so they are expected to be recognized as time marker beds in Bering Sea widely.

  7. Geophysical signature of the Pretoria saltpan impact structure and a possible satellite crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, D.; Durrheim, R. J.; Reimold, W. U.

    1993-01-01

    The Pretoria Saltpan Crater is located in the southern portion of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, some 40 km NNW of Pretoria, South Africa, at 25 deg 24 min 30 sec S/28 deg 4 min 59 sec E. An origin by impact for this crater structure was recently confirmed. The results of the only gravity reconnaissance carried out over the crater to date failed to support an impact origin. With the aid of recent results obtained from a central drill-core, it was necessary to carry out more geophysical work which would include a gravity profile of higher resolution. A second, smaller, circular depression (about 400 m in diameter) to the SW of the crater is suggestive of a twin crater. This site had never been investigated, and thus various geophysical surveys were conducted.

  8. Geophysical signature of the Pretoria saltpan impact structure and a possible satellite crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, D.; Durrheim, R. J.; Reimold, W. U.

    1993-03-01

    The Pretoria Saltpan Crater is located in the southern portion of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, some 40 km NNW of Pretoria, South Africa, at 25 deg 24 min 30 sec S/28 deg 4 min 59 sec E. An origin by impact for this crater structure was recently confirmed. The results of the only gravity reconnaissance carried out over the crater to date failed to support an impact origin. With the aid of recent results obtained from a central drill-core, it was necessary to carry out more geophysical work which would include a gravity profile of higher resolution. A second, smaller, circular depression (about 400 m in diameter) to the SW of the crater is suggestive of a twin crater. This site had never been investigated, and thus various geophysical surveys were conducted.

  9. Comparison of geophysical investigations for detection of massive ground ice (pingo ice)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Leuschen, C.; Ikeda, A.; Harada, K.; Gogineni, P.; Hoekstra, P.; Hinzman, L.; Sawada, Y.; Matsuoka, N.

    2006-06-01

    Six different geophysical investigations, (1) ground-penetrating radar, (2) DC resistivity sounding, (3) seismic refraction, (4) very low frequency (VHF) electromagnetic, (5) helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM), and (6) transient electromagnetic (TEM) techniques, were employed to obtain information on the ice body properties of pingos near Fairbanks, Alaska. The surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were also compared from similar sites near one of the study pingos. The geophysical investigations were undertaken, along with core sampling and permafrost drilling, to enable measurement of the ground temperature regime. Drilling (ground truthing) results support field geophysical investigations, and have led to the development of a technique for distinguishing massive ice and overburden material of the permafrost. The two-dimensional DC resistivity sounding tomography and ground-penetrating radar profiling are useful for ice detection under heterogeneous conditions. However, the DC resistivity sounding investigation required high-quality ground contact and less area coverage. The active layer thickness and the homogeneous horizontal structure of the overburden material are important parameters influencing detection of massive ice in permafrost for most methods such as seismic, TEM, or surface NMR.

  10. Sampling and Interpretation of Drill Cuttings from Geothermal Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Sibbett, Bruce S.

    1981-01-01

    Drill cuttings from geothermal and mineral exploration boreholes, by contrast with those from most petroleum wells, commonly are derived highly fractured and faulted, hydrothermally altered igneous and metamorphic rock sequences, and are likely to be severely contaminated. Characterization of a subsurface resource from cuttings thus requires not only especially careful sample collection, preparation, storage and examination, but also a thorough knowledge of drilling technology, local geology and the full range of potential borehole contaminants. Accurate identification of lithology from cuttings is critical for recognition and correlation of rock types likely to selectively host the desired commodity. However, many of the rocks encountered in geothermal and mineral exploration boreholes (such as gneisses and granitic rocks) can resemble one another closely as cuttings even though dissimilar in outcrop or core. In such cases, the actual rock type(s) in a cuttings sample generally can be determined by comparison with simulated cuttings of representative surface rocks, and with various geophysical and other well logs. Many other clues in cuttings, such as diagnostic metamorphic mineralogy, or sedimentary rounding and sorting, may help identify subsurface lithologies. Faults and fractures commonly are the dominant physical controls on geothermal and mineral resources. Faults occasionally can be recognized directly in cuttings by the presence of slickensiding, gouge, or other crushed material. More commonly, however, the ''gouge'' observed in cuttings actually is pseudo-gouge created beneath a bit during drilling. Since most faults and all fractures produce no direct evidence apparent in cuttings, they are best recognized indirectly, either by commonly associated hydrothermal alteration, or by responses on appropriate geophysical well logs. Hydrothermal alteration, useful for locating and defining a geothermal or mineral resource, is far more difficult to recognize and interpret in cuttings than in core or outcrop. Alteration textures and paragenetic relationships can be obscured or obliterated as cuttings are produced. Less resistant alteration (and rock-forming) minerals can be disaggregated during drilling and lost from cuttings during sampling or washing. Relict and contemporary alteration can be indistinguishable, and a wide variety of borehole contaminants can closely resemble natural alteration products encountered during drilling. These contaminants also can produce confusing geochemical signatures.

  11. The Present and Future of Volcano Research Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    The success of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) in reaching and sampling the conduit of Unzen Volcano demonstrates that: (1) Directional drilling is applicable to volcanic systems; (2) Geophysical monitoring during eruption and high-resolution surveys afterward provide a reliable view of the magma pathway; (3) At least some of our ideas about syneruptive magmatic behavior appear to be confirmed through this glimpse of new magma emplaced under a load of more than 30 MPa, containing melt that had lost less than half its water; and (4) Temperatures are relatively low, indicating stronger hydrothermal dissipation of magmatic heat than anticipated. There remains, of course, a great deal more to be learned about the conduit of Unzen from detailed analysis of the core samples and interpretation of drilling and logging data. Further analysis will determine whether we have opened a new door to understanding volcanoes or engaged in a one-time trip to the "Moon". While the cost of USDP is unprecedented in volcanology, it is less than one percent of the cost of damage that Unzen did in the 1990-1995 eruption. The USDP conduit data point lies toward one end (excepting very large continental systems) of a continuum in terms of repose time. Unzen has a repose period of a hundred or more years. It is therefore not surprising that the conduit of Unzen is a warm ribbon in a cold edifice. Higher temperatures are to be expected in systems with shorter repose times. This is important because the thermal and mechanical state of the edifice will likely affect the rise of new magma; associated precursory seismicity, deformation, and thermal and gas emission; and subsequent eruptive behavior. Other parameters are of interest as well, such as how recharge from a crater glacier or lake affects the hydrologic regime of a conduit, with resultant phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal activity. And to what extent might forecasts be improved by placing geophysical and geochemical instruments near or even directly in the magma pathway during repose? The fact is that many characteristics of the conduit environment in active systems, characteristics that we have previously only guessed at, can now be measured directly. If we believe that advances in understanding volcanic systems will save lives, then we should drill on, rather than being content with repetitive surface studies of volcanoes. Continued research drilling should be targeted on volcanoes where the risk of eruption to populations is high and where results will span the parameter space of conduit environments. Some of this drilling may yield not just advances in basic science and in eruption forecasting, but geothermal energy as well.

  12. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  13. Drill core-based facies reconstruction of a deep-marine felsic volcano hosting an active hydrothermal system (Pual Ridge, Papau New Guinea, ODP Leg 193)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulick, H.; Vanko, D. A.; Yeats, C. J.

    2004-02-01

    Pual Ridge is a deep-marine, felsic volcanic edifice in the eastern Manus back-arc basin (Papua New Guinea) with an estimated volume of ˜6 to 9 km 3. It is 1-1.5 km wide, 20 km long and rises 500-600 m above the surrounding ocean floor. The active PACMANUS hydrothermal field on the crest of Pual Ridge at 1640-1690 m below sea level was the target of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. Variably altered dacite lavas have been recovered from the subsurface of a low-T discharge site (Snowcap) and a high-T black smoker site (Roman Ruins) reaching a maximum depth of 380 m below seafloor (mbsf). Volcanic facies interpretation of these cores is difficult due to incomplete recovery and widespread pseudoclastic textures generated by fracturing and multi-phase, incomplete fluid-dacite interaction. However, distinction of genuine volcaniclastic facies and facies with alteration-related clastic appearance is important in order to define paleo-seafloor positions within the volcanic stratigraphy, that may be prospective for massive sulfide mineralization. This has been accomplished using remnant primary characteristics indicative of transportation such as polymictic composition, grading or textural evidence for differential movement of individual clasts. Three phases of volcanic activity can be distinguished and a proximal facies association dominated by coherent facies of dacite lavas exists below Snowcap. At Roman Ruins, a medial facies association consists of lava flows with about equal proportions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies. Endogenous growth was an important process during lava flow emplacement and groundmass textures such as perlite, flow banding and spherulites indicate that cooling rates were variable, locally allowing for high-temperature devitrification. A tube pumice breccia unit is interpreted as the resedimented facies of a quench fragmented, highly vesicular dacite lava carapace. Sulfide accumulations in the subsurface are restricted to Roman Ruins suggesting that the abundance of volcaniclastic facies favored ascent of metal-bearing fluids due to the inherent high permeability. Evidence for mineralization at paleo-seafloor positions at 110 and 195 mbsf indicate a complex interrelationship between volcanic and hydrothermal activity. A facies model has been developed which may help to locate subaqueous, felsic lava-dominated volcanic centers and associated sulfide deposits in ancient volcano-sedimentary successions.

  14. GEOPHYSICAL WELL LOG/CORE DESCRIPTIONS, CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  15. Early-Middle Miocene (17-14 Ma) Antarctic ice dynamics reconstructed from the heavy mineral provenance in the AND-2A drill core, Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptvogel, Daniel W.; Passchier, Sandra

    2012-02-01

    The Miocene Climatic Optimum (17-15 Ma) and the rapid cooling of the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (15-13 Ma) together signal a major change in Earth's climate system. Here we examine the sediment provenance in the AND-2A drill core, located 10 km from the East Antarctic coastline, to significantly increase our understanding of Antarctic ice development, glacial erosion, and transport in the Ross embayment during this time. Heavy minerals are very diagnostic of source rock types and assemblages can be used to track changes in the areas of maximum erosion under the margin of an ice sheet. We used a combination of optical mineralogy and SEM-EDS analysis to characterize the heavy mineral fractions of diamictites and sandstones in the upper 650 m of AND-2A, which includes an expanded section dated between ~ 17 and 14 Ma. We find four diagnostic heavy mineral assemblages distributed in intervals throughout the core: I. (650-552 mbsf) elevated orthopyroxene, titanaugite, and carbonate contents; II. (552-308 mbsf) abundant diopside, pigeonite, and orthopyroxene, with sillimanite and kyanite; III. (308-250 mbsf) increasing contents of garnet and green hornblende; and IV. (250-20 mbsf) abundant green hornblende, titanaugite, green augite, and carbonate. Based on the heavy mineral analysis we demonstrate that (1) the ice sheet was grounded on the shelf at ~ 17.7-17.1 Ma, and it was eroding Cenozoic volcanic rocks to the south of the drillsite; (2) during the early part of the Miocene Climatic Optimum (~ 17.1-15.5 Ma) the East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreated landward into upland regions of the Transantarctic Mountains, where it eroded dolerite sills and high-grade metamorphic rocks; (3) immediately prior to the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (15.5-14.3 Ma), the East Antarctic ice advanced and eroded granitic and low-medium grade metamorphic basement rocks in the coastal sections of the Transantarctic Mountains; and (4) following this initial phase of ice growth, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the East Antarctic Ice Sheet coalesced into a larger than modern (interglacial) Antarctic Ice Sheet prior to 14.3 Ma and eroded Cenozoic volcanic and low- to medium-grade metamorphic basement rocks to the south of the drillsite. Our results suggest that, although East Antarctica may have remained glaciated during the Miocene Climatic Optimum, ice extent was reduced to a configuration within the present interglacial extent, even during orbital-scale glacial maxima. Ice growth during the Middle Miocene Climate Transition commenced at ca. 15.5 Ma in the Ross Sea basin, which is slightly earlier than inferred from deep-sea stable isotope records, but in agreement with low-latitude sea-level reconstructions.

  16. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  17. Lithologic and borehole geophysical data, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, Hayes F.; Chappelear, John W.; Miller, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Continuous unconsolidated cores were obtained at 74 sites in the Green Swamp are to evaluate the potential for downward leakage to the Floridian aquifer. Depth of the core holes ranged from 21 to 227 feet and averaged about 87 feet., Lithology was determined by microscopic examination of the core from each hole. Geophysical logs were obtained from 59 of the 74 core holes. This report presents the detailed lithologic and geophysical data for these core holes.

