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Sample records for georgia centenarian study

  1. Personality Structure among Centenarians: The Georgia Centenarian Study

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Adam; Siegler, Ilene C.; Martin, Peter; Costa, Paul T.; Poon, Leonard W.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that observer-rated factor structure of personality in centenarians is congruent with the normative structure. Prevalence of cognitive impairment, which has previously been linked to changes in personality in younger samples, is high in this age group, requiring observer ratings to obtain valid data in a population-based context. Likewise, the broad range of cognitive functioning necessitates synthesis of results across multiple measures of cognitive performance. Data from 161 participants in the Georgia Centenarian Study (GCS, MAge = 100.3 years, 84% women, 20% African American, 40% community-dwelling, 30% low cognitive functioning) support strong overall correspondence with reference structure (full sample: .94; higher cognitive functioning: .94; lower cognitive functioning: .90). Centenarians with lower cognitive functioning are higher on neuroticism and lower on openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Facet-level differences (higher N1–N6: anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, vulnerability to stress; lower E1: warmth, lower O4–O6: actions, ideas, values; lower A1, A3, A4: trust, altruism, compliance; C1, C5: competence, self-discipline) are also observed. Multivariate factor-level models indicate only neuroticism of the five broad factors predicts membership in cognitively impaired group; facet-level models showed that lower-order scales from three of the five domains were significant. Centenarians with: higher self-consciousness (N4), impulsiveness (N5), and deliberation (C6), but lower ideas (O5), compliance (A4), and self-discipline (C5) were more likely to be in the lower cognitive functioning category. Results present first normative population-based data for personality structure in centenarians and offer intriguing possibilities for the role of personality in cognitive impairment centered on neuroticism. PMID:26214097

  2. Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The

  3. GCSDB: an integrated database system for the Georgia Centenarian Study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jianliang; Davey, Adam; Siegler, Ilene C; Arnold, Jonathan; Poon, Leonard W

    2006-01-01

    GCSDB is a web-oriented integrated database system for the Georgia Centenarian Study, a phase III, population-based, multidisciplinary study of centenarians. The Study recruited 244 centenarians and near-centenarians (age 98 and older), 80 octogenarians and 400 young controls in Northern Georgia. GCSDB incorporates more than 40 relational tables containing data about the participants including demographics, family longevity, physical health, cognition, neuropsychology, mental health, neuropathology, functional capacity, and genetics. The GCSDB web site includes detailed information about these tables and functions for genetic and other kinds of data analysis. More data and functions will be added as the study progresses. GCSDB provides a resource that could be used to identify what biological, psychological, and social factors as well as their epistatic interactions help these centenarians achieve long life. Availability http://qa.genetics.uga.edu (login information can be obtained from authors) PMID:17597891

  4. Successful Recruitment of Centenarians for Post-Mortem Brain Donation: Results from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Kathy; Gearing, Marla; Davey, Adam; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.; Martin, Peter; Green, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Brain donation and neuropathological examination of brain tissues is the only way to obtain definitive diagnostic information on research subjects enrolled in aging studies. We investigated predictors of brain donation in a population-based study of centenarians in Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study (GCS). Methods Sixty-six individuals (mean age = 100.6 years, 91% female, 20% African American) were successfully recruited from the core sample of 244 individuals residing in 44 counties of Northeast Georgia to provide brain donation. Results Bivariate (t-tests, chi-square tests) and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) showed no significant differences between donors and non-donors across a wide range of demographic, religious, personality, cognitive and physical functioning characteristics. Conclusions We succeeded in recruiting a diverse, population-based sample of centenarians for brain donation. Our findings also suggest that barriers to brain donation reported in other studies may have less impact in these exceptional survivors. PMID:24013849

  5. Relationship between serum and brain carotenoids, a-tocopherol and retinol concentrations and cognitive performance in the oldest old from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress is involved in age-related cognitive decline. The dietary antioxidants, carotenoids, tocopherols and vitamin A may play a role in the prevention or delay in cognitive decline. In this study sera were obtained from 78 octogenarians and 220 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian St...

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Anemia in a Population-Based Study of Octogenarians and Centenarians in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, Alyson; Johnson, Mary Ann; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W.; Allen, Robert H.; Stabler, Sally P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anemia has been associated with increased physical and financial costs and occurs more frequently in older individuals. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and possible predictors of anemia in the very old. Methods. Hemoglobin was used to identify those with anemia in a group of centenarians and near centenarians (98+, n = 185) and octogenarians (n = 69), who were recruited as part of the population-based multidisciplinary Georgia Centenarian Study. Blood markers, including ferritin, vitamin B12, red blood cell folate, methylmalonic acid, creatinine, and C-reactive protein, demographic variables, and medication and/or supplement usage were used to determine possible predictors of anemia. Results. The prevalence of anemia was 26.2% in octogenarians and 52.1% in centenarians. Low serum albumin (<3.6 g/dL) and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (<45 mL/min/m2) were predictors of anemia in centenarians. Conclusions. Anemia is a major health issue, particularly as people age. Because of the high prevalence of anemia in older individuals, awareness of the predictors associated with anemia becomes increasingly important so as to reduce the negative consequences associated with it and allow for the identification of steps that can be taken to correct anemia, including managing chronic disease. PMID:21896502

  7. Predicting successful aging in a population-based sample of georgia centenarians.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Jonathan; Dai, Jianliang; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Arte, Ankit; Johnson, Mary Ann; Hausman, Dorothy; Rodgers, Willard L; Hensley, Robert; Martin, Peter; Macdonald, Maurice; Davey, Adam; Siegler, Ilene C; Jazwinski, S Michal; Poon, Leonard W

    2010-01-01

    Used a population-based sample (Georgia Centenarian Study, GCS), to determine proportions of centenarians reaching 100 years as (1) survivors (43%) of chronic diseases first experienced between 0-80 years of age, (2) delayers (36%) with chronic diseases first experienced between 80-98 years of age, or (3) escapers (17%) with chronic diseases only at 98 years of age or older. Diseases fall into two morbidity profiles of 11 chronic diseases; one including cardiovascular disease, cancer, anemia, and osteoporosis, and another including dementia. Centenarians at risk for cancer in their lifetime tended to be escapers (73%), while those at risk for cardiovascular disease tended to be survivors (24%), delayers (39%), or escapers (32%). Approximately half (43%) of the centenarians did not experience dementia. Psychiatric disorders were positively associated with dementia, but prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychoses did not differ significantly between centenarians and an octogenarian control group. However, centenarians were higher on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) than octogenarians. Consistent with our model of developmental adaptation in aging, distal life events contribute to predicting survivorship outcome in which health status as survivor, delayer, or escaper appears as adaptation variables late in life. PMID:20885919

  8. An Oral Health Study of Centenarians and Children of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Laura B.; Setiono, Tiffany K.; Doros, Gheorghe; Andersen, Stacy; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Friedman, Paula K.; Perls, Thomas T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor oral health has been associated with age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Given that centenarians and their offspring significantly delay or escape age-related diseases compared to their respective birth cohorts, we hypothesized that oral health is better in these two cohorts relative to published birth-cohort matched results for centenarians and in an offspring cohort referent sample. DESIGN Observational cross-sectional study. SETTING The New England Centenarian Study (NECS). PARTICIPANTS Seventy-three centenarians, 467 offspring, and 251 offspring generation referent cohort subjects from the NECS. MEASUREMENTS A self-report questionnaire measured oral health in all three groups, with edentulous rate as the primary outcome measure. Socio-demographic and medical history were made available by the NECS. Centenarian results were compared to published birth-cohort matched results. Data from offspring and referent cohorts were analyzed to determine differences in oral health and associations between oral health measures and specific medical conditions. RESULTS The edentulous rate of centenarians (36.5%) was lower than their birth cohort (46%) when they were ages 65-74 years in 1971-1974 (per National Center of Health Statistics). Adjusting for confounding factors, in comparison to the centenarian offspring, the referent cohort was more likely to be edentulous (AOR=2.78, 95%, CI=1.17-6.56), less likely to have all or more than half of their own teeth (AOR=0.48, 95%, CI=0.3-0.76), and less likely to report excellent/very good oral health (AOR=0.65, 95%, CI=0.45-0.94). CONCLUSION These findings support the hypothesis that centenarians and their offspring exhibit better oral health than their respective birth cohorts. Oral health may prove to be a helpful marker for systemic health and healthy aging. PMID:24889721

  9. Exceptional Longevity: An Introduction to the Iowa Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Deshpande-Kamat, Neha; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Franke, Warren; Garasky, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of the Iowa Centenarian Study is to further our understanding of determinants of exceptional longevity above and beyond health outcomes, particularly in rural environments. This introductory article provides a general overview of the study, its methodology and basic descriptive results. One hundred and fifty-two centenarians

  10. The well-being of community-dwelling near-centenarians and centenarians in Hong Kong a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hong Kong has one of the highest life expectancy rankings in the world. The number of centenarians and near-centenarians has been increasing locally and internationally. The relative growth of this population is a topic of immense importance for population and health policy makers. Living long and living well are two overlapping but distinct research topics. We previously conducted a quantitative study on 153 near-centenarians and centenarians to explore a wide range of biopsychosocial correlates of health and “living long”. This paper reports a follow-up qualitative study examining the potential correlates of “living well” among near-centenarians and centenarians in Hong Kong. Methods Six cognitively, physically, and psychologically sound community-dwelling elders were purposively recruited from a previous quantitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Results Four major themes related to living long and well emerged from the responses of the participants: (a) Positive relations with others, (b) Positive events and happiness, (c) Hope for the future, and (d) Positive life attitude. Specifically, we found that having good interpersonal relationships, possessing a collection of positive life events, and maintaining salutary attitudes towards life are considered as important to psychological well-being by long-lived adults in Hong Kong. Most participants perceived their working life as most important to their life history and retired at very old ages. Conclusions These findings also shed light on the relationships between health, work, and old age. PMID:24886462

  11. Genetics of longevity. data from the studies on Sicilian centenarians.

    PubMed

    Balistreri, Carmela R; Candore, Giuseppina; Accardi, Giulia; Bova, Manuela; Buffa, Silvio; Bulati, Matteo; Forte, Giusi I; List, Florinda; Martorana, Adriana; Palmeri, Marisa; Pellican, Mariavaleria; Vaccarino, Loredana; Scola, Letizia; Lio, Domenico; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    The demographic and social changes of the past decades have determined improvements in public health and longevity. So, the number of centenarians is increasing as a worldwide phenomenon. Scientists have focused their attention on centenarians as optimal model to address the biological mechanisms of "successful and unsuccessful ageing". They are equipped to reach the extreme limits of human life span and, most importantly, to show relatively good health, being able to perform their routine daily life and to escape fatal age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Thus, particular attention has been centered on their genetic background and immune system. In this review, we report our data gathered for over 10 years in Sicilian centenarians. Based on results obtained, we suggest longevity as the result of an optimal performance of immune system and an over-expression of anti-inflammatory sequence variants of immune/inflammatory genes. However, as well known, genetic, epigenetic, stochastic and environmental factors seem to have a crucial role in ageing and longevity. Epigenetics is associated with ageing, as demonstrated in many studies. In particular, ageing is associated with a global loss of methylation state. Thus, the aim of future studies will be to analyze the weight of epigenetic changes in ageing and longevity. PMID:22524430

  12. Aging and red blood cell membrane: a study of centenarians.

    PubMed

    Caprari, P; Scuteri, A; Salvati, A M; Bauco, C; Cantafora, A; Masella, R; Modesti, D; Tarzia, A; Marigliano, V

    1999-01-01

    Successful aging, characterized by little or no loss in physiological functions, should be the usual aging process in centenarians. It is known that well-preserved physiological functions depend on the proper functioning of cell systems. In this article we focus on cell membrane integrity and study the red blood cell membrane to evaluate the effect of physiological aging in centenarians. Fifteen healthy, self-sufficient centenarians, mean age 103 years, were examined by assessing hemocytometric values and some relevant characteristics of the erythrocyte membrane, i.e., the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio, the distribution of phospholipid classes and their fatty acid composition, the integral and skeletal protein profiles. The centenarians showed a significant decrease in the red blood cell count (p < 0.0002), hemoglobin (p < 0.0002), and hematocrit (p < 0.0005). The red blood cell membrane showed a significantly increased cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio (p < 0.01), with a concomitant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine (p < 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, in phosphatidylethanolamine. The electrophoretic pattern of membrane proteins was qualitatively normal compared to controls but the densitometric analysis showed a significant increase in the integral protein band 4.2 (p < 0.05) and in the skeletal protein actin (p < 0.001). Extreme longevity seems to be associated with a substantial integrity of the erythrocyte membrane. Moreover, the evident increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and in actin are likely to improve the membrane fluidity and to strengthen the membrane structure. PMID:10197727

  13. The Genetics of Extreme Longevity: Lessons from the New England Centenarian Study

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Paola; Perls, Thomas T.

    2012-01-01

    The New England Centenarian Study (NECS) was founded in 1994 as a longitudinal study of centenarians to determine if centenarians could be a model of healthy human aging. Over time, the NECS along with other centenarian studies have demonstrated that the majority of centenarians markedly delay high mortality risk-associated diseases toward the ends of their lives, but many centenarians have a history of enduring more chronic age-related diseases for many years, women more so than men. However, the majority of centenarians seem to deal with these chronic diseases more effectively, not experiencing disability until well into their nineties. Unlike most centenarians who are less than 101?years old, people who live to the most extreme ages, e.g., 107+?years, are generally living proof of the compression of morbidity hypothesis. That is, they compress morbidity and disability to the very ends of their lives. Various studies have also demonstrated a strong familial component to extreme longevity and now evidence particularly from the NECS is revealing an increasingly important genetic component to survival to older and older ages beyond 100?years. It appears to us that this genetic component consists of many genetic modifiers each with modest effects, but as a group they can have a strong influence. PMID:23226160

  14. Predicting Happiness among Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Background Happiness is believed to evolve from the comparison of current circumstances relative to past achievement. However, gerontological literature on happiness in extreme old age has been limited. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine how perceptions of health, social provisions, and economics link past satisfaction with life to current feelings of happiness among persons living to 100 years of age and beyond. Methods A total of 158 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study were included to conduct the investigation. Items reflecting congruence and happiness from the Life Satisfaction Index were used to evaluate a model of happiness. Pathways between congruence, perceived economic security, subjective health, perceived social provisions, and happiness were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results Congruence emerged as a key predictor of happiness. Furthermore, congruence predicted perceived economic security and subjective health, whereas perceived economic security had a strong influence on subjective health status. Conclusion It appears that past satisfaction with life influences how centenarians frame subjective evaluations of health status and economic security. Furthermore, past satisfaction with life is directly associated with present happiness. This presents implications relative to understanding how perception of resources may enhance quality of life among persons who live exceptionally long lives. PMID:20110722

  15. Season of birth and exceptional longevity: comparative study of american centenarians, their siblings, and spouses.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of month of birth (a proxy for early-life environmental influences) on the chances of survival to age 100. Months of birth for 1,574 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1880-1895 were compared to the same information obtained for centenarians' 10,885 shorter-lived siblings and 1,083 spouses. Comparison was conducted using a within-family analysis by the method of conditional logistic regression, which allows researchers to control for unobserved shared childhood or adulthood environment and common genetic background. It was found that months of birth have significant long-lasting effect on survival to age 100: siblings born in September-November have higher odds to become centenarians compared to siblings born in March. A similar month-of-birth pattern was found for centenarian spouses. These results support the idea of early-life programming of human aging and longevity. PMID:22187646

  16. Season of Birth and Exceptional Longevity: Comparative Study of American Centenarians, Their Siblings, and Spouses

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of month of birth (a proxy for early-life environmental influences) on the chances of survival to age 100. Months of birth for 1,574 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1880–1895 were compared to the same information obtained for centenarians' 10,885 shorter-lived siblings and 1,083 spouses. Comparison was conducted using a within-family analysis by the method of conditional logistic regression, which allows researchers to control for unobserved shared childhood or adulthood environment and common genetic background. It was found that months of birth have significant long-lasting effect on survival to age 100: siblings born in September–November have higher odds to become centenarians compared to siblings born in March. A similar month-of-birth pattern was found for centenarian spouses. These results support the idea of early-life programming of human aging and longevity. PMID:22187646

  17. APOE ?4, Rated Life Experiences, and Affect among Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Peter; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Davey, Adam; Green, Robert; MacDonald, Maurice; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Arnold, Jonathan; Woodard, John; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kim, Sangkyu; Dai, Jianliang; Li, Li; Batzer, Mark A.; Poon, Leonard W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between APOE, life events and engagement, and subjective well-being (as measured by positive and negative affect) among centenarians. Based on the life stress paradigm, we predicted that higher levels of stress would allow APOE to influence positive and negative affect. One hundred and ninety six centenarians and near centenarians (98 years and older) of the Georgia Centenarian Study participated in this research. APOE, positive and negative affect, number of recent (last two years) and life-long (more than 20 years prior to testing) events, as well as a number of life engagement tasks were assessed. Results suggested that centenarians carrying the APOE ?4 allele rated lower in positive affect, number of life-long events, and in engaged lifestyle when compared to centenarians without the APOE ?4 allele (t = 3.43, p < .01, t = 3.19, p < .01, and t = 2.33, p < .05, respectively). Blockwise multiple regressions indicated that APOE ?4 predicted positive but not negative affect after controlling for demographics. Gene-environment interactions were obtained for APOE ?4 and life-long events, suggesting that carriers of the APOE ?4 allele had higher scores of negative affect after having experienced more events, whereas non-carriers had reduced negative affect levels after having experienced more events. PMID:23998924

  18. Centenarians Today: New Insights on Selection from the 5-COOP Study

    PubMed Central

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Cheung, Siu Lan Karen; Saito, Yasuhiko; Jeune, Bernard; Parker, Marti G.; Herrmann, François R.

    2010-01-01

    The number of oldest old grew tremendously over the past few decades. However, recent studies have disclosed that the pace of increase strongly varies among countries. The present study aims to specify the level of mortality selection among the nonagenarians and centenarians living currently in five low mortality countries, Denmark, France, Japan, Switzerland, and Sweden, part of the 5-Country Oldest Old Project (5-COOP). All data come from the Human Mortality Database, except for the number of centenarians living in Japan. We disclosed three levels of mortality selection, a milder level in Japan, a stronger level in Denmark and Sweden and an intermediary level in France and Switzerland. These divergences offer an opportunity to study the existence of a trade-off between the level of mortality selection and the functional health status of the oldest old survivors which will be seized by the 5-COOP project. PMID:21423541

  19. Nutrition in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors. PMID:21276673

  20. Mitochondrial DNA content contributes to healthy aging in Chinese: a study from nonagenarians and centenarians.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-Han; Lu, Xiang; Wu, Huan; Cai, Wang-Wei; Yang, Li-Qin; Xu, Liang-You; Sun, Hong-Peng; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content plays an important role in energy production and sustaining normal physiological function. A decline in the mtDNA content and subsequent dysfunction cause various senile diseases, with decreasing mtDNA content observed in the elderly individuals with age-related diseases. In contrast, the oldest old individuals, for example, centenarians, have a delayed or reduced prevalence of these diseases, suggesting centenarians may have a different pattern of the mtDNA content, enabling them to keep normal mitochondrial functions to help delay or escape senile diseases. To test this hypothesis, a total of 961 subjects, consisting of 424 longevity subjects and 537 younger control subjects from Hainan and Sichuan provinces of China, were recruited for this study. The mtDNA content was found to be inversely associated with age among the age of group 40-70 years. Surprisingly, no reduction of mtDNA content was observed in nonagenarians and centenarians; instead, these oldest old showed a significant increase than the elderly people aged between 50 and 70 years. The results suggest the higher mtDNA content may convey a beneficial effect to the longevity of people through assuring sufficient energy supply. PMID:24524965

  1. Stability and Change in Affect among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; da Rosa, Grace; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Garasky, Steven; Franke, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Much information is available about physical and functional health among very old adults, but little knowledge exists about the mental health and mental health changes in very late life. This study reports findings concerning positive and negative affect changes among centenarians. Nineteen centenarians from a Midwestern state participated in four

  2. The nutritional habits among centenarians living in Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Ko??ajtis-Do?owy, Anna; Pietruszka, Barbara; Ka?uza, Joanna; Pawli?iska-Chmara, Romana; Broczek, Katarzyna; Mossakowska, Ma?gorzata

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the preferences and nutritional habits of Warsaw centenarians during their "third period" of life. The study was conducted by a questionnaire method among 29 centenarians. Most of centenarians had general good health condition. Almost 60% of centenarians performed manual labor in the past. Then they drank small amounts of alcohol irregularly. Several percent of centenarians smoked in the past. Before the age of sixty less people then at present snacked between meals. Sweets both now and in the past were preferred products, however, in the past sweets were rarely eaten by centenarians. At the present time centenarians ate more often yogurt, skim curd, fish, lean meat products, plant oils and sweets. The changes in eating habits were probably caused by civilization changes. PMID:17711123

  3. Examination of important life experiences of the oldest-old: cross-cultural comparisons of U.S. and Japanese centenarians.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Grace; Martin, Peter; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Ishioka, Yoshiko; Poon, Leonard W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the most important life events reported by U.S. and Japanese centenarians. This study included a population-based sample of 239 U.S. centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study and 304 Japanese centenarians from the Tokyo Centenarian Study. Two open-ended life events questions were categorized and grouped into different life event domains. Several cross-tabulations were computed to investigate culture and gender differences in most important life event domains. Next, four configural frequency analyses were conducted using Neuroticism, Extraversion, and the first most often mentioned life event domain for each sample (i.e., marriage and historical life events). Results suggest that events related to marriage were the most frequent important event domains mentioned by U.S. centenarians. The Japanese sample was more likely to report historical events. Men from the U.S. were more likely to report events related to work and retirement compared to U.S. women, and U.S. women reported events related to family as the most important life events when compared to U.S. men. Japanese women considered events related to marriage, death and grief as the most important life events when compared to Japanese men. In addition, Japanese men reported events related to work and retirement as the most important life events. A cross-cultural difference was found in life events: U.S. centenarians were more likely to mention positive experiences related to marriage and children, whereas Japanese centenarians reported mostly negative and traumatic experiences such as historical, death/grief, and work/retirement events. PMID:24477838

  4. Outcomes of chronic subdural hematoma drainage in nonagenarians and centenarians: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lester; Ker, Justin; Ng, Hui Yu; Munusamy, Thangaraj; King, Nicolas Kon Kam; Kumar, Dinesh; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2016-02-01

    OBJECT Chronic subdural hemorrhage (SDH) or hematoma is a condition that affects elderly individuals. With advances in medical care, the number of nonagenarians and centenarians will increase. However, surgical treatments in this age group are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Because no data are available on the rates of survival among elderly patients with chronic SDHs who undergo surgical drainage or receive only conservative care, the goal of this study was to determine survival rates in patients 90 years of age or older with symptomatic chronic SDHs. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of patient data that were collected at 3 hospitals over a 13-year period (from January 2001 to June 2013). The data from patients 90 years or older with symptomatic chronic SDHs and who were offered surgical treatment were included in the analysis. Patients who underwent surgical treatment were included in the surgical group and patients who declined an operation were included in the conservative care group. The patients' Charlson Comorbidity Index score, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, dates of death, presenting symptoms, Glasgow Coma Scale score, length of stay in the hospital, discharge location, side of the SDH, and neurological improvements at 30-day and 6-month follow-ups were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed with Fisher exact test, Kaplan-Meier curves, and logistic regression. RESULTS In total, 101 patients met the inclusion criteria of this study; 70 of these patients underwent surgical drainage, and 31 received conservative care. Patients in the surgical group had statistically significantly (p < 0.001) higher survival at both the 30-day and 6-month follow-ups, with 92.9% and 81.4% of the patients in this group surviving for at least 30 days and 6 months, respectively, versus 58.1% and 41.9%, respectively, in the conservative care group. Moreover, the mean overall length of survival of 34.4 28.7 months was longer in the surgical group than it was in the conservative care group (11.3 16.6 months). Overall, 95.7% of patients in the surgical group exhibited an improvement in neurological status after the SDH drainage, whereas none of the patients in the conservative care group showed any neurological improvement during their hospital stay. The surgical complication rate was 11.4%, and the overall rate of chronic SDH recurrence after surgery was 12.9%. CONCLUSIONS Surgical drainage of chronic SDHs in nonagenarians and centenarians is associated with lower incidence of inpatient death and higher 30-day and 6-month survival rates. PMID:26162032

  5. Place and Cause of Death in Centenarians: A Population-Based Observational Study in England, 2001 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Catherine J.; Ho, Yuen; Daveson, Barbara A.; Hall, Sue; Higginson, Irene J.; Gao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Centenarians are a rapidly growing demographic group worldwide, yet their health and social care needs are seldom considered. This study aims to examine trends in place of death and associations for centenarians in England over 10 years to consider policy implications of extreme longevity. Methods and Findings This is a population-based observational study using death registration data linked with area-level indices of multiple deprivations for people aged ?100 years who died 2001 to 2010 in England, compared with those dying at ages 80-99. We used linear regression to examine the time trends in number of deaths and place of death, and Poisson regression to evaluate factors associated with centenarians place of death. The cohort totalled 35,867 people with a median age at death of 101 years (range: 100115 years). Centenarian deaths increased 56% (95% CI 53.8%57.4%) in 10 years. Most died in a care home with (26.7%, 95% CI 26.3%27.2%) or without nursing (34.5%, 95% CI 34.0%35.0%) or in hospital (27.2%, 95% CI 26.7%27.6%). The proportion of deaths in nursing homes decreased over 10 years (?0.36% annually, 95% CI ?0.63% to ?0.09%, p?=?0.014), while hospital deaths changed little (0.25% annually, 95% CI ?0.06% to 0.57%, p?=?0.09). Dying with frailty was common with old age stated in 75.6% of death certifications. Centenarians were more likely to die of pneumonia (e.g., 17.7% [95% CI 17.3%18.1%] versus 6.0% [5.9%6.0%] for those aged 8084 years) and old age/frailty (28.1% [27.6%28.5%] versus 0.9% [0.9%0.9%] for those aged 8084 years) and less likely to die of cancer (4.4% [4.2%4.6%] versus 24.5% [24.6%25.4%] for those aged 8084 years) and ischemic heart disease (8.6% [8.3%8.9%] versus 19.0% [18.9%19.0%] for those aged 8084 years) than were younger elderly patients. More care home beds available per 1,000 population were associated with fewer deaths in hospital (PR 0.98, 95% CI 0.980.99, p<0.001). Conclusions Centenarians are more likely to have causes of death certified as pneumonia and frailty and less likely to have causes of death of cancer or ischemic heart disease, compared with younger elderly patients. To reduce reliance on hospital care at the end of life requires recognition of centenarians increased likelihood to acute decline, notably from pneumonia, and wider provision of anticipatory care to enable people to remain in their usual residence, and increasing care home bed capacity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892645

  6. [French centenarians and their functional health status].

    PubMed

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Romieu, Isabelle; Allard, Michel

    2003-03-01

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDIES ON CENTENARIANS: In a spectacular context of increase in the number of centenarians and of emergence of super-centenarians (110 years old and over), large studies on the health of these very old populations were set up in France at the beginning of the 1990s. A HETEROGENIC POPULATION: The results of these studies make it possible to describe centenarians as a heterogenic population mainly composed of women. Their functional health, their sensory performance, their limitations in daily life activities, their social and family integration, their cognitive functioning, are very varied. They appear as robust individuals who have triumphed over the hardships they have lived. LONGEVITY AND DEMENTIA: The French study has revealed that 35% of the women and 58% of the men are free from any suspicion of dementia according to Pfeiffer's screening test, which is encouraging if we consider the disastrous scenarios which could have been forecasted. PMID:12712684

  7. Nutritional Patterns of Centenarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and…

  8. Nutritional Patterns of Centenarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and

  9. Exploring Positive and Negative Affect as Key Indicators of Life Satisfaction among Centenarians: Does Cognitive Performance Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine how cognitive performance was associated with positive and negative affect and life satisfaction over time. This study involved a secondary longitudinal analysis of cross-section data collected at Phase I (19881992) and during an 18-month longitudinal followup at Phase II (19921998) of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Participants included N = 137 centenarians at Time 1 and N = 68 survivors at Time 2. Significant stability in cognitive impairment existed at Time 1 and Time 2 for positive (? = .55, P < .01) and negative affect (? = .54, P < .01) models. Negative affect at Time 1 was associated with lower life satisfaction at Time 1 (? = ?.42, P < .01 ). In addition, cognitive impairment at Time 2 was associated with decreased positive emotionality at Time 2 (? = ?.39, P > .01). Furthermore, greater positive affect at Time 2 was associated with greater satisfaction with life at Time 2 (? = .35, P < .01). It appears that positive emotionality contemporaneously influences the association between cognitive impairment and life satisfaction among centenarians. Implications relative to improving life satisfaction among centenarians are discussed. PMID:21876811

  10. Regression-Based Estimates of Observed Functional Status in Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy…

  11. Regression-Based Estimates of Observed Functional Status in Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy

  12. Cognitive Status and Change among Iowa Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margrett, Jennifer A.; Hsieh, Wen-Hua; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Equivocal evidence exists regarding the degree of cognitive stability and prevalence of cognitive impairment in very late life. The objective of the current study was to examine mental status performance and change over time within a sample of Iowa centenarians. The baseline sample consisted of 152 community-dwelling and institutionalized…

  13. Centenarians' "holy" memory: is being positive enough?

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared 18 centenarians' (M age = 100.1 years, SD = 1.8 years) recognition memory for emotional (positive, negative, and religious) pictures with 18 older adults (M age = 75.2 years, SD = 6.8 years). Participants observed a series of images that varied in emotional valence and meaning and were later asked to discriminate between old and new images in a series of pictures that included studied images as well as new images. Centenarians showed decreased recognition memory for positive and negative images items compared with older adults, F(1, 34) = 9.82, p < .01. In addition, a significant age by valence interaction was observed highlighting how centenarians remembered religious pictures better while older adults favoured positive information when only positive pictures were taken into consideration. Results are interpreted in terms of possible age-linked changes in meaningful goals that lead centenarians to focus on meaningful religious self-relevant information rather than simply on positive information. PMID:23534096

  14. Improved lipids, diastolic pressure and kidney function are potential contributors to familial longevity: a study on 60 Chinese centenarian families.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-Han; Pu, Shao-Yan; Xiao, Fu-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yan, Dong-Jing; Liu, Yao-Wen; Lin, Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Qin; Yang, Li-Qin; Yang, Xing-Li; Ge, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Centenarians are a good healthy aging model. Interestingly, centenarians' offspring are prone to achieve longevity. Here we recruited 60 longevity families and investigated the blood biochemical indexes of family members to seek candidate factors associated with familial longevity. First, associations of blood indexes with age were tested. Second, associations of blood parameters in centenarians (CEN) with their first generation of offspring (F1) and F1 spouses (F1SP) were analyzed. Third, genes involved in regulating target factors were investigated. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) increased with age (20-80 years), but decreased in CEN. Similarly, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine (BCr) increased with age (20-80 years), but were maintained on a plateau in CEN. Importantly, we first revealed dual changes in blood pressure, i.e., decreased diastolic blood pressure but increased systolic blood pressure in CEN, which associated with altered CST3 expression. Genetic analysis revealed a significant association of blood uric acid (BUA) and BCr in CEN with F1 but not with F1SP, suggesting they may be heritable traits. Taken together, our results suggest serum lipids, kidney function and especially diastolic pressure rather than systolic pressure were improved in CEN or their offspring, suggesting these factors may play an important role in familial longevity. PMID:26911903

  15. Centenarian Self-Perceptions of Factors Responsible for Attainment of Extended Health and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Shannon; Garcia, John; Marston, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    Pathways healthy and physically functional centenarians take to achieve advanced old age have fascinated mankind for centuries. This hermeneutic phenomenological study documents characteristics perceived by centenarians as important and central to their attainment of advanced longevity. Secondary data including written transcripts and audio and…

  16. Centenarian Self-Perceptions of Factors Responsible for Attainment of Extended Health and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Shannon; Garcia, John; Marston, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    Pathways healthy and physically functional centenarians take to achieve advanced old age have fascinated mankind for centuries. This hermeneutic phenomenological study documents characteristics perceived by centenarians as important and central to their attainment of advanced longevity. Secondary data including written transcripts and audio and

  17. The Georgia Health Education Study: A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Health and Safety.

    This summary review of the Georgia Health Education Study is a statistical presentation of scores achieved by over four thousand freshman college students in the university system of Georgia to questions on health knowledge. Data compiled from the administration of the Fast-Tyson Health Knowledge Test (1975 revision) indicates that subject

  18. Qualitative and Semiquantitative Analysis of Fecal Bifidobacterium Species in Centenarians Living in Bama, Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Huang, Guohong; Cai, Da; Li, Danlei; Liang, Xiaolin; Yu, Ting; Shen, Peihong; Su, Haiyan; Liu, Jidong; Gu, Hongcang; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Quanyang

    2015-07-01

    Centenarians constitute a significant subpopulation in the Bama County of Guangxi province in China. The beneficial effects of intestinal microbiota, especially bifidobacteria of centenarians, have been widely accepted; however, knowledge about Bifidobacterium species in centenarians is not adequate. The aim of this study was to investigate the quantity and prevalence of fecal Bifidobacterium in healthy longevous individuals. Fecal samples from eight centenarians from Bama (aged 100 to 108years), eight younger elderlies from Bama (aged 80 to 99years), and eight younger elderlies from Nanning (aged 80 to 99years) were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, species-specific clone library, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction technology (qPCR). A total of eight different Bifidobacterium species were detected. B. dentium, B. longum, B. thermophilum, B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum, and B. adolescentis were common in fecal of centenarians and young elderly. B. minimum, B. saecularmay/B. pullorum/B. gallinarum, and B. mongoliense were found in centenarians but were absent in the younger elderlies. In addition, Bifidobacterium species found in centenarians were different from those found in Bama young elderly and Nanning young elderly, and the principal differences were the significant increase in the population of B. longum (P<0.05) and B. dentium (P<0.05) and the reduction in the frequency of B. adolescentis (P<0.05), respectively. Centenarians tend to have more complex fecal Bifidobacterium species than young elderlies from different regions. PMID:26003628

  19. Georgia-Armenia Transboarder seismicity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Javakishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Durgaryan, R.; Arakelyan, A.; Gevorgyan, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the presented study we performed Comprehensive seismic analyses for the Armenian-Georgian transboarder active seismic fault starting on Armenian territory, cutting the state boarder and having possibly northern termination on Adjara-Triealeti frontal structure in Georgia. In the scope of International projects: ISTC A-1418 "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" and NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response" in Akhalkalaki (Georgia) seismic center, Regional Summer school trainings and intensive filed investigations were conducted. Main goal was multidisciplinary study of the Javakheti fault structure and better understanding seismicity of the area. Young scientists from Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia were participated in the deployment of temporal seismic network in order to monitor seisimity on the Javakheti highland and particularly delineate fault scarf and identify active seismic structures. In the scope of international collaboration the common seismic database has been created in the southern Caucasus and collected data from the field works is available now online. Javakheti highland, which is located in the central part of the Caucasus, belongs to the structure of the lesser Caucasus and represents a history of neotectonic volcanism existed in the area. Jasvakheti highland is seismicalu active region devastating from several severe earthquakes(1088, 1283, 1899). Hypocenters located during analogue network were highly scattered and did not describe real pattern of seismicity of the highland. We relocated hypocenters of the region and improved local velocity model. The hypocenters derived from recently deployed local seismic network in the Javakheti highland, clearly identified seismically active structures. Fault plane solutions of analogue data of the Soviet times have been carefully analyzed and examined. Moment tensor inversion were preformed for the recent moderate size earthquakes and the results are in an agreement with paleo-trenching data showing normal fault mechanism on the south and strake slip on the northern edge of the fault. Local seismic tomography of Javakheti area has been performed in order to improve 3D structure of the region.

  20. Have centenarians had younger parents than the others?

    PubMed

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Cournil, Amandine; Henon, Nicolas; Allard, Michel

    2003-04-01

    This work, based on a matched case-control design, tests the assumption that centenarians were conceived by parents younger than the parents of individuals who had lifespan close to mean life duration. The centenarians are paired with controls of the same sex, born at the same place and at the same time in order to avoid traditional biases related to mortality peaks or secular trend of increase in life expectancy. The parental age at the time of the birth registration of 320 centenarians born in France between 1875 and 1890 and deceased between 1990 and 1999 is collected, as well as the one of 603 controls of the same sex whose births were recorded immediately before or after those of the future centenarians on the birth registers of the cities concerned. No difference is found between the parental age of parents of centenarians and of controls. In particular, no difference is found for females. Recent studies showed--from genealogical data--that the life expectancy of a female would be much reduced if her father was old at the time of her conception. Our study does not indicate a negative effect of a higher paternal age on the longevity of daughters. PMID:12670622

  1. Improved lipids, diastolic pressure and kidney function are potential contributors to familial longevity: a study on 60 Chinese centenarian families

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong-Han; Pu, Shao-Yan; Xiao, Fu-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yan, Dong-Jing; Liu, Yao-Wen; Lin, Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Qin; Yang, Li-Qin; Yang, Xing-Li; Ge, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Centenarians are a good healthy aging model. Interestingly, centenarians’ offspring are prone to achieve longevity. Here we recruited 60 longevity families and investigated the blood biochemical indexes of family members to seek candidate factors associated with familial longevity. First, associations of blood indexes with age were tested. Second, associations of blood parameters in centenarians (CEN) with their first generation of offspring (F1) and F1 spouses (F1SP) were analyzed. Third, genes involved in regulating target factors were investigated. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) increased with age (20–80 years), but decreased in CEN. Similarly, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine (BCr) increased with age (20–80 years), but were maintained on a plateau in CEN. Importantly, we first revealed dual changes in blood pressure, i.e., decreased diastolic blood pressure but increased systolic blood pressure in CEN, which associated with altered CST3 expression. Genetic analysis revealed a significant association of blood uric acid (BUA) and BCr in CEN with F1 but not with F1SP, suggesting they may be heritable traits. Taken together, our results suggest serum lipids, kidney function and especially diastolic pressure rather than systolic pressure were improved in CEN or their offspring, suggesting these factors may play an important role in familial longevity. PMID:26911903

  2. High prevalence of autoantibodies among Danish centenarians

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN-RANBERG, K; HIER-MADSEN, M; WIIK, A; JEUNE, B; HEGEDS, L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of organ and nonorgan specific autoantibodies in relation to disability and comorbidity in an unselected population of centenarians. A population-based survey of all persons living in Denmark who celebrated their 100th birthday during the period 1 April 1995 to 31 May 1996, a total of 276 persons, was undertaken. Participants underwent an interview, a physical examination and blood sampling. Organ specific autoantibodies (Tg-ab, TPO-ab, PCA-ab) and nonorgan specific autoantibodies (ANA, IgM RF, IgA RF, MPO-ab, c-ANCA, p-ANCA, oxLDL-ab, IgM ACA, IgG ACA, PR3-ANCA, histone-ab, SSA-ab, SSB-ab, Mit-ab) were measured, and comorbidity and disability (Katz Index of ADL) were registered. In all, 207 (750%) of 276 eligible subjects participated, and 148 agreed to blood tests. A large majority (793%) had at least one autoantibody detected. Organ specific autoantibodies were present in 321% of the centenarians. The high level of autoantibodies did not reflect an equally high level of overt autoimmune disease. While nonorgan specific autoantibodies were equally represented in less-disabled/disabled subjects as well as in subjects with low/high comorbidity, significantly fewer subjects with organ specific autoantibodies were found among less-disabled subjects or subjects with low comorbidity. Autoantibodies (both nonorgan and organ specific) are common in an unselected population of centenarians of today, but do not reflect an equally high level of overt autoimmune disease. Non-organ specific autoantibodies are evenly distributed irrespective of the level of disability or comorbidity, suggesting underlying, undiagnosed pathological processes which may be part of the processes involved in frailty. PMID:15373919

  3. A Study of an Intensive Educational Program Conducted in Six Georgia Counties by the Georgia Cooperative Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, William Horace

    Based on surveys in 1957 and 1960 in six Georgia counties, this study evaluated an intensive educational program by the University of Georgia, and investigated attitudes and other factors related to farmers' use of fertilizers. Respondents were ranked by amounts of plant nutrients applied per acre in 1957 and by fertility per farm. Findings

  4. A Study of an Intensive Educational Program Conducted in Six Georgia Counties by the Georgia Cooperative Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, William Horace

    Based on surveys in 1957 and 1960 in six Georgia counties, this study evaluated an intensive educational program by the University of Georgia, and investigated attitudes and other factors related to farmers' use of fertilizers. Respondents were ranked by amounts of plant nutrients applied per acre in 1957 and by fertility per farm. Findings…

  5. Personality, Longevity, and Successful Aging among Tokyo Metropolitan Centenarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimonaka, Yoshiko; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined two hypotheses: (1) that androgyny and Type B behavior are related to longevity; and (2) that personality characteristics associated with longevity may also be related to successful aging. Participants were 82 centenarians (37 men, 45 women) who were compared with 605 elderly in their sixties, seventies, and eighties. Discusses study

  6. The Political History of Developmental Studies in the University System of Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, John W.; Dodd, William M.

    2008-01-01

    The political history of developmental education in post-secondary education is as revealing as its intellectual history. With a University system-wide Developmental Studies program initiated in 1974, the State of Georgia was a pioneer in remedial education and open access. Unfortunately, the program became linked in Georgia media, and in Georgia

  7. HLA and KIR frequencies in Sicilian Centenarians.

    PubMed

    List, Florinda; Caruso, Calogero; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico; Nuzzo, Domenico; Candore, Giuseppina

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest that human longevity appears to be linked inextricably with optimal functioning of the immune system, suggesting that specific genetic determinants may reside in loci that regulate the immune response, as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes. It has been suggested that longevity is associated with positive selection of alleles (i.e., HLA-DR11) or haplotypes (i.e., HLA-B8,DR3) that confer resistance to infectious disease(s). On the other hand, the cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells is controlled by activating and inhibitory cell-surface receptors, including KIR. The genetic diversity of the KIR loci with respect to successful aging has been analyzed only in one study performed in the Irish population. Although two KIR genes (2DS3, 2DL5) displayed an initial increased frequency in the aged group, the significance of this association was lost when repeated in a second cohort. We have evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) HLA-DRB1 and KIR receptors/HLA ligands frequencies in centenarians and controls from Sicily. Our results demonstrate an increase of the HLA DRB1*18 allele in male centenarians (p = 0.0266, after Bonferroni correction). Concerning KIR, no significant difference was observed after Bonferroni correction. However, our findings suggest that HLA/KIR/longevity associations are population specific, being heavily affected by the population-specific genetic and environmental history. This kind of study is important to better understand aging and longevity, hence enhancing the planning of antiaging strategies. PMID:20426625

  8. Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2012-05-01

    Centenarians have been reported to share particular personality traits including low neuroticism and high extraversion and conscientiousness. Since these traits have moderate to high heritability and are associated with various health outcomes, personality appears linked to bio-genetic mechanisms which may contribute to exceptional longevity. Therefore, the present study sought to detect genetically-based personality phenotypes in a genetically homogeneous sample of centenarians through developing and examining psychometric properties of a brief measure of the personality of centenarians, the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS). The results generated two personality characteristics/domains, Positive Attitude Towards Life (PATL: optimism, easygoing, laughter, and introversion/outgoing) and Emotional Expression (EE: expressing emotions openly and not bottling up emotions). These domains demonstrated acceptable concurrent validity with two established personality measures, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Life Orientation Test-Revised. Additionally, centenarians in both groups had lower neuroticism and higher conscientiousness than the US adult population. Findings suggest that the POPS is a psychometrically sound measure of personality in centenarians and capture personality aspects of extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, as well as dispositional optimism which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:22626632

  9. Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Centenarians have been reported to share particular personality traits including low neuroticism and high extraversion and conscientiousness. Since these traits have moderate to high heritability and are associated with various health outcomes, personality appears linked to bio-genetic mechanisms which may contribute to exceptional longevity. Therefore, the present study sought to detect genetically-based personality phenotypes in a genetically homogeneous sample of centenarians through developing and examining psychometric properties of a brief measure of the personality of centenarians, the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS). The results generated two personality characteristics/domains, Positive Attitude Towards Life (PATL: optimism, easygoing, laughter, and introversion/outgoing) and Emotional Expression (EE: expressing emotions openly and not bottling up emotions). These domains demonstrated acceptable concurrent validity with two established personality measures, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Life Orientation Test-Revised. Additionally, centenarians in both groups had lower neuroticism and higher conscientiousness than the US adult population. Findings suggest that the POPS is a psychometrically sound measure of personality in centenarians and capture personality aspects of extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, as well as dispositional optimism which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:22626632

  10. Oxidative Stress and Longevity in Okinawa: An Investigation of Blood Lipid Peroxidation and Tocopherol in Okinawan Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Makoto; Willcox, D. Craig; Rosenbaum, Matthew W.; Willcox, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The Free Radical Theory of Aging mechanistically links oxidative stress to aging. Okinawa has among the world's longest-lived populations but oxidative stress in this population has not been well characterized. Methods. We compared plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) and vitamin Eplasma and intracellular tocopherol levels (total ?, ?, and ?), in centenarians with younger controls. Results. Both LPO and vitamin E tocopherols were lower in centenarians, with the exception of intracellular ?-tocopherol, which was significantly higher in centenarians versus younger controls. There were no significant differences between age groups for tocopherol: cholesterol and tocopherol: LPO ratios. Correlations were found between ?-Tocopherol and LPO in septuagenarians but not in centenarians. Conclusions. The low plasma level of LPO in Okinawan centenarians, compared to younger controls, argues for protection against oxidative stress in the centenarian population and is consistent with the predictions of the Free Radical Theory of Aging. However, the present work does not strongly support a role for vitamin E in this phenomenon. The role of intracellular ?-tocopherol deserves additional study. More research is needed on the contribution of oxidative stress and antioxidants to human longevity. PMID:21490698

  11. Seeking Better Lives by Becoming Teachers in Rural South Georgia: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, David W.

