Science.gov

Sample records for geophysical drill cores

  1. Preliminary Fracture Description from Core, Lithological Logs, and Borehole Geophysical Data in Slimhole Wells Drilled for Project Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project (Project Hotspot) seeks to assess the potential for geothermal energy development in the Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho. Three deep slimhole wells are drilled at the Kimama, Kimberly, and Mountain Home sites in the central SRP. The Kimama and Kimberly wells are complete and the Mountain Home well is in progress. Total depth at Kimama is 1,912 m while total depth at Kimberly is 1,958 m. Mountain Home is expected to reach around 1,900 m. Full core is recovered and complete suites of wireline borehole geophysical data have been collected at both Kimama and Kimberly sites along with vertical seismic profiles. Part of the geothermal assessment includes evaluating the changes in the nature of fractures with depth through the study of physical core samples and analysis of the wireline geophysical data to better understand how fractures affect permeability in the zones that have the potential for geothermal fluid migration. The fracture inventory is complete for the Kimama borehole and preliminary analyses indicate that fracture zones are related to basaltic flow boundaries. The average fracture density is 17 fractures/3 m. The maximum fracture density is 110 fractures/3 m. Fracture density varies with depth and increases considerably in the bottom 200 m of the well. Initial indications are that the majority of fractures are oriented subhorizontally but a considerable number are oriented subvertically as well. We expect to statistically evaluate the distribution of fracture length and orientation as well as analyze local alteration and secondary mineralization that might indicate fluid pathways that we can use to better understand permeability at depth in the borehole. Near real-time temperature data from the Kimama borehole indicate a temperature gradient of 82°C/km below the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at a depth of 960 m bgs. The measured temperature at around 1,400 m depth is 55°C and the projected temperature at 2,000 m depth is 102°C. The rock types at Kimama and Kimberly are primarily basalt and rhyolite, respectively, with interbedded thin sedimentary layers. We identify anomalies in the physical properties of igneous rocks using porosity logs (neutron and acoustic), lithology logs (gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility) and fracture/saturation logs (televiewer and electrical resistivity). The core will be used to constrain the geophysical data and confirm the ability to identify permeability in fracture zones and saturated zones through analysis of the wireline log data. The matrix porosity of these igneous lithologies is near zero aside from porosity from vugs and vesicles. However, open and sealed fractures indicate that mineralizing fluids form connected pathways in the rock. Core samples show a series of alteration phases, including amygdaloidal fine-grained calcite and secondary clays. The geophysical data will be used to predict anomalies in lithology and identify open fractures and saturated zones with high permeability.

  2. Geologic, geotechnical, and geophysical properties of core from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Donley S.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary core study from the Acme Fire-Pit-1 drill hole, Sheridan County, Wyoming, revealed that the upper portion of the core had been baked by a fire confined to the underlying Monarch coal bed. The baked (clinkered) sediment above the Monarch coal bed was determined to have higher point-load strength values (greater than 2 MPa) than the sediment under the burned coal

  3. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7 do not include long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous-potential, or single-point resistivity. Logs for test-hole NOTS 7A include only caliper and natural-gamma logs.

  4. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

  5. A Model of the Chicxulub Impact Basin Based on Evaluation of Geophysical Data, Well Logs, and Drill Core Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.; Carney, John D.; Lee, Scott; Ryder, Graham; Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Sikora, Paul; Spudis, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    Abundant evidence now shows that the buried Chicxulub structure in northern Yucatan, Mexico, is indeed the intensely sought-after source of the ejecta found world-wide at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. In addition to large-scale concentric patterns in gravity and magnetic data over the structure, recent analyses of drill-core samples reveal a lithological assemblage similar to that observed at other terrestrial craters. This assemblage comprises suevite breccias, ejecta deposit breccias (Bunte Breccia equivalents), fine-grained impact melt rocks, and melt-matrix breccias. All these impact-produced lithologies contain diagnostic evidence of shock metamorphism, including planar deformation features in quartz, feldspar, and zircons; diaplectic glasses of quartz and feldspar; and fused mineral melts and whole-rock melts. In addition, elevated concentrations of Ir, Re, and Os, in meteoritic relative proportions, have been detected in some melt-rock samples from the center of the structure. Isotopic analyses, magnetization of melt-rock samples, and local stratigraphic constraints identify this crater as the source of K/T boundary deposits.

  6. Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Geophysical investigations in deep horizontal holes drilled ahead of tunnelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Deep horizontal drill holes have been used since 1967 by the Defense Nuclear Agency as a primary exploration tool for siting nuclear events in tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Geological Survey had developed geophysical logging techniques for obtaining resistivity and velocity in these holes, and to date 33 horizontal drill holes in excess of 300 m in depth have been successfully logged. The deepest hole was drilled to a horizontal depth of 1125 m. The purposes of the logging measurements are to define clay zones, because of the unstable ground conditions such zones can present to tunnelling, and to define zones of partially saturated rock, because of the attenuating effects such zones have on the shock wave generated by the nuclear detonation. Excessive attenuation is undesirable because the shock wave is used as a tunnel closure mechanism to contain debris and other undesirable explosion products. Measurements are made by pumping resistivity, sonic and geophone probes down the drill string and out of the bit into the open hole. Clay zones are defined by the electrical resistivity technique based on empirical data relating the magnitude of the resistivity measurement to qualitative clay content. Rock exhibiting resistivity of less than 20 ??-m is considered potentially unstable, and resistivities less than 10 ??-m indicate appreciable amounts of clay are present in the rock. Partially saturated rock zones are defined by the measurement of the rock sound speed. Zones in the rock which exhibit velocities less than 2450 m/sec are considered of potential concern. ?? 1980.

  8. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    SciTech Connect

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-08-08

    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing.

  9. Buckling and dynamic analysis of drill strings for core sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-15

    This supporting document presents buckling and dynamic stability analyses of the drill strings used for core sampling. The results of the drill string analyses provide limiting operating axial loads and rotational speeds to prevent drill string failure, instability and drill bit overheating during core sampling. The recommended loads and speeds provide controls necessary for Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic field operations.

  10. Barberton drilling project - Buck Reef Chert core BARB3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Axel; Karykowski, Bartosz; Mason, Paul; Chunnet, Gordon; Arndt, Nick

    2013-04-01

    As part of the ICDP-sponsored Barberton drilling project a single drill core (BARB3) with a total length of 899 m was obtained from the c. 3.4 Ga old Buck Reef Chert (BRC). The BRC is an unusually thick (up to 350 m) sequence of predominantly black-and-white banded chert and banded ferruginous chert that are steeply dipping. It overlies a shallow intrusive to extrusive sequence of dacitic volcanic rocks of the Hooggenoeg Formation and is separated from ultramafic lapillistone of the Kromberg Formation by a >150 m thick ultramafic sill. Drilling commenced in the ultramafic sill at an angle of c. 45° and c. 200 m of serpentinized peridotite were intersected. The remaining c. 700 m of the core include a great variety of chert lithofacies and minor intrusive mafic to intermediate igneous rocks. The base of the BRC was not intersected. Geophysical logging was done up to a depth of 847 m and included acoustic televiewer, gamma ray, resistivity, magnetic field and caliper logs. Stratigraphic and geophysical logs will be presented that will form the basis of follow-up studies on the BARB3 core. Abundance of organic matter, sulphides and Fe-bearing carbonates in specific intervals or associated with specific facies of the chert succession reflect changes in the oceanic, environmental and/or hydrothermal conditions in a shallow marine early Archaean setting. Evaluating the different processes will require a combined sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical approach that will provide insights into the habitat of early life, geochemical cycles and marine/hydrothermal conditions.

  11. The ICDP Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project: preliminary overview of borehole geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Liberty, Lee M.; Kessler, James E.; Kuck, Jochem; Kofman, Randolph; Bishop, Ross; Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Champion, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    Hotspot: The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project was undertaken to better understand the geothermal systems in three locations across the Snake River Plain with varying geological and hydrological structure. An extensive series of standard and specialized geophysical logs were obtained in each of the wells. Hydrogen-index neutron and ?-? density logs employing active sources were deployed through the drill string, and although not fully calibrated for such a situation do provide semi-quantitative information related to the stratigraphy of the basalt flows and on the existence of alteration minerals. Electrical resistivity logs highlight the existence of some fracture and mineralized zones. Magnetic susceptibility together with the vector magnetic field measurements display substantial variations that, in combination with laboratory measurements, may provide a tool for tracking magnetic field reversals along the borehole. Full waveform sonic logs highlight the variations in compressional and shear velocity along the borehole. These, together with the high resolution borehole seismic measurements display changes with depth that are not yet understood. The borehole seismic measurements indicate that seismic arrivals are obtained at depth in the formations and that strong seismic reflections are produced at lithological contacts seen in the corresponding core logging. Finally, oriented ultrasonic borehole televiewer images were obtained over most of the wells and these correlate well with the nearly 6 km of core obtained. This good image log to core correlations, particularly with regards to drilling induced breakouts and tensile borehole and core fractures will allow for confident estimates of stress directions and or placing constraints on stress magnitudes. Such correlations will be used to orient in core orientation giving information useful in hydrological assessments, paleomagnetic dating, and structural volcanology.

  12. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank, Brian D.; Smith, Nicole

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag, seismic, and gravity data sets are in good agreement, illustrating two or more major range-bounding faults and buried northwest trending faults. The intersections of these fault systems provide the primary targets for drilling.

  13. Concepts and Benefits of Lunar Core Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Bogard, D. D.; Derkowski, B. J.; George, J. A.; Askew, R. S.; Lindsay, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding lunar material at depth is critical to nearly every aspect of NASA s Vision and Strategic Plan. As we consider sending human s back to the Moon for brief and extended periods, we will need to utilize lunar materials in construction, for resource extraction, and for radiation shielding and protection. In each case, we will be working with materials at some depth beneath the surface. Understanding the properties of that material is critical, thus the need for Lunar core drilling capability. Of course, the science benefit from returning core samples and operating down-hole autonomous experiments is a key element of Lunar missions as defined by NASA s Exploration Systems Architecture Study. Lunar missions will be targeted to answer specific questions concerning lunar science and re-sources.

  14. ROPEC - ROtary PErcussive Coring Drill for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Spring, Justin; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The ROtary Percussive Coring Drill is a light weight, flight-like, five-actuator drilling system prototype designed to acquire core material from rock targets for the purposes of Mars Sample Return. In addition to producing rock cores for sample caching, the ROPEC drill can be integrated with a number of end effectors to perform functions such as rock surface abrasion, dust and debris removal, powder and regolith acquisition, and viewing of potential cores prior to caching. The ROPEC drill and its suite of end effectors have been demonstrated with a five degree of freedom Robotic Arm mounted to a mobility system with a prototype sample cache and bit storage station.

  15. An innovative optical and chemical drill core scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöqvist, A. S. L.; Arthursson, M.; Lundström, A.; Calderón Estrada, E.; Inerfeldt, A.; Lorenz, H.

    2015-05-01

    We describe a new innovative drill core scanner that semi-automatedly analyses drill cores directly in drill core trays with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, without the need for much sample preparation or operator intervention. The instrument is fed with entire core trays, which are photographed at high resolution and scanned by a 3-D profiling laser. Algorithms recognise the geometry of the core tray, number of slots, location of the drill cores, calculate the optimal scanning path, and execute a continuous XRF analysis of 2 cm width along the core. The instrument is equipped with critical analytical components that allow an effective QA/QC routine to be implemented. It is a mobile instrument that can be manoeuvred by a single person with a manual pallet jack.

  16. Cretaceous shallow drilling, US Western Interior: Core research

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, M.A.

    1993-02-17

    This project is a continuing multidisciplinary study of middle to Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate and clastic rocks in the Utah-Colorado-Kansas corridor of the old Cretaceous seaway that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Arctic during maximum Cretaceous transgressions. It is collaborative between in the US Geological Survey (W.E. Dean, P.I.) and University researchers led by The Pennsylvania State University(M.A. Arthur, P.I.) and funded by DOE and the USGS, in part. Research focusses on the Greenhom, Niobrara and lower Pierre Shale units and their equivalents, combining biostratigraphic/paleoecologic studies, inorganic, organic and stable isotopic geochemical studies, mineralogical investigations and high-resolution geophysical logging. This research requires unweathered samples and continuous smooth exposures'' in the form of cores from at least 4 relatively shallow reference holes (i.e. < 1000m) in transect from east to west across the basin. The major initial effort was recovery in Year 1 of the project of continuous cores from each site in the transect. This drilling provided samples and logs of strata ranging from pelagic sequences that contain organic-carbon-rich marine source rocks to nearshore coal-bearing units. This transect also will provide information on the extent of thermal maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in organic-carbon-rich strata along a burial gradient.

  17. Commercial geophysical well logs from the USW G-1 drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, D.C.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-1 was drilled at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, as part of the ongoing exploration program for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Contract geophysical well logs run at USW G-1 show only limited stratigraphic correlations, but correlate reasonably well with the welding of the ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs. Rocks in the upper part of the section have highly variable physical properties, but are more uniform and predictably lower in the section.

  18. A Rotary-Percussive Coring Drill for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Qiquan; Tang, Dewei; Jiang, Shengyuan; Hou, Xuyan; Deng, Zongquan; Wang, Qingchuan; Li, Shengcheng; Li, Peng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ji; Guo, Zhijian

    2012-07-01

    China is launching the change project to send automated machine for acquiring the lunar soil and returning to the earth. Thus, we are trying to develop a kind of effective mechanism for the exploration mission of lunar soil coring. This paper presents a rotary-percussive coring drill which is a novel scheme for the deep surface soil acquirement. Two degrees of freedom are included in the pro- posed drill mechanism. Specifically-designed drill unit including auger and drill bit is employed to finish the coring of the simulant of lunar regolith. We have proposed a novel coring concept named soft-bag coring. Since there is no relative motion between the soft-bag and the cut soil core, the soft-bag method may keep the original stratification of lunar soil. A test-bed has been developed to conduct experimental tests under different drilling parameters and circumstances. The related drilling parameters such as rotary speed, penetration ratio, and percussive frequency are adjusted to adapt to the different situations in the experiments. The experimental results indicate that the specifically considered drill mechanism with soft-bag inside can get high coring ratio and excellent stratification of the soil.

  19. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous factors that may be relevant to this interpretation also is presented. (Lantz-PTT)

  20. Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

  1. Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Dolgin, Benjamin; Askin, Steve; Peterson, Thomas M.; Bell, Bill; Kroh, Jason; Pal, Dharmendra; Krahe, Ron; Du, Shu

    2003-01-01

    Two apparatuses now under development are intended to perform a variety of deep-drilling, coring, and sensing functions for subsurface exploration of rock and soil. These are modified versions of the apparatuses described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. In comparison with the drilling equipment traditionally used in such exploration, these apparatuses weigh less and consume less power. Moreover, unlike traditional drills and corers, these apparatuses function without need for large externally applied axial forces.

  2. Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the cores were scanned for compositional variations using an XRF core scanner at the BGR lab and scan images of the slabbed surfaces were performed. The average core recovery rate was very high at nearly 100%. Altogether, we gained 533 m of excellent core material including sandstones, siltstones and claystones, carbonates, sulfates and chlorides. This provides valuable insight into the stratigraphic column of the Thuringian Syncline.

  3. GEOPHYSICS: Core Takes a Page From the Sea Floor.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    2000-11-17

    On page 1338, a group of geophysicists suggests that the mysterious boundary between Earth's molten iron core and its rocky mantle most resembles an inverted sea floor, with liquid-iron-laced sediments collecting on the roof of the core. They argue that a slow, inverted rain of precipitates rising to the core-mantle boundary and settling into a kilometers-thick layer might explain a variety of observations, from a subtle nodding of Earth's axis to seismic speed zones at the boundary. Their story will be difficult to verify, however, because painting a portrait of the core-mantle boundary depends on very indirect geophysical evidence. PMID:17787225

  4. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) deep sea coring techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, M. A.

    1990-05-01

    The coring techniques and systems of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) were developed to satisfy a scientific need for better quality and improved recovery of oceanic core samples. Some of the ODP systems in use today evolved from refinements to earlier systems developed by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or were adaptions of available industry technology. Other systems were conceived and designed by DDP engineers. The evolution of these progressive scientific coring systems began with the Rotary Core Barrel (RCB) used by the DSDP and proceeded to the highly advanced Diamond Coring System (DCS) currently under development by ODP engineers. During the evolution several other key systems were developed. These included hydraulic piston coring, extended coring, pressure coring, bare rock spudding and several systems using high speed diamond coring technology. These include the positive displacement coring motor (PDCM), the Navi-drill core barrel, and a top driven diamond coring system (DCS). This article describes the evolution and conceptual design of these systems including the required bottom hole assemblies, and the sinker bar/sandline configurations.

  5. Preliminary geophysical, geohazard, and geomorphic mapping of the Alpine Fault Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP), Gaunt Creek, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pascale, G. P.; Davies, T.; Nobes, D. C.; Quigley, M.; Sutherland, R.; Toy, V. G.; Norris, R. J.; Langridge, R. M.; Stahl, T.; Klahn, A.; Townend, J.

    2010-12-01

    In central South Island, the dextral-reverse Alpine Fault Zone (AFZ) forms the major plate boundary structure between the Pacific and Australian plates. The AFZ is thought to fail in large earthquakes (~ Mw 7-8) approximately every 200 to 400 years, to have last ruptured in 1717 and is associated with high rates of strain release and exhumation. The AFZ is the target of a multidisciplinary proposal called the Deep Fault Drilling Project or DFDP which proposes to drill, retrieve core, and test subsurface conditions of the AFZ from a shallow, < 200 m-long core at Gaunt Creek, followed by a < 1500 m-long core near Whataroa to characterise the fault zone. Most recent traces of the AFZ are concealed at Gaunt Creek due to a combination of post-1717 fluvial erosion and deposition and landslides, therefore geophysical, geomorphic, and geohazard mapping was undertaken to map fault traces and subsurface geometry, and geohazards at the proposed drilling site and observatory. Geohazard reconnaissance was undertaken to determine site suitability for drilling and long-term occupation by the DFDP observatory because major flooding occurred at the site in 1967 and abundant landslides are present at the site. Site suitability was evaluated based on the fluvial, tectonic, and landslide history of fluvial terraces on the northern side of Gaunt Creek. Vegetation colonization (reflecting recent flooding) and presence of boulders and landslide debris were used to select sites. Over 600 m of ground penetrating radar (GPR) transects using a 50 MHz antenna, and 400 m of electrical resistivity data, were collected along the Late-Holocene alluvial fans to map subsurface stratigraphy. Preliminary GPR results show fluvial stratigraphy, bedrock contacts and faults in bedrock and sediments between 0 and 25 m below ground surface at Gaunt Creek. Electrical resistivity data imaged to 10 m. Geomorphic mapping (including fault trace mapping, terrace mapping, and surficial geological mapping) was integrated with geophysical data, LiDAR, and previous research at the site to determine optimum sites for DFDP drilling in early 2011. Ages of faulted deposits, and thus of fault offsets, will be obtained by radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology and/or OSL ages to better characterise recent earthquakes at Gaunt Creek. Though preliminary, this research is significant because it provides critical input parameters to the DFDP, helps define the most recent dynamics of the fault, and possibly refine slip-rates and recurrence estimates of the AFZ.

  6. Stress orientations of Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) hole-A as observed from geophysical logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, H.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Zoback, M.; Boness, N.; Ito, H.; Hung, J.-H.; Hickman, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled a 2-km-deep research borehole to investigate the structure and mechanics of the Chelungpu Fault that ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Geophysical logs of the TCDP were carried out over depths of 500-1900 in, including Dipole Sonic Imager (DSI) logs and Formation Micro Imager (FMI) logs in order to identify bedding planes, fractures and shear zones. From the continuous core obtained from the borehole, a shear zone at a depth of 1110 meters is interpreted to be the Chelungpu fault, located within the Chinshui Shale, which extends from 1013 to 1300 meters depth. Stress-induced borehole breakouts were observed over nearly the entire length of the wellbore. These data show an overall stress direction (???N115??E) that is essentially parallel to the regional stress field and parallel to the convergence direction of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. Variability in the average stress direction is seen at various depths. In particular there is a major stress orientation anomaly in the vicinity of the Chelungpu fault. Abrupt stress rotations at depths of 1000 in and 1310 in are close to the Chinshui Shale's upper and lower boundaries, suggesting the possibility that bedding plane slip occurred during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Preliminary report on the geology and geophysics of drill hole UE25a-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spengler, Richard W.; Muller, D.C.; Livermore, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    A subsurface geologic study in connection with the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations has furnished detailed stratigraphic and structural information about tuffs underlying northeastern Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Drill hole UE25a-1 penetrated thick sequences of nonwelded to densely welded ash-flow and bedded tuffs of Tertiary age. Stratigraphic units that were identified from the drill-hole data include the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Members of the Paintbrush Tuff, tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, and the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Members of the Crater Flat Tuff. Structural analysis of the core indicated densely welded zones to be highly fractured. Many fractures show near-vertical inclinations and are commonly coated with secondary silica, manganese and iron oxides, and calcite. Five fault zones were recognized, most of which occurred in the Topopah Spring Member. Shear fractures commonly show oblique-slip movement and some suggest a sizable component of lateral compression. Graphic logs are included that show the correlation of lithology, structural properties, and geophysical logs. Many rock units have characteristic log responses but highly fractured zones, occurring principally in the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Members, restricted log coverage to the lower half of the drill hole.

  9. Discarded Drill Cores from the Blackbird Cobalt-Copper Mine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Blocks of biotitic meta-sandstone from the lower part of the Gunsight Formation, and drill core from the underlying banded siltite unit of the Apple Creek Formation, lying on the dump of the lower workings of the Copper Queen mine, southeast of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine area....

  10. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H.; Duffield, W.A.; Janik, C.J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  11. Depositional history of the Apollo 16 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gose, W. A.; Morris, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic hysteresis loop measurements were performed on 212 samples from the Apollo 16 deep drill core. The total iron content is generally uniform with a mean value of 5.7 plus or minus 0.9 wt%. The soils range in maturity from immature to mature. Two major contacts were observed. The contact at 13 cm depth represents a fossil surface whereas the contact at 190 cm depth has no time-stratigraphic significance. The data suggest that the core section below 13 cm depth was deposited in a single impact event and subjected to meteoritic gardening for about 450 m.y. However, our data do not preclude deposition by a series of closely spaced events. About 50 m.y. ago, the top 13 cm were added. Comparison with the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/60010 does not yield any evidence for a stratigraphic correlation with the deep drill core.

  12. Managing Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Risks Drilling Geothermal Exploration and Delineation Wells with Small-Footprint Highly Portable Diamond Core Drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Listi, R.; Combs, J.; Welch, V.; Reilly, S.

    2012-12-01

    Small hydraulic core rigs are highly portable (truck or scow-mounted), and have recently been used for geothermal exploration in areas such as Nevada, California, the Caribbean Islands, Central and South America and elsewhere. Drilling with slim diameter core rod below 7,000' is common, with continuous core recovery providing native-state geological information to aid in identifying the resource characteristics and boundaries; this is a highly cost-effective process. Benefits associated with this innovative exploration and delineation technology includes the following: Low initial Capital Equipment Cost and consumables costs Small Footprint, reducing location and road construction, and cleanup costs Supporting drill rod (10'/3meter) and tools are relatively low weight and easily shipped Speed of Mobilization and rig up Reduced requirements for support equipment (cranes, backhoes, personnel, etc) Small mud systems and cementing requirements Continuous, simplified coring capability Depth ratings comparable to that of large rotary rigs (up to ~10,000'+) Remote/small-location accessible (flown into remote areas or shipped in overseas containers) Can be scow or truck-mounted This technical presentation's primary goal is to share the technology of utilizing small, highly portable hydraulic coring rigs to provide exploratory drilling (and in some cases, production drilling) for geothermal projects. Significant cost and operational benefits are possible for the Geothermal Operator, especially for those who are pursuing projects in remote locations or countries, or in areas that are either inaccessible or in which a small footprint is required. John D. Tuttle Sinclair Well Products jtuttle@sinclairwp.com

  13. Preliminary Physical Stratigraphy and Geophysical Data From the USGS Dixon Core, Onslow County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Gonzalez, Wilma Aleman B.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Weems, Robert E.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Durand, Colleen T.

    2009-01-01

    In October through November 2006, scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Region Earth Surface Processes Team (EESPT) and the Raleigh (N.C.) Water Science Center (WSC), in cooperation with the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) and the Onslow County Water and Sewer Authority (ONWASA), drilled a stratigraphic test hole and well in Onslow County, N.C. The Dixon corehole was cored on ONWASA water utility property north of the town of Dixon, N.C., in the Sneads Ferry 7.5-minute quadrangle at latitude 34deg33'35' N, longitude 77deg26'54' W (decimal degrees 34.559722 and -77.448333). The site elevation is 66.0 feet (ft) above mean sea level as determined using a Paulin precision altimeter. The corehole attained a total depth of 1,010 ft and was continuously cored by the USGS EESPT drilling crew. A groundwater monitoring well was installed in the screened interval between 234 and 254 ft below land surface. The section cored at this site includes Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments. The Dixon core is stored at the NCGS Coastal Plain core storage facility in Raleigh. The Dixon corehole is the fourth and last in a series of planned North Carolina benchmark coreholes drilled by the USGS Coastal Carolina Project. These coreholes explore the physical stratigraphy, facies, and thickness of Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene Coastal Plain sediments in North Carolina. Correlations of lithologies, facies, and sequence stratigraphy can be made with the Hope Plantation corehole, N.C., near Windsor in Bertie County (Weems and others, 2007); the Elizabethtown corehole, near Elizabethtown, N.C., in Bladen County (Self-Trail and others, 2004b); the Smith Elementary School corehole, near Cove City, N.C., in Craven County (Harris and Self-Trail, 2006; Crocetti, 2007); the Kure Beach corehole, near Wilmington, N.C., in New Hanover County (Self-Trail and others, 2004a); the Esso#1, Esso #2, Mobil #1, and Mobil #2 cores in Albermarle and Pamlico Sounds, N.C. (Zarra, 1989); and the Cape Fear River outcrops in Bladen County, N.C. (Farrell, 1998; Farrell and others, 2001). This report contains the lithostratigraphic summary recorded at the drill site, core photographs, geophysical data, and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic correlations.

  14. Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea floor drilling rig MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, T.; Wefer, G.

    2013-12-01

    The sea floor drill rig MeBo (acronym for Meeresboden-Bohrgert, German for sea floor drill rig) is a robotic drill rig that is deployed on the sea floor and operated remotely from the research vessel to drill up to 80 m into the sea floor. It was developed at the MARUM Research Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at Bremen University. The complete system - comprising the drill rig, winch, control station, and the launch and recovery system - is transported in six containers and can be deployed worldwide from German and international research ships. It was the first remote-controlled deep sea drill rig to use a wireline coring technique. Compared to drilling vessels this technology has the advantage of operating from a stable platform at the sea bed, which allows for optimal control over the drilling process. Especially for shallow drillings in the range of tens to hundreds of metres, sea bed drill rigs are time-efficient since no drill string has to be assembled from the ship to the sea floor before the first core can be taken. The MeBo has been successfully operated, retrieving high-quality cores at the sea bed for a variety of research fields, including slope stability studies and palaeoclimate reconstructions. Based on experience with the MeBo, a rig is now being built that will be able to drill to a depth of 200 m.

  15. Drilling and geophysical logs of the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site, Central Venango County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.; Anderson, J. Alton

    2014-01-01

    Collection and integrated analysis of drilling and geophysical logs provided an efficient and effective means for characterizing the geohydrologic framework and conditions penetrated by the tophole at the selected oil-and-gas well site. The logging methods and lessons learned at this well site could be applied at other oil-and-gas drilling sites to better characterize the shallow subsurface with the overall goal of protecting freshwater aquifers during hydrocarbon development.

  16. Development of a drilling and coring test-bed for lunar subsurface exploration and preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Deng, Zongquan; Quan, Qiquan; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Drill sampling has been widely employed as an effective way to acquire deep samples in extraterrestrial exploration. A novel sampling method, namely, flexible-tube coring, was adopted for the Chang'e mission to acquire drilling cores without damaging stratification information. Since the extraterrestrial environment is uncertain and different from the terrestrial environment, automated drill sampling missions are at risk of failure. The principles of drilling and coring for the lunar subsurface should be fully tested and verified on earth before launch. This paper proposes a test-bed for conducting the aforementioned experiments on earth. The test-bed comprises a rotary-percussive drilling mechanism, penetrating mechanism, drilling medium container, and signal acquisition and control system. For granular soil, coring experiments indicate that the sampling method has a high coring rate greater than 80%. For hard rock, drilling experiments indicate that the percussive frequency greatly affects the drilling efficiency. A multi-layered simulant composed of granular soil and hard rock is built to test the adaptability of drilling and coring. To tackle complex drilling media, an intelligent drilling strategy based on online recognition is proposed to improve the adaptability of the sampling drill. The primary features of this research are the proposal of a scheme for drilling and coring a test-bed for validation on earth and the execution of drilling experiments in complex media.

  17. Core formation and core composition from coupled geochemical and geophysical constraints.

    PubMed

    Badro, James; Brodholt, John P; Piet, Hélène; Siebert, Julien; Ryerson, Frederick J

    2015-10-01

    The formation of Earth's core left behind geophysical and geochemical signatures in both the core and mantle that remain to this day. Seismology requires that the core be lighter than pure iron and therefore must contain light elements, and the geochemistry of mantle-derived rocks reveals extensive siderophile element depletion and fractionation. Both features are inherited from metal-silicate differentiation in primitive Earth and depend upon the nature of physiochemical conditions that prevailed during core formation. To date, core formation models have only attempted to address the evolution of core and mantle compositional signatures separately, rather than seeking a joint solution. Here we combine experimental petrology, geochemistry, mineral physics and seismology to constrain a range of core formation conditions that satisfy both constraints. We find that core formation occurred in a hot (liquidus) yet moderately deep magma ocean not exceeding 1,800 km depth, under redox conditions more oxidized than present-day Earth. This new scenario, at odds with the current belief that core formation occurred under reducing conditions, proposes that Earth's magma ocean started oxidized and has become reduced through time, by oxygen incorporation into the core. This core formation model produces a core that contains 2.7-5% oxygen along with 2-3.6% silicon, with densities and velocities in accord with radial seismic models, and leaves behind a silicate mantle that matches the observed mantle abundances of nickel, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium. PMID:26392555

  18. Barberton Drilling Project - Barite Valley Core BARB5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul; Galic, Aleksandra; Montinaro, Alice; Strauss, Harald; Hofmann, Axel; Chunnett, Gordon; Wilson, Allan; Arndt, Nick

    2013-04-01

    Diamond drilling has recently been completed in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa in order to obtain fresh, unweathered samples and continuous stratigraphic sections of Palaeoarchean volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The Barberton drilling project, sponsored by ICDP, has multiple aims including investigating the composition and temperature of the early atmosphere and oceans, the presence and activity of early microbial biosphere, the nature of melting in the mantle, and early tectonic processes. Three sections of sedimentary rocks have been obtained including the site BARB5 that is described here. The cores represent diverse chemical and clastic sediments and primary as well as diagenetic sedimentary structures. BARB5 cuts through stratigraphy in the 3.26-3.23 Ga lower Mapepe Formation of the Fig Tree Group in the Barite Valley Syncline. We provide core logs, details of the main lithologies sampled and present preliminary chemostratigraphic data. The core has a total length of 763 m and samples three major units with depth: siltstone, silicified volcaniclasics and laminated carbonaceous shales. The uppermost part of the stratigraphy consists of poorly preserved siltstone with some interbedded heavily weathered and variably silicified shale up to a core depth of 110 m. Heavily silicified volcaniclastic sediments, with interbedded cherts and sandstones underlie the siltstone for 150 m. The remaining 500m of core consists of interbedded shale, conglomerate, sandstone, breccias and minor chert bands at the base. An impact spherule layer occurs at the uppermost part of this zone accompanied by localized brecciation. Pyrite is common throughout the section as both discreet layers and disseminated grains. Forthcoming geological, geochemical and isotopic investigations with this core are expected to reveal key information about the nature of Archean sedimentary, biological and hydrothermal processes.

  19. Research core drilling in the Manson impact structure, Iowa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Hartung, J. B.; Roddy, D. J.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Manson impact structure (MIS) has a diameter of 35 km and is the largest confirmed impact structure in the United States. The MIS has yielded a Ar-40/Ar-39 age of 65.7 Ma on microcline from its central peak, an age that is indistinguishable from the age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In the summer of 1991 the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau and U.S. Geological Survey initiated a research core drilling project on the MIS. The first core was beneath 55 m of glacial drift. The core penetrated a 6-m layered sequence of shale and siltstone and 42 m of Cretaceous shale-dominated sedimentary clast breccia. Below this breccia, the core encountered two crystalline rock clast breccia units. The upper unit is 53 m thick, with a glassy matrix displaying various degrees of devitrification. The upper half of this unit is dominated by the glassy matrix, with shock-deformed mineral grains (especially quartz) the most common clast. The glassy-matrix unit grades downward into the basal unit in the core, a crystalline rock breccia with a sandy matrix, the matrix dominated by igneous and metamorphic rock fragments or disaggregated grains from those rocks. The unit is about 45 m thick, and grains display abundant shock deformation features. Preliminary interpretations suggest that the crystalline rock breccias are the transient crater floor, lifted up with the central peak. The sedimentary clast breccia probably represents a postimpact debris flow from the crater rim, and the uppermost layered unit probably represents a large block associated with the flow. The second core (M-2) was drilled near the center of the crater moat in an area where an early crater model suggested the presence of postimpact lake sediments. The core encountered 39 m of sedimentary clast breccia, similar to that in the M-1 core. Beneath the breccia, 120 m of poorly consolidated, mildly deformed, and sheared siltstone, shale, and sandstone was encountered. The basal unit in the core was another sequence of sedimentary clast breccia. The two sedimentary clast units, like the lithologically similar unit in the M-1 core, probably formed as debris flows from the crater rim. The middle, nonbrecciated interval is probably a large, intact block of Upper Cretaceous strata transported from the crater rim with the debris flow. Alternatively, the sequence may represent the elusive postimpact lake sequence.

  20. Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea-floor drilling rig MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, T.; Wefer, G.

    2013-07-01

    Sampling of the upper 50 to 200 m of the sea floor to address questions relating to marine mineral resources and gas hydrates, for geotechnical research in areas of planned offshore installations, to study slope stability, and to investigate past climate fluctuations, to name just a few examples, is becoming increasingly important both in shallow waters and in the deep sea. As a rule, the use of drilling ships for this kind of drilling is inefficient because before the first core can be taken a drill string has to be assembled extending from the ship to the sea floor. Furthermore, movement of the ship due to wave motion disturbs the drilling process and often results in poor core quality, especially in the upper layers of the sea floor. For these reasons, the MeBo drilling rig, which is lowered to the sea floor and operated remotely from the ship to drill up to 80 m into the sea floor, was developed at the MARUM Research Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at Bremen University. The complete system, comprising the drill rig, winch, control station, and the launch and recovery system, is transported in six containers and can be deployed worldwide from German and international research ships. It was the first remote-controlled deep sea drill rig that uses a wireline coring technique. Based on the experiences with the MeBo a rig is now being built that will be able to drill to a depth of 200 m.

  1. Rating Coal Mine Roof strength from expoloratory drill core

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, C.; Molinda, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    Characterizing coal mine roof rock is extremely important for hazard assessment, reinforcement, and entry design. The Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) is an innovative rock mass classification that has found acceptance in the coal mining industry. A disadvantage of the original CMRR is that it cannot be determined in advance of mining, because it requires underground observations. An entirely new set of procedures have now been developed to determine the CMRR from exploratory drill core, as described in this paper. The new procedures employ Point Load Tests (PLT) to determine strength parameters that account for approximately 60% of the rating. Both diametral (parallel to bedding) and axial (perpendicular to bedding) PLT are conducted. The diametral tests allow estimates of bedding plane cohesion and rock anisotropy, both of which are critical to estimating susceptibility to horizontal stress. Traditional core logging procedures are used to determine discontinuity spacing and roughness. To ensure compatibility with the original CMRR, the new rating scales were verified by comparing drill core results with nearby underground exposures. To assist mine planners in using the new CMRR procedures, a large database of strength ratings of roof rocks was assembled through extensive point load testing and logging. Over 2000 point load tests (both axial and diametral) have been made on 30 common coal measure rock types from mines representing most U.S. coalfields. This database has been merged with the popular core rating system of J.C. Ferm. into a field guide for geologists and engineers. By using the pictorial classification system of Ferm to identify the rock, typical CMRR can be compared with values calculated using the new CMRR procedures.

  2. Comparison and analysis of subglacial bedrock core drilling technology in Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinsong; Cao, PinLu; Liu, ChunPeng; Talalay, P. G.

    2015-06-01

    The Gamburtsev Mountains, located in East Antarctica, is the direct geomorphological cause of the formation of Dome A. Drilling the core of the Gamburtsev subglacial mountains is one of the primary goals of modern polar research, which is important to understand its formation and evolution process, the ice sheet formation of Dome A, glacial motion, climate change, and so on. This paper describes the status and progress of subglacial bedrock drilling technology. Existing subglacial bedrock drilling technologies are also discussed, including common rig rotary drilling, wire-line core drilling, coiled tubing drilling, and electromechanical drilling. Results of this paper will provide valuable information for Chinese subglacial bedrock core drilling project in the Gamburtsev mountains.

  3. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were estimated, including volume of clay matrix, volume of matrix other than clay, density of matrix other than clay, density of matrix, intrinsic permeability, specific yield, and specific storage. Geophysical logs were used to (1) determine lithology, (2) correlate lithologic and permeable zones, (3) calibrate seismic reprocessing, (4) calibrate transient-electromagnetic surveys, and (5) calibrate uphole-survey interpretations. Logs were used at the drill site to (1) determine permeability zones, (2) determine dissolved-solids content, which is a function of water resistivity, and (3) design wells accordingly. Data and properties derived from logs were used to determine transmissivity and specific yield of aquifer materials.

  4. Geophysical well logs for eleven drill holes at the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine Site, Idaho Springs, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The following geophysical well log measurements were made in eleven drill holes above the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado: (1) acoustic velocity (2) resistivity, (3) caliper, (4) gamma-gamma density, (5) neutron-thermal neutron, (6) gamma ray, (7) induced polarization (IP), (8) self potential (SP), and magnetic susceptibility. The density and acoustic velocity logs indicate extensive fracturing in each of the drill holes. Variations in the relative amount of felsic or mafic mineral components in the rocks can be inferred from the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray well log responses. Zones containing metallic sulfide mineralization are interpreted from the IP well log response.

  5. Hydraulic lift inner barrel in a drill string coring tool

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, S. R.

    1985-11-19

    An automatically operable hydraulic lift inner barrel is devised to lift the inner tube of the core barrel on a drill string. An inner mandrel is axially disposed within the outer tube of the coring tool. An outer piston which is selectively locked to the inner mandrel is telescopically and concentrically disposed about the inner mandrel. Fluid is selectively diverted from the outer tube into the inner mandrel and inside the outer piston. An inner locking piston within the inner mandrel responds to the hydraulic pressure to unlock the outer piston from the inner mandrel. The outer piston is then longitudinally displaced by the hydraulic pressure thereby lifting the inner tube which is connected to it. After the outer piston has moved a predetermined distance, the hydraulic pressure supplied to the inner mandrel and inside the outer piston reaches a second predetermined magnitude. Burst disks are then blown thereby relieving the hydraulic pressure within the outer piston inner mandrel. The inner locking piston reassumes its initial position thereby locking the inner mandrel once again to the outer piston which is now in an extended position. Therefore, an inner tube within a coring tool can be selectively lifted, moved a predetermined longitudinal distance with respect to the outer tube, and then locked into position all in an automatic operation initiation by the initial diversion of hydraulic fluid to the inner mandrel and outer piston.

  6. Radionuclide sorption on drill core material from the Canadian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergraat, T.T.; Abry, D.R.

    1982-06-01

    The sorption of four radionuclides, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, and /sup 237/Pu, on drill core material from two rock formations in the Canadian Shield has been studied as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. For all four radionuclides, sorption increased with increased mafic mineral content of the rock. Autoradiographic investigations showed enhanced sorption on dark, or mafic, minerals and high sorption on chlorite infilling material in a closed fracture. Desorption was less complete than sorption after the same equilibration time, indicating a degree of irreversible sorption, or slower desorption kinetics. The effect of surface roughness (measured by mercury porosimetry) on sorption was not as great as that of the chemical and mineral composition of the rock.

  7. Preliminary physical stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and geophysical data of the USGS South Dover Bridge Core, Talbot County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alemn Gonzlez, Wilma B.; Powars, David S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Durand, Colleen T.; Schultz, Arthur P.; McLaughlin, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    The South Dover Bridge (SDB) corehole was drilled in October 2007 in Talbot County, Maryland. The main purpose for drilling this corehole was to characterize the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the aquifers and confining units of this region. The data obtained from this core also will be used as a guide to geologic mapping and to help interpret well data from the eastern part of the Washington East 1:100,000-scale map near the town of Easton, Md. Core drilling was conducted to a depth of 700 feet (ft). The Cretaceous section was not penetrated due to technical problems during drilling. This project was funded by the U.S. Geological Surveys (USGS) Eastern Geology and Paleoclimate Science Center (EGPSC) as part of the Geology of the Atlantic Watersheds Project; this project was carried out in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Survey (MGS) through partnerships with the Aquifer Characterization Program of the USGSs Maryland-Delaware-District of Columbia Water Science Center and the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. The SDB corehole was drilled by the USGS drilling crew in the northeastern corner of the Trappe 7.5-minute quadrangle, near the type locality of the Boston Cliffs member of the Choptank Formation. Geophysical logs (gamma ray, single point resistance, and 16-inch and 64-inch normal resistivity) were run to a depth of 527.5 ft; the total depth of 700.0 ft could not be reached because of the collapse of the lower part of the hole. Of the 700.0 ft drilled, 531.8 ft of core were recovered, representing a 76 percent core recovery. The elevation of the top of the corehole is approximately 12 ft above mean sea level; its coordinates are lat 3844?49.34?N. and long 7600?25.09?W. (38.74704N., 76.00697W. in decimal degrees). A groundwater monitoring well was not installed at this site. The South Dover Bridge corehole was the first corehole that will be used to better understand the geology and hydrology of the Maryland Eastern Shore.

  8. Physical-Property Measurements on Core samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.; Watt, Janet T.; Casteel, John; Logsdon, Grant

    2009-01-01

    From May to June 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and measured physical properties on 36 core samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 1 (DB-1) and 46 samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 2 (DB-2) along the west side of Blue Mountain about 40 km west of Winnemucca, Nev. These data were collected as part of an effort to determine the geophysical setting of the Blue Mountain geothermal prospect as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of geothermal systems throughout the Great Basin. The physical properties of these rocks and other rock types in the area create a distinguishable pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies that can be used to infer their subsurface geologic structure. Drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 were spudded in alluvium on the western flank of Blue Mountain in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and are about 1 km apart. Drill-hole DB-1 is at a ground elevation of 1,325 m and was drilled to a depth of 672 m and drill-hole DB-2 is at a ground elevation of 1,392 m and was drilled to a depth of 1522 m. Diameter of the core samples is 6.4 cm. These drill holes penetrate Jurassic and Triassic metasedimentary rocks predominantly consisting of argillite, mudstone, and sandstone; Tertiary diorite and gabbro; and younger Tertiary felsic dikes.

  9. Agglutinates as recorders of regolith evolution - Application to the Apollo 17 drill core

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1984-11-15

    Chemical data are reported for agglutinates from 26 depth intervals of the Apollo 17 deep drill core, and the compositions of the agglutinates are compared with those of the soils in which they occur. The agglutinate sequence suggests a scenario in which several closely-spaced depositional events were involved in the formation of the drill core, rather than a continuous accumulation process.

  10. Joint laboratory investigations of the physical and mechanical properties of the COSC-1 drill core, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Lebedev, Maxim; Ask, Maria; Wenning, Quinn; Zappone, Alba; Berthet, Tho; Malehmir, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    The Caledonian orogen is an early to middle Paleozoic mountain chain with size dimension similar to the Alpine-Himalayan orogen. Parts of the Caledonian orogen have been deeply eroded and provide excellent exposure of rocks that were emplaced into the middle and lower crust during orogenesis. These exposed rock units therefore provide the possibility to study processes of mountain building that are often inaccessible in more modern orogens, and represent the targets for the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides deep drilling project (COSC-1). The main target of COSC-1 was the high grade Seve nappe complex. Temperature estimates indicate granulite facies conditions at the top of this nappe, grading to lower amphibolitic conditions downwards through the nappe. Discovery of micro-diamond included in garnets from the nearby reskutan mountain hints at an ultra-high pressure origin in parts of the Seve nappe complex. The COSC-1 deep drilling project presents a unique opportunity to study the laboratory physical properties of a 2.5 km drill core, which can be correlated to downhole logging measurements and for the interpretation of surface geophysical experiments. In a joint effort that comprises five laboratories, the physical properties the COSC drill core are investigated. Measurement schemes and preliminary results from this cooperative effort are presented. The physical properties suite of measurements on the core includes (i) density, (ii) porosity, (iii) ultrasonic wave velocity and anisotropy at elevated confining pressure, (iv) seismic attenuation and (v) permeability (and anisotropy of permeability). Mechanical properties include uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength at different confining pressures, and subsequent calculation of internal and residual friction angles. The joint investigations will also serve to cross-validate and calibrate different laboratory techniques that are used to measure physical properties. The rock units investigated includes layers of gneiss, amphibolite, calc-silicates, migmatite and sparse meta-gabbro and marble. More mafic units (amphibolite and meta-gabbro) can be separated from the gneisses and migmatite based on density and sonic velocities, measured with active gamma log and full wave form sonic log. Deformation is prevalent in rocks throughout the 2500 m deep borehole, but a more than 300 m thick package of strongly sheared mylonites stands out at the bottom of the borehole. Laboratory measurements of density and ultrasonic velocities are critical on core material that comes from depths greater than 1600 m, because borehole density and sonic logs are lacking at these depths. In addition, the ultrasonic laboratory measurements serve as the only method to directly evaluate seismic anisotropy in the solid rock mass. Additional results and analysis are expected to yield data that will be useful for integration with surface and downhole geophysical data (e.g. vertical seismic profiling data), constraining the state of in-situ stress, and provide insights into the emplacement processes of the Seve nappe complex, and its relationship to the underlying lower-grade Srv and Jmtlandian nappes.

  11. Cretaceous shallow drilling, US Western Interior: Core research. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, M.A.

    1993-02-17

    This project is a continuing multidisciplinary study of middle to Upper Cretaceous marine carbonate and clastic rocks in the Utah-Colorado-Kansas corridor of the old Cretaceous seaway that extended from the Gulf Coast to the Arctic during maximum Cretaceous transgressions. It is collaborative between in the US Geological Survey (W.E. Dean, P.I.) and University researchers led by The Pennsylvania State University(M.A. Arthur, P.I.) and funded by DOE and the USGS, in part. Research focusses on the Greenhom, Niobrara and lower Pierre Shale units and their equivalents, combining biostratigraphic/paleoecologic studies, inorganic, organic and stable isotopic geochemical studies, mineralogical investigations and high-resolution geophysical logging. This research requires unweathered samples and continuous smooth ``exposures`` in the form of cores from at least 4 relatively shallow reference holes (i.e. < 1000m) in transect from east to west across the basin. The major initial effort was recovery in Year 1 of the project of continuous cores from each site in the transect. This drilling provided samples and logs of strata ranging from pelagic sequences that contain organic-carbon-rich marine source rocks to nearshore coal-bearing units. This transect also will provide information on the extent of thermal maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in organic-carbon-rich strata along a burial gradient.

  12. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55 ?? 0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01 ?? 0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67 ?? 0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89 ?? 0.17 and 2.97 ?? 0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing downward the hyaloclastite absorbs less water and becomes better cemented. This change is apparently due to palagonitization of glass and addition of secondary minerals in the deeper older hyaloclastite, a process favored by the increase of temperature with depth. The cementation is largely complete at 1800 m depth where the temperature attains about 20??C. The zone of freshest, uncemented hyaloclastite represents the weakest rock in the drill hole and is a likely level for tectonic or landslide disruption. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. The Chicxulub Multiring Impact Crater and the Cretaceous/Paleogene Boundary: Results From Geophysical Surveys and Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Perez-Cruz, Ligia

    2010-03-01

    The Chicxulub crater has attracted considerable attention as one of the three largest terrestrial impact structures and its association with the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary (K/Pg). Chicxulub is a 200 km-diameter multi-ring structure formed 65.5 Ma ago in the Yucatan carbonate platform in the southern Gulf of Mexico and which has since been buried by Paleogene and Neogene carbonates. Chicxulub is one of few large craters with preserved ejecta deposits, which include the world-wide K/Pg boundary clay layer. The impact has been related to the global major environmental and climatic effects and the organism mass extinction that mark the K/Pg boundary, which affected more than 70 % of organisms, including the dinosaurs, marine and flying reptiles, ammonites and a large part of the marine microorganisms. The impact and crater formation occur instantaneously, with excavation of the crust down to 25 km depths in fractions of second and lower crust uplift and crater formation in a few hundreds of seconds. Energy released by impact and crustal deformation generates seismic waves traveling the whole Earth, and resulting in intense fracturing and deformation at the target site. Understanding of the physics of impacts on planetary surfaces and modeling of processes of crustal deformation, rheological behavior of materials at high temperatures and pressures remain a major challenge in geosciences. Study of the Chicxulub crater and the global effects and mass extinction requires inter- and multidisciplinary approaches, with researchers from many diverse fields beyond the geosciences. With no surface exposures, geophysical surveys and drilling are required to study the crater. Differential compaction between the impact breccias and the surrounding carbonate rocks has produced a ring-fracture structure that at the surface reflects in a small topographic depression and the karstic cenote ring. The crater structure, located half offshore and half on-land, has been imaged by different geophysical aerial, land and marine methods including gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics and seismic refraction and reflection. The impact lithologies and carbonate sequence have been cored as part of several drilling projects. Here we analyze the stratigraphy of Chicxulub from borehole logging data and core analyses, with particular reference to studies on CSDP Yaxcopoil-1 and UNAM Santa Elena boreholes. Analyses of core samples have examined the stratigraphy of the cover carbonate sequence, impact breccia contact and implications for impact age, K/Pg global correlations and paleoenvironmental conditions following impact. The K/Pg age for Chicxulub has been supported from different studies, including Ar/Ar dating, magnetic polarity stratigraphy, geochemistry and biostratigraphy. A Late Maastrichtian age has also been proposed for Chicxulub from studies in Yaxcopoil-1 basal Paleocene carbonates, with impact occurring 300 ka earlier predating the K/Pg boundary. This proposal calls attention to the temporal resolution of stratigraphic and chronological methods, and the need for further detailed analyses of the basal carbonate sections in existing boreholes and new drilling/coring projects. Stratigraphy of impact ejecta and basal sediments in Yaxcopoil-1 and UNAM boreholes indicates a hiatus in the basal sequence. Modeling of post- impact processes suggest erosion effects due to seawater back surge, block slumping and partial rim collapse of post-impact crater modification. Analyses of stable isotopes and magnetostratigraphic data for the Paleocene carbonate sequences in Yaxcopoil-1 and Santa Elena boreholes permit to investigate the post- impact processes, depositional conditions and age of basal sediments. Correlation of stable isotopes with the global pattern for marine carbonate sediments provides a stratigraphic framework for the basal Paleocene carbonates. The analyses confirm a K/Pg boundary age for the Chicxulub impact. References: Collins et al, 2008. Earth Planetary Science Letters 270, 221-230; Gulick et al, 2008. Nature Geoscience 1, 131-135; Hildebrand et al, 1991. Geology 19: 867-871; Hildebrand, A.R. et al, 1998. Geological Society Sp. Publ 140, 153-173; Kring et al., 2004. Meteoritics Planetary Science 39, 879-897; Sharpton et al, 1992. Nature 359: 819-821; Urrutia Fucugauchi et al, 2004. Meteoritics Planetary Science 39: 787-790; Urrutia Fucugauchi et al, 2008. Comptes Rendus Geosciences 341, 801-810; Urrutia Fucugauchi & Perez Cruz, 2009. International Geology Review 51, doi: 10.1080/00206810902867161.

  14. Drill bit having cutting elements with heat removal cores

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, R. P.

    1984-10-23

    A drill bit for connection on a drill string has a hollow tubular body with an end cutting face and an exterior peripheral stabilizer surface with cylindrical sintered carbide inserts positioned therein having polycrystalline diamond cutting elements mounted on said inserts. Said inserts each having a longitudinal recess therein filled with a soft, heat conducting metal operable to facilitate the transfer of heat away from said cutting elements. The drill bit is also provided with removable and replacable nozzles.

  15. Volatiles in glasses from the HSDP2 drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Caroline; Sherman, Sarah Bean; Garcia, Michael O.; Baker, Michael B.; Balta, Brian; Stolper, Edward

    2004-09-01

    H2O, CO2, S, Cl, and F concentrations are reported for 556 glasses from the submarine section of the 1999 phase of HSDP drilling in Hilo, Hawaii, providing a high-resolution record of magmatic volatiles over 200 kyr of a Hawaiian volcano's lifetime. Glasses range from undegassed to having lost significant volatiles at near-atmospheric pressure. Nearly all hyaloclastite glasses are degassed, compatible with formation from subaerial lavas that fragmented on entering the ocean and were transported by gravity flows down the volcano flank. Most pillows are undegassed, indicating submarine eruption. The shallowest pillows and most massive lavas are degassed, suggesting formation by subaerial flows that penetrated the shoreline and flowed some distance under water. Some pillow rim glasses have H2O and S contents indicating degassing but elevated CO2 contents that correlate with depth in the core; these tend to be more fractionated and could have formed by mixing of degassed, fractionated magmas with undegassed magmas during magma chamber overturn or by resorption of rising CO2-rich bubbles by degassed magmas. Intrusive glasses are undegassed and have CO2 contents similar to adjacent pillows, indicating intrusion shallow in the volcanic edifice. Cl correlates weakly with H2O and S, suggesting loss during low-pressure degassing, although most samples appear contaminated by seawater-derived components. F behaves as an involatile incompatible element. Fractionation trends were modeled using MELTS. Degassed glasses require fractionation at p? ? 5-10 bars. Undegassed low-SiO2 glasses require fractionation at p? ? 50 bars. Undegassed and partially degassed high-SiO2 glasses can be modeled by coupled crystallization and degassing. Eruption depths of undegassed pillows can be calculated from their volatile contents assuming vapor saturation. The amount of subsidence can be determined from the difference between this depth and the sample's depth in the core. Assuming subsidence at 2.5 mm/y, the amount of subsidence suggests ages of 500 ka for samples from the lower 750 m of the core, consistent with radiometric ages. H2O contents of undegassed low-SiO2 HSDP2 glasses are systematically higher than those of high-SiO2 glasses, and their H2O/K2O and H2O/Ce ratios are higher than typical tholeiitic pillow rim glasses from Hawaiian volcanoes.

  16. Core drill's bit is replaceable without withdrawal of drill stem - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushing, F. C.; Simon, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Drill bit is divided into several sectors. When collapsed, the outside diameter is forced down the drill stem, when it reaches bottom the sectors are forced outward and form a cutting bit. A dulled bit is retracted by reversal of this procedure.

  17. Surface elevation change artifact at the NEEM ice core drilling site, North Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg Larsen, Lars; Schtt Hvidberg, Christine; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Lilja Buchardt, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    The NEEM deep drilling site (77.45N 51.06W) is located at the main ice divide in North Greenland. For the ice core drilling project, a number of buildings was erected and left on the snow surface during the five-year project period. The structures created snowdrifts that formed accordingly to the predominant wind direction on the lee side on the buildings and the overwintering cargo. To get access to the buildings, the snowdrifts and the accumulated snow were removed and the surface in the camp was leveled with heavy machinery each summer. In the camp a GPS reference pole was placed as a part of the NEEM strain net, 12 poles placed in three diamonds at distances of 2,5 km, 7,5 km and 25 km they were all measured with high precision GPS every year. Around the reference pole, a 1 km x 1 km grid with a spacing of 100 m was measured with differential GPS each year. In this work, we present results from the GPS surface topography measurements in and around the campsite. The mapping of the topography in and around the campsite shows how the snowdrifts evolve and are the reason for the lift of the camp site area. The accumulated snowdrifts are compared to the dominant wind directions from year to year. The annual snow accumulation at the NEEM site is 0.60 m. The reference pole in the camp indicates an additional snow accumulation of 0.50 m per year caused by collected drifting snow. The surface topography mapping shows that this artificially elevated surface extends up to several kilometers out in the terrain. This could have possible implications on other glaciological and geophysical measurements in the area i.e. pit and snow accumulation studies.

  18. Application of drilling, coring, and sampling techniques to test holes and wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shuter, Eugene; Teasdale, Warren E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide ground-water hydrologists with a working knowledge of the techniques of test drilling, auger drilling, coring and sampling, and the related drilling and sampling equipment. For the most part, the techniques discussed deal with drilling, sampling, and completion of test holes in unconsolidated sediments because a hydrologist is interested primarily in shallow-aquifer data in this type of lithology. Successful drilling and coring of these materials usually is difficult, and published research information on the subject is not readily available. The authors emphasize in-situ sampling of unconsolidated sediments to obtain virtually undisturbed samples. Particular attention is given to auger drilling and hydraulic-rotary methods of drilling because these are the principal means of test drilling performed by the U.S. Geological Survey during hydrologic studies. Techniques for sampling areas contaminated by solid or liquid waste are discussed. Basic concepts of well development and a detailed discussion of drilling muds, as related to hole conditioning, also are included in the report. The information contained in this manual is intended to help ground-water hydrologists obtain useful subsurface data and samples from their drilling programs.