  18. > Exploring the Scandinavian Mountain Belt by Deep Drilling (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2012-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project proposes to drill two fully cored scientific boreholes, both to c. 2.5 km depth, in the Swedish Caledonides, one near the town of Åre (COSC 1) and the other further east (COSC 2). Together they will provide a c. 5 km deep high-resolution mid-crustal section through this major mid-Palaeozoic orogen. Main project objectives include (i) improved understanding of mountain building processes (orogeny), (ii) investigation of the geothermal gradient and its response to palaeoclimatic influences, (iii) the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state of the mountain belt, (iv) the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement, and (v) calibration of surface geophysics and geology. The Caledonide Orogen is comparable in size and many other respects to today's Himalayan mountain belt. Silurian collision with underthrusting of the paleo-continent Baltica below Laurentia resulted in widespread formation of eclogite. Major allochthons were transported many hundreds of kilometers onto the Baltoscandian Platform, including high-grade metamorphic rocks and migmatites which were generated during continental margin subduction and emplaced ductilely at mid-crustal levels. COSC will provide detailed insight into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes and further our understanding of past, present and future orogen dynamics. Located in a key-area for Caledonian geology, it is close to a major geophysical transect across the mountain belt which has been complemented recently with high-resolution reflection seismics and aerogeophysics for site-selection. The COSC research program is being developed by five working groups, geology, geophysics, geothermics, hydrogeology and microbiology. It has direct relevance for society by improving our understanding of mountain building processes, hydrological-hydrochemical regimes in mountain areas and Precambrian shields, deep subsurface conditions for underground engineering, ore genesis and assessment of geothermal potential. After a general scientific workshop supported by ICDP in 2010, the hydrogeological aspects of deep drilling were the topic of a separate workshop last year; orogen dynamics will provide a focus at EGU; and geothermics research will be addressed at a workshop in Autumn 2012. The geothermics workshop will be announced on the ICDP homepage. Partial funding for the drilling has been achieved through national sources and ICDP. Additional funding (c. 500000€) is being sought to allow drilling to commence in 2013. Scientific and financial partners, both from academia and industry, are welcome to the project. The presentation will review the current status of the COSC project and the research leading up to the site selection for COSC 1.

  19. An international and multidisciplinary drilling project into a young complex impact structure: The 2004 ICDP Bosumtwi Crater Drilling Project—An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Milkereit, Bernd; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Amoako, Philip Y. O.; Boamah, Daniel; Danuor, Sylvester; Karp, Tobias; Kueck, Jochem; Hecky, Robert E.; King, John W.; Peck, John A.

    The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana, arguably the best-preserved complex young impact structure known on Earth, displays a pronounced rim and is almost completely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, a hydrologically closed basin. It is the source crater of the Ivory Coast tektites. The structure was excavated in 2.1-2.2 Gyr old metasediments and metavolcanics of the Birimian Supergroup. A drilling project was conceived that would combine two major scientific interests in this crater: 1) to obtain a complete paleoenvironmental record from the time of crater formation about one million years ago, at a near-equatorial location in Africa for which very few data are available so far, and 2) to obtain a complete record of impactites at the central uplift and in the crater moat, for ground truthing and comparison with other structures. Within the framework of an international and multidisciplinary drilling project led by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), 16 drill cores were obtained from June to October 2004 at six locations within Lake Bosumtwi, which is 8.5 km in diameter. The 14 sediment cores are currently being investigated for paleoenvironmental indicators. The two impactite cores LB-07A and LB-08A were drilled into the deepest section of the annular moat (540 m) and the flank of the central uplift (450 m), respectively. They are the main subject of this special issue of Meteoritics & Planetary Science, which represents the first detailed presentations of results from the deep drilling into the Bosumtwi impactite sequence. Drilling progressed in both cases through the impact breccia layer into fractured bedrock. LB-07A comprises lithic (in the uppermost part) and suevitic impact breccias with appreciable amounts of impact melt fragments. The lithic clast content is dominated by graywacke, besides various metapelites, quartzite, and a carbonate target component. Shock deformation in the form of quartz grains with planar microdeformations is abundant. First chemical results indicate a number of suevite samples that are strongly enriched in siderophile elements and Mg, but the presence of a definite meteoritic component in these samples cannot be confirmed due to high indigenous values. Core LB-08A comprises suevitic breccia in the uppermost part, followed with depth by a thick sequence of graywacke-dominated metasediment with suevite and a few granitoid dike intercalations. It is assumed that the metasediment package represents bedrock intersected in the flank of the central uplift. Both 7A and 8A suevite intersections differ from suevites outside of the northern crater rim. Deep drilling results confirmed the gross structure of the crater as imaged by the pre-drilling seismic surveys. Borehole geophysical studies conducted in the two boreholes confirmed the low seismic velocities for the post-impact sediments (less than 1800 m/s) and the impactites (2600- 3300 m/s). The impactites exhibit very high porosities (up to 30 vol%), which has important implications for mechanical rock stability. The statistical analysis of the velocities and densities reveals a seismically transparent impactite sequence (free of prominent internal reflections). Petrophysical core analyses provide no support for the presence of a homogeneous magnetic unit (= melt breccia) within the center of the structure. Borehole vector magnetic data point to a patchy distribution of highly magnetic rocks within the impactite sequence. The lack of a coherent melt sheet, or indeed of any significant amounts of melt rock in the crater fill, is in contrast to expectations from modeling and pre-drilling geophysics, and presents an interesting problem for comparative studies and requires re-evaluation of existing data from other terrestrial impact craters, as well as modeling parameters.

  20. Developers set drilling pace

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, R.

    1981-01-01

    Thums four man-made islands each have a rock perimeter - 160,000 tons of granite - and an inner core of 900,000 yards of hydraulically placed dredged-sand fill. Because of the shallow depths of Long Beach Harbor, islands were constructed instead of installing conventional drilling and production platforms. The majority of drilling rigs and their equipment - casing racks and mud tanks - are mounted on steel rails and moved by hydraulic jacks at a rate of 3/4 ft/min. Each island has a central plant supplying mud and kill fluid services. Logging and perforating are performed by conventional land-based equipment. Many of THUMS' wells are drilled at exceedingly high angles to reach reserves beneath the harbor or Long Beach's downtown area. All but six or seven of the more than 800 wells are deviated, at angles ranging from 0 to 80/degree/, with an average deviation of 65 to 70/degree/. Each well has an S-curve well program and is assigned a 100-ft cylindrical diameter course. A simulated drilling program is fed into a computer to make sure the proposed course does not come within 25 ft of any other well bore. Production procedures are outlined along with a discussion of auxiliary equipment.

  1. Rotary drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, M.D.

    1987-02-03

    A rotary drill bit is described for cutting in earth formations, comprising: a bit body including a cutting face having an outer peripheral edge and a central recess extending longitudinally inwardly from the peripheral edge, bores formed in the cutting face and containing nozzles for emitting drilling fluid under pressure, cutter elements, some of which being mounted in the peripheral edge, and others of which being mounted in the recess to fracture an earthen core formed as the drill cuts through the formation, the cutter elements including cutting faces facing in a direction defining a direction of rotation of the drill bit, lateral discharge passages formed in the body, the passages extending radially through the body from the recess and extending longitudinally to the peripheral edge to form circumferential interruptions in the peripheral edge, a convex protrusion disposed centrally at a longitudinally inner end of the recess for deflecting cuttings to the lateral discharge passages, the cutting face including a groove extending in the direction of rotation from one side of an outer end of each bores and terminating at the nearest discharge passage for conducting cuttings from the bore to that passage.

  2. Physical property data from the ICDP-USGS Eyreville cores A and B, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA, acquired using a multisensor core logger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, H.A.; Murray, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled three core holes to a composite depth of 1766 m within the moat of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. Core recovery rates from the drilling were high (??90%), but problems with core hole collapse limited the geophysical downhole logging to natural-gamma and temperature logs. To supplement the downhole logs, ??5% of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure cores was processed through the USGS GeoTek multisensor core logger (MSCL) located in Menlo Park, California. The measured physical properties included core thickness (cm), density (g cm-3), P-wave velocity (m s-1), P-wave amplitude (%), magnetic susceptibility (cgs), and resistivity (ohm-m). Fractional porosity was a secondary calculated property. The MSCL data-sampling interval for all core sections was 1 cm longitudinally. Photos of each MSCL sampled core section were imbedded with the physical property data for direct comparison. These data have been used in seismic, geologic, thermal history, magnetic, and gravity models of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. Each physical property curve has a unique signature when viewed over the full depth of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure core holes. Variations in the measured properties reflect differences in pre-impact target-rock lithologies and spatial variations in impact-related deformation during late-stage crater collapse and ocean resurge. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  3. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of microspine toes that independently find holes and ledges on a rock to create an anchor. Once the system is anchored, a linear translation mechanism moves the drill axially into the surface while maintaining the proper WOB. The linear translation mechanism is composed of a ball screw and stepper motor that can translate a carriage with high precision and applied load. The carriage slides along rails using self-aligning linear bearings that correct any axial misalignment caused by bending and torsion. The carriage then compresses a series of springs that simultaneously transmit the load to the drill along the bit axis and act as a suspension that compensates for the vibration caused by percussive drilling. The drill is a compacted, modified version of an off-the-shelf rotary percussive drill, which uses a custom carbide-tipped coring bit. By using rotary percussive drilling, the drill time is greatly reduced. The percussive action fractures the rock debris, which is removed during rotation. The final result is a 0.75-in. (.1.9- cm) diameter hole and a preserved 0.5- in. (.1.3-cm) diameter rock core. This work extends microspine technology, making it applicable to astronaut missions to asteroids and a host of robotic sampling concepts. At the time of this reporting, it is the first instrument to be demonstrated using microspine anchors, and is the first self-contained drill/anchor system to be demonstrated that is capable of drilling in inverted configurations and would be capable of drilling in microgravity.

  4. DEGAS experiments on volcanic glass samples from AND-1B drill core: implications for primary magmatic versus secondary H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heide, K.; Cameron, B. I.; Krans, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The existence of volcanic glass in the AND-1B drill core erupted subaquesously or even subglacially affords the possibility of constraining water depth by measuring the volatile content of the glass only if primary magmatic H2O contents can be recognized from secondary H2O. The glass samples studied come from Lithostratigraphic Unit (LU) 2 between 92 and 145 m depth. The black and well sorted sands from subunit 2.4 were most likely derived from subaerial Hawaiian/Strombolian type eruptions. The graded bedding exposed in this subunit may result from fallout of tephra through the water column. Glass fragments from six different depths within subunit 2.4 were extracted from AND-1B sediment first by magnetic separation and then approximately 100 mg of the freshest glass fragments were handpicked under a binocular microscope. The six glass separates were heated in a DEGAS-device up to 1450°C in high vacuum and the liberated volatiles were determined by a simultaneous mass spectrometric analysis. This study was focused on the determination of H2O, CO2, H2, HF, H2S, HCl, SO2, and hydrocarbon species. The six degassing experiments were carried out using a special high-vacuum-hot-extraction method combined with aquadrupol mass spectrometer. Measurements were carried out at less than 10-4 to 10-3Pa and a linear heating rate (10K/min) at a temperature range between room temperature to 1450°C. The volatile species were analyzed in multiple ion detection mode. DEGAS experiments occur under highly non-equilibrium conditions so that reverse reactions between volatiles or between volatiles and the melt are largely prevented. For each glass sample, volatile release occurs at different rates and intensities at different temperatures. Based on the gas release profiles obtained, degassing processes take place in three separate temperature ranges. Low temperature degassing occurs at temperatures up to 500°C and likely represents the liberation of surface bounded volatiles such as H2O in the samples from depths 110.87, 112.51 and 114.47. Moderate temperature degassing occurs between 500 and 800°C likely related to decomposition of silicate mineral (e.g. mica, illite) as well as sulfides with a maximum at 750°C. Above 700°C all samples release HF together with H2O, and HCl is liberated in two samples. A high temperature degassing process occurs above 1000°C and likely reflects the primary magmatic volatile content of the sample. Most characteristic of this degassing step is the SO2 release at a maximum of 1050°C and traces of HCl release. CO2 escaped over a large temperature interval of 600 to 1250°C. The DEGAS experiments consistently showed HCl, SO2 and H2S release above 1000°C. Moreover, secondary H2O predominates over primary magmatic H2O in the six ANDRILL glass samples. The low primary magmatic H2O contents suggest that the glasses were erupted subaerially and experienced near complete degassing during ascent and emplacement at the surface.

  5. Site Report for USGS Test Holes Drilled at Cape Charles, Northampton County, Virginia, in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Powars, David S.; Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Morin, Roger H.; Self-Trail, Jean M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey drilled two test holes near Cape Charles, Virginia, during May and June 2004, as part of an investigation of the buried, late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The first hole is designated as the USGS-Sustainable Technology Park test hole #1 (USGS-STP1). This test hole was abandoned at a depth of 300 ft; cuttings samples were collected, but no cores or geophysical logs were acquired. The second hole is designated as the USGS-Sustainable Technology Park test hole #2 (USGS-STP2). This test hole was drilled to a depth of 2,699 ft. Cores were collected between depths of 1,401.7 ft and 1,420.7 ft and between 2,440.0 ft and 2,699.0 ft. Cuttings samples were collected from the uncored intervals below 280-ft depth. Interim sets of geophysical logs were acquired during the drilling operation, and one final set was acquired at the end of drilling. Two wells were installed in the USGS-STP2 test hole. The deep well (designated 62G-24) was screened between 2,260 ft and 2,280 ft, and the shallow well (designated 62G-25) was screened between 1,360 ft and 1,380 ft. Ground-water salinities stabilized at 40 parts per thousand for the deep well and 20 parts per thousand for the shallow well. The geologic section encountered in the test holes consists of three main units: (1) Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sands and clays are present between land surface and a depth of 1,163 ft; (2) sediment-clast breccias of the impact structure are present between depths of 1,163 ft and 2,150 ft; and (3) crystalline-clast breccias and cataclastic gneiss of the impact structure are present between depths of 2,150 ft and 2,699 ft.