    2011-01-01

    For four years the Investigator studied students in South Georgia attempting to become teachers. Three themes emerged impacting study subjects most. They are location, teacher education program, and the economy. South Georgia is one of the poorest rural regions in the United States. People are often place-bound and they endure chronic

  12. BIG FROG WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITIONS, TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made of the Big Frog Wilderness Study Area and additions, Tennessee-Georgia. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, zinc, copper, and arsenic in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of deposits of these metals. The results of the survey indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral deposits within the study area. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. A potential may exist for oil and natural gas at great depths, but this cannot be evaluated by the present study.

  13. Understanding Perceptions of Economic Status among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garasky, Steven; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Cho, Jinmyoung

    2012-01-01

    Centenarians are often concerned with outliving their accumulated resources. Yet, research consistently finds that older adults, despite low incomes, are more financially satisfied than younger adults. This "satisfaction paradox" has been attributed to psychological accommodation to poor financial circumstances and lower expectations. As a result,…

  14. Psychosocial Dimensions of Exceptional Longevity: A Qualitative Exploration of Centenarians' Experiences, Personality, and Life Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darviri, Christina; Demakakos, Panayotes; Tigani, Xanthi; Charizani, Fotini; Tsiou, Chrysoula; Tsagkari, Christina; Chliaoutakis, Joannes; Monos, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study provides a comprehensive account of the social and life experiences and strategies and personality attributes that characterize exceptional longevity (living to 100 or over). It is based on nine semi-structured interviews of relatively healthy and functional Greek centenarians of both sexes. The analytic approach was

  15. Psychosocial Dimensions of Exceptional Longevity: A Qualitative Exploration of Centenarians' Experiences, Personality, and Life Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darviri, Christina; Demakakos, Panayotes; Tigani, Xanthi; Charizani, Fotini; Tsiou, Chrysoula; Tsagkari, Christina; Chliaoutakis, Joannes; Monos, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study provides a comprehensive account of the social and life experiences and strategies and personality attributes that characterize exceptional longevity (living to 100 or over). It is based on nine semi-structured interviews of relatively healthy and functional Greek centenarians of both sexes. The analytic approach was…

  16. Groundwater conditions and studies in Georgia, 2008-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collects groundwater data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define groundwater resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. In Georgia, water levels were monitored continuously at 179 wells during 2008 and 181 wells during 2009. Because of missing data or short periods of record (less than 3 years) for several of these wells, a total of 161 wells are discussed in this report. These wells include 17 in the surficial aquifer system, 19 in the Brunswick aquifer and equivalent sediments, 66 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 16 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 11 in the Clayton aquifer, 12 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the well network indicate that water levels generally rose during the 2008-2009 period, with water levels rising in 135 wells and declining in 26. In contrast, water levels declined over the period of record at 100 wells, increased at 56 wells, and remained relatively constant at 5 wells. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden, Charlton, and Ware Counties, Georgia, and adjacent counties in Florida during September 2008 and May 2009; in the Brunswick, Georgia area during July 2008 and July-August 2009; and in the City of Albany-Dougherty County, Georgia area during November 2008 and November 2009. In general, water levels in these areas were higher during 2009 than during 2008; however, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces in each of the areas showed little change. Groundwater quality in the Floridan aquifer system is monitored in the Albany, Savannah, Brunswick, and Camden County areas of Georgia. In the Albany area, nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during 2008-2009 generally increased, with concentrations in two wells above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 10-milligrams-per-liter (mg/L) drinking-water standard. In the Savannah area, measurement of specific conductance and chloride concentration in water samples from discrete depths in three wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate that chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer showed little change and remained below the 250 mg/L USEPA secondary drinking-water standard. Chloride concentrations in the Lower Floridan aquifer increased slightly at Tybee Island and Skidaway Island, remaining above the drinking-water standard. In the Brunswick area, maps showing the chloride concentration of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer were constructed using data collected from 28 wells during July 2008 and from 29 wells during July-August 2009, indicate that chloride concentrations remained above the USEPA secondary drinking-water standard in an approximately 2-square-mile area. During 2008-2009, chloride concentrations decreased, with a maximum decrease of 160 mg/L, in a well located in the northern part of the Brunswick area. In the Camden County area, chloride concentration during 2008-2009 was analyzed in water samples collected from eight wells, six of which were completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer and two in the Lower Floridan aquifer. In most of the wells sampled during this period, chloride concentrations did not appreciably change; however, since the closure of the Durango Paper Company in October 2002, chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer near the paper mill decreased from a high of 184 mg/L in May 2002 to 41 mg/L in September 2009. Groundwater studies conducted in Georgia during 2008-2009 include the following: * evaluation of groundwater flow, water-quality, and water-level monitoring in the Augusta-Richmond County area; * evaluation of groundwater flow, water-quality, and water

  17. Functionally significant insulin-like growth factor I receptor mutations in centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Yousin; Atzmon, Gil; Cho, Mi-Ook; Hwang, David; Liu, Bingrong; Leahy, Daniel J.; Barzilai, Nir; Cohen, Pinchas

    2008-01-01

    Rather than being a passive, haphazard process of wear and tear, lifespan can be modulated actively by components of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) pathway in laboratory animals. Complete or partial loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding components of the insulin/IGFI pathway result in extension of life span in yeasts, worms, flies, and mice. This remarkable conservation throughout evolution suggests that altered signaling in this pathway may also influence human lifespan. On the other hand, evolutionary tradeoffs predict that the laboratory findings may not be relevant to human populations, because of the high fitness cost during early life. Here, we studied the biochemical, phenotypic, and genetic variations in a cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians, their offspring, and offspring-matched controls and demonstrated a gender-specific increase in serum IGFI associated with a smaller stature in female offspring of centenarians. Sequence analysis of the IGF1 and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) genes of female centenarians showed overrepresentation of heterozygous mutations in the IGF1R gene among centenarians relative to controls that are associated with high serum IGFI levels and reduced activity of the IGFIR as measured in transformed lymphocytes. Thus, genetic alterations in the human IGF1R that result in altered IGF signaling pathway confer an increase in susceptibility to human longevity, suggesting a role of this pathway in modulation of human lifespan. PMID:18316725

  18. Energy conserving site design case study: Shenandoah, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The case study examines the means by which energy conservation can be achieved at an aggregate community level by using proper planning and analytical techniques for a new town, Shenandoah, Georgia, located twenty-five miles southwest of Atlanta's Hartsfield International Airport. A potentially implementable energy conservation community plan is achieved by a study team examining the land use options, siting characteristics of each building type, alternate infrastructure plans, possible decentralized energy options, and central utility schemes to determine how community energy conservation can be achieved by use of pre-construction planning. The concept for the development of mixed land uses as a passively sited, energy conserving community is based on a plan (Level 1 Plan) that uses the natural site characteristics, maximizes on passive energy siting requirement, and allows flexibility for the changing needs of the developers. The Level 2 Plan is identical with Level 1 plan plus a series of decentraized systems that have been added to the residential units: the single-family detached, the apartments, and the townhouses. Level 3 Plan is similar to the Level 1 Plan except that higher density dwellings have been moved to areas adjacent to central site. The total energy savings for each plan relative to the conventional plan are indicated. (MCW)

  19. Epidemiology of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests Among Japanese Centenarians: 2005 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Matsuyama, Tasuku; Izawa, Junichi; Shimamoto, Tomonari; Hatakeyama, Toshihiro; Fujii, Tomoko; Nishiyama, Chika; Iwami, Taku

    2016-03-15

    Although the number of centenarians has been rapidly increasing in industrialized countries, no clinical studies evaluated their characteristics and outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). This nationwide, population-based, observation of the whole population of Japan enrolled consecutive OHCA centenarians with resuscitation attempts before emergency medical service arrival from 2005 to 2013. The primary outcome measure was 1-month survival from OHCAs. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess factors associated with 1-month survival in this population. Among a total of 4,937 OHCA centenarians before emergency medical service arrival, the numbers of those with OHCAs increased from 70 in 2005 to 136 in 2013 in men and from 227 in 2005 to 587 in 2013 in women. Women accounted for 80.3%. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) as first documented rhythm was 2.5%. The proportions of victims receiving bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation were 64.2%. The proportion of 1-month survival from OHCAs in centenarians was only 1.1%. In a multivariate analysis, age was not associated with 1-month survival from OHCAs (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for one increment of age 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87 to 1.18). Witness by a bystander (adjusted OR 3.45; 95% CI 1.88 to 6.31) and VF as first documented rhythm (adjusted OR 5.49; 95% CI 2.24 to 13.43) were significant positive predictors for 1-month survival. Cardiac origin was significantly poor in 1-month survival compared with noncardiac origin (adjusted OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.64). In conclusion, survival from OHCAs in centenarians was very poor, but witness by a bystander and VF as first documented rhythm were associated with improved survival. PMID:26810860

  20. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study.

    PubMed

    Levin, Liran; Margvelashvili, Vladimer; Bilder, Leon; Kalandadze, Manana; Tsintsadze, Nino; Machtei, Eli E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45%) and 157 males (39.55%). Of the total participants 196 (49.37%) were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63%) were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26%) of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ? 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions. PMID:24109543

  1. Disease variants in genomes of 44 centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg-Hua, Yun; Freudenberg, Jan; Vacic, Vladimir; Abhyankar, Avinash; Emde, Anne-Katrin; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Barzilai, Nir; Oschwald, Dayna; Christen, Erika; Koppel, Jeremy; Greenwald, Blaine; Darnell, Robert B; Germer, Soren; Atzmon, Gil; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To identify previously reported disease mutations that are compatible with extraordinary longevity, we screened the coding regions of the genomes of 44 Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians. Individual genome sequences were generated with 30 coverage on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and single-nucleotide variants were called with the genome analysis toolkit (GATK). We identified 130 coding variants that were annotated as pathogenic or likely pathogenic based on the ClinVar database and that are infrequent in the general population. These variants were previously reported to cause a wide range of degenerative, neoplastic, and cardiac diseases with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance. Several of these variants are located in genes that harbor actionable incidental findings, according to the recommendations of the American College of Medical Genetics. In addition, we found risk variants for late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as the APOE ?4 allele that was even present in a homozygous state in one centenarian who did not develop Alzheimer's disease. Our data demonstrate that the incidental finding of certain reported disease variants in an individual genome may not preclude an extraordinarily long life. When the observed variants are encountered in the context of clinical sequencing, it is thus important to exercise caution in justifying clinical decisions. In genome sequences of 44 Ashkenazi centenarians, we identified many coding variants that were annotated as pathogenic or likely pathogenic based on the ClinVar database. Our data demonstrate that the incidental finding of certain reported disease variants in an individual genome may not preclude an extraordinarily long life. When the observed variants are encountered in the context of clinical sequencing, it is thus important to exercise caution in justifying clinical decisions. PMID:25333069

  2. Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium adolesentis BBMN23, a probiotic strain from healthy centenarian.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songling; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng; Sun, Erna; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan

    2015-03-20

    Bifidobacterium adolesentis BBMN23 (CGMCC No. 2264) was a probiotic strain originated from the feces of a centenarian. It is an excellent model for the study of the adaptation of genus bifidobacteria to adult human gut, which is a key factor in bifidobacterial strains that allows them to persist in gut and become useful in the food and medical industries. In the present study the complete genome sequence of BBMN23 is presented to provide insight into this strain. PMID:25678139

  3. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Diddahally; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a) interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP) map approach and niche-construction theory, and b) discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span. PMID:26937346

  4. Making Sense of Extreme Longevity: Explorations Into the Spiritual Lives of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lydia K.; Leek, Jessie A.; Radina, M. Elise

    2012-01-01

    As the population grows older and more individuals live into advanced age the oldest-old segment will continue to increase in size. This qualitative study analyzes data gathered using in-depth interviewing and explores the spiritual saliency for sixteen centenarians. Results illustrate the importance spirituality has for older adults over the lifecourse, particularly those in advanced age. Our findings indicate that spirituality is key factor of support, an important resource in late life, and maintains continuity over the lifecourse for the centenarians. Additionally, spirituality serves as critical component in the everyday lives of the participants and provide a framework for helping older adults make sense of having lived a very long life. The findings reported here support the need for researchers and practitioners to consider the importance of spirituality in late life, particularly for those in their last decades. PMID:23139646

  5. Centenarians and supercentenarians: a black swan. Emerging social, medical and surgical problems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Black Swan Theory was described by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book The Black Swan. This theory refers to high-impact, hard-to-predict, and rare events beyond the realm of normal expectations. According to Talebs criteria, a Black Swan Event is a surprise, it has a major impact and after the fact, the event is rationalized by hindsight, as if it had been expected. For most of human history centenarians were a rare and unpredictable phenomenon. The improvements of the social-environmental conditions, of medical care, and the quality of life caused a general improvement of the health status of the population and a consequent reduction of the overall morbidity and mortality, resulting in an overall increase of life expectancy. The study of centenarians and supercentenarians had the objective to consider this black swan and to evaluate the health, welfare, social and economic consequences of this phenomenon. PMID:23173707

  6. Centenarians and supercentenarians: a black swan. Emerging social, medical and surgical problems.

    PubMed

    Vacante, Marco; D'Agata, Velia; Motta, Massimo; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Michele; Gagliano, Caterina; Drago, Filippo; Salamone, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The Black Swan Theory was described by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book "The Black Swan". This theory refers to "high-impact, hard-to-predict, and rare events beyond the realm of normal expectations". According to Taleb's criteria, a Black Swan Event is a surprise, it has a major impact and after the fact, the event is rationalized by hindsight, as if it had been expected. For most of human history centenarians were a rare and unpredictable phenomenon. The improvements of the social-environmental conditions, of medical care, and the quality of life caused a general improvement of the health status of the population and a consequent reduction of the overall morbidity and mortality, resulting in an overall increase of life expectancy. The study of centenarians and supercentenarians had the objective to consider this black swan and to evaluate the health, welfare, social and economic consequences of this phenomenon. PMID:23173707

  7. Near-Centenarian Makes Friends Quickly in New Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living Near-Centenarian Makes Friends Quickly in New Home Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... who is thinking about transitioning from their own home to an assisted living facility, her answer was ...

  8. Centenarians a useful model for healthy aging? A 29-year follow-up of hospitalizations among 40 000 Danes born in 1905

    PubMed Central

    Engberg, Henriette; Oksuzyan, Anna; Jeune, Bernard; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    Summary Centenarians surpass the current human life expectancy with about 2025 years. However, whether centenarians represent healthy aging still remains an open question. Previous studies have been hampered by a number of methodological shortcomings such as a cross-sectional design and lack of an appropriate control group. In a longitudinal population-based cohort, it was examined whether the centenarian phenotype may be a useful model for healthy aging. The study was based on a complete follow up of 39 945 individuals alive in the Danish 1905 birth cohort on January 1, 1977 identified through the Danish Civil Registration System (DCRS). Data from the Danish Demographic Database and The Danish National Patient Register (in existence since 1977) were used. The 1905 cohort was followed up from 1977 through 2004 with respect to hospitalizations and number of hospital days. Survival status was available until December 2006. Danish centenarians from the 1905 cohort were hospitalized substantially less than their shorter-lived contemporaries at the same point in time during the years 1977 through 2004. For example, at age 7174, the proportion of nonhospitalized centenarians was 80.5% compared with 68.4% among individuals who died in their early 80s. This trend was evident in both sexes. As a result of their lower hospitalization rates and length of stay in hospital compared with their contemporaries, who died at younger ages, Danish centenarians represent healthy agers. Centenarians constitute a useful study population in the search for fixed traits associated with exceptional longevity, such as genotype. PMID:19627266

  9. Georgia fishery study: implications for dose calculations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-08-05

    Fish consumption will contribute a major portion of the estimated individual and population doses from L-Reactor liquid releases and Cs-137 remobilization in Steel Creek. It is therefore important that the values for fish consumption used in dose calculations be as realistic as possible. Since publication of the L-Reactor Environmental Information Document (EID), data have become available on sport fishing in the Savannah River. These data provide SRP with a site-specific sport fish harvest and consumption values for use in dose calculations. The Georgia fishery data support the total population fish consumption and calculated dose reported in the EID. The data indicate, however, that both the EID average and maximum individual fish consumption have been underestimated, although each to a different degree. The average fish consumption value used in the EID is approximately 3% below the lower limit of the fish consumption range calculated using the Georgia data. Maximum fish consumption in the EID has been underestimated by approximately 60%, and doses to the maximum individual should also be recalculated. Future dose calculations should utilize an average adult fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr, and a maximum adult fish consumption value of 34 kg/yr. Consumption values for the teen and child age groups should be increased proportionally: (1) teen average = 8.5; maximum = 25.9 kg/yr; and (2) child average = 3.6; maximum = 11.2 kg/yr. 8 refs.

  10. Factors Associated with ADL and IADL Dependency among Korean Centenarians: Reaching the 100-Year-Old Life Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunjee; Lee, Taeyong; Lee, Sokgoo; Kim, Keonyeop; Lee, Sungkook; Kam, Sin; Ahn, Sangnam; Cho, Jinmyoung; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the functional status of Korean centenarians, who have crossed the relatively rare but increasingly common life transition of living for a century. As functional health is one of the essential components of healthy aging, our primary objective is to identify the correlates of two aspects of functioning, activities of

  11. Interleukin 6 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) gene polymorphism in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Capurso, C; Solfrizzi, V; D'Introno, A; Colacicco, A M; Capurso, S A; Semeraro, C; Capurso, A; Panza, F

    2007-11-01

    Recent population-based studies identified the magnitude of interleukin 6 (IL6) serum levels as a marker for functional disability, and a predictor of disability and mortality among the elderly. We investigated whether there was evidence in Southern Italy of an association between the IL6 gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism and extreme longevity, and tested for the possible interaction of apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles with the IL6 VNTR alleles. Four alleles coding for variants of four different lengths have been identified: allele A [760 base pairs (bp)], allele B (680 bp), allele C (640 bp), and allele D (610 bp). IL6 VNTR and APOE allele and genotype frequencies were studied in a total of 61 centenarians and 94 middle-aged subjects from Southern Italy. The IL6 VNTR allele B was overrepresented in the younger control group compared with centenarians (odds ratio: 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.88, Bonferroni p-value < 0.05). No interactions between IL6 VNTR alleles and APOE alleles on the odds ratios to reach extreme longevity were evaluated for the smallest number of subjects in centenarians and younger controls. Our findings suggested that the presence of the IL6 VNTR allele B could be detrimental for reaching extreme longevity. PMID:17506774

  12. A Study of Differentiated Instruction Based on the SIOP Model in Georgia Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sherry Marie

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigated the teachers' concerns of the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model (Echevarria, Short and Vogt, 2008) as a means to differentiate instruction for LEP students in public school classrooms. This study took place in one central Georgia school district with a sample of 16 teachers who

  13. A Case Study of the Revised 2009 Georgia Teacher Academy for Preparation and Pedagogy (GaTAPP) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Addie Gaston

    2012-01-01

    In May 2009, the Georgia Teacher Alternative Preparation Program was revised and renamed The Georgia Teacher Academy for Preparation, Pedagogy (GaTAPP) This study examined the implementation of the revision and investigates RESA personnel participants' perception of the implementation, and school based mentor participants perception of the

  14. A Case Study of the Revised 2009 Georgia Teacher Academy for Preparation and Pedagogy (GaTAPP) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Addie Gaston

    2012-01-01

    In May 2009, the Georgia Teacher Alternative Preparation Program was revised and renamed The Georgia Teacher Academy for Preparation, Pedagogy (GaTAPP) This study examined the implementation of the revision and investigates RESA personnel participants' perception of the implementation, and school based mentor participants perception of the…

  15. How Accessible Are Public Libraries' Web Sites? A Study of Georgia Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, Emma; Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    One issue that public librarians must consider when planning Web site design is accessibility for patrons with disabilities. This article reports a study of Web site accessibility of public libraries in Georgia. The focus of the report is whether public libraries use accessible guidelines and standards in making their Web sites accessible. An

  16. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  17. A Validation Study of a Georgia Teacher Certification Test Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabney, Marian E.; Stewart, Theadora

    This study investigated the construct validity of the revised Special Education-Mental Handicaps Georgia Teacher Certification Test (MH-TCT) using hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis and LISREL VI. The primary objective was to determine whether first-order and second-order factors correspond to item/objective/test relationships defined by

  18. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that

  19. Georgia Mediagraphy. Second Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    This document is a guide to print and nonprint materials about Georgia and Georgians. Entries are arranged under the subject headings used in "Essential Skills for Georgia Schools." Criteria for inclusion were appropriateness for K-12 students and commercial availability of the item. Six books containing pictorial and photographic studies of…

  20. An Investigative Study on the Effects of Block Scheduling on Georgia High School Graduation Test Performance in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Tracy Shea

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was an effect on student performance on the Georgia High School Graduation Test Subtest-Social Studies (GHSGT-SS) depending on the type of instructional scheduling students received. There were no specific studies that observed any differences, but literature reviews concerning the traditional

  1. One hundred years: A collective case study of climate change education in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Leonard Mark

    This collective case study examined how five K-12 science teachers taught about climate change during Fall 2013, and asked how the University of Georgia can support climate change education. The participants were all experienced teachers, and included: three high school teachers, a middle school teacher, and an elementary school teacher. 'Postcarbonism', an emerging theoretical framework, shaped the research and guided the analysis. The teachers varied in their teaching practices and in their conceptions of 'climate change', but they were united in: 1) their focus on mitigation over adaptation, and 2) presenting climate change as a remote problem with simple solutions. The teachers drew on varied resources, but in all cases, their most valuable resources were their own skills, knowledge and personality. The University of Georgia can support climate change education by developing locally relevant educational resources. Curriculum developers might consider building upon the work of outstanding teach.

  2. Risk factors associated with human brucellosis in the country of Georgia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Havas, K A; Ramishvili, M; Navdarashvili, A; Hill, A E; Tsanava, S; Imnadze, P; Salman, M D

    2013-01-01

    Human brucellosis occurs when humans ingest or contact Brucella spp. from shedding animals or contaminated environments and food. In Georgia animal and human brucellosis is endemic, but the epidemiology has not been fully characterized. A case-control study was conducted in 2010 to identify risk factors for human brucellosis. Using multivariable logistic regression, the following risk factors were identified: animal-related work [odds ratio (OR) 778, 90% confidence interval (CI) 47-1278], non-animal-related work (OR 127, 90% CI 11-149), being unemployed or a pensioner (OR 131, 90% CI 17, 101), sheep ownership (OR 193, 90% CI 51-726), making dairy products (OR 124, 90% CI 14-113), living in eastern Georgia (Kakheti) (OR 2781, 90% CI 95-8100), and being aged >44 years (OR 93, 90% CI 102-844). Education of at-risk groups about risk factors and control of disease in sheep may reduce the human disease risk. This is the first study of its kind in Georgia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. PMID:22404868

  3. Centenarian scientists: an unusual cluster newly formed in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, S

    2001-12-01

    From biographical data sources on ranking scientists, I was able to identify 35 centenarians. Among these, only one (Michel Chevereul from France) lived before the 20th century. Since the remaining 34 individuals became centenarians only from 1965, I propose that centenarian scientists are an unusual cluster, first formed in the 20th century. Among these, all except one (Alice Hamilton) were men. Six centenarian scientists, including Hamilton, had received professional medical training. The nationality ranks of the 34 centenarian scientists identified in the 20th century show 26 Americans, 6 British, one German and one French. Four of the 26 Americans were immigrants from Europe. At least three centenarians, namely Michael Heidelberger, Nathaniel Kleitman and Victor Hamburger, belong to the 'Nobel class' category, being pioneers in the disciplines of immunochemistry, sleep physiology and neuroembryology respectively. PMID:11918440

  4. Forest health monitoring: 1991 Georgia indicator evaluation and field study

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, S.A.; Baldwin, M.; Bechtold, W.A.; Cassell, D.L.; Cline, S.

    1994-03-01

    The pilot study was designed to test methods for quantifying vegetation structure, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), dendrochronology, and selected root fungi. Testing the methods included comparing different data collection procedures for individual indicators, estimating sampling efficiency (both of the sampling design and the sampling unit design), and evaluating spatial variability. In addition, the accuracy and precision of tree height instruments were determined as part of the pilot study.

  5. Case study: Lockheed-Georgia Company integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    A case study of the development of an Integrated Design Process is presented. The approach taken in preparing for the development of an integrated design process includes some of the IPAD approaches such as developing a Design Process Model, cataloging Technical Program Elements (TPE's), and examining data characteristics and interfaces between contiguous TPE's. The implementation plan is based on an incremental development of capabilities over a period of time with each step directed toward, and consistent with, the final architecture of a total integrated system. Because of time schedules and different computer hardware, this system will not be the same as the final IPAD release; however, many IPAD concepts will no doubt prove applicable as the best approach. Full advantage will be taken of the IPAD development experience. A scenario that could be typical for many companies, even outside the aerospace industry, in developing an integrated design process for an IPAD-type environment is represented.

  6. Cigarette smoking and its association with serum lipid/lipoprotein among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking had been confirmed as an increased risk for dyslipidemia, but none of the evidence was from long-lived population. In present study, we detected relationship between cigarette smoking habits and serum lipid/lipoprotein (serum Triglyceride (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) among Chinese Nonagenarians/Centenarian. Methods The present study analyzed data from the survey that was conducted on all residents aged 90?years or more in a district, there were 2,311,709 inhabitants in 2005. Unpaired Students t test, ?2 test, and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze datas. Results The individuals included in the statistical analysis were 216 men and 445 women. Current smokers had lower level of TC (4.05??0.81 vs. 4.21??0.87, t?=?2.403, P?=?0.017) and lower prevalence of hypercholesteremia (9.62% vs. 15.13%, ?2?=?3.018,P?=?0.049) than nonsmokers. Unadjusted and adjusted multiple logistic regressions showed that cigarette smoking was not associated with risk for abnormal serum lipid/lipoprotein. Conclusions In summary, we found that among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians, cigarette smoking habits were not associated with increased risk for dyslipidemia, which was different from the association of smoking habits with dyslipidemia in general population. PMID:22828289

  7. Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells from centenarians for neurodegenerative disease research.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Takuya; Kosakai, Arifumi; Ito, Daisuke; Okada, Yohei; Akamatsu, Wado; Nihei, Yoshihiro; Nabetani, Akira; Ishikawa, Fuyuki; Arai, Yasumichi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology can be used to model human disorders, create cell-based models of human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, and in establishing therapeutic strategies. To detect subtle cellular abnormalities associated with common late-onset disease in iPSCs, valid control iPSCs derived from healthy donors free of serious late-onset diseases are necessary. Here, we report the generation of iPSCs from fibroblasts obtained immediately postmortem from centenarian donors (106- and 109-years-old) who were extremely healthy until an advanced age. The iPSCs were generated using a conventional method involving OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC, and then differentiated into neuronal cells using a neurosphere method. The expression of molecules that play critical roles in late-onset neurodegenerative diseases by neurons differentiated from the centenarian-iPSCs was compared to that of neurons differentiated from iPSCs derived from familial Alzheimer's disease and familial Parkinson's disease (PARK4: triplication of the ? synuclein gene) patients. The results indicated that our series of iPSCs would be useful in neurodegeneration research. The iPSCs we describe, which were derived from donors with exceptional longevity who were presumed to have no serious disease risk factors, would be useful in longevity research and as valid super-controls for use in studies of various late-onset diseases. PMID:22848530

  8. A Study of Georgia's Criminal Justice System as It Relates to the Mentally Retarded, i.e. Law Enforcement, Judicial, and Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Association for Retarded Children, Inc., Decatur, GA.

    Described is a proposed 2-year study by the Atlanta Association for Retarded Children of Georgia's criminal system as it relates to the mentally retarded. The primary purpose of the study is said to be the determination of the best system for the delivery of services to mentally retarded individuals incarcerated in Georgia's penal institutions.

  9. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Albany Area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie Warner

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been working with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission to monitor ground-water quality and availability since 1977. This report presents an overview of ground-water conditions and studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2007. Historical data are also presented for comparison with 2007 data. Ongoing monitoring activities include continuous water-level recording in 24 wells and monthly water-level measurements in 5 wells. During 2007, water levels in 21 of the continuous-recording wells were below normal, corresponding to lower than average rainfall. Ground-water samples collected from the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate that nitrate levels have decreased or remained about the same since 2006. Water samples were collected from the Flint River and wells at the Albany wellfield, and data were plotted on a trilinear diagram to show the percent composition of selected major cations and anions. Ground-water constituents (major cations and anions) of the Upper Floridan aquifer at the Albany wellfield are distinctly different from those in the water of the Flint River. To improve the understanding of the ground-water flow system and nitrate movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer, the USGS is developing a ground-water flow model in the southwestern Albany area of Georgia. The model is being calibrated to simulate periods of dry (October 1999) and relatively wet (March 2001) hydrologic conditions. Preliminary water-level simulations indicate a generally good fit to measured water levels.

  10. Employer Preferences Regarding Resume Content, Appearance, and Format. A Replication in Northwest Missouri of a Study of South Georgia's Hiring Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephanie; And Others

    In 1991, Griffin and Anderson examined the preferences of a sample of South Georgia employees regarding resume content, appearance, and format. The Georgia study was replicated with a sample of 60 hiring officials from a variety of companies in northwestern Missouri to determine if geographic location is a factor in hiring officials' preferences

  11. Formula for Excellence: Financing Georgia's University System in the '80s. Final Report of the Study Committee on Public Higher Education Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University System of Georgia, Atlanta.

    The final report of the Study Committee on Public Higher Education Finance in Georgia is presented. An introductory section reviews factors that influence the need for funding for colleges, including demographic trends, economic trends, broad educational trends, and the situation of the Georgia University System. The Committee's recommendations…

  12. A floristic study and vegetation analysis of power-line vegetation in Tattnall County, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, R.C.; Drapalik, D.J.; Cantrell, H.; Drake, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    The object of this study is to obtain a complete list of all vascular plant species found within a floristically diverse area located approximately .6 mile northeast of Manassas, GA. Data was collected from November 1993 to November 1994. Habitat information was obtained for all vascular plant specimens which were collected, preserved, and identified. In addition, plant cover in two of the area`s habitat types, the bog and sandhill, was quantified in fall 1994 using the point-intercept method. The dominant species found in the bogs were grasses and sedges, while the dominant species in the sandhills were wiregrass and bracken fern. We found that the bog habitats had a much greater plant species richness than the sandhill habitats. Over 150 plant species were collected from the study site. This is the first detailed account of the many rare plants, including the endangered and protected carnivourous pitcher plants, found in the Tattnall County, Georgia.

  13. Household income and poor treatment outcome among patients with tuberculosis in Georgia: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poverty is associated with increased risk of active tuberculosis (TB) disease onset, but the relation between household income and TB treatment outcomes is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine household income characteristics associated with poor TB treatment outcome among newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary TB in the country of Georgia. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among newly diagnosed smear positive pulmonary TB patients. Clinical and household data were collected from all consecutive patients seeking care at TB facilities in two major cities and one rural region in Georgia. Patients were followed prospectively during anti-TB regimens to determine treatment outcome. Bivariate analyses were used to determine the association of individual patient and household level characteristics with poor TB treatment outcome. A multivariable logistic model was used to estimate the adjusted association between patient household characteristics and poor TB treatment outcome. Results After six months TB therapy, treatment outcome was available for 193 of 202 enrolled patients, of these 155 (80.3%) had a favorable TB treatment outcome. Compared to TB patients with poor treatment outcome, those with favorable treatment outcomes were younger (median 33.0 vs. 42.5 years), reported higher household monthly income (median $137 USD vs. $85 USD), were less likely to be unemployed (38.7 vs. 47.4%), and had higher level of education (38.7% vs. 31.6% with college education or greater). In multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, and socio-economic indicators, only low household income was remained statistically significantly associated with poor TB treatment outcome. Compared with patients from households with the highest tertile of monthly income, those in the middle tertile (aOR 4.28 95% CI 1.36, 13.53) and those in the lowest category of income (aOR 6.18 95% CI 1.83, 20.94) were significantly more likely to have poor treatment outcomes. Conclusion We demonstrated that TB patients in Georgia with lower household income were at greater risk of poor TB treatment outcomes. Providing targeted social assistance to TB patients and their households may improve clinical response to anti-TB therapy. PMID:24476154

  14. Project ExPreSS: Social Studies and Science Remediation Program for the Georgia High School Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearouse, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Over half of the states now require students to pass a high stakes exit exam before being allowed to graduate from high school. No Child Left Behind requires that standardized testing be included to determine whether or not a school makes Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). The purpose of this study is to examine the results of the Georgia High School

  15. Science Scores in Title I Elementary Schools in North Georgia: A Project Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias, Ramon

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)'s emphasis of reading, language arts, and mathematics (RLA&M) and its de-emphasis of science has been a source of great concern among educators. Through an objectivist and constructionist framework, this study explored the unforeseen effects of the NCLB on public science education among Title I (TI) and non-Title I (NTI) students. The research questions focused on the effects of NCLB on Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in the high-stakes subjects of reading, language arts, mathematics and the low stakes subject of science among TI and NTI 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students in a north Georgia County during the 2010/2011 school year. This study also compared instructional time TI and NTI teachers dedicated to science. A causal-comparative quantitative methodology was used to analyze Georgia's public domain CRCT scores. Three independent-samples t tests showed that TI schools exhibited significantly lower Science CRCT scores than did NTI students at all grade levels (p < 0.0001). The data also showed CRCT scores in high-stakes subjects between TI and NTI students converging but science CRCT scores between TI and NTI students diverging. The self-report survey indicated no significant differences between TI and NTI teachers' instructional science time (t (107) = 1.49, p = 0.137). A teacher development project was designed to focus on improving teacher science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge through a formal introduction to the nature of science. With increasing global science competition, science is more relevant than ever, and communities need students with strong science foundations. Further study is recommended to analyze the factors associated with this science gap between TI and NTI students.

  16. Project ExPreSS: Social studies and science remediation program for the Georgia High School Graduation Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearouse, Randy

    Over half of the states now require students to pass a high stakes exit exam before being allowed to graduate from high school. No Child Left Behind requires that standardized testing be included to determine whether or not a school makes Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). The purpose of this study is to examine the results of the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) of students who participated in the remedial program Project ExPreSS with those students who did not participate. Using a quantitative research design, the question that will be answered is whether Project ExPreSS makes a difference in passing the GHSGT in science and social studies among three groups: all Georgia students, African American students in one Georgia school system, and all students in one Georgia school system. A chi-square test was conducted and a determination was made that there is a statistically significant relationship between project participation and pass-fail status in all but one area. The majority of students in this study were 17--18 years of age and were taking the science or social studies section of the GHSGT for the second time. The findings of this study will be important not only for Georgia and the school system examined, but also for other states and systems that give High Stakes Exit Exams (HSEEs). The results indicate that highly focused remedial programs like Project ExPreSS make a difference for students who may not be successful on their first attempt at passing a HSEE.

  17. Groundwater Conditions and Studies in the Albany Area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie Warner

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been working cooperatively with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission to monitor groundwater quality and availability since 1977. This report presents an overview of groundwater conditions and studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2008. Historical data also are presented for comparison with 2008 data. Ongoing monitoring activities include continuous water-level recording in 24 wells and periodic water-level measurements in 5 wells. During 2008, water levels in 10 of the continuous-recording wells were below normal, corresponding to lower than average rainfall. Groundwater samples collected from 25 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate that nitrate levels during 2008 were similar to values from 2007, with a maximum of 12.5 milligrams per liter at one well. Water samples collected from the Flint River and wells at the Albany well field were analyzed and plotted on a trilinear diagram to show the percent composition of selected major cations and anions. Groundwater constituents (major cations and anions) of the Upper Floridan aquifer at the Albany well field remain distinctly different from those in the water of the Flint River. To improve the understanding of the groundwater-flow system and nitrate movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing a groundwater-flow model in the Albany area of southwestern Georgia. The model is being calibrated to simulate periods of dry (October 1999) hydrologic conditions. Preliminary results of particle tracking indicate that water flows to the well field from the northwest.

  18. Business and public health collaboration for emergency preparedness in Georgia: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, James W; Whitney, Ellen A; Berkelman, Ruth L

    2006-01-01

    Background Governments may be overwhelmed by a large-scale public health emergency, such as a massive bioterrorist attack or natural disaster, requiring collaboration with businesses and other community partners to respond effectively. In Georgia, public health officials and members of the Business Executives for National Security have successfully collaborated to develop and test procedures for dispensing medications from the Strategic National Stockpile. Lessons learned from this collaboration should be useful to other public health and business leaders interested in developing similar partnerships. Methods The authors conducted a case study based on interviews with 26 government, business, and academic participants in this collaboration. Results The partnership is based on shared objectives to protect public health and assure community cohesion in the wake of a large-scale disaster, on the recognition that acting alone neither public health agencies nor businesses are likely to manage such a response successfully, and on the realization that business and community continuity are intertwined. The partnership has required participants to acknowledge and address multiple challenges, including differences in business and government cultures and operational constraints, such as concerns about the confidentiality of shared information, liability, and the limits of volunteerism. The partnership has been facilitated by a business model based on defining shared objectives, identifying mutual needs and vulnerabilities, developing carefully-defined projects, and evaluating proposed project methods through exercise testing. Through collaborative engagement in progressively more complex projects, increasing trust and understanding have enabled the partners to make significant progress in addressing these challenges. Conclusion As a result of this partnership, essential relationships have been established, substantial private resources and capabilities have been engaged in government preparedness programs, and a model for collaborative, emergency mass dispensing of pharmaceuticals has been developed, tested, and slated for expansion. The lessons learned from this collaboration in Georgia should be considered by other government and business leaders seeking to develop similar partnerships. PMID:17116256

  19. Extending healthy ageing: nutrient sensitive pathway and centenarian population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ageing is a challenge for any living organism and human longevity is a complex phenotype. With increasing life expectancy, maintaining long-term health, functionality and well-being during ageing has become an essential goal. To increase our understanding of how ageing works, it may be advantageous to analyze the phenotype of centenarians, perhaps one of the best examples of successful ageing. Healthy ageing involves the interaction between genes, the environment, and lifestyle factors, particularly diet. Besides evaluating specific gene-environment interactions in relation to exceptional longevity, it is important to focus attention on modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition to achieve extension of health span. Furthermore, a better understanding of human longevity may assist in the design of strategies to extend the duration of optimal human health. In this article we briefly discuss relevant topics on ageing and longevity with particular focus on dietary patterns of centenarians and nutrient-sensing pathways that have a pivotal role in the regulation of life span. Finally, we also discuss the potential role of Nrf2 system in the pro-ageing signaling emphasizing its phytohormetic activation. PMID:22524452

  20. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions. PMID:26769915

  1. A case-referent study: light at night and breast cancer risk in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Literature has identified detrimental health effects from the indiscriminate use of artificial nighttime light. We examined the co-distribution of light at night (LAN) and breast cancer (BC) incidence in Georgia, with the goal to contribute to the accumulating evidence that exposure to LAN increases risk of BC. Methods Using Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry data (20002007), we conducted a case-referent study among 34,053 BC cases and 14,458 lung cancer referents. Individuals with lung cancer were used as referents to control for other cancer risk factors that may be associated with elevated LAN, such as air pollution, and since this cancer type was not previously associated with LAN or circadian rhythm disruption. DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Time Series satellite images (19922007) were used to estimate LAN levels; low (020 watts per sterradian cm2), medium (2141 watts per sterradian cm2), high (>41 watts per sterradian cm2). LAN levels were extracted for each year of exposure prior to case/referent diagnosis in ArcGIS. Results Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for individual-level year of diagnosis, race, age at diagnosis, tumor grade, stage; and population-level determinants including metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status, births per 1,000 women aged 1550, percentage of female smokers, MSA population mobility, and percentage of population over 16 in the labor force. We found that overall BC incidence was associated with high LAN exposure (OR?=?1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.20]). When stratified by race, LAN exposure was associated with increased BC risk among whites (OR?=?1.13, 95% CI [1.05, 1.22]), but not among blacks (OR?=?1.02, 95% CI [0.82, 1.28]). Conclusions Our results suggest positive associations between LAN and BC incidence, especially among whites. The consistency of our findings with previous studies suggests that there could be fundamental biological links between exposure to artificial LAN and increased BC incidence, although additional research using exposure metrics at the individual level is required to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:23594790

  2. Comparative Proteomic Studies of Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from Natural Foci in the Republic of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Nozadze, Maia; Zhgenti, Ekaterine; Meparishvili, Maia; Tsverava, Lia; Kiguradze, Tamar; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Babuadze, Giorgi; Kekelidze, Merab; Bakanidze, Lela; Shutkova, Tatiana; Imnadze, Paata; Francesconi, Stephen C.; Obiso, Richard; Solomonia, Revaz

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly virulent bacterium responsible for millions of human deaths throughout history. In the last decade, two natural plague foci have been described in the Republic of Georgia from which dozens of Y. pestis strains have been isolated. Analyses indicate that there are genetic differences between these strains, but it is not known if these differences are also reflected in protein expression. We chose four strains of Y. pestis (1390, 1853, 2944, and 8787) from the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health collection for proteomic studies based on neighbor-joining tree genetic analysis and geographical loci of strain origin. Proteomic expression was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Select Y. pestis strains were grown under different physiological conditions and their proteomes were compared: (1) 28°C without calcium; (2) 28°C with calcium; (3) 37°C without calcium; and (4) 37°C with calcium. Candidate proteins were identified and the differences in expression of F1 antigen, tellurium-resistance protein, and outer membrane protein C, porin were validated by Western blotting. The in vitro cytotoxicity activity of these strains was also compared. The results indicate that protein expression and cytotoxic activities differ significantly among the studied strains; these differences could contribute to variations in essential physiological functions in these strains. PMID:26528469

  3. Comparative Proteomic Studies of Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from Natural Foci in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Nozadze, Maia; Zhgenti, Ekaterine; Meparishvili, Maia; Tsverava, Lia; Kiguradze, Tamar; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Babuadze, Giorgi; Kekelidze, Merab; Bakanidze, Lela; Shutkova, Tatiana; Imnadze, Paata; Francesconi, Stephen C; Obiso, Richard; Solomonia, Revaz

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly virulent bacterium responsible for millions of human deaths throughout history. In the last decade, two natural plague foci have been described in the Republic of Georgia from which dozens of Y. pestis strains have been isolated. Analyses indicate that there are genetic differences between these strains, but it is not known if these differences are also reflected in protein expression. We chose four strains of Y. pestis (1390, 1853, 2944, and 8787) from the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health collection for proteomic studies based on neighbor-joining tree genetic analysis and geographical loci of strain origin. Proteomic expression was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Select Y. pestis strains were grown under different physiological conditions and their proteomes were compared: (1) 28C without calcium; (2) 28C with calcium; (3) 37C without calcium; and (4) 37C with calcium. Candidate proteins were identified and the differences in expression of F1 antigen, tellurium-resistance protein, and outer membrane protein C, porin were validated by Western blotting. The in vitro cytotoxicity activity of these strains was also compared. The results indicate that protein expression and cytotoxic activities differ significantly among the studied strains; these differences could contribute to variations in essential physiological functions in these strains. PMID:26528469

  4. Georgia and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Georgia and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead the nation in

  5. Hydrologic monitoring and selected hydrologic and environmental studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Georgia, 2011–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Dalton, Melinda J., (compiler)

    2013-01-01

    This compendium of papers describes results of hydrologic monitoring and hydrologic and environmental studies completed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Georgia during 2011–2013. The USGS addresses a wide variety of water issues in the State of Georgia working with local, State, and Federal partners. As the primary Federal science agency for water resource information, the USGS monitors the quantity and quality of water in the Nation’s rivers and aquifers, assesses the sources and fate of contaminants in aquatic systems, collects and analyzes data on aquatic ecosystems, develops tools to improve the application of hydrologic information, and ensures that its information and tools are available to all potential users. During 2011–2013, the USGS continued a long-term program of monitoring stream and groundwater resources, including flow, water quality, and water use. In addition, a variety of hydrologic and environmental studies were completed to assess water availability, hydrologic hazards, and the impact of development on water resources. Information on USGS activities in Georgia is available online at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/.