  19. Improved diamond coring bits developed for dry and chip-flush drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W. E.; Hampe, W. R.; Hampton, W. H.; Simon, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    Two rotary diamond bit designs, one operating with a chip-flushing fluid, the second including auger section to remove drilled chips, enhance usefulness of tool for exploratory and industrial core-drilling of hard, abrasive mineral deposits and structural masonry.

  20. Development of lunar drill to take core samples to 100-foot depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Lunar drill takes lunar surface cores to depths of 100 feet and is being developed to the samples at greater depths. The wireline drill system has been adapted to operate in the lunar environment by providing a sealed dc motor and solid metallic base lubricants.

  1. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Secondary mineralogy of core from geothermal drill hole CTGH-1, High Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1988-01-01

    Geothermal drill hole CTGH-1, located near Breitenbush Hot Springs in the Cascade Mountains of northwest Oregon, was drilled to a depth of 1463 m. The maximum reported temperature at the bottom of the drill hole was 96.4??C. The drill core consists predominantly of basalt to basaltic andesite lava flows, tuffs, and volcanic breccia. Red to orange iron-oxide stained tuffs are at least partly altered to smectite. Vesicles, fractures, and open spaces between breccia fragments are partly to completely filled by secondary minerals. All of the minerals are compatible with the present low-temperature conditions.

  3. Deep Rotary-Ultrasonic Core Drill for Exploration of Europa and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G. L.; Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Beegle, L. W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Mellerowicz, B.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Ibarra, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since water is an important requisite for life as we know it, likely exobiologic exploration targets in our Solar System include Mars, Europa, and Enceladus, where water/ice is known to exist. Because of oxidizing nature of Mars atmosphere, as well as increased radiation at the surfaces of Mars, Europa and Enceladus, samples must be acquired from the subsurface at greater depths, presenting a great challenge to off-world drilling design. For the past 3 years, we have been developing a prototype wireline coring drill, called the Auto-Gopher, for the capability to acquire samples from hundreds of meters depth. The drill is capable of penetrating both rock and ice. However, because of large geological uncertainty on Mars and issues related to borehole collapse, we specifically target ice formations present on Europa and Enceladus. The main feature of the Auto-Gopher is its wireline operation. The drill is essentially suspended on a tether and the motors and mechanisms are built into a tube that ends with a coring bit. The tether provides the mechanical connection to a rover/lander on a surface as well as power and data communication. Upon penetrating to a target depth, the drill (plus core) is retracted from the borehole by a pulley system (the pulley system can be either on the surface or integrated into a top part of the drill itself). Once on the surface, the core is deposited into a sample transfer system, and the drill is lowered back into the hole in order to drill the next segment. Each segment is typically 10 cm long. Wireline operation sidesteps one of the major drawbacks of traditional continuous drill string systems by obviating the need for multiple drill sections. With traditional continuous drill string systems (the major competition to the Autor-Gopher), new drill sections need to be added to the string as the drill gets deeper. This of course requires multiple drill sections, which add significantly to the mass of the system very quickly, and requires a complicated drill string feeding and coupling mechanism, thus increasing the system complexity. The Auto-gopher has been successfully tested in a lab environment in rock to a depth of 2 meters and in the field. The average drilling power was in the range of 100-150 Watt, while penetration rate was approximately 1 cm/min.

  4. Core formation, evolution, and convection: A geophysical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A model is proposed for the formation and evolution of the Earth's core which provides an adequate energy source for maintaining the geodynamo. A modified inhomogeneous accretion model is proposed which leads to initial iron and refractory enrichment at the center of the planet. The probable heat source for melting of the core is the decay of Al. The refractory material is emplaced irregularly in the lowermost mantle with uranium and thorium serving as a long lived heat source. Fluid motions in the core are driven by the differential heating from above and the resulting cyclonic motions may be the source of the geodynamo.

  5. Core formation, evolution, and convection - A geophysical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A model for the formation and evolution of the earth's core, which provides an adequate energy source for maintaining the geodynamo, is proposed. A modified inhomogeneous accretion model is proposed which leads to initial iron and refractory enrichment at the center of the planet. The probable heat source for melting of the core is the decay of Al-26. The refractory material is emplaced irregularly in the lowermost mantle with uranium and thorium serving as a long-lived heat source. Fluid motions in the core are driven by the differential heating from above and the resulting cyclonic motions may be the source of the geodynamo.

  6. Exploring ice core drilling chips from a cold Alpine glacier for cosmogenic radionuclide (10Be) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipf, Lars; Merchel, Silke; Bohleber, Pascal; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, Andreas

    Ice cores offer unique multi-proxy paleoclimate records, but provide only very limited sample material, which has to be carefully distributed for various proxy analyses. Beryllium-10, for example, is analysed in polar ice cores to investigate past changes of the geomagnetic field, solar activity, and the aerosol cycle, as well as to more accurately date the material. This paper explores the suitability of a drilling by-product, the so-called drilling chips, for 10Be-analysis. An ice core recently drilled at a cold Alpine glacier is used to directly compare 10Be-data from ice core samples with corresponding drilling chips. Both sample types have been spiked with 9Be-carrier and identically treated to chemically isolate beryllium. The resulting BeO has been investigated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for 10Be/9Be-ratios to calculate 10Be-concentrations in the ice. As a promising first result, four out of five sample-combinations (ice core and drilling chips) agree within 2-sigma uncertainty range. However, further studies are needed in order to fully demonstrate the potential of drilling chips for 10Be-analysis in alpine and shallow polar ice cores.

  7. Core Cracking and Hydrothermal Circulation Profoundly Affect Ceres' Geophysical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2014-11-01

    The dwarf planet (1)Ceres is about to be visited by the Dawn spacecraft [1]. In addition to a recent report of water vapor emission [2], observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock [3,4].Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code [5], we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia [4], by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The heating effect from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via temperature resets, global cooling events lasting ~50 Myr, followed by ~1 Gyr periods during which Ceres' interior is nearly isothermal and its hydrosphere largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) suggests that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter [1] could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.References:[1] Russell C. T. & Raymond C. A. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 3-23.[2] Kppers M. et al. (2014) Nature 505, 525-527.[3] Rivkin A. et al. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 95-116.[4] Castillo-Rogez J. C. & McCord T. B. (2010) Icarus 205, 443-459.[5] Neveu M., Desch S. J. & Castillo-Rogez J. C., submitted.

  8. GRED STUDIES AND DRILLING OF AMERICULTURE STATE 2, AMERICULTURE TILAPIA FARM LIGHTNING DOCK KGRA, ANIMAS VALLEY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, James

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the GRED drilling operations in the AmeriCulture State 2 well with an overview of the preliminary geologic and geothermal findings, from drill cuttings, core, geophysical logs and water geochemical sampling.

  9. Coring to the West Antarctic ice sheet bed with a new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. R.; Taylor, K. C.; Shturmakov, A. J.; Mason, W. P.; Emmel, G. R.; Lebar, D. A.

    2005-05-01

    As a contribution to IPY 2007-2008, the U.S. ice core research community, supported by the National Science Foundation, plans to core through the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) at the ice-flow divide between the Ross Sea and Amundsen Sea drainage systems. The aim is to develop a unique series of interrelated climatic, ice-dynamic, and biologic records focused on understanding interactions among global earth systems. There will be approximately 15 separate but synergistic projects to analyze the ice and interpret the records. The most significant expected outcome of the WAIS Divide program will be climate records for the last ~40,000 years with an annually resolved chronology (through layer counting), comparable to the records from central Greenland. The data will also extend, at lower temporal resolution, to approximately 100,000 BP. These records will permit comparison of environmental conditions between the northern and southern hemispheres, and study of greenhouse gas concentrations in the paleoatmosphere, with unprecedented detail. To accomplish the coring, an innovative new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill is being built at the University of Wisconsin. The modular design of the bore-hole assembly (sonde) provides high flexibility for producing a 122 mm diameter ice core to depths of 4,000 m with maximum core lengths of 4 m. The DISC drill has a rotating outer barrel that can be used with or without an inner barrel designed to improve core recovery in brittle ice. Separate and independent motors for the drill and pump allow cutter speeds from 0 to 150 rpm and pump rates from 0 to 140 gpm. The high pumping rate should alleviate problems drilling in warm ice near the bed; it also helps make tripping speeds several times faster than with the old US drill. Other innovations include vibration and acoustic sensors for monitoring the drilling process, a segmented core barrel to avoid the formerly persistent problem of bent core barrels, and a high-speed data acquisition system, which allows the real-time monitoring of 30 parameters for operational and scientific use. Data are transmitted from the sonde to the surface through optical fibers contained in the drill cable, which also provides power to the sonde. The entire drilling process utilizes a user-friendly "expert" control system. Quick connectors allow for fast core removal and sonde servicing. The drill tower is a tilting tower utilizing modular truss construction for flexibility and portability. We expect higher quality cores than produced by the old drill, because of a straighter barrel, the independently controlled drill and pump motors, and better monitoring and control of the drilling process. The drill is scheduled for testing in Greenland in the summer of 2006 and for first drilling at the WAIS Divide site late in the 2006-07 austral field season.

  10. Lithologic logs and geophysical logs from test drilling in Palm Beach County, Florida, since 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, Leo J.; McGovern, Michael C.; Fischer, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Test-hole data that may be used to determine the hydrogeology of the zone of high permeability in Palm Beach County, Fla., are presented. Lithologic logs from 46 test wells and geophysical logs from 40 test wells are contained in this report. (USGS)

  11. Fischer Assays of Oil Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Piceance Basin, Colorado - 2009 Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Self, Jesse G.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM includes updated files containing Fischer assays of samples of core holes and cuttings from exploration drill holes drilled in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. A database was compiled that includes more than 321,380 Fischer assays from 782 boreholes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 1,042 core and rotary holes, oil and gas tests, as well as a few surface sections are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. These assays are part of a larger collection of subsurface information held by the U.S. Geological Survey, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, and chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses having to do with the Green River oil shale deposits in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM disc containing updated Fischer assay data for the Piceance Basin oil shale deposits in northwestern Colorado is being released to the public.

  12. Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data are from analyses performed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, with some analyses made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet that is included in the CD-ROM. These Wyoming Fischer assays and histograms are part of a much larger collection of oil-shale information, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses on the Green River oil-shale deposits in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming held by the U.S. Geological Survey. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM containing Fischer assay data and oil-yield histograms for the Green River oil-shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming is being released to the public. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets included with Chapter 2 contain the Fischer assay data from the 426 holes and data on the company name and drill-hole name, and location. Histograms of the oil yields obtained from the Fischer assays are presented in both Grapher and PDF format. Fischer assay text data files are also included in the CD-ROM.

  13. The ICDP Hotspot Scientific Drilling Program: Overview of geophysical logging and seismic imaging through basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Liberty, L. M.; Kessler, J. A.; Kueck, J.; Kofman, R. S.; Bishop, R. A.; Shervais, J. W.; Evans, J. P.; Champion, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    The recently completed ICDP Hotspot drilling program consisted of drilling of three scientific drill holes each to at least 1800 m depth across the Snake River Plain of Idaho. The three boreholes include i) Kimama: thick sequences of basalt flows with sediment interbeds; ii) Kimberley: near surface basalt flows overlying rhyolite deposits, and iii) Mountain Home: geothermally altered basalts overlain by lacustrine sediments. The program consisted of high resolution 2D surface tied to vertical and walk-a-way borehole seismic profiles and an extensive suite of full waveform sonic, ultrasonic televiewer, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and hydrogen index neutron logging. There are a number of highlights out of this work. First, seismic imaging beneath basalt flows is a classic problem in reflection seismology and has long been believed to be due to rapid attenuation of the downgoing seismic pulse. Here, however, we observed strong arrivals at all depths suggesting that seismic energy is penetrating such formations and that issues in imaging may be a result of the heterogeneous nature of the formations. Second, the neutron log responses correlate well with the structure of individual basalt flows. High and low backscattered neutron counts correspond to massive low porosity basalt rock and with the higher porosity and sediment filled flow tops, respectively. Third, the ultrasonic borehole televiewer information is being used to orient the nearly complete sets of core in order to obtain information on the azimuths of natural and drilling induced core fractures. This together with examination of borehole breakouts and drilling induced tensile fractures on the wellbore wall will allow for semi-quantitative stress estimates across the Snake River Plain. Finally, the Mountain Home borehole provides an unique opportunity to study the geothermally altered basalts. There are a number of correlations between, for example, the sonic and electrical logs that must relate to the style of alteration.

  14. Integration of various geophysical data with geological and geochemical data to determine additional drilling for copper exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, three data-driven methods (i.e., Bayesian, k-nearest neighbour (k-nn) and neural network classifiers) are used to generate a prospectivity map for porphyry-Cu deposits. Different data layers of geological, geophysical and geochemical themes are integrated to evaluate the Now Chun porphyry-Cu deposit, located in the Kerman province of Iran, and to prepare a prospectivity map for mineral exploration. Both the Bayesian and k-nn methods showed correct classification rates (CCR) of 52.38% for 21 boreholes divided into five classes. Three types of the neural networks including multi-layer perceptron, radial based function (RBF) and probabilistic neural network are applied to evaluate the result. Among neural networks used, the RBF neural network generated the highest CCR equal to 80.95%. Multi-classification of the prospect for detailed study could increase the resolution of the prospectivity map and decrease the drilling risk.

  15. Chattanooga shale (Devonian and Mississippian) from the Tennessee Division of Geology: U. S. Department of Energy cored drill holes Number 4 and 5, Hawkins County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Roen, J.B.; Wallace, L.G.; Milici, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Tennessee Division of Geology under contract to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has drilled eight NX coreholes in eastern Tennessee. The coring program was designed to retrieve continuous cores for a detailed study of the character of the Chattanooga Shale. The geophysical wire-line logging of the NX drill holes was performed by the US Geological Survey. The lithologic and wire-line log data in conjunction with two seismic surveys will be used to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the Chattanooga Shale in northeastern Tennessee. The purpose of this report is to present a detailed lithologic description and gamma-ray log of the Tennessee Division of Geology and US Department of Energy cored drill holes no. 4 and 5 (TDG-DOE no. 4 and no. 5). In spite of the overlap, no distinct marker beds were found to facilitate a positive correlation between the two cores. Reconstruction of the total Chattanooga section was based on detailed field mapping of the uppermost dark-gray shale below the base of the Grainger Formation and the projection of the beds. The total thickness of the Chattanooga Shale at the coring locations is estimated to be 1650 to 1700 ft.

  16. Preliminary report on the geology, geophysics and hydrology of USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.; Carroll, R.D.; Welder, F.A.

    1967-01-01

    Approximately 1,400 feet of continuous core was taken .between 800-2,214 feet in depth from USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2. The drill, site is located in the Piceance Creek basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. From ground surface the drill hole penetrated 1,120 feet of the Evacuation Creek Member and 1,094 feet of oil shale in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation. Oil shale yielding more than 20 gallons per ton occurs between 1,260-2,214 feet in depth. A gas explosion near the bottom of the hole resulted in abandonment of the exploratory hole which was still in oil shale. The top of the nahcolite zone is at 1,693 feet. Below this depth the core contains common to abundant amounts of sodium bicarbonate salt intermixed with oil shale. The core is divided into seven structural zones that reflect changes in joint intensity, core loss and broken core due to natural causes. The zone of poor core recovery is in the Interval between 1,300-1,450 feet. Results of preliminary geophysical log analyses indicate that oil yields determined by Fischer assay compare favorably with yields determined by geophysical log analyses. There is strong evidence that analyses of complete core data from Colorado core holes No. 1 and No. 2 reveal a reliable relationship between geophysical log response and oil yield. The quality of the logs is poor in the rich shale section and the possibility of repeating the logging program should be considered. Observations during drilling, coring, and hydrologic testing of USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2 reveal that the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation is the principal aquifer water in the Parachute Creek Member is under artesian pressure. The upper part of the aquifer has a higher hydrostatic head than, and is hydrologically separated from the lower part of the aquifer. The transmissibility of the aquifer is about 3500 gpd per foot. The maximum water yield of the core hole during testing was about 500 gpm. Chemical analyses of water samples indicate that the content of dissolved solids is low, the principal ions being sodium and bicarbonate. Although the hole was originally cored, to a depth of 2,214 feet, ,the present depth is about 2,100 feet. This report presents a preliminary evaluation of core examination, geophysical log interpretation and hydrological tests from the USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2. The cooperation of the U.S. Bureau of Mines is gratefully acknowledged. The reader is referred to Carroll and others (1967) for comparison of USBM/AEC Col0rado core hole No. 1 with USBM/AEC Colorado core hole No. 2.

  17. Paleomagnetism of the Astrobiology Drilling Project 8 drill core, Pilbara, Western Australia: implications for the early geodynamo and Archean tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, K.; Weiss, B.; Carporzen, L.; Anbar, A.; Buick, R.

    2008-12-01

    Paleomagnetic measurements from the Archean Pilbara craton have recently been used to argue for the presence of a substantial magnetic field at 3.2 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2007), as well as for extremely fast plate motions or true polar wander (Strik et al., 2003, Suganuma et al., 2006). Paleomagnetic records in the Archean are fundamentally limited by the scarcity of well-preserved, low metamorphic grade Archean rocks. Where such rocks are exposed, paleomagnetic sampling is often difficult or impossible due to pervasive lightning remagnetization and deep weathering of the cratonic surface. More pristine samples can potentially be obtained from shallow drill cores like those obtained by the Astrobiology Drilling Project (ABDP). We present a paleomagnetic analysis of the ~350 m deep ABDP-8 drill core, which was drilled in the East Strelley greenstone belt and which penetrated the Double Bar Formation of the Warrawoona Group, as well as the unconformably overlying Euro Basalt and Strelley Pool Chert units of the Kelly Group. Full sample orientation (declination and inclination) was achieved through the use of a Ballmark orientation system. A strong drilling overprint was removed for most samples by alternating field demagnetization to 20 mT. Subsequent thermal demagnetization revealed single-polarity magnetic directions within the Euro Basalt and Double Bar Formation carried by magnetite. The directions from these two Formations are statistically different to >95% confidence, which constitutes a positive unconformity test and indicates that the Euro Basalt direction is primary. Upon tilt correction, the ~3.34-3.37 Ga Euro Basalt direction is indistinguishable from the tilt-corrected direction found previously in the ~3.46 Ga Duffer Formation of the Warrawoona Group (McElhinny and Senanayake, 1980). The Euro Basalt direction, if taken at face value, implies small relative motion of the Pilbara Craton from ~3.46 Ga to ~3.34 Ga. This is inconsistent with the apparent polar wander path presented for the ~3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member of the Towers Formation (Suganuma et al., 2006). The lack of reversals in the sequence is consistent with a low reversal frequency in early Earth history, as has been suggested by dynamo models for the Earth with a small inner core (Coe and Glatzmaier, 2006).

  18. Petrologic studies of drill cores USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Caporuscio, F.; Vaniman, D.; Bish, D.; Broxton, D.; Arney, B.; Heiken, G.; Byers, F.; Gooley, R.; Semarge, E.

    1982-07-01

    The tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation as a possible deep geologic site for high-level radioactive waste disposal. This report characterizes tuff retrieved in core from two drill holes, USW-G2 and UE25b-1H, at the Yucca Mountain block. The USW-G2 drill core is from the northernmost extent of the block, whereas UE25b-1H is adjacent to an earlier drill hole, UE25a-1. The drill cores USW-G2 and UE25b-1H bottomed at 6000 and 4200 ft, respectively. Petrographic and x-ray diffraction studies of the two drill cores are presented in this report and indicate that tuffs (composed primarily of variably welded ash flows) are partially recrystallized to secondary minerals. Correlations of stratigraphy are also made with previous drill cores from Yucca Mountain.

  19. Geophysical constraints on extensional deformation at slow-spreading rate ridges and the evolution of oceanic core complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Antony; Pressling, Nicola; Gee, Jeffrey; John, Barbara; MacLeod, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip extensional detachment faults. The common occurrence of these structures in slow and ultra-slow spreading oceanic crust suggests they accommodate a significant component of plate divergence. However, the sub-surface geometry of oceanic detachment faults remains unclear. Competing models involve either: (a) displacement on planar, low-angle faults with little tectonic rotation; or (b) progressive shallowing by rotation of initially steeply dipping faults as a result of flexural unloading (the "rolling-hinge" model). We address this debate using paleomagnetic remanences to test for tectonic rotation of a unique 1.4 km long footwall section of gabbroic rocks recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 304/305 to Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). This forms an inside-corner bathymetric high at the intersection of the Atlantis Transform Fault and the MAR. The central dome of the massif exposes the corrugated detachment fault surface, which has tectonically unroofed a faulted and complexly layered footwall section dominated by gabbroic lithologies with minor ultramafic rocks. The core (IODP Hole U1309D) reflects the interplay between magmatism and deformation prior to, during, and subsequent to a period of footwall displacement and denudation associated with slip on the detachment fault. Palaeomagnetic remanence directions are routinely used as markers for tectonic rotation in a variety of tectonic settings, However, in ODP and IODP hard rock core materials their utility is limited by the lack of azimuthal control on the orientation of core samples. Individual core pieces are free to rotate within the core barrel, effectively randomising remanence declinations and allowing only the inclination of the magnetic vector to be used in tectonic analyses. In these circumstances, tectonic rotation may be inferred from differences between observed and reference inclinations, but the amount of rotation and the orientation of the rotation axis cannot be constrained directly. Robust, quantitative constraints on tectonic rotation parameters can only be obtained from fully oriented palaeomagnetic data (i.e. both remanence declination and inclination), yet current IODP hard rock drilling technologies do not permit collection of oriented drill core samples. For the first time we have overcome this limitation by independently reorienting core pieces to a true geographic reference frame by correlating structures within individual pieces with those identified from oriented geophysical imagery of the borehole wall. This allows reorientation of paleomagnetic data and subsequent tectonic interpretation without the need for a priori assumptions on the azimuth of the rotation axis. The resulting dataset from Atlantis Massif indicates a 466 counterclockwise rotation of the footwall around a MAR-parallel horizontal axis trending 0116. This provides unequivocal confirmation of the key prediction of flexural, rolling-hinge models for oceanic core complexes. The data demonstrate that the Atlantis Massif detachment fault initiated at a dip of at least 50 and subsequently rotated to its present day low angle geometry during extensional deformation and unroofing.

  20. Geophysical Signature of the Lake Bosumtwi Impact Crater from Pre-drilling Site Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banour, S.; Pohl, J.; Menyeh, A.; Milkereit, B.; Boadu, F.

    2006-12-01

    The Bosumtwi impact crater located near Kumasi, Ghana was formed by a meteorite impact about one million years ago and has a diameter of about 10.5 km. Geophysical investigations involving gravity and magnetic measurements were carried out at the Bosumtwi crater to determine the geophysical signature of the crater with the aim of understanding the impact process. Gravity data was acquired on land at 163 locations around the crater area, as well as on the shore of the lake. The separation between the gravity stations was 500 m for profiles which ran radially toward the lake, and 700 1000 m along roads and footpaths which ran parallel to the shore. In addition, marine gravity and magnetic surveys were carried out along 14 north-south and 15 east- west profiles on the lake with a line spacing of 800 m using a Garmin 235 Echo Sounder/GPS as a navigational tool. Results from gravity modelling showed that the gravity signature of the crater is characterized by a negative Bouguer anomaly with an amplitude roughly equal to 18 mgal. The results also indicated a central uplift at 250 m depth below the lake, thus confirming it as a complex impact crater. Magnetic modelling yielded a model for the causative body, which is located north of the central uplift. The model has a magnetic susceptibility of 0.03 SI and extends from 200 to 610 m depth below the lake surface. The causative body has been interpreted as magnetized bodies consisting of thin sheets of suevitic impact formations. These results serve as a contribution to the understanding of the impact process of this young crater.

  1. A Mentoring Program Drills down on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Emily; Sinclair, Steve; Gschwend, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Santa Cruz/Silicon Valley New Teacher Project--under the aegis of the New Teacher Center--devised a program to train teacher mentors to help new teachers incorporate the Common Core standards into their teaching. The three-year program yielded five critical lessons: Mentors need ongoing support to develop their readiness and willingness to

  2. A Mentoring Program Drills down on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Emily; Sinclair, Steve; Gschwend, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Santa Cruz/Silicon Valley New Teacher Project--under the aegis of the New Teacher Center--devised a program to train teacher mentors to help new teachers incorporate the Common Core standards into their teaching. The three-year program yielded five critical lessons: Mentors need ongoing support to develop their readiness and willingness to…

  3. Diaplectic transformation of minerals: Vorotilov drill core, Puchezh-Katunki impact crater, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, V. I.

    1992-01-01

    The Vorotilov core was drilled in the central uplift of the Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme to a depth of 5.1 km. Impactites are revealed in the rocks of the core beginning from a depth of 366 m: suevites (66 m), allogenic breccias (112 m), and autogenic breccias (deeper than 544 m). These rocks are represented by shocked-metamorphic gneisses, schists, amphibolites of Archean age, and magmatic rocks (dolerites, olivines, and peridotites) that lie between them.

  4. The remarkable chemical uniformity of Apollo 16 layered deep drill core section 60002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, D. F.; Philpotts, J. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Atomic absorption and colorimetric spectrophotometers were used to determine major- and minor-element abundances in 12 samples from layered section 60002 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. It is suggested that gardening of a relatively thick local unit produced the layering in this section in such a manner that the proportions of materials of different compositions remained virtually unchanged.

  5. Drilling and coring methods that minimize the disturbance of cuttings, core, and rock formation in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; McDaniel, J.C.

    1985-12-31

    A drilling-and-casing method (Odex 115 system) utilizing air as a drilling fluid was used successfully to drill through various rock types within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper describes this method and the equipment used to rapidly penetrate bouldery alluvial-colluvial deposits, poorly consolidated bedded and nonwelded tuff, and fractured, densely welded tuff to depths of about 130 meters. A comparison of water-content and water-potential data from drill cuttings with similar measurements on rock cores indicates that drill cuttings were only slightly disturbed for several of the rock types penetrated. Coring, sampling, and handling methods were devised to obtain minimally disturbed drive core from bouldery alluvial-colluvial deposits. Bulk-density values obtained from bulk samples dug from nearby trenches were compared to bulk-density values obtained from drive core to determine the effects of drive coring on the porosity of the core. Rotary coring methods utilizing a triple-tube core barrel and air as the drilling fluid were used to obtain core from welded and nonwelded tuff. Results indicate that the disturbance of the water content of the core was minimal. Water-content distributions in alluvium-colluvium were determined before drilling occurred by drive-core methods. After drilling, water-content distributions were determined by nuclear-logging methods. A comparison of the water-content distributions made before and after drilling indicates that Odex 115 drilling minimally disturbs the water content of the formation rock. 10 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Pervasive, high temperature hydrothermal alteration in the RN-17B drill core, Reykjanes Geothermal System-Iceland Deep Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Reed, M. H.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2010-12-01

    In November 2008, 9.5 m of core were recovered from Reykjanes production well RN-17B at a depth of 2800m. The core consists mainly of hyaloclastite breccias, hetrolithic breccias with clasts of crystalline basalt, and volcaniclastic sandstones/siltstones. Much of the material appears to have been transported and redeposited, but homolithic breccias and hyaloclastites, some with upright flow lobes of basalt with quenched rims, are interpreted to have erupted in situ. Fine-scale features (glass rims, quench crystals, vesicles, phenocrysts) are well preserved, but all lithologies are pervasively hydrothermally altered such that primary clinopyroxene is ubiquitously uralitized and primary plagioclase (An42-80) is replaced by albite and/or more calcic plagioclase. In contrast, cuttings of similar lithologies, recovered by rotary drilling in intervals immediately above and below the core, exhibit much lesser degrees of hydrothermal alteration and commonly contain igneous plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Vitric clasts in the core are recrystallized into aggregates of chlorite and actinolite. In some breccias, cm-scale metadomains are composed of patchy albite or actinolite/magnesiohornblende giving the core a green and white spotted appearance. Minor amounts (<1%) of disseminated pyrite occur throughout the core, but two intervals with more abundant sulfide contain chalcopyrite and sphalerite in addition to pyrite. Amygdales and vugs in the breccias, initially filled with chlorite, actinolite, epidote, and/or albite, have been partly overprinted with hornblende and anorthite. The core is cut in places by < 1 cm- wide veins composed of early epidote + actinolite + titanite and later anorthite + magnesiohornblende/pargasite. Quartz is not present in any alteration domains observed in the core, although it is reported from virtually all of the cutting intervals above and below the cored section. Seawater-basalt reaction calculations suggest that albite formed during early burial at T<300 is replaced by more calcic plagioclase at higher temperature. Texturally, hydrothermal anorthite (An90-98) and pargasite (up to 13.5 wt % Al2O3) appear to have grown at the expense of earlier formed epidote + chlorite + actinolite. Measured downhole temperature at 2800m in RN-17B following reequilibration was 320°C, although amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry imply that anorthite + pargasite, if in equilibrium, should have formed at much higher temperatures. The differences in extent and intensity of alteration inferred from examination of cuttings compared to drill core indicate that selective recovery and mixing of cuttings from multiple depths may be a larger problem than presently appreciated. Previous work has shown that the Reykjanes geothermal system has evolved from a meteoric water-dominated system to higher salinity system dominated by seawater-recharge. The paragenetic relationships that are discernible in the core hopefully will allow us to quantify the alteration processes related to the change in salinity.

  7. Paleomagnetic Reorientation of Structural Elements in Drill Cores: an example from Tolhuaca Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Flores, P.; Veloso, E. E.; Cembrano, J. M.; Sánchez, P.; Iriarte, S.; Lohmar, S.

    2013-12-01

    Reorientation of mesoscopic faults, veins and fractures recovered from drilling is critical to construct reliable structural models that can account for their architecture and deformation regime. However, oriented cores are expensive and time consuming to drill. Some techniques achieve reorientation by introducing tools into the borehole. Problems arise when boreholes are unstable or collapse. One alternative technique allowing reorientation is to obtain reliable paleomagnetic vectors to reorient each core piece after drilling. Here, we present stable and reliable remnant magnetic vectors calculated from the Tol-1 core to analyze the geometry of the fracture network and its relationship to regional tectonic. Tol-1 core is a vertical, 1073 m deep geothermal well, drilled at the Tolhuaca Geothermal Field in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes by MRP Geothermal Chile Ltda (formerly GGE Chile SpA) in 2009. The core consists of basaltic/andesitic volcanic rocks with subordinate pyroclastic/volcaniclastic units, with probable Pleistocene age. Fault planes with slickenlines and mineral fiber kinematic indicators are common in the upper 700 m of the core. Calcite, quartz and calcite-quartz veins are recognized along of entire core, whereas epidote-quartz and calcite-epidote veins occur in the last 350 m, minor chlorite, anhydrite and clay-minerals are present. Orientations of structural features in the core were measured with a goniometer using the core's axis and a false north for each piece; hence, orientation data has a false strike but a real dip. To achieve total reorientation of the pieces, we collected 200 standard-size paleomagnetic specimens, ensuring that at least four of them were recovered from continuous pieces. Thermal (up to 700°C) and alternating field demagnetization (up to 90mT on steps of 2mT) methods were used to isolate a stable remnant magnetization (RM) vector, and each technique yielded similar results. RM vectors were recovered between 0 to 25mT, and between 0 to 625°C. The declination of RM vectors was used to bring pieces to a common anchor orientation calculated through the Geocentric Axial Dipole Model (GAD). The paleomagnetic technique proved to be reliable to reorient the Tol-1 core. Structural analyses along the core show N50-60E-striking preferential vein orientation. In addition, N40-50E- and N60-70W-striking preferential fault orientations were identified. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data shows a N60E-striking bulk fault plane solution with normal strain regime. The veins and faults orientation show strain axes compatible with published regional stress field (σmax N238E).

  8. Geologic and geophysical data for wells drilled at Raft River Valley, Cassia County, Idaho, in 1977-1978 and data for wells drilled previously

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel; Urban, Thomas C.; Covington, Harry R.

    2014-01-01

    For purposes of defining the thermal anomaly for the geothermal system, temperature gradients are calculated over long depth intervals on the basis of the appearance of reasonable linear segments on a temperature versus plot depth. Temperature versus depth data for some drill holes can be represented by a single gradient, whereas others require multiple gradients to match the data. Data for some drill holes clearly reflect vertical flows of water in the formation surrounding the drill holes, and water velocities are calculated for these drill holes. Within The Narrows area, temperature versus depth data show reversals at different depth in different drill holes. In the main thermal area, temperatures in intermediate-depth drill holes vary approximately linearly but with very high values of temperature gradient. Temperature gradients on a map of the area can be reasonable divided into a large area of regional gradients and smaller areas defining the thermal anomalies.

  9. The Apollo 17 drill core - Modal petrology and glass chemistry /sections 70007, 70008, 70009/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of modal petrography the upper, mare basalt-rich portion of the Apollo 17 drill core (sections 70007, 70008, 70009) can be subdivided into three major stratigraphic units. The lower unit (a) falls within 70007, is relatively mature, and contains evidence of an increase in highland component and decrease of mare component within the lower approximately 8 cm. The middle unit (b) is coarse-grained and relatively immature; this unit has the highest concentration of mare basalt lithic and mineral fragments and mare orange/black glasses. The top unit (c) falls within 70009 and is relatively mature. Within these three sections of the drill core, there are compositional clusters of glass beads that correspond to high Ti subfloor basalt (orange/black glass), anorthositic gabbro (clear glass), and a new very low Ti (VLT) mare basalt (yellow/green glass).

  10. Core drilling provides information about Santa Fe Group aquifer system beneath Albuquerque's West Mesa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, B.D.; Connell, S.D.; Hawley, J.W.; Stone, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Core samples from the upper ???1500 ft of the Santa Fe Group in the Albuquerque West Mesa area provide a first-hand look at the sediments and at subsurface stratigraphic relationships in this important part of the basin-fill aquifer system. Two major hydrostratigraphic subunits consisting of a lower coarse-grained, sandy interval and an overlying fine-grained, interbedded silty sand and clay interval lie beneath the water table at the 98th St core hole. Borehole electrical conductivity measurements reproduce major textural changes observed in the recovered cores and support subsurface correlations of hydrostratigraphic units in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system based on geophysical logs. Comparison of electrical logs from the core hole and from nearby city wells reveals laterally consistent lithostratigraphic patterns over much of the metropolitan area west of the Rio Grande that may be used to delineate structural and related stratigraphic features that have a direct bearing on the availability of ground water.

  11. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N. B.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjr, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 7537.61' N, 3556.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  12. Mineralogic variation in drill core UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S.J.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction methods have been used to analyze 108 samples from drill core UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This drill hole, located within the imbricate fault zone east of the potential Yucca Mountain repository site, confirms the authors` previous knowledge of gross-scale mineral distributions at Yucca Mountain and provides insight into possible shallow pathways for hydrologic recharge into the potential host rock. Analyses of samples from UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 have shown that the distribution of major zeolitized horizons, of silica phases, and of glassy tuffs are similar to those noted in nearby drill cores. However, the continuous core and closer sample spacing in UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 provide a more exact determination of mineral stratigraphy, particularly in hydrologically important units such as the Paintbrush bedded tuffs above the Topopah Spring Tuff and in the upper vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Tuff. The discovery of matrix zeolitization in the devitrified Topopah Spring Tuff of UE25 UZ{number_sign}16 shows that some unexpected mineralogic features can still be encountered in the exploration of Yucca Mountain and emphasizes the importance of obtaining a more complete three-dimensional model of Yucca Mountain mineralogy.

  13. Characterization of the indigenous microorganisms in Exter Formation sandstone rock cores obtained during deep drilling and evaluation of contamination by drill mud using fluorescein.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzari, Linda; Neumann, Dominik; Wrdemann, Hilke

    2013-04-01

    Microorganisms are very effective catalysts and have an important function in mineral and elemental distribution within geological formations. CO2 injection may influence the microbial activities by affecting the composition of the rock-fluid system. Reactions like mineral dissolution and precipitation, related to biological processes may influence aquifer injectivity or permeability of faults. In subsurface reservoirs, a baseline characterization of pristine rock cores is required to monitor changes in the indigenous microbial communities and to study interactions with geotechnical installations. However, drilling procedures and technical fluids, particularly drill mud, are sources of core contamination. To measure the penetration of drill mud into the cores the tracer fluorescein was tested under laboratory as well as under field conditions. The actual penetration depths seem to be related to differences in geology, such as structural heterogeneities or microfractures. The application of fluorescein was successfully applied during a deep drilling campaign at the CO2 storage pilot site in Ketzin, Germany, in August 2011. During inner coring, crowns of 17.5 mm were removed from the outside. Fluorescein analysis showed that after an inner coring 45% (five samples out of eleven) were not influenced by drill mud. The results highlight that the use of tracers is indispensable to ensuring the quality of core samples for microbiological and biogeochemical analysis. Core samples of the Exter Formation (sandstone above the caprock, 400-440 m depth) were retrieved in order to investigate the indigenous microbial community and to investigate the interaction between CO2, fluid formation, rock substrate and microorganisms in long term experiments with geochemical and molecularbiological techniques. The microbial baseline characterization for rock cores of Exter Formation before CO2 exposure revealed a similar bacterial community composition in all samples. First results of sequence analyses indicated the presence of bacteria related to Acinetobacter sp., Comamonadaceae and Sphingobium sp. which can be found in various deep subsurface or soil habitats (e.g. Ochrobactrum sp.).

  14. Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice. PMID:24450335

  15. Lithologic and geophysical logs of drill holes Felderhoff Federal 5-1 and 25-1, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.; Grow, J.A.; Keller, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    Two wildcat oil and gas exploration holes drilled in 1991 on the northern edge of the Amargosa Desert penetrated Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks, alluvium, and basalt, possible Tertiary volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks, and Tertiary (?) and Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The easternmost of the two holes, Felderhoff-Federal 5-1, encountered about 200 feet of alluvium, underlain by 305 feet of basalt breccia and basalt, about 345 feet of probable Tertiary tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and 616 feet of dense limestone and dolomite of uncertain age. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated 240 feet of alluvium and marl (?), and 250 feet of basalt breccia (?) and basalt, 270 feet of tuff (?) and/or tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, 360 feet of slide blocks (?) and large boulders of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and 2,800 feet of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite. The two drill holes are located within a northerly trending fault zone defined largely by geophysical data; this fault zone lies along the east side of a major rift containing many small basalt eruptive centers and, farther north, several caldera complexes. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated an inverted paleozoic rock sequence; drill hole 5-1 encountered two large cavities 24-inches wide or more in dense carbonate rock of uncertain, but probable Paleozoic age. These openings may be tectonic and controlled by a regional system of northeast-striking faults.

  16. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjr, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75 37.61' N, 3556.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that a deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  17. First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC-1): Drilling report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.; Hawkins, W.; Gardner, J.

    1987-02-01

    This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at Long Valley, California; Salton Sea, California; and the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy of the core hole, core quality description, core rig specifications, and performance. It is intended to guide future research on the core and in the borehole, as well as have applications to other areas and scientific problems in the Valles Caldera. The primary objectives of this Valles Caldera coring effort were (1) to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow, (2) to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations in the southern ring-fracture zone, and (3) to obtain continuous core samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito rhyolite (approximately 0.1 Ma). All objectives were met. The high percentage of core recovery and the excellent quality of the samples are especially notable. New field sample (core) handling and documentation procedures were successfully utilized. The procedures were designed to provide consistent field handling of the samples and logs obtained through the national CSDP.

  18. Preliminary Palaeomagnetic Results from ICDP Barberton Greenstone Belt Scientific Drill Cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts Artal, Laura; Biggin, Andy; Langereis, Cor; Wilson, Allan; Arndt, Nicholas; Hill, Mimi

    2013-04-01

    Four drill cores from the ICDP Barberton Greenstone Belt Scientific Drilling Project have been sampled for palaeomagnetic analysis. Some 350 oriented mini-samples (10mm diameter) were collected from cores BARB1 to BARB 4, allowing units from the Onverwacht (Komatii and Hooggenoeg Formations) and Fig Tree Groups to be studied. Previous work has indicated that rocks from the Noisy and Hooggenoeg Formations have the potential to record a near-primary direction of remanence and suggest the presence of a reversing geomagnetic field of similar magnitude to the recent field at ca. 3.5Ga. Previous paleomagnetic studies carried out on the Komatii Formation have yielded one of the oldest paleomagnetic poles and intensities in the world but these results are even more questionable. So far, no paleomagnetic work has been carried out on the Buck Reef Chert Formation or the Fig Tree Group. This sampling forms part of a larger study aiming, firstly to constrain the reliability of previous results by performing improved field stability tests. A positive fold test would constrain the age of the magnetic signal recorded by the Komatii and Hooggenoeg Formations to older than 3.2 Ga. Confirmation of the presence of a viable and reversing field during the Palaeoarchean would place a strong constraint on processes occurring in the outer core during this time with implications for planetary evolution. Rates of polar wander will also be constrained by the directional findings, shedding some light on mantle convection processes at the time. Preliminary directional work on samples from drill cores will be presented here.

  19. Strike-dip determination of fractures in drill cores by an astatic-magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, M.; Furutani, N.

    1982-10-01

    The strike and dip of fractures in drillcores from Well HT-4 drilled in the Hatchobaru geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan, have been determined using an astatic-magnetometer. Since the drill cores consist mainly of younger andesite lavas, the measurements of the declination and inclination of remnant magnetism should yield the strike and dip of the fractures. The results show that they dip generally southward with angles from 40/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ (62.5 on the average), and strike NW-SE or NE-SW. The NW-SE trending fractures predominate in the Pleistocene series, which persists at depths shallower than 1000 m, while the NE-SW trending ones occur in the Neogene system at deeper levels, and are considered to be older than the former. The stress field can also be estimated by the strike-dip data and the direction of lineation on a slickenside.

  20. Carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wszolek, P. C.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores is a function of the surface exposure plus the chemical and mineralogical composition of the individual samples. The depth profiles of carbide and methane yields in the Apollo 15 core show a general decline with depth and correlate with the solar wind noble gas content, percentage agglutinates, track densities, and metallic iron. All horizons examined were exposed for a considerable time on the lunar surface. The Apollo 16 core samples show that chemical and mineralogical composition plays an important role in determining the nature of carbide-like material present in the fines. The higher aluminum and calcium contents and lower iron contents of highlands material result in carbide-like material yielding less CD4 and more C2D2 (deuteroacetylene) upon DF acid dissolution.

  1. Quaternary paleoceanography of the central Arctic based on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Arctic Coring Expedition 302 foraminiferal assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Smith, S.A.; Eynaud, F.; O'Regan, M.; King, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) Hole 4C from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean recovered a continuous 18 in record of Quaternary foraminifera yielding evidence for seasonally ice-free interglacials during the Matuyama, progressive development of large glacials during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) ???1.2-0.9 Ma, and the onset of high-amplitude 100-ka orbital cycles ???500 ka. Foraminiferal preservation in sediments from the Arctic is influenced by primary (sea ice, organic input, and other environmental conditions) and secondary factors (syndepositional, long-term pore water dissolution). Taking these into account, the ACEX 4C record shows distinct maxima in agglutinated foraminiferal abundance corresponding to several interglacials and deglacials between marine isotope stages (MIS) 13-37, and although less precise dating is available for older sediments, these trends appear to continue through the Matuyama. The MPT is characterized by nearly barren intervals during major glacials (MIS 12, 16, and 22-24) and faunal turnover (MIS 12-24). Abundant calcareous planktonic (mainly Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sin.) and benthic foraminifers occur mainly in interglacial intervals during the Brunhes and very rarely in the Matuyama. A distinct faunal transition from calcareous to agglutinated foraminifers 200-300 ka in ACEX 4C is comparable to that found in Arctic sediments from the Lomonosov, Alpha, and Northwind ridges and the Morris Jesup Rise. Down-core disappearance of calcareous taxa is probably related to either reduced sea ice cover prior to the last few 100-ka cycles, pore water dissolution, or both. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Geophysical signatures of past and present hydration within a young oceanic core complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Donna K.; Slagle, Angela; Guerin, Gilles; Harding, Alistair

    2014-02-01

    Borehole logging at the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex provides new information on the relationship between the physical properties and the lithospheric hydration of a slow-spread intrusive crustal section. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1309D penetrates 1.4 km into the footwall to an exposed detachment fault on the 1.2 Ma flank of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30N. Downhole variations in seismic velocity and resistivity show a strong correspondence to the degree of alteration, a recorder of past seawater circulation. Average velocity and resistivity are lower, and alteration is more pervasive above a fault around 750 m. Deeper, these properties have higher values except in heavily altered ultramafic zones that are several tens of meters thick. Present circulation inferred from temperature mimics this pattern: advective cooling persists above 750 m, but below, conductive cooling dominates except for small excursions within the ultramafic zones. These alteration-related physical property signatures are probably a characteristic of gabbroic cores at oceanic core complexes.

  3. Procedures for use of, and drill cores and cuttings available for study at, the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.C.; Hannula, S.R.; Bowers, B.

    1997-03-01

    In 1990, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, established the Lithologic Core Storage Library at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The facility was established to consolidate, catalog, and permanently store nonradioactive drill cores and cuttings from investigations of the subsurface conducted at the INEL, and to provide a location for researchers to examine, sample, and test these materials. The facility is open by appointment to researchers for examination, sampling, and testing of cores and cuttings. This report describes the facility and cores and cuttings stored at the facility. Descriptions of cores and cuttings include the well names, well locations, and depth intervals available. Most cores and cuttings stored at the facility were drilled at or near the INEL, on the eastern Snake River Plain; however, two cores drilled on the western Snake River Plain are stored for comparative studies. Basalt, rhyolite, sedimentary interbeds, and surficial sediments compose the majority of cores and cuttings, most of which are continuous from land surface to their total depth. The deepest core stored at the facility was drilled to 5,000 feet below land surface. This report describes procedures and researchers` responsibilities for access to the facility, and examination, sampling, and return of materials.

  4. Rare gases and Ca, Sr, and Ba in Apollo 17 drill-core fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.; Dragon, J. C.; Johnson, N. L.; Bates, A.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Trapped gas isotopic compositions and spallation gas concentrations as functions of depth in the Apollo 17 drill core were determined from mass spectrometer studies by means of correlation techniques. The distribution of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe as well as Ca, Sr, and Ba was investigated, and rare-gas spallation and neutron capture profiles are compared with attention to proposed depositional models for the Taurus-Littrow regolith. The data exclude a sedimentation pattern similar to that found at the Apollo 15 site but are possibly compatible with long-term continuous accretion models or models of very recent rapid accumulation of regolith.

  5. Study of Hydrothermal Mineralization in 2013 Drill Core from Hawaii Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautze, N. C.; Calvin, W. M.; Moore, J.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project (HGRP) drilled a continuously-cored hole to nearly 2 km depth near the Saddle Road between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island in March of 2013. Temperatures at the bottom of the hole were unexpectedly high and reached over 100 C. A study is underway to characterize hydrothermal (secondary) mineralization in the core at depths below ~ 1 km. Secondary mineralization can indicate the presence, chemistry, and temperature of hydrothermal fluids, therein helping to characterize a present and/or past geothermal system. To date, the study is two pronged. In collaboration with University Nevada Reno (UNR) we used an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec instrument to obtain nearly 800 spectra from core depths spanning 3190 to 5785 feet. This device has a 2 cm contact probe that measures from 0.4 to 2.5 mm, and has been used successfully by UNR to identify depth-associated changes in alteration mineralogy and zoning in drill core from other pilot studies. The spectra indicate that rocks above a depth of ~1 km are only weakly altered. At greater depths to the base of the well, chlorite, possibly with some mica, and zeolites are common. The majority of zeolites are spectrally similar to each other at these wavelengths, however analcime and natrolite are uniquely identified in some sections. Epidote was not observed. The secondary mineral assemblages suggest that the alteration was produced by moderate temperature neutral pH fluids. Here, we used the spectral data as a survey tool to help identify and select over 20 sections of core for sampling and more detailed mineralogical analysis using traditional X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and petrographic techniques, conducted in collaboration with University of Utah. This presentation will include mineral maps with depth and results of the petrographic analyses.

  6. Characterization and depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Gose, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    With a depth resolution of about 0.5 cm, the stratigraphy of the approximately 3 m Apollo 17 deep drill core by measurement of the total FeO concentration is characterized along with the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index Is/FeO, the metallic iron concentration Fe-vsm, and the FMR linewidth delta-H. For stratigraphic characterization, the first two parameters are the most important. Most of the core is characterized by a FeO concentration of approximately 15.5 wt. %; there is a more mafic zone in the upper approximately 75 cm where the maximum FeO concentration is approximately 18.5 wt. %, and a more felsic zone between approximately 225 and 260 cm where the minimum FeO concentration is approximately 14.0%. As indicated by Is/FeO, most of the soil in the core is submature to mature; the only immature zone is located between approximately 20 and 60 cm and is one of the most distinctive features in the core. A two stage model for the depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core is proposed: (1) deposition by one event approximately 110 m.y. ago or deposition by a sequence of closely spaced events initating a maximum of approximately 200 m.y. ago and terminating approximately 110 m.y. ago, (2) in situ reworking (gardening) to a depth of approximately 26 cm in the period between approximately 110 m.y. ago and the present day.

  7. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential investigators who can help raise matching funds, e.g. for core description as part of petrological or structural studies or for drill site operations, are encouraged to contact the authors of this abstract.

  8. Interrelating the breakage and composition of mined and drill core coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Terril Edward

    Particle size distribution of coal is important if the coal is to be beneficiated, or if a coal sales contract includes particle size specifications. An exploration bore core sample of coal ought to be reduced from its original cylindrical form to a particle size distribution and particle composition that reflects, insofar as possible, a process stream of raw coal it represents. Often, coal cores are reduced with a laboratory crushing machine, the product of which does not match the raw coal size distribution. This study proceeds from work in coal bore core reduction by Australian investigators. In this study, as differentiated from the Australian work, drop-shatter impact breakage followed by dry batch tumbling in steel cylinder rotated about its transverse axis are employed to characterize the core material in terms of first-order and zeroth-order breakage rate constants, which are indices of the propensity of the coal to degrade during excavation and handling. Initial drop-shatter and dry tumbling calibrations were done with synthetic cores composed of controlled low-strength concrete incorporating fly ash (as a partial substitute for Portland cement) in order to reduce material variables and conserve difficult-to-obtain coal cores. Cores of three different coalbeds--Illinois No. 6, Upper Freeport, and Pocahontas No. 5 were subjected to drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling tests to determine breakage response. First-order breakage, characterized by a first-order breakage index for each coal, occurred in the drop-shatter tests. First- and zeroth-order breakage occurred in dry batch tumbling; disappearance of coarse particles and creation of fine particles occurred in a systematic way that could be represented mathematically. Certain of the coal cores available for testing were dry and friable. Comparison of coal preparation plant feed with a crushed bore core and a bore core prepared by drop-shatter and tumbling (all from the same Illinois No.6 coal mining property) indicated that the size distribution and size fraction composition of the drop-shattered/tumbled core more closely resembled the plant feed than the crushed core. An attempt to determine breakage parameters (to allow use of selection and breakage functions and population balance models in the description of bore core size reduction) was initiated. Rank determination of the three coal types was done, indicating that higher rank associates with higher breakage propensity. The two step procedure of drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling simulates the first-order (volume breakage) and zeroth-order (abrasion of particle surfaces) that occur in excavation and handling operations, and is appropriate for drill core reduction prior to laboratory analysis.

  9. The Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP): a high-resolution drill core record from a hominin site in the East African Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommain, R.; Potts, R.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The East African rift valley contains an outstanding record of hominin fossils that document human evolution over the Plio-Pleistocene when the global and regional climate and the rift valley itself changed markedly. The sediments of fossil localities typically provide, however, only short time windows into past climatic and environmental conditions. Continuous, long-term terrestrial records are now becoming available through core drilling to help elucidate the paleoenvironmental context of human evolution. Here we present a 500,000 year long high-resolution drill core record obtained from a key fossil and archeological site - the Olorgesailie Basin in the southern Kenya Rift Valley, well known for its sequence of archeological and faunal sites for the past 1.2 million years. In 2012 two drill cores (54 and 166 m long) were collected in the Koora Plain just south of Mt. Olorgesailie as part of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP) to establish a detailed climate and ecological record associated with the last evidence of Homo erectus in Africa, the oldest transition of Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology, and large mammal species turnover, all of which are documented in the Olorgesailie excavations. The cores were sampled at the National Lacustrine Core Facility. More than 140 samples of tephra and trachytic basement lavas have led to high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating. The cores are being analyzed for a suite of paleoclimatic and paleoecological proxies such as diatoms, pollen, fungal spores, phytoliths, ostracodes, carbonate isotopes, leaf wax biomarkers, charcoal, and clay mineralogy. Sedimentological analyses, including lithological descriptions, microscopic smear slide analysis (242 samples), and grain-size analysis, reveal a highly variable sedimentary sequence of deep lake phases with laminated sediments, diatomites, shallow lake and near shore phases, fluvial deposits, paleosols, interspersed carbonate layers, and abundant volcanic ash deposits. Magnetic susceptibility indicates climatic variation potentially related to precessional cycles.

  10. Borehole logging at the COSC-1 drill hole: a new dataset of in-situ geophysical properties through the lower Seve Nappe Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, Théo; Alm, Per-Gunnar; Wenning, Quinn; Almqvist, Bjarne; Kück, Jochem; Hedin, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) drilling project supported by the International Continental Drilling Program was designed to study mountain building processes in a deeply eroded Paleozoic orogen. The first half of this project, COSC-1, targeted the lower part of the high grade Seve Nappe Complex and its basal thrust zone near Åre in the Jämtland county, Sweden. From May to August 2014, the COSC drilling crew drilled to a depth of 2496 m from the surface with an almost fully recovered core sample. During this drilling period, four borehole-logging runs have been conducted by Lund University with a low impact on drilling schedule and two supplementary ones once the drilling was completed. Three-Arm Caliper, Electrical Logging, Sidewall Density, Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity, High Resolution Acoustic Televiewer and Full Waveform Sonic sondes have been used to investigate in-situ physical properties of the borehole. In addition, the ICDP operational support group has conducted two continuous borehole-logging runs from the surface to the bottom of the COSC-1 borehole in September and October. Due to technical problems, some of the planned logging have not been completed, however natural gamma, rock resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature and fluid conductivity have been measured all along the borehole. We used the continuous natural gamma log from the ICDP logging group as the depth reference to depth-match and stack the composite borehole logging done during the drilling. These borehole logging operations result in reliable continuous data of resistivity, density, velocity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature, fluid conductivity, pressure, diameter as well as an image (amplitude and travel time of reflected ultrasounds) of the borehole till its bottom. Only the density, velocity and image datasets stop at 1600 m depth due to instrumentation limits. Preliminary conclusions from the borehole logging data show a stripped pattern of density correlated with velocity, which underlines the varying composition of the gneisses observed in the first 1600 m core. Pressure and temperature condition at the bottom of the borehole reach almost reach 55°C and 25 MPa. Moreover, some of the fracture zones observed in the borehole image provided by the acoustic televiewer seem to be associated with hydraulic active zones detected by spikes in the fluid conductivity logs and can also be correlated to those seen in the drill core.

  11. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala geothermal gradient core hole drilling, operations, and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J. ); Duffield, W. ); Martinelli, L.; Aycinena, S. ); Castaneda, O. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1990-01-01

    A geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to a depth of 700+ m at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala during February and March, 1990. The core hole is located low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. Preliminary analysis of cores (>98% core recovery) indicates that the hydrothermal system may be centered in the 4-km-diameter Chupadero Crater, which has been proposed as the source of pyroxene pumice deposits in the Tecuamburro area. TCB-1 is located 300 m south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco; the core hole penetrates the thin edge of a tuff ring surrounding Ixpaco and zones of hydrothermal brecciation within the upper 150 m may be related to the phreatic blast, dated at 2,910 {sup 14}C years. At the time of this writing, the unequilibrated temperature at a depth of 570m was 180{degree}C. Data on fracturing, permeability, hydrothermal alteration, and temperature will be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Geochemical Characteristics of Core Samples from IODP Expedition 343, Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Matsuoka, J.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343 drilled three holes through the plate boundary near the Japan Trench to investigate the cause of very large fault slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In this paper, we report trace element compositions of the core samples, including plate-boundary fault rocks, recovered from Hole C0019E. The rocks in the C0019E are lithologically subdivided into seven units (Chester et al., Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Vol. 343/343T, 2013): Units 1 to 3, wedge sediments of upper plate; Unit 4, plate-boundary fault; Units 5 to 7, sediments of lower plate. In this study, we analyzed the rocks from six lithological units except for Unit 7 (chert) using ICP-MS. The core samples analyzed all show trace element characteristics of typical marine sediments, but there exist some differences between the compositions of upper plate sediments, plate-boundary fault rocks and lower plate sediments. The clay-rich plate-boundary fault rocks (Unit 4) are characterized by elevated concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and some refractory metals, and are distinct from any other JFAST samples in terms of trace element characteristics. Brown mudstones of lower plate (Unit 5) show trace element characteristics (e.g. REE pattern) roughly similar to those of upper plate sediments (Units 1 to 3), but they are still distinguishable each other. Varicolored sediments of lower plate (Unit 6) show highly varied trace element compositions. Some of them show large negative Ce anomaly, and are distinct from any other JFAST samples. These observations show clear relationship between the lithological units and the trace element characteristics of the JFAST samples. It seems that in Units 1 to 3 and Units 5 to 7 there is no sedimentary rock equivalent to the protolith of the plate-boundary fault rocks, which provides a key for understanding the origin of the plate-boundary fault at the Japan Trench.