  6. Geology of the USW SD-7 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Engstrom, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    The USW SD-7 drill hole is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the Systematic Drilling Program, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Yucca Mountain site has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-7 drill hole is located near the southern end of the potential repository area and immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility. The hole is not far from the junction of the Main Test Level drift and the proposed South Ramp decline. Drill hole USW SD-7 is 2675.1 ft (815.3 m) deep, and the core recovered nearly complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. Core was recovered from much of the underlying Calico Hills Formation, and core was virtually continuous in the Prow Pass Tuff and the Bullfrog Tuff. The SD-7 drill hole penetrated the top several tens of feet into the Tram Tuff, which underlies the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Tuffs. These latter three units are all formations of the Crater Flat Group, The drill hole was collared in welded materials assigned to the crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone of the Tiva Canyon Tuff; approximately 280 ft (85 m) of this ash-flow sheet was penetrated by the hole. The Yucca Mountain Tuff appears to be missing from the section at the USW SD-7 location, and the Pah Canyon Tuff is only 14.5 ft thick. The Pah Canyon Tuff was not recovered in core because of drilling difficulties, suggesting that the unit is entirely nonwelded. The presence of this unit is inferred through interpretation of down-hole geophysical logs.

  7. Permeability Distribution In A Confined Fracture Flow Aquifer Using Hydraulic Testing and Borehole Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, S.; Odling, N. E.; West, L. J.

    Groundwater is one of the main drinking water resources in the United Kingdom and the Chalk aquifer contributes over 50 % of the abstracted amount. The Chalk consists of a highly porous matrix which is intersected by hydraulically conductive fractures representing the main flow pathways. Hydraulic testing and borehole geophysics were carried out at a test site in East Yorkshire (Northern England), in order to characterise the permeability distribution at the site prior to conducting tracer tests. The Chalk at the fieldsite is confined by about 11m glacial and postglacial lacustrine deposits, and the upper 12m of Chalk has been affected by periglacial weathering. Five boreholes were drilled to 70 to 80m depth; one of these was cored. The intact Chalk contains stylolites (pressure dissolution surfaces), marl bands up to 1.5cm thick, faults, and several sets of inclined joints. The core and acoustic televiewer images from all five boreholes show a high fracture density in the depth interval from 25 to 32m, and discrete fractured zones below this depth. Packer tests on the cored borehole yielded hydraulic conductivities of 6.6OE10-5 to 3.7OE10-6m/s, which agree with the average hydraulic conductivity obtained from the pumping test. Fluid temperature and con- ductivity logging combined with static and pumped borehole flow logging showed that minor inflows and outflows were present throughout, but that several horizons of higher inflow/outflow were detected, which corresponded to highly fractured zones seen in acoustic televiewer images. Both packer tests and borehole geophysical log- ging indicate that most of the permeability of the aquifer is in the upper, highly frac- tured zone, but that discrete zones of high permeability are also present at depth. The acoustic televiewer was able to detect steep fractures that were not recognisable in the core, because the core was broken and fragmented during drilling due to the presence of these fractures.

  8. The correlation of attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic data with X-ray diffraction (XRD) parameters and its potential use for mineral identification and quantification in drilling cores: examples from the Pannonian Basin, Hungar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udvardi, Beatrix; Kovács, István; Viczián, István; Hámor-Vidó, Mária; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba

    2013-04-01

    Four thick sediment sequences in the following boreholes, Vízvár-I (0,0-2965,0 m) in the Dráva Basin, Som-I (999,5-1150,6 m) in southern Transdanubia, and two other boreholes, Doboz-I (3490-4434 m) and Doboz-III (2190-3400 m) in the Békés Basin, Hungary, were investigated in detail. Each drillings cut across Neogene sequences and contain shales, carbonates and clay rocks (Tanács & Viczián, 1995). The selection of these cores is due to the various amounts of smectite, illite and kaolinite minerals that are well manifested during comparison of infrared spectroscopic and former XRD dataset. During preparation, powdered core samples were settled (

  9. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  10. Element mobility studies of two drill-cores from the Götemar Granite (Kråkemåla test site), southeast Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smellie, John A.T.; Stuckless, John S.

    1985-01-01

    The pervasive alteration and the more recent mobilisation of U are evident to a depth of at least 600 m. The effects are most prevalent along major fracture zones and within the upper 250–300 m of one drill-hole where a high frequency of crush zones has been noted. Higher Fe oxidation ratios, higher Rb contents, lower U contents and correspondingly higher Th/U ratios, all characterise this zone.

  11. Geophysics with applications to subsurface waste disposal: Case history

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.

    2001-08-09

    Recent development in geophysical methods allows us to accurately map the distribution of seismic velocity, density and electrical conductivity beneath the surface and between boreholes. These physical properties are dependent on porosity, fluid saturation, fluid conductivity, pressure, temperature, clay content, and in some circumstances, permeability. Hydrological parameters may be measured or inferred from drill hole experiments or directly from core samples. The point measurements in a drill hole are then interpolated to the interwell volume using either statistical properties of the local geology or reasonable estimates of the geological structure and lithology. More direct evidence is obtained from well tests, and interference tests between multiple wells, but these are ill posed inverse problems when it comes to defining the properties of the entire interwell volume. Furthermore such tests are impossible in the vadose zone. The interpolation of well data is often inaccurate or misleading and the central problem for all these studies is the lack of these fundamental parameters throughout the subsurface volume of interest.

  12. ICDP drilling in the Scandinavian Caledonides: Preliminary results from COSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne; Gee, David; Pascal, Christophe; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Pedersen, Karsten; Roberts, Nick; Rosberg, Jan-Erik

    2015-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project is a multidisciplinary investigation of the Scandian mountain belt. Cenozoic uplift of the Scandes has exposed a lower- to middle-crustal level section through this Himalaya-type orogen, providing unique opportunities to better understand not only the Caledonides, but also on-going orogeny and the earthquake-prone environments of modern mountains belts. COSC will also contribute to our knowledge of mountain belt hydrology, provide new data on deep thermal gradients for paleoclimate modeling and potential geothermal energy resources of the area, contribute new information about the deep biosphere, and improve our understanding of the geophysical response of the sub-surface. Two 2.5 km deep fully cored holes will help achieve these goals with the first one, COSC-1, completed in late August 2014. COSC-1 targeted the high-grade metamorphic complex of the Seve Nappes (SNC) and the contact with the underlying allochthon. Drilling was performed using an Atlas Copco CT20 diamond core-drilling rig, operated by Lund University, that resulted in nearly 100% core recovery to 2.5 km depth. A crew of 6 on-site researchers examined the core as it came up and performed on-site documentation of it; including photography, optical core scanning, physical property measurements and biological sampling. A number of geophysical logging suites were run during and after completion of drilling, including sonic, density, electric, temperature and acoustic televiewer logs. A near four week long seismic acquisition program followed in the Fall of 2014 with combined surface and borehole surveys in the vicinity of COSC-1. On-site core analysis indicates that the SNC is about 2 km thick (the lower boundary is not well defined), consisting mainly of gneisses and amphibolites. A zone of extensive shearing is found in the lowermost 500 m of the borehole. Metamorphosed sandstones intercalated with garnetiferous mylonites in this lower part of the drillcore suggest that underlying thrust sheets of the Middle Allochthon have been penetrated, but not the low greenschist facies turbidites and other metasediments of the Lower Allochthon. Logging-while-pumping tests show that there are 8 significant hydraulically conductive zones in an otherwise tight rock down to 2.5 km. Pore waters appear to be relatively fresh throughout the borehole. Bottom hole temperatures are expected to reach 60°C after equilibration, giving a geothermal gradient of over 20°C/km. The observed high seismic reflectivity of the SNC is due to the large contrast in density and velocity between the gneiss and amphibolite. In general, the geophysical response on the surface is consistent with observations in the borehole.

  13. New structural and stratigraphic interpretation of Lake Superior basin from hydrocarbon exploration geophysics and geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickas, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    Between October 1987 and April 1992, two deep boreholes were drilled along the south shore of Lake Superior in a test of the hydrocarbon potential of the conglomerate, sandstone and shale composing the Middle Proterozoic Oronto Group ({approximately}1 billion years). These drilling ventures, preceded by geophysical programs, and combined with wireline and core information, support new interpretations of the structural and stratigraphic geology associated with the Midcontinent Rift System in the Lake Superior district. No.7-22 Terra-Patrick: A stratigraphic, but not structural fit. This borehole in Bayfield County, Wisconsin, drilled an expected sequence of Oronto Group clastic redbeds. No viable hydrocarbon shows were encountered. Six second reflection seismology profiles collected in northwestern Wisconsin indicate the Douglas Fault decreases in throw in an easterly direction, changing to a fold northeast of the borehole. This termination is associated with the south flank of White`s Ridge, a pre-rift residual high identified through modeling studies and seismic interpretations by local absence of Midcontinent Rift volcanics and overlying strata. To the southwest of Isle Royale, the pre-rift Grand Marias Ridge exhibits similar characteristics. No.1-29 St. Amour: A structural, but not stratigraphic, fit. Drilled in Alger County, Michigan, the St. Amour well appears to bottom in pre-rift metamorphic basement rocks. This hole was 100% cored. No hydrocarbon shows were reported. Reflection seismology profile analyses verify a change in strike, from northeast to southeast, of the Keweenaw Fault in the eastern Lake Superior Basin. The drilled section included 6,000 feet of pre-Paleozoic red-beds containing cross-bedding, ripple marks, and multiple fining-upward strata.

  14. Drill bit benchmarking improves drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.A. Jr.; Stoltz, D.S.; Nims, D.G.

    1997-06-02

    A practical method for standardizing drill bit selection reduced drilling costs by $5.5 million on the North Slope of Alaska. Shared Services Drilling (SSD), a consortium of BP Exploration Alaska and ARCO Alaska Inc., developed a benchmarking system that improved drilling performance across the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU). The process involved input from drill bit manufacturers, rig crews, and the operator. The paper discusses well configurations, bit standardization, benchmarking strategy, bit performance, PDC bits, and results.

  15. Hydraulic core cutting motor

    SciTech Connect

    Kilmer, L.G.; Carter, J.W.

    1987-11-24

    This patent describes an apparatus for drilling core cutting from the sidewall of a drill hole wherein the apparatus comprises an elongated housing with a hydraulic operated back-up shoe mounted within the housing for wedging the housing at a selected location in the drill hole and a hydraulic motor with a drilling bit connected thereto for rotation by the hydraulic motor and hydraulic means mounted within the housing and connected to the hydraulic motor for moving the bit into drilling engagement with the sidewall of the drill hole.

  16. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  17. Plio-Quaternary Stepwise Aridification of the Asian Inland: Multi-Proxy Records from a 938.5m Drill Core in the Western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Xi, X.; Li, M.; Appel, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Qaidam Basin is a largest closed basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau which is now under hyperarid climate. A 938.5 m-long core was drilled in the Qahansilatu depression in the western Qaidam Basin with an average core recovery rate of 95%. It consists of lacustrine grayish mudstone and siltstones with upperward increasing interbedded salt layers. High resolution paleomagnetic and OSL-U/Th dating of the core determine the core formed between 2.77 Na and 0.1 Ma. Detailed examinations of lithofacies, evaporative minerals, carbon and oxygen isotopes, grain size, bioproductivity and redox conditions collectively reveal that the climate was dry since 2.77Ma and became intensively dried at about 2.5 Ma, 2.2 Ma, 1.6 Ma, 1.2 Ma, 0.9 Ma, 0.6 Ma and 0.1 Ma. Accompanying this stepwise aridifications is the phased shrinkage of the paleo-Qaidam lake from the semi-deep brackish lake in early stage via shallow brackish lake and perennial saline lake to playa saline lake in late stage and completely dried out at the end. Episodic global cooling and tectonic uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau are possible forcing.