  6. Interleukin 6-174 G/C promoter gene polymorphism in centenarians: no evidence of association with human longevity or interaction with apolipoprotein E alleles.

    PubMed

    Capurso, Cristiano; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; D'Introno, Alessia; Colacicco, Anna M; Capurso, Sabrina A; Semeraro, Cosimo; Capurso, Antonio; Panza, Francesco

    2004-07-01

    The C allele at position -174 in the promoter of the interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene has been associated with reduced gene expression and reduced plasma levels of IL-6. Given that IL-6 tracks with functional disability and age-related diseases, there may be attrition or reduction in the frequency of the homozygous subjects, who produce higher IL-6 serum levels, in older survivors in a population. In fact, a marked reduction of the IL-6*G/*G genotype was recently demonstrated in male though not female Italian centenarians compared with younger age groups. First aim of the present study was to investigate whether there was evidence of an association among IL-6 -174 G/C promoter polymorphism and extreme longevity in a population of 81 centenarians compared with a control group of 122 middle-aged healthy subjects (mean age: 51+/-18 SD; range: 19-73 years), from Apulia (Southern Italy). Secondly, we also tested possible interaction of apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles with the IL-6 -174 G/C promoter polymorphism in view of our recent findings for reduced APOE epsilon4 allele in centenarians. No differences have been found in the IL-6 -174 G/C promoter allele and genotype frequencies between centenarians and controls nor was there any observed interaction with APOE alleles that are also reputed to be linked to longevity. Regional genetic differences in conjunction with differing environmental factors may explain in part previous results suggesting a role of this polymorphism in longevity. PMID:15236771

  7. Highly Diverse, Poorly Studied and Uniquely Threatened by Climate Change: An Assessment of Marine Biodiversity on South Georgia's Continental Shelf

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Oliver T.; Barnes, David K. A.; Griffiths, Huw J.

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to quantify how significant the polar archipelago of South Georgia is as a source of regional and global marine biodiversity. We evaluate numbers of rare, endemic and range-edge species and how the faunal structure of South Georgia may respond to some of the fastest warming waters on the planet. Biodiversity data was collated from a comprehensive review of reports, papers and databases, collectively representing over 125 years of polar exploration. Classification of each specimen was recorded to species level and fully geo-referenced by depth, latitude and longitude. This information was integrated with physical data layers (e.g. temperature, salinity and flow) providing a visualisation of South Georgia's biogeography across spatial, temporal and taxonomic scales, placing it in the wider context of the Southern Hemisphere. This study marks the first attempt to map the biogeography of an archipelago south of the Polar Front. Through it we identify the South Georgian shelf as the most speciose region of the Southern Ocean recorded to date. Marine biodiversity was recorded as rich across taxonomic levels with 17,732 records yielding 1,445 species from 436 families, 51 classes and 22 phyla. Most species recorded were rare, with 35% recorded only once and 86% recorded <10 times. Its marine fauna is marked by the cumulative dominance of endemic and range-edge species, potentially at their thermal tolerance limits. Consequently, our data suggests the ecological implications of environmental change to the South Georgian marine ecosystem could be severe. If sea temperatures continue to rise, we suggest that changes will include depth profile shifts of some fauna towards cooler Antarctic Winter Water (90150 m), the loss of some range-edge species from regional waters, and the wholesale extinction at a global scale of some of South Georgia's endemic species. PMID:21647236

  8. Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Oliver T; Barnes, David K A; Griffiths, Huw J

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to quantify how significant the polar archipelago of South Georgia is as a source of regional and global marine biodiversity. We evaluate numbers of rare, endemic and range-edge species and how the faunal structure of South Georgia may respond to some of the fastest warming waters on the planet. Biodiversity data was collated from a comprehensive review of reports, papers and databases, collectively representing over 125 years of polar exploration. Classification of each specimen was recorded to species level and fully geo-referenced by depth, latitude and longitude. This information was integrated with physical data layers (e.g. temperature, salinity and flow) providing a visualisation of South Georgia's biogeography across spatial, temporal and taxonomic scales, placing it in the wider context of the Southern Hemisphere. This study marks the first attempt to map the biogeography of an archipelago south of the Polar Front. Through it we identify the South Georgian shelf as the most speciose region of the Southern Ocean recorded to date. Marine biodiversity was recorded as rich across taxonomic levels with 17,732 records yielding 1,445 species from 436 families, 51 classes and 22 phyla. Most species recorded were rare, with 35% recorded only once and 86% recorded <10 times. Its marine fauna is marked by the cumulative dominance of endemic and range-edge species, potentially at their thermal tolerance limits. Consequently, our data suggests the ecological implications of environmental change to the South Georgian marine ecosystem could be severe. If sea temperatures continue to rise, we suggest that changes will include depth profile shifts of some fauna towards cooler Antarctic Winter Water (90-150 m), the loss of some range-edge species from regional waters, and the wholesale extinction at a global scale of some of South Georgia's endemic species. PMID:21647236

  9. Plasma Clusterin and Lipid Profile: A Link with Aging and Cardiovascular Diseases in a Population with a Consistent Number of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Baralla, Angela; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Deiana, Marta; Pasella, Sara; Pinna, Sara; Mannu, Andrea; Canu, Elisabetta; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Ganau, Antonello; Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Carru, Ciriaco; Deiana, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The role of Clusterin in attenuation of inflammation and reverse cholesterol transfer makes this molecule a potential candidate as a marker for cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. In elderly subjects cardiovascular diseases represent the primary cause of death and different clinical studies have shown a positive correlation of these diseases with changes in the lipid pattern. This work aimed at evaluating the relationship between circulating clusterin and the biochemical parameters that characterize the lipid profile of a Sardinian population divided into five age groups including centenarians; the high frequency in Sardinia of these long-lived individuals gave us the opportunity to extend the range of the age groups to be analyzed to older ages and to better evaluate the changes in the lipid balance during ageing and its relationship with clusterin concentration in plasma. Our results showed that Clusterin concentration values of the youngest group were more similar with the centenarians group compared to the other age groups, and a positive correlation arises with LDL. Furthermore given the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the population examined and the association of Clusterin with these pathologies we evaluated Clusterin concentration variation in two groups with or without cardiovascular diseases. In presence of cardiovascular disease, Clusterin is significantly related to the most atherogenic components of lipid profile (total cholesterol and LDL), especially in women, suggesting its potential role in modulating cardiovascular metabolic risk factors. PMID:26076476

  10. An Evaluative Assessment of Two CrossRoads Alternative Schools Program Sites in Georgia (Case Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Shary L.; Harnish, Dorothy

    This report describes an exploratory evaluative assessment of the first year of 2 alternative public schools for 117 chronically disruptive, committed, and/or non-attending students (grades 6-12) in Georgia. The CrossRoads program is intended to provide students with the social services, individualized instruction, and/or transitions to other

  11. Centenarians prove the compression of morbidity hypothesis, but what about the rest of us who are genetically less fortunate?

    PubMed

    Perls, T T

    1997-11-01

    For those who believe that the longer people live into old age, the longer they will live with chronic disability (the expansion of morbidity hypothesis), the current increase in average life expectancy that we are experiencing portends an even greater increase in health care costs and morbidity associated with old age. On the other hand, other scholars assert that if medical science is able to facilitate people's living to an age near or at the maximum lifespan (by curing or markedly delaying illnesses that cause premature mortality), we should observe a compression of morbidity near the end of life. Our experience in the New England Centenarian Study indicates that compression of morbidity does occur among centenarians. Demographic selection or selective survival produces a cohort of successfully aging individuals at very old age as those with illnesses that cause premature mortality are weeded out of the aging population. Unfortunately, the majority of us who are weeded out by the early to mid-eighties (the average life expectancy), succumb to illnesses that are likely to lead to an expansion of morbidity as medical science and healthier lifestyles facilitate longer life expectancies. PMID:9421805

  12. National water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; water withdrawals and treated wastewater discharges, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Fanning, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers nearly 62,600 square miles along the southeastern United States coast in Georgia and Florida. In 1990, the estimated population of the study unit was 9.3 million, and included all or part of the cities of Atlanta, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, and St. Petersburg. Estimated freshwater withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 was nearly 5,075 million gallons per day. Ground-water accounted for more than 57 percent of the water withdrawn during 1990 and the Floridan aquifer system provided nearly 91 percent of the total ground-water withdrawn. Surface-water accounted for nearly 43 percent of the water withdrawn in the study unit in 1990 with large amounts of withdrawals from the Altamaha River, Hillsborough River, the Ocmulgee River, the Oconee River, the St. Johns River, and the Suwannee River. Water withdrawn for public supply in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled 1,139 million gallons per day, of which 83 percent was ground water and 17 percent was surface water. Self-supplied domestic withdrawals in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit in 1990 totaled nearly 230 million gallons per day. Ground water supplied over 80 percent of the study units population for drining water purposes; nearly 5.8 million people were served by public supply and 1.8 million people were served by self-supplied systems. Water withdrawn for self-supplied domestic use in Georgia and Florida is derived almost exclusively from ground water, primarily because this source can provide the quantity and quality of water needed for drinking purposes. Nearly 1.7 million people served by public supply utilized surface water for their drinking water needs. Water withdrawn for self-supplied commercial-industrial uses in the study unit in 1990 totaled 862 million gallons per day, of which 93 percent was ground water and 7 percent was surface water. Water withdrawn for agriculture purposes in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,293 million gallons per day, of which 69 percent was ground water and 31 percent was surface water. An estimated 1.254 millon acres were irrigated within the study unit during 1990. Water withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,552 million gallons per day, of which 99 percent was surface water and 1 percent was ground water. An additional 6,919 million gallons per day of saline surface water were withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in 1990, solely for cooling purposes. Treated wastewater discharged within the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit totaled nearly 1,187 million gallons per day in 1990. Of the total water discharged, 58 percent was discharged directly into surface water and the remaining 42 percent was discharged to ground water (through drain fields, injection wells, percolation ponds or spray fields). Domestic wastewater facilities discharged in the study unit totaled nearly 789 million gallons per day, industrial wastewater facilities discharged 213 million gallons per day, and releases from septic tanks was estimated at 185 million gallons per day. More than 1.3 million septic tanks were estimated in use within the study unit in 1990.

  13. The effects of Georgia's Choice curricular reform model on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phemister, Art W.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice reading curriculum on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test from 2002 to 2008. In assessing the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model this causal comparative study examined the 105 elementary schools that implemented Georgia's Choice and 105 randomly selected elementary schools that did not elect to use Georgia's Choice. The Georgia's Choice reading program used intensified instruction in an effort to increase reading levels for all students. The study used a non-equivalent control group with a pretest and posttest design to determine the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model. Findings indicated that third grade students in Non-Georgia's Choice schools outscored third grade students in Georgia's Choice schools across the span of the study.

  14. Alignment of the Georgia eighth-grade science curriculum: A collaborative action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Charles Edward

    The purpose of this research study was to develop a collaborative action research group (ART) to design lessons for the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) in science. As a basis for the action research group, the eighth grade science curriculum was examined in an attempt to determine the degree of alignment or non-alignment of the Georgia state curriculum, called the Quality Core Curriculum (QCC), the ITBS, and the eighth grade science textbook. There were three research questions evaluated: (1) Are the objectives of the current and proposed QCC aligned with the ITBS test? (2) Are the objectives of the current and proposed QCC and the ITBS aligned with the eighth grade science book? (3) How thoroughly have the science ITBS objectives been covered during the first semester of classes? The main findings for question 1 showed the current and proposed QCC to be non-aligned to the ITBS. Findings for question 2 showed the current QCC to be aligned to the textbook. However, the proposed QCC and the ITBS were both non-aligned to the textbook. An analysis of question 3 found that 79% of the objectives of the ITBS had been taught during the semester. There were, however, nine objectives found that were not part of either the QCC or textbook objectives. A pre-test to ascertain student current knowledge of these missing objectives was designed by the research team. Based upon the results of this test the ART designed appropriate lesson plans and conducted classroom teaching. Following the classroom teaching, the research team again tested the students to determine the effectiveness of the teaching. The difference between the mean of the pre-test and post-test was only +5.52 points. While there was improvement, the scores were below passing for both the pre and post-test with mean test scores being 62.68 for the pre-test and 68.20 for the post-test. The conclusion was that additional classroom teaching would be required in order for the learning and test scores to increase. Teachers may cover all objectives found within their curriculum yet may not cover all of the objectives found on the assessment tool being used to grade their teaching, school, and students. For the teachers of the ART, we acquired an inquiry and action process and the opportunity to research relevant questions as a team.

  15. The South Georgia Wave Experiment (SG-WEX) - Preliminary Satellite and Modelling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Internal gravity waves, and the energy and momentum they transport, are a key process governing the dynamics and structure of the middle and upper atmosphere, but are significantly underconstrained in current weather and climate models due to their small physical scale relative to typical model grids. In particular, the simulation of such waves is believed to underlie a major momentum deficit in the high-latitude southern hemisphere, due to underestimation of the gravity wave drag provided by waves generated by sub-gridscale island sources. The South Georgia Wave Experiment (SG-WEX) is a coordinated programme to investigate the most important such small island source, South Georgia Island. This will be carried out via the deployment of a mesospheric-sensing meteor radar, stratospheric satellite measurements, and two month-long tropospheric radiosonde campaigns, backed up by detailed high-resolution modelling of the region at all altitudes. The ultimate goal of the project is to significantly enhance our geophysical understanding of wave dynamics in the region and, more directly, to provide a basis for a dramatic improvement in the parameterisation of the wave momentum flux generated by such small-island sources, with consequent effects on the skill of global weather and climate models both in this region and globally. Here, we present preliminary results from the satellite and modelling components of the project. In particular, we use combined measurements from the HIRDLS, SABER, AIRS and COSMIC satellite instruments and analyses from the HadGEM GCM to produce a detailed temporal and spatial climatology of wave fluxes in the region, due both to South Georgia and to the nearby Andes and Antarctic Peninsula. We also briefly look ahead to the deployment of the meteor radar and first radiosonde campaign in January 2015, and discuss how these are expected to enhance our understanding of the dynamics of the region.

  16. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in Georgia, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.; Leeth, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. Water levels were monitored continuously, in Georgia, in a network of 184 wells during 2006 and 182 wells during 2007. Because of missing data or the short period of record (less than 3 years) for several of these wells, a total of 166 wells from the network are discussed in this report. These wells include 18 in the surficial aquifer system, 21 in the Brunswick aquifer system and equivalent sediments, 67 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 15 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 11 in the Clayton aquifer, 12 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 9 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the network indicate that water levels generally declined from 2005 levels, with water levels in 99 wells below normal, 52 wells in the normal range, 12 wells above normal, and 3 wells with insufficient data for comparison of 5-year trends and period of record statistics. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic synoptic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden, Charlton, and Ware Counties, Georgia, and adjacent counties in Florida during September 2006 and 2007, in the Brunswick area during July 2006 and August 2007, and in the City of Albany-Dougherty County area during October 2006 and October 2007. In general, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces showed little change during 2006-2007 in each of the areas. Ground-water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer is monitored in the Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick areas and in Camden County; and water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer is monitored in the Savannah and Brunswick areas and in Camden County. In the Albany area, nitrate concentrations generally have increased since the end of the drought during 2002. During 2006, water from two wells had nitrate as N concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) 10-milligram-per-liter (mg/L) drinking-water standard. During 2007, only one well had concentrations above the drinking-water standard. In the Savannah area, measurement of fluid conductivity and chloride concentration in water samples from discrete depths in three wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer and one well in the Lower Floridan aquifer were used to assess changes in water quality in the Savannah area. At Tybee Island, chloride concentrations in samples from the Lower Floridan aquifer decreased during 2006-2007 but were still above the 250-mg/L USEPA drinking-water standard. At Skidaway Island, water in the Upper Floridan aquifer is fresh, and chloride concentrations did not appreciably change during 2006-2007. However, chloride concentrations in samples collected from the Lower Floridan aquifer during 2006-2007 showed disparate changes; whereby, chloride concentration increased in the shallowest sampled interval (900 feet) and decreased slightly in a deeper sampled interval (1,070 feet). At Fort Pulaski, water samples collected from the Upper Floridan aquifer were fresh and did not appreciably changeduring 2006-2007. In the Brunswick area, maps showing the chloride concentration of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer were constructed by using data collected from 29 wells during July 2006 and from 26 wells during August 2007. Analyses indicate that concentrations remained above the USEPA drinking-water standard in an approximate 2-square-mile area. During 2006-2007, chloride concentrations increased in only three of the wells sampled and ranged from 4.0 to 20 mg/L chloride. In the Camden County area, chloride concentration during 2006-2007 was analyzed in water samples collected from eight wells, six completed i

  17. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-03-19

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

  18. [ADL and actual life styles of all Japanese centenarians as determined by a visitation interview survey].

    PubMed

    Ogihara, R; Maeda, K; Tsujibayashi, K; Tomabechi, K; Ohta, T; Iwabuchi, K; Mano, Y

    2000-03-01

    A visiting interview survey was performed on all centenarians living in Japan to investigate their Activities of Daily Life (ADL). 2,851 centenarians, 92.9% of all subjects completed the interview. They were divided into three groups, good ADL (almost independent in daily life), moderate ADL (almost independent in indoor life), and inferior ADL (bed fast) by the condition of ADL. Some factors of health conditions, family size, frequency of use of public welfare services, and life styles were compared among these three groups. Both the good and the moderate ADL groups accounted for about 20% each, and the inferior ADL group was about 60% of the subjects. The condition of ADL of men was better than that of women. The inferior ADL group showed a significantly higher percentage of chronic diseases. High ratios of cerebral vascular disease and dementia were seen in this group, and many had no teeth. While two thirds of all the centenarians lived at home, over 90% of the good ADL group lived at home. The mode of family size was three including the person oneself. An average of 21% of men and 27% of women used public health welfare services. However 40% of the centenarians in the inferior ADL group used those services. Men had better dietary habits for health than women. The good ADL group showed the most desirable dietary habits among the three groups and had the highest percentage of drinkers and smokers. Men practiced a greater number of ideal habits for longevity than women. Of the ADL groups, centenarians in the good ADL group had the highest percentage of ideal habits for longevity. The centenarians who maintained good ADL had the following characteristics: There were fewer people under medical treatment. They had maintained their own teeth. Almost all of them were living at their home with their family. They had continued good dietary habits and daily life for health and longevity. For the maintenance and improvement of ADL of centenarians, adequate social welfare support in a local area for centenarians and their family seemed to be vital in addition to health management and guidance of healthy life style of the aged. PMID:10783636

  19. Groundwater conditions and studies in the AugustaRichmond County area, Georgia, 20082009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Gerard J.; Lawrence, Stephen J.; Peck, Michael F.; Holloway, O. Gary

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater studies and monitoring efforts conducted during 20082009, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cooperative Water Program with the City of Augusta in Richmond County, Georgia, provided data for the effective management of local water resources. During 20082009 the USGS completed: (1) installation of three monitoring wells and the collection of lithologic and geophysical logging data to determine the extent of hydrogeologic units, (2) collection of continuous groundwater-level data from wells near Well Fields 2 and 3, (3) collection of synoptic groundwater-level measurements and construction of potentiometric-surface maps in Richmond County to establish flow gradients and groundwater-flow directions in the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems, (4) completion of a 24-hour aquifer test to determine hydraulic characteristics of the lower Dublin aquifer, and upper and lower Midville aquifers in Well Field 2, and (5) collection of groundwater samples from selected wells in Well Field 2 for laboratory analysis of volatile organic compounds and groundwater tracers to assess groundwater quality and estimate the time of groundwater recharge. Potentiometric-surface maps of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems for 20082009 indicate that the general groundwater flow direction within Richmond County is eastward toward the Savannah River, with the exception of the area around Well Field 2, where pumping interrupts the eastward flow of water toward the Savannah River and causes flow lines to bend toward the center of pumping. Results from a 24-hour aquifer test conducted in 2009 within the upper and lower Midville aquifers at Well Field 2 indicated a transmissivity and storativity for the upper and lower Midville aquifers, combined, of 4,000 feet-squared per day and 2x10-4, respectively. The upper and lower Midville aquifers and the middle lower Midville confining unit, which is 85-feet thick in this area, yielded horizontal hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values of about 45 feet per day and 2x10-6 ft-1, respectively. Results from the 24-hour aquifer test also indicate a low horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the lower Dublin aquifer of less than 1 foot per day. Of the 35 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyzed in 23 groundwater samples during 20082009, only six were detected above laboratory reporting limits in samples from eight wells. No concentration in groundwater samples collected during 20082009 exceeded drinking water standards. Trichloroethene had the maximum VOC concentration (1.9 micrograms per liter) collected from a water sample during 20082009. Water-quality sampling of several wells near Well Field 2 indicate that, while in operation, the northernmost production well might have diverted groundwater, containing low levels of trichloroethene from at least two other production wells. Analysis of sulfur hexafluoride data indicate the average year of recharge ranges between 1981 and 1984 for water samples from five wells open to the upper and lower Midville aquifers, and 1991 for a water sample from one shallow well open to the lower Dublin aquifer. All of these ages suggest a short flow path and nearby source of contamination. The actual source of low levels of VOCs at Well Field 2 remains unknown. Three newly installed monitoring wells indicate that hydrogeologic units beneath Well Fields 2 and 3 are composed of sand and clay layers. Hydrogeologic units, encountered at Well Field 2, in order of increasing depth are the lower Dublin confining unit, lower Dublin aquifer, upper Midville confining unit, upper Midville aquifer, lower Midville confining unit, and lower Midville aquifer. West of Well Field 3, hydrogeologic units, in order of increasing depth are the Upper Three Runs aquifer, Gordon confining unit, Gordon aquifer, lower Dublin confining unit, lower Dublin aquifer, upper Midville confining unit, upper Midville aquifer, lower Midville confining unit, and lower Midville aquifer.

  20. Follow Up Study: John H. Lounsbury School of Education Field-Based Program Graduates Now Teaching in Partner and Professional Development Schools of Georgia College and State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Sharene L.

    A study was done to investigate the status and attitudes of graduates from field-based programs of the John H. Lounsbury School of Education of Georgia College and State University who were teaching in partner and professional development schools. The study was done in two waves, first by e-mail, and then by postal service. There were 41

  1. The Effects of Georgia's Choice Curricular Reform Model on Third Grade Science Scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phemister, Art W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice reading curriculum on third grade science scores on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test from 2002 to 2008. In assessing the effectiveness of the Georgia's Choice curriculum model this causal comparative study examined the 105 elementary schools that

  2. Is High School Graduation an Illusion? A Study to Determine the Academic and Graduation Progression between Students with Disabilities and Their Non-Disabled Peers in Georgia Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinguri, Ruth W.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the academic and graduation progression of students with disabilities compared to their non-disabled students in Georgia public high schools. Specifically, the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT) in math and English and graduation rates were analyzed for their progression since the enactment of the No Child Left Behind

  3. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces, geologic setting, ground-water systems, surface- water systems, climate, floods, droughts, population, land use, and water use. Factors affecting water quality in the study area are land use (primarily urban and agricultural land uses), water use in coastal areas, hydrogeology, ground-water/surface-water interaction, geology, and climate. Surface-water quality problems in urban areas have occurred in the Ogeechee, Canoochee, Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Alapaha, Withlacoochee (north), Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, and Oklawaha Rivers and include nitrogen and phosphorus loading, low dissolved oxygen, elevated bacteria, sediment, and turbidity, and increased concentrations of metals. In agricultural areas, surface-water quality problems include elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, erosion, and sedimentation and have occurred in the Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, Oklawaha, Withlacoochee (South), Hillsborough, and Alafia Rivers. Ground water-quality problems such as saltwater intrusion have occurred mostly in coastal areas and were caused by excessive withdrawals.

  4. Exploring the Relationship between a Small Rural School in Northeast Georgia and Its Community: An Image-Based Study Using Participant-Produced Photographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson-Cordle, Alice Vera

    This study examined the relationship between a small rural school in northeast Georgia and its surrounding community. Three teachers, two community members, and three students used cameras to collect data related to their perceptions of the school-community relationship. They created photographs, then wrote about their photos, and finally, held…

  5. A Study of the Relationships between Indicators of Georgia Alternative School Effectiveness and Measures of Student Success as Perceived by Alternative School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obleton, Eddie V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between Georgia alternative school administrators' perceptions of student success factors and the three domains of essential elements of effective alternative schools. The success factors included: dropout rate, average grade point average (GPA), average absences per student,

  6. Mobile telemonitoring for arrhythmias in outpatients in the Republic of Georgia: a brief report of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kirtava, Zviad; Gegenava, Thea; Gegenava, Maka; Matoshvili, Zviad; Kasradze, Sofia; Kasradze, Pavle

    2012-09-01

    As the very first trial of mobile telemedicine in the Republic of Georgia, in June-December 2010 we investigated 35 outpatients with different types of arrhythmia (male/female ratio=16/19; 12-80 years old), among them 5 patients with concomitant epilepsy. The control group comprised 7 clinically healthy sportsmen (soccer players, all men; 15-17 years old), during a 30-min velo ergometer stress test. A three-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) loop recorder (Vitaphone BT 3300; Vitasystems GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) was used in automatic mode, using special LRMA software (MDT, Lázně Bohdaneč, Czech Republic) and a Nokia (Espoo, Finland) model 6730 Symbian phone. Automatically recorded arrhythmia events were transmitted from the loop recorder by Bluetooth(®) (Bluetooth SIG, Inc., Kirkland, WA) to a phone and then by 3G (through our partner mobile operator, MagtiCom Ltd. [Tbilsi, Georgia]) to the Vitasystems server in Germany and were available to Georgian physicians via e-mail/Internet. Arrhythmias were recorded/monitored during 7-68 h of observation. The number of automatically recorded ECG events varied between 3 and 170 per observation, or 0.4-10.7 hourly. Cases of sinus brady- and tachyarrhythmia, sinus node weakness syndrome, atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, supraventricular premature complexes, and ventricular premature complexes were correctly recognized by automatic recognition software and recorded. In 3 patients and 1 sportsman previously unspecified (despite multiple investigations), arrhythmias were recorded: paroxysmal tachycardia (n=1), sinus node weakness syndrome (n=1), and ventricular premature complexes (n=2). In 3 cases (all women) light insomnia and nervousness were reported. In 2 patients with neurosis (both elderly men, 1 with epilepsy) we had to stop investigation prematurely because of anxiety/agitation. Mobile telecardiology represents feasible methodology to monitor arrhythmias in outpatients in Georgia, promoting earlier discharge of non-life-threatening cases, improving patients' comfort of life, and increasing their mobility with enhanced safety. Mobile telehealth might also represent significant cost-saving for insurance companies (this is an ongoing study). Finally, in remote areas mobile telemonitoring of patients will improve quality of care by timely provision of a second opinion in cases when local expertise is not sufficient. PMID:22827508

  7. Gut Microbiota Community and Its Assembly Associated with Age and Diet in Chinese Centenarians.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guohong; Cai, Da; Liang, Xiaolin; Su, Haiyan; Zhu, Zhenjun; Li, Danlei; Yang, Yang; Shen, Peihong; Mao, Ruifeng; Yu, Lian; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Quanyang

    2015-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota underpin the development of health and longevity. However, our understanding of what influences the composition of this community of the longevous has not been adequately described. Therefore, illumina sequencing analysis was performed on the gut microbiota of centenarians (aged 100-108 years; RC) and younger elderlies (aged 85-99 years; RE) living in Bama County, Guangxi, China and the elderlies (aged 80-92 years; CE) living in Nanning City, Guangxi, China. In addition, their diet was monitored using a semiquantitative dietary questionary (FFQ 23). The results revealed the abundance of Roseburia and Escherichia was significantly greater, whereas that of Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Parabacteroides, Butyricimonas, Coprococcus, Megamonas, Mitsuokella, Sutterella, and Akkermansia was significantly less in centenarians at the genus level. Both clustering analysis and UniFraq distance analysis showed structural segregation with age and diet among the three populations. Using partial least square discriminate analysis and redundancy analysis, we identified 33 and 34 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as key OTUs that were significantly associated with age and diet, respectively. Age-related OTUs were characterized as Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Lachnospiraceae, and the former two were increased in the centenarians; diet-related OTUs were classified as Bacteroidales, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. The former two were deceased, whereas the later one was increased, in the high-fiber diet. The age and high-fiber diet were concomitant with changes in the gut microbiota of centenarians, suggesting that age and high-fiber diet can establish a new structurally balanced architecture of gut microbiota that may benefit the health of centenarians. PMID:25839332

  8. Through Ageing, and Beyond: Gut Microbiota and Inflammatory Status in Seniors and Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Elena; Nylund, Lotta; Candela, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Bucci, Laura; Pini, Elisa; Nikkïla, Janne; Monti, Daniela; Satokari, Reetta; Franceschi, Claudio; Brigidi, Patrizia; De Vos, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Background Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modifications in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbiota, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infections. Methodology/Principal Findings By using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip) and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea, we explored the age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition among young adults, elderly, and centenarians, i.e subjects who reached the extreme limits of the human lifespan, living for over 100 years. We observed that the microbial composition and diversity of the gut ecosystem of young adults and seventy-years old people is highly similar but differs significantly from that of the centenarians. After 100 years of symbiotic association with the human host, the microbiota is characterized by a rearrangement in the Firmicutes population and an enrichment in facultative anaerobes, notably pathobionts. The presence of such a compromised microbiota in the centenarians is associated with an increased inflammatory status, also known as inflammageing, as determined by a range of peripheral blood inflammatory markers. This may be explained by a remodelling of the centenarians' microbiota, with a marked decrease in Faecalibacterium prauznitzii and relatives, symbiotic species with reported anti-inflammatory properties. As signature bacteria of the long life we identified specifically Eubacterium limosum and relatives that were more than ten-fold increased in the centenarians. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence for the fact that the ageing process deeply affects the structure of the human gut microbiota, as well as its homeostasis with the host's immune system. Because of its crucial role in the host physiology and health status, age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition may be related to the progression of diseases and frailty in the elderly population. PMID:20498852

  9. A Remote Sensing Approach for Urban Environmental Decision-Making: An Atlanta, Georgia Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Laymon, Charles A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Howell, Burgess F.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Unquestionably, urbanization causes tremendous changes in land cover and land use, as well as impacting a host of environmental characteristics. For example, unlike natural surfaces, urban surfaces have very different thermal energy properties whereby they store solar energy throughout the day and continue to release it as heat well after sunset. This effect, known as the 'Urban Heat Island', serves as a catalyst for chemical reactions from vehicular exhaust and industrial activities leading to the deterioration in air quality, especially exacerbating the production of ground level ozone. 'Cool Community' strategies that utilize remote sensing data, are now being implemented as a way to reduce the impacts of the urban heat island and its subsequent environmental impacts. This presentation focuses on how remote sensing data have been used to provide descriptive and quantitative data for characterizing the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area - particularly for measuring surface energy fluxes, such as the thermal or "heat" energy that emanates from different land cover types across the Atlanta urban landscape. In turn, this information is useful for developing a better understanding of how the thermal characteristics of the city surface affect the urban heat island phenomena and, ultimately, air quality and other environmental parameters over the Atlanta metropolitan region. Additionally, this paper also provides insight on how remote sensing, with its synoptic approach, can be used to provide urban planners, local, state, and federal government officials, and other decision-makers, as well as the general public, with information to better manage urban areas as sustainable environments.

  10. Groundwater conditions and studies in the Brunswick–Glynn County area, Georgia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.; Stayton, Welby L.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. This contamination has limited development of the groundwater supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water program with the City of Brunswick to monitor and assess the effect of groundwater development on saltwater contamination of the Floridan aquifer system. During calendar year 2008, the cooperative water program included continuous water-level recording of 12 wells completed in the Floridan, Brunswick, and surficial aquifer systems; collecting water levels from 21 wells to map the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer during July 2008; and collecting and analyzing water samples from 26 wells to map chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during July 2008. Equipment was installed on 3 wells for real-time water level and specific conductance monitoring. In addition, work was continued to refine an existing groundwater-flow model for evaluation of water-management scenarios.

  11. Integrated gravity, magnetic, seismic, and geologic study of Triassic Riddleville basin, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.; Ziegler, D.G.; Aiken, C.L.V.

    1987-05-01

    An integrated approach was taken in assessing the basement configuration of the Riddleville basin, a Triassic rift structure in central Georgia. The basin is within Piedmont metamorphic and igneous rocks and is overlain by a veneer of Cretaceous and younger sediments. Generally, these basins yield poor seismic data, as in this case where much of the seismic energy is absorbed at the Triassic-Cretaceous unconformity and where little velocity contrast exists between the deeper Triassic sediments and basement. The problem is further compounded by large-amplitude gravity and magnetic contrasts caused by intrabasement lithologic changes and by the presence of basic intrusions. Detailed gravity and USGS aeromagnetic surveys were utilized as well as a singular seismic line and several nearby wells of which two penetrate basement. The complications were handily resolved by powerful potential field inverse modeling techniques where gravity and magnetic models verified the seismic interpretation. It is shown that the basin has far more sediment than previously conjectured, and bodies that were considered to be shallow are now found to be intrabasement effects. It is also established that the basin consists of a series of tilted fault blocks, each of which displays contrasting stratigraphic sections seismically where one could infer that the sedimentary architecture of the basin was at least partially controlled by the local tectonic regime.

  12. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Brunswick-Glynn County Area, Georgia, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. This contamination has limited the development of the ground-water supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water-resources program with the City of Brunswick to monitor and assess the effect of ground-water development on saltwater contamination of the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas. During calendar year 2007, the cooperative water-resources monitoring program included continuous water-level recording of 13 wells completed in the Floridan, Brunswick, and surficial aquifer systems; collecting water levels from 22 wells to map the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007; and collecting and analyzing water samples from 76 wells to map chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007. In addition, work was initiated to refine an existing ground-water flow model for evaluation of water-management scenarios.

  13. Increased circulating Interleukin-18 levels in centenarians with no signs of vascular disease: another paradox of longevity?

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Basile, Giorgio; Merendino, Rosaria Alba; Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem; Dinarello, Charles A; Lo Balbo, Claudia; Franceschi, Claudio; Basili, Stefania; D' Urbano, Etrusca; Daví, Giovanni; Nicita-Mauro, Vittorio; Romano, Mario

    2003-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is highly expressed in macrophages from human atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting its involvement in ischemic syndromes. We evaluated IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein (BP) in healthy centenarians, as longevity is characterized by a reduced incidence of ischemic events. For comparison, patients with chronic ischemic syndromes (CIS) were evaluated. Serum IL-18 and IL-18BP levels were measured by non-cross-reacting ELISA in 16 healthy centenarians and in two age-control populations, each of 18 healthy individuals aged 55.9+/-1.43 and 74.3+/-1.35, respectively, as well as in 23 CIS patients, and another cohort of 23 healthy subjects that were age- and sex-matched with CIS patients. Centenarians displayed significantly higher total IL-18 serum levels compared to each control group. Elevated IL-18 levels were also present in CIS patients. However, centenarians had a significant higher level of IL-18BP compared to the cohort of 23 controls (P=0.0014), and compared to CIS patients (P=0.043); as a result centenarians exhibited a lower level of free IL-18 than CIS patients. The present results indicate that quenching of IL-18 by IL-18BP may explain the apparent paradox of elevated serum IL-18 with no vascular signs in centenarians. PMID:12814802

  14. Children's Growth and Classroom Experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Schaaf, Jennifer; LaForett, Dore

    2013-01-01

    Georgia has one of the few state-funded universal pre-kindergarten programs in the United States, with the aim of providing pre-k services to all 4-year-olds whose families want their children to participate in the program, regardless of family income level. In the 2011-2012 school year, Georgia's Pre-K Program served a total of over 94,000

  15. A field and statistical modeling study to estimate irrigation water use at Benchmark Farms study sites in southwestern Georgia, 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fanning, Julia L.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Lewis, William C.

    2001-01-01

    A benchmark irrigation monitoring network of farms located in a 32-county area in southwestern Georgia was established in 1995 to improve estimates of irrigation water use. A stratified random sample of 500 permitted irrigators was selected from a data base--maintained by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Environmental Protection Division, Water Resources Management Branch--to obtain 180 voluntary participants in the study area. Site-specific irrigation data were collected at each farm using running-time totalizers and noninvasive flowmeters. Data were collected and compiled for 50 farms for 1995 and 130 additional farms for the 1996 growing season--a total of 180 farms. Irrigation data collected during the 1996 growing season were compiled for 180 benchmark farms and used to develop a statistical model to estimate irrigation water use in 32 counties in southwestern Georgia. The estimates derived were developed from using a statistical approach know as ?bootstrap analysis? that allows for the estimation of precision. Five model components--whether-to-irrigate, acres irrigated, crop selected, seasonal-irrigation scheduling, and the amount of irrigation applied--compose the irrigation model and were developed to reflect patterns in the data collected at Benchmark Farms Study area sites. The model estimated that peak irrigation for all counties in the study area occurred during July with significant irrigation also occurring during May, June, and August. Irwin and Tift were the most irrigated and Schley and Houston were the least irrigated counties in the study area. High irrigation intensity primarily was located along the eastern border of the study area; whereas, low irrigation intensity was located in the southwestern quadrant where ground water was the dominant irrigation source. Crop-level estimates showed sizable variations across crops and considerable uncertainty for all crops other than peanuts and pecans. Counties having the most irrigated acres showed higher variations in annual irrigation than counties having the least irrigated acres. The Benchmark Farms Study model estimates were higher than previous irrigation estimates, with 20 percent of the bias a result of underestimating irrigation acreage in earlier studies. Model estimates showed evidence of an upward bias of about 15 percent with the likely cause being a misrepresented inches-applied model. A better understanding of the causes of bias in the model could be determined with a larger irrigation sample size and increased substantially by automating the reporting of monthly totalizer amounts.

  16. The association of falls and various physical activities in Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiukui; Yang, Ming; Luo, Li; Hai, Shan; Ding, Xiang; Dong, Birong

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between falls and various physical activities in the oldest old people. This study was conducted to observe the association of fall with various exercise habits and farm work in very old people. In this cross-sectional study of a Chinese cohort of men and women aged 90-108 years, we observed the association of fall with habitual (current and former) farm work and exercise in very old people. The population included 805 unrelated Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians (68.94% of the subjects were women, with a mean age of 93.70 years). In the women, the subjects with a continuing exercise habit had a significantly lower prevalence of fall than those without an exercise habit; the subjects who had never exercised had a significantly higher prevalence of fall than those who exercised. In men, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of these habits between the subjects with and without fall. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, educational levels, life styles, vision levels and temperament, we found that current habitual farm work (OR=1.755 95% CI (1.107, 2.780)) and exercise OR=0.666 95% CI (0.445, 0.997) had a significant odds ratio for fall; among the females, continuing exercise (vs. having never exercised) had a significant odds ratio for fall (OR=0.620 95% CI (0.395, 0.973)). Habitual farm work might be positively associated with fall; however, habitual exercise might be negatively associated with fall in Chinese long-lived old people. PMID:25957059

  17. Modeling the spatial differentiation in cloud-to-ground lightning: A case study in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strikas, Ona

    Urban cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning enhancement has been well documented for Atlanta, Georgia. This study builds on those investigations using modeling techniques. Numerous styles of analyses and regressions were conducted to establish patterns of CG lightning over the North Georgia region. CG lightning demonstrated clustering for all years of data: 1995--2008. However, the first strike of each day with lightning was randomly distributed according to a Poisson distribution, demonstrating the clustering is not due to permanent features. Attempts were unsuccessful to model CG lightning clusters as either a Matern or Thomas Poisson point process. Regressions of CG lightning with built environment covariates---FAA aviation obstacle locations and heights, population density, road length density, distance to the center of Atlanta, PM10 emissions data, distance to highways, and coal plant locations---as well as natural variables such as projected coordinate easting, northing, and NWS severe thunderstorm status were executed at resolutions of 1km, 2km, 4km, and 8km. Analyses demonstrated significantly higher flash frequency near FAA aviation obstacles. With an R2 value of 0.22, taller obstacles are struck more frequently than shorter obstacles. Regressions with road length density revealed little explanatory power (maximum R2=0.19), but demonstrated a positive correlation independent of scale. A multi-level visualization technique demonstrates the road length density correlation loses accuracy within dense urban corridors. Distance from Atlanta shows a negative correlation, but only at larger scales. Subsetting both regressions by direction reveals a significant difference on the Eastern and Western sides of Atlanta. Subsetting both regressions only to Gwinnett County, Georgia illustrates road length density has no correlation with flash frequency, and distance to Atlanta is still a scale dependent process. PM10 emissions analysis suggests that CG amplification is most likely to occur between 15 and 33microg/m 3, but the data has significant flash frequency variability even within these PM10 levels. Immediate proximity to highways proves not to be a significant variable in modeling flash frequency at any resolution. Coal plant proximity has the potential to enhance CG flash frequency, but the inherent variability in frequency precludes a strong p-value compared to randomly generated areas. However, if the data is subset by flashes/day over 500, then the areas close to coal plants have significantly more lightning (p=2.19e-5). Using a subset of the twenty-five highest frequency flash days in three equal area study areas (Haralson and Polk Counties representing rural, Cobb County representing developed and upwind of Atlanta, and Gwinnett County representing downwind and developed) Mann-Whitney tests are completed to determine if NWS severe thunderstorm storms are significantly different in CG flash frequency. In each study area, the NWS severe thunderstorms are not significantly different in flash frequency than non-severe storms. This analysis also suggests spatial tendencies of high frequency storms in each area. This multi-scale analysis also suggests that when examining CG lightning, more than one scale of examination should be used. Some processes of lightning amplification appear to occur at very local scales (500m), whereas others are coarser (up to 8km). There appears to be no goldilocks scale of analysis for CG lightning. However, if only one resolution is to be used, 2km is recommended.