  13. Visible-Near Infrared Point Spectrometry of Drill Core Samples from Ro Tinto, Spain: Results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) Drilling Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Ro Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  14. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Ro Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Ro Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

  15. Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Wilkens, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations ot the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. The COSC-1 drill core - a geological sample through a hot allochthon and the underlying thrust zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne; Berthet, Théo; Klonowska, Iwona

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) supported Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project has the aim to study mountain building processes in a major Paleozoic orogen. COSC-1, drilled in 2014 near Åre (Sweden), was planned to sample a section from the hot allochthon of the Lower Seve Nappe through the thrust zone and into the underlying less metamorphic rocks of the Särv and/or Jämtlandian nappes. Diamond core drilling operations resulted in 2396.0 m of drill core with only about 2.5 m documented core loss (technical failure of the core catcher). Down to about 1800 m, the COSC-1 drill hole penetrated a succession that is dominated by gneisses of varying compositions (felsic, amphibole, calc-silicate gneisses, and more), often garnet and diopside bearing. Meta-gabbros and amphibolites are common and apparently correlate well with seismic reflectors between 500 and 1000 m depth. Also marbles, pegmatite dykes and minor mylonites occur. These rocks are highly strained. Small scale structures (e.g. isoclinal folding) are occasionally discernible in the narrow section provided by the drill cores. (Young) Fractures are sparse. Only a set of very steep fractures results in fluid conduction zones at several levels throughout the drill hole. At 175 m and between 1200 and 1300 m, this results in the dissolution of calcite-rich bands in the gneisses to form "micro-karst". First signs of the thrust zone below the Seve Nappe appear just below 1700 m in form of narrow deformation bands and thin mylonites. The mylonites increase in thickness and reach a thickness of around 1 m between 1900 and 2000 m. Below c. 2100 m, mylonites are dominating and garnets become common (but are not present in all mylonites). The deepest rock of mafic origin (possibly amphibolite in the Seve Nappe) was identified at 2314 m, a transition from gneiss into lower grade metasedimentary rocks occurs between 2345 and 2360 m. The lower part of the drill core to TD is dominated by quartzites and meta-arkoses (field name) of unclear tectonostratigraphic position that are mylonitised to varying degree. The drill hole does not penetrate the base of the thrust zone. The rocks sampled in the lowermost part of the drill core are the thickest mylonites encountered, tens of metres thick and (again) rich in garnet. Geological conclusions with relevance to mountain building have to wait for detailed analysis of the drill core. However, direct observations are: - The gneisses of the Lower Seve Nappe are much more homogenous than expected. - Thick (hundreds of metres) mafic bodies (Arnbom 1980, and unpublished geological maps) are absent. The maximum thickness in the drill core is about 30 m. - The thrust zone below the Seve Nappe is much thicker than expected. After more than 500 m the lower boundary was not encountered. - The drill hole seems to leave the Seve Nappe and enter lower grade metamorphic rocks. However, the mylonites at the bottom of the drill hole contain many and large garnets (up to cm size).

  17. A first chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, S. O.; Abbott, P. M.; Blunier, T.; Bourne, A. J.; Brook, E.; Buchardt, S. L.; Buizert, C.; Chappellaz, J.; Clausen, H. B.; Cook, E.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Davies, S. M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Laepple, T.; Seierstad, I. K.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Steffensen, J. P.; Stowasser, C.; Svensson, A.; Vallelonga, P.; Vinther, B. M.; Wilhelms, F.; Winstrup, M.

    2013-12-01

    A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core has been derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) and its model extension (GICC05modelext) from the NGRIP core to the NEEM core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) and dielectrical profiling (DEP) records. Tephra horizons found in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the matching based on ECM and DEP and provide five additional horizons used for the timescale transfer. A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard-Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age horizons. In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice age-gas age difference (?age) has been reconstructed using a coupled firn densification-heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the ?age model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to optimize the fit to timing constraints from ?15N of nitrogen and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onset of Greenland interstadials. The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM core, named GICC05modelext-NEEM-1. Based on both the flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history for the NEEM site has been reconstructed. Together, the timescale and accumulation reconstruction provide the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.

  18. Mineralogical and petrological investigations of rocks cored from depths higher than 440m during the CFDDP drilling activities at the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormone, Angela; Piochi, Monica; Balassone, Giuseppina; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera is one of the highest-risk volcanic areas on the Earth and the drilling exploiting activities carried by the Azienda Geologica Italiana Petroli (AGIP) and the Societ Anonima Forze Endogene Napoletane (SAFEN) since the '40 have produced the main constrains to the definition of the subsurface structure of the caldera. The eastern part of the caldera represents among the least known in the area in terms of both volcanic and geothermal evolution. Recently, in the 2012, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) allowed performing a 506m hole in this sector of the caldera, i.e. in the Bagnoli Plain, where the western districts of the Neapolitan city developed. Here, we present the preliminary results from mineralogical, geochemical and petrological investigations of drilling core samples collected at -443 m and -506 m of depths. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microanalysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) together with investigations by back-scattered electron mode (SEM-BSE), and powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) allowed: 1) defining the primary sample lithology; 2) examining the features of both primary and secondary minerals; 3) describing the relationships among texture and secondary mineralization. Sr isotope analyses were furthermore performed on separated feldspars. Density measurements were also carried out on the bottom core. The investigated samples are representative of strongly altered, massive pyroclastic tuffs, which made of a chaotic ashy to sandy matrix including low crystalline juvenile scoria and pumice fragments. Textural features of secondary mineralization are consistent with circulation of hydrothermal fluids as the results of a wide geothermal resource in the caldera. Comparing the paleo-temperature inferred by authigenic minerals occurrence and the temperature measured at the bottom hole (~60C) during geophysical logs, we suggest the cooling of the hydrothermal system in the eastern sector of the caldera.

  19. Geophysical investigations of buried Quaternary valleys in Denmark: an integrated application of transient electromagnetic soundings, reflection seismic surveys and exploratory drillings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jrgensen, Flemming; Lykke-Andersen, Holger; Sandersen, Peter B. E.; Auken, Esben; Nrmark, Egon

    2003-10-01

    Buried Quaternary valleys are important hydrological structures in Denmark. Geophysical and geological investigations were performed to develop an integrated interpretational methodology for a quantitative description of their structure and lithology. Three buried valleys in central eastern Jutland, Denmark were investigated using the transient electromagnetic (TEM) sounding method, two-dimensional reflection seismic profiling, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analyses of data and samples from exploratory drillings. The most advantageous approach for fieldwork is the sequence of (1) resistivity mapping with TEM to identify the buried valleys, (2) reflection seismic profiling across the valleys, (3) location and drilling of exploratory drillings, and (4) vertical seismic profiling. The accuracy of the geological interpretation is improved substantially by combining the structural information from the seismic profiling with the predominantly lithological information derived from the TEM soundings. Sequential interpretation of the data sets is optimal when variations in geology are low to moderate. Strong variations may, however, lead to breakdown of the interpretation models. Buried valleys occur primarily as cut-and-fill structures filled with Quaternary deposits consisting of till, glacio-lacustrine clay/silt and meltwater sand and gravel. The seismic velocity of the tills is considerably higher (2150 m/s) than it is for the other valley-fill sediments (1750 m/s). Resistivities of the clays are distinctly less than those of sands and gravels. Hence, classification of these parameters gives indirect information about the lithology of the valley fill as well as the structure.

  20. Characteristics and paleoenvironmental significance of lacustrine sediments in the El'gygytgyn drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, T.; Wennrich, V.; Kukkonen, M.; Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    Lake Elgygytgyn is a 12 km diameter, 175 m deep lake filling a meteorite impact crater that formed ca. 3.6 million years ago in Chukutko, northeastern Siberia (6730 N, 17205 E). An international team under the aegis of the Inter Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled three overlapping cores at a site near the center of the lake. The lacustrine sediment fill extends approximately 315 m below the lake floor. Sediment recovery was nearly 100 percent for the uppermost 150 m, but is lower (~63 percent) in the deeper sections of the core. Nonetheless, long (40 m), continuous sections with nearly complete recovery were obtained from the early part of the record. These cores present a unique opportunity to compare sedimentary signatures of glacial/interglacial and Pliocene/Pleistocene environmental conditions in the terrestrial Arctic. The lacustrine sequence has been subdivided into distinct sedimentary facies based on the visual characteristics and color of split core halves, qualitative grain size descriptions, interpretation of radiographs, and microanalysis of thin sections prepared from representative sections of the core. Four fine grained pelagic facies have been differentiated based on the presence or absence and characteristics of fine (<1 mm to 5 mm) laminations. The pelagic sediments are interrupted by distinct graded beds which fine upwards from sand and silt to clay and intervals of disturbed and/or redeposited material likely associated with turbidity flows or mass movements. Deeper sections of the core are also interrupted by poorly sorted, massive deposits containing coarse sand and gravel, the origin of which may challenge prevailing assumptions that the region escaped Quaternary glaciations. Regular variations in the style of pelagic sedimentation likely reflect variations in climate and environmental conditions that have influenced the delivery of fluvial and aeolian sediment to the lake, the length of the ice free season, the temperature and stratification of lake waters, and geochemical and biological conditions within the lake. Continued analysis of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the sediments will help constrain the origin and significance of individual facies.

  1. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling risks and costs. This procedure enables a timely, efficient and accurate data access and exchange among the rig site data acquisition system, office-based software applications and data storage. The loading of real-time data has to be quick and efficient in order to refine the model and learn the lessons for the next drilling operations.

  2. Early Eocene cyclicity in BBCP drill cores, Wyoming: Orbital forcing and environmental response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Bowen, G. J.; Maibauer, B.; Wilkens, R. H.; Clyde, W. C.; Gingerich, P. D.; Wing, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Most detailed stratigraphic records of early Paleogene hyperthermals come from deep-sea sediment sections with relatively few well-resolved continental stratigraphic records available. During the summer of 2011, over 900 meters of core were recovered in 6 holes drilled at 3 sites as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). The Bighorn Basin preserves a highly expanded early Paleogene continental sequence and includes an approximately 40-meter-thick PETM interval. Two of the BBCP sites (Basin Substation and Polecat Bench) target the PETM in different environments, and the third site (Gilmore Hill) targets the younger and smaller hyperthermals known as ETM2 and H2. The BBCP cores make it possible to develop high-resolution (circa 1000-year) proxy records of climate change, carbon cycling, and biotic change from unweathered material to investigate the response of a terrestrial depositional and ecological system to extreme global warming events. We present non-destructive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning data combined with high-resolution core images for all the BBCP holes to test if statistically significant orbital cyclicity is present in the high resolution geochemical records, which is the first application of the methods intensively used for marine cores to continental cores. We will put special emphasis on correlation to outcrop sections and moreover will use these data to better characterize the overall geochemical composition of the sediments, investigate potential diagenetic alteration, and identify potential changes in sediment provenance. We aim to compare our record to coeval marine records to better constrain the duration and position of these hyperthermals in the astronomical time scale to further test the potential role of orbital variations in causing these events.

  3. Early Eocene cyclicity in BBCP drill cores, Wyoming: Orbital forcing and environmental response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Maibauer, Bianca; Wilkens, Roy H.; Clyde, William C.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Wing, Scott L.

    2013-04-01

    Most detailed stratigraphic records of early Paleogene hyperthermals come from deep-sea sediment sections with relatively few well-resolved continental stratigraphic records available. During the summer of 2011, over 900 meters of core were recovered in 6 holes drilled at 3 sites as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). The Bighorn Basin preserves a highly expanded early Paleogene continental sequence and includes an approximately 40-meter-thick PETM interval. Two of the BBCP sites (Basin Substation and Polecat Bench) target the PETM in different environments, and the third site (Gilmore Hill) targets the younger and smaller hyperthermals known as ETM2 and H2. The BBCP cores allow developing high-resolution (circa 1000-year) proxy records of climate change, carbon cycling, and biotic change from unweathered material to investigate the response of a terrestrial depositional and ecological system to extreme global warming events. We present non-destructive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning data combined with high-resolution core images for all the BBCP holes to test if statistically significant orbital cyclicity is present in the high resolution geochemical records, which is the first application of the methods intensively used for marine cores to continental cores. These data will be used to better characterize the overall geochemical composition of the sediments, investigate potential diagenetic alteration, and identify potential changes in sediment provenance. Integration of XRF data with available data from outcrops reveals profound changes in wet-dry cycle thickness due to changes in sedimentation rates. These changes might be related to warming induced changes in the hydrological cycle. Furthermore, the observed cyclicity in our records integrated with marine records will help to better constrain the duration and position of these hyperthermals in the astronomical time scale to further test the potential role of orbital variations in causing these events.

  4. Petrophysical Properties of Twenty Drill Cores from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.R.; Contreras L., E.; Garcia G., A.; Dominquez A., Bernardo

    1987-01-20

    For this study we selected 20 drill cores covering a wide range of depths (400-3000 m), from 15 wells, that provide a reasonable coverage of the field. Only andesite, the largely predominant rock type in the field, was included in this sample. We measured bulk density, grain (solids) density, effective porosity and (matrix) permeability on a considerable number of specimens taken from the cores; and inferred the corresponding total porosity and fraction of interconnected total porosity. We characterized the statistical distributions of the measured and inferred variables. The distributions of bulk density and grain density resulted approximately normal; the distributions of effective porosity, total porosity and fraction of total porosity turned out to be bimodal; the permeability distribution resulted highly skewed towards very small (1 mdarcy) values, though values as high as 400 mdarcies were measured. We also characterized the internal inhomogeneity of the cores by means of the ratio (standard deviation/mean) corresponding to the bulk density in each core (in average there are 9 specimens per core). The cores were found to present clearly discernible inhomogeneity; this quantitative characterization will help design new experimental work and interpret currently available and forthcoming results. We also found statistically significant linear correlations between total density and density of solids, effective porosity and total density, total porosity and total density, fraction of interconnected total porosity and the inverse of the effective porosity, total porosity and effective porosity; bulk density and total porosity also correlate with elevation. These results provide the first sizable and statistically detailed database available on petrophysical properties of the Los Azufres andesites. 1 tab., 16 figs., 4 refs.

  5. Correction of non-intrusive drill core physical properties data for variability in recovered sediment volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M. H.; Mix, A. C.; Willse, T.; Slagle, A.; Stoner, J. S.; Jaeger, J.; Gulick, S.; LeVay, L.; Kioka, Arata; IODP Expedition 341 Scientific Party

    2015-08-01

    Non-intrusive track-based physical properties measurements of sediment cores recovered during ocean drilling are often biased by imperfect recovery within sediment core liners, particularly in heterogeneous and/or partially lithified sediments. These biases result in misrepresentation in measurements of true sediment physical properties, and can complicate integration of the composite site records assembled from recovered cores with borehole logs of the stratigraphic section. Here we develop a strategy utilizing gamma ray attenuation (GRA) density to generate mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (MS) and natural gamma radiation (NGR) data. Shipboard GRA density is collected in all cores that comprise a site at equivalent or higher resolution than the corresponding MS and NGR data. All instruments are calibrated assuming a volume of sediment in their detector windows equivalent to that present in a perfectly full core liner; changes in sediment bulk density related to compaction, and/or imperfect sediment recovery resulting in a partially filled core liner thus influence all three measurements proportional to their detector sensitivities. In principle it may be possible to correct MS or NGR data for variable sediment volume by normalizing them to GRA measured at equivalent depth on a sensing track, assuming that the volumetric bias is comparable in all three datasets. Because GRA is measured in much greater detail, it must be smoothed by the known measurement windows of the other parameters for the assumption of comparable analytical sediment volume to be true. Normalizing MS or NGR by the equivalently smoothed GRA in down-hole records should thus remove the bias associated with variable sediment volume in the detector windows, allowing for robust mass-specific determination of these volume-based sediment physical properties.

  6. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms will be reviewed and discussed including the configurations, capabilities, and challenges.

  7. Physical properties of the Yaxcopoil-1 deep drill core, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbra, Tiiu; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2011-11-01

    The Chicxulub structure in Mexico, one of the largest impact structures on Earth, was formed 65 Ma by a hypervelocity impact that led to the large mass extinction at the K-Pg boundary. The Chicxulub impact structure is well preserved, but is buried beneath a sequence of carbonate sediments and, thus, requires drilling to obtain subsurface information. The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Program was carried out at Hacienda Yaxcopoil in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program in 2001-2002. The structure was cored from 404 m down to 1511 m, through three intervals: 794 m of postimpact Tertiary sediments, a 100 m thick impactite sequence, and 616 m of preimpact Cretaceous rocks thought to represent a suite of megablocks. Physical property investigations show that the various lithologies, including the impactite units and the K-Pg boundary layer, can be characterized by their physical properties, which depend on either changes in fabric or on mineralogical variations. The magnetic properties show mostly dia- or paramagnetic behavior, with the exception of the impactite units that indicate the presence of ferromagnetic, probably hydrothermally deposited magnetite and pyrrhotite. The magnetic fraction contributes mainly to enhanced magnetization in the impactite lithologies and, in this way, to the observed magnetic anomalies. The shape and orientation of the magnetic grains are varied and reflect inhomogeneous fabric development and the influence of impact-related redeposition and hydrothermal activity. The Chicxulub impact occurred at the time of the reverse polarity geomagnetic chron 29R, and this finding is consistent with the age of the K-Pg boundary.

  8. Preliminary geologic and geophysical data of the UE25a-3 exploratory drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Muller, D.C.; Morrison, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs were run by the Birdwell Division of Seismograph Service Corporation for geologic correlations and lithologic characterizations. The logs include: caliper, density, resistivity, spontaneous potential, Vibroseis, 3-D velocity, neutron, and gamma-ray logs. Lithologic boundaries and structures correlate to responses in the logs.

  9. Predynastic human presence discovered by core drilling at the northern Nile delta coast, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Jean-Daniel; Jorstad, Thomas F.; Pia Bernasconi, Maria; Stanford, Dennis; Jodry, Margaret

    2008-08-01

    A small but significant find made during a geological surveyprovides evidence of the oldest human presence yet discoveredalong the northernmost margin of Egypt's Nile delta. A manuport,a rock fragment carried by human agency to the site, was discoveredin a sediment core section north of Burullus lagoon near theMediterranean coast. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbonanalysis of plant-rich matter in the mud surrounding the objectprovides a date calibrated to 3350-3020 B.C., the latePredynastic period. This long thin manuport, formed of dolomite,had not been deposited by the Nile or the sea but was collectedand transported from an outcrop exposure positioned at least160 km south of the core site. The fragile manuport, used foran undetermined function, lay buried at a depth of 7.4 m indark olive gray mud deposited in a shallow brackish lagoon settingclose to a marsh. This fortuitous find documents an early humanpresence in the middle Holocene wetlands along the delta's paleocoast,a sector where traditional excavation and augering are normallyincapable of reaching occupation levels or zones of activityat considerable subsurface depths. Core drilling provides ameans to help archaeologists locate undetected and potentiallyimportant sites.

  10. Paleomagnetic records from carbonate legs in the Southern Oceans and attendant drilling and coring related effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Molina-Garza, R.; Touchard, Y.; Kidane, T.

    2006-07-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 182, to the Great Australian Bight (GAB), Leg 189 around Tasmania, and Leg 194 off the Great Barrier Reef on the Marion Plateau, all sampled thick carbonate sections that tested the coring techniques and the magnetics instrumentation on the JOIDES Resolution. Coring overprints were demonstrated due to: (1) sediment deformation during initial penetration of the advanced piston corer, (2) disturbance by core "suck in" during recovery, (3) the magnetic fields of the bottom hole assembly, (4) magnetic contamination of core liners, and (5) core splitting and storage. All of these effects can cause problems in determining the magnetostratigraphy of carbonates. The principal highlights of the magnetostratigraphy of these three ODP legs were as follows. (1) The discovery during Leg 182 of an extended Brunhes section of carbonates in the GAB that was hundreds of meters thick. (2) Documentation in Hole 1172 of Leg 189 of the timing of the Eocene-Oligocene transition from the "Greenhouse" to "Icehouse" state and the rapid deepening of the Tasmanian Gateway. (3) Recovery of a complete magnetostratigraphy from Plio-Pleistocene carbonates with a sedimentation rate of some 20 m/Ma and the discovery of a small hiatus including the top of the Matuyama (C1r) and the Jaramillo (C1r.1n). (4) The documentation of a chronology from Sites 1193, 1194, and 1195 of Leg 194 gave ages for the critical sequence boundary at each site consistent with biostratigraphy that was used to evaluate the late middle Miocene eustatic sea level fall.

  11. U.S. geological survey core drilling on the Atlantic shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, J.C.; Poag, C.W.; Valentine, P.C.; Miller, R.E.; Schultz, D.M.; Manheim, F. T.; Kohout, F.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Sangrey, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The first broad program of scientific shallow drilling on the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf has delineated rocks of Pleistocene to Late Cretaceous age, including phosphoritic Miocene strata, widespread Eocene carbonate deposits that serve as reflective seismic markers, and several regional unconformities. Two sites, off Maryland and New Jersey, showed light hydrocarbon gases having affinity to mature petroleum. Pore fluid studies showed that relatively fresh to brackish water occurs beneath much of the Atlantic continental shelf, whereas increases in salinity off Georgia and beneath the Florida-Hatteras slope suggest buried evaporitic strata. The sediment cores showed engineering properties that range from good foundation strength to a potential for severe loss of strength through interaction between sediments and manmade structures. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Nielsen, R. L.; Drake, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Petrological and geochemical analysis of lithic fragments separated from the Apollo 15 deep-drill core showed these fragments to fall into the essentially the same range of rock types as observed in surface soil samples and large rock samples. Three particles are singled out as being of special interest. One sample is a mare basalt containing extremely evolved phases. The particle may represent small-scale imperfect crystal/liquid separation in a lava flow. A green glass particle is not the ultramafic emerald green glass described from the Apollo 15 site, but rather an ANT-like light green color, and has a quite different chemical composition from the ultramafic variety. One mare basalt displays a positive Eu anomaly and is enriched in plagioclase relative to olivine plus pyroxene.

  13. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    SciTech Connect

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. High permafrost ice contents in Holocene slope deposits as observed from shallow geophysics and a coring program in Pangnirtung, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonneau, A.; Allard, M.; L'Hrault, E.; LeBlanc, A.

    2011-12-01

    A study of permafrost conditions was undertaken in the Hamlet of Pangnirtung, Nunavut, by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) and Universit Laval's Centre d'tudes nordiques (CEN) to support decision makers in their community planning work. The methods used for this project were based on geophysical and geomorphological approaches, including permafrost cores drilled in surficial deposits and ground penetrating radar surveys using a GPR Pulse EKKO 100 extending to the complete community area and to its projected expansion sector. Laboratory analysis allowed a detailed characterization of permafrost in terms of water contents, salinity and grain size. Cryostratigraphic analysis was done via CT-Scan imagery of frozen cores using medical imaging softwares such as Osiris. This non destructive method allows a 3D imaging of the entire core in order to locate the amount of the excess ice, determine the volumetric ice content and also interpret the ice-formation processes that took place during freezing of the permafrost. Our new map of the permafrost conditions in Pangnirtung illustrates that the dominant mapping unit consist of ice-rich colluvial deposits. Aggradationnal ice formed syngenitically with slope sedimentation. Buried soils were found imbedded in this colluvial layer and demonstrates that colluviation associated with overland-flow during snowmelt occurred almost continuously since 7080 cal. BP. In the eastern sector of town, the 1 to 4 meters thick colluviums cover till and a network of ice wedges that were revealed as spaced hyperbolic reflectors on GPR profiles. The colluviums also cover ice-rich marine silt and bedrock in the western sector of the hamlet; marine shells found in a permafrost core yielded a radiocarbon date of 9553 cal. BP which provides a revised age for the local deglaciation and also a revised marine submergence limit. Among the applied methods, shallow drilling in coarse grained permafrost, core recovery and CT-Scan allowed the discovery of the importance of Holocene slope processes on shaping the surface of the terrain and leading to the observed cryostructures and ice contents in the near surface permafrost.

  16. The ICDP Dead Sea deep drill cores: records of climate change and tectonics in the Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G. H.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea drainage basin sits at the boundary of the Mediterranean and the Saharan climate zones, and the basin is formed by the Dead Sea transform fault. The ICDP-funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental and paleo-seismic record in the Middle East, drilling holes of ~450 and ~350 meters in deep (~300 m below the lake level) and shallow sites (~3 m), respectively, and. The sediments record the evolving environmental conditions (e.g. droughts, rains, floods, dust-storms), as well as tectonics (earthquake layers). The core can be dated using 14C on organic materials, U-Th on inorganic aragonite, stable isotopes, and layer counting. They were opened, described, and XRF-scanned during June to November 2011, the first sampling party took place in July 2012, and study is now underway. Some important conclusions can already be drawn. The stratigraphy reflects the climate conditions. During wet climate intervals the lithology is typically varve-like laminated aragonite and detritus (aad), reflecting summer and winter seasons, respectively, and sequences of mud. Gypsum layers reflect more arid climate, and salt (halite) indicates extreme aridity. The Dead Sea expands during glacials, and the portion of the core that corresponds to the last glacial Lisan Formation above the shoreline is easily recognized in the core based on the common lithological sequence, and this allows us to infer a broad scale age model. Interglacials show all the lithologic facies (aad, mud, gypsum, salt), reflecting extreme climate variability, while glacials contain the aad, mud, and gypsum but lack salt layers. Thus we estimate that the deep site hole extends into MIS 7 (to ~200,000 years). Thin (up to several cm thick) seismic layers occur throughout the core, but thick (up to several meters) landslide deposits only occur during glacial intervals. The most dramatic discovery is evidence of an extreme dry interval during MIS 5 at the deep site. There is a ~40 cm thick interval of partly rounded pebbles in the core at ~235 m below the lake floor. It is the only clean pebbly unit in the core, and resembles a beach deposit. Below the layer there is ~45 meters of mainly salt. These observations indicate a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping at rates >1m/year, as all the countries in the area are using all the runoff. GCM models indicate a more arid future in the region. The core shows that the runoff nearly stopped during the last interglacial without human intervention. Dating is underway to constrain the timing of the extreme drydown.

  17. Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Roger H.; Wilkens, Roy H.

    2005-07-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations of the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole.

  18. Workshop on core and sample curation for the National Continental Scientific Drilling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Heiken, G.

    1981-05-06

    The Workshop on Core and Sample Curation was held to discuss the best means of handling, distributing, and advertising samples and data collected during a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) and to establish better communication between sample curators regarding common problems. It was geneerally agreed that CSDP samples should be handled, on a regional basis, by existing data systems and sample repositories judged to have adequate staff and support. Repository design, sample handling procedures, and sample accounting systems were discussed. Across North America, support for curation of geological samples was varied, but it was strongest within states or regions with well-established energy and mineral industries. A well-supported repository pays for itself through the circulation and preservation of samples and stratigraphic information. A national CSDP must have a well-established curatorial policy and system of regional repositories to circulate information and samples throughout the scientific community. Well-curated samples and data are a national resource with considerable benefits for industry and academia. Attendees agreed to form a Society of Geoscience Curators to maintain communication between curators from private, government, and university repositories and core research laboratories.

  19. Mapping alteration minerals at prospect, outcrop and drill core scales using imaging spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Fred A.; L. Bedell, Richard; Taranik, James V.; Peppin, William A.; Weatherbee, Oliver; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer data (also known as ‘hyperspectral imagery’ or HSI) are well established for detailed mineral mapping from airborne and satellite systems. Overhead data, however, have substantial additional potential when used together with ground-based measurements. An imaging spectrometer system was used to acquire airborne measurements and to image in-place outcrops (mine walls) and boxed drill core and rock chips using modified sensor-mounting configurations. Data were acquired at 5 nm nominal spectral resolution in 360 channels from 0.4 to 2.45 μm. Analysis results using standardized hyperspectral methodologies demonstrate rapid extraction of representative mineral spectra and mapping of mineral distributions and abundances in map-plan, with core depth, and on the mine walls. The examples shown highlight the capabilities of these data for mineral mapping. Integration of these approaches promotes improved understanding of relations between geology, alteration and spectral signatures in three dimensions and should lead to improved efficiency of mine development, operations and ultimately effective mine closure. PMID:25937681

  20. Analysis of hydrologic structures within Mauna Kea volcano using diamond wireline core drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Haskins, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project was undertaken on the Island of Hawaii in an effort to characterize the hydrologic structures controlling groundwater movement and storage within the dry (~430 mm/year annual rainfall) saddle region between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes. The project drilled a 1764 m, continuously-cored, borehole from an elevation of 1946 m amsl. The shallow stratigraphy consisted of alluvial outwash of clastic debris, of both volcanic and glacial origin, from the upper slopes of Mauna Kea, and was underlain by highly permeable post-shield lavas to depths of a few hundred meters. Below this depth, shield stage lavas were dominated by highly-fractured and permeable pahoehoe lavas and (less common) a'a flows and occasional soil and ash accumulations at flow boundaries. As depths increased below 1000 m, progressive compaction of fragmental material was found at the flow boundaries and, by depths of ~1500 m, much of the void space in the flow boundaries had been collapsed and compacted. Increasing secondary mineralization was observed below about 1000 m depth that was exacerbated by rising temperatures and temperature gradients toward the bottom of the hole. Hydrologic conditions were strikingly different from those predicted by conventional models for ocean islands: the formation was dry down to only ~150 m where the first, thin, perched aquifer was encountered; a second, more substantial, perched aquifer was reached at only ~220 m depth that extended to ~360 m where a sequence of (remarkably thin) perching formations were recovered in the core down to about 420 m where unsaturated rocks were again encountered. Saturated conditions resumed at 550 m depth that continued to the total depth drilled; this latter zone is inferred to be the basal aquifer for Mauna Kea within this region of the island. Our initial analysis of the core suggests that thin, clay-rich, perching formations in the shallow stratigraphic column play a much larger role in groundwater transport than has generally been recognized; in the deeper interior of the volcano, compaction of flow boundaries (the major water carriers in the shallow stratigraphy) leads to a progressive decrease in permeability and reduction in the transport rates of recharge toward the shoreline aquifers.

  1. Hydrothermal mineralogy of core from geothermal drill holes at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.; Keith, Terry E.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrothermal mineralogy studies of specimens collected from nine geothermal drill holes suggest that, at the locations and depths drilled, past temperatures have been hottest (exceeding 300?C) near ring fractures on the south and west sides of Newberry Volcano.

  2. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP Luminometry provided insights for potential contamination from core-handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths and limits of in-situ/remote observations vs. laboratory measurements. Results from this experiment will also aid the debate on advantages/ disadvantages of manned vs. robotic drilling missions on Mars or other planets. [1] Boston et al., 1997; [2] http://marte.arc.nasa.gov; [3] Stoker, C., et al., 2006 AbSciCon, [4] Stoker et al., submitted; [5] Bonaccorsi., et al., 2006 AbSciCon.

  3. Faulting processes in active faults - Evidences from TCDP and SAFOD drill core samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Wenk, H.-R.; Morales, L.; Naumann, R.; Kienast, M.; Song, S.-R.; Dresen, G.

    2014-08-01

    The microstructures, mineralogy and chemistry of representative samples collected from the cores of the San Andreas Fault drill hole (SAFOD) and the Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling project (TCDP) have been studied using optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF analyses. SAFOD samples provide a transect across undeformed host rock, the fault damage zone and currently active deforming zones of the San Andreas Fault. TCDP samples are retrieved from the principal slip zone (PSZ) and from the surrounding damage zone of the Chelungpu Fault. Substantial differences exist in the clay mineralogy of SAFOD and TCDP fault gouge samples. Amorphous material has been observed in SAFOD as well as TCDP samples. In line with previous publications, we propose that melt, observed in TCDP black gouge samples, was produced by seismic slip (melt origin) whereas amorphous material in SAFOD samples was formed by comminution of grains (crush origin) rather than by melting. Dauphiné twins in quartz grains of SAFOD and TCDP samples may indicate high seismic stress. The differences in the crystallographic preferred orientation of calcite between SAFOD and TCDP samples are significant. Microstructures resulting from dissolution-precipitation processes were observed in both faults but are more frequently found in SAFOD samples than in TCDP fault rocks. As already described for many other fault zones clay-gouge fabrics are quite weak in SAFOD and TCDP samples. Clay-clast aggregates (CCAs), proposed to indicate frictional heating and thermal pressurization, occur in material taken from the PSZ of the Chelungpu Fault, as well as within and outside of the SAFOD deforming zones, indicating that these microstructures were formed over a wide range of slip rates.

  4. Faulting processes in active faults - Evidences from TCDP and SAFOD drill core samples

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Wenk, H. -R.; Morales, L.; Naumann, R.; Kienast, M.; Song, S. -R.; Dresen, G.

    2014-08-20

    The microstructures, mineralogy and chemistry of representative samples collected from the cores of the San Andreas Fault drill hole (SAFOD) and the Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling project (TCDP) have been studied using optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF analyses. SAFOD samples provide a transect across undeformed host rock, the fault damage zone and currently active deforming zones of the San Andreas Fault. TCDP samples are retrieved from the principal slip zone (PSZ) and from the surrounding damage zone of the Chelungpu Fault. Substantial differences exist in the clay mineralogy of SAFOD and TCDP fault gouge samples. Amorphous material has been observed in SAFOD as well as TCDP samples. In line with previous publications, we propose that melt, observed in TCDP black gouge samples, was produced by seismic slip (melt origin) whereas amorphous material in SAFOD samples was formed by comminution of grains (crush origin) rather than by melting. Dauphiné twins in quartz grains of SAFOD and TCDP samples may indicate high seismic stress. The differences in the crystallographic preferred orientation of calcite between SAFOD and TCDP samples are significant. Microstructures resulting from dissolution–precipitation processes were observed in both faults but are more frequently found in SAFOD samples than in TCDP fault rocks. As already described for many other fault zones clay-gouge fabrics are quite weak in SAFOD and TCDP samples. Clay-clast aggregates (CCAs), proposed to indicate frictional heating and thermal pressurization, occur in material taken from the PSZ of the Chelungpu Fault, as well as within and outside of the SAFOD deforming zones, indicating that these microstructures were formed over a wide range of slip rates.

  5. 2004 NAI-ADP Deep Diamond Drill Cores: Transects Through Archean Time in the Pilbara Craton, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bonser, L. C.

    2004-12-01

    In July-August 2004, the NASA Astrobiology Drilling Program sponsored the coring of 3 deep diamond-drill holes in the Pilbara Craton of northwest Australia. The holes targeted the lowest grade and least deformed sedimentary sections of 4 stratigraphic units: the 2.4-2.6 Ga Hamersley Group, the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation of the Fortescue Group, the 3.4 Ga Warrawoona Group, and the 3.5 Ga Coonterunah Group. ABDP 8 cored the unconformity between the Warrawoona and Coonterunah Groups to a depth of 330 metres, intersecting it at 155 metres. Because of syn-depositional erosion, the Strelley Pool Chert was attenuated and the alteration zone beneath the unconformity was scoured and filled to a depth of 10 metres by quartz arenite. As a result, no definitive lithological determination on its status as a potential paleosol could be made. Secondary oxidative alteration was present in Coonterunah cherts to depths of at least 220 metres down-hole. ABDP 9 cored 984 metres of the lower Hamersley Group, from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation into the Paraburdoo Member of the Wittenoom Formation. Though the hole was intended to penetrate the uppermost Fortescue Group, drilling was terminated early because of equipment damage by fractured rock, loss of water circulation clogging the hole with cuttings and unanticipated thickening of the Paraburdoo Member by dilational fracturing, expansive brecciation and cavity formation. 79 samples for organic geochemical analysis of biomarker syngenesis were collected under clean conditions immediately the core surfaced. A horizon of impact spherules was intersected in the Bee Gorge Member of the Wittenoom Formation; unlike surface exposures, it was markedly silicified and chloritized in drill-core. ABDP 10 cored 210 metres of the Tumbiana Formation, intersecting the entire Meentheena Carbonate Member, the upper Mingah Tuff Member and terminating just below 4 scoriaceous basalt flows. Large and complex calcareous stromatolites, which were partly silificified in surface exposures, contained no chert in drill-core. Ooid grainstone was a prominent lithology, attesting to a shallow subaqueous depositional environment. Pseudomorphs possibly after diagenetic gypsum were encountered in a fine tuffaceous wacke unit, but no other evaporite minerals were evident. 8 samples for biomarker analysis were collected. The cores will be archived at the Geological Survey of Western Australia core library in Perth. They will be cut using non-magnetic saw blades to allow paleomagnetic studies. Quarter-core splits will be sent to the USA and Japan for detailed examination.

  6. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  7. Interpretation of core and well log physical property data from drill hole UPH-3, Stephenson County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, J.J.; Olhoeft, G.R.; Scott, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory and well log physical property measurements show variations in the mineralogy with depth in UPH-3. Gamma ray values generally decrease with depth in the drill hole, corresponding to a decrease in the felsic mineral components of the granite. Correspondingly, an increase with depth in mafic minerals in the granite is indicated by the magnetic susceptibility, and gamma ray measurements. These mineralogic changes indicated by the geophysical well logs support the hypothesis of fractionation during continuous crystallization of the intrusive penetrated by UPH-3. Two fracture zones, and an altered zone within the granite penetrated by drill hole UPH-3 are defined by the physical property measurements. An abnormally low magnetic susceptibility response in the upper portion of the drill hole can be attributed to alteration of the rock adjacent to the sediments overlying the granite. Fracture zones can be identified from the sonic velocity, neutron, and resistivity measurements. A fracture zone, characterized by low resistivity values and low neutron values, is present in the depth interval from 1150 to 1320 m. Low magnetic susceptibility and high gamma ray values indicate the presence of felsic-micaceous pegmatites within this fracture zone. An unfractured region present from a depth of 1380 m to the bottom of the hole is characterized by an absence of physical property variations. The magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray measurements indicate a change in the amount of mafic minerals at the base of this otherwise homogenous region of the drilled interval. Abrupt changes and repeated patterns of physical properties within the drill hole may represent interruptions in the crystallization process of the melt or they may be indicative of critical temperatures for specific mineral assemblages within the intrusive.

  8. Determination of Stress State in Deep Subsea Formation by Combination of Hydrofracturing Test and Core Analysis - A Case Study in the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 319

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, T.; Funato, A.; Ito, H.; Kinoshita, M.

    2010-12-01

    As the first expedition of the NanTroSEIZE Stage 2, IODP Expedition 319 was carried out in 2009, and a borehole was drilled to 1603.7 mbsf (meters below seafloor) from seafloor at 2054 m water depth of Site C0009 which is located in a central region of the Kumano forearc basin and the upper plate above the seismogenic and presumed locked portion of the plate boundary thrust system. The upper 700 m was cased, a 12-1/4 inch hole was drilled from 700 to 1510 mbsf and RCB core was cut from 1510 to 1539.9 mbsf. By using the Schlumbergers Modular Dynamics Tester (MDT) dual packer tool, the hydraulic fracturing (HF) test was carried out to measure in-situ stress at depth of 1532.7 mbsf in the open-hole section. While the HF test provided limited information on stress state, we finally figured out all three principal in-situ stresses and their orientations combining information obtained by other geophysical logging and the analysis of a core sample. The pressure - time curve obtained by the HF test was not typical shape, but we found a small sign of fracture initiation in pressure variation with fluid injection. Then we detected the possible shut-in pressure Ps to be 41.6 MPa. The value of Ps is obviously smaller than the vertical stress computed from the overlying strata, which is 51.8 MPa. This fact suggests that a vertical fracture was induced by the fracturing test, and so Ps should indicate the minimum horizontal stress Sh, i.e. Sh = 41.6 MPa. On the other hand, the reopening pressure Pr of a induced vertical fracture has been applied for estimating the maximum horizontal stress SH. However, for effective measurement of Pr, it is necessary to use the fracturing system with sufficiently small compliance (Ito et al., 1999; 2005; 2006). If not, there is no way to estimate the maximum horizontal stress from Pr. This limitation makes it difficult to apply hydraulic fracturing for the measurement of the maximum horizontal stress, because the compliance of the current fracturing system is generally so large. The present fracturing test was probably influenced by the problem. Thus we applied the core deformation method (Funato and Chen, 2005) for estimating SH. This method assumes that a core sample expands elastically in response to the stress release due to coring. The core sample retrieved from anisotropic in-situ stress field should expand elliptically, the maximum expansion occurs in the direction of SH, and then we can estimate the stress deviation (SH - Sh) from the difference of the major and minor axes of the elliptical core. The core sample retrieved from the depth of 1540 mbsf in the borehole drilled at site C0009 was found to be actually elliptical in shape, and from the measured dimensions of the core sample, the stress deviation (SH - Sh) was estimated to be 8.9 MPa. As a result, the remaining stress component of SH was finally estimated to be 50.5 MPa (=Ps + 8.9 MPa). The orientation of SH was estimated to be N40degW from breakout orientation detected by FMI logging.

  9. Laboratory-determined transport properties of core from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.; Daily, W.

    1988-11-10

    Two cores from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project have been studied in the laboratory to determine electrical resistivity, ultrasonic velocity, and brine permeability at pressures and temperatures close to estimated borehole conditions. Both samples were siltstones; the first sample was from 1158-m depth, and the other was from 919-m depth. A synthetic brine with 13.6 weight percent NaCl, 7.5 weight percent CaCl/sub 2/, and 3.2 weight percent KCl was used as a pore fluid. The dry bulk density of the first sample was 2.44 Mg m/sup -3/ with an effective porosity of 8.7%. The second sample had a dry bulk density of 2.06 Mg m/sup -3/ with an effective porosity of 22.2%. At the midplane of the first sample, electrical impedance tomography was used to map the spatial variation of resistivity during the experiment. Also, at the midplane of both samples, ultrasonic tomography was used to map the spatial variation of P wave velocity.

  10. Thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities of core samples obtained from the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weiren; Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.; Tadai, Osamu; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Tanikawa, Wataru; Kinoshita, Masataka

    2014-12-01

    We report thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, and volumetric heat capacities determined by a transient plane heat source method for four whole-round core samples obtained by the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343. These thermal properties are necessary for the interpretation of a temperature anomaly detected in the vicinity of the plate boundary fault that ruptured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and other thermal processes observed within the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project temperature observatory. Results of measured thermal conductivities are consistent with those independently measured using a transient line source method and a divided bar technique. Our measurements indicate no significant anisotropy in either thermal conductivity or thermal diffusivity.

  11. Lithological Conditions at the Box Canyon Site: Results of Drilling, Coring and Open Borehole Measurements 1995-1997 Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Holland, P.; Knutson, C.; Mesa, M.; Sisson, B.

    1998-09-01

    DOE faces the remediation of several contaminated sites in unsaturated fractured basalt where organic and radioactive wastes have migrated downward through fracture pathways that are difficult, if not impossible, to detect. Perched water zones located above zones of low permeability (massive basalt) create a complicated system of hydraulic baffles. Because of these large scale heterogeneities, the characterization of the lithology of the rock and the geometry of the subsurface fracture pattern is a crucial step in the development of a conceptual model of fluid flow and chemical transport, and eventually the design of a remediation system. The purpose of this data report is to compile and document the results of drilling and lithological studies conducted in open boreholes at the Box Canyon site. Lithological templates are included for each well and contain data such as drilling date, drilling method, logging method, well coordinates, Lithological log, gamma measurements, caliper measurements, core run and recovery depth, vesicular intervals, single fracture depths and descriptions, fracture zone depth and descriptions, and general comments about the borehole lithology. The lithological features were mapped for each borehole. The gamma and caliper measurements are presented as separate plots using greater resolution. Color core photos and core descriptions are also included. TV logging was used to map the lithology of the boreholes that were not cored (E, R, and T wells). This information will be further used to create a comprehensive lithological model of the subsurface. The TV logging of cored wells was viewed to compare the resolution and accuracy of TV logging to core logging. The TV logging method accurately showed large scale features such as zones of vesicularity, large fractures, fracture zones, rubble zones, and massive basalt zones, but it was difficult to detect hairline fractures, fracture orientation, and mineralization of fractures. Also, all depth measurements in increments less than 1 ft are estimated. TV logging is not as precise as logging directly from the core, but it is useful for mapping the major lithological features.

  12. Development of a portable x-ray computed tomographic imaging system for drill-site investigation of recovered core

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Pruess, Jacob

    2003-05-01

    A portable x-ray computed tomography (CT) system was constructed for imaging core at drill sites. Performing drill-site-based x-ray scanning and CT analysis permits rapid evaluation of core properties (such as density, lithologic structure, and macroporosity distribution) and allows for real-time decision making for additional core-handling procedures. Because of the speed with which scanning is performed, systematic imaging and electronic cataloging of all retrieved core is feasible. Innovations (such as a novel clamshell shielding arrangement integrated with system interlocks) permit safe operation of the x-ray system in a busy core handling area. The minimization of the volume encapsulated with shielding reduces the overall system weight and facilitates instrument portability. The x-ray system as originally fabricated had a 110 kV x-ray source with a fixed 300-micron focal spot size. A 15 cm image intensifier with a cesium iodide phosphor input screen was coupled to a CCD for image capture. The CT system has since been modified with a 130 kV micro-focal x-ray source. With the x-ray system's variable focal spot size, high-resolution studies (10-micron resolution) can be performed on core plugs and coarser (100-micron resolution) images can be acquired of whole drill cores. The development of an aluminum compensator has significantly improved the dynamic range and accuracy of the system. An x-ray filter has also been incorporated, permitting rapid acquisition of multi-energy scans for more quantitative analysis of sample mineralogy. The x-ray CT system has operated reliably under extreme field conditions, which have varied from shipboard to arctic.

  13. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

  14. The Apollo 17 drill core - Chemistry of size fractions and the nature of the fused soil component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the Apollo 17 drill core 70009-70001 is heterogeneous with depth, containing five stratigraphic units, and has a bulk soil chemistry governed by the coarse fractions because of their greater weight proportions. The four components (1) KREEP, (2) anorthositic gabbro, (3) mare basalt, and (4) orange glass are used to model the compositions of the coarse and fine fractions of the entire drill core. It is found that the chemistry of the fused soil component in the five stratigraphic units is more similar to the chemistry of the fine, less than 20-micron fractions than the coarse fraction, suggesting that agglutinates may prefferentially meld and replicate the chemistry of the finer size fractions. The sources of Zn are the orange/black glasses, and the Zn profile is anticorrelated with the maturity index of Morris et al (1979), indicating the liberation of Zn during soil maturation.

  15. Can tephra be recognized in Hawaiian drill core, and if so, what can be learned about the explosivity of Hawaiian volcanoes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautze, N. C.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 6000 feet of drill core was recently recovered from the Pohakula Training Area (PTA) near the Saddle Road between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island. Drilling was funded by the US Army with an objective to find a potable water source; the rock core was logged and archived thanks to funding from the National Science Foundation. Within the first few hundred meters, alluvial outwash from the slopes of Mauna Kea is underlain by post-shield Mauna Kea lavas. Below this depth the core is predominantly pahoehoe and to a lesser extent a'a lavas expected to be from Mauna Kea's shield stage volcanism. During the logging effort, and throughout the core, a number of suspect-pyroclastic deposits were identified (largely based on particle texture). These deposits will be examined in more detail, with results presented here. An effort will be made to determine whether explosive deposits can, in fact, be unequivocally identified in drill core. Two anticipated challenges are differentiating between: scoria and 'clinker' (the latter associated with a'a lava flows), and primary volcanic ash, loess, and glacial sediments. Recognition of explosive deposits in the PTA drill core would lend insight into Mauna Kea's explosive history, and potentially that of other Big Island volcanoes as well. If the characteristics of tephra in Hawaiian drill core can be identified, core from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) and Scientific Observation Holes (SOH-1,2,4) may also be examined.

  16. Uranium-series age determination of calcite veins, VC-1 drill core, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, Neil C.; Binz, Carl M.

    1988-06-01

    Uranium-series analysis (238U-234U-230Th) of 13 calcite veins from the hydrothermally altered Madera Limestone in the VC-1 drill core was performed to determine the ages of the veins and their relation to the Valles hydrothermal system. Thermal water from VC-1 and two hot springs in San Diego Canyon was analyzed for U and (234U/238U) to help evaluate the constancy of initial (234U/238U). The (230Th/234U) age of one of the veins is 95 kyr, and those of two other veins are 230 and 250 kyr. Five of the veins have near equilibrium (230Th/234U) and are probably older than 0.3 m.y. Uranium concentrations in the remaining veins are too low for analysis by the ?-spectrometry techniques employed in this study. Of the five veins near (230Th/234U) equilibrium, four are also near (234U/238U) equilibrium, suggesting ages greater than 1.0 m.y., but one has (234U/238U) = 1.15, suggesting an age between 0.3 and 1.0 m.y. Calculated initial (234U/238U) of the veins yielding relatively young ages are neither equal to each other nor to (234U/238U) in thermal water from VC-1, indicating inconstancy of initial (234U/238U) that may be related to variations in groundwater mixing proportions. Three of the four veins that yield relatively young ages consist of coarse, sparry, vuggy calcite, suggesting that this may be the type of calcite vein which forms under conditions resembling those encountered presently in VC-1. The analytical data are consistent with closed-system behavior of U and Th in the VC-1 calcite veins.

  17. Development of a seismic borehole sonde for high resolution geophysical exploration ahead and around the drill bit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, K.; Giese, R.; Kopf, M.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of exploration with high resolution increases more and more because reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are characterized of small-scale geological structures. Today, surface seismic surveys were often combined with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD to improve the velocity model and to image the structures with higher resolution. The accuracy of structure localization depends strongly on the surveying depth. There is the need for resolution of such small-scale structures in the range of meters to explore deeper structures with a high resolution. In the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD) a new approach for a seismic exploration method in boreholes will be examined. SPWD comprises the seismic sources and receivers in one device. This allows an exploration with a resolution independent from depth and a system development for an exploration ahead and around the drill bit. At first a prototype of a borehole device for dry horizontal boreholes in a mine was developed and tested. The source device consists of four magnetostrictive vibrators emitting sweep signals from 500 Hz to 5000 Hz. To achieve a radiation pattern for focusing the seismic wave energy in predefined directions the signals of each vibrator must be independently controlled in amplitude and phase. The adjustment of amplitudes and phases of each sweep signal resulting in constructive interference with a predefined direction. A control of the emitted signals is retained by 30 three-component receivers mounted along the surrounding galleries in distances of up to 50 m. In measurements several parameters were examined to control the radiation pattern. The enhancement and diminishment of the wave amplitudes in the predefined directions of the radiation pattern is clearly exhibited also a dependency of the frequency. Using a three-component Fresnel-Volume-Migration to image the reflected wave field the results show clearly the effect of the radiation pattern on the distribution of the seismic wave energy. The migration of the reflected wave field reveals an amplification of the reflected amplitudes at the galleries corresponding to the radiation pattern of the complex borehole source. Also, structures passing through the borehole can be detected with an additional characterization by different radiation patterns. Further improvements were realized in focusing the seismic energy with advances in technical devices and also in the control of the vibrators. As a next step a wireline prototype for borehole measurements was designed and constructed. Currently the manufacturing is in progress. This prototype will be used in vertical boreholes up to 2000 m depth. After completion first measurements are planned to verify the exploration method for a directional investigation in boreholes. The measurements will take place in different geologies of hard and soft rocks and also depths. Also the mine was expanded with a 70 m vertical borehole for further research aspects. This project is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry.

  18. Detailed petrophysical and geophysical characterization of core samples from the potential caprock-reservoir system in the Sulcis Coal Basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Silvana; Ligas, Paola; Cuccuru, Francesco; Maggio, Enrico; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of the CO2 geologic storage site requires a robust experimental database especially with respect to spatial petrophysical heterogeneities. The integrated analysis of minero-petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters (e.g. longitudinal and transversal propagation velocity, VpVs ratio, dynamic elastic moduli, etc.) of the rocks that make up a caprock-reservoir system can substantially reduce the geologic uncertainity in the storage site characterization and in the geological and numerical modelling for the evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity. In this study the Middle Eocene - Lower Oligocene Cixerri Formation made up of siliciclastic rocks and the Upper Thanetian - Lower Ypresian Miliolitico Carbonate Complex in the Sulcis coal basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy) have been identified respectively as potential caprock and reservoir for the CO2 storage. The petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters of the above mentioned geological Formations (Cixerri and Milolitico) were investigated to improve the geological model aimed at verifying the geological CO2 storage capacity within the carbonate reservoir rocks, in order to guarantee an efficient use of the reservoir, and to improve the numerical simulation of CO2 behaviour in the short, medium and long term after its injection in single or multiple wells. . The petrographical characteristics of the caprock-reservoir rocks were determined by optical and SEM analyses of core samples representing the different facies of the Cixerri Formation and of the Miliolitico Carbonate Complex, provided by Carbosulcis S.p.A.. Porosity analysis was completed by mercury porosimeter determinations which also provided quantitative information on the permeability of the study rocks and on the tortuosity of their pore system. Further physical properties, such as dry and saturated density and porosity, and water absorption were determined on the cylindrical core samples of intact rocks (ISRM, 1979) from wells drilled in the northern part of the Sulcis Coal Basin (Nuraxi Figus area). The propagation velocity of longitudinal (Vp) and transversal (Vs) waves was also determined on the same samples by a portable ultrasonic non-destructive digital indicating tester (P.U.N.D.I.T. plus) (ISRM, 1978). Starting from the P and S wave velocity, the dynamic elastic moduli (Young modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio) were determined using the well-known relationship involving the longitudinal (Vp) and shear wave (Vs) velocity and the rock bulk density. The elastic properties (Vp, Vs, elastic moduli) have been correlated with physical properties such as porosity and bulk density. The analysis of the above mentioned relations reveals that the geological formations that make up the caprock-reservoir system are affected by a high spatial heterogeneity in their petrophysical properties and then in their intrinsic characteristics. The petrophysical and geophysical parameter analysis also allowed to identify different lithologic types for the caprock (e.g. litharenites, siltites) and the reservoir (e.g. limestones, dolomitic limestones, calcareous dolomites). These data enhanced the interpretation of the surface reflection seismic data on the same area helping in distinguishing separate features. Acknowledgments: We thank Carbosulcis S.p.A. for providing us the core samples and the reflection seismic data used for this study.

  19. Cooling rates of basaltic hyaloclastites and pillow lava glasses from the HSDP2 drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, A. R. L.; Potuzak, M.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2009-02-01

    Cooling rates have been determined for basaltic glasses from different depths of the submarine section of the drill core recovered in the 1999 phase of Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2). The glasses include degassed blocky hyaloclastite clasts and undegassed pillow rims. The degassed glassy clasts were generated in subaerial or shallow submarine environments, during explosive interactions between lava and seawater, before eventual deposition under water. The volatile contents of the glassy pillow rims are consistent with eruption and quenching in water several hundred metres deep. The cooling rates have been calculated from the calorimetric properties of the glass across the glass transition. The heat capacity ( c p) of each sample was measured during several cycles of heating from room temperature to temperatures above their glass transition using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Their compositions did not change during the thermal treatment, a prerequisite for successful c p measurements, although the glasses with higher H 2O contents became more opaque and their mid-IR spectra changed. Each c p- T path exhibits the now classic features of the glass transition; glassy and liquid states separated by a hysteresis marking the transition. After experiencing the same experimental thermal history the glass transition occurs at lower temperatures in glasses with higher H 2O contents. Except for one sample, the c p- T path measured on initial heating also releases energy stored during the natural quench, which is not recovered during subsequent experimental cooling. The energy stored in the HSDP2 glasses is much less than that observed in hyperquenched natural and synthetic glasses. Even so, the Tool-Narayanaswamy enthalpy relaxation geospeedometer, usually used to determine the cooling rates in volcanic glasses, is unable to deal with this energy release. For those samples that exhibit this feature an alternative method, developed for hyperquenched glasses, is applied. This uses the energy released to calculate T f, from which the cooling rate is calculated. The degassed blocky hyaloclastite clasts exhibit cooling rates 0.1-72.2 K s -1, while the undegassed pillow rims span 0.2-46.4 K s -1. The fastest cooling rates are consistent with the cooling of lava bodies in seawater. The wide variation for both types of glass could reflect quenching at different distances from the basalt-seawater interface. However, for the degassed hyaloclastite clasts the range could indicate that the clasts were generated by different processes operating during the explosive interaction between lava and seawater in the littoral zone. In the undegassed pillow lavas, glassy rims may have been reheated, giving rise to more complex, slower, thermal histories, as a result of latent heat released during the crystallisation of pillow interiors, or flow replenishment. Both types of glass may also have experienced reheating from succeeding flows or deposits. Compared to deep-sea limu o Pele hyaloclastite fragments, whose hyperquench rates indicate simultaneous cooling and fragmentation, the shallow blocky hyaloclastite clasts may have formed during post-cooling brittle fragmentation.