  18. EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Journal of Geophysics and Engineering (JGE) aims to publicize and promote research and developments in geophysics and in related areas of engineering. As stated in the journal scope, JGE is positioned to bridge the gap between earth physics and geo-engineering, where it reflects a growing trend in both industry and academia. JGE covers those aspects of engineering that bear closely on geophysics or on the targets and problems that geophysics addresses. Typically this will be engineering focused on the subsurface, particularly petroleum engineering, rock mechanics, geophysical software engineering, drilling technology, remote sensing, instrumentation and sensor design. There is a trend, visible throughout academia, for rapid expansion in cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary working. Many of the most important and exciting problems and advances are being made at the boundaries between traditional subject areas and, increasingly, techniques from one discipline are finding applications in others. There is a corresponding increasing requirement for researchers to be aware of developments in adjacent areas and for papers published in one area to be readily accessible, both in terms of location and language, to those in others. One such area that is expanding rapidly is that at the interface between geophysics and engineering. There are three principal developments. Geophysics, and especially applied geophysics, is increasingly constrained by the limits of technology, particularly computing technology. Consequently, major advances in geophysics are often predicated upon major developments in engineering and many research geophysicists are working in multi-disciplinary teams with engineers. Engineering problems relevant to the sub-surface are increasingly looking to advances in geophysics to provide part of the solution. Engineering systems, for example, for tunnel boring or petroleum reservoir management, are using high-resolution geophysical imaging to reduce uncertainty and associated risk. In the economically dominant area of petroleum exploration and production, the focus has moved dramatically from exploration to production. This shift is leading increasingly to integration between petroleum geoscience and petrophysics on the one hand, and petroleum engineering and rock mechanics on the other. This integration means that petroleum engineers need to be aware of developments in geophysics, and geophysicists need to be aware of the problems and requirements of the reservoir engineer. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering has been established firmly in that context, and we expect this trend to strengthen and extend far into the future. The Editors welcome your submissions, and comments on this first issue of JGE.

  19. Paleo-environment of cold-water coral initiation in the NE Atlantic:Implications from a deep-water carbonate mound drilling core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, J.; Rüggeberg, A.; Dullo, W.-Chr.,; Margreht, S.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding of the paleo-environment during initiation and early development of deep-water carbonate mounds in the NE Atlantic is still under debate. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307 sailed in 2005 to the Porcupine Seabight in order to investigate for the first time sediments from the base of a giant carbonate mound (Challenger Mound, 155 m). These results indicate that the initiation and start-up phase of this carbonate mound coincides with the beginning of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) at around 2.6 Ma (Kano et al. 2007). Further carbonate mound development seems to be strongly dependent on rapid changes in paleo-oceanographic and climatic conditions around the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary, especially characterized and caused by intermediate water masses. To characterise the paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological setting favourable for the initial coral colonization at 2.6 Ma, we use well-developed proxies such as δ18O and δ13C of planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and of a collection of benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Discanomalina coronata, Cibicides lobatulus, Lobatulua antarctica, Planulina ariminensis), benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as grain size analysis. These proxies indicate variability in seawater temperature, salinity and density of intermediate water masses from southern origin (Mediterranean, Bay of Biscay) supporting cold-water coral settlement and initial development in the Porcupine Seabight. References: Kano et al. (2007) Age constraints on the origin and growth history of a deep-water coral mound in the northeast Atlantic drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. Geology, 35(11):1051-1054.

  20. Scientific drilling: Limitations to drilling and logging in thermal regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysne, Peter; Jacobson, Ronald

    Although many investigators are eager to explore thermal regimes of Earth's crust by drilling, present technologies limit these activities to relatively benign environments. This article enumerates areas of difficulty and offers suggestions as to how they may be addressed.Over the past century two drilling technologies have evolved, primarily to support extractive industries. The most common involves the “rotary drilling” machinery that is used in the hydrocarbon production industry. It features big rigs capable of drilling deeper than 10 km and is the least expensive way to make large holes necessary for production. Unfortunately, when this equipment is used to take core, costs mount rapidly because the drill string must be removed from the hole after each core run. Thus formation analysis usually depends on downhole measurements that are provided by an aggressive logging service industry. Many of these measurements are, understandably, directed toward hydrocarbon applications. This situation is not always advantageous to scientific drilling programs in volcanic formations [Lysne, 1989].

  1. COSC-1 technical operations: drilling and borehole completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Bjelm, Leif; Larsson, Stellan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    COSC-1, the first out of the two planned fully cored boreholes within the COSC-project, was completed in late August 2014. Drilling was performed using the national scientific drilling infrastructure, the so called Riksriggen, operated by Lund University, and resulted in a 2495.8 m deep borehole with almost 100 % core recovery. The rig is an Atlas Copco CT20C diamond core-drill rig, a rig type commonly used for mineral exploration. A major advantage with this type of drill rig compared to conventional rotary rigs is that it can operate on very small drill sites. Thus, it leaves a small environmental footprint, in this case around 1000 m2. The rig was operated by 3 persons over 12 hour shifts. Before the core drilling started a local drilling company installed a conductor casing down to 103 m, which was required for the installation of a Blow Out Preventer (BOP). The core drilling operation started using H-size and a triple tube core barrel (HQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 96 mm and a core diameter of 61.1 mm down to 1616 m. In general, the drilling using HQ3 was successful with 100 % core recovery and core was acquired at rate on the order 30-60 m/day when the drilling wasn't interrupted by other activities, such as bit change, servicing or testing. The HRQ-drill string was installed as a temporary casing from surface down to 1616 m. Subsequently, drilling was conducted down to 1709 m with N-size and a triple tube core barrel (NQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 45 mm. At 1709 m the coring assembly was changed to N-size double tube core barrel (NQ), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 47.6 mm and the core barrel extended to 6 m. In this way precious time was saved and the good rock quality ensured high core recovery even with the double tube. In general, the drilling using NQ3 and NQ was successful with 100 % core recovery at around 36 m/day by the end of the drilling operation. The main problem during the drilling operation was caused by brand new drill rods that were bent beyond tolerance. These bent drill rods caused increased friction during drilling, resulting in an increased torque and consequently a too low RPM. Thus, drill bits wore out faster than normal. Despite of this, the target depth was reached, but later than planned to the drill bits being replaced more frequently. However, it can be concluded that the drilling operation was successful as evidenced by drilling almost 2400 m with full core recovery of top quality cores and no drilling crew accidents. The COSC-borehole is the deepest drilled hole in Sweden using H- and N-size and the deepest hole ever drilled by an Atlas Copco CT20C. The present borehole is cased down to 103 m and the rest of the hole, around 2400 m, is left as an open-hole completion.

  2. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  3. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  4. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kuhns, Douglass J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wiersholm, Otto (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  5. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  6. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  7. Analysis of borehole geophysical information across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, Karnes County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Scott, James Henry; Smith, Bruce D.

    1979-01-01

    Borehole geophysical studies across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, South Texas, show the three geochemical environments often associated with uranium roll-type deposits: an altered (oxidized) zone, an ore zone, and an unaltered (reduced) zone. Mineralogic analysis of the total sulfides contained in the drill core shows only slight changes in the total sulfide content among the three geochemical regimes. However, induced polarization measurements on the core samples indicate that samples obtained from the reduced side of the ore zone are more electrically polarizable than those from the oxidized side of the ore zone, and therefore probably contain more pyrite. Analysis of the clay-size fraction in core samples indicates that montmorillonite is the dominant clay mineral. High resistivity values within the ore zone indicate the presence of calcite cement concentrations that are higher than those seen outside of the ore zone. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements show the presence of an extensive zone of calcite cement within the ore zone, and electrical polarizable material (such as pyrite) within and on the reduced side of the ore zone. A quantitative analysis of the between-hole resistivity data, using a layered-earth model, and a qualitative analysis of the between-hole induced polarization measurements showed that mineralogic variations among the three geochemical environments were more pronounced than were indicated by the geophysical and geologic well logs. Uranium exploration in the South Texas Coastal Plain area has focused chiefly in three geologic units: the Oakville Sandstone, the Catahoula Tuff, and the Jackson Group. The Oakville Sandstone and the Catahoula Tuff are of Miocene age, and the Jackson Group is of Eocene age (Eargle and others, 1971). Most of the uranium mineralization in these formations is low grade (often less than 0.02 percent U3O8) and occurs in shallow deposits that are found by concentrated exploratory drilling programs. The sporadic occurrence of these deposits makes it desirable to develop borehole geophysical techniques that will help to define the depositional environments of the uranium ore, which is characterized by geochemical changes near the uranium deposits. Geochemical changes are accompanied by changes in the physical characteristics of the rocks that can be detected with borehole geophysical tools. This study is concerned with a uranium deposit within the Jackson Group that is located just east of Karnes City, Tex. Five holes were drilled on this property to obtain borehole geophysical data and cores. The cores were analyzed for mineralogic and electrical properties. The borehole geophysical information at this property included induced polarization, resistivity, gamma-gamma density, neutron-neutron, gamma-ray, caliper, and single-point-resistance logs. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements were made between hole pairs across the ore deposit and off the ore deposit.

  8. Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production test. The XPT measurement results showed approximately 0.1 to several mD of water permeability in both the hydrate-bearing formation and seal formation, although there are some variations in measured values. However, the comparison of these results with permeability estimated by NMR log showed significant discrepancy (more than one order of difference), which suggests that it is necessary to have further investigation considering the difference in scale, measurement direction (Kh or Kv), and calibration methodology by pressure core data. In order to obtain basic reservoir/seal properties for the well log calibration within and above production test interval, pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System (Hybrid PCS) and also non-destructive core analysis onboard using Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System (PCATS) were conducted for 60 m interval in AT1-C, which located about 10 m northeast of AT1-MC. Finally, integrated reservoir characterization based on well-log and pressure core data was conducted to predict and optimize the flow rate of upcoming production test.

  9. Petrography and phenocryst chemistry of volcanic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A comparison of outcrop and drill hole samples

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Warren, R.G.

    1989-04-01

    This report is a compilation of petrographic and mineral chemical data for stratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. It supports a possible peer review of Yucca Mountain drill core by summarizing the available data in a form that allows comparison of stratigraphic units in drill holes with surface outcrops of the same units. Petrographic and mineral chemical data can be used in conjunction with other geologic and geophysical information to determine if stratigraphic relations in Yucca Mountain drill core are geologically reasonable and compare well with relations known from extensive surface studies. This compilation of petrographic and mineral chemical data is complete enough for most stratigraphic units to be used in a peer review of Yucca Mountain drill core. Additional data must be collected for a few units to complete the characterization. Rock units at Yucca Mountain have unique petrographic and mineral chemical characteristics that can be used to make accurate stratigraphic assignments in drill core samples. Stratigraphic units can be differentiated on the basis of petrographic characteristics such as total phenocryst abundances, relative proportions of phenocryst minerals, and type and abundances of mafic and accessory minerals. The mineral chemistry of phenocrysts is also an important means of differentiating among stratigraphic units, especially when used in conjunction with the petrographic data. Sanidine phenocrysts and plagioclase rims have narrow compositional ranges for most units and often have well-defined dominant compositions. Biotite compositions are useful for identifying groups of related units (e.g., Paintbrush Tuff Members vs Crater Flat Tuff Members) and for providing an important check on the consistency of the data. 21 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton, Jr.; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

  11. EFFECTS OF FLUID DISTRIBUTION ON MEASURED GEOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR PARTIALLY SATURATED, SHALLOW SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective in situ remediation requires a knowledge of subsurface porosity, permeability, and fluid saturation. Estimation of hydrogeologic properties using improved geophysical imaging and interpretation is faster, cheaper, and less invasive than drilling. Methods for interpret...

  12. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  13. GIS of selected geophysical and core data in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Winters, William J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1982 the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected a large amount of surficial and shallow subsurface geologic information in the deep-water parts of the US EEZ in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These data include digital sidescan sonar imagery, digital seismic-reflection data, and descriptions and analyses of piston and gravity cores. The data were collected during several different projects that addressed surficial and shallow subsurface geologic processes. Some of these datasets have already been published, but the growing interest in the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico warrants integrating these existing USGS datasets and associated interpretations into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide regional background information for ongoing and future gas hydrate research. This GIS is organized into five different components that contain (1) information needed to develop an assessment of gas hydrates, (2) background information for the Gulf of Mexico, (3) cores collected by the USGS, (4) seismic surveys conducted by the USGS, and (5) sidescan sonar surveys conducted by the USGS. A brief summary of the goals and findings of the USGS field programs in the Gulf of Mexico is given in the Geologic Findings section, and then the contents of each of the five data categories are described in greater detail in the GIS Data Catalog section.

  14. Chuck for delicate drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Development of oil film technique to couple power between drive spindle and drill chuck for delicate drilling operations is discussed. Oil film permits application of sufficient pressure, but stops rotating when drill jams. Illustration of equipment is provided.

  15. Strontium and oxygen isotope study of M-1, M-3 and M-4 drill core samples from the Manson impact structure, Iowa: Comparison with Haitian K-T impact glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Hingston, Michael P.; Koeberl, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Strontium and oxygen isotope analyses were performed on 8 samples from the M-1, M-3, and M-4 cores recently drilled at the Manson impact structure. The samples were three elastic sedimentary rocks (of probable Cretaceous age) which occurred as clasts within the sedimentary clast breccia, two samples of crystalline rock breccia matrix, and three samples of dolomite and limestone. The Sr-87/Sr-86 (corrected to 65 Ma) ratios were much higher than those in impact glasses from the Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Isotope mixing calculations demonstrate that neither the silicate or carbonate rocks analyzed from the Manson crater, or mixtures of these rocks are appropriate source materials for the Haitian impact glasses. However, the Sr-87/Sr-86 (65Ma) ratio and delta O-18 value of the Ca-rich Haitian glasses are well reproduced by mixtures of Si-rich Haitian glass with platform carbonate of K-T age.