  18. Urban-Rural Dichotomy of Burn Patients in Georgia and South Carolina: A Geographic Information System Study.

    PubMed

    Mian, Mohammad Anwarul Huq; Haque, Akhlaque; Mullins, Robert Fred; Fiebiger, Barbara; Hassan, Zaheed

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a 4-year (2006-2009) cross-section of epidemiological burn injury data from Georgia and South Carolina. The results from the study show that the burn patients from rural areas differ from their urban counterparts in terms of relative burn injury incidence. Younger population groups that live in lower socioeconomic status communities especially in the urban areas are at a higher risk than other population groups. The differences in the types of burns in the urban-rural communities can give us further insights to the patients' association with injury sites. The presence of fewer burn injury treatment and care facilities in rural areas and the high incidence of burn in low-income communities in the urban areas should carry important policy implications for health planners. This study will enable researchers to understand the epidemiology of burn injuries at the local and national levels in the United States. It also carries important implications for using Geographic Information Systems for studying spatial distribution of burn injuries for disaster planning and mitigation of burn injuries. PMID:25522150

  19. The Impact of Invisibility on the Health of Migrant Farmworkers in the Southeastern United States: A Case Study from Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Bail, Kari M.; Foster, Jennifer; Dalmida, Safiya George; Kelly, Ursula; Howett, Maeve; Ferranti, Erin P.; Wold, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Migrant farmworkers represent one of the most marginalized and underserved populations in the United States. Acculturation theory cannot be easily mapped onto the transnational experience of migrant farmworkers, who navigate multiple physical and cultural spaces yearly, and who are not recognized by the state they constitute, the Citizen's Other (Kerber, 2009). This paper utilizes narrative analysis of a case study to illustrate, through the relationship of the narrator to migrant farmworkers and years of participant observation by the coauthors, how isolation from family and community, as well as invisibility within institutions, affect the health and well-being of migrant farmworkers in southeastern Georgia. Invisibility of farmworkers within institutions, such as health care, the educational system, social services, domestic violence shelters, and churches contribute to illness among farmworkers. The dominant American discourse surrounding immigration policy addresses the strain immigrants put on the social systems, educational system, and the health care system. Nurses who work with farmworkers are well positioned to bring the subjective experience of farmworkers to light, especially for those engaged with socially just policies. Those who contribute to the abundant agricultural produce that feeds Americans deserve the recognition upon which social integration depends. PMID:22830007

  20. Tracer and hydrometric study of preferential flow in large undisturbed soil cores from the Georgia Piedmont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntosh, Janice; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Peters, Norman E.

    1999-01-01

    We studied the temporal patterns of tracer throughput in the outflow of large (30 cm diameter by 38 cm long) undisturbed cores from the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia. Tracer breakthrough was affected by soil structure and rainfall intensity. Two rainfall intensities (20 and 40 mm hr-1) for separate Cl- and Br- amended solutions were applied to two cores (one extracted from a hillslope soil and one extracted from a residual clay soil on the ridge). For both low and high rainfall intensity experiments, preferential flow occurred in the clay core, but not in the hillslope core. The preferential flow is attributed to well-developed interpedal macrochannels that are commonly found in structured clay soils, characteristic of the ridge site. However, each rainfall intensity exceeded the matrix infiltration capacity at the top of the hillslope core, but did not exceed the matrix infiltration capacity at the middle and bottom of the hillslope core and at all levels in the clay core. Localized zones of saturation created when rainfall intensity exceeds the matrix infiltration capacity may cause water and tracer to overflow from the matrix into macrochannels, where preferential flow occurs to depth in otherwise unsaturated soil. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Sampling design and procedures for fixed surface-water sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain study unit, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatzell, H.H.; Oaksford, E.T.; Asbury, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of design guidelines for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has resulted in the development of new sampling procedures and the modification of existing procedures commonly used in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) study unit began the intensive data collection phase of the program in October 1992. This report documents the implementation of the NAWQA guidelines by describing the sampling design and procedures for collecting surface-water samples in the GAFL study unit in 1993. This documentation is provided for agencies that use water-quality data and for future study units that will be entering the intensive phase of data collection. The sampling design is intended to account for large- and small-scale spatial variations, and temporal variations in water quality for the study area. Nine fixed sites were selected in drainage basins of different sizes and different land-use characteristics located in different land-resource provinces. Each of the nine fixed sites was sampled regularly for a combination of six constituent groups composed of physical and chemical constituents: field measurements, major ions and metals, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediments. Some sites were also sampled during high-flow conditions and storm events. Discussion of the sampling procedure is divided into three phases: sample collection, sample splitting, and sample processing. A cone splitter was used to split water samples for the analysis of the sampling constituent groups except organic carbon from approximately nine liters of stream water collected at four fixed sites that were sampled intensively. An example of the sample splitting schemes designed to provide the sample volumes required for each sample constituent group is described in detail. Information about onsite sample processing has been organized into a flowchart that describes a pathway for each of the constituent groups.

  2. Testing FASST a One-Dimensional Hydrological Model for Soil Moisture Studies at the Little River Watershed, Tifton, Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The FASST (Fast All Season Strength model, US Army Corps of Engineers), one-dimensional hydrologic model was used to evaluate soil moisture across the USDA-ARS-SEWRL Little River Watershed in south Georgia US. The ultimate goal of this research is to assess the spatial variation of soil moisture acr...

  3. Hydrologic conditions, stream-water quality, and selected groundwater studies conducted in the Lawrenceville area, Georgia, 2003-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Williams, Lester J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrologic studies conducted during 2003-2008 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Water Program with the City of Lawrenceville, Georgia, provide important data for the management of water resources. The Cooperative Water Program includes (1) hydrologic monitoring (precipitation, streamflow, and groundwater levels) to quantify baseline conditions in anticipation of expanded groundwater development, (2) surface-water-quality monitoring to provide an understanding of how stream quality is affected by natural (such as precipitation) and anthropogenic factors (such as impervious area), and (3) geologic studies to better understand groundwater flow and hydrologic processes in a crystalline rock setting. The hydrologic monitoring network includes each of the two watersheds projected for groundwater development?the Redland-Pew Creek and upper Alcovy River watersheds?and the upper Apalachee River watershed, which serves as a background or control watershed because of its similar hydrologic and geologic characteristics to the other two watersheds. In each watershed, precipitation was generally greater during 2003-2005 than during 2006-2008, and correspondingly streamflow and groundwater levels decreased. In the upper Alcovy River and Redland-Pew Creek watersheds, groundwater level declines during 2003-2008 were mostly between 2 and 7 feet, with maximum observed declines of as much as 28.5 feet in the upper Alcovy River watershed, and 49.1 feet in the Redland-Pew Creek watershed. Synoptic base-flow measurements were used to locate and quantify gains or losses to streamflow resulting from groundwater interaction (groundwater seepage). In September 2006, seepage gains were measured at five of nine reaches evaluated in the upper Alcovy River watershed, with losses in the other four. The four losing reaches were near the confluence of the Alcovy River and Cedar Creek where the stream gradient is low and bedrock is at or near the land surface. In the Redland-Pew Creek watershed, groundwater seepage gains were observed at each of the 10 reaches measured during September 2008. Continuous specific conductance, temperature, and turbidity data were collected at gage sites located on Pew and Shoal Creeks, which drain about 32 percent of the city area, and at a background site on the Apalachee River located outside the city boundary. Continuous surface-water monitoring data indicate that reduced precipitation during 2006-2008 resulted in lower turbidity and higher stream temperature and specific conductance than in 2003-2005. In comparison to the other two stream sites, water at the Apalachee River site had the lowest mean and median values for specific conductance, and the greatest mean and median values for turbidity during October 2005-December 2008. In addition to continuous water-quality monitoring, samples were collected periodically to determine fecal-coliform bacteria concentrations. None of the individual samples at the three sites exceeded the Georgia Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) limit of 4,000 most probable number of colonies per 100 milliliters (MPN col/100 mL) for November through April. In the Redland-Pew Creek and Shoal Creek watersheds, the GaEPD 30-day geometric mean standard of 200 MPN col/100 mL for May-October was exceeded twice during two sampling periods in May-October 2007 and twice during two sampling periods in May-October 2008. Groundwater studies conducted during 2003-2007 include the collection of borehole geophysical logs from four test wells drilled in the upper Alcovy River watershed to provide insight into subsurface geologic characteristics. A flowmeter survey was conducted in a well south of Rhodes Jordan Park to help assess the interconnection of the well with surface water and the effectiveness of a liner-packer assembly installed to eliminate that interconnection. At that same well, hydraulic packer tests were conducted in the open-hole section of the well, and water samp

  4. Developing Georgia's telemedicine network.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Sanders, J

    1993-05-01

    Passage of Georgia's Distance Learning and Telemedicine Act of 1992 resulted in a windfall of $50 million from telephone company over-earnings. Rather than refund the money to consumers, legislators created a fund to finance telecommunications projects in medicine and education. When Governor Zell Miller signed the Act into law more than a year ago, he said, "[It] will immediately catapult Georgia to the forefront of this nation in the use of advanced telecommunications to improve the quality of life of its people." The law also set the state's cable television and telephone companies at odds. Nancy Horne, executive director of the Cable Television Association of Georgia, said that her industry's broadband fiber and coaxial infrastructure is in place to provide the state with telemedicine capabilities, and that transmission of full motion video or high resolution diagnostic images could take hours over standard telephone lines. Representatives of telephone companies argue that new high-speed cell relay switching technology provides instantaneous communications. An appointed Board of Governors holds tightly to the strings that secure a purse containing the $50 million. No grants have yet been awarded. In the middle of the debate stands Georgia's Department of Administrative Services, which moderates the competition between the two industries. And, the Medical College of Georgia created a demonstration project based on telephone technology. Representatives of both institutions gave Healthcare Informatics their views on developments of telemedicine in Georgia. PMID:10126080

  5. Financial Leadership Competencies for Public College and University Presidential Leaders in Georgia: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-method Delphi study is to identify the financial leadership competencies considered most important in operating public higher education institutions. The current study also determined whether differences existed in the perceptions of participants' age, level of education, years of service as a president, the number of…

  6. Financial Leadership Competencies for Public College and University Presidential Leaders in Georgia: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-method Delphi study is to identify the financial leadership competencies considered most important in operating public higher education institutions. The current study also determined whether differences existed in the perceptions of participants' age, level of education, years of service as a president, the number of

  7. Familial Mediterranean fever in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Pagava, K; Rauscher, B; Korinteli, I A; Shonvadze, D; Kriegshauser, G; Oberkanins, Ch

    2014-05-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder caused by mutations in the MEFV gene. Carrier rates are known to be particularly high among Sephardic Jews, Turks, Armenians and Arab populations. Our literature survey regarding FMF and MEFV mutations in Georgia revealed a lack of existing studies. We applied multiplex PCR and reverse-hybridization teststrips (FMF StripAssay) to simultaneously analyze twelve common MEFV mutations in DNA samples from dried blood on filter cards, which had been obtained from 202 unselected newborns at various hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia. We found 30 samples to be heterozygous and one to be compound heterozygous or carrier of a complex allele (two mutations in cis). The carrier rate of MEFV mutations (15.3%) was remarkable. The most frequently observed variants were E148Q (15x), M680I G/C (5x) and M694V (4x). Five other MEFV mutations were found at lower prevalence (V726A, A744S, R761H: 2x each; P369S, F479L: 1x each). Based on these new findings, the awareness for FMF and the availability of appropriate testing should be further promoted in Georgia. PMID:24940862

  8. Smoke-Free Public Policies and Voluntary Policies in Personal Settings in Tbilisi, Georgia: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Smith, Samantha A; Bascombe, Ta Misha; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Topuridze, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Georgia has limited tobacco control policies, particularly in the area of smoke-free public policies, which may influence the adoption of smoke-free home rules. We qualitatively examined knowledge about and reactions to public and personal smoke-free policies among Tbilisi residents. In Spring 2014, we conducted six focus groups among 47 total participants-two among male smokers, one among male nonsmokers, two among female smokers, and one among female nonsmokers. Our sample was 48.9% male and 70.2% past 30-day smokers. Most believed that SHS was dangerous, with particular concern regarding the impact of SHS on children and pregnant women. Many had misconceptions about how to protect others from SHS and the effectiveness of some approaches. Many indicated that they had some type of home rules, but few reported a complete ban on smoking in the home. Even when some restrictions were in place, they rarely were effective or enforced. Common concerns about the partial smoke-free public policy in Georgia included its economic impact, perceived discrimination among smokers, and the policy being against the Georgian culture. These concerns were heightened when participants were asked about the possible implementation of a complete smoke-free policy. Educational programs are needed to promote smoke-free policies in Georgia. PMID:26821035

  9. Smoke-Free Public Policies and Voluntary Policies in Personal Settings in Tbilisi, Georgia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Smith, Samantha A.; Bascombe, Ta Misha; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Topuridze, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Georgia has limited tobacco control policies, particularly in the area of smoke-free public policies, which may influence the adoption of smoke-free home rules. We qualitatively examined knowledge about and reactions to public and personal smoke-free policies among Tbilisi residents. In Spring 2014, we conducted six focus groups among 47 total participants—two among male smokers, one among male nonsmokers, two among female smokers, and one among female nonsmokers. Our sample was 48.9% male and 70.2% past 30-day smokers. Most believed that SHS was dangerous, with particular concern regarding the impact of SHS on children and pregnant women. Many had misconceptions about how to protect others from SHS and the effectiveness of some approaches. Many indicated that they had some type of home rules, but few reported a complete ban on smoking in the home. Even when some restrictions were in place, they rarely were effective or enforced. Common concerns about the partial smoke-free public policy in Georgia included its economic impact, perceived discrimination among smokers, and the policy being against the Georgian culture. These concerns were heightened when participants were asked about the possible implementation of a complete smoke-free policy. Educational programs are needed to promote smoke-free policies in Georgia. PMID:26821035

  10. Teachers' Perceptions of Georgia's Early Reading Intervention Program: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobby, Patti Tennant

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used an ethnographic method to investigate teachers' perceptions of reading interventions delivered in a state-funded early intervention program (EIP). Academically at-risk students struggle to meet grade-level standards year after year, even with interventions involving small group, targeted assistance. Teacher

  11. Are Men Aging as Oaks and Women as Reeds? A Behavioral Hypothesis to Explain the Gender Paradox of French Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Balard, Frédéric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as “oaks,” seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as “reeds,” seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

  12. Are men aging as oaks and women as reeds? A behavioral hypothesis to explain the gender paradox of French centenarians.

    PubMed

    Balard, Frdric; Beluche, Isabelle; Romieu, Isabelle; Willcox, Donald Craig; Robine, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies involving French centenarians have shown a gender paradox in old age. Even if women are more numerous in old age and live longer than men, men are in better physical and cognitive health, are higher functioning, and have superior vision. If better health should lead to a longer life, why are men not living longer than women? This paper proposes a hypothesis based on the differences in the generational habitus between men and women who were born at the beginning of the 20th century. The concept of generational habitus combines the generation theory of Mannheim with the habitus concept of Bourdieu based on the observation that there exists a way of being, thinking, and doing for each generation. We hypothesized that this habitus still influences many gender-linked behaviours in old age. Men, as "oaks," seem able to delay the afflictions of old age until a breaking point, while women, as "reeds," seem able to survive despite an accumulation of health deficits. PMID:22175018

  13. Violence as an Under-Recognized Barrier to Women's Realization of Their Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition: Case Studies From Georgia and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Anne C; Lemke, Stefanie; Jenderedjian, Anna; Scherbaum, Veronika

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses under-acknowledged barriers of structural violence and discrimination that interfere with women's capacity to realize their human rights generally, and their right to adequate food and nutrition in particular. Case studies from Georgia and South Africa illustrate the need for a human rights-based approach to food and nutrition security that prioritizes non-discrimination, public participation, and self-determination. These principles are frustrated by different types of structural violence that, if not seriously addressed, pose multiple barriers to women's economic, public, and social engagement. PMID:26139694

  14. Promoting health in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Raminashvili, David; Bakhturidze, George; Zarnadze, Irine; Peikrishvili, Nana; Bull, Torill

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the public health situation in Georgia. In 1991 Georgia became an independent republic following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The armed conflict with Russia in 2008 and political unrest in recent years has presented the Georgian population and politicians with a demanding situation. As part of the WHO European Region, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) including Georgia is on the unfortunate side of a European health divide, with low male life expectancy and high under-five mortality. There is also a high degree of economic inequality in the population. We first look at the main players and the current strategies in public health work. Next we discuss this on the background of health promotion principles and recent international developments in knowledge and policy recommendations in the field of health promotion. Finally we point to some of the major public health challenges that Georgia faces. We conclude that the Georgian focus on reducing risk behaviours and improving access to quality health care is worthy of praise, but that this is not sufficient to solve the current public health challenges. Strategies for working across sectors with social determinants of health should be built into Georgian health thinking and policies. A health promotion work force should be developed. International developments such as the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) report, the 'Health 2020' framework and the HP Core Competencies project all provide useful input to future development of healthy public policies in Georgia. PMID:24458003

  15. The best MSW treatment option by considering greenhouse gas emissions reduction: a case study in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tayyeba, Omid; Olsson, Monika; Brandt, Nils

    2011-08-01

    The grave concern over climate change and new economic incentives such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) have given more weight to the potential of projects for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the Adjara solid waste management project, even though the need for reductions in GHG emissions is acknowledged, it is not one of the key factors for selecting the most appropriate treatment method. This study addresses the benefit of various solid waste treatment methods that could be used in the Adjara project in terms of reducing GHG emissions. Seven different options for solid waste treatment are examined: open dumping as the baseline case, four options for landfill technology (no provision of landfill gas capture, landfill gas capture with open flare system, with enclosed flare system and with electricity generation), composting and anaerobic digestion with electricity production. CDM methodologies were used to quantify the amount of reductions for the scenarios. The study concludes sanitary landfill with capture and burning of landfill gas by an enclosed flare system could satisfy the requirements, including GHG reduction potential. The findings were tested for uncertainty and sensitivity by varying the data on composition and amount of waste and were found to be robust. PMID:21382876

  16. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in Georgia, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeth, David C.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collects ground-water data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define ground-water resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. During 2004-2005, ground-water levels were monitored continuously in a network of 183 wells completed in major aquifers throughout the State. Because of missing data or the short period of record for a number of these wells (less than 3 years), a total of 171 wells from the network are discussed in this report. These wells include 19 in the surficial aquifer system, 20 in the Brunswick aquifer system and equivalent sediments, 69 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 17 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 10 in the Clayton aquifer, 12 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 11 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the network indicate that generally water levels rose after the end of a drought (fall 2002), with water levels in 152 of the wells in the normal or above-normal range by 2005. An exception to this pattern of water-level recovery is in the Cretaceous aquifer system where water levels in 7 of the 12 wells monitored were below normal during 2005. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic synoptic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Camden County-Charlton County area during September 2004 and May 2005, in the Brunswick area during June 2004 and June 2005, and in the City of Albany-Dougherty County area during October 2004 and during October 2005. In general, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces showed little change during 2004-2005 in each of the areas. Ground-water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer is monitored in the Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick areas, and in Camden County; and the Lower Floridan aquifer, monitored in the Savannah and Brunswick areas and in Camden County. In the Albany area, nitrate concentrations generally increased since the end of the drought during 2002. Concentrations increased in water collected from 13 of the 16 wells sampled during 2004-2005 and by November 2005, water from 2 wells had nitrate as N concentrations that were above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) 10-milligram-per-liter (mg/L) drinking-water standard. In the Savannah area, measurement of fluid conductivity and chloride concentration in water samples from discrete depths in three wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer and one well in the Lower Floridan aquifer were used to assess changes in water quality in the Savannah area. At Tybee Island, chloride concentrations in samples from the Lower Floridan aquifer increased during 2004-2005 and were above the 250-mg/L USEPA drinking-water standard. At Skidaway Island, water in the Upper Floridan aquifer is fresh, and chloride concentrations did not appreciably change during 2004-2005. However, chloride concentrations in samples collected from the Lower Floridan aquifer during 2004-2005 showed disparate changes; whereby, chloride concentration increased in the deepest sampled interval (1,070 feet) and decreased in a shallower sampled interval (900 feet). At Fort Pulaski, water samples collected from the Upper Floridan aquifer are fresh and did not appreciably change during 2004-2005. In the Brunswick area, maps showing the chloride concentration of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer were constructed using data collected from 41 wells during June 2004 and from 39 wells during June 2005. Analyses indicate that concentrations remained above the USEPA drinking-water standard in an approximate 2-square-mile area. During 2004-2005, chloride concentrations increased in samples from 18 wells and decreased in samples from 11 wells. In the Camden County area, chloride concentrations during 2004-2005 were analyzed in water

  17. Curious Georgia Studies Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolle, Anthony; Houck, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    District and school administrators are challenged to provide learning environments that help students attain and surpass set levels of academic and social learning. In times of economic strife, discussions often turn to the efficient use of financial and human resources to maximize school districts' capacity to fulfill those objectives. Most

  18. Physical Environment and Student Safety in South Georgia Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung; Morgan, P. Lena

    The preservation of school safety should be a primary commitment of all educators. This paper presents findings of a study that examined school facility safety in 27 Georgia schools. Data were gathered from a survey of 9 elementary, 11 middle, and 7 high schools in south Georgia. The surveys elicited information related to both school-site safety

  19. Integrating Engineering Design into Technology Education: Georgia's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Cameron D.; Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive research study reported on Georgia's secondary level (grades 6-12) technology education programs capability to incorporate engineering concepts and/or engineering design into their curriculum. Participants were middle school and high school teachers in the state of Georgia who currently teach technology education. Participants

  20. Regional Child Care Trends: Comparing Georgia to Its Neighbors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Lauren; Monaco, Malina; Beck, Lisa; Edwards, Jennifer

    As child care becomes an increasingly important public policy issue on the national level, there is emerging concern about Georgia's readiness to meet the needs of its children in care. This study documented the state of child care in Georgia in comparison to other states, to national averages, and to national standards. A group of 12 comparison

  1. National Observatory Report on Vocational Education and Training in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glonti, Kote; Ejibadze, A.; Nanobashvili, K.; Mickaia, L.; Natsvlishvili, E.; Imedashvili, M.; Mikeladze, A.

    The state of vocational education and training (VET) in the Georgia Republic in 1999-2000 was examined. The study focused on the following topics: (1) the socioeconomic context of VET; (2) Georgia's labor market (the current labor market situation, employment, unemployment); (3) management of VET (legislation and policy, responsible bodies,…

  2. Analysis of nutrients in the surface waters of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit, 1970-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ham, L.K.; Hatzell, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    During the early phase of the Georgia-Florida National Water Quality Assessment study, existing information on nutrients was compiled and analyzed in order to evaluate the nutrient concentrations within the 61,545 square mile study unit. Evaluation of the nutrient concentrations collected at surface- water sites between October 1, 1970, and September 30,1991, utilized the environmental characteristics of land resource provinces, land use, and nonpoint and point-source discharges within the study unit. Long-term trends were investigated to determine the temporal distribution of nutrient concentrations. In order to determine a level of concern for nutrient concentrations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used-(1) for nitrate concentrations, the maximum contaminant level in public-drinking water supplies (10 mg/L); (2) for ammonia concentrations, the chronic exposure of aquatic organisms to un-ionized ammonia (2.1 mg/L); (3) for total-phosphorus concentrations, the recommended concentration in flowing water to discourage excessive growth of aquatic plants (0.1 mg/L); and (4) for kjeldahl concentrations, however, no guidelines were available. For sites within the 10 major river basins, median nutrient concentrations were generally below USEPA guidelines, except for total-phosphorus concentrations where 45 percent of the medians exceeded the guideline. The only median ammonia concentration that exceeded the guideline occurred at the Swift Creek site (3.4 mg/L), in the Suwannee River basin, perhaps due to wastewater discharges. For all sites within the Withlacoochee, Aucilla, and St. Marys River basins, median concentrations of nitrate, ammonia, and total phosphorus were below the USEPA guidelines. Nutrient data at each monitoring site within each major basin were aggregated for comparisons of median nutrient concentrations among major basins. The Ochlockonee and Hillsborough River basins had the highest median nutrient concentrations, the Aucilla River basin had the lowest. Median concentrations of nitrate and ammonia among all major basins were below USEPA guidelines. The median total-phosphorus concentrations for the following river basins exceeded the USEPA guideline-Hillsborough, St. Johns, Suwannee, Ochlockonee, Satilla, Altamaha, and Ogeechee. Although nutrient concentrations within the study unit were low, long-term increasing trends were found in all four nutrients. All 18 study-unit wide nitrate trends had increasing slopes ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 (mg/L)/yr. The range in slope for the 13 ammonia trends was -0.03 to 0.01 (mg/L)/yr with 6 increasing trends in the northern part of the study unit. Of the 17 total-phosphorus trends found in the study unit, 10 were found at sites where the median concentration exceeded the USEPA guideline. At these 10 sites, 4 sites had increasing trends with slopes ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.07 (mg/L)/yr, 5 sites had decreasing trends with slopes ranging from -0.01 to -0.24 (mg/L)/yr, and one site showed a seasonal concentration trend. Median nutrient concentrations were significantly different among the four land resource provinces-Southern Piedmont, Southern Coastal Plain, Coastal Flatwoods, and Central Florida Ridge. As a result, nutrient concentrations among basins with similar nutrient inputs but located within different land resource provinces are not expected to be the same due to differences in the combination of factors such as soil permeability, runoff rates, and stream channel slopes. This concept is an important consideration in designing a surface-water quality network within the study area. For the most part, the Coastal Flatwoods showed the lowest median nutrient concentrations and the Southern Coastal Plain had the highest median nutrient concentrations. Lower median nitrate concentrations in surface-water basins were associated with the forest/wetland land-use category and higher median concentrations of nitrate and ammonia with

  3. An Evaluation of Lottery Expenditures for Public School Safety in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Knox H.; Kellermann, Arthur L.; Wald, Marlena; Lipscomb, Leslie; Fajman, Nancy

    In 1994, approximately $20 million of Georgia Lottery for Education funds were spent to make schools safer. This report presents the results of an evaluation of Georgia Lottery for Education expenditures for technologies related to school safety. The study evaluated the safety technology at 15 Georgia public schools. Data were gathered through…

  4. Rejuvenating senescent and centenarian human cells by reprogramming through the pluripotent state

    PubMed Central

    Lapasset, Laure; Milhavet, Ollivier; Prieur, Alexandre; Besnard, Emilie; Babled, Amelie; At-Hamou, Nafissa; Leschik, Julia; Pellestor, Franck; Ramirez, Jean-Marie; De Vos, John; Lehmann, Sylvain; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a unique opportunity to derive patient-specific stem cells with potential applications in tissue replacement therapies and without the ethical concerns of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, cellular senescence, which contributes to aging and restricted longevity, has been described as a barrier to the derivation of iPSCs. Here we demonstrate, using an optimized protocol, that cellular senescence is not a limit to reprogramming and that age-related cellular physiology is reversible. Thus, we show that our iPSCs generated from senescent and centenarian cells have reset telomere size, gene expression profiles, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial metabolism, and are indistinguishable from hESCs. Finally, we show that senescent and centenarian-derived pluripotent stem cells are able to redifferentiate into fully rejuvenated cells. These results provide new insights into iPSC technology and pave the way for regenerative medicine for aged patients. PMID:22056670

  5. Georgia's Teacher Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Anne Marie; Wetherington, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Like most states, Georgia until recently depended on an assessment of content knowledge to award teaching licenses, along with a licensure recommendation from candidates' educator preparation programs. While the content assessment reflected candidates' grasp of subject matter, licensure decisions did not hinge on direct, statewide assessment of…

  6. Georgia's Unusual "Electoral College"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports a unique partnership between Kennesaw State University and the Georgia state government involving the participation of computer experts in the deployment or electronic voting machines. The effort has received attention in Washington as scientists and government officials search for ways to reform election procedures across the…

  7. Georgia's Teacher Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Anne Marie; Wetherington, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Like most states, Georgia until recently depended on an assessment of content knowledge to award teaching licenses, along with a licensure recommendation from candidates' educator preparation programs. While the content assessment reflected candidates' grasp of subject matter, licensure decisions did not hinge on direct, statewide assessment of

  8. Georgia's Unusual "Electoral College"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports a unique partnership between Kennesaw State University and the Georgia state government involving the participation of computer experts in the deployment or electronic voting machines. The effort has received attention in Washington as scientists and government officials search for ways to reform election procedures across the

  9. Ground-water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; analysis of available information on nutrients, 1972-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an assessment of water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. An initial activity of the program is to compile and analyze existing water-quality data for nutrients in each study unit. Ground-water quality data were compiled from three data sources, the U.S. Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and Georgia Geologic Survey. A total of 2,246 samples of ground water nutrient data for nitrogen and phosphorus species were compiled from these three data sources. Estimates of 1990 nitrogen and phosphorus inputs by county in the study area were calculated from livestock manure, fertilizers, septic tanks, and rainfall. Data for nitrate nitrogen concentrations in ground water were available from the greatest number of wells; samples from 1,233 wells were available in the U.S. Geological Survey, 820 wells from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and 680 wells from the Georgia Geologic Survey. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate nitrogen in drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter was exceeded in a higher percentage of samples from the U.S. Geological Survey, mostly because this data contained numerous samples near known contamination areas. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate nitrogen was exceeded in 3 percent of samples from Upper Floridan aquifer and 12 percent of samples from surficial aquifer system in U.S. Geological Survey data and less than 1 percent and 2 percent of samples from the Upper Floridan aquifer and surficial aquifer system, respectively, in Florida Department of Environmental Protection data. In Georgia Geologic Survey data, 1 percent of samples had concentrations of nitrate nitrogen exceeding 10 milligrams per liter. Nutrient concentration data were grouped into categories based on land use, hydrogeology (aquifer and confinement of the Upper Floridan aquifer), and land resource provinces (Central Florida Ridge, Coastal Flatwoods and Southern Coastal Plain) for the surficial aquifer system. The highest median nitrate nitrogen concentrations in the U.S. Geological Survey data were 0.4 milligrams per liter in ground-water samples from the unconfined Upper Floridan aquifer in agricultural areas and 9.0 milligrams per liter in samples from the surficial aquifer system in agricultural areas in the Central Florida Ridge. In Florida Department of Environmental Protection data, the highest median nitrate nitrogen concentrations were much lower and did not exceed 0.2 milligrams per liter in either the Upper Floridan aquifer or the surficial aquifer system. In Georgia Geologic Survey data the highest median nitrate nitrogen concentration was 1.4 milligrams per liter in agricultural areas in the Coastal Flatwoods. Highest median concentrations of total nitrogen of 10 milligrams per liter (includes nitrate, ammonia, and organic nitrogen) were in U.S. Geological Survey data in the surficial aquifer system in agricultural areas in the Central Florida Ridge. Median concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, orthophosphate phosphorus, and total phosphorus did not exceed 0.5 milligrams per liter in all categories from the Upper Floridan aquifer or the surficial aquifer system.

  10. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  11. Historical Earthquakes and Active Structure for Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashivli, Otar

    2014-05-01

    Long-term seismic history is an important foundation for reliable assessment of seismic hazard and risk. Therefore, completeness of earthquake catalogues in the longest historical part is very important. Survived historical sources, as well as special researches from the institutes, museums, libraries and archives in Georgia, the Caucasus and the Middle East indicate to high level of seismicity which entailed numerous human casualties and destruction on the territory of Georgia during the historical period. The study and detailed analysis of these original documents and researches have allowed us to create a new catalogue of historical earthquakes of Georgia from 1250 BC to 1900 AD. The method of the study is based on a multidisciplinary approach, i.e. on the joint use of methods of history and paleoseismology, archeoseismology, seismotectonics, geomorphology, etc. We present here a new parametric catalogue of 44 historic earthquakes of Georgia and a full "descriptor" of all the phenomena described in it. Constructed on its basis, the summarized map of the distribution of maximum damage in the historical period (before 1900) on the territory of Georgia clearly shows the main features of the seismic field during this period. In particular, in the axial part and the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus there is a seismic gap, which was filled in 1991 by the strongest earthquake and its aftershocks in Racha. In addition, it is also obvious that very high seismic activity in the central and eastern parts of the Javakheti highland is not described in historical materials and this fact requires further searches of various kinds of sources that contain data about historical earthquakes. We hope that this catalogue will enable to create a new joint (instrumental and historical) parametric earthquake catalogue of Georgia and will serve to assess the real seismic hazard and risk in the country.

  12. Georgia's Workforce Development Pipeline: One District's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melissa H.; Hufstetler, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Launched in 2006, the Georgia Work Ready initiative seeks to improve the job training and marketability of Georgia's workforce and drive the state's economic growth. Georgia Work Ready is a partnership between the state and the Georgia Chamber of Commerce. Comprised of three components, Georgia's initiative focuses on job profiling, skills

  13. A Contextual Analysis of the Quality Core Curriculum and the Georgia Performance Standards in Seventh Grade Social Studies: A Critical Race Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candis, Matthew Reese

    2013-01-01

    In 1985 the state of Georgia introduced the Quality Core Curriculum (QCC) in accordance with the Quality Basic Education (QBE) Act. These learning standards identified the content knowledge that students were required to learn in each subject area at all grade levels. The QCC was replaced by the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) to identify the

  14. A Contextual Analysis of the Quality Core Curriculum and the Georgia Performance Standards in Seventh Grade Social Studies: A Critical Race Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candis, Matthew Reese

    2013-01-01

    In 1985 the state of Georgia introduced the Quality Core Curriculum (QCC) in accordance with the Quality Basic Education (QBE) Act. These learning standards identified the content knowledge that students were required to learn in each subject area at all grade levels. The QCC was replaced by the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) to identify the…

  15. Industry-wide studies report: a walk-through survey of American McGaw (American Hospital Supply Corporation), Milledgeville, Georgia. [Ethylene oxide exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Stayner, L.; Greife, A.

    1985-03-11

    A walk-through survey of American McGaw, a division of American Hospital Supply Corporation, Milledgeville, Georgia, was conducted in January, 1985. The purpose of the survey was to determine the feasibility of including the facility in an industry-wide NIOSH mortality/industrial hygiene study of workers exposed to ethylene oxide. The facility used an ethylene-oxide/freon mixture, 12% ethylene/oxide, from 1962 to 1975 to sterilize intravenous administration sets. The product line, including the sterilization process, was relocated to Puerto Rico in 1975. Although personnel records existed from all current and former employees, job and department titles used were not specific enough to separate exposed from nonexposed workers. No industrial hygiene monitoring for ethylene/oxide was ever conducted by the company. The authors conclude that the facility should not be included in the NIOSH study; it is not possible to reliably determine the extent of exposure.

  16. Methyl bromide alternatives being identified in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has become clear that the price and availability of methyl bromide (MB) will soon limit its use on Georgia farms. MB alternatives for many diseases and nematodes do exist. Recent research has focused on nutsedge response to MB alternatives in conjunction with various types of mulch. A study was c...

  17. MODELING MERCURY FATE IN SEVEN GEORGIA WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and modeling studies were conducted in support of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs)for mercury in six south Georgia rivers and the Savannah River. Mercury is introduced to these rivers primarily by atmospheric deposition, with minor point source loadings. To produce mercu...

  18. Health Clinic Environments in Georgia Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Susan Rogers

    2005-01-01

    Schools seem to be the logical place to serve the health needs of students, since children spend a majority of their time there. Design standards were not available for health clinics in Georgia elementary schools; therefore, this study examined key characteristics of an elementary school clinic in order to determine the importance of each design

  19. Employer Involvement in Georgia Youth Apprenticeship Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide insight into employer participation in Georgia youth apprenticeship programs that offer work experience and learning at the work site. Data were gathered through a survey sent to a random sample of 206 employers, of the 450 employers involved in youth apprenticeship programs in the state. Analysis of the 121

  20. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  1. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not predict. The…

  2. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not predict. The

  3. Health Service Utilization for Mental, Behavioural and Emotional Problems among Conflict-Affected Population in Georgia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gotsadze, George; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin; Uchaneishvili, Maia; Rukhadze, Natia

    2015-01-01

    Background There is large gap in mental illness treatment globally and potentially especially so in war-affected populations. The study aim was to examine health care utilization patterns for mental, behavioural and emotional problems among the war-affected adult population in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted among 3600 adults affected by 1990s and 2008 armed conflicts in Georgia. Service use was measured for the last 12 months for any mental, emotional or behavioural problems. TSQ, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were used to measure current symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Descriptive and regression analyses were used. Results Respondents were predominantly female (65.0%), 35.8% were unemployed, and 56.0% covered by the government insurance scheme. From the total sample, 30.5% had symptoms of at least one current mental disorder. Among them, 39.0% sought care for mental problems, while 33.1% expressed facing barriers to accessing care and so did not seek care. General practitioners (29%) and neurologists (26%) were consulted by the majority of those with a current mental disorder who accessed services, while use of psychiatric services was far more limited. Pharmacotherapy was the predominant type of care (90%). Female gender (OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.80), middle-age (OR 1.83, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.26) and older-age (OR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.21), possession of the state insurance coverage (OR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.86), current PTSD symptoms (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.90) and depression (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.70, 2.65) were associated with higher rates of health service utilization, while employed were less likely to use services (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.89). Conclusions Reducing financial access barriers and increasing awareness and access to local care required to help reduce the burden of mental disorders among conflict-affected persons in Georgia. PMID:25853246

  4. The Georgia Tech millimeter-wavelength measurement system and some applications to the study of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, Kiruthika; Steffes, Paul G.

    2011-04-01

    With the advent of new millimeter-wavelength arrays such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array capable of providing very precise maps of planetary emission, it becomes very critical to have an accurate knowledge of the millimeter-wavelength properties of gases under those planetary conditions. A millimeter-wavelength planetary atmospheric simulator and measurement system have been developed at the Georgia Tech Planetary Atmospheres Laboratory to accurately measure the propagation properties of gases under simulated planetary atmospheric conditions. The measurement system operates in the 2-4 millimeter-wavelength range and withstands up to 3 bars of pressure. It currently operates in the 190-300 K temperature range, and with minor modifications can operate in the 300-550 K temperature range for measurements of certain highly millimeter-wavelength-opaque gases. The measurements from this system can be used for developing accurate models of the millimeter-wavelength properties of gases under various planetary conditions which can then be used for retrieving the abundances of those gases through various remote sensing techniques.

  5. A North Adriatic centenarian: The marine research station at Rovinj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnik, D.

    1995-03-01

    The institute in Rovinj was founded in 1891 as the field station of the Berlin Aquarium. It soon gained in scientific importance. From 1911, it was governed by various scientific bodies, such as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Frderung der Wissenschaften, the Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano, and the Jugoslavenska Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti. At present, it is a department of the Ru?er Bo\\vskovi? Institute, called the Center for Marine Research Rovinj. In the past hundred years, the Rovinj station experienced several ascents and declines in its development: both in the First and Second World Wars the station's scientific equipment, research vessels, library and reference collections were dispersed, and from 1945 1948 the station was closed. But in happier periods, rich support by the state and international bodies favoured the increase in research facilities and promoted interest among visiting scientists. The station has always been involved in studies of the Adriatic Sea, especially in its northern part. It contributed much to general knowledge of oceanography, of the physics and chemistry of the sea, but its paramount contribution is to various disciplines of marine biological sciences. Applied research, however, was most oriented to fisheries biology, especially shellfish culture, to resource studies, and, recently, to toxicology, bacteriology, eutrophication and pollution monitoring. The international approach in science and applied research was always favoured. At present, the Center is well equipped for complex coastal and offshore field- and laboratory research, and maintains facilities for graduate and postgraduate teaching. Scientific dissemination is also promoted by the public aquarium and professional meetings.

  6. Landslide Hazard in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early warning system.

  7. Landslide Hazard in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaprindashvili, G.; Tsereteli, E.; Gaprindashvili, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early warning system.

  8. CHATTAHOOCHEE ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Arthur E.; Welsh, Robert A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey indicates that the Chattahoochee Roadless Area, Georgia, offers little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources even though gold, mica, sillimanite, soapstone, dunite, chromite, and nickel have been mined nearby, and source rocks for these commodities are present in the roadless area. Granite gneiss, gneiss, schist, and metasandstone in the roadless area are suitable for stone, crushed rock, or aggregate; however, other sources for these materials are available outside the roadless area, closer to present markets. The potential for the occurrence of hydrocarbons (probably gas) beneath the thick regional thrust sheets in this area cannot be adequately evaluated from available data.

  9. Children's Growth and Classroom Experiences in Georgia's Pre-K Program: Findings from the 2011-2012 Evaluation Study. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Schaaf, Jennifer; LaForett, Dore

    2013-01-01

    Georgia has one of the few state-funded universal pre-kindergarten programs in the United States, with the aim of providing pre-k services to all 4-year-olds whose families want their children to participate in the program, regardless of family income level. In the 2011-2012 school year, Georgia's Pre-K Program served a total of over 94,000

  10. Centenarian Einstein

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Commémoration de A.Einstein avec 4 orateurs pour honnorer sa mémoire: le prof.Weisskopf parlera de l'homme de science engagé, Daniel Amati du climat de la physique aux années 1920, Sergio Fubini de l'heure scientifique d'A.Einstein et le prof.Berob(?)

  11. Droughts in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Nancy L.; Stamey, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    Droughts do not have the immediate effects of floods, but sustained droughts can cause economic stress throughout the State. The word 'drought' has various meanings, depending on a person's perspective. To a farmer, a drought is a period of moisture deficiency that affects the crops under cultivation - even two weeks without rainfall can stress many crops during certain periods of the growing cycle. To a meteorologist, a drought is a prolonged period when precipitation is less than normal. To a water manager, a drought is a deficiency in water supply that affects water availability and water quality. To a hydrologist, a drought is an extended period of decreased precipitation and streamflow. Droughts in Georgia have severely affected municipal and industrial water supplies, agriculture, stream water quality, recreation at major reservoirs, hydropower generation, navigation, and forest resources. In Georgia, droughts have been documented at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gaging stations since the 1890's. From 1910 to 1940, about 20 streamflow gaging stations were in operation. Since the early 1950's through the late 1980's, about 100 streamflow gaging stations were in operation. Currently (2000), the USGS streamflow gaging network consists of more than 135 continuous-recording gages. Ground-water levels are currently monitored at 165 wells equipped with continuous recorders.

  12. Blackjack Complex Fire, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past week, fires have raged across southeast Georgia, consuming nearly 40,000 acres of the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge. This true-color image of the largest fire near Blackjack Island, Georgia, was acquired on May 3, 2002 (top), by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiomter (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The fire was ignited by lightning strikes and has spread quickly over a large area of scrub brush in the swamp. Due to the unseasonably dry conditions and the difficult swamp terrain, firefighters have been struggling to keep the fire from spreading any further across the 400,000-acre refuge. Although the fire is now endangering some buildings in nearby Stephen Foster State Park, no one has been injured or killed. By May 8th (lower) the area covered by the fire itself-denoted by red pixels-had shrunk, but smoke continued to billow from the site. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. An Economic Valuation of Biotic Pollination Services in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Ashley S; Bergstrom, John C; Ferreira, Susana; Covich, Alan P; Delaplane, Keith S

    2015-04-01

    As agriculture faces documented decline in bees and other insect pollinators, empirical assessments of potential economic losses are critical for contextualizing the impacts of this decline and for prioritizing research needs. For the state of Georgia, we show that the annual economic value of biotic pollinators is substantial--US$367 million, equivalent to 13 percent of the total production value of crops studied and 3 percent of the total production value of Georgia's agricultural sector. Our unique Geographic Information Systems analysis reveals an irregular pattern of vulnerability. While the Georgia counties displaying the highest economic values of pollination are clustered in southern Georgia, those with the highest dependency on pollinators in terms of their contribution to crop production value are more dispersed throughout the state. PMID:26470149

  14. Evaluation and comparison of methods to estimate irrigation withdrawal for the National Water Census Focus Area Study of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in southwestern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Painter, Jaime A.; Torak, Lynn J.; Jones, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Methods to estimate irrigation withdrawal using nationally available datasets and techniques that are transferable to other agricultural regions were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin focus area study of the National Water Census (ACF–FAS). These methods investigated the spatial, temporal, and quantitative distributions of water withdrawal for irrigation in the southwestern Georgia region of the ACF–FAS, filling a vital need to inform science-based decisions regarding resource management and conservation. The crop– demand method assumed that only enough water is pumped onto a crop to satisfy the deficit between evapotranspiration and precipitation. A second method applied a geostatistical regimen of variography and conditional simulation to monthly metered irrigation withdrawal to estimate irrigation withdrawal where data do not exist. A third method analyzed Landsat satellite imagery using an automated approach to generate monthly estimates of irrigated lands. These methods were evaluated independently and compared collectively with measured water withdrawal information available in the Georgia part of the ACF–FAS, principally in the Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. An assessment of each method’s contribution to the National Water Census program was also made to identify transfer value of the methods to the national program and other water census studies. None of the three methods evaluated represent a turnkey process to estimate irrigation withdrawal on any spatial (local or regional) or temporal (monthly or annual) extent. Each method requires additional information on agricultural practices during the growing season to complete the withdrawal estimation process. Spatial and temporal limitations inherent in identifying irrigated acres during the growing season, and in designing spatially and temporally representative monitor (meter) networks, can belie the ability of the methods to produce accurate irrigation-withdrawal estimates that can be used to produce dependable and consistent assessments of water availability and use for the National Water Census. Emerging satellite-data products and techniques for data analysis can generate high spatial-resolution estimates of irrigated-acres distributions with near-term temporal frequencies compatible with the needs of the ACF–FAS and the National Water Census.

  15. Georgia Shore Assistance Act

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrast, C.

    1984-01-01

    The Georgia General Assembly passed the Shore Assistance Act in 1979 in order to fill a regulatory gap in the state's management of its coastal resources. A review of its legislative history, purposes, applications, and effects in terms of the sand sharing system of sand dunes, beaches, sandbars, and shoals concludes that the Act is poorly drafted. In its application on the oceanfront, it betrays its intent and protects the oceanfront owner. It has failed to satisfy the requirements of the public trust in the tidal foreshore. Amendments to clarify its understanding of the functions and values of the sand-sharing system should also conform with the state's duties under the public trust. 139 references.

  16. The School Dropout in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockdale County Public Schools, Conyers, GA.

    It is a tragedy to know so much about school dropouts and to do so little about the problem. We know where; we know who; we know when; we know why. With all of this evidence, Georgia's ranking among the states had continued to decrease for several years. The school dropout is the symbol of our greatest failure in education in Georgia. In 10 years,

  17. A comparison of storm-based and annual-based indices of hydrologic variability: a case study in Fort Benning, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Shirish; Jacobs, Jennifer M; Hatfield, Kirk; Graham, Wendy D

    2010-08-01

    The magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, and rate of change of hydrologic conditions regulate ecological processes in aquatic ecosystems. Conditions are typically characterized using annual-based hydrologic indices derived from daily and/or monthly stream flow data. In this study, we present an alternative approach to identify hydrologic indices based on storm hydrographs. Hydrologic indices derived from long-term daily flow data were compared to those from storm events for two headwater watersheds in Fort Benning, Georgia. Five hydrologic indices derived from daily flow data and storm events shared common features. Storm-based magnitude of mean peak discharge and mean response factor, frequency of bankfull discharge, rate of change in mean slopes of rising, and falling limb of the hydrograph were consistent with the results from long-term daily flow data. The annual flow increases and decreases were well matched by stormflow rising and falling. Both indicators showed one watershed having three times the response rates as compared to the other. Results suggested that select storm-based indices may be used as surrogates to the indices derived from long-term data. PMID:19557534

  18. Georgia Tech Studies of Sub-Critical Advanced Burner Reactors with a D-T Fusion Tokamak Neutron Source for the Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2009-09-01

    The possibility that a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, based on ITER physics and technology, could be used to drive sub-critical, fast-spectrum nuclear reactors fueled with the transuranics (TRU) in spent nuclear fuel discharged from conventional nuclear reactors has been investigated at Georgia Tech in a series of studies which are summarized in this paper. It is found that sub-critical operation of such fast transmutation reactors is advantageous in allowing longer fuel residence time, hence greater TRU burnup between fuel reprocessing stages, and in allowing higher TRU loading without compromising safety, relative to what could be achieved in a similar critical transmutation reactor. The required plasma and fusion technology operating parameter range of the fusion neutron source is generally within the anticipated operational range of ITER. The implications of these results for fusion development policy, if they hold up under more extensive and detailed analysis, is that a D-T fusion tokamak neutron source for a sub-critical transmutation reactor, built on the basis of the ITER operating experience, could possibly be a logical next step after ITER on the path to fusion electrical power reactors. At the same time, such an application would allow fusion to contribute to meeting the nation's energy needs at an earlier stage by helping to close the fission reactor nuclear fuel cycle.

  19. Cesium-137 levels detected in Georgia otters

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Jenkins, J.H.

    1988-11-01

    Beginning in the 1940's and continuing through the 50's and early 60's, nuclear devices were tested by aerial detonation in the United States and other countries around the world. Cesium-137 (/sup 137/Cs) is one of the most important radionuclide by-products due to its abundance and slow decay (30-year half-life). The uptake of /sup 137/Cs in animal tissue is the result of its similarity to potassium. The somatic and genetic effects of /sup 137/Cs, along with its effect on reproductive cells, can pose great hazards to wildlife species. A reported buildup of /sup 137/Cs in white-tailed deer in the lower coastal plain of Georgia during the 1960's was followed by a gradual decline during the 1970's. Although numerous studies have involved terrestrial mammals of Georgia, few have involved aquatic mammals such as the river otter. With continued atmospheric testing by some foreign countries and the increased use of nuclear power as an energy source, there is a need for continued monitoring of radionuclides in wildlife to ascertain the quality of the environment. This study was initiated as part of an overall study of environmental pollutants in the river otter of Georgia and deals with analysis of the /sup 137/Cs accumulations in this species.

  20. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Joiner, C.N.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.; Peck, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous water level records from 146 wells and water level measurements from an additional 1,100 wells in Georgia during 1985 provide the basic data for this report. Hydrographs for selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and discharge have had on the groundwater reservoirs in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1985. Monthly mean water levels are shown for the 10-year period 1976-86. During 1985, annual mean water levels were generally lower than in 1984, and ranged from 11.4 feet lower to 0.6 feet higher. Much of the decline can be attributed to below-normal precipitation from mid-1984 to mid-1985. Water quality samples also are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional groundwater studies. Along the coast, the chloride concentration in the Floridan aquifer system generally remained stable in the Savannah and Brunswick areas. (USGS)

  1. Biogeochemical cycling in the Strait of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, S C; Macdonald, R W; Burd, B; van Roodselaar, A

    2008-12-01

    The papers in this special issue present the results of a five-year project to study sedimentary biogeochemical processes in the Strait of Georgia, with special emphasis on the near-field of a large municipal outfall. Included in this special issue are overviews of the sedimentology, benthic biology, status of siliceous sponge reefs and distribution of organic carbon in the water column. Other papers address the cycling of contaminants (PCBs, PBDEs) and redox metals in the sediment, a method to map the extent of the influence of municipal effluent from staining on benthic bivalves, and the relationships among geochemical conditions and benthic abundance and diversity. The latter set of papers addresses the role of municipal effluent as a pathway of organic carbon and other contaminants into the Strait of Georgia and the effect of the effluent on benthic geochemistry and biology. PMID:19022498

  2. Foodborne Botulism in the Republic of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Katsitadze, Guram; Moiscrafishvili, Maia; Zardiashvili, Tamar; Chokheli, Maia; Tarkhashvili, Natalia; Jhorjholiani, Ekaterina; Chubinidze, Maia; Kukhalashvili, Teimuraz; Khmaladze, Irakli; Chakvetadze, Nelli; Imnadze, Paata; Sobel, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Foodborne botulism is a potentially fatal, paralytic illness that can cause large outbreaks. A possible increase in botulism incidence during 2001 in the Republic of Georgia prompted this study. We reviewed surveillance data and abstracted records of patients with botulism who were hospitalized from 1980 to 2002. During this period, 879 botulism cases were detected. The median annual incidence increased from 0.3 per 100,000 during 1980 to 1990 to 0.9 per 100,000 during 1991 to 2002. For 706 botulism patients hospitalized from 1980 to 2002, 80% of their cases were attributed to home-preserved vegetables. Surveillance evaluation verified that botulism incidence varied greatly by region. Georgia has the highest nationally reported rate of foodborne botulism in the world. A strategy addressing individual behaviors in the home is needed to improve food safety; developing this strategy requires a deeper understanding of why botulism has increased and varies by region. PMID:15498162

  3. The Continental Margins Program in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocker, M.D.; Shapiro, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    From 1984 to 1993, the Georgia Geologic Survey (GGS) participated in the Minerals Management Service-funded Continental Margins Program. Geological and geophysical data acquisition focused on offshore stratigraphic framework studies, phosphate-bearing Miocene-age strata, distribution of heavy minerals, near-surface alternative sources of groundwater, and development of a PC-based Coastal Geographic Information System (GIS). Seven GGS publications document results of those investigations. In addition to those publications, direct benefits of the GGS's participation include an impetus to the GGS's investigations of economic minerals on the Georgia coast, establishment of a GIS that includes computer hardware and software, and seeds for additional investigations through the information and training acquired as a result of the Continental Margins Program. These addtional investigations are quite varied in scope, and many were made possible because of GIS expertise gained as a result of the Continental Margins Program. Future investigations will also reap the benefits of the Continental Margins Program.From 1984 to 1993, the Georgia Geologic Survey (GGS) participated in the Minerals Management Service-funded Continental Margins Program. Geological and geophysical data acquisition focused on offshore stratigraphic framework studies, phosphate-bearing Miocene-age strata, distribution of heavy minerals, near-surface alternative sources of groundwater, and development of a PC-based Coastal Geographic Information System (GIS). Seven GGS publications document results of those investigations. In addition to those publications, direct benefits of the GGS's participation include an impetus to the GGS's investigations of economic minerals on the Georgia coast, establishment of a GIS that includes computer hardware and software, and seeds for additional investigations through the information and training acquired as a result of the Continental Margins Program. These additional investigations are quite varied in scope, and many were made possible because of GIS expertise gained as a result of the Continental Margins Program. Future investigations will also reap the benefits of the Continental Margins Program.

  4. Inflammation, But Not Telomere Length, Predicts Successful Ageing at Extreme Old Age: A Longitudinal Study of Semi-supercentenarians.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasumichi; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen M; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Takebayashi, Toru; Koyasu, Shigeo; Suematsu, Makoto; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    To determine the most important drivers of successful ageing at extreme old age, we combined community-based prospective cohorts: Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH), Tokyo Centenarians Study (TCS) and Japanese Semi-Supercentenarians Study (JSS) comprising 1554 individuals including 684 centenarians and (semi-)supercentenarians, 167 pairs of centenarian offspring and spouses, and 536 community-living very old (85 to 99years). We combined z scores from multiple biomarkers to describe haematopoiesis, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism, liver function, renal function, and cellular senescence domains. In Cox proportional hazard models, inflammation predicted all-cause mortality with hazard ratios (95% CI) 1.89 (1.21 to 2.95) and 1.36 (1.05 to 1.78) in the very old and (semi-)supercentenarians, respectively. In linear forward stepwise models, inflammation predicted capability (10.8% variance explained) and cognition (8(.)6% variance explained) in (semi-)supercentenarians better than chronologic age or gender. The inflammation score was also lower in centenarian offspring compared to age-matched controls with ? (95% CI)=-0.795 (-1.436 to -0.154). Centenarians and their offspring were able to maintain long telomeres, but telomere length was not a predictor of successful ageing in centenarians and semi-supercentenarians. We conclude that inflammation is an important malleable driver of ageing up to extreme old age in humans. PMID:26629551

  5. Inflammation, But Not Telomere Length, Predicts Successful Ageing at Extreme Old Age: A Longitudinal Study of Semi-supercentenarians

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yasumichi; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen M.; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Takebayashi, Toru; Koyasu, Shigeo; Suematsu, Makoto; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To determine the most important drivers of successful ageing at extreme old age, we combined community-based prospective cohorts: Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH), Tokyo Centenarians Study (TCS) and Japanese Semi-Supercentenarians Study (JSS) comprising 1554 individuals including 684 centenarians and (semi-)supercentenarians, 167 pairs of centenarian offspring and spouses, and 536 community-living very old (85 to 99 years). We combined z scores from multiple biomarkers to describe haematopoiesis, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism, liver function, renal function, and cellular senescence domains. In Cox proportional hazard models, inflammation predicted all-cause mortality with hazard ratios (95% CI) 1.89 (1.21 to 2.95) and 1.36 (1.05 to 1.78) in the very old and (semi-)supercentenarians, respectively. In linear forward stepwise models, inflammation predicted capability (10.8% variance explained) and cognition (8.6% variance explained) in (semi-)supercentenarians better than chronologic age or gender. The inflammation score was also lower in centenarian offspring compared to age-matched controls with Δ (95% CI) = − 0.795 (− 1.436 to − 0.154). Centenarians and their offspring were able to maintain long telomeres, but telomere length was not a predictor of successful ageing in centenarians and semi-supercentenarians. We conclude that inflammation is an important malleable driver of ageing up to extreme old age in humans. PMID:26629551

  6. Earthquakes, vulnerability and disaster risk: Georgia case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashvili, Otar; Askan, Aysegul

    2015-04-01

    The Republic of Georgia, located on the East coast of the Black Sea, is prone to multiple natural hazards, the most dangerous and devastating of which are strong earthquakes. This work issues a call for advance planning and action to reduce natural disaster risks, notably seismic risk through the investigation of vulnerability and seismic hazard for Georgia. Ground motion prediction equations are essential for several purposes ranging from seismic design and analysis to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Seismic hazard maps were calculated based on modern approach of selecting and ranking global and regional ground motion prediction equation for region. We have also applied the host-to-target method in two regions in Georgia with different source mechanisms. According to the tectonic regime of the target areas, two different regions are chosen as host regions. One of them is the North Anatolian Fault zone in Turkey with the dominant strike-slip source mechanism while the other is Tabas in Iran with mostly events of reverse mechanism. We performed stochastic finite-fault simulations in both host and target areas and employed the hybrid-empirical method as introduced and outlined in Campbell (2003). An initial hybrid empirical ground motion model is developed for PGA and SA at selected periods for Georgia. An application of these coefficients for ground motion models have been used in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Intensity based vulnerability study were completed for Georgian buildings. Finally, Probabilistic seismic risk assessment in terms of structural damage and casualties were calculated. This methodology gave prediction of damage and casualty for a given probability of recurrence, based on a probabilistic seismic hazard model, population distribution, inventory, and vulnerability of buildings

  7. Study of settlement distribution pattern in the Kolkheti lowland (Black Sea coast of Georgia) starting from early Bronze Age - natural and human influence and adaptation to landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Akhvlediani, Dimitri; Navrozashvili, Levan; Sukhishvili, Lasha; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Laermans, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    During the past decades the question of a changing environment/nature became crucial. Actually we are trying to understand its nature or to predict future changes and their possible effects represent the main goals of many interdisciplinary studies. Therefore, the study of paleoenvironmental changes delivers key information for a better understanding of the whole process and especially the influence of these changes on human society. The selected research topic is dictated by the fact that the Colchis lowland played an important role in the history of old societies (countries and empires). Especially the interaction between developing human societies under the pressure of a changing environment are most interesting in this context. The Kolkheti valley and the Black Sea shore represent a region involved in many global historical events, starting from the Myth of Argonauts and followed by the ancient greek colonization, the Kingdom of Pontus ending at the Roman and Byzantine empires. River Phasis (present Rioni) was an important segment in trade way between the Mediterranean and India and the East in general. In addition it is the area of the "lost or vanished" city of Phasis, an ancient and early medieval city, founded in the 7th or 6th century BC as a colony of the Milesian Greeks at the mouth of the river Phasis, near the modern-day seaport Poti. Considering the local history of Georgia, this is the area of formation of the Kolkhys (Colchis) culture in late bronze-early iron periods, forming Colchis and later on the Lazika kingdoms. It is important to note that the archaeology and geomorphology of the seashore of Georgia is rather scarcely studied (mainly in the 1970s during soviet era). It is quite clear that the history of the region will not be deciphered without the reconstruction of the paleo and historical environment. The study based on an ongoing collaboration between the University of Cologne and the Ilia State University. Actually, geomorphological and archaeological datasets are collected in the joint-venture project and in addition with known historical and old topographic maps of the region they represent a good start for the research. There are typical ancient settlements in the Kolkheti lowland, called locally "Dikhagudzuba", which are still identifiable on aerial imagery. Their structure, physical dimensions and locations were analyzed from aerial and on site studies. Data from existing archaeological studies and recent field works were analyzed to create a reliable database on the distribution of Bronze Age settlements. Changes in paleoclimate, sea level and river deltas represent the main components to form a paleolandscape of the study area. Based on the results of recent fieldwork and the analyses of regional historical maps in addition with the general geological and geomorphological settings paleogeographical scenarios were constructed. Proposed models of past landscape changes and human settlement pattern were merged and analyzed. From one hand the human settlement distribution (taking into account tells relation with the local landscape of the same period) help us to identify the best suitable scenario from the set of paleolandscape patterns. Moreover, paleogeographical scenarios provide a better understanding on the erection of human settlements in the past, and their influence and adaptation to ongoing changes.

  8. GA State Profile. Georgia: Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT) and Georgia High School Writing Test (GHSWT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGT) and Georgia High School Writing Test (GHSWT). The purpose of the exams is to: (1) Ensure that students qualifying for a diploma have mastered essential core academic content and skills. All students seeking a Georgia high school diploma must pass the GHSGT in four

  9. Aging-related occurrence in Ashkenazi Jews of leukocyte heteroplasmic mtDNA mutation adjacent to replication origin frequently remodeled in Italian centenarians.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Nahoko; Zhang, Jin; Atzmon, Gil; Leanza, Suzanne; Cho, Jaehyoung; Chomyn, Anne; Burk, Robert D; Barzilai, Nir; Attardi, Giuseppe

    2007-07-01

    Our previous observation that a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) homoplasmic C150T transition adjacent to the heavy strand replication origin at position 151 is greatly increased in frequency in Italian centenarians, as compared to the rest of the population, has prompted us to analyze a genetically distinct population to determine how robust the association of the C150T mutation with longevity is. In particular, we have analyzed leukocyte mtDNA from three groups of an Ashkenazi Jew population, namely, a large number (124) of female centenarians and near-centenarians (95-108 years-old), their mixed gender offspring, and mixed gender control subjects. This analysis revealed a very low incidence of the C150T transition in the probands and the other two groups, and by contrast, the fairly high frequency of a homoplasmic T152C transition and of a homoplasmic T195C transition in all three groups of subjects. Furthermore, most significantly, an aging-related increase in incidence of the heteroplasmic T152C transition, presumably resulting from somatic events, was demonstrated in the Ashkenazi Jews. The T152C transition was not associated with a change in the replication origin at position 151, unlike the C150T transition in the Italian centenarians. PMID:17452024

  10. The Impact of America's Choice on Writing Performance in Georgia: First-Year Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Lesnick, Joy

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of America's Choice on student writing performance in Georgia. The analyses in this study focus on the change that occurred during the first year of implementation, the 2001-2002 school year. Two research questions guided these analyses: (1) What effect did Georgia's Choice have on the writing scores from the

  11. Local environmental conditions determine the footprint of municipal effluent in coastal waters: a case study in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Sophia C; Macdonald, Robie W; Burd, Brenda; van Roodselaar, Albert; Bertold, Stan

    2015-03-01

    To predict the likely effects of management action on any point source discharge into the coastal ocean, it is essential to understand both the composition of the effluent and the environmental conditions in the receiving waters. We illustrate a broadly-applicable approach to evaluating the comprehensive environmental footprint of a discharge, using regional geochemical budgets and nearfield monitoring. We take as a case study municipal effluent discharged into the Strait of Georgia (west coast of Canada), where there has been public controversy over the discharge of screened or primary-treated effluent directly into the ocean. Wastewater contributes ≤ 1% of the nitrogen, organic carbon and oxygen demand in the Strait and is unlikely to cause eutrophication, harmful algal blooms or hypoxia in this region. Metals (Hg, Pb, Cd) are controlled by natural cycles augmented by past mining and urbanization, with 0.3-5% of the flux contributed by wastewater. Wastewater contributes ~5% of PCBs but ≤ 60% of PBDEs and is likely also important for pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Effects of high organic flux on benthos are measurable in the immediate receiving environment. The availability of particle-active contaminants to enter the food chain depends on how long those contaminants remain in the sediment surface mixed layer before burial. Secondary treatment, slated for completion in Vancouver in 2030, will reduce fluxes of some contaminants, but will have negligible effect on regional budgets for organic carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, metals and PCBs. Removal of PBDEs from wastewater will affect regional budgets, depending on how the sludge is sequestered. PMID:25481251

  12. Geometric and kinematic analysis, and geochemical study of the Corbin Gneiss Complex and its associated sheared rocks in the Blue Ridge of NW Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Gargi, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Corbin Gneiss Complex forms the core of the Salem Church anticlinorium in the Blue Ridge of NW Georgia, and is composed of quartz monzodiorite (Corbin gneiss) and pyroxene-biotite diorite. The observed foliation and the presence of thin zones of ultramylonites and phyllonites in the rocks of the gneiss complex are the result of the ductile shearing. Subsequent to the development of the mylonitic foliation these rocks were subjected for four episodes of flexural slip folding. The first generation folds were associated with the formation of the Salem Church anticlinorium. The northeasterly striking axial planes and the southeasterly plunging fold axes of the last three systems of folds suggest that these folds were formed on the southeasterly dipping foliation planes of the Salem Church anticlinorium. The trace element study of the pyroxene-biotite diorite, the Corbin gneiss (quartz monzodiorite) including its variably sheared equivalents shows that these rocks originated from independent sources by primary petrogenetic processes, and do not show any mixing relationship. The whole rock Rb-Sr isochron of the ultramylonitic Corbin gneiss yields an age of 296 +/- 4 Ma and an initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio of 0.7208 +/- 7. The much younger age of the ultramylonite in comparison to that of the unsheared Corbin gneiss (age approx. 1 Ga) is the result of resetting of the Rb-Sr systematics of the latter due to shearing, and denotes the minimum age limit of the shearing. A two point whole rock isochron of the diorite gives an apparent age of 1.22 Ga and an initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio of 0.7036. The total crustal age of the diorite is slightly greater than the Corbin gneiss.

  13. 76 FR 27142 - Georgia Disaster # GA-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Georgia (FEMA... (Economic Injury Loans Only): Georgia: Butts, Carroll, Chattooga, Cherokee, Clayton, Cobb, Dawson,...

  14. 77 FR 1546 - Georgia Disaster #GA-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Georgia dated 12/29... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Floyd. Contiguous Counties: Georgia: Bartow,...

  15. 77 FR 37727 - Georgia Disaster # GA-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of GEORGIA dated 06/14... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties Thomas. Contiguous Counties Georgia: Brooks,...

  16. 77 FR 43411 - Georgia Disaster # GA-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Georgia dated 07/17/2012... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Charlton. Contiguous Counties: Georgia:...

  17. 76 FR 59177 - Georgia Disaster #GA-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of GEORGIA dated 09/13... the disaster: Primary Counties: Cherokee. Contiguous Counties: Georgia: Bartow, Cobb, Dawson,...

  18. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Secrecy and risk among MSM in Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Costenbader, Elizabeth C.; Otiashvili, David; Meyer, William; Zule, William A.; Orr, Alex; Kirtadze, Irma

    2010-01-01

    There is concern that the tremendous economic, social, and political upheavals that the Republic of Georgia has undergone in the years since the fall of the Soviet Union may have created an environment fertile for HIV transmission. Notably absent from official statistics and HIV-related research in Georgia is discussion of men who have sex with men (MSM) and, therefore, little is known about the MSM population or its potential to acquire or transmit HIV. Data were collected from 30 MSM recruited through a testing and counseling center in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Two focus groups with six men each and 18 individual in-depth interviews were conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. The study participants described a Georgian culture that is largely intolerant of sexual contact between men. In describing the various forms of discrimination and violence that they would face should their sexual identities be discovered, the MSM in this sample described a variety of behaviors that they and other Georgian MSM undertake to conceal their sexual behavior. Many of these could put these men and their partners at risk for HIV. Although official HIV rates in Georgia are still low, results from this qualitative study indicate that efforts to educate and to provide unobtrusive and anonymous testing and counseling services to MSM may be critical to the deterrence of an HIV epidemic in the Republic of Georgia. PMID:19444667

  20. Teacher Incentives and the Future of Merit-Based Pay in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2010-01-01

    This study summarizes the empirical results of school-level research done in Georgia, one of the post-Soviet, Caucasian states, in October 2009. The findings drawn from qualitative and quantitative data describe current policies regarding teacher salaries and incentives in Georgia and identify future possible policy strategies aimed at the

  1. "Making the Difficult Choice": Understanding Georgia's Test-Based Grade Retention Policy in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The author uses Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, and habitus to analyze how students, parents, teachers, and administrators are responding to Georgia's test-based grade retention policy in reading at one Georgia elementary school. In this multiple case study, the author interviewed, observed, and collected documents regarding ten fifth…

  2. Attitudes of American School Superintendents toward the Georgia Certification Test for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, L. David; And Others

    Although recent research studies have questioned the efficacy of certification testing, Georgia's Department of Education, with help from National Evaluation Systems, developed the Georgia Certification Test in Administration and Certification (GCT). Since 1983, the test has been required for both certification and recertification. The present…

  3. Spatial Variation in Storm Surge in the Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontiens, N. K.; Allen, S. E.; Latornell, D.; Le Souef, K.; Machuca, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a strongly stratified, deep body of water located between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia and is connected to the Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the south and Johnstone Strait to the north. It is on average 220 km in length and 30 km wide and its maximum depth is 420 m. During the winter months, coastal communities in the Strait of Georgia are at risk to flooding caused by storm surges, a natural hazard that occurs when a strong wind storm with low atmospheric pressure coincides with an unusually high tide. This study presents storm surge hindcasts of significant events between 2006 and 2009 using a numerical model of the Straits of Georgia, Juan de Fuca, Johnstone and Puget Sound (together the Salish Sea). The model is based on the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) in a regional configuration. Realistic stratification is produced by including input from the surrounding rivers. A discussion on the sensitivity of modelled surge amplitude to open boundary conditions and atmospheric forcing will be presented. As barotropic models have previously shown, the surge entering the domain from the Pacific Ocean contributes most significantly. Surge amplitudes are found to be greater within the Strait of Georgia than those in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Local wind patterns cause spatial variations in the strength of the surge in the Strait of Georgia, generally leading to stronger surges on the Mainland side of the Strait.

  4. Sulfate reduction in the salt marshes at Sapelo Island, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.W.; Giblin, A.

    1983-01-01

    Sulfate reduction rates were measured in stands of Spartina alterniflora at Sapelo Island, Georgia, in November 1980 by injecting tracer amounts of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into cores, incubating overnight, and analyzing for the incorporation of /sup 35/S into reduced sulfur compounds. Qualitatively, sulfate reduction in the Georgia marsh is very similar to that in the Massachusetts marshes the authors have studied: FeS/sup 2/ (pyrite or marcasite) is the major end product. Lesser amounts of soluble sulfides, iron monosulfides, and elemental sulfur are also formed. The rate of sulfate reduction (determined by the same method)is significantly lower during November in Georgia than in the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Massachusetts, 0.090 vs. 0.27 moles SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/xm/sup -2/xd/sup -1/ in stands of short Spartina. The lower rates in Georgia may reflect a lower rate of organic carbon input by below ground production. Sulfate reduction appears to be the major form of respiration in the sediments of salt marshes in Georgia as well as in Massachusetts.

  5. A Census Study of Georgia's 2004-2006 Reading First Schools and the Achievement of Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kristina L.

    2009-01-01

    Because children living in poverty and minorities consistently demonstrate persistent reading difficulties (Adams, 1990), Congress intervened and passed the No Child Left Behind Act (U.S. Department of Education, 2006) mandating that scientifically based reading research be implemented in the primary grades. Quantitative studies presented in the…

  6. A Census Study of Georgia's 2004-2006 Reading First Schools and the Achievement of Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kristina L.

    2009-01-01

    Because children living in poverty and minorities consistently demonstrate persistent reading difficulties (Adams, 1990), Congress intervened and passed the No Child Left Behind Act (U.S. Department of Education, 2006) mandating that scientifically based reading research be implemented in the primary grades. Quantitative studies presented in the

  7. Georgiaites: Tektites in Central Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albin, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Information is provided about the origin, the features, and the availability of tektites which are odd and very rare types of transparent glass theorized to be from a common, yet unknown, origin. The basis for this article is the Howard collection of tektites found in a small region of central Georgia. (seven references) (JJK)

  8. [Georgia's Special Instructional Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Information about Georgia's Special Instructional Assistance Program (SIA) is presented. The program is designed to serve children in kindergarten through grade five who are functioning below the normal expectations for their age range, usually as a result of deficient language and cognitive development. The vast majority of SIA teaching and

  9. Advocacy Strategies--Georgia-Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambill, Matthew; Wilson, Lynne; Carter, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This November, CTE professionals from all over the country will assemble in the beautiful state of Georgia for CareerTech VISION 2012. With the total redesign of this event, this opportunity will no doubt prove to be one of the greatest professional development opportunities ever offered by the Association for Career and Technical Education

  10. Fighting Corruption in Georgia's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janashia, Natia

    2004-01-01

    In the Republic of Georgia, about 240 institutions of higher education serve a population of 5 million. On the surface, these numbers suggest a prosperous, highly educated society. Behind this facade, however, lies a reality of degraded standards, crumbling infrastructure, rampant academic fraud, and deteriorating educational quality. At the

  11. COHUTTA WILDERNESS, GEORGIA AND TENNESSEE AND HEMP TOP ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gair, Jacob E.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has found little or no promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral-resources in the Cohutta Wilderness and the adjacent Hemp Top Roadless Area. The Cohutta Wilderness is located mainly in northern Georgia and extends a small distance into southeastern Tennessee; the Hemp Top Roadless Area borders part of the Cohutta Wilderness on the east and extends southward from the Georgia-Tennessee line. The study area is underlain by slightly metamorphosed folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of late Precambrian age. Detailed sampling in the vicinity of the known gold-bearing and tin-bearing samples might outline small areas of low-grade mineralization. The sedimentary rocks which are buried many thousands of feet beneath the surface of the Cohutta area have an unknown potential for oil and gas - probably gas at the inferred depth of burial and temperatures implicit at such depth. This potential could only be verified by a program of deep drilling.

  12. Feasibility study of social media to reduce intimate partner violence among gay men in metro atlanta, georgia.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Sheryl M; Smith, Megan; Pendrick-Denney, Danielle; Boos-Beddington, Sarah; Chen, Ken; McCarty, Frances

    2012-08-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health issue occurring in the United States and globally. While little is known in general about IPV, understanding about the prevalence of physical IPV among gay men is even more obscure. There is a clear disparity in violence research attention focused on this vulnerable segment of society. This cross-sectional survey study was conducted to examine the feasibility of enrolling 100 gay men from Atlanta into an IPV survey study. The survey was administered via Facebook. Ninety-nine usable surveys were collected. Chi-square tests reveal that minority ethnic status, illicit drug use, and non-disclosed orientation status were all significantly associated with positive IPV reports--in terms of both victimization as well as perpetration. Overall, the majority of the study sample indicated that they believe IPV is a health problem in the Atlanta gay community. These findings bear importance for the Atlanta gay community and public health professionals who must address this nearly invisible yet increasing public health issue. PMID:22928060

  13. LANDSAT data for state planning. [of transportation for Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an effort to generate and apply automated classification of LANDSAT digital data to state of Georgia problems are presented. This phase centers on an analysis of the usefulness of LANDSAT digital data to provide land-use data for transportation planning. Hall County, Georgia was chosen as a test site because it is part of a seventeen county area for which the Georgia Department of Transportation is currently designing a Transportation Planning Land-Use Simulation Model. The land-cover information derived from this study was compared to several other existing sources of land-use data for Hall County and input into this simulation. The results indicate that there is difficulty comparing LANDSAT derived land-cover information with previous land-use information since the LANDSAT data are acquired on an acre by acre grid basis while all previous land-use surveys for Hall County used land-use data on a parcel basis.

  14. OZONE PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT IN THE ATLANTA, GEORGIA REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results from air quality monitoring program conducted in the Atlanta, Georgia region during July 1981. The study included data collected at several ground sites as well as airborne measurements using an instrumented aircraft. Study participants included Wa...

  15. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to…

  16. Georgia Folklife: A Bibliography for Teachers, Art Administrators, and Fieldworkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzberg, Maggie

    This bibliography lists books, articles, and journals as well as a selection of sound recordings and videotapes to assist individuals and teachers researching the folklife of Georgia. Print resources are organized under 10 major categories including: (1) "General Folklife Studies"; (2) "Fieldwork Methodology"; (3) "Regional Folklife Studies"; (4)…

  17. Educational Trends of the Rural and Urban Population of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, James D.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    Major trends in the educational status of Georgia's population were studied. These included recent changes in school enrollment of farm and nonfarm youths, and in adult educational attainment. Trends in school enrollment were studied for statewide, county, and regional differentials; and high school dropouts. Trends in educational attainment were

  18. Retention in Special Education Teachers in Georgia: A Phenomenological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Arndra N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to identify and examine factors influencing the retention rate of special education teachers in rural and urban schools in middle Georgia. Provided in this study are factors that are related to retention in special education teachers. Semistructured interviews were used to

  19. 5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  20. 7. DETAIL OF VIEW OF BALUSTRADE OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF VIEW OF BALUSTRADE OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  1. Photocopy of photograph (Original photograph from the Vanishing Georgia collection, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (Original photograph from the Vanishing Georgia collection, Georgia State Archives, Atlanta Georgia, Photo Number SUM-125A) Unknown Photographer, Circa 1920s. EAST PORCH, LOOKING WEST. - Wise Sanatorium No. 2, Hospital Street, Plains, Sumter County, GA

  2. 3. VIEW OF SOUTHWESTERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF SOUTHWESTERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  3. 4. VIEW OF NORTHEASTERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTHEASTERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  4. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  5. Heterorhabditis georgiana n. sp. (Rhabditia: Heterorhabditidae) from Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a survey of entomopathogenic nematodes in Georgia, a nematode isolate of the genus Heterorhabditis was found. The nematode was collected from soil by the insect-baiting technique and maintained in the laboratory on last instar Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae. Morphological and molecular studies...

  6. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Georgia. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,

  7. Home Is Where You Make It: Hmong Refugees in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchon, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    Studies the successful adaptation of Hmong refugees in the Atlanta (Georgia) area using a sample of 81 adults and 101 children. Findings highlight prevailing economic conditions, the strategies taken by local Hmong leadership, and a high rate of conversion to Christianity. (SLD)

  8. Motor Performance Norms for Georgia Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, I. David, Comp.; And Others

    In a study of 2,546 Georgia children, researchers have established state norms for 8 measures of physical fitness at 3 grade levels. Motor test score percentile rankings for boys and girls in the second, fourth, and sixth grades are given (in 22 tables) for the following tests: (1) jump and reach; (2) sit ups; (3) shape-o-ball (measuring shape…

  9. Motor Performance Norms for Georgia Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, I. David, Comp.; And Others

    In a study of 2,546 Georgia children, researchers have established state norms for 8 measures of physical fitness at 3 grade levels. Motor test score percentile rankings for boys and girls in the second, fourth, and sixth grades are given (in 22 tables) for the following tests: (1) jump and reach; (2) sit ups; (3) shape-o-ball (measuring shape

  10. Teachers' Perception on Pay-for-Performance Programs in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mighty, Nardiann Kenisha

    2013-01-01

    States are implementing performance programs to help reform compensation systems for teachers; however, little is known on teachers' perception on alternative pay plans. Accordingly, this research study examined the types of pay-for-performance programs Georgia teachers prefer by exploring their perceptions of pay for individual performance, pay

  11. Community and Institutional Correlates of Academic Achievement in Georgia Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, Olivia M.

    This study sought to determine the degree to which school and community factors influence mathematics and science achievement of public school students in Georgia. Of particular concern was identifying variables to assist educators, parents, and other child advocates in providing academic programs that are responsive to the needs of learners. Data…

  12. Status of Clinical Supervision among School Counselors in Southeast Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Anna Lila; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Bergin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the role of clinical supervision in school counseling practice. This research explored the status and meaning of clinical supervision to school counselors employed in two southeastern Georgia counties. Results indicate that participants value clinical supervision even though their employers did not necessarily…

  13. Geologic controls on radon occurrence in Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, L.T. ); Coker, G. )

    1990-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that high radon concentrations occur mostly in areas of thin and/or sandy soils underlain by granitic bedrock, that other soil conditions and bedrock lithologies are less prone to high radon concentrations, and that high radon levels in groundwater represent an isolated phenomenon. Through a combination of geologic models and field measurements, each of the four geologic provinces of Georgia can be characterized for radon concentration. The results to date indicate that no area or geologic province should be exempted per se and that a careful study of site/area geology along with field measurement will yield dividends in understanding the occurrence of radon in soil and groundwater. The combinations of bedrock lithology and soil characteristics most likely to exhibit higher radon concentrations in Georgia, and throughout the southeast, are (a) granites, granodiorites, granite gneisses, pegmatites, mylonites, carbonaceous shales, phosphates, and monazite/heavy mineral placers, coupled with (b) high to medium permeability soils such as gravels, sands, and uniformly-graded silts and sandy silts. Saprolite and surficial soil may act as either a conduit or an impediment to radon migration, as may hydrogeologic characteristics and rock structures such as faults and joints/fractures.

  14. Quest for water in coastal Georgia: assessment of alternative water sources at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.

    2011-01-01

    To meet growing demands for water in the coastal Georgia area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, conducted detailed site investigations and modeling studies at Hunter Army Airfield to assess the water-bearing potential of ponds and wells completed in the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  15. [AEROPOLINOLOGIC MONITORING AND DISTRIBUTION OF ALLERGOALLERGENS IN WESTERN GEORGIA].

    PubMed

    Sepiashvili, R; Khachapuridze, D; Chikhladze, M; Gamkrelidze, S

    2015-06-01

    Climate and geographical conditions such as: air temperature, humidity and plant diversity represented in the region is of great importance for prevalence of allergic diseases. All these factors will maintain growing of allergization/sensitization of the body. It is known that allergic diseases (pollinosis, bronchial asthma), the highest percentage comes on the allergens- aeropolutants, that are represented in many plants and herbs in the form of dust (ragweed pollen, alder, birch, maple, walnut, mallow, cotton plant etc.). Thus, aeropolinologic study acquires special importance helping the clinicians to solve the following issues: which plant is common for the concrete region; what is the source of dust allergy; when are they particularly dangerous for the patient; when their dust is revealed and its concentrations in air pool or how they look. Georgia is the country with diverse flora and landscapes; the climate in Georgia varies across different parts of the country. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that the Western Georgia is characterized by the frequency of allergic diseases. The above raises the need to create a calendar of flowering plants in Imerety region of Georgia. 69 patients with allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma from 7 to 60 years old (34 men and 35 women) were observed. The patients underwent allegro-diagnostic investigation. The results revealed high titers on weeds (WX2). On the basis of the conducted research annual calendar of aero-allergens spread in Imerety region was composed. PMID:26087734

  16. Cedar Creek at Cedartown, Georgia, floodflow characteristics from West Girard Avenue to the Georgia Avenue Relocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, McGlone

    1981-01-01

    In cooperation with the Highway Division, Georgia Department of Transportation, the U.S. Geological Survey determined the backwater effects of existing bridges and dikes on Cedar Creek at Cedartown, Georgia, for the reach from West Girard Avenue to the Georgia Avenue relocation. The maximum backwater effect for the bridges was 1.7 feet in the upstream approach at the Seaboard Coastline Railroad bridge as a combined result of the Georgia Highway 278 bridge and the Seaboard Coastline Railroad bridge. The maximum effect from the existing dikes was 0.7 foot at the approach section of Georgia Highway 278.

  17. The Economic and Fiscal Costs of Failing to Reform K-12 Education in Georgia. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Georgia, and examines how policies that increase school choice, such as the recently-enacted tuition tax credit scholarship program will provide large public benefits by increasing public school graduation rates. The study calculates the annual cost of Georgia dropouts caused by

  18. Georgia College Libraries Handbook for International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanders, E. Lorene

    This first edition of the Georgia College Libraries Handbook provides: (1) an introduction to academic and public library service in Milledgeville, Georgia; (2) a general introduction to operating procedures and facilities of the Ina Dillard Russell Library; (3) a description of the library's collections (books and other cataloged materials, the

  19. The University System of Georgia's GALILEO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penson, Merryll

    1998-01-01

    The University System of Georgia and the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) built the innovative electronic library GALILEO (GeorgiA LIbrary LEarning Online system). This article describes the cooperation, leadership, and technology that made GALILEO possible; the proposal; planning and implementation; governance; current status; and future…

  20. 77 FR 51099 - Georgia Disaster #GA-00046

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Georgia dated 08/14... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  1. 78 FR 11724 - Georgia Disaster #GA-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00051 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Georgia dated 02/08/2013... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  2. Total Mental Health Services in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeomans, Beth, Ed.

    Discussed are current and proposed Georgia interagency programs for delivering mental health services to behaviorally disordered (emotionally disturbed-socially maladjusted) children through age 21 years by 1976. Considered in a brief overview of state programs are services (such as the Georgia Psychoeducational Center Network) for elementary and

  3. 40 CFR 81.408 - Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Georgia. 81.408 Section 81.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value 81.408 Georgia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 81.408 - Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Georgia. 81.408 Section 81.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value 81.408 Georgia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  5. 76 FR 27138 - Georgia Disaster # GA-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster GA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Georgia (FEMA-- 1973--DR), dated 04/29/2011. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes,...

  6. 40 CFR 81.408 - Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Georgia. 81.408 Section 81.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value 81.408 Georgia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  7. 40 CFR 81.408 - Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Georgia. 81.408 Section 81.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value 81.408 Georgia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  8. 40 CFR 81.408 - Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Georgia. 81.408 Section 81.408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value 81.408 Georgia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  9. Georgia History Plan Stirs Civil War Fuss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 140 years have not erased Georgia's memory of the trail of destruction by General William T. Sherman and Union troops as they burned their way from Atlanta to Savannah during a critical campaign of the Civil War. Those weeks in late 1864 have left a lasting influence on the state's history and culture. This article deals with Georgia's

  10. Economic Yearbook from Georgia Trend Magazine, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    Based on information from "Georgia Trend" magazine examining economic conditions across Georgia, Gainesville College (GC) is expected to experience an expanding base of students over the next 5 years. With respect to Hall County and the nine contiguous counties that make up GC's service area, data indicate a population growth in the region, growth

  11. Text Anxiety and Effect of Anxiety-Reduction Training on Students' Performance on the Georgia Regents' Reading Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallworth-Clark, Rosemarie; Cochran, Jeff; Scott, Janice S.

    A review course (RTC) for the Georgia Board of Regents' Reading Test (GRT) is provided in most institutions in Georgia's university system to help students who have not passed the GRT before they have earned 50 cumulative semester hours. A study was conducted to determine how RTC students' levels of test anxiety, as measured by the Test Anxiety

  12. Georgia After 3PM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each afternoon across the U.S., 15 million children are alone and unsupervised after school. The parents of 18 million would enroll their children in an afterschool program, if one were available. These are some of the key findings from the nation's most in-depth study of how America's children spend their afternoons. "America After 3PM" was…

  13. 77 FR 67639 - Liberty Energy (Georgia) Corp.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Energy (Georgia) Corp.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 25, Liberty Energy (Georgia) Corp. (Liberty Georgia), 2845 Bristol Circle, Oakville, Ontario... Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area within which Liberty Georgia may,...

  14. Seismicity map of the state of Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagor, B. Glen; Stover, C.W.; Algermissen, S.T.; Long, L.T.

    1991-01-01

    This map is one of a series of seismicity maps produced by the U.S. Geological Survey that show earthquake data of individual states or groups of states at the scale of 1:1,000,000. This maps shows only those earthquakes with epicenters located within the boundaries of Georgia, even though earthquakes in nearby states or countries may have been felt or may have cause damage in Georgia. The data in table 1 were used to compile the seismicity map; these data are a corrected, expanded, and updated (through 1987) version of the data used by Algermissen (1969) for a study of seismic risk in the United States. The locations and intensities of some earthquakes were revised and intensities were assigned where none had been before. Many earthquakes were added to the original list from new data sources as well as from some old data sources that has not been previously used. The data in table 1 represent best estimates of the location of the epicenter, magnitude, and intensity of each earthquake on the basis of historical and current information. Some of the aftershocks from large earthquakes are listed, but not all, especially for earthquakes that occurred before seismic instruments were universally used. The latitude and longitude coordinates of each epicenter were rounded to the nearest tenth of a degree and sorted so that all identical locations were grouped and counted. These locations are represented on the map by a triangle. The number of earthquakes at each location is shown on the map by the Arabic number to the right of the triangle. A Roman numeral to the left of a triangle is the maximum Modified Mercoili intensity (Wood and Neumann, 1931) of all earthquakes at that geographic location, The absence of an intensity value indicates that no intensities have been assigned to earthquakes at that location. The year shown below each triangle is the latest year for which the maximum intensity was recorded.

  15. Groundwater conditions in Georgia, 2010–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Michael F.; Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collects groundwater data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define groundwater resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. In Georgia, water levels were monitored continuously at 186 wells during calendar year 2010 and at 181 wells during calendar year 2011. Because of missing data or short periods of record (less than 3 years) for several of these wells, a total of 168 wells are discussed in this report. These wells include 17 in the surficial aquifer system, 19 in the Brunswick aquifer system and equivalent sediments, 70 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 16 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 11 in the Clayton aquifer, 14 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 8 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the well network indicate that water levels generally declined during the 2010 through 2011 calendar-year period, with water levels declining in 158 wells and rising in 10. Water levels declined over the period of record at 106 wells, increased at 56 wells, and remained relatively constant at 6 wells. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden, Charlton, and Ware Counties, Georgia, and adjacent counties in Florida during May–June 2010, and in the following areas in Georgia: the Brunswick area during August 2010 and August 2011, in the Albany–Dougherty County area during November 2010 and November 2011, and in the Augusta–Richmond County area during October 2010 and August 2011. In general, water levels in these areas were lower during 2011 than during 2010; however, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces in each of the areas showed little change. Groundwater quality in the Floridan aquifer system is monitored in the Albany, Savannah, and Brunswick areas of Georgia. In the Albany area, nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during 2011 generally decreased from 2010; however, concentrations in two wells remained above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 10-milligrams-per-liter (mg/L) drinking-water standard. In the Savannah area, specific conductance and chloride concentrations were measured in water samples from discrete depths in two wells completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Data from the two wells indicate that chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer showed little change during calendar years 2010 through 2011 and remained below the 250 mg/L USEPA secondary drinking-water standard. During calendar years 2010 through 2011, chloride concentrations in the Lower Floridan aquifer increased slightly at Tybee Island and Skidaway Island, remaining above the drinking-water standard. In the Brunswick area, maps showing the chloride concentration of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer constructed using data collected from 32 wells during August 2010 and from 30 wells during August 2011 indicate that chloride concentrations remained above the USEPA secondary drinking-water standard in an approximately 2-square-mile area. During calendar years 2010 through 2011, chloride concentrations generally decreased in over 70 percent of the wells sampled during 2011, with a maximum decrease of 200 mg/L in a well located in the north-central part of the Brunswick area.

  16. Beliefs of Georgia public middle school science teachers regarding residential environmental science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomason, Hal Mcbeen

    This researcher, through this study, sought to establish baseline data concerning Georgia public middle school science teachers' beliefs related to participation in Georgia 4-H Residential Environmental Science Education (RESE) programs. He compared the beliefs of two groups of Georgia public middle school science teachers: teachers who had participated in Georgia 4-H RE SE programs and teachers who had not participated in Georgia 4-H RESE programs. Educators, at the time of the study, recognized that Georgia middle school science students were not performing at near their academic potential. Educational researchers investigated inquiry-based, hands-on instruction and determined it had a redeeming affect on student achievement and deserved further investigation. The Georgia 4-H Residential Environmental Science Education programs appeared to fit in this category of research supported and potentially effective educational endeavors but appeared to be underused. The researcher's findings indicated previous participation in Georgia 4-H RESE programs modified teacher beliefs. The vast majority of past participants believed they would repeat the experience. The comparisons between the two groups enabled the researcher to identify fundamental differences in beliefs. Past participants believed fewer barriers existed than non-participants. Past participants also believed, if a barrier existed, it offered a lesser degree of effort to overcome when compared to the beliefs of non-participants. Both groups believed some barriers to participation were easier to overcome than others. Budget constraints and time and work required to participate were two barriers universally believed to exist and believed to offer the greatest degree of difficulty. Additionally, the non-participating group believed their lack of knowledge was the major impediment to participation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Virtual health care center in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Thomas; Kldiashvili, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Application of telemedicine systems to cover distant geographical areas has increased recently. However, the potential usefulness of similar systems for creation of national networks does not seem to be widely appreciated. The article describes the "Virtual Health Care Knowledge Center in Georgia" project. Its aim was the set up of an online integrated web-based platform to provide remote medical consultations and eLearning cycles. The project "Virtual Health Care Knowledge Center in Georgia" was the NATO Networking Infrastructure Grant dedicated for development of telemedicine in non-NATO countries. The project implemented a pilot to organize the creation of national eHealth network in Georgia and to promote the use of innovative telemedicine and eLearning services in the Georgian healthcare system. In June 2007 it was continued under the NATO Networking Infrastructure Grant "ePathology – Virtual Pathology Center in Georgia as the Continuation of Virtual Health Care Center". PMID:18673518

  18. Georgia's RN-BSN Articulation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Cheryl; And Others

    1997-01-01

    In Georgia, 15 nursing programs collaborated on a statewide articulation model to facilitate mobility of registered nurses into bachelor's degree nursing programs. The model standardizes entry into all bachelor's programs without threatening individual program autonomy. (SK)

  19. The 14C AMS system at The University of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. L.; Culp, R. A.; Dvoracek, D. K.; Hodgins, G. W. L.; Neary, M. P.; Noakes, J. E.

    2004-08-01

    The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia has installed a compact 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, Wisconsin. The system utilizes a 134 sample ion source and a 500 kV Pelletron. In terms of cost and size, the new system is a significant advance over previous technology. Details and performance of the new system will be presented.

  20. Project Georgia High School/High Tech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The High School/High Tech initiative of the President's Committee on Employment of Disabilities, Georgia's application of the collaborative "Georgia Model" and NASA's commitment of funding have shown that opportunities for High School/High Tech students are unlimited. In Georgia, the partnership approach to meeting the needs of this program has opened doors previously closed. As the program grows and develops, reflecting the needs of our students and the marketplace, more opportunities will be available. Our collaboratives are there to provide these opportunities and meet the challenge of matching our students with appropriate education and career goals. Summing up the activities and outcomes of Project Georgia High School/High Tech is not difficult. Significant outcomes have already occurred in the Savannah area as a result of NASA's grant. The support of NASA has enabled Georgia Committee to "grow" High School/High Tech throughout the region-and, by example, the state. The success of the Columbus pilot project has fostered the proliferation of projects, resulting in more than 30 Georgia High School High Tech programs-with eight in the Savannah area.

  1. Institutionalization of Migration Policy Frameworks in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Makaryan, Shushanik; Chobanyan, Haykanush

    2015-01-01

    This article is a comparative study of the institutionalization of the migration policy frameworks of post-Soviet states Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. All three countries share common historical legacies: a Soviet past, wars and conflicts, unemployment, high emigration, and commitment to integration into European bodies. To what extent do the migration policies of these three countries (driven by contextual forces, i.e. domestic challenges) address country-specific migration dynamics? Or are they imposed by the European Union? In which dimensions have the national policies on migration of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia evolved, and around which issues have they converged or diverged? Have these trends led to an integration of migration policymaking at the regional level in the South Caucasus? PMID:26435548

  2. Lyme Borreliosis in Human Patients in Florida and Georgia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kerry L.; Leydet, Brian; Hartman, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cause of illness in several human patients residing in Florida and Georgia, USA, with suspected Lyme disease based upon EM-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays developed specifically for Lyme group Borrelia spp., followed by DNA sequencing for confirmation, we identified Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in samples of blood and skin and also in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) removed from several patients who either live in or were exposed to ticks in Florida or Georgia. This is the first report to present combined PCR and DNA sequence evidence of infection with Lyme Borrelia spp. in human patients in the southern U.S., and to demonstrate that several B. burgdorferi sensu lato species may be associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in southern states. Based on the findings of this study, we suggest that human Lyme borreliosis occurs in Florida and Georgia, and that some cases of Lyme-like illness referred to as southern tick associated rash illness (STARI) in the southern U.S. may be attributable to previously undetected B. burgdorferi sensu lato infections. PMID:23781138

  3. Seismic Hazard Assessment of Middle East Region: Based on the Example to Georgia (Preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Akkar, S.; Askan, A.; Varazanashvili, O.; Adamia, S.; Chkhitunidze, M.

    2012-12-01

    The country of Georgia is located between Russia and Turkey. The main morphological units of Georgia are the mountain ranges of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus separated by the Black Sea-Rioni and Kura (Mtkvari)-South Caspian intermountain troughs. Recent geodynamics of Georgia and adjacent territories of the Black Sea-Caspian Sea region, as a whole, are determined by its position between the still-converging Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. That caused moderate seismicity in the region. However, the risk resulting from these earthquakes is considerably high, as recent events during the last two decades have shown. Seismic hazard and risk assessment is a major research topic in various recent international and national projects. Despite the current efforts, estimation of regional seismic hazard assessment remains as a major problem. Georgia is one of the partners of ongoing regional project EMME (Earthquake Model for Middle East region). The main objective of EMME is calculation of Earthquake hazard uniformly with heights standards. One approach used in the project is the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment PSHA. In this study, we present the preliminary results of PSHA for Georgia in this project attempting to improve gaps especially in such steps as: determination of seismic sources; selection or derivation of ground motion prediction equations models; estimation of maximum magnitude Mmax. Seismic sources (SS) were obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. Finely new SS have been developed for Georgia and adjacent region. Each zone was defined with the following parameters: the magnitude-frequency parameters, maximum magnitude, and depth distribution as well as modern dynamical characteristics widely used for complex processes. As the ground motion dataset is absolutely insufficient by itself to derive a ground motion prediction model for Georgia, two approaches were taken in defining ground motions. First the modern procedure for selecting and ranking candidate ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) were done (Scherbaum et al. 2004, 2009; Cotton et al. 2006, Kale and Akkar, 2012) under a given ground motion dataset. Second the hybrid-empirical method proposed by Campbell (2003) was used. In the host-to-target simulations, Turkey and Iran was used as the host regions and Georgia as the target region. GMPEs for the Racha and Javakhety regions in Georgia are derived by scaling the pre-determined GMPEs based on the computed scaling coefficients. Finally PSH maps were calculated showing peak ground acceleration and spectral accelerations at 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 4 sec for Georgia.

  4. 1. VIEW OF SOUTH APPROACH TO Georgia DOT BRIDGE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SOUTH APPROACH TO Georgia DOT BRIDGE No. 105-00168X-00203E, LOOKING NORTH - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 105-00168X-00203E, Spanning Beaverdam Creek at County Road 168, Elberton, Elbert County, GA

  5. 9. 'Central of Georgia' sign painted on the underside of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 'Central of Georgia' sign painted on the underside of arch spanning West Boundary Street. - Central of Georgia Railway, 1860 Brick Arch Viaduct, Spanning West Boundary Street & Savannah-Ogeechee Canal, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  6. 2. VIEW OF NORTH APPROACH TO Georgia DOT BRIDGE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF NORTH APPROACH TO Georgia DOT BRIDGE No. 105-00168X-00203E, LOOKING SOUTH - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 105-00168X-00203E, Spanning Beaverdam Creek at County Road 168, Elberton, Elbert County, GA

  7. 5. DETAIL OF TRUSS MEMBERS, GUARDRAIL AND DECK TO Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF TRUSS MEMBERS, GUARDRAIL AND DECK TO Georgia DOT BRIDGE No. 105-00168X-00203E - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 105-00168X-00203E, Spanning Beaverdam Creek at County Road 168, Elberton, Elbert County, GA

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of the Instructional Leadership Role of the Principal in Implementing Effective Instructional Leadership Practices to Prepare Students for the Georgia High School Graduation Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyfield, Beverly R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build upon Askins's 2002 research by examining the perceptions of Georgia educators as it relates to the instructional leadership role of the principal in helping 11th- and 12th-grade teachers adjust to the newly implemented Georgia Performance Standards and high-stakes testing. This study used qualitative-dominant…

  9. Human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescents in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Natasha L; Weiss, Paul; Gargano, Lisa M; Seib, Katherine; Rask, Kimberly J; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M; Sales, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage for adolescent females and males remains low in the United States. We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in middle and high schools in eastern Georgia from 2011-2013 to determine the effect of 2 educational interventions used to increase adolescent vaccination coverage for the 4 recommended adolescent vaccines: Tdap, MCV4, HPV and influenza. As part of this RCT, this article focuses on: 1) describing initiation and completion of HPV vaccine series among a diverse population of male and female adolescents; 2) assessing parental attitudes toward HPV vaccine; and 3) examining correlates of HPV vaccine series initiation and completion. Parental attitude score was the strongest predictor of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.39). Other correlates that significantly predicted HPV series initiation were gender, study year, and intervention arm. Parental attitudes remained a significant predictor of receipt of 3 doses of HPV vaccine along with gender, race, school type and insurance type. This study demonstrates that positive parental attitudes are important predictors of HPV vaccination and critical to increasing coverage rates. Our findings suggest that more research is needed to understand how parental attitudes are developed and evolve over time. PMID:25912372

  10. Georgia Basin-Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characterization Report, 2012 was undertaken to characterize the air quality within the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound region,a vibrant, rapidly growing, urbanized area of the Pacific Northwest. The Georgia Basin - Puget Sound Airshed Characteri...

  11. 33 CFR 167.1332 - In the Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Georgia. 167... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast 167.1332 In the Strait of Georgia. In the Strait of Georgia, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area GS, which is bounded by a line...

  12. 33 CFR 167.1332 - In the Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the Strait of Georgia. 167... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast 167.1332 In the Strait of Georgia. In the Strait of Georgia, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area GS, which is bounded by a line...

  13. 30 CFR 910.700 - Georgia Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Georgia Federal program. 910.700 Section 910... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA 910.700 Georgia Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface coal mining operations in...

  14. A Failed Experiment: Georgia's Tax Credit Scholarships for Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Georgia is one of seven states that currently allow tax credits for scholarships to private schools. Georgia's law was enacted in May 2008 in order to assist low income students to transfer out of low performing public schools. Operations under the new act began in late 2008. The law permits taxpayers in Georgia to reduce their annual state taxes

  15. 30 CFR 910.700 - Georgia Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Georgia Federal program. 910.700 Section 910... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA 910.700 Georgia Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface coal mining operations in...

  16. 76 FR 28120 - Georgia Disaster Number GA-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster Number GA-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Georgia... State of Georgia, dated 04/29/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as...

  17. 30 CFR 910.700 - Georgia Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Georgia Federal program. 910.700 Section 910... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA 910.700 Georgia Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface coal mining operations in...

  18. 76 FR 27141 - Georgia Disaster Number GA-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster Number GA-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Georgia... GEORGIA, dated 04/29/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  19. 33 CFR 167.1332 - In the Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Georgia. 167... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast 167.1332 In the Strait of Georgia. In the Strait of Georgia, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area GS, which is bounded by a line...

  20. 33 CFR 167.1332 - In the Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Georgia. 167... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast 167.1332 In the Strait of Georgia. In the Strait of Georgia, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area GS, which is bounded by a line...

  1. 7. VIEW OF CENTRAL OF GEORGIA RAILROAD FACING EAST. CARRIED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF CENTRAL OF GEORGIA RAILROAD FACING EAST. CARRIED BY GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 215-00001D-00936N. - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 215-00001D-00936N, Spanning US 27, State Route 1 & Fourth Avenue, Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  2. 30 CFR 910.700 - Georgia Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Georgia Federal program. 910.700 Section 910... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA 910.700 Georgia Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface coal mining operations in...

  3. 30 CFR 910.700 - Georgia Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Georgia Federal program. 910.700 Section 910... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA 910.700 Georgia Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface coal mining operations in...

  4. 76 FR 27739 - Georgia Disaster Number GA-00032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster Number GA-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Georgia... State of Georgia, dated 04/29/2011 is hereby amended to include the following areas as...

  5. 76 FR 32985 - Georgia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Georgia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Georgia (FEMA-1973-DR), dated April 29, 2011, and related... certain areas of the State of Georgia resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, straight line winds,...

  6. 76 FR 29285 - Georgia Disaster Number GA-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Georgia Disaster Number GA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Georgia (FEMA-1973-DR), dated 04/29/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Georgia, dated...

  7. Ground-water conditions in Georgia, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressler, A.M.; Blackburn, D.K.; McSwain, K.B.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water conditions in Georgia during 1999 and for the period of record were evaluated using data from U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-level and ground-water-quality monitoring networks. Data for 1999 included in this report are from continuous water-level records from 130 wells and chloride analyses from 14 wells. Data from one well is incomplete because data collection was discontinued. Chloride concentration in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in most of coastal Georgia was within drinking-water standards established by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the Savannah area, chloride concentration has not changed appreciably with time. However, chloride concentration in water from some wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system in the Brunswick area exceeds the drinking-water standards.

  8. Annotated Checklist of Georgia Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaton, G.; Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Parrish, J.W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This edition of the checklist includes 446 species, of which 407 are on the Regular Species List, 8 on the Provisional, and 31 on the Hypothetical. This new publication has been greatly expanded and much revised over the previous checklist (GOS Occasional Publ. No. 10, 1986, 48 pp., 6x9 inches) to a 7?x10?-inch format with an extensive Literature Cited section added, 22 species added to the Regular List, 2 to the Provisional List, and 9 to the Hypothetical List. Each species account is much more comprehensive over all previous editions of the checklist. Among some of the new features are citations for sources of most information used, high counts of individuals for each species on the Regular List, extreme dates of occurrence within physiographic regions, a list of abbreviations and acronyms, and for each species the highest form of verifiable documentation given with its repository institution with a catalog number. This checklist is helpful for anyone working with birds in the Southeastern United States or birding in that region. Sykes' contribution to this fifth edition of the Annotated Checklist of Georgia Birds includes: suggestion of the large format and spiral binding, use of Richard A. Parks' painting of the Barn Owl on the front cover, use of literature citations throughout, and inclusion of high counts for each species. Sykes helped plan all phases of the publication, wrote about 90% of the Introduction and 84 species accounts (Osprey through Red Phalarope), designed the four maps in the introduction section and format for the Literature Cited, and with Giff Beaton designed the layout of the title page.

  9. New acoustic test facility at Georgia Tech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesel, Van; Cunefare, Kenneth

    2002-11-01

    Georgia Tech's Integrated Acoustics Laboratory (IAL) is a state of the art research facility dedicated to the study of acoustics and vibration. The centerpiece of the laboratory is a 24 ft x24 ft x20 ft full anechoic chamber, which has been in operation since 1998. The IAL is currently expanding to include a reverberation room and hemi-anechoic chamber, designed and built by Acoustic Systems. These two chambers will be joined by an 8 ft x8 ft transmission loss opening, allowing for a detailed measurement and analysis of complex barriers. Both chambers will accommodate vehicles and similarly large structures. The reverberation room will have adequate volume for standardized absorption measurements. Each chamber will be equipped with dedicated multichannel data acquisition systems and instrumentation for the support of simultaneous research in all areas of the laboratory. The new test chambers are funded by a grant from the Ford Motor Company and are planned to be completed and fully functional by 1 January 2003.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tronox Facility in Savannah, Georgia. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tronox Facility site in Savannah, Georgia, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  11. Replication of a Career Academy Model: The Georgia Central Educational Center and Four Replication Sites. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detgen, Amy; Alfeld, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    The study surveyed four career academies in Georgia that replicated the model of the Georgia Central Educational Center, which integrates technical instruction and academics at the high school level. The four replication sites adhered to the major tenets of the model. The model's flexibility helped the new sites meet community needs. [For the main

  12. Teachers' Attitudes toward Assessment of Student Learning and Teacher Assessment Practices in General Educational Institutions: The Case of Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitiashvili, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study teachers' attitudes toward assessment of students' learning and their assessment practices in Georgia's general educational institutions. Georgia is a country in the South Caucasus with a population of 4.5 million people, with 2300 general educational institutions and about 559,400 students. The

  13. Sixty Years of Creationism in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saladin, Kenneth S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines sociopolitical conditions that allowed pro-creationist and anti-evolutionist movements to thrive in Georgia and other southern States. Describes efforts by leading citizens to influence legislation toward propagation of the creationist philosophy, especially in education. Stresses the need for scientists and educators to oppose

  14. Bright Fireball Over Georgia - Duration: 7 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    A camera in Cartersville, Ga., captured this view of a bright fireball over Georgia on the night of Mar. 7, 2012, at approx. 10:19:11 EST. The meteor was first recorded at an altitude of 51.5 miles...

  15. Georgia Turns to the West for Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Georgia, along with a number of other former Soviet countries, is rapidly reforming its higher-education system. Russian is being replaced by English in classrooms and textbooks. Western-trained professors are flooding campuses with new methods of teaching and liberal-arts courses are replacing vocational training. This change is part of broader

  16. Making Things Happen: Industrialization in Carrollton, Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Bill

    1980-01-01

    The consistent economic growth of the Georgia community is the result of careful planning over a long period. Successful community development efforts have resulted in a new regional library, an airport, a vocational technical school, an industrial park, and increased industrialization. (SB)

  17. Biological Safety at the University of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Daryl E.

    1983-01-01

    The University of Georgia (UGA) biosafety program was initiated in response to requirements for recombinant DNA experiments rather than laboratory-acquired infections. This and other environmental safety programs at UGA are described, considering three of the four recognized levels of biocontainment. A fire extinguisher inspection computer program

  18. GSCA (Georgia School Counselors Association) Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Fran, Ed.; McCarthy, Susan, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The articles presented in this journal issue include contributions that help meet the needs of all students. Six of the articles are based on programs presented at the Georgia School Counselor Association 2000 Fall Conference. The articles include: (1) "Effects of Group Counseling on Third Grade Students' Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement"

  19. School-Based Businesses in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatewood, Elizabeth J.; DeLargy, Paul F.

    A school-based business program in Georgia is attempting to broaden the education of high school students by making them more aware of the role of small business in the United States economy and the economic possibilities offered by entrepreneurship. Goals of school-based businesses are to create profit-making enterprises that meet unfilled needs

  20. Automation at the University of Georgia Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersson, John G.

    1979-01-01

    Presents the design procedures, bibliographic system, file structures, acquisitions and circulation systems, functional implementation, and future development of the Managing Resources for University Libraries (MARVEL) data base at the University of Georgia Libraries, which accepts MARC input from OCLC and Library of Congress (LC) MARC tapes. (CWM)

  1. Can Georgia growers replace methyl bromide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The price and availability of methyl bromide is limiting its use on Georgia farms; the need for an alternative is essential for sustainable vegetable production in GA. Three alternatives were evaluated in on-farm trials in the spring 2007 in Tift, Colquitt and Echols Counties. Treatments were replic...

  2. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkins, Laurie B.; Carter, John; Beavers, Barbara

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Georgia's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in five domains: family and community, economic well-being, health, education, and safety and security. The 21 indicators of well-being are: (1) child population; (2) public school enrollment; (3)…

  3. Competency List for Vocational Administrators in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Center for Vocational Leadership.

    This publication contains lists of job responsibilities and related competencies needed by Georgia's vocational education administrators. Competency lists are provided for local system director or Cooperative Educational Service Agency (CESA) coordinator, vocational high school supervisor, postsecondary area school director, postsecondary adult

  4. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosava, Lela

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Georgia. States develop educational funding formulas to determine the total amount of funds needed for each student and to establish the state's share of those costs. Although the large majority of states use the common base or foundation formula (25 states and D.C.) or

  5. Progressive Education in Georgia: Tradition or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaliani, Bella; Harnisch, Delwyn L.; Doliashvili, Nana; Guetterman, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite differences among progressive educators, they share the conviction that democracy means active participation by all citizens in the social, political, and economic decisions of their countries. The aim of this paper is to explore how Georgia is meeting goals and perspectives of progressive education by widely implementing civic education

  6. Examining School District Efficiency in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Eric A.; Rolle, R. Anthony; He, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relative production efficiency of school districts in Georgia using the modified quadriform method. Overall, we find that the modified quadriform allows state-level policymakers to access a basic tool for analysis that makes relative comparison of school district productivity for use in policy analysis and policy

  7. Progressive Education in Georgia: Tradition or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaliani, Bella; Harnisch, Delwyn L.; Doliashvili, Nana; Guetterman, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite differences among progressive educators, they share the conviction that democracy means active participation by all citizens in the social, political, and economic decisions of their countries. The aim of this paper is to explore how Georgia is meeting goals and perspectives of progressive education by widely implementing civic education…

  8. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Georgia edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality…

  9. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

    This factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality; (3) death rate of children ages 1 to 14 years; (4) kindergarten retention; (5) violent death rate of teenagers aged 15 to 19 years; (6) juvenile arrests; (7) youth

  10. Loss of Accreditation Rocks Georgia District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In the end, six months of management reforms and the hiring of an experienced urban superintendent failed to keep the Clayton County, Georgia, school district from becoming the nation's first district in nearly four decades to have its accreditation stripped. Last week's decision by the Atlanta-based Southern Association of Colleges and Schools…

  11. Standards for Public Schools of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Standards for school maintenance, pupil transportation, and food service are discussed within the larger scope of standards for Georgia school systems. The school plant, the library, and school food service are discussed under the heading of standards for public schools. Eight to ten criteria are listed for each category with either an R, E, or D…

  12. Educational Initiatives for Industrial Development in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Paul M.; Johnson, Berman E.

    Georgia's two-year technical institutes have played a prominant role in linking education with industry. Five major interrelated efforts have worked to transform the state from an agrarian economy to one utilizing advanced technologies. The first of these, the Quick-Start Program, offers state-paid services, such as consultation, employee

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN GEORGIA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a data report presenting the species and abundance of phytoplankton in the 14 lakes sampled by the National Eutrophication Survey in the State of Georgia. Results from the calculation of several water quality indices are also included (Nygaard's Trophic State Index, Palme...

  14. Human Cutaneous Anthrax, Georgia 20102012

    PubMed Central

    Kracalik, Ian; Malania, Lile; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Manvelyan, Julietta; Bakanidze, Lela; Imnadze, Paata; Tsanava, Shota

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the occurrence of human cutaneous anthrax in Georgia during 2010-2012 by examining demographic and spatial characteristics of reported cases. Reporting increased substantially, as did clustering of cases near urban centers. Control efforts, including education about anthrax and livestock vaccination, can be directed at areas of high risk. PMID:24447721

  15. Georgia Kids Count Factbook, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgians for Children, Atlanta, GA.

    This Kids Count factbook presents statistical data and examines trends for 10 indicators of children's well-being in Georgia. The indicators are: (1) low birthweight babies; (2) infant mortality; (3) child deaths; (4) teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; (5) juvenile arrests; (6) reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills;…

  16. An epidemiological analysis of abortion in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Rochat, R W; Tyler, C W; Schoenbucher, A K

    1971-03-01

    Examination of abortion experience in Georgia following the passage of an abortion law based on the American Law Institute's Model Penal Code, intended to increase the availability of abortion, suggests that nonhospital abortions are still a black health problem, especially for unmarried blacks. Abortion mortality has declined for unmarried whites, married whites, and married black women. The abortion rate is highest for women under the age of 15 (falling into the rape catagory of the abortion law) and over 34 years (due to maternal physical health conditions). Maternal mental health indications are more restrictively defined in the medical community in Georgia. A comparison with several states liberalizing abortion laws demonstrates that in proportion to live births, markedly fewer hospital abortions have been performed in Georgia than in other states. Only 20 abortions were performed in Georgia each month until 1970 when the number increased to 47 due to publicity over a proposed abortion law. To reduce nonhospital abortion mortality, hospital abortions must be provided equitably to all women in need. PMID:5553643

  17. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  18. Degradation of chicken feathers by Chrysosporium georgiae.

    PubMed

    el-Naghy, M A; el-Ktatny, M S; Fadl-Allah, E M; Nazeer, W W

    1998-01-01

    Using a baiting technique, Chrysosporium georgiae was isolated from chicken feathers. Twenty-eight different fungal isolates were evaluated for their ability to produce keratinase enzymes using a keratin-salt agar medium containing either white chicken feathers or a prepared feather keratin suspension (KS). The Chrysosporium species were able to use keratin and grow at different rates. Chrysosporium georgiae completely degraded the added keratin after 9 days of incubation. Degradation of feathers by C. georgiae was affected by several cultural factors. Highest keratinolytic activity occurred after 3 weeks of incubation at 6 and 8 pH at 30 degrees C. Chrysosporium georgiae was able to degrade white chicken feathers, whereas bovine and human hair and sheep wool were not degraded and did not support fungal growth. Addition of 1% glucose to the medium containing keratin improved fungal growth and increased enzyme production. Higher keratin degradation resulted in high SH accumulation and the utilization of the carbohydrate carbon in the medium resulted in high keto-acid accumulation but decreased ammonia accumulation. Supplementation of the keratin-salt medium with minerals such as NH4Cl and MgSO4 slightly increased mycelial growth, but decreased production of extracellular keratinase. Keratinase enzymes were very poorly produced in the absence of keratin, indicating its inducible nature. Analysis of endocellular keratinases in the mycelial homogenate indicated higher activity of intracellular keratinase as compared to the extracellular enzyme in culture filtrates. Chrysosporium georgiae was the most superior for keratinase production among the Chrysosporium species tested in the presence or absence of glucose. It produced more of the intracellular enzymes than the exocellular ones. PMID:10205889

  19. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis

  20. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  1. Status of the AMS facility at the University of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.; Noakes, John E.

    2010-04-01

    Since 2001, the Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia has analyzed more than 10,000 samples using a compact AMS system for carbon isotope measurement. The system, manufactured by National Electrostatics Corporation, utilizes a Model 1.5SDH-1 Pelletron accelerator with a maximum terminal voltage of 0.5 MV. The source has recently been modified, doubling the count rate and improving efficiency more than 50%. Background values have reached 0.12 pMC and the precision is below 0.4 pMC for modern samples. The control and data acquisition system has also been upgraded.

  2. MOLECULAR TRACING OF HETEROSEXUAL HIV-1 TRANSMISSION IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Dvali, N; Chkhartishvili, N; Sharvadze, L; Karchava, M; Tsertsvadze, T

    2015-09-01

    HIV epidemic in Georgia has entered a new phase with number of heterosexually acquired infections rising each year. Epidemiological data indicates that this switch in epidemic trends is largely due to HIV positive male IDUs transmitting the virus to their female sexual partners. However, no genetic studies confirming linkage between IDUs and their sex partners were done in Georgia before. The objective of our study was to investigate molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission events between heterosexual couples. Viral genotypes were obtained from plasma specimens of 36 heterosexual HIV-1 positive antiretroviral treatment (ART) naive persons representing 18 epidemiologically linked transmission events were genotyped and phylogenetic analyses were done on HIV pol sequences. HIV infection among all women was attributed to heterosexual transmission from their partners. None of 18 women had history of IDU. Fourteen pairs had subtype A virus, three - subtype B and one - subtype G viruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the existing epidemiological link in 16 pairs with bootstrap values ranging from 88% to 100%. Of these 16 events, viruses from 14 pairs had genetic distance less than 0.015.Mutation A62V was seen in samples from 5 pairs, of them samples from 4 pairs additionally had V77I mutation. All 5 pairs were infected with the subtype Avirus. Women, who are sexual partners of IDUs or other men with high risk heterosexual behaviors, are at increased risk of HIV acquisition. HIV epidemic in Georgia has not spread to general population and remains concentrated around key populations at risk. Our work confirms that female sexual partners can serve as a bridge between key affected populations and general community, such as heterosexually active adults. Therefore, prevention efforts targeting key populations at risk and their sexual partners need to be expanded to avoid the spread of the infection within specific communities and beyond. PMID:26355316

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR TYPING OF BRUCELLA STRAINS CIRCULATING IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Sidamonidze, K; Ramishvili, M; Kalandadze, I; Tsereteli, D; Nikolich, M P

    2015-10-01

    In 2009-2013, 851 cases of brucellosis were registered in Georgia. Most cases of brucellosis were found in eastern Georgia (91.3% of cases). Mainly men were infected with brucellosis (81.0%).The age group with the most frequent cases of brucellosis is 30-59 years (48.5%). Brucellosis is rarely found among children(0-4 years - 2.0%, 5-14 years - 8.0%). Brucellosis cases were linked to professional activity; mainly by farmers (33.0% of those infected) and shepherds (27.0%). Biotyping Brucella by microbiological methods alone has limitations, so molecular typing was implemented in this study to confirm species. Isolates from human blood and ruminant milk or blood were identified by a bacteriological algorithm and confirmed by real-time PCR (Brucella T1, Idaho Technology). Species identity was confirmed using the AMOS conventional PCR assay, which differentiates four human pathogenic species but cannot recognize certain biovars within them. This gap was addressed by using more universal species-specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) assays. Real-time PCR was used to confirm 86 Brucella strains (48 human, 38 animal isolates) obtained 2009-2011. AMOS PCR supported the biochemical test results for 53 B. melitensis and four B. abortus strains, but not for 29 suspected B. abortus human and animal isolates. SNP typing of all 86 isolates supported the AMOS PCR results but also confirmed the species of the 29 strains not amplified by AMOS PCR. In 2009-2013 years the prevalence of brucellosis was still high. Nowadays cases of brucellosis are higher in the western part of Georgia than in the 1991-2005 period by a factor of 2.62. Brucellosis continues to be mainly an infection in males, because men are mostly engaged in sheep and cattle care. Combined AMOS PCR and SNP typing in this study provided the first genetic confirmation that both B. abortus and B. melitensis are actively circulating in humans and animals in Georgia. PMID:26483376

  4. Augusta, Georgia and Jackson State University: Southern Episodes in a National Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Council, Atlanta, GA.

    This report presents an indepth study of the events and psychology in the past of Augusta, Georgia which help explain the violence and the killing of six Blacks on the night of May 11, 1970. The second study in this report deals with the events and killings of two young black men at Jackson State College on May 15, 1970. These two events had

  5. Influence of Assessment for Learning Professional Development in Rural Georgia Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of two models of professional development concerning Assessment for Learning on teacher perception of the effectiveness of Assessment for Learning strategies and student achievement as measured by standardized Georgia End of Course Tests. The study hypothesized that a positive relationship exists between teacher

  6. Georgia's HOPE Scholarship Program after 18 Years: Benefits, Unintended Consequences, and Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, James V.; Prince, Lori H.; Stuckart, Erik B.

    2011-01-01

    Since its inception in 1993, Georgia's HOPE Scholarship Program has provided thousands of state residents the opportunity to pursue a college education. This study examines the history and recent changes to the merit-based program along with interesting consequences resulting from its implementation. This study demonstrates how the program has

  7. A Survey of Pupil Transportation in Georgia. Monographs in Education No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Martha S.; Doster, Priscilla

    The goal of this study was to describe student transportation programs in Georgia and to identify common areas of concern and common characteristics of these programs. The report summarizes the literature regarding transportation issues and the accumulated knowledge of experienced transportation managers. The study team met with the

  8. Solar Total Energy Project Shenandoah, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.W.; Geurts, G.F.

    1983-06-01

    The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) at Shenandoah, Georgia is the world's largest industrial application of solar cogeneration. It is a cooperative effort between the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Georgia Power Company to further America's search for alternative sources of energy. It is an outgrowth of research started in 1972 by Sandia National Laboratories for the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The objective of the Shenandoah project is to evaluate a solar total energy system that provides electrical power, process steam, and air conditioning for a knitwear factory operated by Bleyle of America, Inc. Solar energy will displace a large part of the electricity and fossil fuels normally used to run the factory and produce the clothing.

  9. Elimination of malaria in country Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kandelaki, George; Butsashvili, Maia; Kalandadze, Irine; Iosava, Merab; Avaliani, Nata; Imnadze, Paata

    2012-07-01

    Malaria is well known in Georgia since ancient times, causing national disasters with associated significant mortality and economic losses. By 1970 Georgia managed to reach complete and sustained elimination of the disease as a result of comprehensive anti-malaria measures undertaken in the country. However from the mid-1990s, economic collapse following disintegration of Soviet Union causing breakdown of important public health networks including anti-malaria preventive and control infrastructure resulted in gradual increase of malaria cases in the country with a peak of 437 and 474 cases in 2001 and 2002, respectively. From 2000 two major anti-malaria efforts were carried out by National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, WHO and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria and as result of comprehensive and collaborative work in 2010 the level of zero cases of local mosquito-borne malaria transmission was achieved and the country entered the elimination phase. PMID:22410541

  10. Mitochondria hyperfusion and elevated autophagic activity are key mechanisms for cellular bioenergetic preservation in centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Pinti, Marcello; Lanzarini, Catia; Ascione, Barbara; Gibellini, Lara; Dika, Emi; Patrizi, Annalisa; Tommasino, Chiara; Capri, Miriam; Cossarizza, Andrea; Baracca, Alessandra; Lenaz, Giorgio; Solaini, Giancarlo; Franceschi, Claudio; Malorni, Walter; Salvioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria have been considered for long time as important determinants of cell aging because of their role in the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study we investigated the impact of mitochondrial metabolism and biology as determinants of successful aging in primary cultures of fibroblasts isolated from the skin of long living individuals (LLI) (about 100 years old) compared with those from young (about 27 years old) and old (about 75 years old) subjects. We observed that fibroblasts from LLI displayed significantly lower complex I-driven ATP synthesis and higher production of H2O2 in comparison with old subjects. Despite these changes, bioenergetics of these cells appeared to operate normally. This lack of functional consequences was likely due to a compensatory phenomenon at the level of mitochondria, which displayed a maintained supercomplexes organization and an increased mass. This appears to be due to a decreased mitophagy, induced by hyperfused, elongated mitochondria. The overall data indicate that longevity is characterized by a preserved bioenergetic function likely attained by a successful mitochondria remodeling that can compensate for functional defects through an increase in mass, i.e. a sort of mitochondrial “hypertrophy”. PMID:24799450

  11. [Trends and risks of self-medication in Georgia].

    PubMed

    Chanturia, Z; Chumburidze, T; Eriashvili, B; Nemsitsveridze, N; Dugashvili, N

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the problems of self-medication in Georgia. The study has once again shown that the basic principles of effective pharmaceutical software are: quality (legislation, standards, conformity assessment standards and supervision, well-defined responsibilities specialist pharmaceutical software and individual); accessibility; providing information.To date, Georgia has no specific guidelines defining the concept of the use of OTC self-medication. Physicians and pharmacists are not enough systematized and standardized non-commercial information about medicines. Specialists are often guided by commercial information provided by pharmaceutical companies, which is not always complete and objective. Self-treatment of lung diseases with the use of non-prescription drugs - is becoming increasingly popular. The patient should be instructed in the proper use of drugs, and should receive adequate commercially independent information professionals medical care. Only in this case we can speak of a properly organized, evidence-based and cost-effective to society towards a system of primary medical care - to self-medicate. PMID:25879565

  12. 6. VIEW OF BALUSTRADE OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 11100060P00020N, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BALUSTRADE OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  13. Project Georgia High School/High Tech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Georgia High School/High Tech has been developing a suggested curriculum for use in its programs. The purpose of this instructional material is to provide a basic curriculum format for teachers of High School/High Tech students. The curriculum is designed to implement QCC classroom instruction that encourages career development in technological fields through post-secondary education, paid summer internships, and exposure to experiences in high technology.

  14. Technology modernization at Lockheed-Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulkoff, J.

    Technology and systems modernization and development are viewed at Lockheed-Georgia as integral keys toward achieving the automated, integrated factory of the future. A formal Tech/Mod program in addition to a structured approach toward the introduction of advanced manufacturing technologies emphasizes such key areas as top-down factory analysis, state-of-the-art awareness, return on investment criteria, and risk assessment.

  15. Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald) in Georgia and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elmer W; Harrison, Bruce A; Womack, Michael L; Kerce, Jerry; Neely, C John; Noblet, Ray

    2005-06-01

    Although the 1st published record of Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus in Georgia (Rabun County) occurred in 2004, we report here a 2002 collection and identification in Fulton County, Georgia (metro Atlanta). The finding of Oc. j. japonicus in Fulton County represents the most southern record of this species in the United States to date. Also, subsequent collections in North Carolina and 4 additional counties in northeast Georgia are reported. PMID:16035153

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (77th, Atlanta, Georgia, August 10-13, 1994). Part X: Miscellaneous Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous Studies section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 22 papers: "Men and Women Journalists in the Movies: Exploration of Some Sexism and Gender Issues in Their Portrayals in Eleven Films" (Albert D. Talbott); "Female Archetypes in Late '80s Films" (Fakhri Haghani); "Chain Ownership, Organizational

  17. A Study of the Relationship Between the Level of Nutritional Consumption and the Education, Income, and Family Size of Selected Poor Families in Atlanta, Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Flora Powell

    The stated objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the differences in knowledge of nutrition, of income, and of family size in the upper and lower strata families; (2) the shopping practices of families; (3) average weekly food expenditures; (4) mean educational level; and (5) differences in the mean weekly food expenditures -- a

  18. Georgia's Pre-K Professional Development Evaluation: Technical Appendix. Publication #2015-02B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Pan, Yi; Maxwell, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the accompanying final study was to evaluate the impact of two professional development models on teacher-child interactions in Georgia's Pre-K classrooms. Teachers were randomly selected to participate and were randomly assigned to one of the professional development conditions or to a control group. Because of this…

  19. Selected Georgia Community Leadership Programs and Their Effect on Selected Leadership Practices of Program Alumni.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Susan

    This study compared the effectiveness of Georgia community leadership programs based on leadership skill development to that of programs based on issue discussion and networking. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) was adapted for community leaders and mailed to a stratified sample of 376 alumni of community leadership programs based on…

  20. PROXIMITY OF GEORGIA SANITARY LANDFILLS TO WETLANDS AND DEEPWATER HABITATS (B) DATA ON INDIVIDUAL LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary landfill can cause considerable harm to sensitive ecosystems if they are not properly located, designed, and managed. The purpose of this report is to document the proximity of sanitary landfills included in this study in Georgia to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e. ...

  1. Military vehicle trafficking impacts on vegetation and soil bulk density at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential increases in wind erosion that might be brought about by military vehicles travelling on off-road sites during training are of concern to the Military establishment. Field studies were conducted in the summer of 2012 at Fort Benning, Georgia. The objective of the experiment was to assess t...

  2. Efficacy of seed-treatments for management of nematodes on cotton in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted across the cotton production region of Georgia in 2004, 2005, and 2006 to assess the efficacy of a new seed treatment for the control of plant parasitic nematodes on cotton. AVICTA Complete Pak, which includes the nematicide abamectin, is currently being used by cotton ...

  3. Georgia Elementary Law-Related Education Curriculum Supplements: Lessons for Fourth through Seventh Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, John D., Ed.; Blum, Ann, Ed.

    The lessons in this volume, written by experienced Georgia teachers with backgrounds in law-related education, were designed for teachers new to this area of the social studies curriculum. The lessons, which are grouped by grade level, include the following information: author, time required, concepts/vocabulary, instructional strategies,

  4. Changes in Faculty Reading Behaviors: The Impact of Electronic Journals on the University of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erin T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study that explored the role electronic journals currently play in faculty's weekly scholarly reading habits at the University of Georgia. Discusses faculty choices for locating full-text articles and reports survey results that indicated that electronic access to journals, particularly library-funded access, is integral to research…

  5. The Georgia Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness (GATE) as a Predictor of Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentz, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    In a study of the relationship between teacher behavior and reading achievement, trained observers, using the Georgia Assessment of Teacher Effectiveness (GATE), observed 36 teachers and 820 students in grades five and six. The Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Reading Comprehension subtest was administered and the socioeconomic status of each student

  6. How Far Is Georgia?: New Jersey's Teachers of Italian Evaluate Their Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antenos-Conforti, Enza

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the professional preparation of Italian teachers in New Jersey through the lens of Cooper's (2004) investigation in Georgia, which determined how K-12 foreign language teachers perceived and evaluated the effectiveness of their professional preparation. Unfortunately, however, that report did not have an Italian representation.…

  7. Georgia Elementary Law-Related Education Curriculum Supplements: Lessons for Kindergarten through Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, John D., Ed.; Blum, Ann, Ed.

    The lessons in this volume, written by experienced Georgia teachers with backgrounds in law-related education, were designed for teachers new to this area of the social studies curriculum. The lessons, which are organized by grade level, include the following information: author, time required, concepts/vocabulary, main ideas, instructional

  8. HIGH-RESIDUE CONSERVATION SYSTEM FOR CORN AND COTTON IN GEORGIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two limiting factors to crop yields in Georgia are short-term drought and root-restricting hard pans. The objectives of this study were to develop a practical high-residue conservation tillage system that reduces risk of short-term drought and improves soil quality for corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton...

  9. Multi-site Evaluation of Hydrology Component of SWAT in the Coastal Plain of Southwest Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many concerns have been raised about the potential impacts of land use changes and development in ungaged watersheds. In this study, the feasibility of using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for predicting the hydrology of ungaged watersheds within the Coastal Plain of southwest Georgia was ev...

  10. DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON (DOC) CONCENTRATIONS IN SMALL STREAMS OF THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) supports microbial activity and contributes to transport of N and P in streams. We have studied the impact of land uses on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in 17 Georgia Piedmont headwater streams since January 2001. We classified the w...

  11. Georgia Secondary School Resource Allocation Practices: Correlation to Achievement and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Brandy T.

    2012-01-01

    The state of Georgia has a constitutional obligation to provide an adequate and free public education, financed by taxation, for the citizens of the state. Increased accountability measures, continuing projected budget shortfalls, and public resistance to raising property taxes are current challenges for public schools. This study attempted to…

  12. Military vehicle trafficking impacts vegetation and soil bulk density at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential increases in wind erosion that might be brought about by military vehicles travelling off-road during training are of concern to the United States military. Field studies were conducted in the summer of 2012 at Fort Benning, Georgia. The objective of the experiment was to assess the traffi...

  13. Training Health Care Professionals to Manage Overweight Adolescents: Experience in Rural Georgia Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, David A.; Yin, Zenong; Kibbe, Debra; Burns, Susan; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Context: The obesity epidemic threatens the present and future health of adolescents in the United States. Yet, health care providers lack specific training for pediatric obesity assessment and management. Purpose: This study examined the adherence of rural Georgia primary care practitioners to an overweight adolescent management protocol. The

  14. IMPACT OF MELOIDOGYNE PARTITYLA ON MOUSE-EAR AND NICKEL DEFICIENCY OF PECAN IN GEORGIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mouse-ear (ME) malady of pecan is a nickel (Ni) deficiency that has most recently become an orchard replant disorder. Mouse-ear has been associated with nematode parasitism in some commercial pecan orchards in Georgia. A field microplot study of pecan seedlings treated with either Meloidogyne ...

  15. A Status Survey of the Elementary School Principalship in Georgia, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Oscar T.; And Others

    This study provides present and future elementary principals and interested persons with information about the actual role of the elementary school principal in Georgia. The survey identifies certain personal and professional characteristics of the elementary school principal and the practices under which the principalship operates. Topics…

  16. Georgia's Pre-K Professional Development Evaluation: Technical Appendix. Publication #2015-02B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Pan, Yi; Maxwell, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the accompanying final study was to evaluate the impact of two professional development models on teacher-child interactions in Georgia's Pre-K classrooms. Teachers were randomly selected to participate and were randomly assigned to one of the professional development conditions or to a control group. Because of this

  17. Stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a leaffooted bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae), and their predators in sorghum in Georgia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this 4-yr study was to determine species composition and abundance of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a leaffooted bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae), and their predators in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench spp. bicolor] in Georgia. Ten species of panicle-feeding bugs were prese...

  18. Three Georgias in Atlanta: Lessons from Business Schools about Finding Your Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look into how universities identify themselves and the audiences they choose to serve, taking into account three specific universities in Atlanta, Georgia. Design/methodology/approach: The paper gives brief overviews of the literature on differentiation and sustainability and the study, followed by…

  19. A Gender Analysis of Job Satisfaction Levels of Agricultural Education Teachers in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Donald; Peake, Jason B.; Parr, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The over-arching premise of many concerning issues in secondary agricultural education may be directly related to levels of job satisfaction among teachers (Delnero & Weeks, 2000). The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influenced the perceptions of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction among agricultural educators in Georgia. The…

  20. Training Health Care Professionals to Manage Overweight Adolescents: Experience in Rural Georgia Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, David A.; Yin, Zenong; Kibbe, Debra; Burns, Susan; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Context: The obesity epidemic threatens the present and future health of adolescents in the United States. Yet, health care providers lack specific training for pediatric obesity assessment and management. Purpose: This study examined the adherence of rural Georgia primary care practitioners to an overweight adolescent management protocol. The…

  1. Relationships between Federal Accountability Mandates and Principal Turnover within Georgia Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbade, Amy Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This study examines principal turnover in Georgia public elementary schools during a time period prior to the existence of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, through the law's full implementation. Data was compiled for the fourteen-year period and examined to determine if a relationship existed between principal attrition rates and the

  2. Three Georgias in Atlanta: Lessons from Business Schools about Finding Your Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look into how universities identify themselves and the audiences they choose to serve, taking into account three specific universities in Atlanta, Georgia. Design/methodology/approach: The paper gives brief overviews of the literature on differentiation and sustainability and the study, followed by

  3. Georgia Secondary School Resource Allocation Practices: Correlation to Achievement and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Brandy T.

    2012-01-01

    The state of Georgia has a constitutional obligation to provide an adequate and free public education, financed by taxation, for the citizens of the state. Increased accountability measures, continuing projected budget shortfalls, and public resistance to raising property taxes are current challenges for public schools. This study attempted to

  4. Science for Georgia Schools, Junior High Earth Science, Volume 3-B, Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This is a curriculum guide for the preliminary edition of Volume III-B of Science For Georgia Schools, Junior High Earth Science. The course of study is designed for the eighth grade and includes selected topics from astronomy, meteorology, geology, oceanography, physical geography, and space travel. Topics are grouped under five units called (1)

  5. Flood-flow characteristics of Nancy Creek at Georgia Highway 400 extension near Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, McGlone; Hess, Glen W.

    1987-01-01

    The Highway Division, Georgia Department of Transportation, plans the extension of Georgia Highway 400 from Interstate 285 southward to Interstate 85. As part of this extension, the Highway Division plans construction of a bridge crossing Nancy Creek near Atlanta, Georgia. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Highway Division, determined the flood flow characteristics of Nancy Creek near the bridge crossing. The flood frequency, elevation discharge relation, flood profiles, floodway, and flood flow effects were determined. The maximum backwater effect for the proposed bridge and relocated channel was 0.2 ft for the 100-yr flood. The relocated channel will drastically shorten flow length near the proposed State Highway 400 extension and reduce the 100-yr flood elevation between one and two ft from existing conditions between the proposed site and Windsor Parkway. (Author 's abstract)

  6. 77 FR 64946 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Maysville, Georgia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ..., Georgia, as the community's second local FM transmission service. A staff engineering analysis indicates... Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant Chief,...

  7. Soil fertility management on natural pastures in Eastern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia

    2015-04-01

    The development of livestock production in Georgia is mainly based on productivity of natural common pasturelands as it is the cheapest way to keep animals. Therefore it is crucial to manage those pastures in order to supply domestic animals with adequate amount of green grass during whole grazing season. The problems associated with poor grassland management is especially evident under limited rainfall conditions. Usually farmers do not consider suitability of existing stocking rates with pasture productivity leading to overutilization of pastureland causing reduction of palatable plant species and total grass cover stimulating soil erosion processes, which deflates soil nutrients and soil organic matter. Intensification of negative processes may result in loss of soil fertility and poor grass regrowth capacities. Current study aims to evaluate existing grazing system on a selected plots from common pasturelands in Eastern Georgia and to develop a proper soil fertility management plan accepted in organic agriculture taking into account local soil-climatic conditions, pasture vegetation stand and its richness with palatable plant species.

  8. Air Quality and Road Emission Results for Fort Stewart, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Randy R.; Driver, Crystal J.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Barfuss, Brad C.

    2004-02-02

    The Directorate of Public Works Environmental & Natural Resources Division (Fort Stewart /Hunter Army Airfield) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to monitor particulate matter (PM) concentrations on Fort Stewart, Georgia. The purpose of this investigation was to establish a PM sampling network using monitoring equipment typically used in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ''saturation sampling'', to determine air quality on the installation. In this initial study, the emphasis was on training-generated PM, not receptor PM loading. The majority of PM samples were 24-hr filter-based samples with sampling frequency ranging from every other day, to once every six days synchronized with the EPA 6th day national sampling schedule. Eight measurement sites were established and used to determine spatial variability in PM concentrations and evaluate whether fluctuations in PM appear to result from training activities and forest management practices on the installation. Data collected to date indicate the average installation PM2.5 concentration is lower than that of nearby urban Savannah, Georgia. At three sites near the installation perimeter, analyses to segregate PM concentrations by direction of air flow across the installation boundary indicate that air (below 80 ft) leaving the installation contains less PM2.5 than that entering the installation. This is reinforced by the observation that air near the ground is cleaner on average than the air at the top of the canopy.

  9. Nationwide Assessment of Seismic Hazard for Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Varazanashvili, O.; Mumladze, T.

    2014-12-01

    The work presents a framework for assessment of seismic hazards on national level for the Georgia. Based on a historical review of the compilation of seismic hazard zoning maps for the Georgia became evident that there were gaps in seismic hazard assessment and the present normative seismic hazard map needed a careful recalculation. The methodology for the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard used here includes the following steps: produce comprehensive catalogue of historical earthquakes (up to 1900) and the period of instrumental observations with uniform scale of magnitudes; produce models of seismic source zones (SSZ) and their parameterization; develop appropriate ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) models; develop seismic hazard curves for spectral amplitudes at each period and maps in digital format. Firstly, the new seismic catalog of Georgia was created, with 1700 eqs from ancient times on 2012, Mw4.0. Secondly, were allocated seismic source zones (SSZ). The identification of area SSZ was obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. In constructing the SSZ, the slope of the appropriate active fault plane, the width of the dynamic influence of the fault, power of seismoactive layer are taken into account. Finally each SSZ was defined with the parameters: the geometry, the percentage of focal mechanism, predominant azimuth and dip angle values, activity rates, maximum magnitude, hypocenter depth distribution, lower and upper seismogenic depth values. Thirdly, seismic hazard maps were calculated based on modern approach of selecting and ranking global and regional ground motion prediction equation for region. Finally, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of ground acceleration were calculated for the territory of Georgia. On the basis of obtained area seismic sources probabilistic seismic hazard maps were calculated showing peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations (SA) at 0.2, 1sec periods for 10% probability and 2% probability in 50 years using selected GMPEs correspondingly for Rock (Vs=760m/s) and soil (Vs=300m/s). Seismic hazard calculation have been performed with two software OpenQuake and EZFRISK. Bothe of them gave us equal value of seismic hazard for Georgia.

  10. Solving the Big Data (BD) Problem in Advanced Manufacturing (Subcategory for work done at Georgia Tech. Study Process and Design Factors for Additive Manufacturing Improvement)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Brett W.; Diaz, Kimberly A.; Ochiobi, Chinaza Darlene; Paynabar, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    3D printing originally known as additive manufacturing is a process of making 3 dimensional solid objects from a CAD file. This ground breaking technology is widely used for industrial and biomedical purposes such as building objects, tools, body parts and cosmetics. An important benefit of 3D printing is the cost reduction and manufacturing flexibility; complex parts are built at the fraction of the price. However, layer by layer printing of complex shapes adds error due to the surface roughness. Any such error results in poor quality products with inaccurate dimensions. The main purpose of this research is to measure the amount of printing errors for parts with different geometric shapes and to analyze them for finding optimal printing settings to minimize the error. We use a Design of Experiments framework, and focus on studying parts with cone and ellipsoid shapes. We found that the orientation and the shape of geometric shapes have significant effect on the printing error. From our analysis, we also determined the optimal orientation that gives the least printing error.

  11. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P.; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n?=?670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n?=?50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 59, 1524 and 2559, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

  12. Projecting Future Urbanization with Prescott College's Spatial Growth Model to Promote Environmental Sustainability and Smart Growth, A Case Study in Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Limaye, Ashutosh; Johnson, Hoyt; Quattrochi, Dale; Lapenta, William; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    Planning is an integral element of good management and necessary to anticipate events not merely respond to them. Projecting the quantity and spatial distribution of urban growth is essential to effectively plan for the delivery of city services and to evaluate potential environmental impacts. The major drivers of growth in large urban areas are increasing population, employment opportunities, and quality of life attractors such as a favorable climate and recreation opportunities. The spatial distribution of urban growth is dictated by the amount and location of developable land, topography, energy and water resources, transportation network, climate change, and the existing land use configuration. The Atlanta region is growing very rapidly both in population and the consumption of forestland or low-density residential development. Air pollution and water availability are significant ongoing environmental issues. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model (SGM) was used to make growth projections for the metropolitan Atlanta region to 2010,2020 and 2030 and results used for environmental assessment in both business as usual and smart growth scenarios. The Prescott SGM is a tool that uses an ESRI ArcView extension and can be applied at the parcel level or more coarse spatial scales and can accommodate a wide range of user inputs to develop any number of growth rules each of which can be weighted depending on growth assumptions. These projections were used in conjunction with meteorological and air quality models to evaluate future environmental impacts. This presentation will focus on the application of the SGM to the 13-County Atlanta Regional Commission planning jurisdiction as a case study. The SGM will be described, including how rule sets are developed and the decision process for allocation of future development to available land use categories. Data inputs required to effectively run the model will be discussed. Spatial growth projections for ten, twenty, and thirty year planning horizons will be presented and results discussed, including regional climate and air quality impacts.

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA 91-393-2171, Georgia Metals, Inc. , Powder Springs, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, T.; Kiefer, M.; Mitchell, C.; Salisbury, S.

    1991-12-01

    In response to a request from OSHA, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Georgia Metals Company (SIC-3443), Powder Springs, Georgia. A local physician reported to OSHA an elevated blood lead (7439921) level in a facility employee. The company primarily relined newly fabricated or refurbished steel tanks with lead or polyvinylchloride/polypropylene. The company also produces came lead, lead pipe, lead anodes, and lead burning rods from lead pigs and recycled scraps. The mean blood lead level among current employees was 32 micrograms/100 grams whole blood, range of 9 to 51. Five current employees had levels of zinc-protoporphyrin above the standards, suggesting elevated blood lead levels 2 to 4 months earlier. At the time of the evaluation the company was not conducting any environmental monitoring, routine medical surveillance, or providing adequate respiratory protection, housekeeping, hygiene facilities or training. Adverse health outcomes such as hypertension and screening tests for impaired renal function were documented in five of the nine employees tested. The authors conclude that a health hazard existed from employee exposure to lead. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing lead exposure.

  14. Tectonics of the South Georgia Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, David M.

    Triassic rifting of the supercontinent Pangea left behind numerous basins on what is now the eastern North American margin. The South Georgia Rift (SGR) was thought to be the best preserved of these basins having been capped by thick basalt flows of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and later buried beneath the Cretaceous and younger Coastal Plain. Because it is buried beneath the Coastal Plain, the SGR is only known through sparse drilling and geophysical methods. Despite this limited dataset, the SGR is the only one of the eastern North American Triassic basins known to overlie the ancient Alleghanian suture between Laurentia and Gondwana, although it isn't clear what influence this lithospheric weakness played in formation of the rift. The SGR has been variably interpreted as a singular large basin or as isolated sub-basins separated by transfer zones. Transfer zones are rift-transverse structural features that link major faults of rift sub-basins and accommodate differences in extensional strain. Transfer zones have been previously hypothesized to be present in the SGR based on onshore projections of Central Atlantic fracture zones, but observations confirming their existence, such as reversal in sub-basin polarity, have been lacking. Three separate hypotheses are tested related to the SGR: 1) the J-Horizon corresponds everywhere with basalt; 2) transfer zones are an important structural component of the SGR; 3) structural features of the Central Atlantic Ocean are related to transfer zones of the SGR. Reanalysis of existing well and seismic data shows that the extent of the flood basalt in the SGR is restricted and that the J-Horizon coincides with the base of the Coastal Plain. Subsurface mapping reveals reversals in sub-basin polarity, confirming the existence of previously hypothesized transfer zones. Small circle projections of the transfer zones correlate with oceanic features, and Central Atlantic fracture zones project onshore into inferred transfer zones of the SGR. The results of these studies suggest that tectonic inheritance of the Alleghanian suture played an important role in the rifting of Pangea and that tectonic inheritance may be an important process for the formation of an ocean basin.

  15. Prostate cancer incidence and agriculture practices in Georgia, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Michael; Robb, Sara W.; Shen, Ye; Guillebeau, Paul; Vena, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: Georgia has prostate cancer incidence rates consistently above the national average. A notable portion of Georgia's economy is rooted in agricultural production, and agricultural practices have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Methods: Statistical analyses considered county age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rates as the outcome of interest and three agricultural variables (farmland as percent of county land, dollars spent per county acre on agriculture chemicals, and dollars spent per county acre on commercial fertilizers) as exposures of interest. Multivariate linear regression models analyzed for each separately. Data were obtained from National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 2000–2010, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1987 Agriculture Survey, and 2010 US Census. Results: In counties with equal to or greater than Georgia counties' median percent African-American population (27%), dollars per acre spent on agriculture chemicals was significantly associated (P = 0.04) and dollars spent of commercial fertilizers was moderately associated (P = 0.07) with elevated prostate cancer incidence rates. There was no association between percent of county farmland and prostate cancer rates. Conclusion: This study identified associations between prostate cancer incidence rates, agriculture chemical expenditure, and commercial fertilizer expenditure in Georgia counties with a population comprised of more than 27% of African Americans. PMID:25785490

  16. FNDC5 (irisin) gene and exceptional longevity: a functional replication study with rs16835198 and rs726344 SNPs.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Garatachea, Nuria; He, Zi-hong; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tian, Ye; Arai, Yasumichi; Abe, Yukiko; Murakami, Haruka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Yvert, Thomas; Santiago, Catalina; Venturini, Letizia; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Emanuele, Enzo; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Irisin might play an important role in reducing the risk of obesity, insulin resistance, or several related diseases, and high irisin levels may contribute to successful aging. Thus, the irisin precursor (FNDC5) gene is a candidate to influence exceptional longevity (EL), i.e., being a centenarian. It has been recently shown that two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FNDC5 gene, rs16835198 and rs726344, are associated with in vivo insulin sensitivity in adults. We determined luciferase gene reporter activity in the two above-mentioned SNPs and studied genotype distributions among centenarians (n = 175, 144 women) and healthy controls (n = 347, 142 women) from Spain. We also studied an Italian [79 healthy centenarians (40 women) and 316 healthy controls (156 women)] and a Japanese cohort [742 centenarians (623 women) and 499 healthy controls (356 women)]. The rs726344 SNP had functional significance, as shown by differences in luciferase activity between the constructs of this SNP (all P ≤ 0.05), with the variant A-allele having higher luciferase activity compared with the G-allele (P = 0.04). For the rs16835198 SNP, the variant T-allele tended to show higher luciferase activity compared with the G-allele (P = 0.07). However, we found no differences between genotype/allele frequencies of the two SNPs in centenarians versus controls in any cohort, and no significant association (using logistic regression adjusted by sex) between the two SNPs and EL. Further research is needed with different cohorts as well as with additional variants in the FNDC5 gene or in other genes involved in irisin signaling. PMID:25427998

  17. The Georgia Psychoeducational Network (GPN) Research Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W., Ed.; Brown, Carvin L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This collection of papers includes five articles on the education of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders participating in the Georgia Psychoeducational Network Program (GPN). "Training Needs of Fully Certified BD Teachers in the Georgia Psychoeducational Network" (Robert J. Stansberry) found, in a survey of 203 certified teachers

  18. Georgia's Quality Core Curriculum. Raising Expectations. [Grades] 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Georgia's Quality Core Curriculum (QCC) originated in 1984 with a recommendation for review every 5 years. In 1996, teachers, administrators, parents, and business leaders throughout Georgia reviewed and analyzed the existing QCC in an effort to update the curriculum, reflect technological advances, and create a more effective base for teaching.…

  19. Georgia's Quality Core Curriculum. Raising Expectations. [Grades] 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Georgia's Quality Core Curriculum (QCC) originated in 1984 with a recommendation for review every 5 years. In 1996, teachers, administrators, parents, and business leaders throughout Georgia reviewed and analyzed the existing QCC in an effort to update the curriculum, reflect technological advances, and create a more effective base for teaching.…

  20. Georgia's Health Professions: A Decade of Change, 1985-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.; Little, Catherine J.

    This report examines the supply of and demand for health care professionals in the state of Georgia, including information on education, demographics, and workforce changes. Supply data analyzed included licensure and certification records; a survey of Georgia's major health care institutions provided demand data. Additionally, institutions of…

  1. Running around in Circles: Quality Assurance Reforms in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jibladze, Elene

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the implementation of a quality assurance system in Georgia as a particular case of "Bologna transplant" in a transitioning country. In particular, the article discusses to what extent new concepts, institutions and models framed as "European" have been institutionalised in Georgia. Based on an outcome…

  2. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia... document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia... Vidalia onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from September...

  3. Understanding and Using the Georgia Principal Assessment System (GPAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D.

    1978-01-01

    The Georgia Principal Assessment System (GPAS) is a set of practically administered instruments and procedures for assessing performances of school principals. The instruments and procedures were developed over a four-year period of Project Results Oriented Management in Education (Project ROME) at the University of Georgia. Each of the

  4. Corruption Risks of Private Tutoring: Case of Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative

  5. Uncharted Territory: An Examination of Restructuring Under NCLB in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth; Scott, Caitlin; Kober, Nancy, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    When the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) went into effect in 2002, Georgia's statewide accountability system was already well underway. As a result, some schools faced the federal law's most serious consequences as early as 2004. That left Georgia policymakers with a dilemma on which there remains little federal guidance: what to do with

  6. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110.72b Section 110.72b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The...

  7. 6. DETAIL OF RIVET CONNECTION ON GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF RIVET CONNECTION ON GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 151/00144/X/00055S - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 151-00144-x-00055S, Spanning Little Cotton Indian Creek at Springdale Road (County Road 144), Stockbridge, Henry County, GA

  8. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110.72b Section 110.72b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The...

  9. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110.72b Section 110.72b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The...

  10. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110.72b Section 110.72b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Part 223Georgia TED EC01JY91.048...

  12. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110.72b Section 110.72b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Part 223Georgia TED EC01JY91.048...

  14. Running around in Circles: Quality Assurance Reforms in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jibladze, Elene

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the implementation of a quality assurance system in Georgia as a particular case of "Bologna transplant" in a transitioning country. In particular, the article discusses to what extent new concepts, institutions and models framed as "European" have been institutionalised in Georgia. Based on an outcome

  15. Perceived Effectiveness of Clinical E-Learning for Georgia Midwives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    In the state of Georgia, approximately nine out of every 1,000 babies die during birth and approximately 18.6 out of every 1,000 women die from a pregnancy-related cause (Georgia Department of Public Health, 2011). Continuing to build capacities for the continuing education of midwives--specifically Certified Nurse Midwives (CNMs)--can ensure they

  16. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Part 223Georgia TED EC01JY91.048...

  17. 2. Photocopy of section of panoramic map of 'Savannah, Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of section of panoramic map of 'Savannah, Georgia 1891' showing Savannah Repair Shops; drawn and published by Augustus Koch, Morning-News Lithograph, Savannah, GA. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 223—Georgia TED...

  19. Perceived Effectiveness of Clinical E-Learning for Georgia Midwives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    In the state of Georgia, approximately nine out of every 1,000 babies die during birth and approximately 18.6 out of every 1,000 women die from a pregnancy-related cause (Georgia Department of Public Health, 2011). Continuing to build capacities for the continuing education of midwives--specifically Certified Nurse Midwives (CNMs)--can ensure they…

  20. GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT PALMER AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS PALMERI) CONFIRMED IN GEORGIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmer amaranth is among the three most troublesome weeds in Georgia cotton, peanut, and soybean and is among the top five most troublesome weeds in most other southeastern states. A glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth biotype was confirmed in central Georgia. In the field, potassium salt of glyp...

  1. "A Reversal of Fortune": Georgia Legislative Update 1992-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2011-01-01

    In the 1990s, teachers' and other educators' salaries increased enough to make Georgia number one in salaries in the South and solidly in the Midwest across the nation. Since 2004, school districts have been trying to make do with much less as this recession continues to force more cuts. Georgia has a very high unemployment rate of 10.25%, a high

  2. Focus on the Future of Georgia 1970-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schabacker, William H., Ed.; And Others

    As part of the Georgia Assessment Project (GAP), initiated in January 1969 to provide statewide measurement of the impact of educational programs, services, and resources on children and youth, 19 position papers were prepared by specialists to assist the Advisory Commission on Education Goals. The papers, some with critiques, concern Georgia's

  3. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Katamadze, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric Chernobyl-released radioactivity, assessed at about 2 x 10{sup 18} Bq, caused global environmental contamination. Contaminated air masses appeared in the Transcaucasian region in early May, 1986. Rains that month promoted intense radionuclide deposition all over Georgia. The contamination level of western Georgia considerably exceeded the contamination level of eastern Georgia. The Black Sea coast of Georgia suffered from the Chernobyl accident as much as did strongly contaminated areas of the Ukraine and Belarus`. Unfortunately, governmental decrees on countermeasures against the consequences of the Chernobyl accident at that time did not even refer to the coast of Georgia. The authors observed the first increase in radioactivity background in rainfall samples collected on May 2, 1986, in Tbilisi. {gamma}-Spectrometric measurements of aerosol filters, vegetation, food stuffs, and other objects, in addition to rainfall, persistently confirmed the occurrence of short-lived radionuclides, including {sup 131}I. At first, this fact seemed unbelievable, because the Chernobyl accident had occurred only 4-5 days earlier and far from Georgia. However, these arguments proved to be faulty. Soon, environmental monitoring of radiation in Georgia became urgent. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia shortly after the Chernobyl accident, as well as the methods of analysis, are reported in this paper.

  4. Magnitude and Frequency of Floods for Urban and Small Rural Streams in Georgia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; Knaak, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted that updated methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in ungaged urban basins in Georgia that are not substantially affected by regulation or tidal fluctuations. Annual peak-flow data for urban streams from September 2008 were analyzed for 50 streamgaging stations (streamgages) in Georgia and 6 streamgages on adjacent urban streams in Florida and South Carolina having 10 or more years of data. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for the 56 urban streamgages by fitting logarithms of annual peak flows for each streamgage to a Pearson Type III distribution. Additionally, basin characteristics for the streamgages were computed by using a geographical information system and computer algorithms. Regional regression analysis, using generalized least-squares regression, was used to develop a set of equations for estimating flows with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities for ungaged urban basins in Georgia. In addition to the 56 urban streamgages, 171 rural streamgages were included in the regression analysis to maintain continuity between flood estimates for urban and rural basins as the basin characteristics pertaining to urbanization approach zero. Because 21 of the rural streamgages have drainage areas less than 1 square mile, the set of equations developed for this study can also be used for estimating small ungaged rural streams in Georgia. Flood-frequency estimates and basin characteristics for 227 streamgages were combined to form the final database used in the regional regression analysis. Four hydrologic regions were developed for Georgia. The final equations are functions of drainage area and percentage of impervious area for three of the regions and drainage area, percentage of developed land, and mean basin slope for the fourth region. Average standard errors of prediction for these regression equations range from 20.0 to 74.5 percent.

  5. Desertification risk in Kakheti Region, East Georgia.

    PubMed

    Basialashvili, Tsisana; Matchavariani, Lia; Lagidze, Lamzira

    2015-01-01

    Desertification or land degradation in drylands is caused by various factors. The most important of these is climate change, a significant global ecological problem. Desertification, like erosion, as an environmental process of ecosystem degradation, is often caused by human activity. It is a common misconception that droughts cause desertification. Well-managed lands can recover from drought if the rains return. These practices help to control erosion and maintain productivity during periods when moisture is available. Traditionally, the most vulnerable territories considered under the threat of desertification in Georgia is Kakheti region (East Georgia), which has been selected as one of the priority investigation area. In Eastern Georgia, intervals of atmospheric precipitation do not coincide with the phases of water demand of plants. In recent decades as a result of more frequent droughts in Kakheti, the region has already lost hundreds, thousands of hectares of fertile land. Based on the contemporary climate warming projections, the temperature is expected to increase and precipitation to decrease. This will lead to an increase in evaporation and reduction of river flow. Under such conditions the danger of desertification is evident. To mitigate the negative effects of desertification, it is recommended to put forward set of adaptation activities through rehabilitation of water use systems, prevention of loss of water, reconstruction and expansion of irrigation canals, accumulation of unused autumn-winter river water and spring floods in reservoirs, developing an optimal scheme of distributing water resources among water users, device windbreaks and work on breeding of drought resistant varieties, preparation of water volume forecasts of rivers and their role in planning of water use; application of apply drip and sprinkler irrigation, using artificial precipitation following increase as a result of active influence on clouds. All these activities will provide means for suspending desertification process, create ecological safety for the environment and improve the economic well-being of population. PMID:26591879

  6. High-resolution modelling of the shelf and open ocean adjacent to South Georgia, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Emma F.; Meredith, Michael P.; Murphy, Eugene J.; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2011-07-01

    The marine ecosystem on the shelf and open ocean adjacent to South Georgia is extraordinarily rich, with a history of commercial exploitation. Although much progress has been made, attempts at modelling (and hence better understanding) this system have consistently been hampered by the poor representation of key physical processes in global or regional ocean general circulation models. Here we present the development of a high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic model of the South Georgia shelf and the adjacent open ocean, including a novel method for prescribing freshwater fluxes. The ability of the model to reproduce the observed oceanography of the region is quantified by comparisons with data from tide gauges at South Georgia, with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures, and with an extensive CTD dataset collected during January-April 1995. Predicted cotidal charts for the diurnal tides O 1 and K 1 show a periodic amplification in both the current and elevation fields at the shelf edge, suggesting the presence of a diurnally forced continental shelf wave. This could have important implications for processes such as larval transport and retention. The comparison with CTD data reveals mean and root mean square errors in temperature (salinity) of -0.27 °C (-0.07) and 0.64 °C (0.23), respectively. Vertical profiles of potential temperature and salinity on the shelf agree acceptably well with observations, but there is a tendency for the model to under-predict the density contrast between surface and bottom waters. The main limitation on model accuracy is found to be the large-scale forcing. Releasing a passive tracer into the model, transport and retention pathways are identified, including a prevalence for tracer export from the shelf to the west of South Georgia, and a transport pathway linking South Georgia and Shag Rocks. Significantly, the model suggests this to be a unidirectional link, from South Georgia to Shag Rocks, with possible significance for fisheries management. The implications of these results in the context of the South Georgia ecosystem are discussed briefly, demonstrating the usefulness of this new tool for interdisciplinary studies of the region.

  7. Reproductive health patterns: Georgia versus Australia.

    PubMed

    Asatiani, T; Abuladze, N; Ward, H; Angel, P

    2015-03-01

    The review compares a few reproductive indicators - fertility, abortion and contraception in both a developing (Georgia) and a developed (Australia) country. Fertility, abortion and contraception figures in both countries tend to reflect the attitude and the degree of development of each countries sexual health education and their use of effective contraception. Further research is required to accurately evaluate the need and access of Georgian women to modern methods of family planning and their knowledge of the benefits of modern contraception that can assist to reduce pregnancy termination rate. In Australia better insight is needed on how to facilitate a shift to more efficacious long-term contraceptives across all age groups. PMID:25879552

  8. Astronomical Beliefs in Medieval Georgia: Innovative Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Jefferson; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F.

    2014-01-01

    Written sources from medieval Georgia show, among other things, how astronomical ideas were adapted on the periphery of the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. In this paper, we investigate a number of Georgian beliefs about the heavens from a calendrical work and a celestial prognostication text, but also from less expected sources including the medieval life of a saint and an epic poem. For the most part, these sources were derived from Byzantine or Persian models. We show the extent to which the sources nevertheless conform to a specifically Georgian view of the cosmos. We argue that, in so doing, medieval Georgian authors employed several innovative approaches hitherto unnoticed by modern scholars.

  9. 76 FR 25330 - Georgia Power Company; Project No. 485-063-Georgia and Alabama, Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Georgia Power Company; Project No. 485-063--Georgia and Alabama, Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement... inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places at the existing Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric...

  10. Handbook for Georgia Legislators, 6th Edition [And] Classroom Activities to Use with Handbook for Georgia Legislators, 6th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Edwin L.

    This document contains a handbook and a booklet of classroom activities to use with the handbook. The handbook is a compilation of the law, procedures, and practices which govern the legislative process in Georgia. It addresses the practical problems faced by members of the Georgia legislature. Chapter one discusses the General Assembly, its

  11. Sedimentary and atmospheric sources of iron around South Georgia, Southern Ocean: a modelling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrione, I.; Aumont, O.; Nielsdttir, M. C.; Schlitzer, R.

    2013-07-01

    In high-nutrient low-chlorophyll waters of the western Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, an intense phytoplankton bloom is observed annually north of South Georgia, most likely due to an enhanced supply of the limiting micronutrient iron. Shallow sediments and atmospheric dust deposition are believed to be the main iron sources. However, their relative importance is still unclear and in the South Georgia region have yet not been ascertained because iron measurements are very few. In this study, we use austral summer dissolved iron (dFe) data around South Georgia (January and February 2008) with a coupled regional hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model to investigate natural iron fertilization around the island. The biogeochemical component of the model includes an iron cycle, where sediments and dust deposition are the sources of iron to the ocean. The model captures the characteristic flow patterns around South Georgia, hence simulating a large phytoplankton bloom to the north, i.e., downstream, of the island. Modelled dFe concentrations agree well with observations (mean difference and root mean square errors of ~0.02 nM and ~0.81 nM) and form a large plume to the north of the island that extends eastwards for more than 800 km. In agreement with observations, highest dFe concentrations are located along the coast and decrease with distance from the island. Sensitivity tests indicate that most of the iron measured in the main bloom area originates from the coast and the very shallow shelf-sediments (depths < 20 m) while dust deposition plays a minor role, with almost no effects on surface chlorophyll a concentrations. Iron sources such as run-off not represented explicitly in the model, but that likely contribute to the iron plumes observed around South Georgia, are also discussed together with the potential effects their temporal variability may have on the system.

  12. Our flesh is here but our soul stayed there: A qualitative study on resource loss due to war and displacement among internally-displaced women in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Maureen; Lewis, Ruth; Amirejibi, Tinatin; Razmadze, Mariam; Makhashvili, Nino; Roberts, Bayard

    2016-02-01

    Losses experienced by conflict-affected civilians in low and middle income countries is a relatively unexplored area. The aim of our paper is to explore the concept of resource loss in the accounts of internally displaced women in Georgia. We use Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources (COR) theory to guide our approach by examining the loss of objects, personal characteristics, conditions, and energies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on 42 purposively-selected Georgian women residing in internally displaced persons settlements during fieldwork in Georgia from December 2012 to February 2013. Line-by-line open-coding was conducted on translated and transcribed interviews using Nvivo. The conservation of resources theory was utilised to guide the 'mapping' of the relationships between losses which occurred in the post-conflict period. War-related trauma led to the loss of property, which caused the loss of livelihood and subsequent loss of social networks and mental and physical health. The mental and physical health losses, along with the loss of livelihood, constituted a loss spiral in which losses in one area perpetuated on-going losses in the other areas. Interventions at supporting livelihoods are needed in order to address the cascade of losses resulting from war. PMID:26774712

  13. Glaciers change over the last century, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia, observed by the old topographical maps, Landsat and ASTER satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielidze, L. G.

    2015-07-01

    The study of glaciers in the Caucasus began in the first quarter of the 18th century. The first data on glaciers can be found in the works of great Georgian scientist Vakhushti Bagrationi. After almost hundred years the foreign scientists began to describe the glaciers of Georgia. Information about the glaciers of Georgia can be found in the works of W. Abich (1865), D. Freshfield (1869), G. Radde (1873), N. Dinik (1884), I. Rashevskiy (1904), A. Reinhardt (1916, 1917) etc. The first statistical information about the glaciers of Georgia are found in the catalog of the Caucasus glaciers compiled by K. Podozerskiy in 1911 (Podozerkiy, 1911). Then, in 1960s the large-scale (1:25 000, 1:50 000) topographic maps were published, which were compiled in 1955-1960 on the basis of the space images. On the basis of the mentioned maps R. Gobejishvili gave quite detailed statistical information about the glaciers of Georgia (Gobejishvili, 1989). Then in 1975 the glaciological catalog of the former USSR was published (The Catalog of Glaciers of the USSR, Vol. 8-9, 1975), where the statistical information about the glaciers of Georgia was obtained on the basis of the space images of 1970-1975. Thus, complete statistical information on the glaciers of Georgia has not been published for about last 40 years. Data obtained by us by processing of the space images of Landsat and ASTER is the latest material, which is the best tool for identification of the change in the number and area of the glaciers of Georgia during the last one century. The article presents the percentage and quantitative changes in the number and area of the glaciers of Georgia in the years of 1911-1960-1975-2014, according to the individual river basins. The air temperature course of the Georgia's high mountain weather stations has been studied. The river basins have been revealed, where there are the highest indices of the reduction in area and number of the glaciers and the reasons have been explained.

  14. 78 FR 52219 - State of Georgia Relinquishment of Sealed Source and Device Evaluation and Approval Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMISSION State of Georgia Relinquishment of Sealed Source and Device Evaluation and Approval Authority... (SS&D) applications in the State of Georgia and approved the Governor of the State of Georgia's... and activities. On December 15, 1969, Georgia entered into a Section 274b. Agreement with the...

  15. 75 FR 6338 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: State Implementation Plan Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: State Implementation... proposing to approve revisions to the Georgia State Implementation Plan (SIP), submitted by the Georgia..., 2006. The proposed revisions include multiple modifications to Georgia's Air Quality Rules found...

  16. 78 FR 28776 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; State Implementation.... SUMMARY: EPA is proposing changes to the Georgia State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the Georgia..., the SIP revisions update the Georgia SIP to reflect EPA's current national ambient air...

  17. 77 FR 12526 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine... Georgia on July 6, 2010. The emissions inventory is part of the Atlanta, Georgia PM 2.5 attainment... SW., Atlanta, Georgia 30303-8960. 5. Hand Delivery or Courier: Lynorae Benjamin, Chief,...

  18. Family planning in Georgia: a continuing struggle.

    PubMed

    Khomassuridze, A

    1994-03-01

    In the former Soviet Union, abortion has been the main method of family planning (FP) since its initial legalization in 1922. When legal access to abortion was restricted in 1936 because the government wanted to encourage population growth, women had to resort to traditional methods of FP or illegal procedures. In 1955, abortion was legalized again, but contraception was an illegal subject (abortionists were organized "like the Mafia" and did not want to lose their monopoly). In 1985, the advent of Perestroika paved the way for efforts to replace abortion with modern methods of contraception. In the Republic of Georgia, a Planned Parenthood Federation was established in 1993, and a new strategy was adopted to promote contraception. The provision of contraceptives through 20 branches of the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction has managed to respond to the FP needs of the different regions of the country. Activities of the Institute include performing voluntary sterilization and improving methods of abortion to include the use of RU-486 and vacuum aspiration procedures. These activities have combined to reduce the abortion rate, although the level of illegal abortion is reported to have increased. This gradual shift from a reliance on abortion to use of contraceptives has taken more than a decade and may be doomed to failure by a reduction in the contraceptive imports upon which Georgia entirely depends. PMID:12288983

  19. Bugaboo Fire Rages in Georgia and Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Subtropical Storm Andrea apparently did little to quench numerous large wildfires burning in the U.S. Southeast in early May 2007. On May 11, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Terra satellite captured this image, the remnants of the storm had dwindled to a small ball of clouds in the Atlantic Ocean, and huge plumes of smoke snaked across Georgia, Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico. Areas where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. A huge fire is burning in and near the Okefenokee Swamp, which straddles the state line between Georgia and Florida. For logistical purposes, fire officials are calling the part of the fire in Florida the Florida Bugaboo Fire and the part in Georgia the Bugaboo Scrub Fire. The distinction is simply administrative, however; in reality, it is single, continuous swath of burning timber, swamp land, grass, and scrubland. The blaze was more than 133,000 thousand acres as of May 11, and it appeared to be spreading on virtually all perimeters at the time of the image, with active fire locations detected in a circle that surrounds an already burned (or partially burned) area. According to reports form the Southern Area Coordination Center, the fire grew by at least 20,000 acres on May 10. Numerous communities were threatened and hundreds of people were evacuated, while parts of Interstate 10 were closed to all but emergency vehicles. To the northeast of the Bugaboo Fire, other large wildfires were burning in Georgia as well. The Floyds Prairie Fire, to the immediate north, was threatening endangered species and their habitat, while farther north the 116,000-plus-acre Sweat Farm Road/Big Turnaround Complex Fire was still burning in the area south of the city of Waycross, nearly a month after the fires first started in mid-April. Southern Georgia and Florida are in the grip of moderate to extreme drought. The state line area where the Bugaboo Fire is burning is one of the areas in extreme drought. The extremely dry fuels, including easily flammable pine forests and plantations, and the rugged, isolated stretches of terrain, make fire officials think that these fires will continue to burn for a long time. Although extreme fire behavior may decline, smoldering and creeping fire will probably continue until heavy rain - possibly a hurricane - drenches the area. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides the image in additional resolutions. The group also provides twice-daily subset images of the United States in a variety of resolutions and formats, including and infrared-enhanced version that emphasizes the burn scars.

  20. [ETHIOLOGY OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN GEORGIA].

    PubMed

    Mamuchishvili, N; Kuchuloria, T; Mchedlishvili, I; Imnadze, P; Mirzashvili, D

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of leptospirosis was initiated in 1950s, when the first cases in humans were detected in Gudauta rayon. Serology test confirmed the diagnose. High level of antibodies to serogroup Pomona was revealed in all cases. Later on the infection encountered as sporadic cases, the exception was 1986, when a large outbreak was reported in Sukhumi. At present leptospirosis is widely spread in the country, especially in Ajara region, where indicators of morbidity recently reached 11.4 per 100 thousand population. It is likely that warm humid climate creates exceptionally favorite conditions for spreading of Leptospira. In order to determine the true magnitude of the infection in the country a seroprevalence study was carried out in 50-60-ies of the past century in humans, agricultural animals and rodents. It was found that serotgroups Pomona, Icteroheamorrhagiae and Grippothypos prevailed in humans, Serogroup L. Pomona - dominated in animals, while in rodents the dominated serotgrouo was L. Icteroheamorrhagiae. Similar study, conducted by us in 1990-2005 showed that L.Pomona and L. Icteroheamorrhagiae prevailed in humans and rodents while L. Icteroheamorrhagiae was the only serogroup isolated in gray rats, trapped in Tbilisi. Infectivity of rodants composed 70%. Currently lesptosirosis is caused by a new serogroups of Leptospira - L. Sejroe, namely by serotypes Wolfii and Hardjo, L. Australis (serotype Bratislava) and L. Autumnalis along with the previously occurring serogroups L. Icteroheamorrhagiae, L. Bataviae, L. Hebdomadis. In our opinion the recent increase in leptospirosis in the country is attributable to the improvements in diagnostics of the infection as well as to the emergence of new serogroups of Leptospira, which in turn is a result of intensive migration processes in the country. PMID:26177144

  1. Mental illness in metropolitan, urban and rural Georgia populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental illness represents an important public health problem. Local-level data concerning mental illness in different populations (e.g., socio-demographics and residence – metropolitan/urban/rural) provides the evidence-base for public health authorities to plan, implement and evaluate control programs. This paper describes prevalence and covariates of psychiatric conditions in Georgia populations in three defined geographic areas. Methods Data came from the Georgia population-based random-digit-dialing study investigating unwellness and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia populations of three defined geographic areas (metropolitan, urban, and rural). Respondents were screened for symptoms of fatigue, sleep, cognition, and pain at household screening interviews, and a randomly selected sample completed detailed individual phone interviews. Based on the detailed phone interviews, we conducted one-day clinical evaluations of 292 detailed interview participants classified as unwell with a probable CFS (i.e. CFS-like; a functional somatic syndrome), 268 classified as other unwell, and 223 well (matched to CFS-like). Clinical evaluation included psychiatric classification by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). To derive prevalence estimates we used sample weighting to account for the complexity of the multistage sampling design. We used 2- and 3-way table analyses to examine socio-demographic and urbanicity specific associations and multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Results Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common psychiatric conditions. Nineteen percent of participants suffered a current anxiety disorder, 18% a mood disorder and 10% had two or more conditions. There was a significant linear trend in occurrence of anxiety or mood disorders from well to CFS-like. The most common anxiety disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (6.6%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (5.8%). Logistic regression showed that lower education and female sex contributed significantly to risk for both PTSD and GAD. In addition, rural/urban residence and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with PTSD. We defined moderate to severe depression as Major Depressive Disorder or a Zung score >60 and logistic regression found lower education to be significantly associated but sex, age and urbanicity were not. Conclusions Overall occurrence of anxiety and mood disorders in Georgia mirrored national findings. However, PTSD and GAD occurred at twice the published national rates (3.6 and 2.7%, respectively). State and local prevalence and associations with education, sex and urbanicity comprise important considerations for developing control programs. The increased prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders in people with a functional somatic syndrome (or CFS-like illness) is important for primary care providers, who should consider additional psychiatric screening or referral of individuals presenting with somatoform symptoms. PMID:23631737

  2. Altamaha River Delta, Georgia Sea Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The history of sea islands in the Altamaha River delta on the coast of Georgia is revealed in this image produced from data acquired by the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), developed and operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The outlines of long-lost plantation rice fields, canals, dikes and other inlets are clearly defined. Salt marshes are shown in red, while dense cypress and live oak tree canopies are seen in yellow-greens.

    Agricultural development of the Altamaha delta began soon after the founding of the Georgia Colony in 1733. About 25 plantations were located on the low-lying islands and shores by the 19th century, taking advantage of the rich alluvial flow and annual inundation of water required by some crops. The first major crop was indigo; when demand for that faded, rice and cotton took its place. A major storm in 1824 destroyed much of the town of Darien (upper right) and put many of the islands under 20 feet of water. The Civil War ended the plantation system, and many of the island plantations disappeared under heavy brush and new growth pine forests. Some were used as tree farms for paper and pulp industries, while the Butler Island (center left) plantation became a wildlife conservation site growing wild sea rice for migrating ducks and other waterfowl. Margaret Mitchell is reputed to have used the former owner of the Butler Plantation as a basis for the Rhett Butler character in her novel 'Gone With The Wind,' taking the first name from Rhett's Island (lower right).

    These data were obtained during a 1994-95 campaign along the Georgia coast. AIRSAR's ability to detect vegetation canopy density, hydrological features and other topographic characteristics is a useful tool in landscape archaeology. AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The analysis on the data shown was accomplished by Dr. Gary Mckay, Department of Archaeology and Geography, and Ian Morrison, Department of Archaeology, both of the University of Edinburgh (Scotland). AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Enterprise program. JPL is managed by the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  3. External Research Report on Attitudes and Barriers Impacting the Participation of African-American Males in the University System of Georgia. The University System of Georgia's African-American Male Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ. System, Atlanta. Board of Regents.

    The African-American Male Initiative, a task force of the University System of Georgia (USG) Board of Regents, commissioned a statewide study to explore African American males' attitudes toward college in general and the USG in particular. Designed and conducted by external consulting firms, the study drew on discussions in focus groups and with

  4. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Georgia.

  5. SIMULATION OF FLOOD HYDROGRAPHS FOR GEORGIA STREAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Inman, E.J.; Armbruster, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Flood hydrographs are needed for the design of many highway drainage structures and embankments. A method for simulating these flood hydrographs at urban and rural ungauged sites in Georgia is presented. The O'Donnell method was used to compute unit hydrographs from 355 flood events from 80 stations. An average unit hydrograph and an average lag time were computed for each station. These average unit hydrographs were transformed to unit hydrographs having durations of one-fourth, one-third, one-half, and three-fourths lag time and then reduced to dimensionless terms by dividing the time by lag time and the discharge by peak discharge. Hydrographs were simulated for these 355 flood events and their widths were compared with the widths of the observed hydrographs at 50 and 75 percent of peak flow. For simulating hydrographs at sites larger than 500 mi**2, the U. S. Geological Survey computer model CONROUT can be used.

  6. Upper-crustal structure beneath the strait of Georgia, Southwest British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dash, R.K.; Spence, G.D.; Riedel, M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model for the upper-crustal structure beneath the Strait of Georgia, southwestern British Columbia based on non-linear tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic refraction data. Our study, part of the Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative (GBGI) is primarily aimed at mapping the depth of the Cenozoic sedimentary basin and delineating the near-surface crustal faults associated with recent seismic activities (e.g. M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) in the region. Joint inversion of first-arrival traveltimes from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) and the 2002 Georgia Basin experiment provides a high-resolution velocity model of the subsurface to a depth of ???7 km. In the southcentral Georgia Basin, sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Nanaimo Group and early Tertiary rocks have seismic velocities between 3.0 and 5.5 km s-1. The basin thickness increases from north to south with a maximum thickness of 7 (??1) km (depth to velocities of 5.5 km s-1) at the southeast end of the strait. The underlying basement rocks, probably representing the Wrangellia terrane, have velocities of 5.5-6.5 km-1 with considerable lateral variation. Our tomographic model reveals that the Strait of Georgia is underlain by a fault-bounded block within the central Georgia Basin. It also shows a correlation between microearthquakes and areas of rapid change in basin thickness. The 1997/1975 earthquakes are located near a northeast-trending hinge line where the thicknesses of sedimentary rocks increase rapidly to the southeast. Given its association with instrumentally recorded, moderate sized earthquakes, we infer that the hinge region is cored by an active fault that we informally name the Gabriola Island fault. A northwest-trending, southwest dipping velocity discontinuity along the eastern side of Vancouver Island correlates spatially with the surface expression of the Outer Island fault. The Outer Island fault as mapped in our seismic tomography model is a thrust fault that projects directly into the Lummi Island fault, suggesting that they are related structures forming a fault system that is continuous for nearly 90 km. Together, these inferred thrust faults may account for at least a portion of the basement uplift at the San Juan Islands. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  7. The Lived Experience of Low-Income Minority Students Who Receive State Merit Aid at a Georgia Postsecondary Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how junior level students at a Georgia postsecondary institution perceived their college experiences were impacted by the meritbased aid they received. The study employed a phenomenological method and was based on Tinto's psycho-social-economic-organizational model, from "Theories of college student…

  8. The Lived Experience of Low-Income Minority Students Who Receive State Merit Aid at a Georgia Postsecondary Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how junior level students at a Georgia postsecondary institution perceived their college experiences were impacted by the meritbased aid they received. The study employed a phenomenological method and was based on Tinto's psycho-social-economic-organizational model, from "Theories of college student

  9. View east of brick railroad viaduct central of Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east of brick railroad viaduct - central of Georgia - spannin canal prism (now used as pedestrian walk) - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. View looking SE inside Electrical Shop Central of Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking SE inside Electrical Shop - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Electrical Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  11. 8. VIEW FROM TECHWOOD DRIVE LOOKING NORTH TOWARD GEORGIA TECH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW FROM TECHWOOD DRIVE LOOKING NORTH TOWARD GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  12. CHE At Georgia Tech: A Period of Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlein, Gary W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents information on the Georgia Institute of Technology. This information includes: (1) a brief history of the institute; (2) names of the faculty members of the chemistry and metallurgy divisions; (3) undergraduate program; and (4) graduate program. (HM)

  13. 229. Photocopy of Bird's Eye View of Savannah from Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    229. Photocopy of Bird's Eye View of Savannah from Georgia Historical Society A. Ruger, Publisher, St. Louis 1871 DETAIL - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. 230. Photocopy of Bird's Eye View of Savannah from Georgia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    230. Photocopy of Bird's Eye View of Savannah from Georgia Historical Society Augustus Koch, Publisher, Savannah 1891 DETAIL - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  15. Adult Education in Savannah, Georgia 1765-1789

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1973-01-01

    Advertisements in Savannah, Georgia, newspapers from 1765 through 1789 offered adults leisure-related topics for learning such as drawing, language, music and self-defense through private venture schools. (DS)

  16. New data on epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Zenaishvili, O; Gugushvili, G; Chubabria, G; Manjgaladze, M; Kokaia, N

    2009-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is spread as sporadic cases in eastern regions of Georgia. In Georgia as throughout the world steady increase of the disease incidence is observed. It is related to socio-economic crisis of population, increase in the number of invaded dogs and global warming processes. In west Georgia visceral leishmaniasis cases were never observed in the past. From 2004 to 2008 authors registered 10 local cases of visceral leishmaniasis in kutaisi (8 children and 2 adult patients). It should be noted that from these 10 patients eight resided in sapichkia area and two were from other areas of kutaisi. Authors consider that the detailed epidemiologic evaluation of the above mentioned cases should be carried out urgently to avoid the emergence of new endemic of visceral leishmaniasis in west Georgia. PMID:19644197

  17. 234. Photocopy of photograph from Georgia Historical Society Cordray Foltz, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Photocopy of photograph from Georgia Historical Society Cordray Foltz, photographer, ca. 1930s 208 EAST BOLTON STREET - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. 245. Photocopy of photograph from Georgia Historical Society Cordray Foltz, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    245. Photocopy of photograph from Georgia Historical Society Cordray Foltz, photographer, ca. 1930s DRAYTON AND EAST DUFFY STREETS, SOUTHWEST CORNER - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  19. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, and industrial wastes in Georgia that are potential biomass energy sources.

  20. Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. PMID:18441406

  1. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in the coastal waters of Georgia, Puerto Rico and Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Holman, Chelsea B; Bachoon, D S; Otero, Ernesto; Ramsubhag, Adesh

    2014-02-15

    Fecal pollution in the coastal marine environments was assessed at eleven sampling locations along the Georgia coast and Trinidad, and nine sites from Puerto-Rico. Membrane filtration (EPA method 1604 and method 1600) was utilized for Escherichia coli and enterococci enumeration at each location. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was used to determine the presence of the Helicobacter pylori in marine samples. There was no significant correlation between the levels of E. coli, enterococci and H. pylori in these water samples. H. pylori was detected at four of the 31 locations sampled; Oak Grove Island and Village Creek Landing in Georgia, Maracas river in Trinidad, and Ceiba Creek in Puerto Rico. The study confirms the potential public health risk to humans due to the widespread distribution of H. pylori in subtropical and tropical costal marine waters. PMID:24332757

  2. Genes involved in immune response/inflammation, IGF1/insulin pathway and response to oxidative stress play a major role in the genetics of human longevity: the lesson of centenarians.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Claudio; Olivieri, Fabiola; Marchegiani, Francesca; Cardelli, Maurizio; Cavallone, Luca; Capri, Miriam; Salvioli, Stefano; Valensin, Silvana; De Benedictis, Giovanna; Di Iorio, Angelo; Caruso, Calogero; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Monti, Daniela

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we review data of recent literature on the distribution in centenarians of candidate germ-line polymorphisms that likely affect the individual chance to reach the extreme limit of human life. On the basis of previous observations on the immunology, endocrinology and cellular biology of centenarians we focused on genes that regulate immune responses and inflammation (IL-6, IL-1 cluster, IL-10), genes involved in the insulin/IGF-I signalling pathway and genes that counteract oxidative stress (PON1). On the whole, data indicate that polymorphisms of these genes likely contribute to human longevity, in accord with observations emerging from a variety of animal models, and suggest that a common core of master genes and metabolic pathways are responsible for aging and longevity across animal species. Moreover, in the concern of our plan to discover new genetic factors related to longevity, we explored the possibility to by-pass the need of an a-priori choice of candidate genes, extending the search to genes and genomic regions of still unknown function. Alu sequences may be considered as good markers of highly variable and potentially unstable loci in functionally important genomic regions. We extensively screened Alu-rich genomic sites and found a new genomic region associated with longevity. PMID:15621218

  3. Severe summer heat waves over Georgia: trends, patterns and driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keggenhoff, I.; Elizbarashvili, M.; King, L.

    2015-11-01

    During the last 50 years Georgia experienced a rising number of severe summer heat waves causing increasing heat-health impacts. In this study, the 10 most severe heat waves between 1961 and 2010 and recent changes in heat wave characteristics have been detected from 22 homogenized temperature minimum and maximum series using the Excess Heat Factor (EHF). A composite and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) have been performed to study summer heat wave patterns and their relationships to the selected predictors: mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Geopotential Height at 500 mb (Z500), Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Zonal (u-wind500) and Meridional Wind at 500 mb (v-wind500), Vertical Velocity at 500 mb (O500), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Relative Humidity (RH500), Precipitation (RR) and Soil Moisture (SM). Most severe heat events during the last 50 years are identified in 2007, 2006 and 1998. Largest significant trend magnitudes for the number, intensity and duration of low and high-impact heat waves have been found during the last 30 years. Significant changes in the heat wave predictors reveal that all relevant surface and atmospheric patterns contributing to heat waves have been intensified between 1961 and 2010. Composite anomalies and CCA patterns provide evidence of a large anticyclonic blocking pattern over the southern Ural Mountains, which attracts warm air masses from the Southwest, enhances subsidence and surface heating, shifts the African Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) northwards, and causes a northward shift of the subtropical jet. Moreover, pronounced precipitation and soil moisture deficiency throughout Georgia contribute to the heat wave formation and persistence over Georgia. Due to different large- to mesoscale circulation patterns and the local terrain, heat wave effects over Eastern Georgia are dominated by subsidence and surface heating, while convective rainfall and cooling are observed in the West.

  4. Natural biological control of stink bug (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae) eggs in corn, peanut, and cotton farmscapes in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Georgia, corn, peanut, and cotton can be closely associated with each other. Thus, this 5-yr study was conducted to determine parasitism and predation of sentinel and natural occurring Euschistus servus (Say) and Nezara viridula (L.) egg masses in corn-cotton, corn-peanut, peanut-cotton, and corn...

  5. Meso-American Languages in the Wiregrass: An Investigation of Language Maintenance in North Florida/South Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladwin, Ransom

    2010-01-01

    This study used oral survey methods to examine first the diversity of Meso-American languages and second the potential language maintenance or loss of these languages among Meso-American language speakers in Wiregrass country (North Florida-South Georgia). Language shift, the process of gradually changing from one first language to another first…

  6. The Relationship between School Culture and Student Achievement: Perceptions of Georgia Suburban and Urban High School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Treva L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the relative impact school culture has on student achievement (specifically AYP status, dropout rates and graduation rates) in select urban and suburban Georgia high schools. To examine this relationship, the researcher reviewed data collected from the School Culture Survey (SCS)

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Intervention Mathematics Class for Low Achieving Middle School Students in Northwest Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Johnnie Hugh

    2013-01-01

    High-stakes testing has become crucial in public education, requiring students to meet increasingly higher standards, regardless of their ability levels. This causal-comparative study sought to determine the effectiveness of an intervention mathematics course in the middle school setting for at-risk, sixth grade students. The Georgia Criterion

  8. Violence Prevention in Georgia's Rural Public School Systems: A Comparison of Perceptions of School Superintendents 1995-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Chet; Brady, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    School superintendents in 60 public school systems in Georgia were surveyed to describe strategies being pursued to prevent school violence and promote a safe learning environment. Results from the present study were compared with results from a survey of superintendents conducted by one of the authors in 1995 to determine the extent of change in…

  9. Measuring the Return on the Investment: An Analysis of Adults Served under the Georgia Job Training Partnership Program. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Labor, Atlanta.

    A study in Georgia evaluated the pre-program to post-program changes in employment, earnings, and welfare dependency for the 6,693 Title II-A adults that occurred between application and participant follow-up 13 weeks after leaving the state's Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) program during the 1989-90 program year. Findings revealed

  10. From "Fear-Based" Choice to "Freedom-Based" Choice: Georgia's Tuition Grants Act, 1960-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearne, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Georgia's General Assembly passed the 1961 "Tuition Grants Act" as a method for avoiding school desegregation. In 1993, an Atlanta attorney attempted to use the Act to provide private school vouchers. This study compares and contrasts arguments for and against the Act, and public support for the Act, in 1961 and 1993, using Robinson's (2004)

  11. Water quantity and quality from a small Georgia Piedmont pasture during 1998-2009: Impact of drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water quality impact of pasture grazing in the Piedmont, which generally occurs under low-input management, is not well studied. Cattle, hydrologic and water quality data were collected from 1999 to 2009 from a rotationally grazed 7.8-ha pasture near Watkinsville Georgia. Grazing occurred during...

  12. Effect of tillage on cotton aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), pathogenic fungi, and predators in south central Georgia cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of fungi, Neozygites fresenii and Pandora neoaphidis, pathogens of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, were studied in 6 south central Georgia cotton fields under conservation or conventional tillage in 2003 and 2004. Aphids and ants on cotton plants were counted in both years and aphid p...

  13. From "Fear-Based" Choice to "Freedom-Based" Choice: Georgia's Tuition Grants Act, 1960-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearne, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Georgia's General Assembly passed the 1961 "Tuition Grants Act" as a method for avoiding school desegregation. In 1993, an Atlanta attorney attempted to use the Act to provide private school vouchers. This study compares and contrasts arguments for and against the Act, and public support for the Act, in 1961 and 1993, using Robinson's (2004)…

  14. Prevalence and characterization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail meat and humans in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is increasing interest in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, specifically methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), on retail meat products. In this study, staphylococci were isolated from retail pork and retail beef in Georgia and MRSA from the products were compared to human MRSA from the...

  15. Seismoactive Structures Of Georgia: Map And Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamia, S. A.; Sadradze, N.; Lursmanashvili, N.; Gventsadze, A.; Chelidze, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    The southern Caucasus is an earthquake prone region where devastating earthquakes have repeatedly caused significant loss of lives, infrastructure and buildings. Two large devastating earthquakes occurred in the region in the last 20 - 25 years. The first one was the magnitude 6.9 Spitak Earthquake on December 7, 1988 whose epicenter located within the Lesser Caucasus - Northern Armenia near the Georgian border. The earthquake became widely known due to the immense losses it caused - no less than 25 000 people were killed, some 500 000 left homeless. Another large seismic event was the magnitude 7.2 Racha earthquake on April 29, 1991.This earthquake was the strongest one ever recorded in Georgia.The earthquake took about a hundred human lives and caused a great damage and destruction within densely populated areas. High geodynamic activity of the region expressed in both seismic and aseismic deformations, is conditioned by the still-ongoing convergence of lithospheric plates and northward propagation of the Africa-Arabian continental block at a rate of several cm/year. Considerable shortening of the Earth's crust has been realized in the region through different ways: (1) crustal deformation with wide development of compressional structures - folds, thrusts; (2) warping and displacement of crustal blocks with their uplifting, subsidence, underthrusting (a process sometimes referred to as "continental subduction") and (3) lateral escaping. Seismoactive structures of Georgia are identified mainly on the basis of the correlation between neotectonic structures of the region and earthquakes .The geometry of tectonic structures and morphology is largely determined by the wedge-shaped rigid Arabian block intensively indented into the Minor Asian-Caucasian region. All structural-morphological lines have a clearly expressed arcuate northward-convex configuration reflecting the contours of the Arabian block. However, farther north, the geometry of the fold-thrust belts is somewhat different - the Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt is, on the whole, W-E trending. The Great Caucasian fold-thrust belt extends in WNW-ESE direction.

  16. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of high wind speed off both the eastern and western ends of islands, corresponding to 'corner accelerations' as the winds stream by the steep island topography. The lowest wind speeds are seen to be in the lee of the highest island topography.

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  17. A sediment and organic carbon budget for the greater Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, S. C.; Macdonald, R. W.; Paton, D. W.

    2003-03-01

    Recent efforts to construct global ocean budgets for carbon have recognized the importance of continental margins. In this study, we constructed budgets for the Strait of Georgia, a temperate, North American west coast basin that receives the inflow of one of the world's major rivers. Drawing from published and unpublished data, we have estimated the magnitude of the various sources and sinks of fresh water, sediment and organic carbon. The Fraser River is the dominant source of fresh water and particles to the strait, contributing approximately 73% of the 158×10 9 m 3 year -1 of water and 64% of the 30×10 9 kg year -1 of particles. Other rivers supply most of the remainder, while rain, groundwater and anthropogenic sources of water and particles are negligible in comparison. Fresh water escapes the Strait of Georgia through Juan de Fuca Strait, but particulate inputs are approximately balanced by sedimentation within the greater Strait of Georgia, implying almost complete trapping of particles. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon are derived mainly from in situ primary production (855×10 6 kg year -1) and from the Fraser River (550×10 6 kg year -1). Other rivers contribute 200×10 6 kg year -1 of organic carbon, and anthropogenic sources (ocean dumping, sewage, pulp mills and aquaculture) a further 119×10 6 kg year -1. Particulate organic carbon is predominantly buried (428×10 6 kg year -1) or oxidized (90×10 6 kg year -1) in the sediments of the strait. About 70% of the organic carbon that enters or is produced in the strait is dissolved. Most of the dissolved organic carbon is oxidized within the strait (784×10 6 kg year -1), but the remainder (400×10 6 kg year -1) is exported to the Pacific Ocean. Although the particulate organic carbon budget by itself implies net autotrophy, dissolved organic carbon oxidation may make the Strait of Georgia slightly net heterotrophic.

  18. Sedimentary and atmospheric sources of iron around South Georgia, Southern Ocean: a modelling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrione, I.; Aumont, O.; Nielsdóttir, M. C.; Schlitzer, R.

    2014-04-01

    In high-nutrient low-chlorophyll waters of the western Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, an intense phytoplankton bloom is observed annually north of South Georgia. Multiple sources, including shallow sediments and atmospheric dust deposition, are thought to introduce iron to the region. However, the relative importance of each source is still unclear, owing in part to the scarcity of dissolved iron (dFe) measurements in the South Georgia region. In this study, we combine results from a recently published dFe data set around South Georgia with a coupled regional hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model to further investigate iron supply around the island. The biogeochemical component of the model includes an iron cycle, where sediments and dust deposition are the sources of iron to the ocean. The model captures the characteristic flow patterns around South Georgia, hence simulating a large phytoplankton bloom to the north (i.e. downstream) of the island. Modelled dFe concentrations agree well with observations (mean difference and root mean square errors of ~0.02 nM and ~0.81 nM) and form a large plume to the north of the island that extends eastwards for more than 800 km. In agreement with observations, highest dFe concentrations are located along the coast and decrease with distance from the island. Sensitivity tests indicate that most of the iron measured in the main bloom area originates from the coast and very shallow shelf-sediments (depths < 20 m). Dust deposition exerts almost no effect on surface chlorophyll a concentrations. Other sources of iron such as run-off and glacial melt are not represented explicitly in the model, however we discuss their role in the local iron budget.

  19. InSAR observations of the 2009 Racha earthquake, the Republic Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, E.; Walter, T. R.

    2015-08-01

    Central Georgia is an area strongly affected by earthquake and landslide hazards. On 29 April 1991 a major earthquake (Mw = 7.0) struck the Racha region in the republic Georgia, followed by aftershocks and significant afterslip. The same region was hit by another major event (Mw = 6.0) on 7 September 2009. The aim of the study reported here was to utilize geodetic data as synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) to improve a knowledge about the spatial pattern of deformation due to the earthquakes in the seismic active central Georgia. There were no actual earthquake observations by InSAR in Georgia. We used the multi-temporal ALOS L-band InSAR data to produce interferograms spanning times before and after the 2009 earthquake. We detected a local uplift around 10 cm in the interferogram near the earthquake's epicenter whereas evidence of surface ruptures could not be found in the field along the active thrust fault. We simulated a deformation signal which could be created by the 2009 Racha earthquake on the basis of local seismic records and by using an elastic dislocation model. The observed InSAR deformation is in good agreement with our model. We compared our modeled fault surface of the September 2009 with the April 1991 Racha earthquake fault surfaces, and identify the same fault or a sub-parallel fault of the same system as the origin. The patch that was active in 2009 is just adjacent to the 1991 patch, indicating a possible mainly westward propagation direction, with important implications for future earthquake hazards.

  20. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk in Georgia, USA: 2000-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ping; Mu, Lan; Madden, Marguerite; Vena, John E.

    2014-10-01

    Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in Georgia, USA. However, the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer risk in Georgia have not been fully studied. Hierarchical Bayesian models are used here to explore the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk by race and gender in Georgia for the period of 2000-2007. With the census tract level as the spatial scale and the 2-year period aggregation as the temporal scale, we compare a total of seven Bayesian spatio-temporal models including two under a separate modeling framework and five under a joint modeling framework. One joint model outperforms others based on the deviance information criterion. Results show that the northwest region of Georgia has consistently high lung cancer incidence risk for all population groups during the study period. In addition, there are inverse relationships between the socioeconomic status and the lung cancer incidence risk among all Georgian population groups, and the relationships in males are stronger than those in females. By mapping more reliable variations in lung cancer incidence risk at a relatively fine spatio-temporal scale for different Georgian population groups, our study aims to better support healthcare performance assessment, etiological hypothesis generation, and health policy making.

  1. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Wenner, D.B.; Gillon, K.A.

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the Piedmont province of Georgia to designate areas that may be favorable for field exploration for consideration of a repository for storage of radioactive waste. The criteria utilized in such a designation was based upon consideration of the rock unit having favorable geological, geotechnical, and geohydrological features. The most important are that the rock unit have: (1) satisfactory unit dimensions (> 100 km/sup 2/ outcrop area and at least 1500 meters (approx. 5000 feet) depth of a continuous rock type); and (2) acceptable geohydrological conditions. Among all rock types, it is concluded that the granites of the large post-metamorphic plutons and large, homogeneous orthogneissic units offer the most favorable geologic settings for exploration for siting a radioactive waste repository. Virtually all other rock types, including most metavolcanic and metasedimentary lithologies have unacceptable unit dimensions, generally unfavorable geohydrologic settings, and deleterious mechanical and physical geotechnical properties. After consideration of all major lithologies that comprise the Georgia Piedmont, the following units were deemed favorable: (1) the Elberton Pluton; (2) the Siloam Pluton; (3) the Sparta Pluton; (4) two unnamed plutons adjacent to the Snelson body of S.W. Georgia; (5) the Lithonia Gneiss; (6) basement orthogneisses and charnockites of the Pine Mountain Belt.

  2. Women who inject drugs in the republic of georgia: in their own words.

    PubMed

    Kirtadze, Irma; Otiashvili, David; O'Grady, Kevin; Zule, William; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Wechsberg, Wendee; Jones, Hendre

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the initiation and maintenance of illicit drug use, risky behaviors, and the substance use treatment experiences of women in Georgia. Qualitative interviews with 55 drug-using women (mean age 36 years; SD = 9.52), were conducted during April-September 2011. Participants presented diverse histories of drug use initiation and substance use, risky behaviors, and drug treatment participation. All participants reported concurrent use of different substances, including home-produced injection preparations. Women described their experiences of both the positive and negative effects (physical and psychological) that they attributed to their use of drugs. Findings enrich our understanding of the environment in which substance use is initiated and maintained in a female population in Georgia, and illustrate the importance of culture and the role of social factors in the development of injection drug use. Results can provide direction for tailoring the development of interventions for substance use disorders, public policy discussions regarding the treatment of women who use drugs, and future research on substance use among women in Georgia and other post-Soviet nations. PMID:25715075

  3. Tectonic architecture of central Georgia Eastern Piedmont

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, H.D. Jr.; Brueggemann, M.; Pospisil, M. . Dept. of Geography and Geology); Boland, I.; Pray, J.; Secor, D.T.; Steinke, T.; West, T. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Sacks, P. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Recent work suggests the following for the tectonic architecture of the central Georgia Eastern Piedmont. The Alleghenian-age, Modoc fault zone (MZ), first defined in S. Carolina, continues along strike (c. S60W) at least to the Ocmulgee R. (net length = 250 km), where it converges with the Ocmulgee (OF) and Goat Rock (GR) faults. Diverging to the S from the MZ is a sharp contact between migmatitic amphibolites and gneisses of the Sinclair Lake terrane (SLt) and lower grade metapelites and metapsammites of the Milledgeville terrane (Mt). Both are introduced by post-kinematic granites (likely Alleghanian). A previously undescribed, 10 km long ultramafite belt within SLt, the Shoulderbone zone (Sz), is concordantly foliated with respect to surrounding rocks--hence emplacement is considered as pre- or synkinematic. Numerous smaller ultramafite bodies exist within SLt, Metavolcanic rocks N of SLt and the intervening MZ are interpreted as Carolina slate belt (CSB) rocks extending farther SW than often depicted. Arc volcanism and plutonism, terrane amalgamation and subsequent Alleghanian plutonism, dextral shear zones (some with extensional components), and local tight folding contributed to the present architecture. Locally, accretionary wedge material may exist, but the authors find published views and maps describing the entire area as primarily an accretionary wedge thrust stack to be inappropriate.

  4. Sweat Farm Road Fire in Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dense plumes of blue-white smoke billowed from the Sweat Farm Road Fire in southern Georgia on April 19, 2007, when the Landsat 5 satellite captured this detailed image. The fire started on April 16, when a tree fell on a power line and, fanned by strong winds, quickly exploded into a major fire. By April 19, the fire had forced officials to close several roads, including U.S. Highway 1, and to evacuate hundreds of people from the perimeter of the city of Waycross, the silver cluster along the top edge of the image. The nearness of the fire is evident in the dark brown, charred land just south of the city. The active fire front is along the south edge of the burned area, where the flames are eating into the dark green hardwood forests, pine plantations, and shrubs in Okefenokee Swamp. Because of the difficult terrain, the fire and the adjoining Big Turnaround Complex fire are expected to burn until significant rain falls, said the morning report issued by the Southern Area Coordination Center on May 4. 'In the long term, the burning of the swamp will ultimately benefit the swamp wilderness habitat, which is a fire-dependent ecosystem,' said a press release issued from the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge on May 4. Such ecosystems require fire to remain healthy. In the case of southern pine forests, many pine species need fire to remove litter from the ground and release soil nutrients so that new seedlings can grow.

  5. Nonextensive characteristics of earthquakes magnitude distribution in Javakheti region, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelidze, Tamaz; Matcharashvili, Teimuraz; Jorjiashvili, Nato; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2010-05-01

    For last several years nonextensive statistical mechanics is increasingly used to study wide range of complex phenomena exhibiting the scale free nature in different domains. It is assumed that nonextensivity concepts may provide a suitable framework to shed new light on features of spatiotemporal and energetic behavior of seismic processes which presently are not fully understood. In present research we studied cumulative distribution of earthquakes magnitudes in Caucasus from both common and nonextensive statistical mechanics point of views. Data sets of earthquakes magnitudes from 1960 to 1991 have been compiled from data bases of Seismic Monitoring Center at Ilia State University in Georgia. Javakheti Region in Southern Georgia was selected based on its geological structure and high seismic activity; exact time interval was specified because of increased seismic activity in Caucasus for that period. Together with common seismic characteristics such as a andbvalues of Gutenberg-Richter relationship, we evaluated nonextensive characteristics in the framework of earthquakes fragment-asperity interaction model. Namely nonextensive parameter qand energy density value a were calculated. All these characteristics have been assessed for the whole observation period as well as for consecutive 10 year overlapping sliding windows. It was observed that calculated nonextensive characteristics both for whole catalogue and for sliding windows (q=1.6-1.83) are close to the range found earlier for other regions. At the same time we see that bothaandq values vary in the investigated period, for consecutive sliding windows. These changes are statistically significant and obviously are related to the earthquake generation process of Javakheti region. Indeed, it was observed that nonextensivity parameter increases according to local seismic activity, which may point to the increase of functional relationship between above parameters prior and during earthquake generation. At the same time energy density value a, which is assumed to be related with spatial distribution, decreases after strongest event for the considered time period. These results point to increased long range correlations of seismic process in energetic and spatial domains prior and during strongest regional earthquakes. Results of nonextensive analysis are in good accordance with b value analysis. After strongest event b value increases and a decreases that is consistent with a physical meaning of these parameters. Results of our research supports assumption that nonextensive statistics can provide a new promising approach to earthquakes distribution features in different domains.

  6. Insights into the mode of the South Georgia rift extension in eastern Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clendenin, C. W.

    2013-11-01

    The South Georgia rift (SGR) lies oblique to the east coast margin of North America and across the Alleghenian suture between Laurentia and Africa in southern Georgia. Regionally, the SGR can be divided into a southwest compartment and a northeast compartment across the Jacksonville structure that is located in the vicinity of that suture. Analytical and numerical models are used to characterize the mode of rifting in the northeast compartment. Borehole, COCORP seismic, and regional geophysical information from the compartment, that were used previously to infer the geometry of the basin, are reassessed with the use of those models to analyze the lithospheric conditions influencing Triassic extension. This approach led to the interpretation of core complex mode extension and to the proposal of a model of progressive rifting. The model shows how the Riddleville and Main SGR basins are associated and how changes in structural style of those two basins resulted from changing lithospheric conditions during extension. The core complex model also indicated that extension was influenced by distributed deformation of a younger, warmer, and less stable lithosphere adjacent to the Permian suture; whereas extension in other east coast rifts that lie subparallel to structural fabric was probably localized by preexisting zones of weakness.

  7. 4. SOUTHERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 151/00144/X/00055S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 151/00144/X/00055S - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 151-00144-x-00055S, Spanning Little Cotton Indian Creek at Springdale Road (County Road 144), Stockbridge, Henry County, GA

  8. 7. DETAIL OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 145/01427/F/00050E BALUSTRADE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 145/01427/F/00050E BALUSTRADE FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 145/01427/F/00050E, Spanning Long Cane Creek at County Road 29, Pine Lake, Harris County, GA

  9. 3. NORTHERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 151/00144/X/00055S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHERN APPROACH TO GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 151/00144/X/00055S - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 151-00144-x-00055S, Spanning Little Cotton Indian Creek at Springdale Road (County Road 144), Stockbridge, Henry County, GA

  10. 6. VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 145/01427/F/00050E BALUSTRADE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 145/01427/F/00050E BALUSTRADE FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 145/01427/F/00050E, Spanning Long Cane Creek at County Road 29, Pine Lake, Harris County, GA

  11. 78 FR 20091 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity, Perkins Shibaura...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Board (15 CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 75406..., Perkins Shibaura Engines, LLC (Diesel Engines), Griffin, Georgia On November 29, 2012, Georgia...

  12. School characteristics of mesopelagic fish at South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Ryan A.; Fielding, Sophie; Thorpe, Sally E.; Tarling, Geraint A.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the variation in myctophid schools characteristics at South Georgia using multi-frequency acoustic data collected annually between November 2007 and January 2012. We studied the relationship between the proximity of land and the distribution and schooling characteristics of myctophid fish. We also examined patterns in schooling behaviour in relation to oceanographic data. Fish schools were identified using a dual-frequency dB identification method (Sv120-38 kHz), where negative Sv120-38 kHz is indicative of gas-bearing organisms, such as swimbladdered fish. Available net data were used to provide information on the meosopelagic fish community in the region. School morphometrics (e.g. length, thickness, area) data were extracted and pooled according to their distance from the shore (0-30 km, 30-60 km, 60-90 km, 90-120 km). A total of 578 schools were detected in the survey region and there was high variation in school backscattering strength (NASC), length, height, perimeter, depth and horizontal distribution between surveys, including distinct inter-annual variation in these parameters when surveys were conducted in the same season (2009-2012). Schools were distributed predominantly on-shelf (0-500 m isobaths) during some summer surveys (2007 and 2012) and predominantly off-shelf on others (>500 m isobaths; 2009, 2010 and 2011). There was also evidence of bathymetric separation in the horizontal distribution of schools. Schools observed in the late-season in 2008 had the greatest NASC, largest height and the deepest depth distribution. Most schools occurred at depths between ˜60 and 300 m, but they did not occupy the same water masses during each survey. Schools became progressively thinner, shallower and acoustically weaker with increasing distance to land, whilst school length and perimeter increased correspondingly. The change in fish schooling behaviour between environments could be a response to a combination of local predatory threats over short spatial/temporal scales and differences in oceanographic conditions, such as current velocity. The trend could also be evidence of spatial habitat partitioning of myctophids, with different schooling species, or different life-stages, orientating along a bathymetric gradient at South Georgia.

  13. Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation. The long term usage of building is very complex. It relates to the reliability and durability of buildings. The long term usage and durability of a building is determined by the concept of depreciation. Depreciation of an entire building is calculated by summing the products of individual construction unit' depreciation rates and the corresponding value of these units within the building. This method of calculation is based on an assumption that depreciation is proportional to the building's (constructions) useful life. We used this methodology to create a matrix, which provides a way to evaluate the depreciation rates of buildings with different type and construction period and to determine their corresponding value. Finely some attempt was done to investigate how these structures were damaged by various hazards. In other words vulnerability curves were constrained on the basis on the relation between various hazard intensities and damage data.

  14. Implementation of telepathology in the republic of georgia.

    PubMed

    Kldiashvili, Ekaterina; Schrader, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Telepathology in the Republic of Georgia is still evolving. Although much progress has been made around the world, especially in the field of digital imaging and virtual slides, telepathology in Georgia still revolves around static telepathology. The results of the NATO Networking Infrastructure Grant "ePathology-Virtual Pathology Center in Georgia as the continuation of Virtual Health Care Center" are presented. It is a practical implementation of telepathology in Georgia as a best practice example. Using basic methodology: idea-analysis-conception-implementation-test/deployment, the ePathology server was created for the establishment of telepathology in Georgia. Two main services were made available on the server: Simple Machines Forum (eConsultation) and Moodle (eLearning) under the premise "keep it small, safe, and simple." The ePathology server works well. By its application, introduction of the Pap-smear technique and 2001 Bethesda System for reporting cervicovaginal cytologic diagnosis has been done. The application of easily available and adaptable technology, together with the improvement of the infrastructure conditions, is the essential basis for telemedical applications. Telepathology is a very useful and applicable tool for consulting on difficult pathology cases. It has significantly increased knowledge exchange and thereby ensured a better medical service. PMID:19548828

  15. Reality of Risk of Natural Disasters in Georgia and a Management Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gobejishvili, Ramin; King, Lorenz; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2013-04-01

    In the last decades of the 20th century, the protection of the population from natural disasters, the preservation of land resources and the safe operation of a complex infrastructure and costly engineering facilities have become the primary socio-economic, demographic, political and environmental problems worldwide. This problem has become more acute in recent years when the natural cataclysms in terms of a population increase, progressive urbanization and use of vulnerable technologies have acquired even larger scales. This holds true especially for mountainous countries as Georgia, too. Natural-catastrophic processes as landslides, mudflows, rockfalls and erosion, and their frequent reoccurrence with harmful impacts to population, agricultural lands and engineering objects form a demanding challenge for the responsible authorities. Thousands of settlements, roads, oil and gas pipelines, high-voltage power transmission lines and other infrastructure may be severely damaged. Respective studies prove that the origin and activation of landslide-gravitational and mudflow processes increase year by year, and this holds true for almost all landscapes and geomorphological zones of Georgia. Catastrophic events may be triggered by (1) intense earthquakes, (2) extreme hydro-meteorological events, probably on the background of global climatic changes (3) large-scale human impacts on the environment. Societies with a low level of preparedness concerning these hazards are especially hit hard. In view of this urgent task, many departmental and research institutions have increased their efforts within the limits of their competence. First of all, it is the activity of the Geological Survey of Georgia (at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment Protection of Georgia) which mapped, identified and catalogued the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and occurrences of hazardous processes for tens of years. Moreover, the scientific research institutes of geography, geophysics at several universities and at the Georgian Academy of Sciences have accomplished other significant studies on natural hazards. In Georgia, an increased risk of catastrophes is caused by insufficient information between society and the authorities and persons responsible for mitigation. Urgent research tasks are the basic assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, the determination of their cause, and the development of special risk maps in GIS systems. This forms the base for developing a sustainable functioning monitoring and early warning system by the respective authorities.

  16. A dynamic model describing ecosystem-level changes in the Strait of Georgia from 1960 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preikshot, Dave; Beamish, Richard J.; Neville, Chrys M.

    2013-08-01

    We developed an ecosystem model of the Strait of Georgia which emulates biomass and mortality changes between 1960 and 2009 to study ecosystem mechanisms governing dynamics in fished species and marine mammals. The model uses hindcast annual variation in bottom-up production, fisheries catches and predator-prey dynamics to simulate observed changes in fish, mammal and bird populations in the Strait of Georgia. This model emulates the timing and magnitude of historic changes in biomass and mortality of Coho and Chinook salmon as well as other major species like Pacific herring, orcas, harbour seals, lingcod, spiny dogfish and marine birds. Simulated production trends indicate the Strait of Georgia had relatively high production from the mid-1970s to late 1980s and entered a lower production regime in the early 1990s that has persisted to 2009. The simulations also indicate that the mean trophic level of vertebrates declined over the period 1990 to 2009. This model provides a tool to evaluate potential ecosystem changes in the Strait of Georgia.

  17. Ecological investigation of a hazardous waste site, Warner Robins, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.C. ); Billig, P. )

    1993-01-01

    Zone 1, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has been designated a National Priorities List Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Remedial Investigation for Zone 1 recommended a quantitative analysis of ecological risk. To accomplish this task a characterization of the bottomland hardwood forest ecosystem present on the base was required. This ecological characterization included the study of hydrology, aquatic and wildlife biology, and wetlands ecology where potential impacts were in question. In addition, a suitable reference area was studied. The hydrologic investigation consisted primarily of the installation of water level recorders and staff gauges, collection of surface water data, installation of piezometers and collection of groundwater data, and the collection of rainfall data. The aquatic biology investigation centered around the sampling of benthic macroinvertebrate communities, bioassay toxicity tests for surface water and sediment, fish sampling, aquatic macrophyte collection, macrophyte collection, and emergent and free-floating plant collection. The wildlife biology investigation focused on a breeding bird survey. The wetlands ecology investigation comprised the collection of soil and vegetation samples and using the Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET) to assess the functions and values of the wetlands present.

  18. A Peach of a Telehealth Program: Georgia Connects Rural Communities to Better Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Rena; Goble, GiGi; Guy, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article presents Georgia's telehealth response to some of the significant healthcare challenges and disparities facing the rural citizens of this state. When compared to their urban and suburban counterparts, rural communities have fewer healthcare providers, and residents must travel longer distances to reach them. Georgia's statewide telemedicine network, the Georgia Partnership for TeleHealth (GPT), uses information technology to improve the efficiency and quality of healthcare and health outcomes for underserved populations in Georgia. PMID:21307986

  19. 78 FR 28744 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve changes to the Georgia State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to EPA in four separate SIP submittals dated September 15, 2008, August 30, 2010 (two submittals), and December 15, 2011. In the portions of the submittals being approved today, the SIP revisions update the Georgia SIP to reflect EPA's......

  20. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and... the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the Vidalia Onion Committee...