  20. Drilling overdeepened Alpine Valleys (DOVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Preusser, Frank; Bavec, Milos; Crouzet, Christian; Fiebig, Markus; Gabriel, Gerald; Ravazzi, Cesare; Spoetl, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    A recently submitted ICDP drilling proposal targets formerly glaciated areas, which are often characterized by deeply incised structures filled by thick Quaternary deposits. These buried troughs and valleys were formed by glacial overdeepening, likely caused by pressurized subglacial meltwater below warm-based glaciers. The proposed multinational drilling initiative consists of 14 drill sites in six different countries, all linked by the fact that they surround a formerly glaciated, densely populated mountain range, the European Alps. Being the best studied mountain range, the Alps will serve as textbook example allowing application of drilling results to other glaciated areas around the world. The drill holes, to be cored all the way to bedrock, will explore the type and age of the infillings of these overdeepened troughs. Such drill cores, paired with matching geophysical and instrumental data, hold the keys to understand how and how fast mountain ranges and their foreland are shaped by repetitive glaciations. The overarching goal will be to date the age and extent of past glaciations and their connection to paleoclimate, paleoecology and landscape history. As of today, it is not known how these glaciations varied along and across the Alps during the past, and to what extent the ice build-up along and across the Alps reflects changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. First results of drill holes in similar settings have produced local knowledge of the timing of glacial activity. Only an alpine-wide drilling initiative, however, will allow to reconstruct the full spatial and temporal scale of glacier advances and erosion and related landscape-forming processes over several glacial-interglacial cycles. Next to these paleoglacial, paleoecological and paleoclimatic aspects, the thick valley fills hold large, untapped aquifers. In the light of an increasing demand for water resources likely amplified by the projected climate change, testing these aquifers in the framework of this project is of high relevance for future hydrogeological applications. Related to this role, these drill holes may be used for shallow geothermal applications, which, however, to date rely on poorly constrained physical properties of the infilling sections. In addition, the areas represent areas of high seismic hazards related to their unfavorable seismic site effects. All these goals will be first addressed by state-of-the-art geophysical surveys that quantify the geometry of the overdeepenings. Drillholes will be analyzed by downhole logging, groundwater sampling and subsurface biosphere testing. Sedimentological, geochemical and palaeobiological analyses will characterize the sediment cores, and a combination of different approaches (biostratigraphy, luminescence dating, cosmogenic nuclide dating, magnetostratigraphy, and tephrastratigraphy) will establish the chronological framework. Eventually, the results from the above approaches will be cross-checked with the outcome of modeling both glacial flow and erosion and atmospheric circulation.

  1. The Last Interglacial in the Levant: Perspective from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Torfstein, A.; Stein, M.; Kushnir, Y.; Enzel, Y.; Haug, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Sediments recovered by the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project provide a new perspective on the climate history of the Levant during the last interglacial period MIS5. They record the extreme impacts of an intense interglacial characterized by stronger insolation, warmer mean global temperatures, and higher sea-levels than the Holocene. Results show both extreme hyper-aridity during MIS5e, including an unprecedented drawdown of Dead Sea water levels, and the impacts of a strong precession-driven African monsoon responsible for a major sapropel event (S5) in the eastern Mediterranean. Hyper-arid conditions at the beginning of MIS5e prior to S5 (~132-128 ka) are evidenced by halite deposition, indicating declining Dead Sea lake levels. Surprisingly, the hyper-arid phase is interrupted during the MIS5e peak (~128-120 ka), coinciding with the S5 sapropel, which is characterized by a thick (23 m) section of silty detritus (without any halite) whose provenance indicates southern-sourced wetness in the watershed. Upon weakening of the S5 monsoon (~120-115 ka), the return of extreme aridity resulted in an unprecedented lake level drawdown, reflected by massive salt deposition, and followed by a sediment hiatus (~115-100 ka) indicating prolonged low lake level. The resumption of section follows classic Levant patterns with more wetness during cooler MIS5b and hyper-aridity during warmer MIS5a. The ICDP core provides the first evidence for a direct linkage between an intense precession-driven African monsoon and wetness at the high subtropical latitude (~30N) of the Dead Sea watershed. Combined with coeval deposition of Negev speleothems and travertines, and calcitification of Red Sea corals, the evidence indicates a wet climatic corridor that could facilitate homo sapiens migration out of Africa during the MIS5e peak. In addition, the MIS 5e hyper-arid intervals may provide an important cautionary analogue for the impact of future warming on regional water resources.

  2. Laboratory-Determined Transport Properties of Core From the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wunan; Daily, William

    1988-11-01

    Two cores from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project have been studied in the laboratory to determine electrical resistivity, ultrasonic velocity, and brine permeability at pressures and temperatures close to estimated borehole conditions. Both samples were siltstones; the first sample was from 1158-m depth, and the other was from 919-m depth. A synthetic brine with 13.6 weight percent NaCl, 7.5 weight percent CaCl2, and 3.2 weight percent KCl was used as a pore fluid. The dry bulk density of the first sample was 2.44 Mg m-3 with an effective porosity of 8.7%. The second sample had a dry bulk density of 2.06 Mg m-3 with an effective porosity of 22.2%. At the midplane of the first sample, electrical impedance tomography was used to map the spatial variation of resistivity during the experiment. Also, at the midplane of both samples, ultrasonic tomography was used to map the spatial variation of P wave velocity. In addition, resistivity was measured with six pairs of electrodes along the sample axis. Both samples showed a strong anisotropy in resistivity and ultrasonic velocity measured perpendicular and parallel to the sample axis. The brine permeability of the first sample decreased from 5 ?D to about 1.6 ?D during the experiment. The second sample permeability had the same trend, but the permeability values were about 3 orders of magnitude larger. The second sample was subjected to temperatures and pressures exceeding those experienced in situ. Permeability, resistivity, and ultrasonic velocity of this sample showed a discontinuous change just beyond these in situ conditions. This discontinuity implies a structural change in the rock under conditions which would be found below its origin depth in the borehole. A model is proposed to explain the observed velocity anisotropy and variations in velocity, electrical resistivity anisotropy, and permeability with effective depth. When in situ stress is released, microcracking may occur along grain boundaries preferentially oriented parallel to bedding. This microcracking controls velocity and resistivity anisotropy at room conditions. When pressure and temperature are restored, competing effects of compaction and thermal softening of the minerals cause a reversal in the anisotropy. At temperatures and pressures above those at in situ conditions, thermal fracturing or geochemical alteration along grain boundaries causes a discontinuous change in sample physical properties.

  3. Core cracking and hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' geophysical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2015-02-01

    Observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock. Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code, we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia, by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The effect of heating from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via "temperature resets," core cooling events lasting 50 Myr during which Ceres' interior temperature profile becomes very shallow and its hydrosphere is largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) would suggest that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter, whose arrival at Ceres is imminent, could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.

  4. Initial results from VC-1, first Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Charles, R.; Wachs, D.; Maassen, L.; Heiken, G.

    1986-02-10

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  5. Further Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa area of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 6 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; MacLeod, Kenneth; McMillan, Ian K.; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Msaky, Emma

    2006-07-01

    Initial results from scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. In a field season in 2003, a total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly marine clays and claystones deposited in an outer shelf or slope environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology) and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 6 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko (UTM 37L 555752, 9014922), 350 m to the south-east of a previous site, TDP Site 1. The top 59.58 m, which was mostly drilled without coring, consists of an Oligocene clay formation belonging to nannofossil Zone NP23. The rest of the hole, to a total depth of 61.25 m, consists of a fault zone in which the Oligocene sediments are intermixed with middle Eocene clays of planktonic foraminifer Zone E9 and nannofossil Subzone NP15b. TDP Site 7 consists of two holes (Hole TDP7A: UTM 37L 547126, 9030142; Hole TDP7B: UTM 37L 0547130, 9030140) drilled just 5 m apart at Kwamatola, a creek to the south of Kilwa Kivinje. Underneath approximately 20 m of unconsolidated sands and gravels, claystones and siltstones were recovered to a total depth of 128.00 m. The site spans lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones E1, E2 and E3 and nannofossil Subzones NP 9b and NP10. The bottom of Hole TDP7B approaches the Paleocene-Eocene boundary but no unambiguously Paleocene sediments were recovered. TDP Site 8 was drilled to the south-east of Singino Hill (UTM 37L 548033, 9025811). Below a covering of surface gravels, it yielded predominantly dark greenish-grey claystones to a total depth of 22.95 m. The sediments are from the lower Eocene and span the boundary between planktonic foraminifer Zones E3 and E4 and fall within nannofossil Zone NP10. TDP Site 9 was drilled near Nangurukuru junction (UTM 37L 538987, 9027049). It yielded predominantly dark greenish-grey siltstones to a total depth of 88.80 m. Thin siliciclastic beds with trace fossils of the Nereites ichnofacies are common in the lower third of the site. These sediments span the Campanian-Maastrichtian stage boundary and are assigned to the Globotruncanella havanensis to Gansserina gansseri planktonic foraminifer zones and nannofossil Subzones UC15e TP to UC17. TDP Site 10 was drilled to the west of Singino Hill, adjacent to the main Kilwa road (UTM 37L 0541243, 9028791). Below a superficial covering of gravel, it yielded predominantly dark greenish-grey silty claystones to a total depth of 100.80 m. These sediments are assigned to Paleocene planktonic foraminifer Zone P4c-P5 and nannofossil Subzone NP9b. Organic geochemical analyses from all the sites revealed biomarkers of predominantly terrestrial origin and collectively indicate an unusually low degree of thermal maturity for the area, suggesting shallow maximum burial depths. Traces of migrated hydrocarbons were found in TDP Sites 7 and 10.

  6. Estimates of the hydrologic impact of drilling water on core samples taken from partially saturated densely welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the extent to which drill water might be expected to be imbibed by core samples taken from densely welded tuff. In a related experimental study conducted in G-Tunnel, drill water imbibition by the core samples was observed to be minimal. Calculations were carried out with the TOUGH code with the intent of corroborating the imbibition observations. Due to the absence of hydrologic data pertaining directly to G-Tunnel welded tuff, it was necessary to apply data from a similar formation. Because the moisture retention curve was not available for imbibition conditions, the drainage curve was applied to the model. The poor agreement between the observed and calculated imbibition data is attributed primarily to the inappropriateness of the drainage curve. Also significant is the value of absolute permeability (k) assumed in the model. Provided that the semi-log plot of the drainage and imbibition moisture retention curves are parallel within the saturation range of interest, a simple relationship exists between the moisture retention curve, k, and porosity ({phi}) which are assumed in the model and their actual values. If k and {phi} are known, we define the hysteresis factor {lambda} to be the ratio of the imbibition and drainage suction pressures for any saturation within the range of interest. If k and {phi} are unknown, {lambda} also accounts for the uncertainties in their values. Both the experimental and modeling studies show that drill water imbibition by the core has a minimal effect on its saturation state. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Trace-element analyses of core samples from the 1967-1988 drillings of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, Rosalind Tuthill

    2012-01-01

    This report presents previously unpublished analyses of trace elements in drill core samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake and from the 1959 eruption that fed the lava lake. The two types of data presented were obtained by instrumental neutron-activation analysis (INAA) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The analyses were performed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratories from 1989 to 1994. This report contains 93 INAA analyses on 84 samples and 68 EDXRF analyses on 68 samples. The purpose of the study was to document trace-element variation during chemical differentiation, especially during the closed-system differentiation of Kilauea Iki lava lake.

  8. Stress analysis of jacks, frame and bearing connections, and drill rod for core sampler truck No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1995-02-28

    This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads).

  9. Core Angular Momentum and the IERS Sub-Centers Activity for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids. Part 1; Core Angular Momentum and Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Xia-Dong; Chao, Benjamin (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The part of the grant was to use recordings of seismic waves travelling through the earth's core (PKP waves) to study the inner core rotation and constraints on possible density anomalies in the fluid core. The shapes and relative arrival times of such waves associated with a common source were used to reduce the uncertainties in source location and excitation and the effect of unknown mantle structure. The major effort of the project is to assemble historical seismograms with long observing base lines. We have found original paper records of SSI earthquakes at COL between 1951 and 1966 in a warehouse of the U.S. Geological Survey office in Golden, Colorado, extending the previous measurements at COL by Song and Richards [1996] further back 15 years. Also in Alaska, the University of Alaska, Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAFGI) has been operating the Alaskan Seismic Network with over 100 stations since the late 1960s. Virtually complete archives of seismograms are still available at UAFGI. Unfortunately, most of the archives are in microchip form (develocorders), for which the use of waveforms is impossible. Paper seismograms (helicorders) are available for a limited number of stations, and digital recordings of analog signals started around 1989. Of the paper records obtained, stations at Gilmore Dome (GLM, very close to COL), Yukon (FYU), McKinley (MCK), and Sheep Creek Mountain (SCM) have the most complete continuous recordings.

  10. On the joint inversion of geophysical data for models of the coupled core-mantle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1991-01-01

    Joint inversion of magnetic, earth rotation, geoid, and seismic data for a unified model of the coupled core-mantle system is proposed and shown to be possible. A sample objective function is offered and simplified by targeting results from independent inversions and summary travel time residuals instead of original observations. These data are parameterized in terms of a very simple, closed model of the topographically coupled core-mantle system. Minimization of the simplified objective function leads to a nonlinear inverse problem; an iterative method for solution is presented. Parameterization and method are emphasized; numerical results are not presented.

  11. Unzen Scientific Drilling Project: Challenging drilling operation into the magmatic conduit shortly after eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, S.; Nakada, S.; Uto, K.

    2004-12-01

    Drilling operation was aimed at penetration into the core of the volcano 8 years after eruption of Unzen, including directional drilling in high temperature and with high inclination. The project started with fixing drilling site. Scientists and drilling engineers agreed to settle it at the northern slope of Mt. Unzen at 840 m asl, and the drilling target was set at sea level. Drilling operation was started in Feb. 2003. In the shallow section, frequent lost circulation and accidental side-track occurred due to the unconsolidated zone, and caused_@many troubles. Although the drilling was delayed, we succeeded in drilling down to 396m with the inclination of 25 degree in 17-1/2 inch hole and 13-3/8 inch casing section. 12-1/4 inch hole was drilled using TDS, EM-MWD, and DHM. When the inclination was built up to 75 degree at 795 m, we changed the drilling mode of trajectory control to keep the angle. A large fracture of total loss was encountered at 807m, and serious cuttings bed occurred. The latter made the drilling impossible to continue. Then, we inserted 9-5/8 inch casing down to 796 m. Trajectory correction runs was completed in 8-5/8 inch hole, and 7 inch casing was set down to 1550m. In 6-1/4 inch hole, though EM-MWD and DHM were not used, drilling inclination and azimuth were stable. Spot coring was started at 1582 m, the levels of spot coring depth were chosen based on the data of temperature measurement and cuttings observation. Though the drilling exceeded 1800m, the original target depth, drilling was continued, because we could not encounter the high temperature conduit at that time. Finally, the well reached the 1995 m, and succeeded in taking cores highly probable of magmatic conduit in July 2004. We could carry out geophysical logging mostly throughout the whole sections. Spot coring were done at 16 times; its total length was 75m. Although the highest measured temperature was 155 deg. C, the formation temperature may reach at least 200 deg. C. The reasons of smooth drilling after 9-5/8 inch casing installation were easy hole cleaning due to smaller diameter, least lost circulation, and no gas invasion.

  12. Whole-rock analyses of core samples from the 1988 drilling of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, Rosalind Tuthill; Taggart, Joseph E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents and evaluates 64 major-element analyses of previously unanalyzed Kilauea Iki drill core, plus three samples from the 1959 and 1960 eruptions of Kilauea, obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis during the period 1992 to 1995. All earlier major-element analyses of Kilauea Iki core, obtained by classical (gravimetric) analysis, were reported and evaluated in Helz and others (1994). In order to assess how well the newer data compare with this earlier suite of analyses, a subset of 24 samples, which had been analyzed by classical analysis, was reanalyzed using the XRF technique; those results are presented and evaluated in this report also. The XRF analyses have not been published previously. This report also provides an overview of how the chemical variations observed in these new data fit in with the chemical zonation patterns and petrologic processes inferred in earlier studies of Kilauea Iki.

  13. CAT-scan analysis in scientific drilling: effective routine data acquisition and processing of whole cores, split cores and u-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, G.; Francus, P.; Labrie, J.; Beauvais, Q.; Velle, J. H.; Fortin, D.; Mix, A. C.; Jaeger, J. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Bahlburg, H.; Forwick, M.; Zolitschka, B.

    2014-12-01

    CAT-scan analysis of sediment cores provides a rapid, high-resolution and non destructive method to visualise sedimentary structures, coring-induced artefacts, as well as to derive a continuous downcore CT number profile primarily associated with changes in bulk density. Here, we will briefly overview how we now routinely use CAT-scan analysis for paleoenvironmental and sedimentological purposes. We will present some advances in data processing, as well as a few case studies from lacustrine and marine sedimentary sequences measured using either whole cores, split cores and u-channels in order to highlight the advantages and complementarity of CAT-Scan measurements with other continuous downcore high-resolution physical or magnetic measurements. We will also illustrate how effective data acquisition and processing have now enabled the use of CAT-scan for the continuous interpretation of long drilled sequences from IODP (Exp. 341 - Gulf of Alaska) and ICDP (PASADO - Laguna Potrok Aike, Southern Patagonia) previously hampered by the large number of core sections and derived images.

  14. Bibliography, geophysical data locations, and well core listings for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    To date, comprehensive basin analysis and petroleum system modeling studies have not been performed on any of the basins in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Of these basins, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been selected for study because it is the most petroliferous basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, small- and medium-size companies are drilling the majority of the exploration wells. These companies do not have the resources to perform basin analysis or petroleum system modeling research studies nor do they have the resources to undertake elaborate information searches through the volumes of publicly available data at the universities, geological surveys, and regulatory agencies in the region. The Advanced Geologic Basin Analysis Program of the US Department of Energy provides an avenue for studying and evaluating sedimentary basins. This program is designed to improve the efficiency of the discovery of the nation`s remaining undiscovered oil resources by providing improved access to information available in the public domain and by increasing the amount of public information on domestic basins. This report provides the information obtained from Year 1 of this study of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. The work during Year 1 focused on inventorying the data files and records of the major information repositories in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and making these inventories easily accessible in an electronic format.

  15. Brines and interstitial brackish water in drill cores from the deep gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manheim, F T; Sayles, F L

    1970-10-01

    Marked increases in interstitial salinity occur in two drill holes located in the Gulf of Mexico at a water depth of more than 3500 meters. The increases probably arose through diffusion of salt from buried evaporites. In one hole, however, brackish water was encountered on penetrating the oil-permeated cap rock of a salt dome. The phenomenon is attributed to production of fresh water during oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons and decomposition of gypsum to form native sulfur. PMID:17734668

  16. Brines and interstitial brackish water in drill cores from the deep gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Sayles, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    Marked increases in interstitial salinity occur in two drill holes located in the Gulf of Mexico at a water depth of more than 3500 meters. The increases probably arose through diffusion of salt from buried evaporites. In one hole, however, brackish water was encountered on penetrating the oil-permeated cap rock of a salt dome. The phenomenon is attributed to production of fresh water during oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons and decomposition of gypsum to form native sulfur.

  17. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sass, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activities enabled the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. The SSSDP exceeded its target depth of 10,000 feet, and a comprehensive set of cuttings, cores, and downhole logs was obtained. Two flow tests at different depths were successfully completed. Hydrologic connection between the different producing horizons, however, made the data from the deeper test difficult to interpret. Temperature logging by the Geological Survey and Sandia National Laboratories to establish the equilibrium profile continued until August of 1987. The SSSDP provides a model for scientific cooperation among government agencies, universities, and private industry.

  18. Core hole drilling and the ''rain current'' phenomenon at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C.A.; Walkey, W.C.; Combs, J.

    1988-09-10

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole Geo N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mW m/sup -2/, reflecting subsurface temperatures, sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mW m/sup -2/, is less encouraging. We emphasize the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Cole hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite, basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Caving and sloughing were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes. The uppermost regime is isothemal at mean air temperature down to about 900-1000 m (the rain curtain).

  19. Geochemical studies of the SUBO 18 (Enkingen) drill core and other impact breccias from the Ries crater, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe; McDonald, Iain; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas; Hansen, Birgit; Jacob, Juliane; Koeberl, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Suevite and melt breccia compositions in the boreholes Enkingen and Polsingen are compared with compositions of suevites from other Ries boreholes and surface locations and discussed in terms of implications for impact breccia genesis. No significant differences in average chemical compositions for the various drill cores or surface samples are noted. Compositions of suevite and melt breccia from southern and northeastern sectors of the Ries crater do not significantly differ. This is in stark contrast to the published variations between within-crater and out-of-crater suevites from northern and southern sectors of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana. Locally occurring alteration overprint on drill coresespecially strong on the carbonate-impregnated suevite specimens of the Enkingen boreholedoes affect the average compositions. Overall, the composition of the analyzed impact breccias from Ries are characterized by very little macroscopically or microscopically recognized sediment-clast component; the clast populations of suevite and impact melt breccia are dominated consistently by granitic and intermediate granitoid components. The Polsingen breccia is significantly enriched in a dioritic clast component. Overall, chemical compositions are of intermediate composition as well, with dioritic-granodioritic silica contents, and relatively small contributions from mafic target components. Selected suevite samples from the Enkingen core have elevated Ni, Co, Cr, and Ir contents compared with previously analyzed suevites from the Ries crater, which suggest a small meteoritic component. Platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations for some of the enriched samples indicate somewhat elevated concentrations and near-chondritic ratios of the most immobile PGE, consistent with an extraterrestrial contribution of 0.1-0.2% chondrite-equivalent.

  20. Fossils, lithologies, and geophysical logs of the Mancos Shale from core hole USGS CL-1 in Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Bridget A.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Grauch, R.I.; McKinney, K.C.; Livo, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary investigation of Mancos Shale landscapes in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area in Delta and Montrose Counties of western Colorado by the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation, a core of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale was obtained from a borehole, USGS CL-1, in NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 50 N., R. 9 W. (approximately lat 38.61717 degree(s) N., long 107.90174 degree(s) W.), near the town of Olathe. Geophysical records of the borehole include resistivity, gamma ray, and density logs. The core extends between depths of 20 and 557 ft and is about 2.5 in. in diameter. It is composed of calcareous silty shale, as well as scattered beds of limestone and bentonite which were deposited mainly in offshore marine environments during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian Stages of the Cretaceous Series. The strata were sampled and analyzed to obtain geochemical data and to identify constituent fossils. Stratigraphic units within the Mancos in the core include the following members, in ascending order: Bridge Creek Limestone (part), Fairport, Blue Hill, Juana Lopez, Montezuma Valley, and Niobrara (part). Strata herein assigned to the Bridge Creek Limestone are about 18 ft thick and consist of silty shale that contains ammonites, bivalves, and a coral of Late Cenomanian age. Strata assigned to the Fairport are about 22 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenite-bearing, calcareous shale. Fossils in this member include ammonites and bivalves of early middle Turonian age. Overlying the Fairport is the Blue Hill Member, which is about 139 ft thick, and consists of glauconitic, shaley siltstone, and less silty shale. The Juana Lopez Member, overlying the Blue Hill, is about 138 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenitic, silty shale. Beds in this member contain ammonites and bivalves of late middle and early late Turonian ages. Overlying the Juana Lopez is the Montezuma Valley Member, which is about 55 ft thick and consists of calcarenitic, calcareous silty shale. The Montezuma Valley Member contains ammonites and bivalves of late Turonian age. It is overlain by a lower part of the Niobrara Member of the Mancos Shale which is laterally equivalent to the Fort Hays Limestone Member and part of the overlying Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Formation at outcrops in central Colorado. Strata in the core comparable to the Fort Hays are about 39 ft thick and include shaley limestone and calcareous shale, which contain lower Coniacian bivalves. Strata in the core equivalent to part of the Smoky Hill are about 126 ft thick and consist mainly of calcareous silty shale which also contains lower Coniacian bivalves.

  1. Online drilling mud gas monitoring and sampling during drilling the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Almqvist, Bjarne; Klonowska, Iwona; Lorenz, Henning

    2015-04-01

    The COSC project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) drilled a 2496 m deep hole in re (Sweden) to deliver insights into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes from continent-continent collision, to improve our understanding of the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state and geothermal gradient of the mountain belt and to study the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement. COSC was the first slimhole drilling project where online gasmonitoring of drilling mud was conducted during continuous wireline coring. Gas was continuously extracted at the surface from the circulating drilling mud with a gas-water separator, pumped in a nearby laboratory container and analysed in real-time with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for argon, methane, helium, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and krypton. Gas samples were taken from the gas line for laboratory studies on chemical composition of hydrocarbons, noble gas isotopes and stable isotopes. Every drill core created a gas peak identified in the drilling mud ~20-30 min after core arrival at the surface. With known core depth and surface arrival time, these gas peaks could be attributed to depth. As a result, nearly complete gas depth profiles at three meter intervals were obtained from 662 m (installation of the gas-water separator) to 2490 m depth. Maximum concentrations of non-atmospheric gasses in drilling mud were ~200 ppmv helium, ~300 ppmv methane and ~2 vol-% hydrogen. Helium peaks between ~900 m and 1000 m and correlates with enhanced concentrations of methane. Methane and hydrogen exhibit maximum concentrations below 1630 m depth where helium concentrations remain low. Integration of the drilling mud gas monitoring dataset with data from geophysical downhole logging and core analysis is ongoing to help clarifying provenances and origin of gasses.

  2. Petrology and hydrothermal mineralogy of US Geological Survey Newberry 2 drill core from Newberry Caldera, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Bargar, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    USGS Newberry 2 was drilled to a depth of 932 m within Newberry caldera. The bottom-hole temperature of 265??C is the highest reported temperature of any drill hole in the Cascades region of the US. The upper part of the stratigraphic section penetrated by Newberry 2 consists of caldera fill below which are increasingly more mafic lavas ranging from rhyodacite at 501 m to basalt at 932 m. Measured temperatures shallower than 300 m are less than 35??C, and rock alteration consists of hydration of glass and local palagonitization of basaltic tuffs. Incipient zeolitization and partial smectite replacement of ash and pumice occurred of basaltic tuffs. Incipient zeolitization and partial smectite replacement of ash and pumice occurred throughout the pumiceous lithic tuffs from 300 to 500 m. Higher-temperature alteration of the tuffs to chlorite and mordenite occurs adjacent to a rhyodacite sill at 460-470 m; alteration minerals within the sill consist of pyrrhotite, pyrite, quartz, calcite, and siderite. Below 697 m the rocks are progressively more altered with depth mainly because of increased temperature along a conductive gradient from 100??C at 697 m to 265??C at 930 m. -from Authors

  3. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4.6 x 103?m3 mL-1 (mean: 56?m3 mL-1 ), the unicellular cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 3.0 x 104?m3 mL-1 (mean: 1.2 x 103?m3 mL-1 ), and Green algae varied from 0.0 to 2.3 x 104?m3 mL-1 (mean: 2.2 x 103?m3 mL-1 ). Based on the dating by pollen grains, the 64 m core covers 237 years. The results suggest that the snow algae did not grow every year on the top of the ice cap, and their biomass and community structure varied greatly from year to year. The total biomass after the 1960s was significantly higher than those before the 1950s. This suggested suggests that the surface conditions changed more favorable to the growth of algae in the 1960s. Annal variation of the algal biomass was found to be significantly correlated with air temperature at the nearest observing station from Grigoriev the iIce cap and hydrogen stable isotope (?D) in the ice core. The results suggest that the algal growth is more preferable in warmer year.

  4. Results of core drilling for uranium-bearing carbonaceous shale and lignite in the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mapel, William J.; Hail, William J., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    Thirteen core holes, totaling 2,023 feet, were drilled during the fall of 1953 to explore the grade and extent of uranium-bearing beds of carbonaceous shale and lignite in the east-central part of the Goose Creek district, Cassia County, Idaho. The beds tested are interbedded with volcanic ash, bentonite, greenish-gray shale, sandstone, and conglomerate in two fairly well defined zones in the lower part of the Salt Lake formation of lower Pliocene age. Nine holes penetrated carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone, and one hole penetrated carbonaceous shale and lignite beds in zone B, 160 feet stratigraphically below the Barrett zone. The highest concentration of uranium found by drilling is 0.10 percent in the upper part of a 4-foot bed of carbonaceous shale and lignite in zone B. The grade of carbonaceous shale beds in the Barrett zone ranges from 0.044 percent to less than 0.003 percent uranium. Inferred reserves in the district are estimated to be 790,000 tons in beds 1 foot or more thick containing an average of 0.014 percent or 120 tons of uranium.

  5. Radiocarbon dating of silica sinter deposits in shallow drill cores from the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Hurwitz, Shaul; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the timing of hydrothermal activity at the Upper Geyser Basin (UGB) in Yellowstone National Park, we obtained seven new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon 14C ages of carbonaceous material trapped within siliceous sinter. Five samples came from depths of 15-152 cm within the Y-1 well, and two samples were from well Y-7 (depths of 24 cm and 122 cm). These two wells, at Black Sand and Biscuit Basins, respectively, were drilled in 1967 as part of a scientific drilling program by the U.S. Geological Survey (White et al., 1975). Even with samples as small as 15 g, we obtained sufficient carbonaceous material (a mixture of thermophilic mats, pollen, and charcoal) for the 14C analyses. Apparent time of deposition ranged from 3775 ± 25 and 2910 ± 30 14C years BP at the top of the cores to about 8000 years BP at the bottom. The dates are consistent with variable rates of sinter formation at individual sites within the UGB over the Holocene. On a basin-wide scale, though, these and other existing 14C dates hint that hydrothermal activity at the UGB may have been continuous throughout the Holocene.

  6. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of cores from a 26 meter deep borehole drilled in Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, A.; Vieira, G.; Ramos, M.

    2012-06-01

    During the month of January of 2008 a borehole (Permamodel-Gulbenkian 1 — PG1) 26 m deep was drilled on the top of Mount Reina Sofia (275 m a.s.l.) near the Spanish Antarctic Station of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands. Cores from 1.5 m to about 26 m deep were collected for measuring several physical properties. The objective of the present work is to report the values of the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity that were measured in the cores from the borehole and the heat production that was estimated for the geological formations intercepted by it. Seven cores were selected to measure the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity. The measured values for the thermal conductivity vary from 2.6 W/mK to 3.3 W/mK while the measured values for the thermal diffusivity vary from 1.1 × 10- 6 m2/s to 1.6 × 10- 6 m2/s. Both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, on average, show a slight increase with depth. Average heat production was also estimated for two portions of the borehole: one from 2 to 12 m and the other from 12 to 25 m. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to estimate the concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium of the cores, from which the heat production per unit volume was calculated. The estimated heat production for the first half of the borehole is 2.218 μW/m3 while for the second half it is 2.173 μW/m3; these heat production values are compatible with acidic rock types. Porosity and density were also estimated for the same cores.

  7. Methane hydrate pore saturation evaluation from geophysical logging and pressure core analysis, at the first offshore production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    On March 2013, the first offshore production test form methane hydrate (MH) concentrated zone (MHCZ) was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21) at the AT1 site located in the north-western slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. Before the production test, extensive geophysical logging and pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System were conducted in 2012 at monitoring well (AT1-MC) and coring well (AT1-C), in order to obtain basic information for the MH reservoir characterization. MH pore saturation (Sh) is one of the important basic parameters not only for reservoir characterization, but also the resource assessment. However, precise evaluation of Sh from geophysical logging is still challenging technical issue. The MHCZ confirmed by the geophysical logging at AT1-MC has a turbidite assemblage (from several tens of centimeters to a few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness; it is composed of lobe/sheet type sequences in the upper part, and relatively thick channel sand sequences in the lower part. In this study, the Sh evaluated from geophysical logging data were compared with those evaluated from pressure core analysis. Resistivity logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log were used for the Sh evaluation by geophysical logging. Standard Archie equation was applied for Sh evaluation from resistivity log, while density magnetic resonance (DMR) method was used for Sh evaluation from NMR log. The Sh from pressure core samples were evaluated using the amount of dissociated gas volume, together with core sample bulk volume, measured porosity, net sand intervals, and assumed methane solubility in pore water. In the upper part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from resistivity log showed distinct difference in value between sand and mud layers, compared to Sh from NMR log. Resistivity log has higher vertical resolution than NMR log, so it is favorable for these kinds of thin bed evaluation. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which showed fairly good agreement with core derived Sh. On the other hand, lower part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from both resistivity and NMR log showed higher background value and relatively smoother curve than upper part. In this part, 50 to 80% of Sh was observed in sandy layer, which was also showed good agreement with core derived Sh. This study was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21).

  8. Description and hydrogeologic implications of cored sedimentary material from the 1975 drilling program at the radioactive waste management complex, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rightmire, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of sedimentary material from interbeds between basalt flows and from fractures in the flows, taken from two drill cores at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were analyzed for (1) particle-size dribution, (2) bulk mineralogy, (3) clay mineralogy, (4) cation-exchange capacity, and (5) carbonate content. Thin sections of selected sediment material were made for petrographic examination. Preliminary interpretations indicate that (1) it may be possible to distinguish the various sediment interbeds on the basis of their mineralogy, (2) the presence of carbonate horizons in sedimentary interbeds may be utilized to approximate the time of exposure and the climate while the surface was exposed (which affected the hydrogeologic character of the sediment), and the type and orientation of fracture-filling material may be utilized to determine the mechanism by which fractures were filled. (USGS)

  9. Geophysical evidence for the evolution of the California Inner Continental Borderland as a metamorphic core complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Zhang, Jie; Brocher, Thomas M.; Okaya, David A.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Fuis, Gary S.

    2000-01-01

    We use new seismic and gravity data collected during the 1994 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) to discuss the origin of the California Inner Continental Borderland (ICB) as an extended terrain possibly in a metamorphic core complex mode. The data provide detailed crustal structure of the Borderland and its transition to mainland southern California. Using tomographic inversion as well as traditional forward ray tracing to model the wide-angle seismic data, we find little or no sediments, low (?6.6 km/s) P wave velocity extending down to the crust-mantle boundary, and a thin crust (19 to 23 km thick). Coincident multichannel seismic reflection data show a reflective lower crust under Catalina Ridge. Contrary to other parts of coastal California, we do not find evidence for an underplated fossil oceanic layer at the base of the crust. Coincident gravity data suggest an abrupt increase in crustal thickness under the shelf edge, which represents the transition to the western Transverse Ranges. On the shelf the Palos Verdes Fault merges downward into a landward dipping surface which separates "basement" from low-velocity sediments, but interpretation of this surface as a detachment fault is inconclusive. The seismic velocity structure is interpreted to represent Catalina Schist rocks extending from top to bottom of the crust. This interpretation is compatible with a model for the origin of the ICB as an autochthonous formerly hot highly extended region that was filled with the exhumed metamorphic rocks. The basin and ridge topography and the protracted volcanism probably represent continued extension as a wide rift until ?13 m.y. ago. Subduction of the young and hot Monterey and Arguello microplates under the Continental Borderland, followed by rotation and translation of the western Transverse Ranges, may have provided the necessary thermomechanical conditions for this extension and crustal inflow.

  10. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of hydrothermal minerals from Yellowstone drill cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturchio, N.C.; Keith, T.E.C.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199??C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The ??18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, ??-cristobalite, and ??-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8???. About one third of the silica 7samples have ??18O values that are consistent with isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters; most of the other silica samples appear to have precipitated from water enriched in 18O (up to 4.7???) relative to present thermal water, assuming precipitation at present in situ temperatures. Available data on fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures in hydrothermal quartz indicate that silica precipitation occurred mostly at temperatures above those measured during drilling and imply that 15O enrichments in water during silica precipitation were generally larger than those estimated from present conditions. Similarly, clay minerals (celadonite and smectite) have ??18O values higher (by 3.5 to 7.9???) than equilibrium values under present conditions. In contrast, all eight analyzed calcite samples are close to isotopic equilibrium with present thermal waters. The frequent incidence of apparent 18O enrichment in thermal water from which the hydrothermal minerals precipitated may indicate that a higher proportion of strongly 18O-enriched deep hydrothermal fluid once circulated through shallow portions of the Yellowstone system, or that a recurring transient 18O-enrichment effect occurs at shallow depths and is caused either by sudden decompressional boiling or by isotopic exchange at low water/rock ratios in new fractures. The mineralogy and apparent 18O enrichments of hydrothermal fracture-filling minerals are consistent with deposition during transient boiling or rock-water exchange (fracturing) events. ?? 1990.

  11. Minerals in fractures of the saturated zone from drill core USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.

    1987-04-01

    The minerals in fractures in drill core USW G-4, from the static water level (SWL) at 1770 ft to the base of the hole at 3000 ft, were studied to determine their identity and depositional sequence and to compare them with those found above the SWL in the same drill hole. There is no change in mineralogy or mineral morphology across the SWL. The significant change in mineralogy and relationship to the host rock occurs at 1381 ft, well above the present water table. Below 1381 ft clinoptilolite appears in the fractures and rock matrix instead of heulandite, and the fracture mineralogy correlates with the host rock mineralogy. Throughout most of the saturated zone (below the SWL) in USW G-4, zeolites occur in fractures only in zeolitic tuff; however, zeolites persist in fracture below the base of the deepest zeolitic tuff interval. Nonzeolitic intervals of tuff have fewer fractures, and many of these have no coatings; a few have quartz and feldspar coatings. One interval in zeolitic tuff (2125-2140 ft) contains abundant crisobalite coatings in the fractures. Calcite occurs in fractures from 2575 to 2660 ft, usually with the manganese mineral hollandite, and from 2750 to 2765 ft, usually alone. Manganese minerals occur in several intervals. The spatial correlation of zeolites in fractures with zeolitic host rock suggests that both may have been zeolitized at the same time, possibly by water moving laterally through more permeable zones in the tuff. The continuation of zeolites in fractures below the lowest zeolitic interval in this hole suggests that vertical fracture flow may have been important in the deposition of these coatings. Core from deeper intervals in another hole will be examined to determine if that relationship continues. 17 refs., 19 figs.

  12. Early Miocene Antarctic glacial history: new insights from heavy mineral analysis from ANDRILL AND-2A drill core sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacoviello, Francesco; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Turbanti Memmi, Isabella; Passchier, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    The present study deals with heavy mineral analysis of late Early Miocene marine sediments recovered in the McMurdo Sound region (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during the ANDRILL—SMS Project in 2007. The main objective is to investigate how heavy mineral assemblages reflect different source rocks and hence different provenance areas. These data contribute to a better understanding of East Antarctica ice dynamics in the Ross Sea sector during the Early Miocene (17.6-20.2 Ma), a time of long-term global warming and sea level rise. The AND-2A drill core recovered several stratigraphic intervals that span from Early Miocene to Pleistocene and it collected a variety of terrigenous lithologies. The heavy mineral assemblages of the lower 650-m-thick sedimentary succession were analyzed through SEM observations and SEM-EDS microanalyses on heavy mineral grains. The heavy mineral analysis shows that the sediments are a mix of detritus dominated by McMurdo Volcanic Group sources most likely located in the present-day Mount Morning area (Proto-Mount Morning) with minor contribution from Transantarctic Mountains source rocks located west of the drill site. The heavy mineral assemblages in Interval 1 indicate that between 20.2 and 20.1 Ma, the grounding line of the ice sheet advanced to a position near the present-day Mount Morning volcanic center. During deposition of Interval 2 (20.1-19.3 Ma), the ice sheet most likely experienced a dynamic behavior with interval of ice advance alternating with periods of ice retreat, while Interval 3 (19.3-18.7 Ma) records further retreat to open water conditions. A dynamic behavior is noted in Interval 4 (18.7-17.6 Ma) with a decreasing contribution of materials derived from the basalts of the Mount Morning volcanic center located to the south of the drill site and a consequent increasing contribution of materials derived from the Transantarctic Mountains to the west of the drill site.

  13. Petrography, geochemistry, and Hf-Nd isotope evolution of drill core samples and target rocks from the El'gygytgyn impact crater, NE Chukotka, Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Schulz, Toni; Koeberl, Christian; Hoffmann, J. Elis; Mnker, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    El'gygytgyn in northeast Chukotka (Russia) is a 3.6 Ma, 18-km-diameter impact structure. The impact crater was recently drilled in the framework of a project sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Target rocks at the El'gygytgyn area are dominated by the felsic members of the Late Cretaceous Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt (OCVB). Such a target lithology is unique among terrestrial impact craters, thereby providing the opportunity to study shock metamorphism in siliceous volcanic rocks. Here, we present a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of the section of the drill core underneath the lacustrine sediments, extending from 316 m to 517 m below the lake bottom (blb). The drill core stratigraphy includes 80 m of suevite and a cross section through a volcanic suite, which consists of (1) a middle section (390-423 mblb) with dominant felsic tuffs and a few mafic members, and (2) a welded rhyolitic-dacitic ignimbrite (423-517 mblb). The melt fragments embedded in the suevite are interpreted as being impact-related by comparison with impact glasses from the crater and in opposition to the target rock, which does not include similar melts. A suevitic dyke crosscuts the lower section of the core at the depth 471.40 mblb. Evidence for shock metamorphism is concentrated in the upper 10 m of the drill core and almost limited to the suevitic breccia. The geochemical and isotope (Nd and Hf) composition of samples from the target and the drill core reveals relationships to the "Berlozhya magmatic assemblage" (BMA) arguing for similar source magmas. The primitive upper mantle (PUM)-normalized trace element plot of rocks investigated here confirms a subduction-related signature, as previously proposed for rocks from both OCVB and BMA.

  14. Dynamics of the late Plio-Pleistocene West Antarctic Ice Sheet documented in subglacial diamictites, AND-1B drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Ellen A.; Christoffersen, Poul; Powell, Ross D.; Talarico, Franco M.

    2014-08-01

    Geologic studies of sediment deposited by glaciers can provide crucial insights into the subglacial environment. We studied muddy diamictites in the ANtarctic geological DRILLing (ANDRILL) AND-1B drill core, acquired from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf in McMurdo Sound, with the aim of identifying paleo-ice stream activity in the Plio-Pleistocene. Glacial advances were identified from glacial surfaces of erosion (GSEs) and subglacial diamictites within three complete sequences were investigated using lithofacies associations, micromorphology, and quartz sand grain microtextures. Whereas conditions in the Late Pliocene resemble the modern Greenland Ice Sheet where fast flowing glaciers lubricated by surface meltwater terminate directly in the sea (interval 201-212 mbsl) conditions in the Late Pleistocene are similar to modern West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) ice streams (38-49 mbsl). We identify the latter from ductile deformation and high pore-water pressure, which resulted in pervasive rotation and formation of till pellets and low relief, rounded sand grains dominated by abrasion. In the transitional period during the Mid-Pleistocene (55-68 mbsf), a slow moving inland ice sheet deposited tills with brittle deformation, producing lineations and bi-masepic and unistrial plasma fabric, along with high relief, conchoidally fractured quartz grains. Changes in the provenance of gravel to cobble-size clasts support a distant source area of Byrd Glacier for fast-flowing paleo-ice streams and a proximal area between Darwin and Skelton Glaciers for the slow-moving inland ice sheet. This difference in till provenance documents a shift in direction of glacial flow at the core site, which indirectly reflects changes in the size and thickness of the WAIS. Hence, we found that fast ice streaming motion is a consequence of a thicker WAIS pushing flow lines to the west and introducing clasts from the Byrd Glacier source area to the drill site. The detailed analysis of diamictites in AND-1B demonstrates that Pliocene glacial intervals were warmer than in the Pleistocene when polar ice sheets grew from local inland ice to regional ice streams.

  15. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  16. Detrital dating on drill-core records from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zattin, M.; Andreucci, B.; Balestrieri, M.; Olivetti, V.; Pace, D.; Reiners, P. W.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F.; Thomson, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of Antarctic ice sheets on the global climate system during the Cenozoic has been intensely investigated in the last years, especially after the successful drilling projects off-shore the western Ross Sea. While the role of the Western Ice Sheet (WAIS) during the Miocene it is not clear, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) has been suggested to be more or less stable and cold for the last 14 Ma. Records from drilling projects in syn-tectonic basins located on the continental shelf along the western margin of the West Antarctica Rift System (DSDP, CIROS, CRP and ANDRILL projects) may provide crucial information on the tectonic and paleo-climatic evolution of that region during Cenozoic. The drilled sedimentary records have been therefore investigated by detrital geochronology which, integrated by sandstone and gravel petrography, can provide valuable information on the dynamics of the ice sheets as provenance data are sensitive to variations in the ice-flow patterns. Apatite fission-track (AFT) data from ANDRILL and CRP records show multiple peaks in most of the samples. In the AND-2A well, whose stratigraphic record spans the last 20 Ma, the grain-age distributions are dominated by grains between 20 and 40 Ma. A young peak with a comparable age has been also episodically detected in CRP wells where conversely the most relevant population is made by grain ages between 45 and 70 Ma. Samples from Late Miocene-Pleistocene sediments of AND-1B well show a completely different AFT age distribution as a single peak is usually detected and ages are younger than 20 Ma. The AFT age range is well represented in bedrock data along the entire Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The main denudation phase in the TAM began at 55-50 Ma but the occurrence of a young peak in the detrital data at ca. 35 Ma indicates the presence of an Oligocene pulse, as testified also by the small gap between AFT and some (U-Th-Sm)/He ages that have been detected on AND-2A samples. Such young ages are absent in the onshore portion of the TAM proximal to wells while they are present in regions located to the south. This suggests that the TAM are segmented by transversal lineaments and that significant vertical displacements occurred south of the so-called Discovery Accommodation Zone during the Oligocene. Single grain U-Pb ages on apatites from AND-2A well testify that some volcanism was concurrent with this exhumation event. The location of the volcanic centers is unknown, but aeromagnetic anomalies suggest the presence of subglacial volcanic centers beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and the WAIS. After the Oligocene, the TAM have been in a post-orogenic decay, with exhumation rates of the order of 0.1 km/Ma. As a whole, detrital ages and petrographic data agree on the idea of an ice pattern dominated by south to north trending flow lines parallel to the TAM front. Our record supports the presence of large-scale advance of WAIS across the Ross Sea. Local ice lobes from the TAM glaciers were able to transport debris only during glacial-minima settings while during periods with presence of large ice volumes, W-E flows from the TAM were obstructed by the major flow running S to N.

  17. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Chan, K.M.; Kerr, D.; Sunda, W.

    1970-01-01

    Eleven samples of fluids which had been squeezed on board ship, and four, packaged sediment samples were received in our laboratories. As in Leg 2, the volumes of fluid available were scanty and did not permit multiple determinations of constituents in many of the samples; in Hole 21 the fluid available sufficed only for refractometer readings (a few tenths of a milliliter). Therefore, analytical scatter is again responsible for partially obscuring variations (and constancy) in the conservative constituents such as sodium. However, on the whole the results confirm the features which appeared in Legs 1 and 2. Central oceanic sediments display a remarkable constancy in total salinity, chlorinity and sodium concentration to the greatest depths and ages yet penetrated in the project drillings. Variations attributable to postburial reactions do occur in the remaining major ions, but they usually show little systematic trend with depth--with the exception of potassium, which will be discussed later. Methods remain similar to those employed for Leg 2; the detailed techniques are now being prepared for submission, but a brief description may be obtained from the previous Leg reports (Manheim and Sayles, 1969; Chan and Manheim, 1970). Results from four unsqueezed samples are not complete and, therefore, do not appear here.

  18. Manson impact structure, Iowa: First geochemical results for drill core M-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Anderson, Raymond R.; Hartung, Jack B.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1993-01-01

    The Manson Impact Structure is a large complex impact crater centered ca. S km north of the town of Manson, Iowa. It is the largest intact impact structure recognized in the United States (35 km in diameter). Its Ar-40/Ar-39 age is indistinguishable from that of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. The Manson structure may be one element of the events at the K-T boundary. The crater is completely covered by Quaternary glacial sedimentary deposits that are normally underlain by Cretaceous clastic sediments and flat-lying carbonate sediments of Phanerozoic age, as well as Proterozoic red clastic, metamorphic, volcanic, and plutonic rock sequences. The study of a reflection seismic profile, provided by Amoco, was critical in interpreting the structure. In the 35 km diameter zone that marks the extension of the crater the normal rock sequence is disturbed due to the impact, and at the center of the structure granitic basement rocks are present that have been uplifted from about 4 km depth. Our studies consist of detailed petrological and geochemical characterization of all cores, with emphasis on a detailed description of all rock types found in the core samples and their relationship to target rocks. Geochemical data on samples from the Manson M-1 core are presented.

  19. Erosion and filling of glacially-overdeepened troughs in the Northern Alpine Foreland as recorded in a deep drill core from Northern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehnert, Andreas; Axel Kemna, Hans; Anselmetti, Flavio; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Graf, Hans Rudolf; Lowick, Sally; Preusser, Frank; Zger, Andreas; Furrer, Heinz

    2010-05-01

    As the major weather divide in Europe, the Alps represent one of the most interesting areas for understanding past climate change and its impact on continental environments. However, our knowledge of the Quaternary environmental history of the region is still rather limited, especially for the time preceding the last glaciation of the Alps. Geological and geophysical studies in the Wehntal, 20 km northwest of Zurich, Switzerland, in 2007 and 2008 have revealed the existence of a glacially overdeepened trough cut into Miocene molasse bedrock, which is today filled with ~90 to 180 m of Pleistocene sediments. In March 2009, a 93.6 m long sediment core (NW09/1) has been drilled east of the famous mammoth-site Niederweningen. This record is one of the very few sites in the northern Alpine Foreland that provides crucial insights into the timing of the erosion and infilling history of pre-Eemian glacially overdeepened troughs and also helps to understand the climate and environmental history. Based on chronological data deduced from the nearby, but shorter, 2007 core and on new multi-proxy data, the NW09/1 record is interpreted as: 4.1 m of in-situ molasse bedrock, overlain by 3.4 m of diamictic till. These glacial deposits were deposited by a Linth glacier lobe during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 (Rissian), although, the possibility that an even older glaciation was responsible cannot currently be excluded (e.g. MIS 8, luminescence dating, pollen interpretations, and palaeomagnetic studies in progress). It is suggested that this extensive ice advance, which once covered the entire Wehntal valley, caused the final erosion of the bedrock. The till is overlain by a 29.5 m thick sequence of laminated, carbonate-rich, fine-grained siliciclastic sediments that are interpreted as proglacial lake sediments. It is supposed that this unit was deposited in a proximal setting to a calving glacier-front confirmed by the presence of numerous dropstones. The damming of this Wehntal palaeolake was most likely caused by a terminal moraine located ~3 km to the northwest of the drill site. The overlying 37.9 m of fine-grained lake sediments are comparable to the former unit, but the absence of dropstones and the occurrence of multiple interstratified sand layers (up to 40 cm in thickness) indicate a more distal proglacial lake facies and thus, a melting of the feeding glacier lobe. The subsequent 9.5 m of fine-grained material are characterised by a striking drop in carbonate content (from ~50 to 20 wt%), which is interpreted as a decoupling of the Wehntal catchment from the Linth glacier system that originates in a carbonate-rich hinterland. Furthermore, the top of this unit documents the gradual infilling of the palaeolake and the onset of biological productivity due to climate warming. This is also documented by occurrence of pyrite and siderite concretions. The prominent environmental change culminates in the abrupt accumulation of peat (1.8 m) during the interglacial MIS 5e (late Eemian). Afterwards, the Wehntal was recaptured by a younger palaeolake after which the peat became flooded. The resulting 4.9 m of silty sediments have carbonate contents of ~25 wt% and also show post-sedimentary pyrite and siderite concretions. The source of sediment is interpreted as derived from the molassic Zurich Highlands and the Jurassic limestone of the Lgern mountain, which borders the Wehntal valley to the south. The cause of the rise in water level subsequent to deposition of the MIS 5e peat, however, has not yet been identified. Eventually, the younger palaeolake was filled, resulting in the accumulation of 0.7 m of fossil rich Middle Wrmian peat (Mammoth peat'). This peat was finally covered with 2.0 m of post-Wrmian-to-recent silts and sands.

  20. Acoustic investigations of lakes as justification for optimal core drilling and sampling location in paleomagnetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Pavel; Nourgaliev, Danis; Yasonov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Lacustrine sediments contain a long, high-resolution record of sedimentation processes associated with changes in the environment. Paleomagnetic studies of the sediments properties provide a detailed trace of changes in paleoenvironment. However, there are factors such as landslides, earthquakes, and the presence of gas in sediments affecting the distributing sediment stratification. Seismic profiling allows investigating in details the bottom relief and getting information about the thickness and structure of deposits, which makes this method ideally suitable for determining the configuration of the lake basin and the overlying lake sediment stratigraphy. Most seismic studies have concentrated on large and deep lakes containing a thick sedimentary sequence, but small and shallow lakes containing a thinner sedimentary column located in key geographic locations and geological settings can also provide a valuable record of Holocene history. Seismic data is crucial in choosing optimal core sampling location. Thus, continuous seismic profiling should be used regularly before coring lake sediments for the reconstruction of paleoclimate. We have carried out seismic profiling on lakes Balkhash (Kazakhstan), Yarovoye, Kangrykyl, Aslykul, Kisigach, Plescheevo, Sunukyl and Chebarkul (Russia).

  1. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Sayles, F.L.

    1971-01-01

    Leg 8 sites are dominated by siliceous-calcareous biogenic oozes having depositional rates of 0.1 to 1.5 cm/1000 years. Conservative constituents of pore fluids showed, as have cores from other pelagic areas of the Pacific, insignificant or marginally significant changes with depth and location. However, in Sites 70 and 71, calcium, magnesium and strontium showed major shifts in concentration with depth. These changes appear to be related to recrystallization phenomena in skeletal debris of nannoplankton and to the relative accumulation rate of the sediments. The chemical anomalies increase relatively smoothly with depth, demonstrating the effectiveness of vertical diffusional communication, and apparent lack of bulk fluid movement, as noted in Leg 7 and other sites.

  2. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project: Leg 10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Sayles, Fred L.; Waterman, Lee S.

    1973-01-01

    Leg 10 interstitial water analyses provide new indications of the distribution of rock salt beneath the floor of the Gulf of Mexico, both confirming areas previously indicated to be underlain by salt bodies and extending evidence of salt distribution to seismically featureless areas in the Sigsbee Knolls trend and Isthmian Embayment. The criterion for presence of salt at depth is a consistent increase in interstitial salinity and chlorinity with depth. Site 86, on the northern margin of the Yucatan Platform, provided no evidence of salt at depth. Thus, our data tend to rule out the suggestion of Antoine and Bryant (1969) that the Sigsbee Knolls salt was squeezed out from beneath the Yucatan Scarp. Cores from Sites 90 and 91, in the central Sigsbee Deep, were not obtained from a great enough depth to yield definite evidence for the presence of buried salt.

  3. Fluid Inclusions in Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project Core: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roedder, Edwin; Howard, Kevin W.

    1988-11-01

    Fluid inclusions (191) in calcite, quartz, K-feldspar, and epidote from ?l-mm veinlets in cores and well cuttings from 604-2560 m homogenize from 217 to >500C and vary widely in salinity, suggesting a complex history of fluids surrounding these samples. No daughter minerals were seen, and no clathrates were recognized on freezing. Vapor-rich inclusions under pressure, presumably containing CO2 and/or CH4, were found from a wide range of depths, suggesting that effervescence has occurred. Low-salinity fluids (1.2 -4.0 wt % NaCl eq) were present as deep as 1939 m. The data can be explained by a combination of processes such as thermal metamorphism of evaporites and other sediments and mixing of water from metamorphic dehydration reactions with partly evaporated Colorado River water.

  4. Integrated Geologic, Hydrologic, and Geophysical Investigations of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia, USA: A Multi-Agency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohn, G. S.; Bruce, T. S.; Catchings, R. D.; Emry, S. R.; Johnson, G. H.; Levine, J. S.; McFarland, E. R.; Poag, C. W.; Powars, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is the focus of an ongoing federal-state-local research program. Recent core drilling and geophysical surveys address the formative processes and hydrogeologic properties of this major "wet-target" impact. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Laura L.; Eby, David E.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.

    2002-07-24

    This report covers research activities for the second half of the second project year (October 6, 2001, through April 5, 2002). This work includes description and analysis of cores, correlation of geophysical well logs, reservoir mapping, petrographic description of thin sections, cross plotting of permeability and porosity data, and development of horizontal drilling strategies for the Little Ute and Sleeping Ute fields in Montezuma County, Colorado. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative core, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells.

  6. Paleostress Analysis of Retrieved Cores from the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) Hole-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, E.; Lee, J.; Lin, W.; Dong, J.; Lu, C.; Hashimoto, Y.; Song, S.; Wang, C.

    2006-12-01

    The stress state of seismic faulting and its interseismic deformation is a key to comprehend the relationship between the stress states and fracture/healing mechanisms. The continuously retrieved core of 500-2000m depth from the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) Hole-A allow us to study the paleostress state of finite deformation and healing process. We show results of paleostress analysis between 500-1300m depth and characterize the stress state corresponded to seismic faulting and interseismic healing process. Based on core examination, structures can be identified as thrust, backthrust, left-lateral fault, right-lateral fault and normal fault. Different types of fault crosscut each other, except normal fault. Excluding normal fault (1250-1260m) with calcite-step, other faults contain kinematic indicators with no-filling/filling-mineral (slickenside and calcite-step). The distribution of faults with depth shows a multiple-zoning pattern. The inferred orientation of paleostress axes is very similar among different faults and one of axes is subparallel to the direction of plate motion, but the magnitude of stress is different between fault types (stress ratio is between 0.2 and 0.4). Based on the existence of filling-mineral, we can characterize the stress state into plane stress of nofilling faults and trixial stress of filling faults. The no-filling fault induced by plane-stress can be interpreted as regional deformation including seismic faulting. The mineral-filling faults might correspond to the adjusted deformation during interseimic healing process. Also their distribution of orientation might also provide information of the regional pore pressure. Combining data of paleostress, in-situ stress and rock strength, the stress drop of Chi-Chi earthquake can be estimated.