  16. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  17. Metal drilling with portable hand drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, W. B.; Harrison, H. W.; Morris, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Study of metal drilling solves problems of excessive burring, oversized holes, and out-of-round holes. Recommendations deal with using the proper chemical coolants, applying the coolants effectively, employing cutting oils, and dissipating the heat caused by drilling.

  18. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  19. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  20. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility as a tool for recognizing core deformation: reevaluation of the paleomagnetic record of Pleistocene sediments from drill hole OL-92, Owens Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, Joseph; Reynolds, Richard T.; Smoot, Joseph; Meyer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    At Owens Lake, California, paleomagnetic data document the Matuyama/Brunhes polarity boundary near the bottom of a 323-m core (OL-92) and display numerous directional fluctuations throughout the Brunhes chron. Many of the intervals of high directional dispersion were previously interpreted to record magnetic excursions. For the upper ~120 m, these interpretations were tested using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which typically defines a subhorizontal planar fabric for sediments deposited in quiet water. AMS data from intervals of deformed core, determined from detailed analysis of sedimentary structures, were compared to a reference AMS fabric derived from undisturbed sediment. This comparison shows that changes in the AMS fabric provide a means of screening core samples for deformation and the associated paleomagnetic record for the adverse effects of distortion. For that portion of core OL-92 studied here (about the upper 120 m), the combined analyses of sedimentary structures and AMS data demonstrate that most of the paleomagnetic features, previously interpreted as geomagnetic excursions, are likely the result of core deformation.

  1. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  2. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  3. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  4. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  5. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  6. Drilling technology, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Offenbacher, L.

    1996-05-01

    Great strides have been made in drilling during the nineties, but many operators are unaware of many of the exciting capabilities and potential offered by today` drilling technology. As people move toward the year 2000, they see drilling providers refine these capabilities, broaden their applications, and increase operator awareness of their availability and usefulness. Thus, to see where drilling will be in the year 2000, people need to look at where the drilling forefront lies today. This paper discusses the trends in technology associated with horizontal drilling, re-entry techniques, coiled-tubing, extended-reach drilling, multilateral drilling and general well development technologies.

  7. Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.

  8. A drill hole query algorithm for extracting lithostratigraphic contacts in support of 3D geologic modelling in crystalline basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetselaar, Ernst M.; Lemieux, David

    2012-07-01

    The identification and extraction of lithostratigraphic contacts in crystalline basement for constraining 3D geologic models is commonly hampered by the sparseness of diagnostic lithostratigraphic features and the limited availability of geophysical well log data. This paper presents a query algorithm that, instead of using geophysical well log measurements, extracts lithostratigraphic contacts by exploiting diagnostic patterns of lithology-encoded intervals, recurrent in adjacent drill holes. The query algorithm allows defining gaps in the pattern to search across unconformable, intrusive and tectonic contacts and allows combining multiple search patterns in a single query to account for lateral lithofacies variations. The performance of the query algorithm has been tested in the Precambrian Flin Flon greenstone belt (Canada) by evaluating the agreement between queried and logged lithostratigraphic contacts in 52 lithostratigraphic reference drill holes. Results show that the automated extraction of the unconformable and partly tectonized contact between metavolcanic rocks and its metasedimentary cover was relatively unambiguous and matched all the contacts previously established by visual inspection of drill core. The 100% match was nevertheless paired with 23% false positives due to mafic and felsic sills emplaced in sandstone and conglomerate, which overlap in composition and thickness with extrusive volcanic rocks. The automated extraction of the contact between a mine horizon, defined by laterally complex volcanic and volcaniclastic lithofacies variations and overlying basalt flows, matched the visually logged contacts for 83% with 27% false positives. The query algorithm supplements geological interpretation when patterns in drilled lithostratigraphic successions, suspected to be diagnostic for lithostratigraphic contacts, need to be extracted from large drill hole datasets in a systematic and time-efficient manner. The application of the query algorithm is particularly relevant for 3D modelling projects in Precambrian shield areas where unique lithostratigraphic markers are difficult to establish or are completely lacking.

  9. Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerdt, B.; Dehant, V. M.; Lognonne, P.; Smrekar, S. E.; Spohn, T.; GEMS Mission Team

    2011-12-01

    GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) is one of three missions undergoing Phase A development for possible selection by NASA's Discovery Program. If selected, GEMS will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars, filling a longstanding gap in the scientific exploration of the solar system. It will illuminate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution, providing unique and critical information about the initial accretion of the planet, the formation and differentiation of the core and crust, and the subsequent evolution of the interior. The scientific goals of GEMS are to understand the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets through investigation of the interior structure and processes of Mars and to determine its present level of tectonic activity and impact flux. A straightforward set of scientific objectives address these goals: 1) Determine the size, composition and physical state of the core; 2) Determine the thickness and structure of the crust; 3) Determine the composition and structure of the mantle; 4) Determine the thermal state of the interior; 5) Measure the rate and distribution of internal seismic activity; and 6) Measure the rate of impacts on the surface. To accomplish these objectives, GEMS carries a tightly-focused payload consisting of 3 investigations: 1) SEIS, a 6-component, very-broad-band seismometer, with careful thermal compensation/control and a sensitivity comparable to the best terrestrial instruments across a frequency range of 1 mHz to 50 Hz; 2) HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package), an instrumented self-penetrating mole system that trails a string of temperature sensors to measure the thermal gradient and conductivity of the upper several meters, and thus the planetary heat flux; and 3) RISE (Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment), which would use the spacecraft X-band communication system to provide precision tracking for planetary dynamical studies. The two instruments are moved from the lander deck to the martian surface by an Instrument Deployment Arm, with an appropriate location identified using an Instrument Deployment Camera. In order to ensure low risk within the tight Discovery cost limits, GEMS reuses the successful Lockheed Martin Phoenix spacecraft design, with a cruise and EDL system that has demonstrated capability for safe landing on Mars with well-understood costs. To take full advantage of this approach, all science requirements (such as instrument mass and power, landing site, and downlinked data volume) strictly conform to existing, demonstrated capabilities of the spacecraft and mission system. It is widely believed that multiple landers making simultaneous measurements (a network) are required to address the objectives for understanding terrestrial planet interiors. Nonetheless, comprehensive measurements from a single geophysical station are extremely valuable, because observations constraining the structure and processes of the deep interior of Mars are virtually nonexistent. GEMS would utilize sophisticated analysis techniques specific to single-station measurements to determine crustal thickness, mantle structure, core state and size, and heat flow, providing our first real look deep beneath the surface of Mars.

  10. Drainhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, L.W.

    1988-02-09

    In a method for drilling from a primary wellbore at least one lateral drainhole wellbore, the drainhole extending out into a liquid producing geologic formation which is overlaid with a gas cap, the improvement is described comprising hydraulically fracturing the formation to form fractures which extend above and below the drainhole, the fracturing being carried out using a fracturing liquid which has a viscosity which is not substantially greater than that of diesel oil. The fracturing liquid carries a solid subdivided propping agent to be deposited in the fractures to prevent same from closing, whereby due to the low viscosity of the fracturing liquid the propping agent preferentially settles into fractures which extend downwardly from the drainhole thereby allowing fractures which extend upwardly from the drainhole to close up and prevent premature flow of gas into the drainhole by way of the upwardly extending fractures while leaving the downwardly extending fractures permanently propped open for enhanced production of liquid from the formation into the drainhole.

  11. Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

  12. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  13. Searching for Life Underground: An Analysis of Remote Sensing Observations of a Drill Core from Rio Tinto, Spain for Mineralogical Indications of Biological Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battler, M.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Water is unstable on the surface of Mars, and therefore the Martian surface is not likely to support life. It is possible, however, that liquid water exists beneath the surface of Mars, and thus life might also be found in the subsurface. Subsurface life would most likely be microbial, anaerobic, and chemoautotrophic; these types of biospheres on Earth are rare, and not well understood. Finding water and life are high priorities for Mars exploration, and therefore it is important that we learn to explore the subsurface robotically, by drilling. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE), has searched successfully for a subsurface biosphere at Rio Tinto, Spain [1,2,3,4]. The Rio Tinto study site was selected to search for a subsurface biosphere because the extremely low pH and high concentrations of elements such as iron and copper in the Tinto River suggest the presence of a chemoautotrophic biosphere in the subsurface beneath the river. The Rio Tinto has been recognized as an important mineralogical analog to the Sinus Meridiani site on Mars [5].

  14. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer (BOP). Deviation tools. Wireline packers. And more.

  15. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bennecke, W.M.

    1996-10-01

    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well.

  16. The Auto-Gopher Deep Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been in development at JPL's Nondestructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) lab as an adaptable tool for many of these applications. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the high frequency ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a lower frequency sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. The USDC device idea has been implemented at various scales from handheld drills to large diameter coring devices. A series of computer programs that model the function and performance of the USDC device were developed and were later integrated into an automated modeling package. The USDC has also evolved from a purely hammering drill to a rotary hammer drill as the design requirements increased form small diameter shallow drilling to large diameter deep coring. A synthesis of the Auto-Gopher development is presented in this paper.

  17. Non-invasive characterization of water-bearing strata using a combination of geophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jun; Lin, Tingting; Ji, Yanju; Chen, Zubin; Zhao, Yiping; Li, Haisheng

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeological investigations were carried out in an arid area of Inner-Mongolia to determine the locations of future water supply resources. The first geophysical survey was conducted near Baiqi to identify favorable boreholes using magnetic resonance sounding (MRS). The yield capacities of 43 sites were investigated, and the extent of the potential groundwater storage was determined. Previous studies have indicated that a major tectonic structure may have a significant impact on the groundwater flow and well yield in the study area. Therefore, high-resolution seismic surveys were applied in the second stage of the investigation to determine the fault locations. After the regional identification, a major structure was investigated in detail to map the fracture patterns. Based on the assumption that the hydraulic conductivity of this formation is similar along the entire strike of the fracture, we proposed drilling a borehole (BQ3) in the zone. However, this well has a yield of only 0.8 L/s, falling short of the required flow rate of 3.0 L/s. Therefore, the objective of the final stage of exploration was to accurately define the attitude and extension of the aquifer and to select a more favorable borehole site that would meet the required water flow rate. The geophysical exploration was carried out using time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and MRS methods. The MRS results suggest optimal locations for water supply boreholes within the subsurface structures mapped by the TDEM inversion method. The data obtained by drilling and coring are in agreement with the predicted aquifer thickness from the TDEM data. Pumping tests indicate that the water discharge of borehole BQ4 was 3.5 L/s. Our results demonstrate that the delineation of the groundwater body using a combined application of three geophysical methods (the MRS, TDEM and 2D seismic methods) was successful.

  18. Well drilling method

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1982-01-12

    A method is disclosed for removing fluids entering into a well bore from a well formation while the well is being drilled. The gas bubble is chopped into small bubbles by mixing the gas with drilling mud and pumping the mixed gas and drilling mud upwardly through the drill string-bore hole annulus and removing it from the well.

  19. Well drilling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1982-01-12

    A method of and apparatus are disclosed for removing fluids entering into a well bore from a well formation while the well is being drilled. The gas bubble is chopped into small bubbles by mixing the gas with drilling mud and pumping the mixed gas and drilling mud upwardly through the drill string-bore hole annulus and removing it from the well.

  20. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  1. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  2. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional drilling costs; and downhole weight-on-bit and drilling torque for diagnosing drill bit performance. In general, any measurement that could shed light on the downhole environment would give us a better understanding of the drilling process and reduce drilling costs.

  3. Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  4. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  5. Evaluation of past and future alterations in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, based on the clay mineralogy of drill cores USW G-1, G-2, and G-3

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.