  7. Constraints on magma ascent, emplacement, and eruption: geochemical and mineralogical data from drill-core samples at Obsidian dome, Inyo chain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.; Younker, L.W.; Schuraytz, B.C.

    1987-05-01

    Systematic chemical and mineralogical variability occurs in samples from drill holes through Obsidian dome, the conduit to the dome, and a nearby associated feeder dike. The drill-hole samples from the margins of the conduit and most of the lower part of the dome are high-Ba, low-silica rhyolites; they contain two populations of phenocrysts and represent commingled magmas, whereas samples from the dike and upper parts of the dome are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites that do not reflect commingled magmas. Samples from the center of the conduit are low-Ba, higher silica rhyolites that are only slightly mixed. A major part of the variability within the drill-core samples of the dome and conduit reflects the juxtaposition and commingling of two distinct magmas during their passage through the conduit.

  8. A two century record of strontium isotopes from an ice core drilled at Mt Blanc, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, G. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Van de Velde, K. P.; Boutron, C. F.

    2006-08-01

    New techniques which allow small amounts of Sr to be reliably analysed [G.R. Burton, V.I. Morgan, C.F. Boutron, K.J.R. Rosman, High-sensitivity measurements of strontium isotopes in polar ice, Anal. Chim. Acta 469 (2002) 225-233] by TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) have been used to measure the isotopic composition of Sr and the concentration of Rb and Sr at sub-nanogram per gram levels in a Mt Blanc snow and ice core. This two century time series of Sr isotopes is the first to be reported in an Alpine glacier. The Sr and Rb concentrations range from 3 ng/g to 20 pg/g and 1 ng/g to 10 pg/g, respectively, with higher concentrations evident in more recent times. This trend is consistent with that reported previously for other metals such as Cd, Cu and Zn [K. Van de Velde, C. Barbante, G. Cozzi, I. Moret, T. Bellomi, C. Ferrari, C. Boutron, Changes in the occurrence of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and rhodium in Mont Blanc ice and snow since the 18th century, Atmos. Environ. 34 (2000) 3117-3127; K. Van de Velde, C. Boutron, C. Ferrari, T. Bellomi, C. Barbante, S. Rudnev, M. Bolshov, Seasonal variations of heavy metals in the 1960s Alpine ice: sources versus meteorological factors, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 164 (1998) 521-533; K.J.R. Rosman, C. Ly, K. Van de Velde, C.F. Boutron, A two century record of lead isotopes in high altitude Alpine snow and ice, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 176 (2000) 413-424]. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios vary between 0.7020 and 0.7176 and display relatively larger variations in recent times which have been attributed to seasonal variations made evident by the increased sampling resolution available at shallower depths. No change with time is evident in this ratio which has a mean value of 0.712 and is similar to Glacial ice at Summit Greenland, suggesting that aerosols reaching Mt Blanc represent the same mixture of sources. Also, anthropogenic sources would appear to have the same isotopic ratio. The presence of Saharan dust in some samples is confirmed here by their strontium isotopic ratios.

  9. Resources for Computational Geophysics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keers, Henk; Rondenay, Stphane; Harlap, Yal.; Nordmo, Ivar

    2014-09-01

    An important skill that students in solid Earth physics need to acquire is the ability to write computer programs that can be used for the processing, analysis, and modeling of geophysical data and phenomena. Therefore, this skill (which we call "computational geophysics") is a core part of any undergraduate geophysics curriculum. In this Forum, we share our personal experience in teaching such a course.

  10. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real

  11. Environmental Health Research Recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Patrick N.; Gray, Kathleen; Howarth, Marilyn; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) (which include hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) supply an energy source that is potentially cleaner than liquid or solid fossil fuels and may provide a route to energy independence. However, significant concerns have arisen due to the lack of research on the public health impact of UNGDO. Objectives: Environmental Health Sciences Core Centers (EHSCCs), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), formed a working group to review the literature on the potential public health impact of UNGDO and to make recommendations for needed research. Discussion: The Inter-EHSCC Working Group concluded that a potential for water and air pollution exists that might endanger public health, and that the social fabric of communities could be impacted by the rapid emergence of drilling operations. The working group recommends research to inform how potential risks could be mitigated. Conclusions: Research on exposure and health outcomes related to UNGDO is urgently needed, and community engagement is essential in the design of such studies. Citation: Penning TM, Breysse PN, Gray K, Howarth M, Yan B. 2014. Environmental health research recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on Unconventional Natural Gas Drilling Operations. Environ Health Perspect 122:1155–1159; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408207 PMID:25036093

  12. Physical properties of fault zone rocks from SAFOD: Tying logging data to high-pressure measurements on drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2005, Phase 2 of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole was completed and logged with wireline tools including a dipole sonic tool to measure P- and S-wave velocities. A zone of anomalously low velocity was detected from 3150 to 3414 m measured depth (MD), corresponding with the subsurface location of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ). This low velocity zone is 5-30% slower than the surrounding host rock. Within this broad low-velocity zone, several slip surfaces were identified as well as two actively deforming shear zones: the southwest deformation zone (SDZ) and the central deformation zone (CDZ), located at 3192 and 3302 m MD, respectively. The SAFZ had also previously been identified as a low velocity zone in seismic velocity inversion models. The anomalously low velocity was hypothesized to result from either (a) brittle deformation in the damage zone of the fault, (b) high fluid pressures with in the fault zone, or (c) lithological variation, or a combination of the above. We measured P- and S-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequencies on saturated 2.5 cm diameter core plug samples taken from SAFOD core obtained in 2007 from within the low velocity zone. The resulting values fall into two distinct groups: foliated fault gouge and non-gouge. Samples of the foliated fault gouge have P-wave velocities between 2.3-3.5 km/s while non-gouge samples lie between 4.1-5.4 km/s over a range of effective pressures from 5-70 MPa. There is a good correlation between the log measurements and laboratory values of P-and S wave velocity at in situ pressure conditions especially for the foliated fault gouge. For non-gouge samples the laboratory values are approximately 0.08-0.73 km/s faster than the log values. This difference places the non-gouge velocities within the Great Valley siltstone velocity range, as measured by logs and ultrasonic measurements performed on outcrop samples. As a high fluid pressure zone was not encountered during SAFOD drilling, we use the ultrasonic velocities of SAFOD core and analogous outcrop samples to determine if the velocity reduction is due to lithologic variations or the presence of deformational fabrics and alteration in the fault zone. Preliminary analysis indicates that while the decrease in velocity across the broad fault zone is heavily influenced by fractures, the extremely low velocities associated with the actively deforming zones are more likely caused by the development of scaly fabric with clay coatings on the fracture surfaces. Analysis of thin sections and well logs are used to support this interpretation.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of alterant geophysical tomography in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.

    1985-02-01

    The ability of alterant geophysical tomography to delineate flow paths in a welded tuff rock mass has been preliminarily evaluated based on the results of a field experiment. Electromagnetic measurements were made before, during and after a water-based, dye tracer flowed through the rock mass. Alterant geophysical tomographs were generated and compared with independent evidence - borescope logs, neutron logs and dyed rock samples. Anomalies present in the tomograph match the location and orientation of fractures mapped with a borescope. The location of tracer-strained fractures coincides with the location of some image anomalies; other geophysical anomalies exist where tracer-strained fractures were not observed, perhaps due to poor core recovery. Additional drilling to locate stained flow paths and other experiments are planned so that the applicability of the technique can be further evaluated. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Drill Core Mineral Analysis by Means of the Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer HySpex, XRD and Asd in Proximity of the MTINA Maar, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerting, F.; Rogass, C.; Kaempf, H.; Lubitz, C.; Harms, U.; Schudack, M.; Kokaly, R.; Mielke, C.; Boesche, N.; Altenberger, U.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging spectroscopy is increasingly used for surface mapping. Therefore different expert systems are being utilized to identify surface cover materials. Those expert systems mainly rely on the spectral comparison between unknown and library spectra, but their performances were only limited qualified. This study aims on the comparative analysis of drill core samples from the recently discovered maar system in the Czech Republic. Drill core samples from the surrounding area of the Mtina maar were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and the hyperspectral spectrometer HySpex. Additionally, soil samples were measured in-situ by the ASD FieldSpec4 and in the laboratory by the HySpex VNIR/SWIR spectrometer system. The data was then analyzed by the MICA-algorithm and the results were compared to the results of the XRD -analysis. The XRD-analysis served here as validation basis. The results of the hyperspectral and the XRD analyses were used to densify a volcanic map that also integrates in-situ soil measurements in the surrounding area of Mtina. The comparison of the XRD- and solaroptical remote sensing results showed a good correlation of qualified minerals if the soil organic carbon content was significantly low. Contrary to XRD, smectites and muscovites were also straightforward identified that underlines the overall performance of the approach to identify minerals. Basically, in this work an operable approach is proposed that enables the fast, repeatable and detailed analysis of drill cores, drill core samples and soil samples and, hence, provides a higher performance than state-of-the-art XRD-analyses.

  15. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M.; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H.; Moyer, Craig L.; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

  16. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H; Moyer, Craig L; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

  17. Petrophysical characterization of first ever drilled core samples from an active CO2 storage site, the German Ketzin Pilot Site - Comparison with long term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. These parameters may change during and/or after the CO2 injection due to geochemical reactions in the reservoir system that are triggered by the injected CO2. Here we present petrophysical data of first ever drilled cores from a newly drilled well at the active CO2 storage site - the Ketzin pilot site in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. By comparison with pre-injection baseline data from core samples recovered prior to injection, the new samples provide the unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of CO2 on pore size related properties of reservoir and cap rocks at a real injection site under in-situ reservoir conditions. After injection of 61 000 tons CO2, an additional well was drilled and new rock cores were recovered. In total 100 core samples from the reservoir and the overlaying caprock were investigated by NMR relaxation. Permeability of 20 core samples was estimated by nitrogen and porosity by helium pycnometry. The determined data are comparable between pre-injection and post-injection core samples. The lower part of the reservoir sandstone is unaffected by the injected CO2. The upper part of the reservoir sandstone shows consistently slightly lower NMR porosity and permeability values in the post-injection samples when compared to the pre-injection data. This upper sandstone part is above the fluid level and CO2 present as a free gas phase and a possible residual gas saturation of the cores distorted the NMR results. The potash-containing drilling fluid can also influence these results: NMR investigation of twin samples from inner and outer parts of the cores show a reduced fraction of larger pores for the outer core samples together with lower porosities and T2 times. The drill mud penetration depth can be controlled by the added fluorescent tracer. Due to the heterogeneous character of the Stuttgart Formation it is difficult to estimate definite CO2 induced changes from petrophysical measurements. The observed changes are only minor. Several batch experiments on Ketzin samples drilled prior injection confirm the results from investigation of the in-situ rock cores. Core samples of the pre-injection wells were exposed to CO2 and brine in autoclaves over various time periods. Samples were characterized prior to and after the experiments by NMR and Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP). The results are consistent with the logging data and show only minor change. Unfortunately, also in these experiments observed mineralogical and petrophysical changes were within the natural heterogeneity of the Ketzin reservoir and precluded unequivocal conclusions. However, given the only minor differences between post-injection well and pre-injection well, it is reasonable to assume that the potential dissolution-precipitation processes appear to have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behaviour. This is also in line with the continuously recorded injection operation parameter. These do not point to any changes in reservoir injectivity.|

  18. Summary of micrographic analysis of fracture coating phases on drill cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The flow path between Pahute Mesa and the groundwater discharge area in Oasis Valley (approximately 18 miles to the southwest) is of concern due to the relatively short travel distance between a recharge area where underground nuclear testing has been conducted and the off-site water users. Groundwater flow and transport modeling by IT Corporation (IT) has shown rapid tritium transport in the volcanic rock aquifers along this flow path. The resultant estimates of rapid transport were based on water level data, limited hydraulic conductivity data, estimates of groundwater discharge rates in Oasis Valley, assumed porosities, and estimated retardation rates. Many of these parameters are poorly constrained and may vary considerably. Sampling and analytical techniques are being applied as an independent means to determine transport rates by providing an understanding of the geochemical processes that control solute movement along the flow path. As part of these geochemical investigations, this report summarizes the analysis of fracture coating mineral phases from drill core samples from the Pahute mesa area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Archived samples were collected based on the presence of natural fractures and on the types and abundance of secondary mineral phases present on those fracture surfaces. Mineral phases present along fracture surfaces are significant because, through the process of water-rock interaction, they can either contribute (as a result of dissolution) or remove (as a result of precipitation or adsorption) constituents from solution. Particular attention was paid to secondary calcite occurrences because they represent a potential source of exchangeable carbon and can interact with groundwater resulting in a modified isotopic signature and apparent water age.

  19. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  20. Evolution of fluid-rock interaction in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland: Evidence from Iceland Deep Drilling Project core RN-17B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter; Marks, Naomi; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

    2015-09-01

    We describe the lithology and present spatially resolved geochemical analyses of samples from the hydrothermally altered Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) drill core RN-17B. The 9.3 m long RN-17B core was collected from the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The nature of fluids and the location of the Reykjanes geothermal system make it a useful analog for seafloor hydrothermal processes, although there are important differences. The recovery of drill core from the Reykjanes geothermal system, as opposed to drill cuttings, has provided the opportunity to investigate evolving geothermal conditions by utilizing in-situ geochemical techniques in the context of observed paragenetic and spatial relationships of alteration minerals. The RN-17B core was returned from a vertical depth of ~ 2560 m and an in-situ temperature of ~ 345 °C. The primary lithologies are basaltic in composition and include hyaloclastite breccia, fine-grained volcanic sandstone, lithic breccia, and crystalline basalt. Primary igneous phases have been entirely pseudomorphed by calcic plagioclase + magnesium hornblende + chlorite + titanite + albitized plagioclase + vein epidote and sulfides. Despite the extensive hydrothermal metasomatism, original textures including hyaloclastite glass shards, lithic clasts, chilled margins, and shell-fragment molds are superbly preserved. Multi-collector LA-ICP-MS strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) measurements of vein epidote from the core are consistent with seawater as the dominant recharge fluid. Epidote-hosted fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and freezing point depression measurements suggest that the RN-17B core records cooling through the two-phase boundary for seawater over time to current in-situ measured temperatures. Electron microprobe analyses of hydrothermal hornblende and hydrothermal plagioclase confirm that while alteration is of amphibolite-grade, it is in disequilibrium and the extent of alteration is dependent upon protolith type and water/rock ratio. Alteration in the RN-17B core bares many similarities to that of Type II basalts observed in Mid-Atlantic Ridge samples.

  1. Ellog auger drilling: Three-in-one method for hydrogeological data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, K.; Larsen, F.

    1999-09-30

    The Ellog auger drilling method is an integrated approach for hydrogeological data collection during auger drilling in unconsolidated sediments. The drill stem is a continuous flight, hollow-stem auger with integrated electrical and gamma logging tools. The geophysical logging is performed continuously while drilling. Data processing is carried out in the field, and recorded log features are displayed as drilling advances. A slotted section in the stem, above the cutting head, allows anaerobic water and soil-gas samples to be taken at depth intervals of approximately 0.2 m. The logging, water, and gas sampling instrumentation in the drill stem is removable; therefore, when the drill stem is pulled back, piezometers can be installed through the hollow stem. Cores of sediments can subsequently be taken continuously using a technique in which the drill bit can be reinserted after each coring. The Ellog auger drilling method provides detailed information on small-scale changes in lithology, sediment chemistry, and water, as well as gas compositions in aquifer systems--data essential to hydrogeological studies.

  2. Use of electromagnetic geophysical techniques and auger drilling to delineate saline-water plumes in the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reserveration, northeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D. ); Mendes, T.M. )

    1993-08-01

    The East Poplar oil field encompasses about 70 mi[sup 2] in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Since oil production from the Mississippian Madison Group began in 1952, large quantities of brine (water containing greater than 35,000 mg/L of dissolved solids) have been produced. Most of the brine has been disposed of through injection wells completed in shallower Cretaceous rocks, although some brine has been evaporated in pits. Brine leaking from injection-well casing or evaporation pits has resulted in contamination of shallow water in Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits along the Poplar River. Electromagnetic geophysical techniques were used to delineate three saline-water plumes in alluvial deposits and one plume in glacial deposits. Data-collection sites were located on 0.1-mi (or sometimes 0.2-mi) centers in grid networks. Apparent conductivity was measured at about [sup [minus

  3. Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa and Lindi areas of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 1-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; Msaky, Emma; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2004-05-01

    Initial results of scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. A total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly clays and claystones deposited in a deep marine shelf environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology), magnetostratigraphy, and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 1 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko airstrip (854.516 'S, 3930.397 'E). It yielded 8.55 m of barren blue-grey clays that may be Miocene in age, followed by 1.2 m of greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clay probably of the same age. The remainder of the hole cored 62.35 m of lower Oligocene sediments (nannofossil Zone NP23), which are predominantly greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clays. Total penetration was 74.10 m. The coring represents the first report of a thick Oligocene clay formation in the area. TDP Site 2 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko prison (855.277 'S, 3930.219 'E). It yielded 92.78 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clay with occasional allochthonous limestone beds that consist mostly of redeposited larger foraminifers. The site encompasses lower to middle Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones P8/9 to P11 and nannofossil Subzones NP14b to NP15c. It encompasses a rarely cored interval across the Ypresian-Lutetian transition. TDP Site 3 was drilled near Mpara in the Kilwa area (851.585 'S, 3927.655 'E). It yielded 56.4 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clays and claystones. The site is assigned to lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zone P6 and nannofossil Zone NP11. TDP Site 4 was drilled near Ras Tipuli on the northwest side of Lindi creek (956.999 'S, 3942.985 'E). It yielded 19.8 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clay with allochthonous limestone interbeds. The site encompasses middle Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones P12-P14 and nannofossil Zone NP17. TDP Site 5 was drilled at Machole, near Lindi, south of Kitulo Hill (1001.646 'S, 3941.375 'E). It yielded 31.6 m of predominantly greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clay assigned to the upper Cretaceous Globotruncana falsostuarti planktonic foraminifer zone and nannofossil zones UC15e-UC17 (upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian). Paleomagnetic analysis suggests that the site straddles two magnetic reversals, between Chrons C32r.2r and C32r.1n. Samples from TDP Sites 1-5 yielded dinocyst and miospore assemblages that are integrated with the calcareous stratigraphy. Organic geochemical analyses of samples from each of the cores revealed biomarkers of predominantly terrestrial origin and an unusually low degree of thermal maturity, suggesting shallow burial depths. X-ray diffraction studies suggest that much of the Paleogene clay may be reworked from eroded Mesozoic formations.

  4. Mingling processes at Panarea Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy): results from M73/2 cruise drilled cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Benedetti, A. A.; De Astis, G.; Raffaele, V.; Esposito, A.; Giordano, G.; Petersen, S.; Monecke, T.

    2012-04-01

    The last Meteor 73/2 cruise drilled several lava cores in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, close to Panarea Island and surrounding islets (Aeolian archipelago, Italy), at depths comprised between 50 and 70 m bsl. These rocks - unconformably covered by unconsolidated lapilli tuffs - revealed different lithologies and mineralogical assemblages corresponding to different compositions (hereafter A & B), as then evidenced by ICP-MS analyses (major and trace elements) performed on selected rock-samples. The cores also displayed several, cm-sized, rounded enclaves of the A-type dispersed in the B-type. The petrographic study on textures and microprobe analyses on glass shards and mineral phases finally concurred in identifying two magmas with different history and quite complex interaction. Rock A is a holocrystalline shoshonite (SHO) - showing plagioclase (pl - An%=62-74) and clinopyroxene (cpx) as main phases, plus subordinate amphibole and biotite phenocrysts, rare and small olivines (Fo?89%) - which represents the first magma, usually in form of enclaves. Notably, the SHO shows intersertal vesicularity and scarce glass. Rock B is a porphyritic rhyodacite (RD) characterized by pl (An%=32-52), and biotite phenocrysts, with minor cpx phenocrysts and microphenocrysts. Pl and cpx show both alternate and normal zoning, and the former have frequent K-rich reaction rims. Similar mineral phases and frequent sanidine microlites characterize the alkali-trachyte glassy groundmass of rock B. This rock hosts the SHO and represent the most voluminous magma. Overall, these features indicate a quite complex history of magma interaction(s) as well as a polybaric crystallization, which lead the volatiles abundance and behaviour. From the study of the highly irregular edges observed along their contacts, we argue intrusive and visco-plastic relationships between A and B. Moreover, the presence of irregular vesicles and vugs bounded by pl microlites suggest an emplacement at shallow level where cooling favoured both slow degassing and pervasive crystallization. Textural and compositional data concur in indicating that the two magmas mingled at depth. Noteworthy, enclaves of a third rock type - very limited in volume - is present along some of the collected cores. It is a reddish low-porphyritic lava similar to the RD lava in terms of mineralogical composition, but showing a higher amount of microlites with smaller size if compared to the main RD host-rock. This could indicate that at some extent also mixing occurred. The multiple similarities of our rocks with lavas of the Panarea islets or other acid volcanics containing mafic-intermediate enclaves and outcropping on other Aeolian Islands, suggest that mafic magma uprising "within" resident magma with subsequent mingling is a recurrent process in these volcanic systems and may be the trigger for the eruption of acid melts.

  5. New palaeomagnetic results from outcrop and drill core samples of the 3.47 billion year old Komati Formation, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts Artal, Laura; Biggin, Andy; MacNiocaill, Conall; de Wit, Maarten; Langereis, Cor; Wilson, Allan; Arndt, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Palaeomagnetic results obtained in the 1980s and 1990s from the Komati Formation in the Palaeoarchaean Onverwacht Group in the Barberton Greenstone Belt constitute the world's oldest unrefuted palaeomagnetic pole. This pole has been crucial in arguing for the existence of a viable geomagnetic field early in the Earth's history but does not yet have the support of rigorous field tests in constraining its age and viability. Here we present new palaeomagnetic data from a hitherto unexamined locality where these komatiites crop out along the Komati River and where two 400m drill cores have recently been extracted by an International Continental Drilling Programme (ICDP) project. Oriented samples have been taken from both of the deep drill cores and also from surface outcrops allowing detailed comparisons to take place between the new and old datasets. Two ancient components have been identified. One of these is dual polarity and may be associated with widespread intrusive activity at 3.2 Gyr. The other is older and has a direction in agreement with previous results from the Komati Formation. The implications of these new results for our understanding of the early Earth's geomagnetic field will be discussed.

  6. Crystallization history of Kilauea Iki lava lake as seen in drill core recovered in 1967-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption, one of the most picritic eruptions of Kilauea Volcano in the twentieth century. Since 1959 the 110 to 122 m thick lake has cooled slowly, developing steadily thickening upper and lower crusts, with a lens of more molten lava in between. Recent coring dates, with maximum depths reached in the center of the lake, are: 1967 (26.5 m). 1975 (44.2 m), 1976 (46.0 m) and 1979 (52.7 m). These depths define the base of the upper crust at the time of drilling. The bulk of the core consists of a gray, olivine-phyric basalt matrix, which locally contains coarser-grained diabasic segregation veins. The most important megascopic variation in the matrix rock is its variation in olivine content. The upper 15 m of crust is very olivine-rich. Abundance and average size of olivine decrease irregularly downward to 23 m; between 23 and 40 m the rock contains 5-10% of small olivine phenocrysts. Below 40 m. olivine content and average grainsize rise sharply. Olivine contents remain high (20-45%, by volume) throughout the lower crust, except for a narrow (< 6 m) olivine depleted zone near the basalt contact. Petrographically the olivine phenocrysts in Kilauea Iki can be divided into two types. Type 1 phenocrysts are large (1-12 mm long), with irregular blocky outlines, and often contain kink bands. Type 2 crystals are relatively small (0.5-2 mm in length), euhedral and undeformed. The variations in olivine content of the matrix rock are almost entirely variations in the amount of type 1 olivines. Sharp mineral layering of any sort is rare in Kilauea Iki. However, the depth range 41-52 m is marked by the frequent occurrence of steeply dipping (70??-90??) bands or bodies of slightly vuggy olivine-rich rock locally capped with a small cupola of segregation-vein material. In thin section there is clear evidence for relative movement of melt and crystals within these structures. The segregation veins occur only in the upper crust. The most widely distributed (occurring from 4.5-59.4 m) are thin veins (most < 5 cm thick), which cut the core at moderate angles and appear to have been derived from the immediately adjacent wall-rock by filter pressing. There is also a series of thicker (0.1-1.5 m) segregation veins, which recur every 2-3 m, between 20 and 52 m. These have subhorizontal contacts and appear, from similarities in thickness and spacing, to correlate between drill holes as much as 100 m apart. These large veins are not derived from the adjacent wallrock: their mechanism of formation is still problematical. The total thickness of segregation veins in Kilauea Iki is 3-6 m in the central part of the lake, corresponding to 6-11% of the upper crust. Whole-rock compositions for Kilauea Iki fall into two groups: the matrix rock ranges from 20-7.5% MgO, while the segregation veins all contain between 6.0 and 4.5% MgO. There are no whole-rock compositions of intermediate MgO content. Samples from < 12 m show eruption-controlled chemistry. Below that depth, matrix rock compositions have higher Al2O3, TiO2 and alkalies, and lower CaO and FeO, at a given MgO content than do the eruption pumices. The probable causes of this are assimilation of low-melting components from foundered crust, plus removal of olivine, plus removal of minor augite, for rocks with MgO contents of < 8.0%. Given the observed rate of growth of the upper crust, one can infer that significant removal of the type 1 olivine phenocrysts from the upper part of the lake began in 1963 and ceased sometime prior to 1972. The process. probably gravitative settling, appears to have been inhibited earlier by gas streaming from the lower part of the lens of melt. The olivine cumulate zone, which extends into the upper crust, contains relatively few (25-40%) olivine crystals, few of which actually touch each other. The diffuseness of the cumulate zone raises the possibility that the crystals were coated with a relatively visous boundary layer

  7. U-Th and ESR dating of drilled cores from a giant hydrothermal mounds in South Mariana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamasa, A.; Nakai, S.; Sato, F.; Toyoda, S.; Ishibashi, J.

    2012-12-01

    The time scale for hydrothermal activity is an important factor controlling the size of hydrothermal ore deposits and the evolution of chemosynthesis-based communities in a submarine hydrothermal system. We determined the age of hydrothermal deposits samples, both collected samples by submersible and drilled core samples from South Mariana Trough. Samples were collected from four hydrothermal sites, Snail (near the spreading axis), Archean ( 1.5km from the axis), Pika ( 4.9km from the axis) and Urashima ( 4.9km from the axis). 230Th-234U radioactive disequilibrium dating was applied to hydrothermal sufide minerals consisting of pyrite and sphalerite while electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was applied to barite. For 230Th-234U radioactive disequilibrium dating, we carried out magnetic separation for bulk samples, then we digested samples with nitric acid. U and Th were purified by two-step column separations, and isotopic compositions of spiked and unspiked U and Th were measured by a MC-ICP-MS. Analytical methods for ESR age determination were described in a companion abstract by Toyoda et al. We found that the magnetic fractions had significantly higher U/Th ratios, which enabled 230Th-234U age determinations as precise as ±2% (2σ). This probably reflects that pyrite enriched in magnetic fractions has high U/Th ration. In a sulfide crust sample collected from Archean site, the 230Th-234U ages of the sulfide minerals (0.3-2.2 ka) were compared with ESR ages of barites separated from 12 subsamples of the same sulfide crust. ESR ages (0.27 - 1.7 ka) show a spatial pattern broadly resembling that observed in 230Th-234U dating method. While there are some significant offsets, these results illustrate the potential of the two methods for use in provide information on evolution history of a hydrothermal system. Samples from Pika, Archean and Snail sites yield from 0.5 to ~9 ka, from 0.1 to 3 ka and < ~90 a, respectively. The oldest ages from each site are correlated with the distance from spreading axis.

  8. An ancient avalanche deposit in the Taurus-Littrow Valley is part of the long depositional history of the Apollo 17 drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, J. S.

    A description is presented of data and new calculations which support the idea that the Apollo 17 drill string has a long depositional history. Attention is given to a new interpretation, that a very ancient avalanche was a major depositional event in the history of the core. Important implications for composition of soil components then result from the avalanche interpretation. It is pointed out that single-slab deposition of the entire Apollo 17 drill string would require some extremely unusual events, including preferential disappearance of a 75-150 m crater, and redeposition of 11 oriented features in an upright, instead of the normal overturned position. It appears to be more likely that the oldest valley floor surface is the basalt-rich zone below 275 cm.

  9. Development of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation on a shale dip-slope: Observations from high-quality drill cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, M.; Hariyama, T.; Yamasaki, S.

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed high-quality drill cores with 100% recovery drilled into a gravitationally deformed dip-slope of a shale-dominated sequence of sediments in Japan. The slope had undulating surfaces but no well-defined landslide scarps, suggesting that parts of the slope had undergone gravitational deformation but had not completely separated from the surrounding bedrock. The gravitational deformation of shale and sandstone is characterized by disintegration and brecciation of sediments and the formation of pulverized zones with poorly developed planar structures, jigsaw-like structures, and fracture openings. Shear zones are distributed intermittently within the slope but have not merged discernably into a through-going master sliding surface. Incipient landslide shear zones form openings within coherent rock by shearing along bedding, with these shear zones potentially developing downward in a stepwise manner, which may be related to stress redistribution induced by river incision.

  10. Ages and stable-isotope compositions of secondary calcite and opal in drill cores from Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Kyser, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    Stable-isotope compositions of fracture- and cavity-filling calcite from the unsaturated zone of three drill cores at Yucca Mountain Tertiary volcanic complex indicate that the water from which the minerals precipitated was probably meteoric in origin. A decrease in 18O in the calcite with depth is interpreted as being due to the increase in temperature in drill holes corresponding to an estimated average geothermal gradient of 34?? per kilometer. A few of the calcite samples and all of the opal samples yielded uranium-series ages older than 400 000 yr, although most of the calcite samples yielded ages between 26 000 and 310 000 yr. The stable-isotope and uranium-series dates from precipitated calcite and opal of this reconnaissance study suggest a complex history of fluid movement through the volcanic pile, and episodes of fracture filling predominantly from meteoric water during at least the past 400 000 yr. -Authors

  11. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface model (2D), and solid model (3D). Both measurements and models are derived from O&M sampling features that may be linked to sampling procedures and observation results. Geophysical products are output of complex procedures and can precisely be described as chains of consecutive O&M observations. For describing geophysical processes and results the data model both supports the use of OGC standard XML encoding (SensorML, SWE, GML) and traditional industry standards (SPS, UKOOA, SEG formats). To control the scope of the model and to harmonize terminology an initial set of extendable code lists was developed. The attempt to create a hierarchical SKOS vocabulary of terms for geophysical methods, resource types, processes, properties and technical parameters was partly based on the work done in the eContentPlus GEOMIND project. The result is far from being complete, and the work must be continued in the future.

  12. Drilling through the largest magma chamber on Earth: Bushveld Igneous Complex Drilling Project (BICDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbull, R. B.; Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Veksler, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    A scientific drilling project in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa has been proposed to contribute to the following scientific topics of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP): large igneous provinces and mantle plumes, natural resources, volcanic systems and thermal regimes, and deep life. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from eight countries met in Johannesburg to exchange ideas about the scientific objectives and a drilling strategy to achieve them. The workshop identified drilling targets in each of the three main lobes of the Bushveld Complex, which will integrate existing drill cores with new boreholes to establish permanently curated and accessible reference profiles of the Bushveld Complex. Coordinated studies of this material will address fundamental questions related to the origin and evolution of parental Bushveld magma(s), the magma chamber processes that caused layering and ore formation, and the role of crust vs. mantle in the genesis of Bushveld granites and felsic volcanic units. Other objectives are to study geophysical and geodynamic aspects of the Bushveld intrusion, including crustal stresses and thermal gradient, and to determine the nature of deep groundwater systems and the biology of subsurface microbial communities.

  13. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  14. Drilling tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, O.; Dohse, H.P.; Reibetanz, W.; Wanner, K.

    1983-09-27

    A drilling tool is disclosed which has a drilling shaft member, a crown drilling member with an annular wall provided with a plurality of cutting edges and detachably mounted on the shaft member, a center drilling member detachably mounted on the shaft member inside the crown drilling member and having a further cutting edge, and elements for limiting a drilling depth of the tool when the center drilling member is mounted on the shaft member. Thereby, the operator of the drilling tool, after drilling a guiding groove in a rock, is forced to remove the center drilling member from the drilling tool and drill further without the center drilling member, which increases the drilling efficiency.

  15. Innovative hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based techniques applied to end-of-life concrete drill core characterization for optimal dismantling and materials recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Picone, Nicoletta; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of EOL concrete disposal in landfills, together with a lower exploitation of primary raw materials, generates a strong interest to develop, set-up and apply innovative technologies to maximize Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) conversion into useful secondary raw materials. Such a goal can be reached starting from a punctual in-situ efficient characterization of the objects to dismantle in order to develop demolition actions aimed to set up innovative mechanical-physical processes to recover the different materials and products to recycle. In this paper an innovative recycling-oriented characterization strategy based on HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is described in order to identify aggregates and mortar in drill core samples from end-of-life concrete. To reach this goal, concrete drill cores from a demolition site were systematically investigated by HSI in the short wave infrared field (1000-2500 nm). Results obtained by the adoption of the HSI approach showed as this technology can be successfully applied to analyze quality and characteristics of C&DW before dismantling and as final product to reutilise after demolition-milling-classification actions. The proposed technique and the related recognition logics, through the spectral signature detection of finite physical domains (i.e. concrete slice and/or particle) of different nature and composition, allows; i) to develop characterization procedures able to quantitatively assess end-of-life concrete compositional/textural characteristics and ii) to set up innovative sorting strategies to qualify the different materials constituting drill core samples.

  16. Structure in continuously cored, deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, with notes on calcite occurrence; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    A study of more than 22,000 feet of core from five deep drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, provided data on the attitude and vertical distribution of faults and fractures, the sense of fault displacement, and the occurrence of calcite. The study was done mainly to look for evidence of fault flattening at depth, but no consistent downward decrease in dip of faults was found, and no increase in strata rotation was evident with increasing depth. In the two drill holes located near prominent faults that dip toward the holes (USW G-3 and G-2), an apparent increase in the frequency of faults occurs below the tuffs and lavas of Calico Hills. Some of this increase occurs in brittle lavas and flow breccias in the lower part of the volcanic section. In the two holes presumed to be relatively removed from the influence of important faults at depth, the vertical distribution of faults is relatively uniform. Calcite occurs mainly in two general zones, voids in welded portions of the Paintbrush Tuff, and in a deeper zone, mostly below 3,500 feet. Calcite is least abundant in USW G-4, which may reflect the fewer faults and fractures encountered in that drill hole.

  17. Whole-rock chemical composition of some samples from two drill hole cores in the Capps coal field, Beluga coal area, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.; Smith, K.S.; Peard, J.L.; Tompkins, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Whole-rock chemical analysis was done on samples from drill cores of rocks lying atop and between coal beds in the Beluga coal area, south-central Alaska. The samples were classified as sandstone, siltstone or claystone at time of hand specimen description. Chemical data were compared to those from corresponding rocks from other sites in the conterminous United States. The study supports the following conclusions: 1. The sample suites from the two cored Alaska holes, about 1 km apart, contrast sharply in their degree of lithologic differentiation, one having relatively purer sandstones and claystones, the other having more mixed rock types. This suggests that considerable variation occurs in depositional environments and, possibly, in rock chemistry over small distances in the Beluga coal area. 2. Hand specimen inspection is a reasonably reliable way of assigning names denoting the lithologic type of Alaska rocks, and thereby making broad predictions of their whole-rock chemistry.

  18. Significance of nickel-rich sulfides in drilled core samples of the 2.7 Ga Mt. Roe sedimentary rocks: TEM and magnetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niitsuma, S.; Kakegawa, T.; Nagase, T.; Nedachi, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Mt. Roe Basalt is considered to be a 2.7 Ga flood basalt, widely occurring in the northern Pilbara area of Western Australia. Sedimentary rocks interbedded in the basaltic flows have been recognized by previous investigators. However, their sedimentation environments are poorly understood. Sedimentary sections of the Mt. Roe Basalt were directly drilled during the course of this study, and here we report on unknown and unique characteristics of organic carbon rich sediments in these core samples. Six basaltic lava flows of 3 to 10 m in thickness are recognized around the drilled site, about 10 km southeast from Whim Creek. Two sedimentary sections of ca. 10 m thickness are found on specific lava flows. These sedimentary rocks are rich in clastic components, and contain cross laminations and ripple marks, suggesting rapid change in the paleo-current of shallow ocean water. These sedimentary rocks and basalts were drilled and ca. 300 m successive core sections were recovered. Surprisingly organic carbon- and sulfide-rich shale was found in the two sedimentary sections. To identify the sulfide mineral assemblages, chemical composition and crystal structure analyses were carried out by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) with analytical electron microscopy. Sulfides occur as complex mineral assemblages: pyrrhotite, pyrite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. These were not recognized in the heavily weathered outcrop samples. Pyrrhotite was a dominant mineral in the assemblage. Notable features of these sulfides was the development of crystal defects in Fe-sulfides (po and py), and their abnormally high nickel concentrations (po: 3 wt.%; py: 1 wt.%). These crystal habits are most likely diagenetic features rather than a later low-grade metamorphic signature. Magnetic intensities of the basalts and sedimentary rocks were also measured in the drilled core samples, varying from 1 x 10-3 to 1 x 102 A/m. It is remarkable that the magnetic intensities of the sulfide-rich sedimentary rocks in the lower sedimentary section are higher than those of fresh basalt samples. Such magnetism is preserved in the Fe-sulfide minerals and crystal habits and magnetic intensities are highly correlated. Because of the high probability for a diagenetic origin of the examined sulfides, the 2.7 Ga geomagnetic field was probably recorded and preserved in the Fe-sulfide minerals. This is the first attempt to indicate that Archean diagenetic sulfides are useful to tool to reconstruct the ancient geomagnetic field.

  19. The relationship between open, dry microcracks and P wave velocity of crystalline rocks: Application to in situ stress estimates on KTB drill cores after stress relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, Jens C.

    1999-05-01

    Experiments were performed to quantitatively confirm the relationship between open dry microcracks and P wave velocity on crystalline rocks. Equations derived by Hudson [1980] (first-order corrections only) describe the experimentally obtained relationship. Microcrack analysis consists of chemical contact imagery to make the cracks visible, image analysis, and stereologic data processing to obtain three-dimensional crack characteristics from data obtained in three orthogonal plane images. Pressure-dependent measured P wave velocities are used to estimate intrinsic P wave velocities (velocities characteristic for the uncracked rock) by extrapolating the linear part of the pressure-velocity curve from high pressure to low pressure. Therefore the impact of open microcracks on P wave velocity is given by normalized P wave velocities, which are the ratio between measured and intrinsic velocities at a hydrostatic pressure of 1 MPa. Three-dimensional crack characteristics and normalized P wave velocities, are obtained in three orthogonal directions. Velocities in all other directions were estimated by interpolation assuming an orientation distribution that can be described by a triaxial ellipsoid. In this way it is possible to study the relationship between open dry cracks and P wave velocity experimentally and to compare the results with the theoretically predicted relationship using one single model. In a case study, pressure-dependent measured P wave velocities have been used to infer the distribution of open microcracks in 84 drill cores from the Continental Deep Drilling Project of the Federal Republic of Germany (Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, or KTB) covering the depth range between 621-8080 m. The cores were studied after stress relaxation (1-7 years after drilling). It was not possible to obtain information about the in situ stress field owing to the anisotropic nature of the rock fabric.

  20. High resolution petrophysical and geomechanical logging of drill cores as a tool for the evaluation of dimension stone quality and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Lokaj?ek, Tom; Weishauptov, Zuzana; Petrulek, Mat?j

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical and geomechanical properties are significant functional properties of natural stone. In the recent study, an approach employing the entire non-disturb parts of drill cores for determination of the key petrophysical and geomechanical parameters is presented. The drill cores have been obtained during exploration campaign for Carboniferous arkoses and arkosic sandstones to conglomerates in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic). The test procedure consists of the sequence of non-destructive methods including determination of index properties, ultrasonic characteristics (speed of longitudinal and transversal waves, recording of the full waveforms). Once non-destructively tested, the specimens are subjected to standard compressive and/or tensile tests encompassing recording of stress-strain behaviour. Broad range of values obtained reflects quite complex petrographical character of rocks investigated. Variable grain size, grain size homogeneity, degree of cementation, overall rock microfabric, and/or presence and distribution of inter- and intraparticle porosity seem to be determinative factors. Once calibrated for a particular petrographical characteristics, high resolution petrophysical and geomechanical logging (HRPGL) can serve as an effective tool for precise evaluation of exploitable natural stone quality.

  1. Element mobility studies of two drill-cores from the Gtemar Granite (Krkemla test site), southeast Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smellie, John A.T.; Stuckless, John S.

    1985-01-01

    The pervasive alteration and the more recent mobilisation of U are evident to a depth of at least 600 m. The effects are most prevalent along major fracture zones and within the upper 250300 m of one drill-hole where a high frequency of crush zones has been noted. Higher Fe oxidation ratios, higher Rb contents, lower U contents and correspondingly higher Th/U ratios, all characterise this zone.

  2. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California`s Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  3. Parallelization of GeoClaw code for modeling geophysical flows with adaptive mesh refinement on many-core systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, S.; Yuen, D.A.; Zhu, A.; Song, S.; George, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We parallelized the GeoClaw code on one-level grid using OpenMP in March, 2011 to meet the urgent need of simulating tsunami waves at near-shore from Tohoku 2011 and achieved over 75% of the potential speed-up on an eight core Dell Precision T7500 workstation [1]. After submitting that work to SC11 - the International Conference for High Performance Computing, we obtained an unreleased OpenMP version of GeoClaw from David George, who developed the GeoClaw code as part of his PH.D thesis. In this paper, we will show the complementary characteristics of the two approaches used in parallelizing GeoClaw and the speed-up obtained by combining the advantage of each of the two individual approaches with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), demonstrating the capabilities of running GeoClaw efficiently on many-core systems. We will also show a novel simulation of the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami waves inundating the Sendai airport and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants, over which the finest grid distance of 20 meters is achieved through a 4-level AMR. This simulation yields quite good predictions about the wave-heights and travel time of the tsunami waves. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  4. Sedimentary dynamics on isolated highs in Lake Baikal: evidence from detailed high-resolution geophysical data and sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonic Team; Charlet, F.; Fagel, N.; de Batist, M.; Hauregard, F.; Minnebo, B.; Meischner, D.; SONIC Teamd

    2005-04-01

    High- and very-high-resolution seismic data, side-scan sonar mosaics and piston cores from three isolated highs in Lake Baikal (Vydrino Shoulder, Posolsky Bank, Continent Ridge) have allowed to document in unprecedented detail the depositional, re-depositional and tectonic processes and to characterise the overal sedimentary environment on such isolated highs. Our data show that Vydrino Shoulder actually represents a turbidity- or underflow-sourced slope fan, with a distinct channel-levee morphology, and affected by tectonics and stratigraphic unconformities. Sediment cores contain up to 90% of terrigenous material. Posolsky Bank is a major tilted fault block, clearly affected by tectonic activity, by stratigraphic unconformities and by mass wasting along its margins. Sedimentation on its crest is undisturbed, but average sedimentation rates are high due to the influence of the nearby Selenga River. Continent Ridge is also affected by active faulting, stratigraphic unconformities and by mass-wasting along its flanks. The area receives only 30% of terrigenous input. There are no signs of sediment reworking due to bottom-currents. Our study thus shows that in comparison with other environments in Lake Baikal, the isolated highs probably hold the best potential to contain a high-quality, continuous, undisturbed and undiluted sedimentary record suitable for paleoclimate research.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lance Prothro, Sigmund Drellack, Margaret Townsend

    2009-03-25

    The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

  6. Petrology and hydrothermal mineralogy of U. S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 drill core from Newberry caldera, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Bargar, K.E.

    1988-09-10

    U.S. Geological Survey Newberry 2 was drilled to a depth of 932 m within Newberry caldera. The bottom-hole temperature of 265/sup 0/C is the highest reported temperature of any drill hole in the Cascades region of the United States. The upper part of the stratigraphic section pentrated by Newberry 2 consists of caldera fill below which are increasingly more mafic lavas ranging from rhyodacite at 501 m to basalt at 932 m. Measured temperatures shallower than 300 m are less than 35/sup 0/C, and rock alteration consists of hydration of glass and local palagonitization of basaltic tuffs. Incipient zeolitization and partial smectite replacement of ash and pumice occurred throughout the pumiceous lithic tuffs from 300 to 500 m. Higher-temperature alteration of the tuffs to chlorite and mordenite occurs adjacent to a rhyodacite sill at 460--470 m; alteration minerals within the sill consist of pyrrhotite, pyrite, quartz, calcite, and siderite. Below 697 m the rocks are progressively more altered with depth mainly because of increased temperature along a conductive gradient from 100/sup 0/C at 697 m to 265/sup 0/C at 930 m. Fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite indicate that temperature in the past have been higher than at present, most likely due to local confining pressures between impermeable lava flows.

  7. Longhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes new drilling equipment used to drill blasting holes for underground mining operations. Although this method was originally designed for caving or stopping, it is now suitable for all highly mechanized mining operations. It describes the automated methods to monitor drilling progress, align drill holes, and handling of drill rods. It also gives some case examples of the use of this equipment showing the reduction in mining costs, increase in safety, and increase in productivity at an Australian gold mine.

  8. Geochemistry of core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG{number_sign}3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.

    1996-07-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff of Miocene age is composed of crystal-poor, high-silica rhyolite overlain by a crystal-rich zone that is gradational in composition from high-silica rhyolite to quartz latite. Each of these zones is divided into subzones that have distinctive physical, mineralogical, and geochemical features.Accurate identification of these subzones and their contacts is essential for detailed mapping and correlation both at the surface and in the subsurface in drill holes and in the exploratory studies facility (ESF). This report presents analyses of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) in core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG {number_sign}3. The concentrations of most of these elements are remarkably constant throughout the high-silica rhyolite, but at its upper contact with the crystal-rich zone, Ti, Zr, Ba, Ca, Sr, La, Ce, and K begin to increase progressively through the crystal-rich zone. In contrast, Rb and Nb decrease, and Y remains essentially constant. Initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios are relatively uniform in the high-silica rhyolite with a mean value of 0.7117, whereas initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios decrease upward in the quartz latite to values as low as 0.7090.

  9. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  10. 1991 drill bit classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Whether drilling soft, swelling gumbo formations along the Gulf Coast, harder Green River shales in Wyoming or really tough and abrasive quartzite, basalt or Devonian chert deposits in the Permian basin, choosing the best bit for the job is important if optimum drilling and cost efficiency are to be maintained. To make the selection process easier, WORLD OIL has compiled a comprehensive, yet simple-to-use guide for classifying bits. This paper is divided into six major formation categories roughly corresponding to those used by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). Within these are listed virtually all commonly available drilling and coring bits by type and manufacturer. To use the guide, simply identify the formation to be drilled, decide whether a rock, diamond, PDC or hybrid bit is most appropriate, choose the manufacturer and scan the bits available. In fact, bits from all manufacturers can readily be compared.

  11. Study of the organic matter in the DSDP /JOIDES/ cores, legs 10-15. [Deep Sea Drilling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The composition of the organic matter collected on legs 10 to 15 of the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) is described. Distributions of various alkanes, carboxylic acids, steroids and terpenoids, isoprenoid ketones and olefins, and aromatic polycyclic compounds are given. Samples analyzed had terrigenous clay components, with variable organic carbon contents and thus diverse solvent soluble matter. The distribution patterns for the various compound series monitored were of marine derivation, with the terrigenous components superimposed. Diagenesis of steroids appeared to proceed via both stanones and stanols to their respective steranes. Degradative processes were observed to be operative: oxidative products, mainly ketones derived from steroids and phytol, were identified, probably due to microbial alteration prior to or during sedimentation. Loss of alkane and fatty acid C preferences and presence of polycyclic aromatics evinced maturation. Results indicate that the accumulation, degradation, diagenesis and maturation of organic matter occurs in various steps in the deep sea environment.

  12. Automated Classification and Correlation of Drill Cores using High-Resolution Hyperspectral Images and Supervised Pattern Classification Algorithms. Applications to Paleoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragona, D. E.; Minster, B.; Rockwell, T.; Jasso, H.

    2006-12-01

    The standard methodology to describe, classify and correlate geologic materials in the field or lab rely on physical inspection of samples, sometimes with the assistance of conventional analytical techniques (e. g. XRD, microscopy, particle size analysis). This is commonly both time-consuming and inherently subjective. Many geological materials share identical visible properties (e.g. fine grained materials, alteration minerals) and therefore cannot be mapped using the human eye alone. Recent investigations have shown that ground- based hyperspectral imaging provides an effective method to study and digitally store stratigraphic and structural data from cores or field exposures. Neural networks and Naive Bayesian classifiers supply a variety of well-established techniques towards pattern recognition, especially for data examples with high- dimensionality input-outputs. In this poster, we present a new methodology for automatic mapping of sedimentary stratigraphy in the lab (drill cores, samples) or the field (outcrops, exposures) using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral images and these two supervised classification algorithms. High-spatial/spectral resolution data from large sediment samples (drill cores) from a paleoseismic excavation site were collected using a portable hyperspectral scanner with 245 continuous channels measured across the 960 to 2404 nm spectral range. The data were corrected for geometric and radiometric distortions and pre-processed to obtain reflectance at each pixel of the images. We built an example set using hundreds of reflectance spectra collected from the sediment core images. The examples were grouped into eight classes corresponding to materials found in the samples. We constructed two additional example sets by computing the 2-norm normalization, the derivative of the smoothed original reflectance examples. Each example set was divided into four subsets: training, training test, verification and validation. A multi-layer perceptron with variable architecture and a Naive Bayesian classifier were trained to construct the classification models. Then, we computed the classification accuracy of our models using the validation sets. For the original reflectance set, our best model achieved a 98.4 % classification accuracy. The 2-norm normalized reflectance training set produced 97 % classification accuracy and the derivatives training sets generated models with 97 % (every point derivative) and 97.6 % (every five points derivative) classification accuracy. The outputs of the best model were used to classify the core images. We generated classification images of all the samples and compared them against the real samples for an ultimate qualitative verification of the classification. The results of this work show that reflectance spectra combined with neural networks or Naive Bayesian classifieres can be used to properly discern and classify sediments of very similar composition and grain size. Quantitative identification of geological materials can be used as a fast and objective method to describe samples, drill cores, trench exposures and outcrops.

  13. Geophysical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Geophysical measurements involve no magic or mystery but straightforward applications of physical principles. This book is both a geophysical survey and a reference guide. It explains the physical principles involved in geophysical methods. Over one-third of the text is devoted to seismic methods. Comprehensive topics in the volume include: the measurement of different physical properties and their geological significance; how different kinds of measurements are combined to draw geological conclusions; surface, borehole, airborne, and satellite measurements; computer processing and interactive methods; geodetic, gravity, magnetic, radioactive, heat flow, and electrical methods; interpretation of natural processes such as earthquakes and heat flow; and a summation of present knowledge of the earth.

  14. Petrography of sandstones from drill cores BARB4 and BARB5, Paleoarchean Mapepe Formation, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa: Implications for provenance and tectonic reconstructions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabon, N.; Lowe, D. R.; Heubeck, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions in the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) are challenged by syn- and post-depositional tectonics. The Barberton Drilling Project extracted two drill cores from the sedimentary rocks of the 3.26-3.22 Ga Mapepe Formation of the Fig Tree Group. The cores were taken from the Manzimnyama Syncline (BARB4) and the Barite Valley structural belt (BARB5), which are separated by belts of faulted older Onverwacht and younger Moodies strata. Stratigraphically, there is no clear correlation of Mapape strata in these two belts. Both BARB4 and BARB5 contain 25 to 300 m thick units of lithic sandstone that may represent correlative units. A comparative provenance analysis allows testing a possible correlation and evaluating the nature of tectonic uplifts that sourced the sediments. The sandstones have experienced pervasive metasomatic alteration and most primary silicate minerals except coarse quartz have been transformed into micromosaics of microquartz, phyllosilicates, and trace impurities. The majority of framework grains are chert, impure chert, and lithic grains while monocrystalline quartz and altered feldspar are minor components. The single thick sandstone in BARB4 displays a relatively uniform framework mode with average 38.7 % total quartz, 2.4% feldspars, and 58.9 % lithics and an increasing percentage of mafic to ultramafic grains upsection. In contrast, BARB5 includes three distinct sandstones with varying framework modes. The litharenite at 0 to 95m core depth was mainly sourced from an immediately underlying dacitic tuff. The chertarenite at 320 to 390m core depth is composed of 73% carbonaceous chert grains. All grain types appear to have been derived by erosion of sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the BGB as well as penecontemporaneous volcanism. Erosion did not reach deeper-seated plutonic rocks. The framework mode of the BARB4 sandstones represents a composite of common silicified BGB rocks and resembles those of other sediments in the southern domain of the BGB. In contrast, BARB5 sandstones derived locally by shallow erosion of underlying volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The distinct signatures suggest that these units are not correlative and were not derived from a common source. They may be a result of local uplifts of different parts of the greenstone sequence.

  15. Lithostratigraphy of the impactite and bedrock section of ICDP drill core D1c from the El'gygytgyn impact crater, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Ulli; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Zaag, Patrice Tristan; Pittarello, Lidia; Koeberl, Christian

    2013-07-01

    In 2008/2009, the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) obtained drill cores from the El'gygytgyn impact structure located on the Chukotka Peninsula (Russia). These cores provide the most complete geological section ever obtained from an impact structure in siliceous volcanic rock. The lithostratigraphy comprises a thick sequence of lacustrine sediments overlying impact breccias and deformed target rock. The interval from 316 m (below lake floorblf) to the end of the core at 517 m depth can be subdivided into four lithological sequences. At 316 m depth, the first mesoscopic clasts of shocked target rock occur in lacustrine sediments. The growing abundance of target rock clasts with increasing depth and corresponding decrease of lacustrine sediment components indicate the extent of this transition zone to 328 m depth. It constitutes a zone of mixed reworked impact breccia and lacustrine sediments. Volcanic clasts in this reworked suevite section show all stages of shock metamorphism, up to melting. The underlying unit (328-390 m depth) represents a suevite package, a polymict impact breccia, with considerable evidence of shock deformation in a wide variety of volcanic clasts. This includes fragments with quartz that exhibit planar fractures and planar deformation features (PDF). In addition, at three depths, several centimeter-sized clasts with shatter cones were detected. Due to microanalytical identification of relatively rare, microscopic impact melt particles in the matrix of this breccia, this material can be confidently labeled a suevite. Also in this sequence, three unshocked, <1 m thick intersections of volcanic blocks occur at 333.83, 351.52, and 383.00 m depths. The upper bedrock unit begins at 390.74 m depth, has a thickness of 30.15 m, and represents a sequence of different volcanic rocksan upper part with basaltic composition from 390.74 to 391.79 m depth overlying a lower, rhyodacitic part from 391.79 to 420.27 m depth. This (parautochthonous) basement unit is only very weakly affected by the impact: only one shocked quartz grain with two sets of PDF was recorded at 391.33 m depth. The lower bedrock unit (420.89-517.09 m depth [end of core]) is a brittly deformed, rather homogeneous welded ignimbrite that in part can be considered a cataclasite. The top three meters of this section are sheared, which could represent pre-impact tectonic deformation. A 54 cm thick injection of polymict impact breccia occurs at 471.42-471.96 m depth.

  16. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  17. Directional drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Dardick, D.

    1986-04-15

    This patent describes a system for surface controlled directional drilling of the earth employing a downhole drill including a gun for successively firing projectiles into the earth at offset positions relative to the central axis of the drill string, acoustic detecting and triangulating means near the surface for detecting the firing of the gun and impacting of the projectiles with rock and determining the downhole location of the drill, and remote control means near the surface for controlling the firing of projectiles from the guns at a desired offset location relative to the drill string thereby to control the direction of drilling.

  18. Palaeoglaciology of the Alexander Island ice cap, western Antarctic Peninsula, reconstructed from marine geophysical and core data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alastair G. C.; Smith, James A.

    2012-03-01

    The glacial history of the continental shelf northwest of Alexander Island is not well known, due mainly to a lack of targeted marine data on Antarctica's palaeo-ice sheets in their inter-ice-stream areas. Recently it has been argued that the region was ice-free at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and thus a potential site for glacial refugia. In this paper, multibeam swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiles and sediment cores are used to map the Alexander Island sector of the Antarctic Peninsula margin, in order to reconstruct the shelf's palaeoglaciology. Sea-floor bedforms provide evidence that an independent ice cap persisted on Alexander Island through the LGM and deglaciation. We show that this ice cap drained via two major, previously-undescribed tidewater outlets (Rothschild and Charcot Glaciers) sourced from an ice dome centred over the west of the island and near-shore areas. The glaciers grounded along deep, fjord-like cross-shelf troughs to within at least 10-20 km of the shelf edge, and probably reached the shelf break. Only one small outer-shelf zone appears to have remained free of ice throughout an otherwise extensive LGM. During retreat, grounding-line geomorphology indicates periodic stabilisation of Charcot Glacier on the mid-shelf after 13,500 cal yrs BP, while Rothschild Glacier retreated across its mid-shelf by 14,450 cal yrs BP. The timing of these events is in phase with retreat in nearby Marguerite Trough, and we take this as evidence of a common history and forcing with the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet. The fine details of ice flow documented by our new reconstruction highlight the importance of capturing complex ice flow patterns in models (e.g. in inter-stream areas), for understanding how region-specific parts of Antarctica may change in the future. Moreover, the reconstruction shows that glacial refugia, if present, cannot have been extensive on the Alexander Island shelf at the LGM as indicated by previous biological studies; instead, we argue that any ice-free refugia were probably restricted to isolated outer-shelf pockets, that opened, closed, or were maintained through diachronous ice-sheet advance and retreat.

  19. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  20. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  1. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  2. How to identify Antarctica's "Oldest Ice" with geophysical data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisen, Olaf

    2014-05-01

    The International Partnership for Ice Core Sciences (IPICS) identified the retrieve of an "Oldest-Ice" ice core as one of the most important scientific challenges in ice core research for the near future. As the outcome of an "Oldest-Ice" workshop a general approach was recently suggested how to combine geophysical reconnaissance, numerical ice-flow modelling and sample drilling to identify the most promising sites where about 1.5 Ma old ice could most likely be found (Fischer et al., CP, 2013). The most critical unknown parameter is the geothermal heat flow underneath the ice, followed by bed topography and integrity of internal layering. Here, we propose the combined application of geophysical methods in conjunction with existing ice-core data to improve the knowledge on physical properties of the ice and the underlaying strata. It builds on (i) conventional application of potential field geophysics (gravimetry and magnetics) to estimate subglacial geology; (ii) radar internal architecture to determine layer integrity and bedrock topography; (iii) combination of ice-core profiles with radar to determine the origin - and thus confirm isochronity and age - of internal radar layers, complemented by layer attributes; (iv) extrapolation of ice-core impurities and the related attenuation of radar waves in space along internal layers; and (v) radar and seismic wave attenuation analyses to determine the englacial temperature distribution. This approach has the potential to improve our capabilities to estimate the spatial variation of geothermal heat flux and provide spatially distributed age-depth constraints for ice-flow models.

  3. Reaction of Topopah Spring tuff with J-13 water at 150{sup 0}C: samples from drill cores USW G-1, USW GU-3, USW G-4, and UE-25h No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1985-03-03

    Samples of Topopah Spring tuff selected from vertical drill holes USW G-1, GU-3, and G-4, and from the horizontal air-drilled hole at Fran Ridge were reacted with J-13 water at 150{sup 0}C. The primary purpose of these experiments was to compare the resulting solution chemistries to estimate the degree of homogeneity that might be expected in thermally affected ground water in a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The second purpose was to relate data obtained from welded devitrified Topopah Spring tuff collected from the potential repository depth to that previously obtained using outcrop samples. The results show very similar aqueous phase chemistries for all samples after reaction for times up to 70 days. The largest difference in final solution concentrations was for silica in one of the samples from Fran Ridge. All vertical drill core samples gave results for silica that were in agreement to within +-6 ppM and indicated solubility controlled by cristobalite. The results for reaction at 150{sup 0}C are in agreement with those obtained in previous experiments using surface outcrop samples from Fran Ridge. The major difference between the drill core results and the outcrop samples is found in the data for room-temperature rinse solutions. The outcrop samples show relatively large amounts of soluble salts that can be easily removed at room temperature. The data for room-temperature rinsing of drill core samples show no significant quantities of readily soluble salts. This result is particularly significant for the samples from the air-drilled hole at Fran Ridge, since drilling fluid that might have removed soluble salts was not used in the portion of the hole from which the samples were obtained. This result strongly suggests that the presence of soluble salts is a surface evaporation phenomenon, and that such materials are unlikely to be present at the depth of the repository.

  4. Drilling gas hydrates with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Wefer, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    Large amounts of methane are bound in marine gas hydrate deposits. Local conditions like pressure, temperature, gas and pore water compositions define the boundaries of gas hydrate stability within the ocean sediments. Depending on those conditions gas hydrates can occur within marine sediments at depth down to several hundreds of meters up to sea floor. These oceanic methane deposits are widespread along continental margins. By forming cement in otherwise soft sediments gas hydrates are stabilizing the seafloor on continental slopes. Drilling operations are required for understanding the distribution of gas hydrates as well as for sampling them to study the composition, microstructure and its geomechanical and geophysical properties. The sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo200 has the capability to drill down to 200 m below sea floor well within the depth of major gas hydrate occurrences at continental margins. This drill rig is a transportable sea floor drill rig that can be deployed from a variety of multi-purpose research vessels. It is deployed on the sea bed and controlled from the vessel. It is the second generation MeBo (Freudenthal and Wefer, 2013) and was developed from 2011 to 2014 by MARUM in cooperation with BAUER Maschinen GmbH. Long term experiences with the first generation MeBo70 that was operated since 2005 on 15 research expeditions largely contributed to the development of MeBo200. It was first tested in October 2014 from the research vessel RV SONNE in the North Sea. In this presentation the suitability of MARUM-MeBo for drilling marine gas hydrates is discussed. We report on experiences drilling gas hydrates on two research expeditions with MeBo70. A research expedition for sampling gas hydrates in the Danube Paleodelta with MeBo200 as well as technical developments for improving the suitability of MeBo for gas hydrate exploration works are planned within the project SUGAR3 funded by the Federal Government for Economy and Energy (BMWi). Freudenthal, T and Wefer, G (2013) Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea floor drilling rig MeBo. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 2(2). 329-337. doi:10.5194/gi-2-329-2013

  5. Correction to “Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tembe, Sheryl; Lockner, David; Wong, Teng-Fong

    2010-01-01

    This article corrects: Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2. Vol. 114, Issue B11, Article first published online: 5 NOV 2009.

  6. Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History: Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. John, K.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E.; Krissek, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made accessible' is the essence of this goal. Our team consists of research and education specialists from institutions ranging from R1 research to public liberal arts to community college. We address relevant and timely Big Ideas with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. The exercises are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to cores, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygen-isotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, drill site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment cores, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, or assigned as homework. All exercises utilize authentic data. Students work with scientific uncertainty, practice quantitative and problem-solving skills, and expand their basic geologic and geographic knowledge. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation strategies, as well as providing links to other supplementary materials and examples for assessment. Preliminary assessment data indicates positive gains in student attitudes towards science, and in their content knowledge and scientific skills. In addition, student outcomes appear to depend somewhat on students motivation for taking the course and their institution, but are generally independent of students class rank or GPA. Our classroom-tested learning materials are being disseminated through a variety of outlets including instructor workshops and eventually to the web.

  7. Drill report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    North Slope drilling activity is described. As of November 14, 1984, four rigs were actively drilling in the Kuparuk River field with another two doing workovers. Only one rig was drilling in the Prudhoe Bay field, with another doing workovers and one on standby.

  8. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-1

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C.A.; Combs, J. ); Walkey, W.C. )

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table. 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Cascade geothermal drilling/corehole N-3

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C.A.

    1988-07-19

    Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core holes GEO N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mWm-2 reflecting subsurface temperature sufficient for commercial exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mWm-2, is less encouraging. Considerable emphasis has been placed on the rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Core hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite with basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Difficult drilling conditions were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Additionally, both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes (isothermal (the rain curtain), transition, and conductive) each having its own unique features based on geophysical logs, fluid geochemistry, age dates, and rock alteration. Smectite alteration, which seems to control the results of surface geoelectrical studies, begins in the isothermal regime close to and perhaps associated with the regional water table.

  10. Manganese-oxide minerals in fractures of the Crater Flat Tuff in drill core USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1990-07-01

    The Crater Flat Tuff is almost entirely below the water table in drill hole USW G-4 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Manganese-oxide minerals from the Crater Flat Tuff in USW G-4 were studied using optical, scanning electron microscopic, electron microprobe, and x-ray powder diffraction methods to determine their distribution, mineralogy, and chemistry. Manganese-oxide minerals coat fractures in all three members of the Crater Flat Tuff (Prow Pass, Bullfrog, and Tram), but they are most abundant in fractures in the densely welded devitrified intervals of these members. The coatings are mostly of the cryptomelane/hollandite mineral group, but the chemistry of these coatings varies considerably. Some of the chemical variations, particularly the presence of calcium, sodium, and strontium, can be explained by admixture with todorokite, seen in some x-ray powder diffraction patterns. Other chemical variations, particularly between Ba and Pb, demonstrate that considerable substitution of Pb for Ba occurs in hollandite. Manganese-oxide coatings are common in the 10-m interval that produced 75% of the water pumped from USW G-4 in a flow survey in 1983. Their presence in water-producing zones suggests that manganese oxides may exert a significant chemical effect on groundwater beneath Yucca Mountain. In particular, the ability of the manganese oxides found at Yucca Mountain to be easily reduced suggests that they may affect the redox conditions of the groundwater and may oxidize dissolved or suspended species. Although the Mn oxides at Yucca Mountain have low exchange capacities, these minerals may retard the migration of some radionuclides, particularly the actinides, through scavenging and coprecipitation. 23 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Core lithology, Valles caldera No. 1, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.N.; Goff, F.; Goff, S.; Maassen, L.; Mathews, K.; Wachs, D.; Wilson, D.

    1987-04-01

    Vallas caldera No. 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program research core hole in the Vallas caldera and the first continuously cored hole in the region. The hole penetrated 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera-fill ignimbrites, 35 m of volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales with over 95% core recovery. The primary research objectives included coring through the youngest rhyolite flow within the caldera; obtaining structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring-fracture zone and the pre-caldera Jemez fault zone; and penetrating a high-temperature hydrothermal outflow plume near its source. This report presents a compilation of lithologic and geophysical logs and photographs of core that were collected while drilling VC-1. It is intended to be a reference tool for researchers interested in caldera processes and associated geologic phenomena.

  12. Project Hotspot: Temporal Compositional Variation in Basalts of the Kimama Core and Implications for Magma Source Evolution, Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.; Champion, D.; Duncan, R. A.; Christiansen, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Project Hotspot produced continuous core from three drill sites in the Snake River plain, including 1912 m of core from the Kimama drill site on the axis of the plain. Ongoing major and trace element chemical characterization of the Kimama core and new 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic age data demonstrate temporal variations in the evolution of Snake River Plain volcanism. Cyclic fluctuations in magma chemistry identify over a hundred chemically distinct basalt flow groups (comprising 550 individual lava flows) within 54 periods of volcanic activity, separated by hiatuses of decades to many millennia. From a surface age of 700 ka to a bottom-hole age of 6.5 Ma, the Kimama core records the presence of several nearly coeval but compositionally different lava flows, ranging from highly evolved lavas to non-evolved tholeiites. Determining whether Kimama lavas are genetically unrelated or extreme differentiates of a single magma batch relies upon a combination of detailed chemostratigraphy and absolute and relative age data. Age and geochemical data introduce new ideas on the role of multiple magma sources and/or differentiation processes in the development of central Snake River Plain volcanic systems. The relatively short gestation of evolved liquids is demonstrated throughout the Kimama core, with evidence for cyclic fractionation of mafic lavas at depths of 318 m, 350 m, 547 m, and 1078 m. Here, highly evolved lava flows (FeOT 16.0-18.4 wt %; TiO2 3.43-4.62 wt %) are stratigraphically bounded by more primitive tholeiitic basalts (FeOT 9.9-14.8 wt%; TiO2 1.22-3.56 wt%) within the same inclination range, suggesting that cyclic fractionation is a regular feature of shield volcano development on the central Snake River Plain. Between 1.60 0.13 Ma (453.5 m depth) and 1.54 0.15 Ma (320.0 m depth), Kimama lavas ranged in composition from primitive tholeiite (FeOT 11.7 wt %; TiO2 1.76 wt %) to evolved basalt (FeOT 16.0 wt %; TiO2 4.00 wt %). At depths of 1119 m and 1138 m, evolved lava flows (FeOT 17.2 and 17.0 wt %; TiO2 4.20 and 4.09 wt %, respectively) of negative polarity are stratigraphically bounded by more primitive tholeittic lava flows (FeOT 13.6 and 14.5 wt %; TiO2 2.92 and 3.24 wt %, respectively) of positive polarity, a chronological transition that may represent many millennia and magma source variability. Kimama core stratigraphy as well as paleomagnetic, and radiometric age data demonstrate that mafic volcanism on the central Snake River Plain has been relatively continuous for the last 6.5 Ma. The compositional variability in Kimama basalts introduces broader implications for the timing of cyclic fractionation processes and the development of regional magma sources.

  13. Microbial Ecosystem In The Oldest Freshwater Lake Revealed From A Drill Core Of The 2.76 Ga Hardey Formation, Pilbara District, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Bevacqua, D. C.; Ohmoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    The Hardey Formation in the Pilbara district of Western Australia, is the oldest known (2.76 Ga) lacustrine deposit, was one of eight targets of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). Rocks in the drilling area have been subjected to very low-grade metamorphism (zeolites facies). The recovered drill core (~145 m in depth) is divisible into two depth zones: (1) the upper zone (<~80 m), comprising mostly coare-grained, gray, arkosic sandstones, and (2) the lower zone, comprising alternating layers of finely laminated, black shales and calcareous sandstones. We selected 26 samples from the lower zone at 2.5-m intervals, and conducted petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations (e.g., chemical mapping of major and trace element (including REEs); organic and carbonate C, and S contents; C isotope). Bedding planes are well preserved, comprising alternating layers of organic-C rich clay and organic-C poor carbonate (10-20 µm). Presence of cross-lamination suggests a low energy depositional environment, probably a shallow lake. Major and trace element contents of all samples are quite homogeneous. Organic C- and pyrite S contents fall in narrow ranges, from 0.2 to 0.7wt% (a mean value = 0.5wt% and s.d. = 0.1wt%) and from 0.01 to 0.1wt% (a mean value = 0.04 wt%; s.d. = 0.02 wt%), respectively. Compared to average Archean marine shales (organic C = 0.45 wt%; S = 0.1 wt%), the Hardy shales are comparable in organic C but are much depleted in pyrite S contents. The low S/C ratios of the Hardy shales concur with a freshwater depositional interpretation. The C isotope values for the organic C vary from -36.6 to -27.6% (a mean value = -32.7%; s.d. = 1.8%). There is no stratigraphic trend, but theycorrelate well with the lithology: -31.9 to -27.6% (a mean value = -30.4%) for disseminated-grains and seams of organic C in calcareous sandstone; and -36.6 to 32.6% (a mean value = -33.4%) for finely-laminated black shales. The heavier values may represent microbial communities in shallow water, while the lighter values represent microbial communities in deeper water. The carbon isotope systematics in the Hardy Formation are essentially identical to those of the 2.75 Ga marine shales at Kidd Creek, Ontario, Canada. These data suggest that the fresh-water ecosystems were already as diversed as marine ecosystems at 2.76 Ga ago.

  14. Rhyolites in the Kimberly Drill Core, Project Hotspot: First Intracaldera Ignimbrite from the Central Snake River Plain, Idaho?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, E. H.; McCurry, M. O.; Champion, D. E.; Bolte, T.; Holtz, F.; Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The rhyolites on the track of the Yellowstone hotspot are the classic examples of continental hotspot volcanism and the study of surface outcrops is maturing rapidly. However, in the central part of the track, where silicic volcanism is most voluminous, compositionally distinctive, and isotopically most anomalous, study of these large magma systems has been hindered because eruptive sources are buried. The 2 km Kimberly core helps fill that gap; it penetrates through surficial basalt, deep into the rhyolitic underpinnings on the southern margin of the province. The Kimberly core is dominated by thick sections of rhyolite lava and welded ignimbrite, with basalt-sediment intercalations between 241 m and 424 m depth. We tentatively interpret the core to include a thick intracaldera tuff. Our preliminary studies suggest that there are three major rhyolite units in the core. Rhyolite 3, the uppermost unit, is a nearly 130 m thick, low-silica rhyolite lava. Rhyolite 2 is the most highly evolved with ~75% silica and distinctively resorbed quartz. Rhyolite 1 is at least 1,340 m thick (the base was not cut by the core), has no apparent flow contacts or cooling breaks, and may represent a single, thick intracaldera ignimbrite. Paleomagnetic inclinations form a curious V-shaped profile, shallowing by about 18? between 700 and 1700 m depth. We interpret this to be the result of slower cooling of the mid-part of the thick intracaldera ignimbrite. The lower unit is a low-silica rhyolite with high concentrations of Fe2O3 and TiO2--among the highest of any known ignimbrite on the SRP. It is chemically distinct from the upper units, very homogeneous, not vertically zoned, and lacks multiple populations of phenocrysts. It somewhat resembles the regionally extensive ~10 Ma outflow tuff of Wooden Shoe Butte. However, this is one of several large, petrologically similar ignimbrites as young as 8.6 Ma exposed in the Cassia Mountains south of the hole, so further work is needed. Like most rhyolites from the Snake River Plain, all 3 units have the characteristics of A-type rhyolites with high concentrations of alkalies, high Fe/Mg and TiO2/MgO ratios, as well as high concentrations Nb, Y, Zr and Ga. Initial analyses of plag, cpx, and qtz show that all three units are low ?18O rhyolites, like most from the Central Snake River Plain-- ?18O in feldspar ranges from 1 in Rhyolite 1 to 3 in Rhyolites 2 and 3. In the thick lower ignimbrite, whole-rock ?18O increases systematically from the base upward (0.5 to as much as 9 in the altered top and ?D ranges from -140 to -180). Whole rock variations correlate with water content, apparently controlled by secondary clay. We suggest that these characteristics were largely imposed by their derivation from partial melting of basaltic sills and surrounding older crust. The low ?18O values reflect recycling of hydrothermally altered crustal rocks and indicate progressive incorporation of more hydrothermally altered material into the younger magmas. More work is needed to establish correlation with regional units, understand the emplacement of the rhyolites and their volcanic setting, and ascertain the origin of these distinctive low ?18O, A-type rhyolites.

  15. NanTroSEIZE: The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, H.; Kinoshita, M.; Kimura, G.; Underwood, M.; Ashi, J.; Saffer, D.; Brown, K.; Henry, P.; Suyehiro, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program has recently accepted NanTroSEIZE as a multi-year, multi-phase drilling and observatory installation project of unprecedented scope. NanTroSEIZE is an integrated program of geophysical studies, drilling, and instrumentation designed to investigate the aseismic to seismic transition of the megathrust system and the processes of earthquake propagation and tsunami generation at the Nankai Trough subduction zone. The fundamental goal is the creation of a distributed observatory spanning the up-dip limit of seismogenic and tsunamigenic behavior. This will involve sampling and instrumenting key elements of the active plate boundary fault system at several locations off the Kii Peninsula, Japan. Here, the plate interface and active mega-splay faults are accessible to drilling within the region of coseismic rupture and tsunami source in the 1944 Tonankai M8 great earthquake. The ultimate objective is to access and instrument the Nankai plate interface to advance our knowledge of fundamental aseismic and seismic faulting processes and controls on the transition between them. NanTroSEIZE will test models for the frictional behavior of fault rocks across the aseismic - seismogenic transition, the composition of faults and fluids and associated pore pressure and state of stress, partitioning of strain spatially between basal interface and splays, temporally between coseismic and interseismic periods, and between infraseismic and aseismic events vs. seismic events. Long-term borehole observations potentially will ultimately test whether interseismic variations or detectable precursory phenomena exist prior to great subduction earthquakes. Drilling and instrumentation will span the zone from input of sediment, crust, and fluids at the trench through the mega-splay and decollement fault systems at up to 6 km below the sea floor. Eight distinct drilling sites are targeted, with a comprehensive program of coring, geophysical logging, downhole geophysical and hydrological experiments. Opportunities exist for many new researchers to become involved in the NanTroSEIZE effort.

  16. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Shelander, D.; Dai, J.; McConnell, D.; Shedd, W.; Frye, M.; Ruppel, C.; Boswell, R.; Jones, E.; Collett, T.S.; Rose, K.; Dugan, B.; Wood, W.; Latham, T.

    2008-07-01

    In the late spring of 2008, the Chevron-led Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) expects to conduct an exploratory drilling and logging campaign to better understand gas hydrate-bearing sands in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The JIP Site Selection team selected three areas to test alternative geological models and geophysical interpretations supporting the existence of potential high gas hydrate saturations in reservoir-quality sands. The three sites are near existing drill holes which provide geological and geophysical constraints in Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system in an area characterized by seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and abundant seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets ponded sheet sands and associated channel/levee deposits within a minibasin, making this a non-structural play. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. Drilling locations have been selected at each site to 1) test geological methods and models used to infer the occurrence of gas hydrate in sand reservoirs in different settings in the northern Gulf of Mexico; 2) calibrate geophysical models used to detect gas hydrate sands, map reservoir thicknesses, and estimate the degree of gas hydrate saturation; and 3) delineate potential locations for subsequent JIP drilling and coring operations that will collect samples for comprehensive physical property, geochemical and other analyses.

  17. Tectonic and paleoclimate evolution at the NE Tibetan Plateau from 2.8 to 0.1 Ma deduced from a drill-core in Qaidam Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, E.; Fang, X.; Zhang, W.; Song, C.; Pross, J.; Koutsodendris, A.; Li, M.; Han, W.; Hu, S.; Cirpka, O. A.; Wang, J.; Yang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Two drillings into the lacustrine sediments of the western Qaidam Basin, with a core recovery rate of about 95%, were performed by a joint Sino-German project in order to obtain high-resolution information on paleoclimate and tectonic evolution at the NE Tibetan Plateau. Using detailed magnetostratigraphy and OSL the ca. 940 m long core SG-1 was dated at 0.1 to 2.8 Ma while the ca. 720 m long core SG-1b (located in a 20 km distant anticline) spans the period from 1.7 to 7.2 Ma. For SG-1 a high average sediment accumulation rate (SAR) of 35.1 cm/kyr is determined with two maximum SAR intervals between 2.6-2.2 Ma and after 0.8 Ma indicating two episodic erosional events, which we relate to pulse tectonic uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau with subsequent global cooling. Using spectral characteristics of magnetic susceptibility within sliding windows allows refining changes of SAR along the core SG-1. Both cores comprise mostly fine grained sediments (mudstone, clay, sandy clay) and in SG-1 frequent salt layers occur in the upper part. A trend of increasing aridification is observed in SG-1, with nearly twenty dry stages since ca. 1 Ma detected by evaporite minerals and extreme aridification from ca. 0.5 to 0.3 Ma onwards. These trends and stepwise drying events are supported by an increasing mean grain size towards younger ages. Palynofloras in SG-1 show an excellent degree of preservation. They can be attributed to two main biomes representing (i) mixed coniferous forests and woodlands that grew in the mountains surrounding the Qaidam basin, and (ii) a grass-steppe-like environment likely to be attributed to the basin itself. The long-term fluctuations of these main biomes allow insights into the monsoon dynamics of the Qaidam region, with a weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon and a strengthening of the winter monsoon during the past 2.8 Ma. A first set of high-resolution data provides insights into the climate variability during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19, which with regard to orbital boundary conditions represents the closest analogue to the Holocene within the "100-kyr world". Hence, they may yield information on the natural climate and ecosystem variability of the Holocene in the Qaidam region as they would be expected without anthropogenic forcing.

  18. Preliminary Results from the AIDP-2 and AIDP-3 Drill Cores Hint at Systematic Mo Enrichments in the ~2.65 Ga Roy Hill Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Ostrander, C. M.; Lyons, T. W.; Olson, S. L.; Buick, R.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand the timing of the earliest oxygenation of Earth's surface environment, we are pursuing a multi-proxy investigation of paleoredox conditions in diamond drill cores through sedimentary rocks of the Archean Fortescue & Hamersley Groups. These cores were recovered in 2012 by the Agouron Institute from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The AIDP-2 core samples a stratigraphic succession of carbonate and sulfidic, organic-rich shale in the Carawine Dolomite and Jeerinah Formation representing a shallow near-shore depositional setting. Core AIDP-3 samples a transition from BIF in the Marra Mamba Formation to organic-rich shales in the underlying Jeerinah Formation representing a deeper offshore depositional setting. We have analyzed 322 black shale samples from the Roy Hill Member of the Jeerinah Formation deposited just before the transition from the Fortescue to Hamersley Group. Roy Hill black shale units are mostly pyritic in AIDP-3, but are less so in AIDP-2. The Roy Hill Member of AIDP-3 extends from 2.629 Ga to2.676 Ga and contains the 2.632Ga Jeerinah impact layer, whereas the Roy Hill member of AIDP-2 is slightly older, lying beneath the Jeerinah impact layer, and has been dated to 2.636 Ga to >2.643 Ga [1]. Our initial findings reveal that Mo concentrations range between 0.7 and 7 ppm in the Roy Hill black shale member of AIDP-2 and AIDP-3. Corresponding Mo/Al ratios range between 1-9×10-5 ppm/ppm, indicating slight Mo enrichment relative to average continental crust. These results are consistent with a previous study by Scott et al. [2], which suggested little or no Mo enrichment. However, the higher resolution sampling in this study allows us to clearly resolve the Mo/Al depth profiles in these late Archean cores. These data suggest that the variations we see are not due to analytical scatter or sample variability, but instead represent real variations in Mo scavenged into these sediments. Ongoing work is focused on obtaining additional complementary datasets including Fe-speciation, TOC, and traditional and non-traditional isotopes. These data will provide the additional constraints needed to understand the origin and significance of Mo enrichments in these Archean sediments. [1] Rasmussen & Fletcher (2010) Geology, 38: 299-302 [2] Scott et al. (2011) Geology, 39:119-122.

  19. Synthesis of borehole geophysical data at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, W.S.

    1984-07-01

    A suite of borehole-geophysical logs, supported by core data, was used to describe the rock matrix and fractures in a granitic pluton near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. The site is being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, as an underground research laboratory to conduct geotechnical research and to validate predictive models as part of Canada's nuclear-fuel, waste-management program. However, the site is not planned to be used for waste disposal. Geophysical well logs were used to distinguish and correlate rock types and fractures between drill holes. Two significant fracture zones that are two of the major zones of ground-water movement at the site were identified by acoustic-televiewer logs. A new heat-pulse flowmeter provided repeatable measurements of very low-velocity, vertical flow in drill holes which enabled the identification of specific fractures that were transmitting water. Borehole gamma spectra showed that some fractures are enriched in uranium, and others may be depleted. This study demonstrates some of the advantages of synthesizing available borehole-geophysical logs at a site in fractured plutonic rocks and indicates how this information can contribute to an understanding of the geophysical conditions at the site.

  20. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core students are the geophysics Honours students (~4th year undergraduates). In addition, up to 8 students from all over Africa are included in the program to help address practical training in Africa. The final cohort are minority students from the USA. Participants spend a week planning and costing out surveys, a week in the field collecting data using different methods including: gravity, DGPS, magnetics, resistivity, refraction seismic, EM methods, core logging and physical property measurements. The final week is spent interpreting and integrating their results. Graduate students are given the opportunity to instruct on the field school and manage the logistics for a particular method. The field school is unique in Africa and satisfies a need for practical training with limited resources, with a rare blend of cultural interactions!

  1. Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.; Oliver, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed in the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. In relation to the seven objectives, WRI determined that (1) the ELW cavity extends farther to the west and the CRIP cavity was located 5--10 feet farther to the south than anticipated; (2) roof collapse was contained within unit A in both modules; (3) samples of all major rock types were recovered; (4) insufficient data were obtained to characterize the outflow channels, but cavity stratigraphy was well defined; (5) bore holes near the CRIP points and ignition point did not exhibit characteristics significantly different from other bore holes in the cavities; (6) a fault zone was detected between VIW=1 and VIW-2 that stepped down to the east; and (7) PW-1 was only 7--12 feet below the top of the coal seam in the eastern part of the ELW module area; and CIW-1 was located 18--20 feet below the top of the coal seam in the CRIP module area. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Remarkably, drilling in Landsvirkjun Co.'s geothermal field in Krafla Caldera, Iceland has encountered rhyolite magma or hypersolidus rhyolite at 2.1-2.5 km depth in 3 wells distributed over 3.5 km2, including Iceland Deep Drilling Program's IDDP-1 (Mortensen, 2012). Krafla's most recent rifting and eruption (basalt) episode was 1975-1984; deformation since that time has been simple decay. Apparently rhyolite magma was either emplaced during that episode without itself erupting or quietly evolved in situ within 2-3 decades. Analysis of drill cuttings containing quenched melt from IDDP-1 yielded unprecedented petrologic data (Zierenberg et al, 2012). But interpreting active processes of heat and mass transfer requires knowing spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics at the margin of the magma body, and that requires retrieving core - a not-inconceivable task. Core quenched in situ in melt up to 1150oC was recovered from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii by the Magma Energy Project >30 years ago. The site from which IDDP-1 was drilled, and perhaps IDDP-1 itself, may be available to attempt the first-ever coring of rhyolite magma, now proposed as the Krafla Magma Drilling Project (KMDP). KMDP would also include geophysical and geochemical experiments to measure the response of the magma/hydrothermal system to fluid injection and flow tests. Fundamental results will reveal the behavior of magma in the upper crust and coupling between magma and the hydrothermal system. Extreme, sustained thermal power output during flow tests of IDDP-1 suggests operation of a Kilauea-Iki-like freeze-fracture-flow boundary propagating into the magma and mining its latent heat of crystallization (Carrigan et al, EGU, 2014). Such an ultra-hot Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) might be developable beneath this and other magma-heated conventional hydrothermal systems. Additionally, intra-caldera intrusions like Krafla's are believed to produce the unrest that is so troubling in populated calderas (e.g., Campi Flegrei, Italy). Experiments with the live system will aid in hazard assessment and eruption forecasting for this most difficult of volcano hazard problems. We will report on an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop held to assess feasibility and to develop a plan for KMDP.

  3. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  4. Construction diagrams, geophysical logs, and lithologic descriptions for boreholes USGS 103, 105, 108, 131, 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, Mary K.V.; Orr, Stephanie M.; Potter, Katherine E.; LeMaitre, Tynan

    2012-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, summarizes construction, geophysical, and lithologic data collected from about 4,509 feet of core from seven boreholes deepened or drilled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office, from 2006 to 2009 at the INL. USGS 103, 105, 108, and 131 were deepened and cored from 759 to 1,307 feet, 800 to 1,409 feet, 760 to 1,218 feet, and 808 to 1,239 feet, respectively. Boreholes USGS 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16 were drilled and continuously cored from land surface to 1,198, 759, and 425 feet, respectively. Cores were photographed and digitally logged by using commercially available software. Borehole descriptions summarize location, completion date, and amount and type of core recovered.

  5. Sample descriptions and geophysical logs for cored well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Skipp, Gary L.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Davis, Joshua K.; Benson, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    BP-3-USGS was sited to test hypotheses developed from geophysical studies and to answer questions about the history and evolution of Pliocene and Pleistocene Lake Alamosa, which is represented by lacustrine deposits sampled by the well. The findings reported here represent a basis from which future studies can answer these questions and address other important scientific questions in the San Luis Valley regarding geologic history and climate change, groundwater hydrology, and geophysical interpretation.

  6. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, Stephen; Younker, Leland; Zobeck, Mark; Cooper, George

    1994-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through an integrated program of coring, fluid sampling, in-situ and laboratory experimentation and long-term monitoring, we hope to provide fundamental constraints on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300??C; 2) continuous coring of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6 and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of seismicity and a broad range of physical and chemical properties over periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the regions of greatest scientific interest.

  7. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, we hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300C; 2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

  8. Drill bit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) is seeking proposals by January 15, 1997, for its next cycle of scientific projects.Started in February 1996 as a joint program between Germany's GeoForschungsZentrum-Potsdam, the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF), and China's Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources, ICDP was created to support scientific research of global importance that requires access to continental drilling capability. ICDP is currently funding projects to drill volcanic sequences in Hawaii and the Chicxulub Impact Crater in the Yucatan Peninsula. The program also is supporting workshops on lake drilling for high-resolution records of environmental and tectonic change; drilling the high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Dabieshan Mountains in China; and drilling the feeder of the dacite dome that has intruded into the vent of the Unzen Volcano in Japan.

  9. Fluid-rock interactions in seismic faults: Implications from the structures and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of drilling cores from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Chen, Jianye; Chen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    We describe the structural features and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the fault rocks recovered from boreholes at the Golden River site on the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, which activated and slipped along a 240 km-long main surface rupture zone during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The fault, which accommodated co-seismic slip, cuts granitic rocks from the Pengguan complex, in which this earthquake most likely nucleated. Fault rocks, including cohesive cataclasite, unconsolidated breccia and three fault gouges with distinct colors, were identified from the drilling cores. On-going uplift and erosion in the area means that the fault rocks, formed at different depth, were exhumed to the shallow surface during the uplift history of the Longmenshan fault zone. A clear change from fracturing and comminution in the cataclasites and breccia to more pervasive shear/formation of fine grained materials in the gouges has been observed. The gouges are distinct and have accommodated significant displacement in multiple increments of shear. Furthermore, fault rocks recovered from the boreholes display numerous features indicative of fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interaction. Toward the fault core, clay minerals have replaced feldspars. The element enrichment/depletion patterns of the fault rocks show general fluid infiltration trends, such as 1) mobile elements are generally depleted in the fault rocks, 2) the microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical results of the fault rocks consistently indicate that pervasive fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interactions altered feldspars and mafic minerals to clay minerals. The fluid was Mg2 +- and Fe2 +-rich, facilitating formation of chlorite. Isocon analyses further reveal that a large rock volume has been lost, which is attributed to the removal of mobile elements associated with fluid infiltration and perhaps enhanced by pressure solution. These results reflect the accumulated effects of cataclasis and fluid infiltration/fluid-rock interaction during the long evolution history of the Longmenshan fault zone.

  10. Orbitally tuned age model for the late Pliocene-Pleistocene lacustrine succession of drill core SG-1 from the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, Christian; Appel, Erwin; Voigt, Silke; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Pross, Jörg; Zhang, Weilin; Fang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    The availability of accurate and reliable age control is a crucial prerequisite for palaeoclimate studies, particularly when different archives are to be compared. Here we present a detailed depth-to-time transformation for the lacustrine sediments of a ˜940-m-long drill core (SG-1) from the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau). To establish a more precise age model than the one previously available, which was based solely on magnetostratigraphic dating using polarity boundaries as tie points, we applied time-series analysis on magnetic susceptibility (χ) variation. The χ data are available in high resolution and are considered to be closely linked to orbital forcing. Since the sediment accumulation rate (SAR) varies strongly throughout the succession of core SG-1, conventional cyclostratigraphy by bandpass filtering cannot be applied. We present two alternative age models based on spectral characteristics and orbital tuning. The first age model (TPspec) is based on the assumption that changes in SAR occurred when the frequency spectra revealed obviously different characteristics in the spectral pattern. For the second age model (SARA), SAR was adjusted every 2 m by comparing observed with expected orbital cycles in accordance with the age of magnetic reversals. This age model appears more robust and shows the most convincing spectral results in the frequency and wavelet power spectrum of χ. According to the SARA age model, SAR varies between 14 and 73 cm kyr-1, and the bottom of SG-1 has an age of 2.69 Ma. Our results show that orbital tuning can be successfully applied for sequences with strongly variable SAR. The age model SARA can be used for a more detailed analysis of the existing multiproxy data set in terms of palaeoclimate evolution. The most prominent feature of χ spectra using the SARA age model is the identification of the middle Pleistocene transition.

  11. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this

  12. Magnetostratigraphy and Susceptibility of Deep Drilling Core SG-1 in the Western Qaidam Basin (ne Tibetan Plateau) and Their Tectonic and Climatic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Zhang, W.; Appel, E.; Song, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Qaidam Basin is the largest intermontane basin of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and contains a continuous Cenozoic sequence of lacustrine sediments. A nearly 1000 m deep drilling (SG-1) with an average core recovery of ~95% was carried out in the depocenter of the western Qaidam Basin, aimed to obtain a high-resolution record of the paleoenvironmental evolution and the erosion history. The core consists of dark grayish mudstone and grayish siltstone, intercalated with salts and fine sandstones in the upper part. Stepwise alternating field and thermal demagnetization, together with rock magnetic results, revealed a stable remanent magnetization for most samples, carried by magnetite. The polarity sequence consists of sixteen normal and fifteen reverse zones which can be correlated with chrons 1n to 2An of the global geomagnetic polarity time scale. Magnetostratigraphic results date the entire core SG-1 at ~2.77 Ma to ~0.1 Ma and yield sediment accumulation rate (SAR) ranging from 26.1 cm/ka to 51.5 cm/ka. Maximum SARs occur within the intervals of ~2.6-2.2 Ma and after ~0.8 Ma indicating two episodic erosional periods. Detailed magnetic susceptibility and rock magnetic properties were analyzed for revealing the significance of ferro(i)magnetic concentration for past changes of climate and erosion. Mass-specific susceptibility (?) shows a striking cyclic and long-term variation. Samples with high ? values are dominated by magnetite and maghemite with pseudo-single-domain properties. In contrast, samples with low ? values contain maghemite from single-domain to multi-domain, and additionally a significant fraction of hematite. Combining with high resolution pollen-spore and geochemical records for representative time intervals, the driving mechanism of ? variation can be explained by low-temperature oxidation in the lake sediments (dry climate). Trends of match with sedimentation rates and are roughly synchronous with the deep-sea ?18O record on a glacial-interglacial timescale. Therefore, magnetic concentration in the western Qaidam Basin sediments is seemingly controlled by both tectonic influence and paleoenvironmental changes, but can be best interpreted by alternations and trends of dry-cold and more humid periods due to Asian drying and global cooling.

  13. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  14. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which

  15. GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerdt, B.; Smrekar, S.; Dehant, V.; Lognonn, P.; Spohn, T.; Grott, M.

    2011-10-01

    The GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) is one of three missions undergoing Phase A development for possible selection by NASA's Discovery Program [1]. If selected, GEMS will illuminate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution by performing the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars. It will provide key information on the composition and structure of an Earth-like planet that has gone through most of the evolutionary stages of the Earth up to, but not including, plate tectonics. Thus the traces of this history are still contained in the basic parameters of the planet: the size, state and composition of the core, the composition and layering of the mantle, the thickness and layering of the crust, and the thermal flux from the interior.

  16. Drilling and geohydrologic data for test hole USW UZ-1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, M.S.; Thordarson, W.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Warner, J.B.

    1990-12-31

    This report presents data collected to determine the hydrologic characteristics of tuffaceous rocks penetrated in test hole USW UZ-1. The borehole is the first of two deep, large-diameter, unsaturated-zone test holes dry drilled using the vacuum/reverse-air-circulation method. This test hole was drilled in and near the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in a program conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy. These investigations are part of the Yucca Mountain Project (formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations) to identify a potentially suitable site for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Data are presented for bit and casing configurations, coring methods, sample collection, drilling rate, borehole deviation, and out-of-gage borehole. Geologic data for this borehole include geophysical logs, a lithologic log of drill-bit cuttings, and strike and distribution of fractures. Hydrologic data include water-content and water-potential measurements of drill-bit cuttings, water-level measurements, and physical and chemical analyses of water. Laboratory measurements of moisture content and matric properties from the larger drill-bit cutting fragments were considered to be representative of in-situ conditions. 3 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) provides technologically top-level drilling vessels and platforms that can be used by scientists to address global scientific problems, including the causes and processes responsible for submarine geohazards. Both IODP and ECORD (the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling in collaboration with the European Science Foundation) support scientific initiatives towards submarine geohazards, because the geological record of geohazards can be read and interpreted only through ocean drilling, combined with a broad array of geophysical, geotechnical, and laboratory studies, to identify structures and deposits associated with hazardous phenomena.

  18. Evidence of Ferrichromite of Extraterrestrial Origin by Means of Rock Magnetic Studies from the LOC-9 Drill Core (lockne Crater, Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melero Asensio, I.; Martin Hernandez, F.; rmo, J.; Guerrero-Suarez, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Lockne (456 Ma) marine-target impact structure is a concentric with a 7.5 km wide inner crater in the crystalline basement, and an up to 3.5 km wide brim where the sedimentary target succession is partially or completely removed. Much of the crater is covered by sediments deposited during the resurge of seawater, as well as by secular sediments. The LOC-9 core is 31.04m long and was drilled into the crystalline crater brim and the proximal ejecta flap of the inner crater. The ejecta flap at this location is mainly brecciated basalt with some blending of dark shale just at the contact with the more intact granitic basement. Published studies of the resurge deposits by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) show the presence of ferrichromite particles interpreted to be meteoritic material. Here we combine complete rock magnetic characterization of the magnetic signal along the core with the characterization of the ferrichromite phase. Rock magnetic analysis includes low-field magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loops, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition curves, coercivity spectra derived from IRM acquisition curves, back field IRM demagnetization curves and thermomagnetic curves. Additionally, a compositional analysis of a magnetic extract with SEM-EDX was done in order to identify the dominant magnetic fraction. Magnetite and titanomagnetite with different Ti content are identified as the main carriers of the magnetic signal along the core, based on the thermomagnetic curves, the saturation magnetization measured in the hysteresis loops, and the IRM acquisition curves. Pyrite is indicated by the thermomagnetic curve at one location in the core. A high coercivity phase is also observed in some samples. The coercivity spectral analysis shows one single population of magnetic minerals that dominates the magnetic signal at a level where the magnetic susceptibility is particularly high. The median destructive field is consistent with values reported at positions in the core with lower susceptibility and the dispersion parameter is well constrained with average values suggesting no significant diagenesis. The level immediately above the brecciated basement is composed of a relatively high amount of target material. At this depth, thermomagnetic curves reveal the presence of a magnetic phase with low Curie unblocking temperature ( 100 C). No evidence of transformation of goethite into hematite is noted, which suggests the ferrichromite to be of extraterrestrial origin. This exotic phase is characterized by rock magnetic parameters derived from thermomagnetic curves, IRM acquisition curves, and hysteresis loops. The estimated Curie temperature is also consistent with a 50% content Cr, as reported by previous SEM studies of material from the Lockne crater. We conclude that rock magnetic studies complement other methods in the detection of potential extraterrestrial component in impactites.

  19. Inferring Earthquake Physics from Deep Drilling Projects of Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Kuo, L. W.; Mittempergher, S.; Remitti, F.; Spagnuolo, E.; Mitchell, T. M.; Gualtieri, A.; Hadizadeh, J.; Carpenter, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Deep drilling projects of active faults offer the opportunity to correlate physical and chemical processes identified in core samples with experiments reproducing the seismic cycle in the laboratory and with high-resolution seismological and geophysical data. Here we discuss the constraints about earthquakes source processes at depth gained by fault cores retrieved from the deep drilling projects SAFOD (2.7 km depth, San Andreas Fault), J-FAST (0.9 km depth, following the Mw 9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake), TCDP (1.1 km depth, following the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi 1999 earthquake) and WFSD (1.2 km depth, following the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan 2008 earthquake). Recovered samples were tested at room temperature with the rotary shear apparatus SHIVA installed in Rome (INGV, Italy). All the tested samples were made by clay-rich gouges (usually including smectite/illite), though their bulk mineralogy and modal composition were different (e.g., SAFOD samples included saponite, WFSD carbonaceous materials). The gouges were investigated before and after the experiments with scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, etc. A common behavior of all the tested gouges was that their friction coefficient was low (often less than 0.1) under room-humidity and wet conditions when sheared at slip rates of ca. 1 m/s (seismic deformation conditions). Moreover, when the natural fault rocks next to the principal slipping zones were sheared from sub-seismic (few micrometers/s) to seismic slip rates, the experimental products had similar microstructures to those found in the principal slipping zones of the drilled faults. This included the formation of mirror-like surfaces, graphite-rich materials, foliated gouges, nanograins, amorphous materials, etc. In most cases the mechanical data were consistent with several seismological (> 50 m of seismic slip for the fault zone drilled by J-FAST) and geophysical observations (absence of a thermal anomaly in the fault cores of J-FAST and WFSD) which were attributed to an extremely low coseismic fault strength. However, the deformation mechanisms responsible for the measured weakening in the experiments and for the production of the microstructures similar to those found in drilled seismic faults have not been deciphered yet.

  20. Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finster, K.W.; Cockell, C.S.; Voytek, M.A.; Gronstal, A.L.; Kjeldsen, K.U.

    2009-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31T, was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l-1) and MgCl2???6H 2O (3 g l-1). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45??C, with an optimum between 35 and 40??C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31T (=NCIMB 14440T = DSM 21240T). ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Palaeo-earthquake events during the late Early Palaeozoic in the central Tarim Basin (NW China): evidence from deep drilling cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bizhu; Qiao, Xiufu; Jiao, Cunli; Xu, Zhiqin; Cai, Zhihui; Guo, Xianpu; Zhang, Yinli

    2014-07-01

    Various millimetre-, centimetre- and metre-scale soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS) have been identified in the Upper Ordovician and Lower-Middle Silurian from deep drilling cores in the Tarim Basin (NW China). These structures include liquefied-sand veins, liquefaction-induced breccias, boudinage-like structures, load and diapir- or flame-like structures, dish and mixed-layer structures, hydroplastic convolutions and seismic unconformities. The deformed layers are intercalated by undeformed layers of varying thicknesses that are petrologically and sedimentologically similar to the deformed layers. The SSDS developed in a shelf environment during the early Late Ordovician and formed initially under shear tensile stress conditions, as indicated by boudinage-like structures; during the latest Ordovician, SSDS formed under a com-pressional regime. The SSDS in the Lower-Middle Silurian consist mainly of mixed layers and sand veins; they formed in shoreline and tidal-flat settings with liquefaction features indicating an origin under a compressional stress regime. By Silurian times, the centre of tectonic activity had shifted to the south-eastern part of the basin. The SSDS occur at different depths in wells that are close to the syn-sedimentary Tazhong 1 Fault (TZ1F) and associated reversed-thrust secondary faults. Based on their characteristics, the inferred formation mechanism and the spatial association with faults, the SSDS are interpreted as seismites. The Tazhong 1 fault was a seismogenic fault during the later Ordovician, whereas the reversed-direction secondary faults became active in the Early-Middle Silurian. Multiple palaeo-earthquake records reflect pulses and cyclicity, which supports secondary tectonic activity within the main tectonic movement. The range of SSDS structures reflects different developments of tectonic activity with time for the various tectonic units of the centralbasin. The effects of the strong palaeo-earthquake activity coincide with uplift, fault activity and syn-tectonic sedimentation in the study area during the Late Ordovician to Middle Silurian.

  2. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  3. Basic data from five core holes in the Raft River geothermal area, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E. G., (compiler)

    1976-01-01

    meters) were completed in the area (Crosthwaite, 1974), and the Aerojet Nuclear Company, under the auspices of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, was planning some deep drilling 4,000 to 6,000 feet (1,200 to 1,800 meters) (fig. 1). The purpose of the core drilling was to provide information to test geophysical interpretations of the subsurface structure and lithology and to provide hydrologic and geologic data on the shallow part of the geothermal system. Samples of the core were made available to several divisions and branches of the Geological Survey and to people and agencies outside the Survey. This report presents the basic data from the core holes that had been collected to September 1, 1975, and includes lithologic and geophysical well logs, chemical analyses of water (table 1), and laboratory analyses of cores (table 2) that were completed as of the above date. The data were collected by the Idaho District office, Hydrologic Laboratory, Borehole Geophysics Research Project, and Drilling, Sampling, and Testing Section, all of the Water Resources Division, and the Branch of Central Environmental Geology of the Geologic Divison.

  4. Chattanooga Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) from the Tennessee Division of Geology - US Department of Energy cored drill hle number 3, Hancock County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Roen, J.B.; Milici, R.C.; Wallace, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents a detailed lithologic description and gamma-ray log of the drill hole which is located on the Calvert Johnson property in the Sneedville 7.5-minute quadrangel, Hancock County. (DLC)

  5. Geophysical signature of the Pretoria saltpan impact structure and a possible satellite crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, D.; Durrheim, R. J.; Reimold, W. U.

    1993-01-01

    The Pretoria Saltpan Crater is located in the southern portion of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, some 40 km NNW of Pretoria, South Africa, at 25 deg 24 min 30 sec S/28 deg 4 min 59 sec E. An origin by impact for this crater structure was recently confirmed. The results of the only gravity reconnaissance carried out over the crater to date failed to support an impact origin. With the aid of recent results obtained from a central drill-core, it was necessary to carry out more geophysical work which would include a gravity profile of higher resolution. A second, smaller, circular depression (about 400 m in diameter) to the SW of the crater is suggestive of a twin crater. This site had never been investigated, and thus various geophysical surveys were conducted.

  6. Comparison of geophysical investigations for detection of massive ground ice (pingo ice)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Leuschen, C.; Ikeda, A.; Harada, K.; Gogineni, P.; Hoekstra, P.; Hinzman, L.; Sawada, Y.; Matsuoka, N.

    2006-06-01

    Six different geophysical investigations, (1) ground-penetrating radar, (2) DC resistivity sounding, (3) seismic refraction, (4) very low frequency (VHF) electromagnetic, (5) helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM), and (6) transient electromagnetic (TEM) techniques, were employed to obtain information on the ice body properties of pingos near Fairbanks, Alaska. The surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were also compared from similar sites near one of the study pingos. The geophysical investigations were undertaken, along with core sampling and permafrost drilling, to enable measurement of the ground temperature regime. Drilling (ground truthing) results support field geophysical investigations, and have led to the development of a technique for distinguishing massive ice and overburden material of the permafrost. The two-dimensional DC resistivity sounding tomography and ground-penetrating radar profiling are useful for ice detection under heterogeneous conditions. However, the DC resistivity sounding investigation required high-quality ground contact and less area coverage. The active layer thickness and the homogeneous horizontal structure of the overburden material are important parameters influencing detection of massive ice in permafrost for most methods such as seismic, TEM, or surface NMR.

  7. Geochemical characters of Quaternary tephra beds and their stratighraphic position in the sedimentary core drilled at the site U1343 in the central Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Asahi, H.; Nagatsuma, Y.; Kurihara, K.; Fukuoka, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Iijima, K.

    2012-12-01

    The project IODP exp.323 in the Bering Sea focused on analyzing long-term ocean and climate trends during 5 Ma, and drilled seven sites (sites 1339-1345). Up to now, the studies of long-term tephrochronology in this area are very rare, though a part of histories of several volcanoes and late Pleistocene to Holocene volcanisms and studies for geochemistry of magma were reported in detail. Our objectives are to reveal how many widespread tephras are found in the Bering Sea and which of volcanoes or volcanic zones provided them. First of all, we analyzed forty-eight tephra samples in the sedimentary core collected at site U1343, near the Bering self sloop. Sediments in site U1343 (5733.4'N, 17549.0'E, water depth 1956 mbsf, core length 779.18 m) include three paleomagnetic events (the BM boundary;0.788 Ma, Jaramillo; 0.998 Ma, Cobb Mountain;1.173 Ma). The bottom datum event is reported as 2.0-2.2 Ma (diatom) at 716.4 m. All tephra samples were washed by flesh water and decanting, dried up naturally, sieved by the mesh of dia.250, 125 and 63 micrometer. We observed every tephra under the binocular/polarizing microscopes, and analyzed major-element composition of volcanic glass shards by EPMA (10nA, 15kV, probe dia.10 micrometer). All samples include many kinds of volcanic glass shards (color: colorless to dark brown, form: bubble-wall type, pumice type, fiber type). Diameter of grain size is normally less 125 micrometer, and volcanic glass size in some layers is concentrated in the less 63 micrometer. Thickness of tephra samples is approximately 0.5 cm to 4 cm. In the basis of geochemicalc analysis of volcanic glass shards in 48 samples, though every sample includes volcanic glass shards, we can distinguish the two groups roughly; glass-rich samples (31 samples) and contaminated samples (17 samples). Contaminated samples include course sands (lithic fragments, rounded minerals, fossil fragments), besides volcanic glass shards. Number of contaminated samples remarkably increases after BM boundary. Furthermore, during middle to late Pleistocene, the oxygen isotopic stratigraphy of benthic foranminiferal fossils in this core is clear and their oscillation is wider than early Pleistocene and Pliocene. So, volcanic glass shards in 'contaminated samples' which are expected to be provided from plural sources might be transported by seasonal sea ices, and ice berg which collapsed from the ice sheet around the Beringia. On the other hand, general character and geochemistry of glass-rich samples is as follows: The size of every tephra material is under 250 micrometer and there are rarely heavy minerals. Color of tephras has many varieties (white, brown, gray, and black) by geochemistry of volcanic glass shards. Content of SiO2 in volcanic glass shards varied approximately 58-72 wt%, Na2O is ~5.2 wt%, and K2O is ~3.2 wt% (basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite). There is no sample in alkali rock series, 5 samples in tholeiitic rock series and the other 26 samples in calc-alkalic rock series. Six tephra layers of 0.378Ma, 0.518-0.529Ma, 0.822-0.824Ma, 1.008Ma, 1.108Ma, and 1.547Ma are several centimeters thickness, so they are expected to be recognized as time marker beds in Bering Sea widely.

  8. Deep Drilling to Decipher Potential Interaction Between Shallow and Deep Fluid Systems: Preliminary Results From the INFLUINS Drilling Campaign in the Thuringian Basin, Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, N.; Totsche, K. U.; Methe, P.; Goepel, A.; Abratis, M.; Habisreuther, A.; Kunkel, C.; Ward, T.

    2014-12-01

    To shed light on the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluid systems in a sedimentary basin on various scales, ranging from the pore scale to the extent of an entire basin, is the overall goal of INFLUINS (INtegrated FLuid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins). To do so is essential to understand the functioning of sedimentary basins fluid systems. An integral INFLUINS topic also is the potential interaction of aquifers within a basin and at its rims. Regionally, INFLUINS is focusing on the Thuringian basin, a well-confined, intra-continental sedimentary basin in central Germany as a natural geo-laboratory. The Thuringian basin is composed of sedimentary rocks from the latest Paleozoic and mainly Triassic and particularly suited to undertake such research as it is of relative small size, about 50 times 100 km, easily accessible, and quite well known from previous studies. INFLUINS consists on several projects tightly connected to each other and coming from various disciplines of geosciences including among others geophysics, hydrogeology, sedimentology, mineralogy, and remote sensing. A deep drilling campaign, which took place close to Erfurt in the center of the basin in summer 2013, is one of the main achievements of INFLUINS. In preparation for deep drilling, in 2011, we conducted an extensive seismic reflection site survey, in the framework of which the center of the basin down to the top basement was imaged in high quality. Drilling went down to a depth of 1179 m, drilling Triassic rocks from Keuper to lower Buntsandstein and led to more than 500 m of cores of excellent quality and more than 600 cuttings samples. Down-hole geophysical logging over the entire depth of the drill hole is complemented with Multi Sensor Core Logging leading to an extensive geophysical data set with a spatial resolution up to the cm-scale. Here, we present overall results of the drilling campaign and focus on the boundaries between major groups as well as between prominent beds including e.g. rock salt and other pronounced aquitards.

  9. Sampling and Interpretation of Drill Cuttings from Geothermal Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Sibbett, Bruce S.

    1981-01-01

    Drill cuttings from geothermal and mineral exploration boreholes, by contrast with those from most petroleum wells, commonly are derived highly fractured and faulted, hydrothermally altered igneous and metamorphic rock sequences, and are likely to be severely contaminated. Characterization of a subsurface resource from cuttings thus requires not only especially careful sample collection, preparation, storage and examination, but also a thorough knowledge of drilling technology, local geology and the full range of potential borehole contaminants. Accurate identification of lithology from cuttings is critical for recognition and correlation of rock types likely to selectively host the desired commodity. However, many of the rocks encountered in geothermal and mineral exploration boreholes (such as gneisses and granitic rocks) can resemble one another closely as cuttings even though dissimilar in outcrop or core. In such cases, the actual rock type(s) in a cuttings sample generally can be determined by comparison with simulated cuttings of representative surface rocks, and with various geophysical and other well logs. Many other clues in cuttings, such as diagnostic metamorphic mineralogy, or sedimentary rounding and sorting, may help identify subsurface lithologies. Faults and fractures commonly are the dominant physical controls on geothermal and mineral resources. Faults occasionally can be recognized directly in cuttings by the presence of slickensiding, gouge, or other crushed material. More commonly, however, the ''gouge'' observed in cuttings actually is pseudo-gouge created beneath a bit during drilling. Since most faults and all fractures produce no direct evidence apparent in cuttings, they are best recognized indirectly, either by commonly associated hydrothermal alteration, or by responses on appropriate geophysical well logs. Hydrothermal alteration, useful for locating and defining a geothermal or mineral resource, is far more difficult to recognize and interpret in cuttings than in core or outcrop. Alteration textures and paragenetic relationships can be obscured or obliterated as cuttings are produced. Less resistant alteration (and rock-forming) minerals can be disaggregated during drilling and lost from cuttings during sampling or washing. Relict and contemporary alteration can be indistinguishable, and a wide variety of borehole contaminants can closely resemble natural alteration products encountered during drilling. These contaminants also can produce confusing geochemical signatures.