    1989-03-01

    The tuffs at Yucca Mountain in south-central Nevada are being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to determine their suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. For predictive purposes, it is important to understand the alteration history of Yucca Mountain and to know how the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs respond to changing conditions such as elevated temperatures. The clay mineralogy of these tuffs has been examined using x-ray powder diffraction, and approximation temperatures of alteration have been determined using available clay mineral data and fluid inclusion analyses. Also, several illites from drill holes USW G-1 and G-2 have been dated using K/Ar techniques, yielding ages of about 11 Myr. The clay mineral in Yucca Mountain tuffs are predominantly interstratified illite/smectites, with minor amounts of chloride, kaolinite, and interstratified chlorite/smectite at depth in USW G-1 and G-2. The reactions observed for these illite/smectites are similar to those observed in pelitic rocks. With depths, the illite/smectites transform from random interstratifications (R = 0) through ordered intermediates (R = 1) to illite in USW G-2 and to Kalkberg (R {ge} 3) interstratifications in USW G-1. The illite/smectites in USW G-3 have not significantly transformed. It appears that the illites in deeper rock results from hydrothermal and diagenetic reactions of earlier-formed smectites. These data demonstrate that the rocks at depth in the northern end of Yucca Mountain were significantly altered about 11 Myr ago. Both clay mineralogy and fluid inclusions suggest that the rocks at depth in USW G-2 have been subjected to postdepositional temperatures of at least 275{degree}C, those in USW G-1 have reached 200{degree}C, and USW G-3 rocks probably have not exceeded 100{degree}C. 64 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Paleointensity of the geomagnetic field in the Late Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene obtained from drill cores of the Louisville seamount trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2014-06-01

    on the strength of the geomagnetic field is important for understanding the behavior of the geodynamo. Polarity reversal frequency increases toward the late Cenozoic since the end of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. Accumulating reliable paleointensity data in this time interval is still desired for elucidating the possibility of a link between reversal frequency and paleointensity. We conducted a paleointensity study on 288 samples from four seamounts from ˜74 to ˜50 Ma in age that constitutes the Louisville seamount trail. Based on thermomagnetic curves and scanning electron microscopy, we first excluded 134 samples that showed evidence for low-temperature oxidation. We then applied the Tsunakawa-Shaw method with low-temperature demagnetization and double heating after rejecting some samples that do not preserve stable primary remanence, and 52 successful results were obtained. An average virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.75 ± 1.52 (1022 Am2) was obtained at Site U1372 on Canopus seamount (˜74 Ma) based on 16 independent measurements. Sites U1373 and U1374 on Rigil seamount (˜70 Ma) yielded a mean of 3.79 ± 1.40 (n = 16), and Site U1376 on Burton seamount (˜65 Ma) yielded a mean of 3.70 ± 1.37 (n = 8). These VADMs are similar to the long-term average of the last 200 Myr by Tauxe et al. (2013) and the mean of the last 5 Myr by Yamamoto and Tsunakawa (2005). The volcanic sequence drilled at Site U1372 probably belongs to Chron C33n of 5.59 Myr long, whereas others belong to shorter chrons. Our results support no discernible relationship between polarity length and paleointensity.

  7. Drilling the centre of the Thuringian Basin, Germany, to decipher potential interrelation between shallow and deep fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Abratis, Michael; Habisreuther, Annett; Ward, Timothy; Influins Drilling-Team

    2014-05-01

    To shed light on the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluids in a sedimentary basin on various scales, ranging from the pore scale to the extent of an entire basin, is of paramount importance to understand the functioning of sedimentary basins fluid systems and therefore e.g. drinking water supply. It is also the fundamental goal of INFLUINS (INtegrated FLuid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins), a research initiative of several groups from Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena and their partners. This research association is focusing on the nearby Thuringian basin, a well confined, small intra-continental sedimentary basin in Germany, as a natural geo laboratory. In a multidisciplinary approach, embracing different fields of geophysics like seismic reflection profiling or airborne geomagnetics, structural geology, sedimentology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydrology, remote sensing, microbiology and mineralogy, among others, and including both, field-based, laboratory-based and computer-based research, an integral INFLUINS topic is the potential interaction of aquifers within the basin and at its rims. The Thuringian basin, which is composed of sedimentary rocks from the latest Paleozoic and mainly Triassic, is particularly suited to undertake such research as it is of relative small size, about 50 to 100 km, easily accessible, and quite well known from previous studies, and therefore also a perfect candidate for deep drilling. After the acquisition of 76 km seismic reflection data in spring 2011, to get as much relevant data as possible from a deep drilling at the cross point between two seismic profiles with a limited financial budget, an optimated core sampling and measuring strategy including partial coring, borehole geophysics and pump tests as well as a drill hole design, which enables for later continuation of drilling down to the basement, had been developed. Drilling Triassic rocks from Keuper to lower Buntsandstein was successfully realised down to a final depth of 1179 m from late June to mid-September 2013. Here, we give an introduction into the layout of INFLUINS deep drilling together with a summary of preliminary results, e.g. on the nature of the boundaries between Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein, and between upper and middle Buntsandstein, a complete core recovery of upper Buntsandstein saliniferous formations as well as unexpectedly low porosity and permeability of potential aquifers.

  8. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  9. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  10. Scientific Drilling in the Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exon, Neville; Gallagher, Stephen; Seton, Maria

    2013-03-01

    Recent geophysical surveys and geological studies in the southwest Pacific Ocean have improved scientists' understanding of geological evolution and helped to crystallize new research goals. In the current phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), there have been five regional expeditions: Canterbury Basin Sea Level (Expedition 317), Wilkes Land Glacial History off Antarctica (Expedition 318), Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes (Expedition 325), South Pacific Gyre Subseafloor Life (Expedition 329), and Louisville Seamount Trail (Expedition 330). Of six current IODP proposals, four are ready to drill. To review the latest research in the region, briefly outline possible future IODP expeditions, and set up working groups to develop compelling new drilling proposals in the global science context, a workshop was organized at the University of Sydney with a diverse group of 80 scientists. As the JOIDES Resolution may be in the region fairly soon, the workshop participants agreed on the urgent need to build strong science proposals.

  11. Core-tube data logger

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.; Knudsen, S.; Drumheller, D.

    1997-01-01

    Wireline core drilling, increasingly used for geothermal exploration, employs a core-tube to capture a rock core sample during drilling. Three types of core-tube data loggers (CTDL) have been built and tested to date by Sandia national Laboratories. They are: (1) temperature-only logger, (2) temperature/inclinometer logger and (3) heat-shielded temperature/inclinometer logger. All were tested during core drilling operations using standard wireline diamond core drilling equipment. While these tools are designed for core-tube deployment, the tool lends itself to be adapted to other drilling modes and equipment. Topics covered in this paper include: (1) description on how the CTDLs are implemented, (2) the components of the system, (3) the type of data one can expect from this type of tool, (4) lessons learned, (5) comparison to its counterpart and (6) future work.

  12. Drilling deeper into the core: an analysis of journal evaluation methodologies used to create the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials,” third edition

    PubMed Central

    Ugaz, Ana G

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The paper analyzes the journal evaluation criteria used to create the third edition of a core list of veterinary serials to determine the impact of each criterion on the final composition of the list in order to assess the value of using multiple criteria in creating a core list. Methods: Three additional lists were generated from criteria that were previously combined to prepare the third edition of the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials”: a list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations, another list based on journals selected by veterinary librarians, and a list based on both indexing coverage and scholarly rank. The top fifteen journals in each of the three lists were then compared to reveal potential biases. Subject representation on the full lists generated by each of these methods was also compared. Results: The list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations exhibited a focus on clinically relevant titles. The list based on veterinary librarian recommendations resulted in the broadest subject coverage. The list based on indexing and scholarly rank, while emphasizing research titles, produced the largest number of unique titles. Conclusion: A combination approach that includes objective evaluation measures and practical input, whether from librarians or discipline experts, can improve coverage and can result in a list that balances research-based with clinical practice journals. PMID:21464852

  13. Assessment of geophysical logs from borehole USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.; Schimschal, U.

    1993-05-01

    Commercial logging contractors, Western Atlas, Schlumberger, and Edcon obtained borehole geophysical logs at the site of a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drill hole USW-G2 was picked for this test of suitable logging tools and logging technology, both representing state-of-the-art technology by these commercial companies. Experience gained by analysis of existing core data and a variety of logs obtained earlier by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas served as a guide to a choice of logs to be obtained. Logs were obtained in water-filled borehole in zeolitized tuff (saturated zone) and in air-filled borehole largely in unaltered welded tuff (unsaturated zone).

  14. International Collaboration in Data Management for Scientific Ocean Drilling: Preserving Legacy Data While Implementing New Requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, F. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2003-2013 initial phase) is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP: 1968-1983) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP: 1985-2003). These earlier scientific drilling programs amassed collections of sediment and rock cores (over 300 kilometers stored in four repositories) and data organized in distributed databases and in print or electronic publications. International members of the IODP have established, through memoranda, the right to have access to: (1) all data, samples, scientific and technical results, all engineering plans, data or other information produced under contract to the program; and, (2) all data from geophysical and other site surveys performed in support of the program which are used for drilling planning. The challenge that faces the individual platform operators and management of IODP is to find the right balance and appropriate synergies among the needs, expectations and requirements of stakeholders. The evolving model for IODP database services consists of the management and integration of data collected onboard the various IODP platforms (including downhole logging and syn-cruise site survey information), legacy data from DSDP and ODP, data derived from post-cruise research and publications, and other IODP-relevant information types, to form a common, program-wide IODP information system (e.g., IODP Portal) which will be accessible to both researchers and the public. The JANUS relational database of ODP was introduced in 1997 and the bulk of ODP shipboard data has been migrated into this system, which is comprised of a relational data model consisting of over 450 tables. The JANUS database includes paleontological, lithostratigraphic, chemical, physical, sedimentological, and geophysical data from a global distribution of sites. For ODP Legs 100 through 210, and including IODP Expeditions 301 through 308, JANUS has been used to store data from 233,835 meters of core recovered, which are comprised of 38,039 cores, with 202,281 core sections stored in repositories, which have resulted in the taking of 2,299,180 samples for scientists and other users (http://iodp.tamu.edu/janusweb/general/dbtable.cgi). JANUS and other IODP databases are viewed as components of an evolving distributed network of databases, supported by metadata catalogs and middleware with XML workflows, that are intended to provide access to DSDP/ODP/IODP cores and sample-based data as well as other distributed geoscience data collections (e.g., CHRONOS, PetDB, SedDB). These data resources can be explored through the use of emerging data visualization environments, such as GeoWall, CoreWall (http://(www.evl.uic.edu/cavern/corewall), a multi-screen display for viewing cores and related data, GeoWall-2 and LambdaVision, a very-high resolution, networked environment for data exploration and visualization, and others. The U.S Implementing Organization (USIO) for the IODP, also known as the JOI Alliance, is a partnership between Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Texas A&M University, and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. JOI is a consortium of 20 premier oceanographic research institutions that serves the U.S. scientific community by leading large-scale, global research programs in scientific ocean drilling and ocean observing. For more than 25 years, JOI has helped facilitate discovery and advance global understanding of the Earth and its oceans through excellence in program management.

  15. Geophysical examination of coal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. J.

    1981-04-01

    Geophysical techniques for the solution of mining problems and as an aid to mine planning are reviewed. Techniques of geophysical borehole logging are discussed. The responses of the coal seams to logging tools are easily recognized on the logging records. Cores for laboratory analysis are cut from selected sections of the borehole. In addition, information about the density and chemical composition of the coal may be obtained. Surface seismic reflection surveys using two dimensional arrays of seismic sources and detectors detect faults with throws as small as 3 m depths of 800 m. In geologically disturbed areas, good results have been obtained from three dimensional surveys. Smaller faults as far as 500 m in advance of the working face may be detected using in seam seismic surveying conducted from a roadway or working face. Small disturbances are detected by pulse radar and continuous wave electromagnetic methods either from within boreholes or from underground. Other geophysical techniques which explicit the electrical, magnetic, gravitational, and geothermal properties of rocks are described.

  16. COSC-1 - drilling of a subduction-related allochthon in the Palaeozoic Caledonide orogen of Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, H.; Rosberg, J.-E.; Juhlin, C.; Bjelm, L.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Berthet, T.; Conze, R.; Gee, D. G.; Klonowska, I.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2015-05-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project focuses on mountain building processes in a major mid-Palaeozoic orogen in western Scandinavia and its comparison with modern analogues. The project investigates the subduction-generated Seve Nape Complex. These in part under ultra-high-pressure conditions metamorphosed outer continental margin and continent-ocean transition zone assemblages were emplaced onto the Baltoscandian platform and there influenced the underlying allochthons and the basement. COSC-1 is the first of two ca. 2.5 km deep, fully cored drill holes located in the vicinity of the abandoned Fröå mine, close to the town of Åre in Jämtland, central Sweden. It sampled a thick section of the lower part of the Seve Complex and was planned to penetrate its basal thrust zone into the underlying lower-grade metamorphosed allochthon. The drill hole reached a depth of 2495.8 m and nearly 100 % core recovery was achieved. Although planning was based on existing geological mapping and new high-resolution seismic surveys, the drilling resulted in some surprises: the Lower Seve Nappe proved to be composed of rather homogenous gneisses, with only subordinate mafic bodies, and its basal thrust zone was unexpectedly thick (> 800 m). The drill hole did not penetrate the bottom of the thrust zone. However, lower-grade metasedimentary rocks were encountered in the lowermost part of the drill hole together with garnetiferous mylonites tens of metres thick. The tectonostratigraphic position is still unclear, and geological and geophysical interpretations are under revision. The compact gneisses host only eight fluid conducting zones of limited transmissivity between 300 m and total depth. Downhole measurements suggest an uncorrected average geothermal gradient of ~ 20 °C km-1. This paper summarizes the operations and preliminary results from COSC-1 (ICDP 5054-1-A), drilled from early May to late August 2014, and is complemented by a detailed operational report and the data repository.

  17. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. PMID:25922212

  18. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala: exploration geothermal gradient drilling and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala, indicate that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 300??C. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, fracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. The hole is located 300 m south of a 300m-diameter phreatic crater. Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2910 years. TCB-1 temperature logs do not indicate isothermal conditions at depth and the calculated thermal gradient from 500-800 m is 230??C/km. Bottom hole temperature is close to 240??C. Calculated heat flow values are around 350-400 mW/m2. Fluid-inclusion and secondary-alteration studies indicate that veins and secondary minerals were formed at temperatures equal to or slightly less than present temperatures; thus, the Tecuamburro geothermal system may still be heating up. The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for geothermal resource development. ?? 1992.

  19. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  20. Hydraulic piston coring of late Neogene and Quaternary sections in the Caribbean and equatorial Pacific: Preliminary results of Deep Sea Drilling Project leg 68.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prell, W.L.; Gardner, James V.; Adelseck, Charles; Blechschmidt, Gretchen; Fleet, Andrew J.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Ledbetter, Michael T.; Mann, Ulrich; Mayer, Larry; Reidel, William R.; Sancetta, Constance; Spariosu, Dann J.; Zimmerman, Herman B.

    1980-01-01

    The sediment of Site 502 (W.Caribbean) is primarily foram-bearing nanno marl which accumulated at c.3 to 4 cm/thousand yr. The bottom of Site 502 (228.7 m) is about 8 m.y. old. The sediment of Site 503 (Equatorial Pacific) is primarily siliceous calcareous ooze which accumulated at about 2 to 3 cm/thousand yr. The bottom of Site 503 (235.0 m) is about 8 m.y. old. The sediment at both sites shows a distinct cyclicity of CaCO3 content. These relatively high accumulation rate, continuous, undisturbed HPC cores will enable a wide variety of high-resolution biostratigraphic, paleoclimatic, and paleoceanographic studies.- from Authors

  1. Cores from the Salton Sea scientific drilling program: Metamorphic reaction progress as a function of chemical and thermal environment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Papike, J.J.; Shearer, C.K.

    1987-05-13

    The study investigated the downhole progressive metamorphism at the Salton Sea site by monitoring and evaluating discontinuous and continuous metamorphic reactions. The main emphasis was placed on: (1) the addition of petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical data to the Salton Sea data base; (2) determination of downhole reactions; (3) evaluation of the progress of individual continuous reaction (epsilon) and the overall reaction progress (epsilon/sub T/) during the transition from one metamorphic zone to the next; and (4) evaluation and correlation of mineral reactions and reaction progress with mineral phase and organic material geothermometry. To these ends, thirty-three samples from the Salton Sea core were analyzed for: (1) quantitative modal mineralogy using the x-ray diffraction reference intensity method (RIM), (2) 30 major and trace elements in the whole rock and (3) mineral chemistry and structural state. In addition, a subset of these samples were used for temperature determinations using vitrinite reflectivity.

  2. New Discoveries From The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedachi, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP), an international scientific drilling project involving scientists from the USA, Australia and Japan, was initiated in Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The scientific objectives of the ABDP are the identification of microfossils and biomarkers, the clarification of geochemical environment of the early Earth, and the understanding of geophysical contribution to the co-evolution of life and environment. Through 2003 and 2004 activities, we have drilled 150 _| 300 m deep holes to recover _gfresh_h (modern weathering-free) geologic formations that range from 3.5 to 2.7 Ga in age. The drilling targets were: (1) 3.46 Ga Towers Formation, (2) mid-Archean Mosquito Formation, (3) 2.77 Ga Mt Roe Basalt, (4) 2.76 Ga Tumbiana Formation, (5) 2.74 Ga Hardey Formation. The initial investigations on the ABDP drill cores by Japanese members have already produced many exciting and interesting data and observations. 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Jasper could provide clues to the argument about the early photosynthetic cyanobacteria that have produced free oxygen and have evolved the oxygen level on the earth. There have been many ideas how the hematite in jasper was formed. Our most important discoveries are the confirmations that hematite, magnetite and siderite precipitated separately as primary minerals, and that there is a remaining texture which resembles microfossil using FE-SEM, ESCA, Laser-Raman and cathodoluminescence. Taking into account the carbon isotopic ratios of remains from _|25 to _|40 permil, these iron oxides might be biogenic. We need to identify the iron bacteria in detail to deduce the early earth_fs surface environment. In addition, the black shale of Apex Basalt overlying Marble Bar Jasper contains organic carbon from 0.7 to 5.2 percent, and the carbon isotopic ratio of which is from -26 to -30 per mil, suggesting that various microbes inhabited in the early Archean ocean. 2.77 Ga Mt Roe Basalt, which is composed of basaltic lavas interbedded with tuffs, clastic sediment and minor evaporites, well preserves the primary biogeochemical, geochemical and geophysical phenomena. The discovery of black shale with sulfide nodules is worthy of special attention. Our study suggests that the following succession of events occurred more than once, (1) eruption of amygdaloidal basaltic lava followed by eruption of tuff into shallower water, (2) deposition of sandstone and black shale, and (3) concurrent hydrothermal activity with reduced fluids altered the tuff and the lowermost clastic sediments. The extremely light carbon isotopic ratios suggest the activities of methanogene in hydrothermal veinlets and methanotroph in black shale. In addition, the wide range of sulfur isotopic ratio in black shale suggests activity of co-existing sulfate-reducing bacteria in the black shale. Occasional presence of sandstone, especially in late stage of clastic sedimentation, suggests the sedimentation near coastal environment. Stromatolite-like microtexture in the sandstone suggests the existence of photosynthetic microbes, which is supported by heavy carbon isotopic ratios (up to _|25 permil) and by the signals of hopanoids biomarker. The three dimensional geochemical data suggest the existence of marine environment from oxic at shallow site to euxinic at the deeper site. Paleomagnetic analyses suggest the episodic initiation of the earth's dynamo at about 3.5 Ga and the increase of it's momentum since at least 2.77 Ga. Taking into account the biogeochemical evidences confirmed from other ABDP cores, the increase of geomagnetic intensity might have accelerated the diversification of early life.

  3. Surface drilling technologies for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacic, J. D.; Rowley, J. C.; Cort, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Rock drilling and coring conceptual designs for the surface activities associated with a manned Mars mission are proposed. Straightforward extensions of equipment and procedures used on Earth are envisioned for the sample coring and shallow high explosive shot holes needed for tunneling and seismic surveying. A novel rocket exhaust jet piercing method is proposed for very rapid drilling of shot holes required for explosive excavation of emergency radiation shelters. Summaries of estimated equipment masses and power requirements are provided, and the indicated rotary coring rigs are scaled from terrestrial equipment and use compressed CO2 from the Martian atmosphere for core bit cooling and cuttings removal. A mass of 120 kg and power of 3 kW(e) are estimated for a 10 m depth capability. A 100 m depth capacity core rig requires about 1150 kg and 32 km(e). The rocket exhaust jet equipment devised for shallow (3m) explosive emplacement shot holes requires no surface power beyond an electrical ignition system, and might have a 15 kg mass.

  4. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  5. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  6. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  7. National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program: Successes and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of geologic and geophysical materials gathered by its research personnel. Since the USGS was established in 1879, hundreds of thousands of samples have been gathered in collections that range from localized, geographically-based assemblages to ones that are national or international in scope. These materials include, but are not limited to, rock and mineral specimens; fossils; drill cores and cuttings; geochemical standards; and soil, sediment, and geochemical samples. The USGS National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program (NGGDPP) was established with the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Since its implementation, the USGS NGGDPP has taken an active role in providing opportunities to inventory, archive and preserve geologic and geophysical samples, and to make these samples and ancillary data discoverable on the Internet. Preserving endangered geoscience collections is more cost effective than recollecting this information. Preserving these collections, however, is only one part of the process - there also needs to be a means to facilitate open discovery and access to the physical objects and the ancillary digital records. The NGGDPP has celebrated successes such as the development of the USGS Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a master catalog and collections management plan, and the implementation and advancement of the National Digital Catalog, a digital inventory and catalog of geological and geophysical data and collections held by the USGS and State geological surveys. Over this period of time there has been many lessons learned. With the successes and lessons learned, NGGDPP is poised to take on challenges the future may bring.

  8. Hydrogeologic facies characterization of an alluvial fan near Fresno, California, using geophysical techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Weissmann, G.S.; Miller, R.D.; Placzek, Gary

    1997-01-01

    DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) contamination in the sole source aquifer near Fresno, California, has significantly affected drinking-water supplies. Borehole and surface geophysical data were integrated with borehole textural data to characterize the Kings River alluvial fan sediments and to provide a framework for computer modeling of pesticide transport in ground water. Primary hydrogeologic facies units, such as gravel, coarse sand or gravel, fine sand, and silt and clay, were identified in cores collected from three borings located on a 4.6-kilometer transect of multilevel monitoring wells. Borehole geophysical logs collected from seven wells and surface geophysical surveys were used to extrapolate hydrogeologic facies to depths of about 82meters and to correlate the facies units with neighboring drilling sites. Thickness ranged from 0.3to 13 meters for sand and gravel units, and from 0.3 to 17 meters for silt and clay. The lateral extent of distinct silt and clay layers was mapped using shallow seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar techniques. About 3.6 kilometers of seismic reflection data were collected; at least three distinct fine-grained layers were mapped. The depth of investigation of the seismic survey ranged from 34 to 107 meters below land surface, and vertical resolution was about 3.5 meters. The ground-penetrating radar survey covered 3.6kilometers and imaged a 1.5-meters thick, continuous fine-grained layer located at a depth of about 8 meters. Integrated results from the borehole sediment descriptions and geophysical surveys provided a detailed characterization over a larger areal extent than traditional hydrogeologic methods alone.

  9. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prem V.

    1997-12-01

    Geophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, self-potential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, ground-probing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and geophysical borehole logging. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable textbook for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied geophysics, a supplementary course book for students of geology, engineering geophysics, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.

  10. The 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of lavas from the Hilo 1-km core hole, Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, W.D.; Turrin, B.D.; Renne, P.R.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mauna Kea lava flows cored in the HilIo hole range in age from <200 ka to about 400 ka based on 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and K-Ar analyses of 16 groundmass samples and one coexisting plagioclase. The lavas, all subaerially deposited, include a lower section consisting only of tholeiitic basalts and an upper section of interbedded alkalic, transitional tholeiitic, and tholeiitic basalts. The lower section has yielded predominantly complex, discordant 40Ar/39Ar age spectra that result from mobility of 40Ar and perhaps K, the presence of excess 40Ar, and redistribution of 39Ar by recoil. Comparison of K-Ar ages with 40Ar/39Ar integrated ages indicates that some of these samples have also lost 39Ar. Nevertheless, two plateau ages of 391 ?? 40 and 400 ?? 26 ka from deep in the hole, combined with data from the upper section, show that the tholeiitic section accumulated at an average rate of about 7 to 8 m/kyr and has an mean recurrence interval of 0.5 kyr/flow unit. Samples from the upper section yield relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau and isotope correlation ages of 326 ?? 23, 241 ?? 5, 232 ?? 4, and 199 ?? 9 ka for depths of -415.7 m to -299.2 m. Within their uncertainty, these ages define a linear relationship with depth, with an average accumulation rate of 0.9 m/kyr and an average recurrence interval of 4.8 kyr/flow unit. The top of the Mauna Kea sequence at -280 m must be older than the plateau age of 132 ?? 32 ka, obtained for the basal Mauna Loa flow in the corehole. The upward decrease in lava accumulation rate is a consequence of the decreasing magma supply available to Mauna Kea as it rode the Pacific plate away from its magma source, the Hawaiian mantle plume. The age-depth relation in the core hole may be used to test and refine models that relate the growth of Mauna Kea to the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle plume.

  11. 30 CFR 251.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... relating to drilling operations in 30 CFR part 250. (7) Revising an approved drilling plan. Before you... stratigraphic tests in compliance with 30 CFR part 250. If the tract on which you conducted a deep stratigraphic..., bathymetric, sidescan sonar, magnetometer, or other geophysical data and information to determine...

  12. Constraints on magma ascent, emplacement, and eruption: Geochemical and mineralogical data from the drill core at Inyo Craters, Inyo Chain, California: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    An 861-m-long hole (Inyo-4) has been cored on a slanted trajectory that passed directly beneath South Inyo Crater in the west moat of Long Valley Caldera, California. The purpose of the hole was to investigate the magmatic behavior that led to surface deformation and phreatic activity during the 600-year-old eruption of the Inyo vent chain. The trajectory and stratigraphy encountered by Inyo-4 are shown. The volcanic and sedimentary sequence consists solely of post-Bishop Tuff caldera fill, including 319 m of moat basalt and 342 m of early rhyolite. Breccia zones that intrude the caldera fill were intersected at 12.0-9.3 m and 1.2-0.8 m SW and 8. 5-25.1 m NE of the crater center. The largest breccia unit is symmetrically zoned from margins rich in vesicular rhyolite and locally derived rhyolite wallrock to a center of up to 50 vol.% basalt. Most individual clasts of the rhyolite are less than or equal to0.1m; individual clasts in the basalt breccia are up to 1 m in intersected length. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Organic Matter and δ 13C Throughout a Sub-Basement Red Soil Unit in Hole 1206A Cored During Ocean Drilling Program Leg 197 (Koko Seamount): First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.

    2002-12-01

    Although the discovery of deep red-brown paleosols during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) legs dates back to the 80's [1-3], the potential for preservation of organic matter in these igneous-derived silty-claystone units has been overlooked, and depositional settings have been inferred from only petrologic observations. This work aims to present the first geochemical (TOC, N total) and carbon isotope (δ 13C) data of a metre-thick paleosol Unit (Core 197-1206A-40R-1, 101 cm, to 40R-3, 77 cm; Subunits 18A and 18B, 307.5 to 309.9 mbsf) cored at Site 1206 (Koko Seamount) during ODP Leg 197 (Emperor Seamounts, north Pacific transect)[4-5]. Study of the sources and variation with depth of organic matter in sub-basement Fe-oxide-rich paleosol units from Leg 197 contributes to understanding the palaeoenvironmental history of the Emperor Seamounts prior to, during and after their burial and subsidence (ca. >48 to 56 Ma). Furthermore, preserved organic traces in such an isolated deep Earth system make them a useful test bed for future deep Earth's biosphere-relevant investigations [5-6]. Throughout Core 197-1206A-40R soil unit, Corg (TOC = 0.03-0.07%; 0.049 \\pm 0.011, n=7) and total nitrogen (Ntot = 0.00-0.06 %) are within the range (TOC = 0.05% to 0.12%, n=38) measured for the sub-basement paleosoil/rock units found at Site 1205 [4-5]. The δ 13C (bulk organic matter) values for the paleosol regularly decrease downcore from -25.3 \\permil (Sample 197-1206-40R-1, 103-104, at 307.54 mbsf) to -26.2 \\permil (Sample 197-1206A-40R-2, 130-131; at 308.92 mbsf) in contrast to an exposed Hawaiian oxisol sample (e.g., Ohau-2, 100-105 cm-depth with δ 13C = -23.0 \\permil). Typical uncertainties for these measurements were <\\pm 0.1\\permil to <\\pm 0.3\\permil. It is proposed that δ 13C org values of ca. -25 \\permil to ca. -26 \\permil support a terrestrial, rather than marine source [e.g., 7-8] of organics preserved in the paleosol interbed from Core 197-1206A-40R. Thus, providing additional evidence for red claystone units as soil horizons subaerially formed on the top of Koko and Nintoku Seamounts, and buried by erupted lava flowing in a nearshore environment [1,3-4]. Also, since some bacterial-induced changes in the pristine (?humic) organic compounds may have occurred over time [5], the δ 13C org values could reflect mixing between primary terrestrial/lacustrine and/or primary/secondary (bacterial) organic matter. However, δ 13C alone is inadequate at distinguishing among different carbon sources (i.e., lacustrine algae and C3 land plants, [e.g., 8)]; further use of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS) for measuring δ 15N tot in these interesting paleosols is underway. {References: [1] Karpoff, A.M., 1980. Init. Repts. DSDP, 55: Washington, 707-711; [2]Shipboard Scientific Party, 1993a Site 871, Proc. ODP, Init. Repts. 144, 41-103; [3] Holmes, M.A., 1995. Proc. ODP, Scientific Results, v. 144: 381-398; [4] Shipboard Scientific Party, 2002, Proc. ODP, Init. Repts. 197: College Station, TX; [5] Bonaccorsi, R., et al. 2002, Abstract, IAU 2002 Bioastronomy Symposium; [6] Furnes, H., et al., 2001, Abstract, GSA 2001 Annual Meeting; [7] Meyers, P.A., 1994. Chemical Geology, 144, 289-302; [8] Meyers, P.A., 1997. Org. Geochem., 27, 5/6:213-259

  14. Geochemical and stable isotopic data on barren and mineralized drill core in the Devonian Popovich Formation, Screamer sector of the Betze-Post gold deposit, northern Carlin trend, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, William D.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Zohar, Pamela B.; Tousignant, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The Devonian Popovich Formation is the major host for Carlin-type gold deposits in the northern Carlin trend of Nevada. The Popovich is composed of gray to black, thin-bedded, calcareous to dolomitic mudstone and limestone deposited near the carbonate platform margin. Carlin-type gold deposits are Eocene, disseminated, auriferous pyrite deposits characterized by acid leaching, sulfidation, and silicification that are typically hosted in Paleozoic calcareous sedimentary rocks exposed in windows through siliceous sedimentary rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Carlin trend currently is the largest gold producer in the United States. The Screamer ore zone is a tabular body on the periphery of the huge Betze-Post gold deposit. Screamer is a good place to study both the original lithogeochemistry of the Popovich Formation and the effects of subsequent alteration and mineralization because it is below the level of supergene oxidation, mostly outside the contact metamorphic aureole of the Jurassic Goldstrike stock, has small, high-grade ore zones along fractures and Jurassic dikes, and has intervening areas with lower grade mineralization and barren rock. In 1997, prior to mining at Screamer, drill core intervals from barren and mineralized Popovich Formation were selected for geochemical and stable isotope analysis. The 332, five-foot core samples analyzed are from five holes separated by as much as 2000 feet (600 meters). The samples extend from the base of the Wispy unit up through the Planar and Soft sediment deformation units into the lower part of the upper Mud unit of the Popovich Formation.

  15. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  16. Geophysical investigations at ORNL solid waste storage area 3

    SciTech Connect

    Rothschild, E.R.; Switek, J.; Llopis, J.L.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-07-01

    Geophysical investigations at ORNL solid waste storage area 3 have been carried out. The investigations included very-low-frequency-electromagnetic resistivity (VLF-EM), electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction surveys. The surveys resulted in the measurement of basic geophysical rock properties, as well as information on the depth of weathering and the configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the study area. Survey results also indicate that a number of geophysical anomalies occur in the shallow subsurface at the site. In particular, a linear feature running across the geologic strike in the western half of the waste disposal facility has been identified. This feature may conduct water in the subsurface. The geophysical investigations are part of an ongoing effort to characterize the site's hydrogeology, and the data presented will be valuable in directing future drilling and investigations at the site. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  18. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  19. New approaches to subglacial bedrock drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Jun; Chen, Chen; Markov, Alexey; Xu, Huiwen; Gong, Wenbin; Han, Wei; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Han, Lili; Sysoev, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Drilling to bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities to research processes acting at the bed for paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental recording, basal sliding studies, subglacial geology and tectonics investigations, prospecting and exploration for minerals covered by ice. Retrieving bedrock samples under ice sheets and glaciers is a very difficult task. Drilling operations are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface of, and within glaciers, and by glacier flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. In order to penetrate through the ice sheet or glacier up to the depth of at least 1000 m and to pierce the bedrock to the depth of several meters from ice - bedrock boundary the development activity already has been started in Polar Research Center at Jilin University, China. All drilling equipment (two 50-kW diesel generators, winch, control desk, fluid dumping station, etc.) is installed inside a movable sledge-mounted warm-keeping and wind-protecting drilling shelter that has dimensions of 8.8 ×2.8 × 3.0 m. Mast has two positions: horizontal for transportation and vertical working position (mast height is 12 m). Drilling shelter can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor, aircraft or helicopter. In case of carriage by air the whole drilling shelter was designed to be disassembled into pieces "small" enough to ship by aircraft. Weight and sizes of each component has been minimized to lower the cost of transportation and to meet weight restrictions for transportation. Total weight of drilling equipment (without drilling fluid) is near 15 tons. Expected time of assembling and preparing for drilling is 2 weeks. If drilling shelter is transported with crawler-tractor (for example, in Antarctic traverses) all equipment is ready to start drilling immediately upon arrival to the site. To drill through ice and bedrock a new, modified version of the cable-suspended electromechanical ice core drill is designed and tested. The expected average daily production of ice drilling would be not less than 25 m/day. The lower part of the drill is adapted for coring bed-rock using special tooth diamond bit. Deep ice coring requires a drilling fluid in the borehole during operation in order to keep the hole open and to compensate the hydrostatic pressures acting to close it. At present there are no ideal low-temperature drilling fluids as all of them are environmental and health hazardous substances. The new approaches of subglacial bedrock drilling technology are connected with utilization of environmental friendly, low-toxic materials, e.g. low-molecular dimethyl siloxane oils or aliphatic synthetic ester of ESTISOL™ 140 type. They have suitable density-viscosity properties, and can be consider as a viable alternative for drilling in glaciers and subglacial bedrock.

  20. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  1. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  2. Spectrum Gamma Ray bore hole logging while tripping with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Steinke, Stephan; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wefer, Gerold

    2013-04-01

    The robotic Sea Floor Drill Rig MARUM-MeBo developed at the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen was used to retrieve long sediment cores at two sites in the northern South China Sea. Both sites are located in about 1000 m water depth in southeasterly and southwesterly direction of the Pearl River mouth, respectively. South East Asian Monsoon variability controls terrigenous material transport by rivers into the South China Sea. The Pearl River is one of the largest rivers of the region that discharges into the northern South China Sea. The terrigenous fraction of marine sediments of the northern South China Sea therefore provides an excellent archive for reconstructing past variability of the South East Asian Monsoon system. In analogy to the drilling strategy within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program IODP multiple holes were drilled in order to generate continuous spliced records at both sites. Overall the MARUM-MeBo drilled 374 m during 5 deployments with a maximum drilling depth of 80.85 m and an average core recovery of 94 %. Here we present first results of bore hole logging conducted during 4 of the 5 deployments with a spectrum gamma ray (SGR) probe adapted for the use with MARUM-MeBo. This probe is an autonomous slim hole probe that is used in the logging while tripping mode. This method is especially favorable for remote controlled drilling and logging operation. The probe is equipped with its own energy source and data storage. The probe is lowered into the drill string after the target wire-line coring depth is reached and after the last inner core barrel has been retrieved. When the probe has landed on the shoulder ring at the bottom of the hole, the drill string is pulled out and disassembled. The probe, while being raised with the drill string, continuously measures the geophysical properties of the in situ sediments and rocks. Since the bore hole is stabilized during the tripping process by the drill string in the vicinity of the logging probe, logging while tripping can also be used for unstable bore hole conditions e.g. in unconsolidated sediments. At both drill sites two profiles were measured during separate deployments of the MeBo. A close correlation of the profiles was observed at both sites. Natural gamma ray intensity varies between 38 and 91 API. The variations in natural gamma ray intensity are mainly attributed to changes in concentrations of potassium (0,5 - 1,6 %) and thorium (3,6 - 13,2 ppm), while the concentrations of uranium are fairly low (1,2 - 3,2 ppm). Clays are the main host minerals for thorium in marine sediments. Potassium may be incorporated both into clay and feldspar minerals. The variability in the natural gamma ray intensity can therefore be interpreted as an indicator of changes in terrestrial sediment input into the South China Sea. The observation of severe variability of the K/Th ratio and its correlation with sedimentary calcium content measured by XRF-scanning points to the fact that not only changes in the amount but also changes in the composition of the terrigenous fraction is elucidated by the SGR bore hole logging and will help reconstructing past changes in the South East Asian monsoon system.

  3. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  4. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling operation. First experiments indicate that parts of the ISIS system can be used for smaller diameters e.g. in vertical drilling. In unconsolidated rocks S-waves are strongly attenuated. For the Sonic Softground Probing (SSP) system P-waves are used. A vibration-seismic correlation positioning system was developed. One transmitter and several receiver are placed within the cutting wheel. During drilling, a specially coded transmitter signal is sent directly from the cutterhead via the face support medium in the direction of tunneling. With this geometry, boulders can be detected 50 m ahead of the working face. Fracture zones and other discontinuities can be localized, and the physical properties of the upcoming rocks can be partly determined nearly in real time, while using sound velocity and attenuation as indicators. All evaluation is based on real time 3D velocity models which are determined during the drilling operation. Different technologies allow a seismic prediction while drilling in various rock types and geologies. Seismic prediction during vertical drilling will significantly profit from the lesson learned from state of the art tunneling systems.

  6. Core break-off mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrick, Thomas M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A mechanism for breaking off and retaining a core sample of a drill drilled into a ground substrate has an outer drill tube and an inner core break-off tube sleeved inside the drill tube. The break-off tube breaks off and retains the core sample by a varying geometric relationship of inner and outer diameters with the drill tube. The inside diameter (ID) of the drill tube is offset by a given amount with respect to its outer diameter (OD). Similarly, the outside diameter (OD) of the break-off tube is offset by the same amount with respect to its inner diameter (ID). When the break-off tube and drill tube are in one rotational alignment, the two offsets cancel each other such that the drill can operate the two tubes together in alignment with the drill axis. When the tubes are rotated 180 degrees to another positional alignment, the two offsets add together causing the core sample in the break-off tube to be displaced from the drill axis and applying shear forces to break off the core sample.

  7. Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

    2012-12-01

    Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11,