  10. The Present and Future of Volcano Research Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    The success of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) in reaching and sampling the conduit of Unzen Volcano demonstrates that: (1) Directional drilling is applicable to volcanic systems; (2) Geophysical monitoring during eruption and high-resolution surveys afterward provide a reliable view of the magma pathway; (3) At least some of our ideas about syneruptive magmatic behavior appear to be confirmed through this glimpse of new magma emplaced under a load of more than 30 MPa, containing melt that had lost less than half its water; and (4) Temperatures are relatively low, indicating stronger hydrothermal dissipation of magmatic heat than anticipated. There remains, of course, a great deal more to be learned about the conduit of Unzen from detailed analysis of the core samples and interpretation of drilling and logging data. Further analysis will determine whether we have opened a new door to understanding volcanoes or engaged in a one-time trip to the "Moon". While the cost of USDP is unprecedented in volcanology, it is less than one percent of the cost of damage that Unzen did in the 1990-1995 eruption. The USDP conduit data point lies toward one end (excepting very large continental systems) of a continuum in terms of repose time. Unzen has a repose period of a hundred or more years. It is therefore not surprising that the conduit of Unzen is a warm ribbon in a cold edifice. Higher temperatures are to be expected in systems with shorter repose times. This is important because the thermal and mechanical state of the edifice will likely affect the rise of new magma; associated precursory seismicity, deformation, and thermal and gas emission; and subsequent eruptive behavior. Other parameters are of interest as well, such as how recharge from a crater glacier or lake affects the hydrologic regime of a conduit, with resultant phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal activity. And to what extent might forecasts be improved by placing geophysical and geochemical instruments near or even directly in the magma pathway during repose? The fact is that many characteristics of the conduit environment in active systems, characteristics that we have previously only guessed at, can now be measured directly. If we believe that advances in understanding volcanic systems will save lives, then we should drill on, rather than being content with repetitive surface studies of volcanoes. Continued research drilling should be targeted on volcanoes where the risk of eruption to populations is high and where results will span the parameter space of conduit environments. Some of this drilling may yield not just advances in basic science and in eruption forecasting, but geothermal energy as well.

  11. GEOPHYSICAL WELL LOG/CORE DESCRIPTIONS, CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  12. Triple-oxygen and sulfur isotopic evidence for diagenetic overprinting of carbonate-associated sulfate in Neoproterozoic samples from a drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Wang, W.; Pratt, L. M.; Zhou, C.; Bao, H.; Hayles, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) is used in many studies to reconstruct the isotopic composition of ancient seawater sulfate and to infer stages in the development of Earth's oxygenated atmosphere. CAS is acid extractable and commonly is referred to as structurally substituted sulfate in carbonate minerals. Several recent studies, however, have raised concerns about sulfate overprinting during early or late diagenesis, including contamination by modern secondary atmospheric sulfate (SAS) and by sulfide oxidation during laboratory processing. To test for overprinting and contamination, we studied the isotopic composition of sulfate in a bedded carbonate succession of the Neoproterozoic Lantian Formation, South China. Materials were obtained from a drilling core (635Ma- 551Ma). Water-leachable sulfate (WLS), acid-leachable sulfate (ALS, i. e. extracted CAS), and chromium-reducible sulfur (CRS) were sequentially extracted out and triple oxygen isotopic compositions of WLS and ALS were analyzed as well as sulfur isotope of WLS, ALS, and CRS. We also analyzed the oxygen isotope of sulfate resulting from pyrite oxidation at a condition similar to the extraction of WLS and ALS in the laboratory and the ?18O value is at ~ -1.4 (VSMOW). The slightly negative ?17O values of all WLS and ALS indicates that the ALS was not contaminated by sulfate of modern SAS. The WLS from the first 24 hours with consistently negative values of ?18O (about -11.0) and low ?34S values (about +5) suggests that the WLS resulted from sulfide oxidation in water with very negative ?18O values, likely glacial melt-water in the distant past, which had likely soaked the whole stratigraphy of Lantian Formation for a long time. The WLS also comprised a significant fraction of ALS because both ?18O and ?34S of ALS have wide ranges, from -6.9 to +15.8, and +12.7 to +31.7, respectively. More importantly, there is a strong positive correlation between ?18O and ?34S of ALS. Our findings demonstrate that extracted CAS can be overprinted or contaminated by secondary sulfate during later diagenetic process. In addition, combining the triple oxygen isotope with sulfur isotope of WLS and ALS is a critical tool for unraveling the nature of CAS.

  13. Drill core-based facies reconstruction of a deep-marine felsic volcano hosting an active hydrothermal system (Pual Ridge, Papau New Guinea, ODP Leg 193)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulick, H.; Vanko, D. A.; Yeats, C. J.

    2004-02-01

    Pual Ridge is a deep-marine, felsic volcanic edifice in the eastern Manus back-arc basin (Papua New Guinea) with an estimated volume of ˜6 to 9 km 3. It is 1-1.5 km wide, 20 km long and rises 500-600 m above the surrounding ocean floor. The active PACMANUS hydrothermal field on the crest of Pual Ridge at 1640-1690 m below sea level was the target of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. Variably altered dacite lavas have been recovered from the subsurface of a low-T discharge site (Snowcap) and a high-T black smoker site (Roman Ruins) reaching a maximum depth of 380 m below seafloor (mbsf). Volcanic facies interpretation of these cores is difficult due to incomplete recovery and widespread pseudoclastic textures generated by fracturing and multi-phase, incomplete fluid-dacite interaction. However, distinction of genuine volcaniclastic facies and facies with alteration-related clastic appearance is important in order to define paleo-seafloor positions within the volcanic stratigraphy, that may be prospective for massive sulfide mineralization. This has been accomplished using remnant primary characteristics indicative of transportation such as polymictic composition, grading or textural evidence for differential movement of individual clasts. Three phases of volcanic activity can be distinguished and a proximal facies association dominated by coherent facies of dacite lavas exists below Snowcap. At Roman Ruins, a medial facies association consists of lava flows with about equal proportions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies. Endogenous growth was an important process during lava flow emplacement and groundmass textures such as perlite, flow banding and spherulites indicate that cooling rates were variable, locally allowing for high-temperature devitrification. A tube pumice breccia unit is interpreted as the resedimented facies of a quench fragmented, highly vesicular dacite lava carapace. Sulfide accumulations in the subsurface are restricted to Roman Ruins suggesting that the abundance of volcaniclastic facies favored ascent of metal-bearing fluids due to the inherent high permeability. Evidence for mineralization at paleo-seafloor positions at 110 and 195 mbsf indicate a complex interrelationship between volcanic and hydrothermal activity. A facies model has been developed which may help to locate subaqueous, felsic lava-dominated volcanic centers and associated sulfide deposits in ancient volcano-sedimentary successions.

  14. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  15. Lithologic and borehole geophysical data, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, Hayes F.; Chappelear, John W.; Miller, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Continuous unconsolidated cores were obtained at 74 sites in the Green Swamp are to evaluate the potential for downward leakage to the Floridian aquifer. Depth of the core holes ranged from 21 to 227 feet and averaged about 87 feet., Lithology was determined by microscopic examination of the core from each hole. Geophysical logs were obtained from 59 of the 74 core holes. This report presents the detailed lithologic and geophysical data for these core holes.

  16. Pickerill Field geophysical reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, G.; Tubman, K.; Cooke, D.; O`Connor, R.; Hawkes, C.

    1994-12-31

    The combination of petrophysics and geophysics adds significantly to the understanding of a hydrocarbon reservoir and can help guide the location of development wells. The objective of the Pickerill Field study was to develop seismic criteria that could be used to optimize the location of development wells. Primary products included a detailed fault map and an estimate of gross reservoir porosity. These are being used to help select development well locations. A set of seismic horizon attributes were generated from a refined Top Rotliegend interpretation and were used for detailed fault trace interpretation. Reservoir faults with throws of as little as fifteen feet were mapped and avoided in subsequent development drilling locations.

  17. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Proposed as a baseline configuration, this rotary drill apparatus is designed to produce 100-mm diameter holes in the lunar surface at depths up to 50 meters. The drill is intended to acquire samples for scientific analysis, mineral resource location, calibration of electronic exploration devices, and foundation analysis at construction sites. It is also intended to prepare holes for emplacement of scientific instruments, the setting of structural anchors, and explosive methods in excavation and mining activities. Defined as a deep drill because of the modular drill string, it incorporates an automatic rod changer. The apparatus is teleoperated from a remote location, such as earth, utilizing supervisory control techniques. It is thus suitable for unmanned and man-tended operation. Proven terrestrial drilling technology is used to the extent it is compatible with the lunar environment. Augers and drive tubes form holes in the regolith and may be used to acquire loose samples. An inertial cutting removal system operates intermittently while rock core drilling is in progress. The apparatus is carried to the work site by a three-legged mobile platform which also provides a 2-meter feed along the hole centerline, an off-hole movement of approximately .5 meters, an angular alignment of up to 20 deg. from gravity vertical, and other dexterity required in handling rods and samples. The technology can also be applied using other carriers which incorporate similar motion capabilities. The apparatus also includes storage racks for augers, rods, and ancillary devices such as the foot-plate that holds the down-hole tooling during rod changing operations.

  18. > Exploring the Scandinavian Mountain Belt by Deep Drilling (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2012-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project proposes to drill two fully cored scientific boreholes, both to c. 2.5 km depth, in the Swedish Caledonides, one near the town of re (COSC 1) and the other further east (COSC 2). Together they will provide a c. 5 km deep high-resolution mid-crustal section through this major mid-Palaeozoic orogen. Main project objectives include (i) improved understanding of mountain building processes (orogeny), (ii) investigation of the geothermal gradient and its response to palaeoclimatic influences, (iii) the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state of the mountain belt, (iv) the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement, and (v) calibration of surface geophysics and geology. The Caledonide Orogen is comparable in size and many other respects to today's Himalayan mountain belt. Silurian collision with underthrusting of the paleo-continent Baltica below Laurentia resulted in widespread formation of eclogite. Major allochthons were transported many hundreds of kilometers onto the Baltoscandian Platform, including high-grade metamorphic rocks and migmatites which were generated during continental margin subduction and emplaced ductilely at mid-crustal levels. COSC will provide detailed insight into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes and further our understanding of past, present and future orogen dynamics. Located in a key-area for Caledonian geology, it is close to a major geophysical transect across the mountain belt which has been complemented recently with high-resolution reflection seismics and aerogeophysics for site-selection. The COSC research program is being developed by five working groups, geology, geophysics, geothermics, hydrogeology and microbiology. It has direct relevance for society by improving our understanding of mountain building processes, hydrological-hydrochemical regimes in mountain areas and Precambrian shields, deep subsurface conditions for underground engineering, ore genesis and assessment of geothermal potential. After a general scientific workshop supported by ICDP in 2010, the hydrogeological aspects of deep drilling were the topic of a separate workshop last year; orogen dynamics will provide a focus at EGU; and geothermics research will be addressed at a workshop in Autumn 2012. The geothermics workshop will be announced on the ICDP homepage. Partial funding for the drilling has been achieved through national sources and ICDP. Additional funding (c. 500000) is being sought to allow drilling to commence in 2013. Scientific and financial partners, both from academia and industry, are welcome to the project. The presentation will review the current status of the COSC project and the research leading up to the site selection for COSC 1.

  19. The Toa Baja Drilling Project, Puerto Rico: Scientific drilling into a non-volcanic island arc massif

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The Toa Baja Drilling Project was a broad, interdisciplinary experiment to document the in situ geology and geophysics of a non-volcanic island arc massif. This overview provides a brief summary of oil exploration on Puerto Rico that lead up to the present investigation, and summarizes some of the problems addressed by drilling.

  20. Rotary drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, M.D.

    1987-02-03

    A rotary drill bit is described for cutting in earth formations, comprising: a bit body including a cutting face having an outer peripheral edge and a central recess extending longitudinally inwardly from the peripheral edge, bores formed in the cutting face and containing nozzles for emitting drilling fluid under pressure, cutter elements, some of which being mounted in the peripheral edge, and others of which being mounted in the recess to fracture an earthen core formed as the drill cuts through the formation, the cutter elements including cutting faces facing in a direction defining a direction of rotation of the drill bit, lateral discharge passages formed in the body, the passages extending radially through the body from the recess and extending longitudinally to the peripheral edge to form circumferential interruptions in the peripheral edge, a convex protrusion disposed centrally at a longitudinally inner end of the recess for deflecting cuttings to the lateral discharge passages, the cutting face including a groove extending in the direction of rotation from one side of an outer end of each bores and terminating at the nearest discharge passage for conducting cuttings from the bore to that passage.

  1. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of microspine toes that independently find holes and ledges on a rock to create an anchor. Once the system is anchored, a linear translation mechanism moves the drill axially into the surface while maintaining the proper WOB. The linear translation mechanism is composed of a ball screw and stepper motor that can translate a carriage with high precision and applied load. The carriage slides along rails using self-aligning linear bearings that correct any axial misalignment caused by bending and torsion. The carriage then compresses a series of springs that simultaneously transmit the load to the drill along the bit axis and act as a suspension that compensates for the vibration caused by percussive drilling. The drill is a compacted, modified version of an off-the-shelf rotary percussive drill, which uses a custom carbide-tipped coring bit. By using rotary percussive drilling, the drill time is greatly reduced. The percussive action fractures the rock debris, which is removed during rotation. The final result is a 0.75-in. (.1.9- cm) diameter hole and a preserved 0.5- in. (.1.3-cm) diameter rock core. This work extends microspine technology, making it applicable to astronaut missions to asteroids and a host of robotic sampling concepts. At the time of this reporting, it is the first instrument to be demonstrated using microspine anchors, and is the first self-contained drill/anchor system to be demonstrated that is capable of drilling in inverted configurations and would be capable of drilling in microgravity.

  2. Permeability Distribution In A Confined Fracture Flow Aquifer Using Hydraulic Testing and Borehole Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, S.; Odling, N. E.; West, L. J.

    Groundwater is one of the main drinking water resources in the United Kingdom and the Chalk aquifer contributes over 50 % of the abstracted amount. The Chalk consists of a highly porous matrix which is intersected by hydraulically conductive fractures representing the main flow pathways. Hydraulic testing and borehole geophysics were carried out at a test site in East Yorkshire (Northern England), in order to characterise the permeability distribution at the site prior to conducting tracer tests. The Chalk at the fieldsite is confined by about 11m glacial and postglacial lacustrine deposits, and the upper 12m of Chalk has been affected by periglacial weathering. Five boreholes were drilled to 70 to 80m depth; one of these was cored. The intact Chalk contains stylolites (pressure dissolution surfaces), marl bands up to 1.5cm thick, faults, and several sets of inclined joints. The core and acoustic televiewer images from all five boreholes show a high fracture density in the depth interval from 25 to 32m, and discrete fractured zones below this depth. Packer tests on the cored borehole yielded hydraulic conductivities of 6.6OE10-5 to 3.7OE10-6m/s, which agree with the average hydraulic conductivity obtained from the pumping test. Fluid temperature and con- ductivity logging combined with static and pumped borehole flow logging showed that minor inflows and outflows were present throughout, but that several horizons of higher inflow/outflow were detected, which corresponded to highly fractured zones seen in acoustic televiewer images. Both packer tests and borehole geophysical log- ging indicate that most of the permeability of the aquifer is in the upper, highly frac- tured zone, but that discrete zones of high permeability are also present at depth. The acoustic televiewer was able to detect steep fractures that were not recognisable in the core, because the core was broken and fragmented during drilling due to the presence of these fractures.

  3. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP):(I) Drilling at Krafla encountered Rhyolitic Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmunsson, A.; Gudmundsson, B.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The IDDP aims to produce supercritical hydrothermal fluids from depths of 4-5 km and temperatures of >400C as modeling suggests that supercritical water could generate an energy output about 10 times that of a typical geothermal well. This could lead to major improvements in developing high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The first IDDP well was located in the Krafla caldera in the active central rift zone of NE Iceland, where during 1975-1984, a rifting episode occurred that involved 9 distinct volcanic eruptions. At Krafla there has been extensive production drilling since 1971 to supply steam to a geothermal power plant. Within the caldera a large magma chamber was detected by S-wave attenuation at 3-7 km depth, and a recent MT-survey determined its location. The IDDP-1 was located to reach to 4.5 km to end above the magma chamber. When the drilling had reached 2075 m depth multiple drilling problems ensued, including a failed coring attempt, twist offs, and sidetracks to bypass drill string lost in the hole. An anchor casing was set at 1950 m to case off the trouble zones. However drilling problems continued and another twist off and sidetrack followed. Drilling then penetrated a mixture of fresh basalt and granophyre until 24th June 2009, when at about 2100 m the bit became stuck. However, circulation was maintained and rhyolitic glass was returned to the surface. Rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole filling the bottom 10 m. The glass cuttings returned were at first pumiceous then homogeneous, sparsely phyric obsidian. The petrology of this glass is described in accompanying posters. The intrusion responsible was evidently below the resolution of available geophysical surveys. We decided to terminate drilling and test the well and so a 9 5/8 inch sacrificial production casing was cemented inside the anchor casing with a 9 5/8 inch slotted liner below. The well is now heating, and will be flow tested in late November 2009. If the flow tests are successful, a pilot plant to test power production could follow in 2010. The IDDP has engendered considerable scientific interest. Some of the research underway on samples from the IDDP-1 and from other wells at Krafla and from wells in the Reykjanes geothermal field, also targeted by the IDDP, is reported in accompanying posters. Subject to funding, two new IDDP wells, >4 km deep, are to be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields during 2010-2012 to search for supercritical fluid. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system in SW Iceland, on the landward extension of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, produces hydrothermally modified seawater. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be quite similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems.

  4. Site Report for USGS Test Holes Drilled at Cape Charles, Northampton County, Virginia, in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Powars, David S.; Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Morin, Roger H.; Self-Trail, Jean M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey drilled two test holes near Cape Charles, Virginia, during May and June 2004, as part of an investigation of the buried, late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The first hole is designated as the USGS-Sustainable Technology Park test hole #1 (USGS-STP1). This test hole was abandoned at a depth of 300 ft; cuttings samples were collected, but no cores or geophysical logs were acquired. The second hole is designated as the USGS-Sustainable Technology Park test hole #2 (USGS-STP2). This test hole was drilled to a depth of 2,699 ft. Cores were collected between depths of 1,401.7 ft and 1,420.7 ft and between 2,440.0 ft and 2,699.0 ft. Cuttings samples were collected from the uncored intervals below 280-ft depth. Interim sets of geophysical logs were acquired during the drilling operation, and one final set was acquired at the end of drilling. Two wells were installed in the USGS-STP2 test hole. The deep well (designated 62G-24) was screened between 2,260 ft and 2,280 ft, and the shallow well (designated 62G-25) was screened between 1,360 ft and 1,380 ft. Ground-water salinities stabilized at 40 parts per thousand for the deep well and 20 parts per thousand for the shallow well. The geologic section encountered in the test holes consists of three main units: (1) Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sands and clays are present between land surface and a depth of 1,163 ft; (2) sediment-clast breccias of the impact structure are present between depths of 1,163 ft and 2,150 ft; and (3) crystalline-clast breccias and cataclastic gneiss of the impact structure are present between depths of 2,150 ft and 2,699 ft.

  5. Geology of the USW SD-7 drill hole Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Engstrom, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    The USW SD-7 drill hole is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study 8.3.1.4.3.1, also known as the Systematic Drilling Program, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Yucca Mountain site has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-7 drill hole is located near the southern end of the potential repository area and immediately to the west of the Main Test Level drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility. The hole is not far from the junction of the Main Test Level drift and the proposed South Ramp decline. Drill hole USW SD-7 is 2675.1 ft (815.3 m) deep, and the core recovered nearly complete sections of ash-flow tuffs belonging to the lower half of the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, and the Topopah Spring Tuff, all of which are part of the Miocene Paintbrush Group. Core was recovered from much of the underlying Calico Hills Formation, and core was virtually continuous in the Prow Pass Tuff and the Bullfrog Tuff. The SD-7 drill hole penetrated the top several tens of feet into the Tram Tuff, which underlies the Prow Pass and Bullfrog Tuffs. These latter three units are all formations of the Crater Flat Group, The drill hole was collared in welded materials assigned to the crystal-poor middle nonlithophysal zone of the Tiva Canyon Tuff; approximately 280 ft (85 m) of this ash-flow sheet was penetrated by the hole. The Yucca Mountain Tuff appears to be missing from the section at the USW SD-7 location, and the Pah Canyon Tuff is only 14.5 ft thick. The Pah Canyon Tuff was not recovered in core because of drilling difficulties, suggesting that the unit is entirely nonwelded. The presence of this unit is inferred through interpretation of down-hole geophysical logs.

  6. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  7. Geophysics with applications to subsurface waste disposal: Case history

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.

    2001-08-09

    Recent development in geophysical methods allows us to accurately map the distribution of seismic velocity, density and electrical conductivity beneath the surface and between boreholes. These physical properties are dependent on porosity, fluid saturation, fluid conductivity, pressure, temperature, clay content, and in some circumstances, permeability. Hydrological parameters may be measured or inferred from drill hole experiments or directly from core samples. The point measurements in a drill hole are then interpolated to the interwell volume using either statistical properties of the local geology or reasonable estimates of the geological structure and lithology. More direct evidence is obtained from well tests, and interference tests between multiple wells, but these are ill posed inverse problems when it comes to defining the properties of the entire interwell volume. Furthermore such tests are impossible in the vadose zone. The interpolation of well data is often inaccurate or misleading and the central problem for all these studies is the lack of these fundamental parameters throughout the subsurface volume of interest.

  8. Geophysical nutation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Vronique

    2005-01-01

    The nutation model that has been adopted by the IAU in 2000 is the semi-analytical model MHB2000 of Mathews et al. (JGR 107(B4) 10.1028/2001JB000390). We show how robust this model is and examine the information about the interior of the Earth that has been derived. The observations used to derived the parameters of MHB2000 as well as the amplitude of the Earth Free Core Nutation (FCN) are examined in terms of their stability and precision. We examine in parallel the possibilities that are provided by a numerical integration model. Additional contributions from the external geophysical fluids (atmosphere ocean) are also studied. The extension of this model to short-term polar motion induced by the lunisolar forcing is examined as well. The conclusions of the WG related to that work is given.

  9. New structural and stratigraphic interpretation of Lake Superior basin from hydrocarbon exploration geophysics and geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickas, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    Between October 1987 and April 1992, two deep boreholes were drilled along the south shore of Lake Superior in a test of the hydrocarbon potential of the conglomerate, sandstone and shale composing the Middle Proterozoic Oronto Group ({approximately}1 billion years). These drilling ventures, preceded by geophysical programs, and combined with wireline and core information, support new interpretations of the structural and stratigraphic geology associated with the Midcontinent Rift System in the Lake Superior district. No.7-22 Terra-Patrick: A stratigraphic, but not structural fit. This borehole in Bayfield County, Wisconsin, drilled an expected sequence of Oronto Group clastic redbeds. No viable hydrocarbon shows were encountered. Six second reflection seismology profiles collected in northwestern Wisconsin indicate the Douglas Fault decreases in throw in an easterly direction, changing to a fold northeast of the borehole. This termination is associated with the south flank of White`s Ridge, a pre-rift residual high identified through modeling studies and seismic interpretations by local absence of Midcontinent Rift volcanics and overlying strata. To the southwest of Isle Royale, the pre-rift Grand Marias Ridge exhibits similar characteristics. No.1-29 St. Amour: A structural, but not stratigraphic, fit. Drilled in Alger County, Michigan, the St. Amour well appears to bottom in pre-rift metamorphic basement rocks. This hole was 100% cored. No hydrocarbon shows were reported. Reflection seismology profile analyses verify a change in strike, from northeast to southeast, of the Keweenaw Fault in the eastern Lake Superior Basin. The drilled section included 6,000 feet of pre-Paleozoic red-beds containing cross-bedding, ripple marks, and multiple fining-upward strata.

  10. ICDP drilling in the Scandinavian Caledonides: Preliminary results from COSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne; Gee, David; Pascal, Christophe; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Pedersen, Karsten; Roberts, Nick; Rosberg, Jan-Erik

    2015-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project is a multidisciplinary investigation of the Scandian mountain belt. Cenozoic uplift of the Scandes has exposed a lower- to middle-crustal level section through this Himalaya-type orogen, providing unique opportunities to better understand not only the Caledonides, but also on-going orogeny and the earthquake-prone environments of modern mountains belts. COSC will also contribute to our knowledge of mountain belt hydrology, provide new data on deep thermal gradients for paleoclimate modeling and potential geothermal energy resources of the area, contribute new information about the deep biosphere, and improve our understanding of the geophysical response of the sub-surface. Two 2.5 km deep fully cored holes will help achieve these goals with the first one, COSC-1, completed in late August 2014. COSC-1 targeted the high-grade metamorphic complex of the Seve Nappes (SNC) and the contact with the underlying allochthon. Drilling was performed using an Atlas Copco CT20 diamond core-drilling rig, operated by Lund University, that resulted in nearly 100% core recovery to 2.5 km depth. A crew of 6 on-site researchers examined the core as it came up and performed on-site documentation of it; including photography, optical core scanning, physical property measurements and biological sampling. A number of geophysical logging suites were run during and after completion of drilling, including sonic, density, electric, temperature and acoustic televiewer logs. A near four week long seismic acquisition program followed in the Fall of 2014 with combined surface and borehole surveys in the vicinity of COSC-1. On-site core analysis indicates that the SNC is about 2 km thick (the lower boundary is not well defined), consisting mainly of gneisses and amphibolites. A zone of extensive shearing is found in the lowermost 500 m of the borehole. Metamorphosed sandstones intercalated with garnetiferous mylonites in this lower part of the drillcore suggest that underlying thrust sheets of the Middle Allochthon have been penetrated, but not the low greenschist facies turbidites and other metasediments of the Lower Allochthon. Logging-while-pumping tests show that there are 8 significant hydraulically conductive zones in an otherwise tight rock down to 2.5 km. Pore waters appear to be relatively fresh throughout the borehole. Bottom hole temperatures are expected to reach 60°C after equilibration, giving a geothermal gradient of over 20°C/km. The observed high seismic reflectivity of the SNC is due to the large contrast in density and velocity between the gneiss and amphibolite. In general, the geophysical response on the surface is consistent with observations in the borehole.

  11. Geophysics at Katmai: Geophysical expedition to Novarupta Volcano, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Ballard, S.; Carrigan, C. R.; Goodliffe, A.; Hildreth, W.; Iwatsubo, E.; Kasameyer, P. W.; Keith, T. E. C.; Kienle, J.; Papike, J. J.; Pollard, D. D.; Stone, D. B.; Wallmann, P. C.; Ward, P. L.; Wilt, M.; Yount, M. E.

    The great eruption of 1912 in the Aleutian Range of Alaska (Figure 1) is exceptional for both its size and relative simplicity. It was the largest eruption of this century and the largest rhyolitic outburst in almost 20 centuries. The 60-hour, 30-km3 (ejecta volume) eruption produced extensive fallout deposits, an ash-flow sheet that gave rise to the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, and the 3-km-diameter Mt. Katmai caldera. Because magma reached the surface through uniform nonvolcanic basement and the vent underwent little or no collapse (unusual for such a large event), the site provides an ideal target for surface geophysical and subsurface coring exploration of structures and conditions produced by explosive volcanism [Panel on Volcanic Studies at Katmai, 1989]. A project to investigate upper crustal magmatic processes at Katmai is part of the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program [Eichelberger and Hildreth, 1986]. The surface studies phase of this project was undertaken last summer and preliminary results are now emerging.

  12. Interpretation of drill cuttings from geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Sibbett, B.S.

    1981-06-01

    Problems in interpreting drill cuttings, as opposed to drill cores, and methods to solve these problems are outlined. The following are covered: identification of lithology; recognition of faults and fractures; interpretation of hydrothermal alteration; geochemistry; sample collection; sample preparple examination; and sample storage. (MHR)

  13. Water Rock interactions in the basement beneath Long Valley Caldera: an oxygen isotope study of the Long Valley Exploratory Well drill cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit

    2002-08-01

    The Long Valley Exploratory Well, at the center of the Resurgent Dome of Long Valley caldera, penetrated pre-caldera basement rocks at a depth of 2101.72-2313.0 m, beneath the caldera-forming Bishop Tuff and post-caldera Early Rhyolite. The basement rocks contain prominent quartzites, with ubiquitous milky white quartz veins (with minor calcite and pyrite) and fractures of varied orientation and geometry. The other members of the basement sequence are very fine-grained quartz-rich graphitic pelites with calcite veins, spotted hornfels, and shallow intrusive rocks. Previous studies established the presence of a post-caldera, paleohydrothermal system (500-100 ka) to a depth of 2000 m that affected the Bishop Tuff and a recent (40 ka to present) hydrothermal system at shallow depth (<1 km). The deeper extent of these hydrothermal activities is established in this paper by a detailed oxygen isotope analysis of the drill core samples. 238 analyses of ? 18O in 50 quartz veins within the 163.57 m depth interval of basement rocks reveal extreme heterogeneity in ? 18O values (8-19.5). Majorities of the 84 bulk analyses of quartzites show variation of ? 18O within a narrow range of 14-16. However, certain samples of these quartzites near the contacts with veins and fractures exhibit sharp drops in ? 18O. The interbedded pelitic rocks and spotted hornfels have whole-rock ? 18O ranging from 2.2 to 11.8. Clear, euhedral vuggy quartz that partially fills earlier open fractures in both the quartzites and quartz veins, has distinctive ? 18O, ranging between -3.2 and +8.4. Low values of ? 18O are also found in the hydrothermal minerals and whole rocks adjacent to the thin veins, clearly indicating infiltration of meteoric water. Three distinct observed patterns of fractionation in ? 18O between veins and host quartzites are analyzed with the principles of mass balance, equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation in closed system, and kinetically controlled oxygen isotope exchange in an open system. This analysis suggests that the early quartz veins formed due to a magmatic-hydrothermal activity with no influx of external water once the system comprising the sedimentary envelope and a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid phase became closed. Two-stage isotopic exchange processes caused fractionation in the ? values that originally formed arrays with slope 1 in a ? vein quartz-? host quartzite space. Another array in the same space, with near zero slope was also formed due to variation in temperature, initial isotopic compositions of the quartzite sequence and the fluid phase. Variation in temperature was mostly in the range of 300-400C giving ? (=? vein quartz-? host quartzite)?-2.8 to +2.8. The ? 18O of the fluid could range from -5 to +10; however a narrower range of +5 to +10 can explain the data. This episode of hydrothermal activity could take place either as a single pulse or in multiple pulses but each as a closed system. A later, fracture-controlled, meteoric water (? 18O-0.46 to -12.13) flow and interaction (at 250C) is interpreted from the analysis of ? 18O values of the coexisting quartz and calcite pairs and existence of markedly 18O-depleted pelitic horizons interbedded with 18O-enriched quartzite layers. Thus, the interpreted earlier magmatic-hydrothermal activity was overprinted by a later meteoric-hydrothermal activity that resulted in steep arrays of ? 18O values in the ? vein quartz-? host quartzite space. Calculations show that the likely life span of the post-caldera, hydrothermal activity in the depth range of 2.1-2.3 km beneath Long Valley was 0.08-0.12 Ma. Diffusive advective transport of oxygen isotopes from fracture-channelized meteoric water to nearly impermeable wall rocks caused a lowering of ? 18O values in the quartz over short distances and in calcites over greater distances. Thus, the hydrothermal activity appears pervasive even though the meteoric water flow was primarily controlled by fractures.

  14. Paleo-environment of cold-water coral initiation in the NE Atlantic:Implications from a deep-water carbonate mound drilling core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, J.; Rüggeberg, A.; Dullo, W.-Chr.,; Margreht, S.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding of the paleo-environment during initiation and early development of deep-water carbonate mounds in the NE Atlantic is still under debate. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307 sailed in 2005 to the Porcupine Seabight in order to investigate for the first time sediments from the base of a giant carbonate mound (Challenger Mound, 155 m). These results indicate that the initiation and start-up phase of this carbonate mound coincides with the beginning of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) at around 2.6 Ma (Kano et al. 2007). Further carbonate mound development seems to be strongly dependent on rapid changes in paleo-oceanographic and climatic conditions around the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary, especially characterized and caused by intermediate water masses. To characterise the paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological setting favourable for the initial coral colonization at 2.6 Ma, we use well-developed proxies such as δ18O and δ13C of planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and of a collection of benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Discanomalina coronata, Cibicides lobatulus, Lobatulua antarctica, Planulina ariminensis), benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as grain size analysis. These proxies indicate variability in seawater temperature, salinity and density of intermediate water masses from southern origin (Mediterranean, Bay of Biscay) supporting cold-water coral settlement and initial development in the Porcupine Seabight. References: Kano et al. (2007) Age constraints on the origin and growth history of a deep-water coral mound in the northeast Atlantic drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 307. Geology, 35(11):1051-1054.

  15. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  16. Analysis of borehole geophysical information across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, Karnes County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Scott, James Henry; Smith, Bruce D.

    1979-01-01

    Borehole geophysical studies across a uranium deposit in the Jackson Group, South Texas, show the three geochemical environments often associated with uranium roll-type deposits: an altered (oxidized) zone, an ore zone, and an unaltered (reduced) zone. Mineralogic analysis of the total sulfides contained in the drill core shows only slight changes in the total sulfide content among the three geochemical regimes. However, induced polarization measurements on the core samples indicate that samples obtained from the reduced side of the ore zone are more electrically polarizable than those from the oxidized side of the ore zone, and therefore probably contain more pyrite. Analysis of the clay-size fraction in core samples indicates that montmorillonite is the dominant clay mineral. High resistivity values within the ore zone indicate the presence of calcite cement concentrations that are higher than those seen outside of the ore zone. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements show the presence of an extensive zone of calcite cement within the ore zone, and electrical polarizable material (such as pyrite) within and on the reduced side of the ore zone. A quantitative analysis of the between-hole resistivity data, using a layered-earth model, and a qualitative analysis of the between-hole induced polarization measurements showed that mineralogic variations among the three geochemical environments were more pronounced than were indicated by the geophysical and geologic well logs. Uranium exploration in the South Texas Coastal Plain area has focused chiefly in three geologic units: the Oakville Sandstone, the Catahoula Tuff, and the Jackson Group. The Oakville Sandstone and the Catahoula Tuff are of Miocene age, and the Jackson Group is of Eocene age (Eargle and others, 1971). Most of the uranium mineralization in these formations is low grade (often less than 0.02 percent U3O8) and occurs in shallow deposits that are found by concentrated exploratory drilling programs. The sporadic occurrence of these deposits makes it desirable to develop borehole geophysical techniques that will help to define the depositional environments of the uranium ore, which is characterized by geochemical changes near the uranium deposits. Geochemical changes are accompanied by changes in the physical characteristics of the rocks that can be detected with borehole geophysical tools. This study is concerned with a uranium deposit within the Jackson Group that is located just east of Karnes City, Tex. Five holes were drilled on this property to obtain borehole geophysical data and cores. The cores were analyzed for mineralogic and electrical properties. The borehole geophysical information at this property included induced polarization, resistivity, gamma-gamma density, neutron-neutron, gamma-ray, caliper, and single-point-resistance logs. Between-hole resistivity and induced polarization measurements were made between hole pairs across the ore deposit and off the ore deposit.

  17. Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production test. The XPT measurement results showed approximately 0.1 to several mD of water permeability in both the hydrate-bearing formation and seal formation, although there are some variations in measured values. However, the comparison of these results with permeability estimated by NMR log showed significant discrepancy (more than one order of difference), which suggests that it is necessary to have further investigation considering the difference in scale, measurement direction (Kh or Kv), and calibration methodology by pressure core data. In order to obtain basic reservoir/seal properties for the well log calibration within and above production test interval, pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System (Hybrid PCS) and also non-destructive core analysis onboard using Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System (PCATS) were conducted for 60 m interval in AT1-C, which located about 10 m northeast of AT1-MC. Finally, integrated reservoir characterization based on well-log and pressure core data was conducted to predict and optimize the flow rate of upcoming production test.

  18. Spatial scale analysis in geophysics - Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in groundwater studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Integration of geophysical data obtained at various scales can bridge the gap between localized data from boreholes and site-wide data from regional survey profiles. Specific approaches to such analysis include: 1) comparing geophysical measurements in boreholes with the same measurement made from the surface; 2) regressing geophysical data obtained in boreholes with water-sample data from screened intervals; 3) using multiple, physically independent measurements in boreholes to develop multivariate response models for surface geophysical surveys; 4) defining subsurface cell geometry for most effective survey inversion methods; and 5) making geophysical measurements in boreholes to serve as independent verification of geophysical interpretations. Integrated analysis of surface electromagnetic surveys and borehole geophysical logs at a study site in south Florida indicates that salinity of water in the surficial aquifers is controlled by a simple wedge of seawater intrusion along the coast and by a complex pattern of upward brine seepage from deeper aquifers throughout the study area. This interpretation was verified by drilling three additional test boreholes in carefully selected locations.

  19. COSC-1 technical operations: drilling and borehole completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Bjelm, Leif; Larsson, Stellan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    COSC-1, the first out of the two planned fully cored boreholes within the COSC-project, was completed in late August 2014. Drilling was performed using the national scientific drilling infrastructure, the so called Riksriggen, operated by Lund University, and resulted in a 2495.8 m deep borehole with almost 100 % core recovery. The rig is an Atlas Copco CT20C diamond core-drill rig, a rig type commonly used for mineral exploration. A major advantage with this type of drill rig compared to conventional rotary rigs is that it can operate on very small drill sites. Thus, it leaves a small environmental footprint, in this case around 1000 m2. The rig was operated by 3 persons over 12 hour shifts. Before the core drilling started a local drilling company installed a conductor casing down to 103 m, which was required for the installation of a Blow Out Preventer (BOP). The core drilling operation started using H-size and a triple tube core barrel (HQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 96 mm and a core diameter of 61.1 mm down to 1616 m. In general, the drilling using HQ3 was successful with 100 % core recovery and core was acquired at rate on the order 30-60 m/day when the drilling wasn't interrupted by other activities, such as bit change, servicing or testing. The HRQ-drill string was installed as a temporary casing from surface down to 1616 m. Subsequently, drilling was conducted down to 1709 m with N-size and a triple tube core barrel (NQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 45 mm. At 1709 m the coring assembly was changed to N-size double tube core barrel (NQ), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 47.6 mm and the core barrel extended to 6 m. In this way precious time was saved and the good rock quality ensured high core recovery even with the double tube. In general, the drilling using NQ3 and NQ was successful with 100 % core recovery at around 36 m/day by the end of the drilling operation. The main problem during the drilling operation was caused by brand new drill rods that were bent beyond tolerance. These bent drill rods caused increased friction during drilling, resulting in an increased torque and consequently a too low RPM. Thus, drill bits wore out faster than normal. Despite of this, the target depth was reached, but later than planned to the drill bits being replaced more frequently. However, it can be concluded that the drilling operation was successful as evidenced by drilling almost 2400 m with full core recovery of top quality cores and no drilling crew accidents. The COSC-borehole is the deepest drilled hole in Sweden using H- and N-size and the deepest hole ever drilled by an Atlas Copco CT20C. The present borehole is cased down to 103 m and the rest of the hole, around 2400 m, is left as an open-hole completion.

  20. Ocean drilling suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalek, Donald S.

    1984-04-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program replaces the recently completed drilling phase of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP). A new and larger deep sea drilling vessel with expanded capabilities including a longer drill string, bare rock spudin, enhanced logging, and the potential for riser drilling will replace the D/V Glomar Challenger. Drilling is scheduled to commence in January 1985, and planning is now underway. The drill ship will then proceed to the Pacific Ocean and circumnavigate the earth at least twice during the 10-year program. Suggestions for drilling objectives, downhole experiments, etc., for all areas worldwide are now being solicited by JOIDES (Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling).

  1. Petrography and phenocryst chemistry of volcanic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A comparison of outcrop and drill hole samples

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Warren, R.G.

    1989-04-01

    This report is a compilation of petrographic and mineral chemical data for stratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. It supports a possible peer review of Yucca Mountain drill core by summarizing the available data in a form that allows comparison of stratigraphic units in drill holes with surface outcrops of the same units. Petrographic and mineral chemical data can be used in conjunction with other geologic and geophysical information to determine if stratigraphic relations in Yucca Mountain drill core are geologically reasonable and compare well with relations known from extensive surface studies. This compilation of petrographic and mineral chemical data is complete enough for most stratigraphic units to be used in a peer review of Yucca Mountain drill core. Additional data must be collected for a few units to complete the characterization. Rock units at Yucca Mountain have unique petrographic and mineral chemical characteristics that can be used to make accurate stratigraphic assignments in drill core samples. Stratigraphic units can be differentiated on the basis of petrographic characteristics such as total phenocryst abundances, relative proportions of phenocryst minerals, and type and abundances of mafic and accessory minerals. The mineral chemistry of phenocrysts is also an important means of differentiating among stratigraphic units, especially when used in conjunction with the petrographic data. Sanidine phenocrysts and plagioclase rims have narrow compositional ranges for most units and often have well-defined dominant compositions. Biotite compositions are useful for identifying groups of related units (e.g., Paintbrush Tuff Members vs Crater Flat Tuff Members) and for providing an important check on the consistency of the data. 21 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  3. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kuhns, Douglass J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wiersholm, Otto (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  4. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY

  5. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  6. EFFECTS OF FLUID DISTRIBUTION ON MEASURED GEOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR PARTIALLY SATURATED, SHALLOW SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective in situ remediation requires a knowledge of subsurface porosity, permeability, and fluid saturation. Estimation of hydrogeologic properties using improved geophysical imaging and interpretation is faster, cheaper, and less invasive than drilling. Methods for interpret...

  7. Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton, Jr.; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

  8. GIS of selected geophysical and core data in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope collected by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Winters, William J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1982 the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected a large amount of surficial and shallow subsurface geologic information in the deep-water parts of the US EEZ in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These data include digital sidescan sonar imagery, digital seismic-reflection data, and descriptions and analyses of piston and gravity cores. The data were collected during several different projects that addressed surficial and shallow subsurface geologic processes. Some of these datasets have already been published, but the growing interest in the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico warrants integrating these existing USGS datasets and associated interpretations into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide regional background information for ongoing and future gas hydrate research. This GIS is organized into five different components that contain (1) information needed to develop an assessment of gas hydrates, (2) background information for the Gulf of Mexico, (3) cores collected by the USGS, (4) seismic surveys conducted by the USGS, and (5) sidescan sonar surveys conducted by the USGS. A brief summary of the goals and findings of the USGS field programs in the Gulf of Mexico is given in the Geologic Findings section, and then the contents of each of the five data categories are described in greater detail in the GIS Data Catalog section.

  9. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  10. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  11. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  12. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  13. 15 CFR 950.5 - National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-A (Solid-Earth Geophysics, Solar Terrestrial Physics, and Glaciology). (a) Geophysical and solar... geological data, including data on heat flow, cores, samples, and sediments. (2) Solar-Terrestrial...

  14. Strontium and oxygen isotope study of M-1, M-3 and M-4 drill core samples from the Manson impact structure, Iowa: Comparison with Haitian K-T impact glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Hingston, Michael P.; Koeberl, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Strontium and oxygen isotope analyses were performed on 8 samples from the M-1, M-3, and M-4 cores recently drilled at the Manson impact structure. The samples were three elastic sedimentary rocks (of probable Cretaceous age) which occurred as clasts within the sedimentary clast breccia, two samples of crystalline rock breccia matrix, and three samples of dolomite and limestone. The Sr-87/Sr-86 (corrected to 65 Ma) ratios were much higher than those in impact glasses from the Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Isotope mixing calculations demonstrate that neither the silicate or carbonate rocks analyzed from the Manson crater, or mixtures of these rocks are appropriate source materials for the Haitian impact glasses. However, the Sr-87/Sr-86 (65Ma) ratio and delta O-18 value of the Ca-rich Haitian glasses are well reproduced by mixtures of Si-rich Haitian glass with platform carbonate of K-T age.

  15. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  16. [The new eubacterium Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov. isolated from core samples collected by deep-hole drilling of the bottom of Lake Ba?kal].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, I S; Pechurkina, N I; Morozova, O V; Riabchikova, E I; Belikov, S I; Puchkova, L I; Emel'ianova, E K; Torok, T; Repin, V E

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples of sedimentary rocks from various eras of the geological history of the Baikal rift has enabled us to isolate a large number of microorganisms that can be classified into new, previously undescribed species. The present work deals with the identification and study of the morphological, biochemical, and physiological properties of one such strain, Che 82, isolated from sample C-29 of 3.4-3.5 Ma-old sedimentary rocks taken at a drilling depth of 146.74 m. As a result of our investigations, strain Che 82 is described as a new bacterial species, Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov., belonging to the genus Roseomonas within the family Methylobacteriaceae, class Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:17974213

  17. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility as a tool for recognizing core deformation: reevaluation of the paleomagnetic record of Pleistocene sediments from drill hole OL-92, Owens Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, Joseph; Reynolds, Richard T.; Smoot, Joseph; Meyer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    At Owens Lake, California, paleomagnetic data document the Matuyama/Brunhes polarity boundary near the bottom of a 323-m core (OL-92) and display numerous directional fluctuations throughout the Brunhes chron. Many of the intervals of high directional dispersion were previously interpreted to record magnetic excursions. For the upper ~120 m, these interpretations were tested using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which typically defines a subhorizontal planar fabric for sediments deposited in quiet water. AMS data from intervals of deformed core, determined from detailed analysis of sedimentary structures, were compared to a reference AMS fabric derived from undisturbed sediment. This comparison shows that changes in the AMS fabric provide a means of screening core samples for deformation and the associated paleomagnetic record for the adverse effects of distortion. For that portion of core OL-92 studied here (about the upper 120 m), the combined analyses of sedimentary structures and AMS data demonstrate that most of the paleomagnetic features, previously interpreted as geomagnetic excursions, are likely the result of core deformation.

  18. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  19. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  20. Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerdt, B.; Dehant, V. M.; Lognonne, P.; Smrekar, S. E.; Spohn, T.; GEMS Mission Team

    2011-12-01

    GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) is one of three missions undergoing Phase A development for possible selection by NASA's Discovery Program. If selected, GEMS will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars, filling a longstanding gap in the scientific exploration of the solar system. It will illuminate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution, providing unique and critical information about the initial accretion of the planet, the formation and differentiation of the core and crust, and the subsequent evolution of the interior. The scientific goals of GEMS are to understand the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets through investigation of the interior structure and processes of Mars and to determine its present level of tectonic activity and impact flux. A straightforward set of scientific objectives address these goals: 1) Determine the size, composition and physical state of the core; 2) Determine the thickness and structure of the crust; 3) Determine the composition and structure of the mantle; 4) Determine the thermal state of the interior; 5) Measure the rate and distribution of internal seismic activity; and 6) Measure the rate of impacts on the surface. To accomplish these objectives, GEMS carries a tightly-focused payload consisting of 3 investigations: 1) SEIS, a 6-component, very-broad-band seismometer, with careful thermal compensation/control and a sensitivity comparable to the best terrestrial instruments across a frequency range of 1 mHz to 50 Hz; 2) HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package), an instrumented self-penetrating mole system that trails a string of temperature sensors to measure the thermal gradient and conductivity of the upper several meters, and thus the planetary heat flux; and 3) RISE (Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment), which would use the spacecraft X-band communication system to provide precision tracking for planetary dynamical studies. The two instruments are moved from the lander deck to the martian surface by an Instrument Deployment Arm, with an appropriate location identified using an Instrument Deployment Camera. In order to ensure low risk within the tight Discovery cost limits, GEMS reuses the successful Lockheed Martin Phoenix spacecraft design, with a cruise and EDL system that has demonstrated capability for safe landing on Mars with well-understood costs. To take full advantage of this approach, all science requirements (such as instrument mass and power, landing site, and downlinked data volume) strictly conform to existing, demonstrated capabilities of the spacecraft and mission system. It is widely believed that multiple landers making simultaneous measurements (a network) are required to address the objectives for understanding terrestrial planet interiors. Nonetheless, comprehensive measurements from a single geophysical station are extremely valuable, because observations constraining the structure and processes of the deep interior of Mars are virtually nonexistent. GEMS would utilize sophisticated analysis techniques specific to single-station measurements to determine crustal thickness, mantle structure, core state and size, and heat flow, providing our first real look deep beneath the surface of Mars.

  1. Rationale for future Antarctic and Southern Ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, Laura; Gohl, Karsten; Larter, Rob; Escutia, Carlota; Ikehara, Minoru; Hong, JongKuk; Naish, Tim; Barrett, Peter; Rack, Frank; Wellner, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Valuable insights into future sensitivity of the Antarctic cryosphere to atmospheric and oceanic warming can be gained from the geologic record of past climatic warm intervals. Continental to deep ocean sediments provide records of contemporaneous changes in ice sheet extent and oceanographic conditions that extend back in time, including periods with atmospheric CO2 levels and temperatures similar to those likely to be reached in the next 100 years. The Circum-Antarctic region is under-sampled respect to scientific ocean drilling. However, recovery from glacially-influenced, continental shelf and rise sediments (expeditions ODP178, 188 and IODP 318), provided excellent records of Cenozoic climate and ice sheet evolution. The ANtarctic DRILLing program achieved >98% recovery on the Ross Sea shelf with a stable platform on fast ice with riser drilling technology. Newer technologies, such as the MeBo shallow drilling rig will further improve Antarctic margin drilling. Drilling around Antarctica in the past decades revealed cooling and regional ice growth during the Cenozoic, coupled with paleogeographic, CO2 atmosphere concentration and global temperature changes. Substantial progress has been made in dating sediments and in the interpretation of paleoclimate/paleoenvironmental proxies in Antarctic margin sediments (e.g. orbital scale variations in Antarctica's cryosphere during the Miocene and Pliocene). Holocene ultra-high resolution shelf sections recently recovered can be correlated to the ice core record, to detect local mechanisms versus inter-hemispheric connections. While the potential for reconstructing past ice sheet history has been demonstrated through a careful integration of geological and geophysical data with numerical ice sheet modelling, uncertainties remain high due to the sparse geographic distribution of the records and the regional variability in the ice sheet's response. Projects developed using a multi-leg, multi-platform approach (e.g. latitudinal and/or depth transects involving a combination of land/ice shelf, seabed, riser, and riserless drilling platforms) will likely make the most significant scientific advances. Fundamental hypothesis can be tested and accomplished by drilling depth transects from ice-proximal to ice-distal locations, that will enable researchers to link past perturbations in the ice sheet with Southern Ocean and global climate dynamics. The variable response of the ice sheet to ongoing climatic change mandates broad geographic drilling coverage, particularly in climatically sensitive regions, like those with large upstream drainage basins, whose marine terminus is presently melting, due to ocean, warming water impinging the continental shelf. Key transects were identified at community workshops (http://www.scar-ace.org) in the frame of the SCAR/ACE (Antarctic Climate Evolution) and PAIS (Past Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics) programs. New proposals, also for MSP expeditions were then submitted to IODP, in addition to the existing ones, in the frame of a scientific concerted strategy and with a significant European participation. Main questions underpinning future scientific drilling tied IODP Science themes: 1) How did and will the Antarctic Ice Sheets respond to elevated temperatures and atmospheric pCO2? What is the contribution of Antarctic ice to past and future sea level changes? 2) What was the timing of rifting and subsidence controlling the opening of ocean gateways and the initiation of the circumpolar current system and the onset of glaciations?

  2. Drilling technology, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Offenbacher, L.

    1996-05-01

    Great strides have been made in drilling during the nineties, but many operators are unaware of many of the exciting capabilities and potential offered by today` drilling technology. As people move toward the year 2000, they see drilling providers refine these capabilities, broaden their applications, and increase operator awareness of their availability and usefulness. Thus, to see where drilling will be in the year 2000, people need to look at where the drilling forefront lies today. This paper discusses the trends in technology associated with horizontal drilling, re-entry techniques, coiled-tubing, extended-reach drilling, multilateral drilling and general well development technologies.

  3. Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.

  4. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bennecke, W.M.

    1996-10-01

    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well.

  5. Drainhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, L.W.

    1988-02-09

    In a method for drilling from a primary wellbore at least one lateral drainhole wellbore, the drainhole extending out into a liquid producing geologic formation which is overlaid with a gas cap, the improvement is described comprising hydraulically fracturing the formation to form fractures which extend above and below the drainhole, the fracturing being carried out using a fracturing liquid which has a viscosity which is not substantially greater than that of diesel oil. The fracturing liquid carries a solid subdivided propping agent to be deposited in the fractures to prevent same from closing, whereby due to the low viscosity of the fracturing liquid the propping agent preferentially settles into fractures which extend downwardly from the drainhole thereby allowing fractures which extend upwardly from the drainhole to close up and prevent premature flow of gas into the drainhole by way of the upwardly extending fractures while leaving the downwardly extending fractures permanently propped open for enhanced production of liquid from the formation into the drainhole.

  6. Non-invasive characterization of water-bearing strata using a combination of geophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jun; Lin, Tingting; Ji, Yanju; Chen, Zubin; Zhao, Yiping; Li, Haisheng

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeological investigations were carried out in an arid area of Inner-Mongolia to determine the locations of future water supply resources. The first geophysical survey was conducted near Baiqi to identify favorable boreholes using magnetic resonance sounding (MRS). The yield capacities of 43 sites were investigated, and the extent of the potential groundwater storage was determined. Previous studies have indicated that a major tectonic structure may have a significant impact on the groundwater flow and well yield in the study area. Therefore, high-resolution seismic surveys were applied in the second stage of the investigation to determine the fault locations. After the regional identification, a major structure was investigated in detail to map the fracture patterns. Based on the assumption that the hydraulic conductivity of this formation is similar along the entire strike of the fracture, we proposed drilling a borehole (BQ3) in the zone. However, this well has a yield of only 0.8 L/s, falling short of the required flow rate of 3.0 L/s. Therefore, the objective of the final stage of exploration was to accurately define the attitude and extension of the aquifer and to select a more favorable borehole site that would meet the required water flow rate. The geophysical exploration was carried out using time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and MRS methods. The MRS results suggest optimal locations for water supply boreholes within the subsurface structures mapped by the TDEM inversion method. The data obtained by drilling and coring are in agreement with the predicted aquifer thickness from the TDEM data. Pumping tests indicate that the water discharge of borehole BQ4 was 3.5 L/s. Our results demonstrate that the delineation of the groundwater body using a combined application of three geophysical methods (the MRS, TDEM and 2D seismic methods) was successful.

  7. Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

  8. Searching for Life Underground: An Analysis of Remote Sensing Observations of a Drill Core from Rio Tinto, Spain for Mineralogical Indications of Biological Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battler, M.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Water is unstable on the surface of Mars, and therefore the Martian surface is not likely to support life. It is possible, however, that liquid water exists beneath the surface of Mars, and thus life might also be found in the subsurface. Subsurface life would most likely be microbial, anaerobic, and chemoautotrophic; these types of biospheres on Earth are rare, and not well understood. Finding water and life are high priorities for Mars exploration, and therefore it is important that we learn to explore the subsurface robotically, by drilling. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE), has searched successfully for a subsurface biosphere at Rio Tinto, Spain [1,2,3,4]. The Rio Tinto study site was selected to search for a subsurface biosphere because the extremely low pH and high concentrations of elements such as iron and copper in the Tinto River suggest the presence of a chemoautotrophic biosphere in the subsurface beneath the river. The Rio Tinto has been recognized as an important mineralogical analog to the Sinus Meridiani site on Mars [5].

  9. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    DOEpatents

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  10. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer (BOP). Deviation tools. Wireline packers. And more.

  11. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  12. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  13. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  14. Drilling the centre of the Thuringian Basin, Germany, to decipher potential interrelation between shallow and deep fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Abratis, Michael; Habisreuther, Annett; Ward, Timothy; Influins Drilling-Team

    2014-05-01

    To shed light on the coupled dynamics of near surface and deep fluids in a sedimentary basin on various scales, ranging from the pore scale to the extent of an entire basin, is of paramount importance to understand the functioning of sedimentary basins fluid systems and therefore e.g. drinking water supply. It is also the fundamental goal of INFLUINS (INtegrated FLuid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins), a research initiative of several groups from Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena and their partners. This research association is focusing on the nearby Thuringian basin, a well confined, small intra-continental sedimentary basin in Germany, as a natural geo laboratory. In a multidisciplinary approach, embracing different fields of geophysics like seismic reflection profiling or airborne geomagnetics, structural geology, sedimentology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydrology, remote sensing, microbiology and mineralogy, among others, and including both, field-based, laboratory-based and computer-based research, an integral INFLUINS topic is the potential interaction of aquifers within the basin and at its rims. The Thuringian basin, which is composed of sedimentary rocks from the latest Paleozoic and mainly Triassic, is particularly suited to undertake such research as it is of relative small size, about 50 to 100 km, easily accessible, and quite well known from previous studies, and therefore also a perfect candidate for deep drilling. After the acquisition of 76 km seismic reflection data in spring 2011, to get as much relevant data as possible from a deep drilling at the cross point between two seismic profiles with a limited financial budget, an optimated core sampling and measuring strategy including partial coring, borehole geophysics and pump tests as well as a drill hole design, which enables for later continuation of drilling down to the basement, had been developed. Drilling Triassic rocks from Keuper to lower Buntsandstein was successfully realised down to a final depth of 1179 m from late June to mid-September 2013. Here, we give an introduction into the layout of INFLUINS deep drilling together with a summary of preliminary results, e.g. on the nature of the boundaries between Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein, and between upper and middle Buntsandstein, a complete core recovery of upper Buntsandstein saliniferous formations as well as unexpectedly low porosity and permeability of potential aquifers.

  15. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  16. Evaluation of past and future alterations in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, based on the clay mineralogy of drill cores USW G-1, G-2, and G-3

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.

    1989-03-01

    The tuffs at Yucca Mountain in south-central Nevada are being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to determine their suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. For predictive purposes, it is important to understand the alteration history of Yucca Mountain and to know how the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs respond to changing conditions such as elevated temperatures. The clay mineralogy of these tuffs has been examined using x-ray powder diffraction, and approximation temperatures of alteration have been determined using available clay mineral data and fluid inclusion analyses. Also, several illites from drill holes USW G-1 and G-2 have been dated using K/Ar techniques, yielding ages of about 11 Myr. The clay mineral in Yucca Mountain tuffs are predominantly interstratified illite/smectites, with minor amounts of chloride, kaolinite, and interstratified chlorite/smectite at depth in USW G-1 and G-2. The reactions observed for these illite/smectites are similar to those observed in pelitic rocks. With depths, the illite/smectites transform from random interstratifications (R = 0) through ordered intermediates (R = 1) to illite in USW G-2 and to Kalkberg (R {ge} 3) interstratifications in USW G-1. The illite/smectites in USW G-3 have not significantly transformed. It appears that the illites in deeper rock results from hydrothermal and diagenetic reactions of earlier-formed smectites. These data demonstrate that the rocks at depth in the northern end of Yucca Mountain were significantly altered about 11 Myr ago. Both clay mineralogy and fluid inclusions suggest that the rocks at depth in USW G-2 have been subjected to postdepositional temperatures of at least 275{degree}C, those in USW G-1 have reached 200{degree}C, and USW G-3 rocks probably have not exceeded 100{degree}C. 64 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Paleointensity of the geomagnetic field in the Late Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene obtained from drill cores of the Louisville seamount trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2014-06-01

    on the strength of the geomagnetic field is important for understanding the behavior of the geodynamo. Polarity reversal frequency increases toward the late Cenozoic since the end of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. Accumulating reliable paleointensity data in this time interval is still desired for elucidating the possibility of a link between reversal frequency and paleointensity. We conducted a paleointensity study on 288 samples from four seamounts from 74 to 50 Ma in age that constitutes the Louisville seamount trail. Based on thermomagnetic curves and scanning electron microscopy, we first excluded 134 samples that showed evidence for low-temperature oxidation. We then applied the Tsunakawa-Shaw method with low-temperature demagnetization and double heating after rejecting some samples that do not preserve stable primary remanence, and 52 successful results were obtained. An average virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.75 1.52 (1022 Am2) was obtained at Site U1372 on Canopus seamount (74 Ma) based on 16 independent measurements. Sites U1373 and U1374 on Rigil seamount (70 Ma) yielded a mean of 3.79 1.40 (n = 16), and Site U1376 on Burton seamount (65 Ma) yielded a mean of 3.70 1.37 (n = 8). These VADMs are similar to the long-term average of the last 200 Myr by Tauxe et al. (2013) and the mean of the last 5 Myr by Yamamoto and Tsunakawa (2005). The volcanic sequence drilled at Site U1372 probably belongs to Chron C33n of 5.59 Myr long, whereas others belong to shorter chrons. Our results support no discernible relationship between polarity length and paleointensity.

  18. Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  19. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  20. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional drilling costs; and downhole weight-on-bit and drilling torque for diagnosing drill bit performance. In general, any measurement that could shed light on the downhole environment would give us a better understanding of the drilling process and reduce drilling costs.

  1. In situ gas concentrations in the Kumano forearc basin from drilling mud gas monitoring and sonic velocity data (IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 Site C0009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, T.; Doan, M.-L.; Schleicher, A. M.; Horiguchi, K.; Eguchi, N.; Erzinger, J.

    2012-04-01

    Conventional IODP shipboard methods of gas investigations comprise gas sampling from core voids and headspace gas sampling followed by shipboard gas analysis. These methods possibly underestimate the in situ gas concentration due to core degassing during retrieval and handling on deck. In few cases, a Pressure Core Sampler (PCS) was used in the past to overcome this problem, providing gas concentrations one or two order of magnitude higher than headspace gas analysis from corresponding depths. Here, we describe two new techniques applied during IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 Site C0009 riser drilling in the Kumano forearc basin to estimate in situ gas concentrations without drill core recovery. During riser drilling of site C0009 between 703 to 1594 mbsf, gas was continuously extracted from returing drilling mud and analysed in real-time (drill mud gas monitoring). This method results in information on the gas composition and gas concentration at depth. The chemical (C1-C3) and isotope (?13C, H/D) composition of hydrocarbons, the only formation-derived gases identified in drill mud, demonstrate a microbial hydrocarbon gas source mixing with small but increasing amounts of thermogenic gas at greater depth. Methane content in drilling mud semi-quantitatively correlates with visible allochtonous material (wood, lignite) in drilling cuttings. In situ gas concentration determination from drill mud gas monitoring based on the assumption that gas is either liberated from the rock into the drilling mud during drilling and ascent with the mud column or remains in the pore space of the drilling cuttings. Drilling mud gas data were calibrated with a defined amount of C2H2 (175 l [STP]) from a carbide test and result in methane concentrations reaching up to 24 lgas/lsediment, in good agreement with findings from other IODP Legs using the PCS. Hydrocarbon gas concentrations in drilling cuttings from C0009 are significantly lower, indicating cuttings outgassing during ascent of the drill mud column to the surface. An alternative method to quantify free gas is the analysis of high quality sonic data from wireline logging to infer the porosity and estimate the water content stored in intergranular pores and the gas saturation (Doan et al., 2011). Drill mud gas monitoring and sonic velocity data analysis reveal similar depth concentration profiles for C0009 and in situ gas concentrations in fairly good agreement. The further observation implies that formation gas is located in the pore space of the rock and does e.g. not penetrate into the borehole through fractures and faults. Doan, M.-L.; Conin, M.; Henry, P.; Wiersberg, T.; Boutt, D.; Buchs, D.; Saffer, D.; McNeill, L. C.; Cukur, D.; Lin, W. (2011) Quantification of free gas in the Kumano fore-arc basin detected from borehole physical properties: IODP Nan TroSEIZE drilling Site C0009. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 12, Q0AD06, doi: 10.1029/2010GC003284

  2. Assessment of geophysical logs from borehole USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.; Schimschal, U.

    1993-05-01

    Commercial logging contractors, Western Atlas, Schlumberger, and Edcon obtained borehole geophysical logs at the site of a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drill hole USW-G2 was picked for this test of suitable logging tools and logging technology, both representing state-of-the-art technology by these commercial companies. Experience gained by analysis of existing core data and a variety of logs obtained earlier by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas served as a guide to a choice of logs to be obtained. Logs were obtained in water-filled borehole in zeolitized tuff (saturated zone) and in air-filled borehole largely in unaltered welded tuff (unsaturated zone).

  3. Core-tube data logger

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.; Knudsen, S.; Drumheller, D.

    1997-01-01

    Wireline core drilling, increasingly used for geothermal exploration, employs a core-tube to capture a rock core sample during drilling. Three types of core-tube data loggers (CTDL) have been built and tested to date by Sandia national Laboratories. They are: (1) temperature-only logger, (2) temperature/inclinometer logger and (3) heat-shielded temperature/inclinometer logger. All were tested during core drilling operations using standard wireline diamond core drilling equipment. While these tools are designed for core-tube deployment, the tool lends itself to be adapted to other drilling modes and equipment. Topics covered in this paper include: (1) description on how the CTDLs are implemented, (2) the components of the system, (3) the type of data one can expect from this type of tool, (4) lessons learned, (5) comparison to its counterpart and (6) future work.

  4. Geophysical examination of coal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. J.

    1981-04-01

    Geophysical techniques for the solution of mining problems and as an aid to mine planning are reviewed. Techniques of geophysical borehole logging are discussed. The responses of the coal seams to logging tools are easily recognized on the logging records. Cores for laboratory analysis are cut from selected sections of the borehole. In addition, information about the density and chemical composition of the coal may be obtained. Surface seismic reflection surveys using two dimensional arrays of seismic sources and detectors detect faults with throws as small as 3 m depths of 800 m. In geologically disturbed areas, good results have been obtained from three dimensional surveys. Smaller faults as far as 500 m in advance of the working face may be detected using in seam seismic surveying conducted from a roadway or working face. Small disturbances are detected by pulse radar and continuous wave electromagnetic methods either from within boreholes or from underground. Other geophysical techniques which explicit the electrical, magnetic, gravitational, and geothermal properties of rocks are described.

  5. Scientific Drilling in the Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exon, Neville; Gallagher, Stephen; Seton, Maria

    2013-03-01

    Recent geophysical surveys and geological studies in the southwest Pacific Ocean have improved scientists' understanding of geological evolution and helped to crystallize new research goals. In the current phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), there have been five regional expeditions: Canterbury Basin Sea Level (Expedition 317), Wilkes Land Glacial History off Antarctica (Expedition 318), Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes (Expedition 325), South Pacific Gyre Subseafloor Life (Expedition 329), and Louisville Seamount Trail (Expedition 330). Of six current IODP proposals, four are ready to drill. To review the latest research in the region, briefly outline possible future IODP expeditions, and set up working groups to develop compelling new drilling proposals in the global science context, a workshop was organized at the University of Sydney with a diverse group of 80 scientists. As the JOIDES Resolution may be in the region fairly soon, the workshop participants agreed on the urgent need to build strong science proposals.

  6. Drilling deeper into the core: an analysis of journal evaluation methodologies used to create the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials,” third edition

    PubMed Central

    Ugaz, Ana G

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The paper analyzes the journal evaluation criteria used to create the third edition of a core list of veterinary serials to determine the impact of each criterion on the final composition of the list in order to assess the value of using multiple criteria in creating a core list. Methods: Three additional lists were generated from criteria that were previously combined to prepare the third edition of the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials”: a list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations, another list based on journals selected by veterinary librarians, and a list based on both indexing coverage and scholarly rank. The top fifteen journals in each of the three lists were then compared to reveal potential biases. Subject representation on the full lists generated by each of these methods was also compared. Results: The list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations exhibited a focus on clinically relevant titles. The list based on veterinary librarian recommendations resulted in the broadest subject coverage. The list based on indexing and scholarly rank, while emphasizing research titles, produced the largest number of unique titles. Conclusion: A combination approach that includes objective evaluation measures and practical input, whether from librarians or discipline experts, can improve coverage and can result in a list that balances research-based with clinical practice journals. PMID:21464852

  7. International Collaboration in Data Management for Scientific Ocean Drilling: Preserving Legacy Data While Implementing New Requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, F. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2003-2013 initial phase) is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP: 1968-1983) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP: 1985-2003). These earlier scientific drilling programs amassed collections of sediment and rock cores (over 300 kilometers stored in four repositories) and data organized in distributed databases and in print or electronic publications. International members of the IODP have established, through memoranda, the right to have access to: (1) all data, samples, scientific and technical results, all engineering plans, data or other information produced under contract to the program; and, (2) all data from geophysical and other site surveys performed in support of the program which are used for drilling planning. The challenge that faces the individual platform operators and management of IODP is to find the right balance and appropriate synergies among the needs, expectations and requirements of stakeholders. The evolving model for IODP database services consists of the management and integration of data collected onboard the various IODP platforms (including downhole logging and syn-cruise site survey information), legacy data from DSDP and ODP, data derived from post-cruise research and publications, and other IODP-relevant information types, to form a common, program-wide IODP information system (e.g., IODP Portal) which will be accessible to both researchers and the public. The JANUS relational database of ODP was introduced in 1997 and the bulk of ODP shipboard data has been migrated into this system, which is comprised of a relational data model consisting of over 450 tables. The JANUS database includes paleontological, lithostratigraphic, chemical, physical, sedimentological, and geophysical data from a global distribution of sites. For ODP Legs 100 through 210, and including IODP Expeditions 301 through 308, JANUS has been used to store data from 233,835 meters of core recovered, which are comprised of 38,039 cores, with 202,281 core sections stored in repositories, which have resulted in the taking of 2,299,180 samples for scientists and other users (http://iodp.tamu.edu/janusweb/general/dbtable.cgi). JANUS and other IODP databases are viewed as components of an evolving distributed network of databases, supported by metadata catalogs and middleware with XML workflows, that are intended to provide access to DSDP/ODP/IODP cores and sample-based data as well as other distributed geoscience data collections (e.g., CHRONOS, PetDB, SedDB). These data resources can be explored through the use of emerging data visualization environments, such as GeoWall, CoreWall (http://(www.evl.uic.edu/cavern/corewall), a multi-screen display for viewing cores and related data, GeoWall-2 and LambdaVision, a very-high resolution, networked environment for data exploration and visualization, and others. The U.S Implementing Organization (USIO) for the IODP, also known as the JOI Alliance, is a partnership between Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Texas A&M University, and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. JOI is a consortium of 20 premier oceanographic research institutions that serves the U.S. scientific community by leading large-scale, global research programs in scientific ocean drilling and ocean observing. For more than 25 years, JOI has helped facilitate discovery and advance global understanding of the Earth and its oceans through excellence in program management.

  8. COSC-1 - drilling of a subduction-related allochthon in the Palaeozoic Caledonide orogen of Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, H.; Rosberg, J.-E.; Juhlin, C.; Bjelm, L.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Berthet, T.; Conze, R.; Gee, D. G.; Klonowska, I.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2015-05-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project focuses on mountain building processes in a major mid-Palaeozoic orogen in western Scandinavia and its comparison with modern analogues. The project investigates the subduction-generated Seve Nape Complex. These in part under ultra-high-pressure conditions metamorphosed outer continental margin and continent-ocean transition zone assemblages were emplaced onto the Baltoscandian platform and there influenced the underlying allochthons and the basement. COSC-1 is the first of two ca. 2.5 km deep, fully cored drill holes located in the vicinity of the abandoned Fröå mine, close to the town of Åre in Jämtland, central Sweden. It sampled a thick section of the lower part of the Seve Complex and was planned to penetrate its basal thrust zone into the underlying lower-grade metamorphosed allochthon. The drill hole reached a depth of 2495.8 m and nearly 100 % core recovery was achieved. Although planning was based on existing geological mapping and new high-resolution seismic surveys, the drilling resulted in some surprises: the Lower Seve Nappe proved to be composed of rather homogenous gneisses, with only subordinate mafic bodies, and its basal thrust zone was unexpectedly thick (> 800 m). The drill hole did not penetrate the bottom of the thrust zone. However, lower-grade metasedimentary rocks were encountered in the lowermost part of the drill hole together with garnetiferous mylonites tens of metres thick. The tectonostratigraphic position is still unclear, and geological and geophysical interpretations are under revision. The compact gneisses host only eight fluid conducting zones of limited transmissivity between 300 m and total depth. Downhole measurements suggest an uncorrected average geothermal gradient of ~ 20 °C km-1. This paper summarizes the operations and preliminary results from COSC-1 (ICDP 5054-1-A), drilled from early May to late August 2014, and is complemented by a detailed operational report and the data repository.

  9. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala: exploration geothermal gradient drilling and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala, indicate that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 300??C. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, fracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. The hole is located 300 m south of a 300m-diameter phreatic crater. Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2910 years. TCB-1 temperature logs do not indicate isothermal conditions at depth and the calculated thermal gradient from 500-800 m is 230??C/km. Bottom hole temperature is close to 240??C. Calculated heat flow values are around 350-400 mW/m2. Fluid-inclusion and secondary-alteration studies indicate that veins and secondary minerals were formed at temperatures equal to or slightly less than present temperatures; thus, the Tecuamburro geothermal system may still be heating up. The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for geothermal resource development. ?? 1992.

  10. National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program: Successes and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of geologic and geophysical materials gathered by its research personnel. Since the USGS was established in 1879, hundreds of thousands of samples have been gathered in collections that range from localized, geographically-based assemblages to ones that are national or international in scope. These materials include, but are not limited to, rock and mineral specimens; fossils; drill cores and cuttings; geochemical standards; and soil, sediment, and geochemical samples. The USGS National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program (NGGDPP) was established with the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Since its implementation, the USGS NGGDPP has taken an active role in providing opportunities to inventory, archive and preserve geologic and geophysical samples, and to make these samples and ancillary data discoverable on the Internet. Preserving endangered geoscience collections is more cost effective than recollecting this information. Preserving these collections, however, is only one part of the process - there also needs to be a means to facilitate open discovery and access to the physical objects and the ancillary digital records. The NGGDPP has celebrated successes such as the development of the USGS Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a master catalog and collections management plan, and the implementation and advancement of the National Digital Catalog, a digital inventory and catalog of geological and geophysical data and collections held by the USGS and State geological surveys. Over this period of time there has been many lessons learned. With the successes and lessons learned, NGGDPP is poised to take on challenges the future may bring.

  11. Hydrogeologic facies characterization of an alluvial fan near Fresno, California, using geophysical techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Weissmann, G.S.; Miller, R.D.; Placzek, Gary

    1997-01-01

    DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) contamination in the sole source aquifer near Fresno, California, has significantly affected drinking-water supplies. Borehole and surface geophysical data were integrated with borehole textural data to characterize the Kings River alluvial fan sediments and to provide a framework for computer modeling of pesticide transport in ground water. Primary hydrogeologic facies units, such as gravel, coarse sand or gravel, fine sand, and silt and clay, were identified in cores collected from three borings located on a 4.6-kilometer transect of multilevel monitoring wells. Borehole geophysical logs collected from seven wells and surface geophysical surveys were used to extrapolate hydrogeologic facies to depths of about 82meters and to correlate the facies units with neighboring drilling sites. Thickness ranged from 0.3to 13 meters for sand and gravel units, and from 0.3 to 17 meters for silt and clay. The lateral extent of distinct silt and clay layers was mapped using shallow seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar techniques. About 3.6 kilometers of seismic reflection data were collected; at least three distinct fine-grained layers were mapped. The depth of investigation of the seismic survey ranged from 34 to 107 meters below land surface, and vertical resolution was about 3.5 meters. The ground-penetrating radar survey covered 3.6kilometers and imaged a 1.5-meters thick, continuous fine-grained layer located at a depth of about 8 meters. Integrated results from the borehole sediment descriptions and geophysical surveys provided a detailed characterization over a larger areal extent than traditional hydrogeologic methods alone.

  12. Hydraulic piston coring of late Neogene and Quaternary sections in the Caribbean and equatorial Pacific: Preliminary results of Deep Sea Drilling Project leg 68.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prell, W.L.; Gardner, James V.; Adelseck, Charles; Blechschmidt, Gretchen; Fleet, Andrew J.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Ledbetter, Michael T.; Mann, Ulrich; Mayer, Larry; Reidel, William R.; Sancetta, Constance; Spariosu, Dann J.; Zimmerman, Herman B.

    1980-01-01

    The sediment of Site 502 (W.Caribbean) is primarily foram-bearing nanno marl which accumulated at c.3 to 4 cm/thousand yr. The bottom of Site 502 (228.7 m) is about 8 m.y. old. The sediment of Site 503 (Equatorial Pacific) is primarily siliceous calcareous ooze which accumulated at about 2 to 3 cm/thousand yr. The bottom of Site 503 (235.0 m) is about 8 m.y. old. The sediment at both sites shows a distinct cyclicity of CaCO3 content. These relatively high accumulation rate, continuous, undisturbed HPC cores will enable a wide variety of high-resolution biostratigraphic, paleoclimatic, and paleoceanographic studies.- from Authors

  13. Cores from the Salton Sea scientific drilling program: Metamorphic reaction progress as a function of chemical and thermal environment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Papike, J.J.; Shearer, C.K.

    1987-05-13

    The study investigated the downhole progressive metamorphism at the Salton Sea site by monitoring and evaluating discontinuous and continuous metamorphic reactions. The main emphasis was placed on: (1) the addition of petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical data to the Salton Sea data base; (2) determination of downhole reactions; (3) evaluation of the progress of individual continuous reaction (epsilon) and the overall reaction progress (epsilon/sub T/) during the transition from one metamorphic zone to the next; and (4) evaluation and correlation of mineral reactions and reaction progress with mineral phase and organic material geothermometry. To these ends, thirty-three samples from the Salton Sea core were analyzed for: (1) quantitative modal mineralogy using the x-ray diffraction reference intensity method (RIM), (2) 30 major and trace elements in the whole rock and (3) mineral chemistry and structural state. In addition, a subset of these samples were used for temperature determinations using vitrinite reflectivity.

  14. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. PMID:25922212

  15. Surface drilling technologies for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacic, J. D.; Rowley, J. C.; Cort, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Rock drilling and coring conceptual designs for the surface activities associated with a manned Mars mission are proposed. Straightforward extensions of equipment and procedures used on Earth are envisioned for the sample coring and shallow high explosive shot holes needed for tunneling and seismic surveying. A novel rocket exhaust jet piercing method is proposed for very rapid drilling of shot holes required for explosive excavation of emergency radiation shelters. Summaries of estimated equipment masses and power requirements are provided, and the indicated rotary coring rigs are scaled from terrestrial equipment and use compressed CO2 from the Martian atmosphere for core bit cooling and cuttings removal. A mass of 120 kg and power of 3 kW(e) are estimated for a 10 m depth capability. A 100 m depth capacity core rig requires about 1150 kg and 32 km(e). The rocket exhaust jet equipment devised for shallow (3m) explosive emplacement shot holes requires no surface power beyond an electrical ignition system, and might have a 15 kg mass.

  16. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  17. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM); Lundin, Ralph L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  18. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  19. The 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of lavas from the Hilo 1-km core hole, Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, W.D.; Turrin, B.D.; Renne, P.R.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mauna Kea lava flows cored in the HilIo hole range in age from <200 ka to about 400 ka based on 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and K-Ar analyses of 16 groundmass samples and one coexisting plagioclase. The lavas, all subaerially deposited, include a lower section consisting only of tholeiitic basalts and an upper section of interbedded alkalic, transitional tholeiitic, and tholeiitic basalts. The lower section has yielded predominantly complex, discordant 40Ar/39Ar age spectra that result from mobility of 40Ar and perhaps K, the presence of excess 40Ar, and redistribution of 39Ar by recoil. Comparison of K-Ar ages with 40Ar/39Ar integrated ages indicates that some of these samples have also lost 39Ar. Nevertheless, two plateau ages of 391 ?? 40 and 400 ?? 26 ka from deep in the hole, combined with data from the upper section, show that the tholeiitic section accumulated at an average rate of about 7 to 8 m/kyr and has an mean recurrence interval of 0.5 kyr/flow unit. Samples from the upper section yield relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau and isotope correlation ages of 326 ?? 23, 241 ?? 5, 232 ?? 4, and 199 ?? 9 ka for depths of -415.7 m to -299.2 m. Within their uncertainty, these ages define a linear relationship with depth, with an average accumulation rate of 0.9 m/kyr and an average recurrence interval of 4.8 kyr/flow unit. The top of the Mauna Kea sequence at -280 m must be older than the plateau age of 132 ?? 32 ka, obtained for the basal Mauna Loa flow in the corehole. The upward decrease in lava accumulation rate is a consequence of the decreasing magma supply available to Mauna Kea as it rode the Pacific plate away from its magma source, the Hawaiian mantle plume. The age-depth relation in the core hole may be used to test and refine models that relate the growth of Mauna Kea to the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle plume.

  20. Constraints on magma ascent, emplacement, and eruption: Geochemical and mineralogical data from the drill core at Inyo Craters, Inyo Chain, California: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    An 861-m-long hole (Inyo-4) has been cored on a slanted trajectory that passed directly beneath South Inyo Crater in the west moat of Long Valley Caldera, California. The purpose of the hole was to investigate the magmatic behavior that led to surface deformation and phreatic activity during the 600-year-old eruption of the Inyo vent chain. The trajectory and stratigraphy encountered by Inyo-4 are shown. The volcanic and sedimentary sequence consists solely of post-Bishop Tuff caldera fill, including 319 m of moat basalt and 342 m of early rhyolite. Breccia zones that intrude the caldera fill were intersected at 12.0-9.3 m and 1.2-0.8 m SW and 8. 5-25.1 m NE of the crater center. The largest breccia unit is symmetrically zoned from margins rich in vesicular rhyolite and locally derived rhyolite wallrock to a center of up to 50 vol.% basalt. Most individual clasts of the rhyolite are less than or equal to0.1m; individual clasts in the basalt breccia are up to 1 m in intersected length. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Geophysical investigations at ORNL solid waste storage area 3

    SciTech Connect

    Rothschild, E.R.; Switek, J.; Llopis, J.L.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-07-01

    Geophysical investigations at ORNL solid waste storage area 3 have been carried out. The investigations included very-low-frequency-electromagnetic resistivity (VLF-EM), electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction surveys. The surveys resulted in the measurement of basic geophysical rock properties, as well as information on the depth of weathering and the configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the study area. Survey results also indicate that a number of geophysical anomalies occur in the shallow subsurface at the site. In particular, a linear feature running across the geologic strike in the western half of the waste disposal facility has been identified. This feature may conduct water in the subsurface. The geophysical investigations are part of an ongoing effort to characterize the site's hydrogeology, and the data presented will be valuable in directing future drilling and investigations at the site. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  2. The Hominin Sites And Paleolakes Drilling Project: Using High Resolution Paleoclimate Records From African Lake Deposits To Interpret Human Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. S.; Arrowsmith, R.; Behrensmeyer, K.; Campisano, C. J.; Feibel, C. S.; Fisseha, S.; Johnson, R. A.; Kingston, J.; Kubsa, Z.; Lamb, H.; Mbua, E.; Olago, D.; Potts, R.; Renaut, R.; Schaebitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.; Trauth, M. H.; Woldegabriel, G. W.; Umer, M.

    2009-12-01

    For many years paleoanthropologists and earth scientists have explored and debated the potential role of climate and environmental forcing in human evolution. Although no consensus has emerged as to the importance of climate history in understanding human origins, there is broad agreement that obtaining high quality records of paleoclimate is critical for evaluating any proposed relationships. Recent workshops on the subject have converged on the central role that scientific drilling could play in obtaining such records. Records with high continuity and resolution with implications for human evolution can be retrieved from marine or lacustrine sediments, and the latter can be obtained from both extant (ancient) lakes or by drilling lake beds now exposed on land. We report here on a new initiative to obtain drill core records from on-land sites in the East African Rift Valley region. Our objective is to recover continuous cores both directly from the paleolake deposits in the depocenters of basins where important hominin fossils or artifacts have been recovered, and from basins in close proximity to fossil and artifact sites. An initial on-land drilling campaign, using off-the-shelf technology will target five of the most important basins for hominin fossil and archaeological records in East Africa, collectively spanning the last ~4Ma (N. Awash R. and the Chew Bahir Basin in Ethiopia, and W. Turkana, Tugen Hills and the Olorgesailie/L. Magadi areas in Kenya). HSPDP work to date has involved collecting subsurface geophysical data, and combining this with outcrop, prior coring and basin geometry information to identify optimal drilling targets at each area. The overall project objective is to provide detailed paleoenvironmental records across a spatial and temporal range of sites that can address hypotheses of climate/human evolution relationships at local to regional scales, through a combination of core data collection and modeling efforts. In the long term, such records could be linked to more continuous (but also more expensive) marine or ancient lake drill cores that could provide master records of regional to global scale climate change in East Africa.

  3. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  4. Overview of SAFOD Phases 1 and 2: Drilling, Sampling and Measurements in the San Andreas Fault Zone at Seismogenic Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hickman, S.; Ellsworth, W.

    2005-12-01

    In this talk we provide an overview of on-site drilling, sampling and downhole measurement activities associated with the first two Phases of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. SAFOD is located at the transition between the creeping and locked sections of the fault, 9 km NW of Parkfield, CA. A 2.1 km deep vertical pilot hole was drilled at the site in 2002. The SAFOD main borehole was drilled vertically to a depth of 1.5 km and then deviated at an average angle of 55 to vertical, passing beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas fault, 1.8 km to the NW at a depth of 3.2 km. Repeating microearthquakes on the San Andreas define the main active fault trace at depth, as well as a secondary active fault about 250 m to the SW (i.e., closer to SAFOD). The hole was rotary drilled, comprehensive cuttings were obtained and a real-time analysis of gases in the drilling mud was carried out. Spot cores were obtained at three depths (at casing set points) in the shallow granite and deeper sedimentary rocks penetrated by the hole, augmented by over fifty side-wall cores. Continuous coring of the San Andreas Fault Zone will be carried out in Phase 3 of the project in the summer of 2007. In addition to sampling mud gas, discrete fluid and gas samples were obtained at several depths for geochemical analysis. Real-time geophysical measurements were made while drilling through most of the San Andreas Fault Zone. A suite of "open hole" geophysical measurements were also made over essentially the entire depth of the hole. Construction of the multi-component SAFOD observatory is well underway, with a seismometer and tiltmeter operating at 1 km depth in the pilot hole and a fiber-optic laser strainmeter cemented behind casing in the main hole. A seismometer deployed at depth in the hole between Phases 1 and 2 detected one of the target earthquakes. A number of surface-to-borehole seismic experiments have been carried out to characterize seismic velocities and structures at depth, including deployment of an 80-level, 240-component seismic array in SAFOD in the spring of 2005. With knowledge of P- and S-wave velocities obtained from the geophysical measurements in conjunction with downhole recordings of the SAFOD target earthquake, it appears that the seismically active main trace of the fault is on the order of 400 m SW of the surface trace, in proximity to several candidate zones of particularly anomalous geophysical properties. Observations of casing deformation to be made over the next several years, as well as monitoring of the microearthquakes using seismometers directly within the fault zone, will pinpoint the exact location of this and other active fault traces prior to continuous coring in Phase 3. As will be elaborated in detail by the presentations of the SAFOD science team at this meeting, the activities carried out as part of Phases 1 and 2 of SAFOD lay the ground work for years of exciting research in earthquake physics, fault-rock geology, rock mechanics and the role of fluids and gases in faulting and earthquake generation.

  5. Geochemical and stable isotopic data on barren and mineralized drill core in the Devonian Popovich Formation, Screamer sector of the Betze-Post gold deposit, northern Carlin trend, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, William D.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Zohar, Pamela B.; Tousignant, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The Devonian Popovich Formation is the major host for Carlin-type gold deposits in the northern Carlin trend of Nevada. The Popovich is composed of gray to black, thin-bedded, calcareous to dolomitic mudstone and limestone deposited near the carbonate platform margin. Carlin-type gold deposits are Eocene, disseminated, auriferous pyrite deposits characterized by acid leaching, sulfidation, and silicification that are typically hosted in Paleozoic calcareous sedimentary rocks exposed in windows through siliceous sedimentary rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Carlin trend currently is the largest gold producer in the United States. The Screamer ore zone is a tabular body on the periphery of the huge Betze-Post gold deposit. Screamer is a good place to study both the original lithogeochemistry of the Popovich Formation and the effects of subsequent alteration and mineralization because it is below the level of supergene oxidation, mostly outside the contact metamorphic aureole of the Jurassic Goldstrike stock, has small, high-grade ore zones along fractures and Jurassic dikes, and has intervening areas with lower grade mineralization and barren rock. In 1997, prior to mining at Screamer, drill core intervals from barren and mineralized Popovich Formation were selected for geochemical and stable isotope analysis. The 332, five-foot core samples analyzed are from five holes separated by as much as 2000 feet (600 meters). The samples extend from the base of the Wispy unit up through the Planar and Soft sediment deformation units into the lower part of the upper Mud unit of the Popovich Formation.

  6. Pore-water mobility: Distribution of ?37Cl, 36Cl/Cl, 129I/127I and dissolved 4He concentration in the core drilled in the Mobara gas field, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahara, Yasunori; Ohta, Tomoko; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Keisuke; Nakata, Eiji; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kubota, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    We measured 36Cl/Cl and 129I/127I isotope ratios, dissolved 4He concentrations, and ?37Cl to estimate the residence time and flow characteristics of pore water in rocks of the Kazusa Group in the Mobara gas field, Japan. We deduced a residence time of 0.28-0.85 Ma for the pore water, based on a secular equilibrium value of 7.05 1.58 10-15 for the 36Cl/Cl ratio in Pleistocene strata of the gas field. Furthermore, the concentration of 4He corrected by the solubility equilibrium model in the pore water indicated that residence times varied from 0.09 to 0.62 Ma from the depth of 642 to the depth of 1742 m in the core drilled in the gas field. The pore-water dating results have insignificant differences between the ages of the Kazusa Group formations, compared with the iodine ages from 129I/127I ratio. Variations of ?37Cl in the pore water suggested that mass transport in rocks of the Kazusa Group was dominantly controlled by diffusion.

  7. Paleoclimatic implications of magnetic susceptibility in Late Pliocene-Quaternary sediments from deep drilling core SG-1 in the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weilin; Appel, Erwin; Fang, Xiaomin; Yan, Maodu; Song, Chunhui; Cao, Liwan

    2012-06-01

    Lake sediments are important archives of paleoclimate change and erosion history. A 938.5 m long core (SG-1) of lacustrine sediments, dated at 2.77 Ma to 0.1 Ma, was obtained from the western Qaidam Basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, consisting of dark grayish mudstone and grayish siltstone, intercalated with salts and fine sandstones in the upper part. Magnetic susceptibility data, combined with detailed rock magnetic properties, were analyzed for revealing the significance of ferro(i)magnetic concentration for past changes of climate and erosion. Mass-specific susceptibility (?) shows a striking cyclic and long-term variation. Samples with high ? values are dominated by magnetite and maghemite with pseudo-single-domain properties. In contrast, samples with low ? values contain maghemite from single-domain to multidomain and, additionally, a significant fraction of hematite. The driving mechanism of ? variation can be explained by three alternative models: (1) different source regions with alternations of wind and cryoclastic erosion in a wider hinterland (dry-cold climate) and surface runoff erosion from a narrower area (more humid climate) and (2 and 3) low-temperature oxidation, occurring either in the lake sediments (dry climate) or in the catchment area during weathering (more humid climate). Trends of ? match with changes in sedimention rates and are roughly synchronous with the deep-sea ?18O record on a glacial-interglacial timescale. Therefore, the concentration of magnetic minerals in the western Qaidam Basin sediments is likely controlled by both tectonic influence and paleoenvironmental changes but can be best interpreted by alternations and trends of dry-cold and more humid periods due to Asian drying and global cooling.

  8. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  9. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  11. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  12. New approaches to subglacial bedrock drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zhao, Yue; Xue, Jun; Chen, Chen; Markov, Alexey; Xu, Huiwen; Gong, Wenbin; Han, Wei; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Rusheng; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Han, Lili; Sysoev, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Drilling to bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities to research processes acting at the bed for paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental recording, basal sliding studies, subglacial geology and tectonics investigations, prospecting and exploration for minerals covered by ice. Retrieving bedrock samples under ice sheets and glaciers is a very difficult task. Drilling operations are complicated by extremely low temperature at the surface of, and within glaciers, and by glacier flow, the absence of roads and infrastructures, storms, winds, snowfalls, etc. In order to penetrate through the ice sheet or glacier up to the depth of at least 1000 m and to pierce the bedrock to the depth of several meters from ice - bedrock boundary the development activity already has been started in Polar Research Center at Jilin University, China. All drilling equipment (two 50-kW diesel generators, winch, control desk, fluid dumping station, etc.) is installed inside a movable sledge-mounted warm-keeping and wind-protecting drilling shelter that has dimensions of 8.8 ×2.8 × 3.0 m. Mast has two positions: horizontal for transportation and vertical working position (mast height is 12 m). Drilling shelter can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor, aircraft or helicopter. In case of carriage by air the whole drilling shelter was designed to be disassembled into pieces "small" enough to ship by aircraft. Weight and sizes of each component has been minimized to lower the cost of transportation and to meet weight restrictions for transportation. Total weight of drilling equipment (without drilling fluid) is near 15 tons. Expected time of assembling and preparing for drilling is 2 weeks. If drilling shelter is transported with crawler-tractor (for example, in Antarctic traverses) all equipment is ready to start drilling immediately upon arrival to the site. To drill through ice and bedrock a new, modified version of the cable-suspended electromechanical ice core drill is designed and tested. The expected average daily production of ice drilling would be not less than 25 m/day. The lower part of the drill is adapted for coring bed-rock using special tooth diamond bit. Deep ice coring requires a drilling fluid in the borehole during operation in order to keep the hole open and to compensate the hydrostatic pressures acting to close it. At present there are no ideal low-temperature drilling fluids as all of them are environmental and health hazardous substances. The new approaches of subglacial bedrock drilling technology are connected with utilization of environmental friendly, low-toxic materials, e.g. low-molecular dimethyl siloxane oils or aliphatic synthetic ester of ESTISOL™ 140 type. They have suitable density-viscosity properties, and can be consider as a viable alternative for drilling in glaciers and subglacial bedrock.

  13. Spectrum Gamma Ray bore hole logging while tripping with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Steinke, Stephan; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wefer, Gerold

    2013-04-01

    The robotic Sea Floor Drill Rig MARUM-MeBo developed at the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen was used to retrieve long sediment cores at two sites in the northern South China Sea. Both sites are located in about 1000 m water depth in southeasterly and southwesterly direction of the Pearl River mouth, respectively. South East Asian Monsoon variability controls terrigenous material transport by rivers into the South China Sea. The Pearl River is one of the largest rivers of the region that discharges into the northern South China Sea. The terrigenous fraction of marine sediments of the northern South China Sea therefore provides an excellent archive for reconstructing past variability of the South East Asian Monsoon system. In analogy to the drilling strategy within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program IODP multiple holes were drilled in order to generate continuous spliced records at both sites. Overall the MARUM-MeBo drilled 374 m during 5 deployments with a maximum drilling depth of 80.85 m and an average core recovery of 94 %. Here we present first results of bore hole logging conducted during 4 of the 5 deployments with a spectrum gamma ray (SGR) probe adapted for the use with MARUM-MeBo. This probe is an autonomous slim hole probe that is used in the logging while tripping mode. This method is especially favorable for remote controlled drilling and logging operation. The probe is equipped with its own energy source and data storage. The probe is lowered into the drill string after the target wire-line coring depth is reached and after the last inner core barrel has been retrieved. When the probe has landed on the shoulder ring at the bottom of the hole, the drill string is pulled out and disassembled. The probe, while being raised with the drill string, continuously measures the geophysical properties of the in situ sediments and rocks. Since the bore hole is stabilized during the tripping process by the drill string in the vicinity of the logging probe, logging while tripping can also be used for unstable bore hole conditions e.g. in unconsolidated sediments. At both drill sites two profiles were measured during separate deployments of the MeBo. A close correlation of the profiles was observed at both sites. Natural gamma ray intensity varies between 38 and 91 API. The variations in natural gamma ray intensity are mainly attributed to changes in concentrations of potassium (0,5 - 1,6 %) and thorium (3,6 - 13,2 ppm), while the concentrations of uranium are fairly low (1,2 - 3,2 ppm). Clays are the main host minerals for thorium in marine sediments. Potassium may be incorporated both into clay and feldspar minerals. The variability in the natural gamma ray intensity can therefore be interpreted as an indicator of changes in terrestrial sediment input into the South China Sea. The observation of severe variability of the K/Th ratio and its correlation with sedimentary calcium content measured by XRF-scanning points to the fact that not only changes in the amount but also changes in the composition of the terrigenous fraction is elucidated by the SGR bore hole logging and will help reconstructing past changes in the South East Asian monsoon system.

  14. Scientific Coring in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Tahoe ranks among the largest, oldest, and deepest lakes in North America. In addition, the lake is located at a major tectonic boundary. These factors make the Lake Tahoe basin an exciting natural laboratory for studying the interaction between tectonics and climate in a high-altitude temperate setting. A recent meeting to explore the potential benefits of a comprehensive program of scientific coring in the Lake Tahoe basin attracted 67 researchers from 28 institutions. The meeting was supported by a grant from the Drilling, Observations, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) consortium with additional funding provided by the John Muir Institute for the Environment and the Tahoe Environmental Research Center at the University of California, Davis, the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, San Diego, the Desert Research Institute in Reo, Nev., the Academy for the Environment of the University of Nevada, Reno, and the U.S. Geological Survey.

  15. Core break-off mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrick, Thomas M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A mechanism for breaking off and retaining a core sample of a drill drilled into a ground substrate has an outer drill tube and an inner core break-off tube sleeved inside the drill tube. The break-off tube breaks off and retains the core sample by a varying geometric relationship of inner and outer diameters with the drill tube. The inside diameter (ID) of the drill tube is offset by a given amount with respect to its outer diameter (OD). Similarly, the outside diameter (OD) of the break-off tube is offset by the same amount with respect to its inner diameter (ID). When the break-off tube and drill tube are in one rotational alignment, the two offsets cancel each other such that the drill can operate the two tubes together in alignment with the drill axis. When the tubes are rotated 180 degrees to another positional alignment, the two offsets add together causing the core sample in the break-off tube to be displaced from the drill axis and applying shear forces to break off the core sample.

  16. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  17. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  18. Drilling technique for crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

    1977-01-01

    Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

  19. The Final Phase of Drilling of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolper, E.; Depaolo, D.; Thomas, D.; Garcia, M.; Haskins, E.; Baker, M.

    2008-12-01

    The principal goal of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) was to core continuously deep into the flank of a Hawaiian volcano and to investigate the petrology, geochemisty, geochronology, magnetics, etc. of the recovered samples. Drilling in Hilo, on the island of Hawaii proceeded in three phases. A 1.06 km pilot hole was core-drilled in 1993; a second hole was core-drilled to 3,098 meters below sea level (mbsl) in 1999, then deepened in 2004-2007 to 3,509 mbsl. Although the final phase of drilling was at times technically challenging, core recovery was close to 100%. All rocks from the final phase of drilling were emplaced below sea level and are from the Mauna Kea volcano. On-site core logging identified 45 separate units (the 1999 phase of drilling yielded 345 units). Five lithologies were identified: pillows (~60%); pillow breccias (~10%); massive lavas (~12%); hyaloclastites (~17%); intrusives (~1%; these are mostly multiple thin (down to cm scale) fingers of magma with identical lithologies occurring over narrow depth intervals). The rocks are primarily tholeiitic, ranging from aphyric to highly olivine-phyric lavas (up to ~25% olivine phenocrysts), with considerable fresh glass and olivine; clays and zeolites are present throughout the core. Forty whole-rock samples were collected as a reference suite and sent to multiple investigators for study. Additionally, glass was collected at roughly 3 m intervals for electron microprobe analysis. Although continuous and consistent with the shallower rocks from the previous phase of coring, there are several noteworthy features of the deepest core: (1) Glasses from shallower portions of the core exhibited bimodal silica contents, a low SiO2 group (~48-50 wt.%) and a high SiO2 group (~50.5- 52 wt.%). Glasses from the last phase of drilling are essentially all in the high-silica group and are somewhat more evolved than the high-silica glasses from the shallower portion of the core (5.1-7.6 vs. 5.1-10.4 wt.% MgO). (2) The expected sequence of lithologies with depth in the core is subaerial lava flows, hyaloclastites (formed by debris flows carrying glass and lithic fragments from the shoreline down the submarine flanks of the volcano), and finally pillow lavas. This sequence was generally observed in the earlier phases of drilling, and it appeared that the deepest rocks from the 1999 phase of drilling were essentially all formed from pillow lavas (i.e., there were no more hyaloclastites). However, thick hyaloclastites reflecting long distance transport from the ancient shoreline reappear in the bottom ~100 m of the drill hole. Although it may be coincidence, pillow breccias occur in the shallower parts of the core from the final phase of drilling, but not in the deeper parts in which the hyaloclastites reappear. (3) Intrusive rocks make up a lower fraction (~1%) of samples from the final phase of coring than in the deeper parts of the section from the 1999 phase of drilling (3.8%). It had been suggested that intrusives might become more common the deeper the drilling, but this is not the case at depths down to 3.5 km. (4) There are three units classified as "massive" including one relatively thick (~40 m), featureless (no internal boundaries, no evidence of mixing or internal differentiation), moderately olivine-phyric basalt.

  20. Drill-pipe fatigue in rotary drilling of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.

    1996-09-01

    Operators have found that rotating the drill pipe in motor drilling can often increase penetration rates 50 to 200% in short- and medium-radius wells due to the reduction in frictional drag. Rotating drill pipe in short-radius (30 to 50 ft) horizontal wells can result in drill-pipe fatigue failures after 4 to 8 wells. Monitoring drill-pipe fatigue damage for each joint of drill pipe used in rotary drilling horizontal wells is therefore crucial to prevent drill-pipe failures. This paper presents a basic analysis on drill-pipe fatigue and a computer program developed to predict drill-pipe fatigue in rotary drilling of horizontal wells. According to the fatigue theory, drill-pipe fatigue damage accumulates until the drill pipe fails. The accumulative drill-pipe fatigue damage is determined by drill-pipe bending stresses, rotating revolutions, and drill pipe S-N curves. Drill-pipe fatigue damage is also related to drill-pipe material, bit weight, penetration rate, and other drilling variables. Drill pipe S-N curves are important in predicting drill-pipe fatigue. Drilling conditions such as drilling fluid corrosion and axial load are considered in modifying the typical S-N curves to give more reliable drill-pipe fatigue predictions.

  1. Brief overview of geophysical probing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    An evaluation of high-resolution geophysical techniques which can be used to characterize a nulcear waste disposal site is being conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commisson (NRC). LLNL is involved in research work aimed at evaluating the current capabilities and limitations of geophysical methods used for site selection. This report provides a brief overview of the capabilities and limitations associated with this technology and explains how our work addresses some of the present limitations. We are examining both seismic and electromagnetic techniques to obtain high-resolution information. We are also assessing the usefulness of geotomography in mapping fracture zones remotely. Finally, we are collecting core samples from a site in an effort to assess the capability of correlating such geophysical data with parameters of interest such as fracture continuity, orientation, and fracture density.

  2. Drilling Fluid Contamination during Riser Drilling Quantified by Chemical and Molecular Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Lever, M. A.; Morono, Y.; Hoshino, T.

    2012-12-01

    Stringent contamination controls are essential to any type of microbiological investigation, and are particularly challenging in ocean drilling, where samples are retrieved from hundreds of meters below the seafloor. In summer 2012, Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 337 aboard the Japanese vessel Chikyu pioneered the use of chemical tracers in riser drilling while exploring the microbial ecosystem of coalbeds 2 km below the seafloor off Shimokita, Japan. Contamination tests involving a perfluorocarbon tracer that had been successfully used during past riserless drilling expeditions were complemented by DNA-based contamination tests. In the latter, likely microbial contaminants were targeted via quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays using newly designed, group-specific primers. Target groups included potential indicators of (a) drilling mud viscosifiers (Xanthomonas, Halomonas), (b) anthropogenic wastewater (Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Methanobrevibacter), and (c) surface seawater (SAR 11, Marine Group I Archaea). These target groups were selected based on past evidence suggesting viscosifiers, wastewater, and seawater as the main sources of microbial contamination in cores retrieved by ocean drilling. Analyses of chemical and molecular tracers are in good agreement, and indicate microorganisms associated with mud viscosifiers as the main contaminants during riser drilling. These same molecular analyses are then extended to subseafloor samples obtained during riserless drilling operations. General strategies to further reduce the risk of microbial contamination during riser and riserless drilling operations are discussed.

  3. The Swedish Deep Drilling Program - an emerging scientific drilling program and new infrastructure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Scientific drilling projects imply numerous aspects that are difficult to handle for individual research groups. Therefore, about three years ago a joint effort was launched in the Swedish geoscientific community to establish a national program for scientific drilling, the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP). Soon afterwards, several working groups established drilling proposals with Nordic and, also, international participation. With this serious interest in scientific drilling SDDP was able to successfully promote the Swedish membership in ICDP which commenced in 2008. Two SDDP projects achieved workshop grants from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2009. In the same year the Swedish Research Council decided to support an application for a truck-mounted drill rig - a big success for the SDDP working group. Scientific Drilling infrastructure: SDDP envisages a mobile platform that is capable of core drilling to at least 2500 m depth. The procurement will be made during 2010 and first operations are planned for 2011. This drill rig is primarily intended for use in the SDDP drilling projects, but will be rented out to other scientific drilling projects or even commercial enterprises in the remaining time to cover maintenance and future upgrade costs. SDDP's drill rig will be unique in Europe and complementary to the deep drilling InnovaRig of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Until now, drilling to 2000 - 3000 m implied the use of a full-sized drill rig like the InnovaRig or the mobilization of a core drill rig from another continent. This gap will now be filled by Sweden's upcoming scientific drilling infrastructure. Drilling projects and proposals: Presently, SDDP serves six projects: "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC; ICDP workshop spring 2010), the "Postglacial Fault Drilling Project" (PFDP; ICDP workshop autumn 2010), a "Deep Rock Laboratory" (DRL), "Palaeoproterozoic Mineralized Volcanic Arc Systems" (PaMVAS), "Concentric Impact Structures in the Palaeozoic - the Lockne and Siljan craters" (CISP), and "Svecofennian accretion, an example of the early Structural Evolution in a Large Hot Orogen" (SELHO). More information on each drilling project is available at SDDP's website (http://www.sddp.se/'projectabbreviation'), where also the Science & Technology Plan is publicly available. The Nordic perspective: Recently, the researchers network "Scientific Drilling in the Nordic Countries" has been funded for three years by NordForsk, the Nordic Council of Minister's advisory board on research strategy (http://www.nordforsk.org). The aim of the network is to consolidate the competence and experience from past and present (and future) scientific drilling projects in the Nordic countries, and to propagate it to the scientific community. Within the scope of the researchers network, workshops and excursions will be tightly coupled to on-going scientific projects and bring together experts, experienced scientists and novices for knowledge exchange and transfer. The participation of all the Nordic countries and the ambitious drilling projects in their diverse geological settings - from the Archaean shield to active volcanoes - form an ideal basis for engaging and successful collaboration over many years to come.

  4. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  5. Constraints on the stress state of the San Andreas Fault with analysis based on core and cuttings from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling phases 1 and 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tembe, S.; Lockner, D.; Wong, T.-F.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of field data has led different investigators to conclude that the San Andreas Fault (SAF) has either anomalously low frictional sliding strength (?? 0.6). Arguments for the apparent weakness of the SAF generally hinge on conceptual models involving intrinsically weak gouge or elevated pore pressure within the fault zone. Some models assert that weak gouge and/or high pore pressure exist under static conditions while others consider strength loss or fluid pressure increase due to rapid coseismic fault slip. The present paper is composed of three parts. First, we develop generalized equations, based on and consistent with the Rice (1992) fault zone model to relate stress orientation and magnitude to depth-dependent coefficient of friction and pore pressure. Second, we present temperature-and pressure-dependent friction measurements from wet illite-rich fault gouge extracted from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) phase 1 core samples and from weak minerals associated with the San Andreas Fault. Third, we reevaluate the state of stress on the San Andreas Fault in light of new constraints imposed by SAFOD borehole data. Pure talc (?????0.1) had the lowest strength considered and was sufficiently weak to satisfy weak fault heat flow and stress orientation constraints with hydrostatic pore pressure. Other fault gouges showed a systematic increase in strength with increasing temperature and pressure. In this case, heat flow and stress orientation constraints would require elevated pore pressure and, in some cases, fault zone pore pressure in excess of vertical stress. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Geoscience Research Drilling Office Operations I: the North INYO Drilling Program, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1986-05-01

    The North Inyo Drilling Program was part of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program/Thermal Regimes and it was put forth by the Department of Energy/Office of Basic Energy Sciences to explore roots of a 600 year old volcanic system which is found in the north-west corner of Long Valley Caldera, California. The responsibility of the Geoscience Research Drilling Office was to provide logistical support to the scientific drilling team. This support consisted of obtaining the necessary permits, obtaining a drilling contract and providing field services involving logging and core handling/laboratory facilities. The first portion of this program was successful when hole RDO-2b traversed the conduit which fed Obsidian Dome; the second portion succeeded when RDO-3a traversed the dike underlying the Inyo Chain of volcanoes.

  7. New Era of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Sanada, Y.; Igarashi, C.; Kubo, Y.; Maeda, L.; Sawada, I.; Takase, K.; Kyo, N.

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, committed to scientific ocean drilling since 2007, has completed thirteen IODP expeditions, and Chikyu's enhanced drilling technology gives us the means to reach deep targets, enhanced well logging, deep water riserless drilling, and state of the art laboratory. Chikyu recovered core samples from 2466 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in IODP Exp. 337, and drilled to 3058.5 mbsf in IODP Exp. 348, but these are still not the limit of Chikyu's capability. As deep as these depths are, they are just halfway to the 5200 mbsf plate boundary target for the NanTroSEIZE deep riser borehole. There are several active IODP proposals in the pipeline. Each has scientific targets requiring several thousand meters of penetration below the sea floor. Riser technology is the only way to collect samples and data from that depth. Well logging has been enhanced with the adoption of riser drilling, especially for logging-while-drilling (LWD). LWD has several advantages over wireline logging, and provides more opportunities for continuous measurements even in unstable boreholes. Because of the larger diameter of riser pipes and enhanced borehole stability, Chikyu can use several state-of-the-art downhole tools, e.g. fracture tester, fluid sampling tool, wider borehole imaging, and the latest sonic tools. These new technologies and tools can potentially expand the envelope of scientific ocean drilling. Chikyu gives us access to ultra-deep water riserless drilling. IODP Exp. 343/343T investigating the March 2011 Tohoku Oki Earthquake, explored the toe of the landward slope of the Japan Trench. This expedition reached the plate boundary fault target at more than 800 mbsf in water depths over 6900 m for logging-while-drilling, coring, and observatory installation. This deep-water drilling capability also expands the scientific ocean drilling envelope and provides access to previously unreachable targets. On top of these operational capabilities, Chikyu's onboard laboratory is equipped with state-of-the-art instruments to analyze all science samples. X-ray CT creates non-destructive 3D images of core samples providing high resolution structural detail. The microbiology laboratory offers clean and contamination-free work environments required for microbiological samples.

  8. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  9. Facies reconstruction of a hydrothermally altered dacite extrusive sequence: Evidence from geophysical downhole logging data (ODP Leg 193)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartetzko, Anne; Paulick, Holger; Iturrino, Gerardo; Arnold, Juliane

    2003-10-01

    ODP Leg 193 drilled into the PACMANUS hydrothermal field (Papua New Guinea), which is an active hydrothermal vent field associated with felsic magmatism in a convergent geodynamic setting. The PACMANUS hydrothermal field is part of the eastern Manus Basin and is located near the crest of Pual Ridge, a 500 to 700 meters high felsic neo-volcanic ridge. Two sites, Snowcap (Site 1188) and Roman Ruins (Site 1189), were drilled approximately 800 m apart. Although low core recovery limited the examination of the subsurface geology, geophysical downhole measurements provided continuous records of in-situ physical properties with depth and were used to reconstruct lithostratigraphic profiles. Downhole logging operations included standard wire line logging and Logging While Drilling (LWD) measurements. Electrical resistivity images of the borehole wall were examined to find characteristic textures and three different volcanic facies were distinguished: coherent dacite, volcaniclastic dacite and brecciated dacite. In addition, intervals with sulfide mineralization were identified based on characteristic responses of the photoelectric factor log. A comparison of the reconstructed profiles from both sites shows considerable differences in the proportions of facies and the thickness of individual layers. Thick units of coherent facies are predominant at Snowcap and indicate a proximal position of the site within the volcanic system of Pual Ridge. At Roman Ruins, thin individual layers with rapid changes in volcanic facies and a higher proportion of volcaniclastic and brecciated dacite suggest a medial position. These differences in volcanic facies show that the volcanic architecture at Pual Ridge is characterized by small-scale facies changes, emplacement of small-volume individual lava flows and complex geometries of individual emplacement units. Geophysical logging data suggest that subseafloor hydrothermal activity is focused to the area around one hole at Roman Ruins. Downhole logs from this hole show characteristic cyclic patterns in the electrical resistivity and photoelectric factor logs indicating that hydrothermal sulfide mineralization is concentrated at the tops of individual lava flows representing paleo-seafloor positions.

  10. Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samelson, Roger M.

    The fluid kaleidoscope of the Earth's ocean and atmosphere churns and sparkles with jets, gyres, eddies, waves, streams, and cyclones. These vast circulations, essential elements of the physical environment that support human life, are given a special character by the Earth's rotation and by their confinement to a shallow surficial layer, thin relative to the solid Earth in roughly the same proportion as an apple skin is to an apple. Geophysical fluid dynamics exploits this special character to develop a unified theoretical approach to the physics of the ocean and atmosphere.With Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Rick Salmon has added an insightful and provocative volume to the handful of authoritative texts currently available on the subject. The book is intended for first-year graduate students, but advanced students and researchers also will find it useful. It is divided into seven chapters, the first four of these adapted from course lectures. The book is well written and presents a fresh and stimulating perspective that complements existing texts. It would serve equally well either as the main text for a core graduate curriculum or as a supplementary resource for students and teachers seeking new approaches to both classical and contemporary problems. A lively set of footnotes contains many references to very recent work. The printing is attractive, the binding is of high quality, and typographical errors are few.

  11. Novel drilling equipment allows downhole flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, D.P. ); Storms, M.A. . Ocean Drilling Program)

    1995-01-16

    The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) have developed numerous downhole tools and systems that have already found or might soon find applications in oil and gas exploration. Other potential applications for these coring tools, drillstring designs, and bottom hole assemblies (BHAs) include offshore mineral and resource evaluation, offshore geotechnical engineering, environmental monitoring, geothermal energy research hazardous waste disposal/site qualification, and general geoscience research. This new technology is expected eventually to become used by industry and benefit all participants. To date, little of the anticipated technological spin-off has occurred. Both DSDP and ODP have had limited formal technological reporting, and their engineers have not worked under a publish-or-perish mandate. This paper describes the drillship, drilling equipment, stress analysis software, a multipurpose BHA, drill-in casing, reentry system, hard rock guidebase, and a freefall reentry cone.

  12. Firms to drill wildcats in Virginia, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-03-25

    The Taylorsville basin southeast of Washington, D.C., will host more drilling this year. Two companies plan to drill two 10,500 ft wildcats along the Potomac River, one in Maryland and one in Virginia. The remote wildcats are an outgrowth of an aggressive leasing and core hold drilling program carried out in 1985 and 1986 near the eastern margin of the basin. The Taylorsville basin is a buried Triassic basin. Part of the basin is exposed in Hanover and Caroline counties, Va., southwest of where the new wildcats will be drilled. Several old wells penetrated Triassic in the Maryland area where it is overlain by 1,500 ft and more of Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quarternary sediments.

  13. Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration co