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Sample records for geostationary satellite orbit

  1. Communications satellites in non-geostationary orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Doong, Wen; Nguyen, Tuan Q.; Turner, Andrew E.; Weyandt, Charles

    1988-01-01

    The design of a satellite communications system in an orbit lower than GEO is described. Two sun-synchronous orbits which lie in the equatorial plane have been selected: (1) the apogee at constant time-of-day equatorial orbit, a highly eccentric orbit with five revolutions per day, which allows 77-135 percent more satellite mass to be placed in orbit than for GEO; and (2) the sun-synchronous 12-hour equatorial orbit, a circular orbit with two revolutions per day, which allows 23-29 percent more mass. The results of a life cycle economic analysis illustrate that nongeostationary satellite systems could be competitive with geostationary satellite systems.

  2. Communication satellites in the geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansky, D. M.; Jeruchim, M. C.

    The effective utilization of communications satellites in geostationary orbit (GSO) is discussed. The physical properties of the GSO are briefly treated, and the types of services available with geostationary satellites are described. The sharing question and the rules that have been incorporated into the international regulatory framework are addressed, and domestic and international policy considerations are covered. The evolution of U.S. policy is given, leading to a description of the principles dominating current policy. The technical factors influencing orbit/spectrum utilization, particularly the relationship between orbit/spectrum measures and a variety of technical parameters, is developed for both the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous models. The effects of interference on desired analog and digital signals are considered.

  3. On orbital allotments for geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonsalvez, David J. A.; Reilly, Charles H.; Mount-Campbell, Clark A.

    1986-01-01

    The following satellite synthesis problem is addressed: communication satellites are to be allotted positions on the geostationary arc so that interference does not exceed a given acceptable level by enforcing conservative pairwise satellite separation. A desired location is specified for each satellite, and the objective is to minimize the sum of the deviations between the satellites' prescribed and desired locations. Two mixed integer programming models for the satellite synthesis problem are presented. Four solution strategies, branch-and-bound, Benders' decomposition, linear programming with restricted basis entry, and a switching heuristic, are used to find solutions to example synthesis problems. Computational results indicate the switching algorithm yields solutions of good quality in reasonable execution times when compared to the other solution methods. It is demonstrated that the switching algorithm can be applied to synthesis problems with the objective of minimizing the largest deviation between a prescribed location and the corresponding desired location. Furthermore, it is shown that the switching heuristic can use no conservative, location-dependent satellite separations in order to satisfy interference criteria.

  4. Astrometric positioning and orbit determination of geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montojo, F. J.; López Moratalla, T.; Abad, C.

    2011-03-01

    In the project titled “Astrometric Positioning of Geostationary Satellite” (PASAGE), carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA), optical observation techniques were developed to allow satellites to be located in the geostationary ring with angular accuracies of up to a few tenths of an arcsec. These techniques do not necessarily require the use of large telescopes or especially dark areas, and furthermore, because optical observation is a passive method, they could be directly applicable to the detection and monitoring of passive objects such as space debris in the geostationary ring.By using single-station angular observations, geostationary satellite orbits with positional uncertainties below 350 m (2 sigma) were reconstructed using the Orbit Determination Tool Kit software, by Analytical Graphics, Inc. This software is used in collaboration with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial.Orbit determination can be improved by taking into consideration the data from other stations, such as angular observations alone or together with ranging measurements to the satellite. Tests were carried out combining angular observations with the ranging measurements obtained from the Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer technique that is used by ROA’s Time Section to carry out time transfer with other laboratories. Results show a reduction of the 2 sigma uncertainty to less than 100 m.

  5. Methods of rapid orbit forecasting after maneuvers for geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuhai; Li, Zhigang; Feng, Chugang; Guo, Ji; Shi, Huli; Ai, Guoxiang; Wu, Fenglei; Qiao, Rongchuan

    2009-03-01

    A geostationary (GEO) satellite may serve as a navigation satellite, but there is a problem that maneuvers frequently occur and the forces are difficult to model. Based on the technique of determining satellite orbits by transfer, a predicted orbit with high accuracy may be achieved by the method of statistical orbit determination in case of no maneuver force. The predicted orbit will soon be invalid after the maneuver starts, and it takes a long time to get a valid orbit after the maneuver ends. In order to improve ephemeris usability, the method of rapid orbit forecasting after maneuvers is studied. First, GEO satellite movement is analyzed in case of maneuvers based on the observation from the orbit measurement system by transfer. Then when a GEO satellite is in the free status just after maneuvers, the short arc observation is used to forecast the orbit. It is assumed that the common system bias and biases of each station are constant, which can be obtained from orbit determination with long arc observations. In this way, only 6 orbit elements would be solved by the method of statistical orbit determination, and the ephemeris with high accuracy may be soon obtained. Actual orbit forecasting with short arc observation for SINOSAT-1 satellite shows that, with the tracking network available, the precision of the predicted orbit (RMS of O-C) can reach about 5 m with 15 min arc observation, and about 3 m with 30 min arc observation.

  6. Precise Orbit Propagation of Geostationary Satellite Using Cowell's Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-Cheol; Choi, Kyu-Hong; Kim, Eun-Kyou

    1997-06-01

    To calculate the position and velocity of the artificial satellite precisely, one has to broil a mathematical model concerning the perturbations by understanding and analysing the space environment correctly and then quantifying. Due to these space environment model, the total acceleration of the artificial satellite can be expressed as the 2nd order differential equation and we build an orbit propagation algorithm by integrating twice this equation by using the Cowell's method which gives the position arid velocity of th artificial satellite at any given time. Perturbations important for the orbits of geostationary spacecraft are the Earth's gravitational potential, the gravitational influence of the sun and moon, and the solar radiation pressure. For precise orbit propagation in Cowell' method, 40 x 40 spherical harmonic coefficients cal be applied and the JPL DE403 ephemeris files were used to generate the range from earth to sun and moo and 8th order Runge-Kutta single step method with variable step-size control is use to integrate the orbit propagation equations.

  7. 47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating rules for the non-geostationary satellite orbit Fixed-Satellite Service...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... international service, as calculated using the ITU software for examining compliance with EPFD limits set forth...-geostationary satellite orbit Fixed-Satellite Service (NGSO FSS) in the 10.7 GHz-14.5 GHz bands. 25.146 Section... the non-geostationary satellite orbit Fixed-Satellite Service (NGSO FSS) in the 10.7 GHz-14.5...

  8. The use of satellites in non-geostationary orbits for unloading geostationary communication satellite traffic peaks. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K.; Turner, A.; Nguyen, T.; Doong, W.; Weyandt, C.

    1987-01-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the application, economic benefits, and technology and system implications of satellites in non-geostationary (non-GEO) orbits for off-loading peak traffic from GEO communications satellites. The study was organized into four technical tasks which are described in turn. They are: (1) concepts development; (2) system definition; (3) economic comparisons; and (4) technology requirements definition. Each of these tasks is defined in detail and the results of each are given.

  9. Effect of solar protons on the orbit of geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J.; Haerting, A.; Steinhauser, U.

    The forces acting on geostationary satellites are accurately modeled in operational orbit determination programs. The residuals of good-quality range data are typically 1 - 2 m over an interval of 2 days. In this paper, mission results from several three-axis-stabilized satellites are reported where, during periods of enhanced solar activity, the deviations between model and measurements increased by an order of magnitude or more. The causes and consequences for station keeping are analyzed. It is shown that there is a direct correlation between the disturbances in the orbit and the flux of energetic protons from the Sun. No energy dependence could be deduced, but all protons with energies greater than or equal to 4 MeV appear to trigger the disturbances. A quantitative analysis demonstrates that enhanced activity of the attitude thrusters is responsible for the unmodeled force. The protons primarily disturb the infrared earth sensors and the spurious attitude offset then causes unnecessary thruster firings. On the investigated spacecraft, the roll-thrusters are directed radially inwards, towards the Earth, with an orbit-tangential component of about 15%. From the amount of change in the eccentricity and in the semi-major axis over a disturbance, the expected ration between tangential- and radial-velocity components is verified. Finally, the extra fuel consumption during a period of high solar activity (such as the entire year 1991) is estimated.

  10. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic

  11. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  12. The Benefits of Inclined-Orbit Operations for Geostationary Orbit Communication Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary orbit (GEO) communication satellites can be extended in lifetime by switching to inclined-orbit operations. In this mode, a small amount of propellant is reserved to maintain the assigned orbit longitude. Inclination is allowed to build up at a rate of approximately 0.8○ per year. Developing these space resources can bring out a number of benefits. Besides communication application, these satellites can be used to construct navigation constellation of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS). In this present paper, the realization way of communication and navigation applications is studied and the benefits and problems are explained.

  13. The use of satellites in non-goestationary orbits for unloading geostationary communication satellite traffic peaks. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K.; Turner, A.; Nguyen, T.; Doong, W.; Weyandt, C.

    1987-01-01

    The part of the geostationary (GEO) orbital arc used for United States domestic fixed, communications service is rapidly becoming filled with satellites. One of the factors currently limiting its utilization is that communications satellites must be designed to have sufficient capacity to handle peak traffic leads, and thus are under utilized most of the time. A solution is to use satellites in suitable non-geostationary orbits to unload the traffic peaks. Three different designs for a non-geostationary orbit communications satellite system are presented for the 1995 time frame. The economic performance is analyzed and compared with geostationary satellites for two classes of service, trunking and customer premise service. The result is that the larger payload of the non-geostationary satellite offsets the burdens of increased complexity and worse radiation environment to give improved economic performance. Depending on ground terminal configuration, the improved economic performance of the space segment may be offset by increased ground terminal expenses.

  14. Time Resolved Atmospheric Carbon Satellite Observations from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David; Worden, Helen

    This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from CHRONOS (Commercially Hosted spectroRadiometer Observations and New Opportunities for Science). The primary goal of this mission is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from geostationary orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Both CO and CH4 are chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone pollution. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution. The CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth Venture TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) mission were implemented concurrently, the resulting measurement suite would efficiently and expeditiously serve to address the science goals of the Decadal Survey proposed GEO-CAPE mission.

  15. Time Resolved Atmospheric Carbon Satellite Observations from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Worden, H. M.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from CHRONOS (Commercially Hosted spectroRadiometer Observations and New Opportunities for Science). The primary goal of this mission is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from geostationary orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Both CO and CH4 are chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone pollution. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution. The CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth Venture TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) mission were implemented concurrently, the resulting measurement suite would efficiently and expeditiously serve to address the science goals of the Decadal Survey proposed GEO-CAPE mission.

  16. An expert system for geostationary orbit satellite breakdown analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibet, L.

    1990-10-01

    Two prototypes of expert systems for breakdown diagnosis on synchronous orbit satellites are described. The first prototype monitors the attitude and orbit control system of the French Telecom 1 satellite. The second prototype monitors the Power Conditioning Subsystem (PCS) of the TDF1 satellite. Both prototypes are intended for use by operation engineers in flight control centers. Both systems use the same expert system programming software generator EMICAT development tool.

  17. Communication satellites in the geostationary orbit (2nd revised and enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansky, Donald M.; Jeruchim, Michel C.

    Regulatory, policy, and technical considerations pertaining to communications satellites in geostationary orbit (GSO) are addressed, and methods of dealing with the problem of interference that such satellites encounter are considered. An overview and historical perspective on GSO is given, and communication satellite sharing of the GSO is discussed. International and domestic orbit-spectrum policy is examined. Factors affecting orbit-spectrum utilization are addressed for both the homogeneous case and the nonhomogeneous case. The performance of analog and digital signals in an interference environment, interference cancellation-reduction techniques, and software for orbit-spectrum utilization studies are discussed.

  18. New non-geosynchronous orbits for communications satellites to off-load daily peaks in geostationary traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for satellites in two orbits, the sun-synchronous 12-hour equatorial orbit (STET) and the apogee at constant time-of-day equatorial orbit (ACE), to off-load peaks in the CONUS geostationary communications traffic is discussed. These orbits are found to require maneuvers of smaller magnitudes for insertion than geostationary orbits. Advantages of the ACE orbit over the STET orbit are discussed, including larger satellite mass capability for a given launch vehicle, lower slant ranges, and larger angular separation from the geostationary arc for a nonequatorial ground observer.

  19. Attitude controller design for orbital target tracking of geostationary satellite under avoidance constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Woong; Bang, Hyochoong

    2011-04-01

    A coordinated attitude control problem is addressed for which a geostationary satellite should maintain communication with a ground station while simultaneously tracking space objects. The coordinated attitude control discussed in this study is related to the attitude maneuvers of a tracking satellite and to the orbital motion of targets placed in orbits of lower altitudes. Modified Rodrigues parameters are employed to avoid singularities even in the presence of large attitude maneuvers. The initial attitude error is calculated based upon an arbitrary initial configuration for the target tracking, so that a sequential tracking from one to another target can be achieved easily. Additionally, avoidance maneuvers aimed at protecting sensitive onboard sensors from the Sun and the Moon are designed using the so-called navigation function. When the avoidance areas are on the transient path due to the coordinated attitude maneuver command, the maneuver is performed with no violation against the given constraint areas by adopting the navigation function.

  20. Coarse Initial Orbit Determination for a Geostationary Satellite Using Single-Epoch GPS Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ghangho; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon

    2015-01-01

    A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite’s state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS). Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF) tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state. PMID:25835299

  1. Crowding of the geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, G.; Buratti, A.

    1984-10-01

    The number of likely collisions and disturbances suffered by an active geostationary satellite involving abandoned geosynchronous satellites and other active satellites in the same longitudinal slot is evaluated. While the risk of a collision with (and even of disturbances from) abandoned satellites is very remote, the risk of a collision and the number of likely disturbances during the lifetime of a satellite with other satellites operating in the same longitudinal slot could be unacceptably high, its value depending on stationkeeping strategies which, in turn, depend on mission constraints and satellite design. Provisions involving spacecraft and ground station equipment to reduce collision and disturbance risks are discussed. Algorithms to build a detailed model of the population of abandoned objects around the geostationary orbit are presented.

  2. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... degrees of the geostationary-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However...-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However, exception may be made in...

  3. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... degrees of the geostationary-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However...-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However, exception may be made in...

  4. Orbit determination for geostationary satellites with the combination of transfer ranging and pseudorange data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Hu, Xiaogong; Liu, Li; Wu, Xiaoli; Huang, Yong; He, Feng

    2010-09-01

    Geostationary satellites (GEOs) play a significant role in the regional satellite navigation system. Simulation experiments show that the clock corrections could be mitigated through a single strategy or double differencing strategies for a navigation constellation, but for the mode of individual GEO orbit determination, high precision orbit and clock correction could not be obtained in the orbit determination based on the pseudorange data. A new GEO combined precise orbit determination (POD) strategy is studied in this paper, which combines pseudorange data and C-band transfer ranging data. This strategy overcomes the deficiency of C-band transfer ranging caused by limited stations and tracking time available. With the combination of transfer ranging and pseudorange data, clock corrections between the GEO and the stations can be estimated simultaneously along with orbital parameters, maintaining self-consistency between the satellite ephemeris and clock correction parameters. The error covariance analysis is conducted to illuminate the contributions from the transfer ranging data and the psudoranging data. Using data collected for a Chinese GEO satellite with 3 C-band transfer ranging stations and 4 L-band pseudorange tracking stations, POD experiments indicate that a meter-level accuracy is achievable. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the post-fit C-band ranging data is about 0.203 m, and the RMS of the post-fit pseudorange is 0.408 m. Radial component errors of the POD experiments are independently evaluated with the satellite laser ranging (SLR) data from a station in Beijing, with the residual RMS of 0.076 m. The SLR evaluation also suggests that for 2-h orbital predication, the predicted radial error is about 0.404 m, and the clock correction error is about 1.38 ns. Even for the combination of one C-band transfer ranging station and 4 pseudorange stations, POD is able to achieve a reasonable accuracy with the radial error of 0.280 m and the 2-h predicted radial error of 0.888 m. Clock synchronization between the GEO and tracking stations is achieved with an estimated accuracy of about 1.55 ns, meeting the navigation service requirements.

  5. The development of a Russian communication satellite of small class, operating in the geostationary and high-elliptical orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhabin, Yu.; Asiushkin, V.; Karutin, N.; Serebrennikov, V.

    In 1994-1995 Lavochkin Association (Russia) together with the other enterprises in accordance with technical requirements of the Russian Space agency, developed a new Russian communication satellite of a small class that will operate in both the geostationary (GSO) and high-elliptical (HEO) orbits. This satellite may be injected into operational orbits using a SOYUZ-2 launch vehicle (LV) and a FREGAT upper stage (US) from Plesetsk and Baykonur space launch sites (SLS). The main reason for creating such a satellite was to decrease the cost of the support and development of the Russian communication geostationary satellites group. Russian satellites Horizont, Express, Ekran and Gals, which operate in GSO, are the basis of the space segment for communications, radio and TV broadcasting. All of these satellites are injected into GSO by the PROTON LV. PROTON is a launch vehicle of a heavy class. The use of a middle class LV instead of a heavy class will allow to reduce considerably the launch cost. The change of a heavy class LV to a LV of middle class determined one economic reason for this project. Besides, the opportunity to launch S/C into GSO from Russian Plesetsk SLS increases the independence of Russia in the domain of space communications, despite the presence of the contract with Kazachstan about the rent of Baykonur SLS. Finally, use of small satellites with a rather small number of transponders is more effective than the use of big satellites. It will allow also to increase a satellite group (by the launch of additional satellites) precisely in accordance to the development of the ground segment.

  6. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission: Science from Geostationary Orbit on-board a Commercial Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, R.; Deaver, T.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.

    2011-12-01

    Geostationary orbits are ideal for many science investigations of the Earth system on global scales. These orbits allow continuous observations of the same geographic region, enabling spatial and temporal changes to be distinguished and eliminating the ambiguity inherent to observations from low Earth orbit (LEO). Just as observations from geostationary orbit have revolutionized our understanding of changes in the troposphere, they will dramatically improve our understanding of the space environment at higher altitudes. However, geostationary orbits are infrequently used for science missions because of high costs. Geostationary satellites are large, typically weighing tons. Consequently, devoting an entire satellite to a science mission requires a large financial commitment, both for the spacecraft itself and for sufficient science instrumentation to justify a dedicated spacecraft. Furthermore, the small number of geostationary satellites produced for scientific missions increases the costs of each satellite. For these reasons, it is attractive to consider flying scientific instruments on satellites operated by commercial companies, some of whom have fleets of ~40 satellites. However, scientists' lack of understanding of the capabilities of commercial spacecraft as well as commercial companies' concerns about risks to their primary mission have impeded the cooperation necessary for the shared use of a spacecraft. Working with a commercial partner, the GOLD mission has successfully overcome these issues. Our experience indicates that there are numerous benefits to flying on commercial communications satellites (e.g., it is possible to downlink large amounts of data) and the costs are low if the experimental requirements adequately match the capabilities and available resources of the host spacecraft. Consequently, affordable access to geostationary orbit aboard a communications satellite now appears possible for science payloads.

  7. Asynchronous Processing of a Constellation of Geostationary and Polar-Orbiting Satellites for Fire Detection and Smoke Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, E. J.; Peterson, D. A.; Curtis, C. A.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hoffman, J.; Prins, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) system converts satellite observations of thermally anomalous pixels into spatially and temporally continuous estimates of smoke release from open biomass burning. This system currently processes data from a constellation of 5 geostationary and 2 polar-orbiting sensors. Additional sensors, including NPP VIIRS and the imager on the Korea COMS-1 geostationary satellite, will soon be added. This constellation experiences schedule changes and outages of various durations, making the set of available scenes for fire detection highly variable on an hourly and daily basis. Adding to the complexity, the latency of the satellite data is variable between and within sensors. FLAMBE shares with many fire detection systems the goal of detecting as many fires as possible as early as possible, but the FLAMBE system must also produce a consistent estimate of smoke production with minimal artifacts from the changing constellation. To achieve this, NRL has developed a system of asynchronous processing and cross-calibration that permits satellite data to be used as it arrives, while preserving the consistency of the smoke emission estimates. This talk describes the asynchronous data ingest methodology, including latency statistics for the constellation. We also provide an overview and show results from the system we have developed to normalize multi-sensor fire detection for consistency.

  8. Ephemeris calculation and orbit determination of geostationary satellites, using Taylor series integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenbruck, Oliver

    1991-02-01

    It is shown that Taylor series integration allows problems of celestial mechanics for interplanetary orbits to be solved with relatively simple orbit models. The method is adapted to the computation of satellite orbits. A new implementation concept is included, which allows a programmation of the equations of motion. It offers simultaneously extension possibilities, which are necessary for the computation of special terms of the power function. The linking of Sun and Moon ephemeris for the treatment of gavitational disturbances of the satellite orbit is used as an example. This concept is represented with the principles of Taylor series integration, and compared with variants of the process. The power spectrum of the method is examined for disturbed and undisturbed Kepler orbits.

  9. Electric propulsion for geostationary orbit insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Curran, Francis M.; Myers, Roger M.

    1995-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is already being used for geostationary satellite stationkeeping to increase payload mass. By using this same technology to perform part of the orbit transfer additional increases in payload mass can be achieved. Advanced chemical and N2H4 arcjet systems are used to increase the payload mass by performing stationkeeping and part of the orbit transfer. Four mission options are analyzed which show the impact of either sharing the orbit transfer between chemical and SEP systems or having either complete the transfer alone. Results show that for an Atlas 2AS payload increases in net mass (geostationary satellite mass less wet propulsion system mass) of up to 100 kg can be achieved using advanced chemical for the transfer and advanced N2H4 arcjets for stationkeeping. An additional 100 kg can be added using advanced N2H4 arcjets for part of a 40 day orbit transfer.

  10. The classical Laplace plane as a stable disposal orbit for geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; McMahon, Jay W.

    2014-04-01

    The classical Laplace plane is a frozen orbit, or equilibrium solution for the averaged dynamics arising from Earth oblateness and lunisolar gravitational perturbations. The pole of the orbital plane of uncontrolled GEO satellites regress around the pole of the Laplace plane at nearly constant inclination and rate. In accordance with Friesen et al. (1993), we show how this stable plane can be used as a robust long-term disposal orbit. The current graveyard regions for end-of-life retirement of GEO payloads, which is several hundred kilometers above GEO depending on the spacecraft characteristics, cannot contain the newly discovered high area-to-mass ratio debris population. Such objects are highly susceptible to the effects of solar radiation pressure exhibiting dramatic variations in eccentricity and inclination over short periods of time. The Laplace plane graveyard, on the contrary, would trap this debris and would not allow these objects to rain down through GEO. Since placing a satellite in this inclined orbit can be expensive, we discuss some alternative disposal schemes that have acceptable cost-to-benefit ratios.

  11. Geostationary satellites and space debris around the Earth (on Russian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, P., P.

    Classification of artificial satellites, the history of development of the geostationary orbit (GSO). The main aim of ground-based optical, radar and other observations GSS. Methods of observation and control of the GSO. Catalogues satellites leading space country. The problem of space debris and the Kessler syndrome. Flashes from the satellites of the constellation "Iridium", and flashes from geostationary satellites. Tips, advice for amateur astronomers to observe when the flash GSS.

  12. Impact of Non-geostationary Orbits on PASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, Polly; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The use of satellites in non-geostationary orbits (NGO) for PASS (Personal Access Satellite System) is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) orbit parameters (circular and elliptical orbit characteristics); (2) link characteristics (Doppler shift, propagation loss, CONUS coverage antenna, multibeam antenna gain, and impact on link equations); (3) number of satellites required for continuous CONUS coverage (circular and elliptical orbit results); and (4) advantages and disadvantages of NGOs.

  13. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  14. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in IB Docket No. 05-20 (Order) (70 FR 20508-01), recognizing the emergence... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service... technical and licensing rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA), i.e., earth stations on...

  15. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., FR Doc. 2013-04429, on page 14952, column 1, correct the DATES section to read as follows: DATES... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service... proposed rule that appeared in the Federal Register of March 8, 2013. The document proposed rules for...

  16. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service... of Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) in the 14.0-14.5 GHz band from secondary to primary...

  17. Electric propulsion for geostationary orbit insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Oleson, S.R.; Myers, R.M.; Curran, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology is already being used for geostationary satellite station keeping to increase payload mass. By using this same technology to perform part of the orbit transfer additional increases in payload mass can be achieved. Advanced chemical and N{sub 2}H{sub 4} arcjet systems are used to increase the payload mass by performing station keeping and part of the orbit transfer. Four mission options are analyzed which show the impact of either sharing the orbit transfer between chemical and SEP systems or having either complete the transfer alone. Results show that for an Atlas IIAS payload increases in net mass (geostationary satellite mass less wet propulsion system mass) of up to 100 kg can be achieved using advanced chemical for the transfer and advanced N{sub 2}H{sub 4} arc jets for station keeping. An additional 100 kg can be added using advanced N{sub 2}H{sub 4} arcjets for part of a 40 day orbit transfer.

  18. Application of unscented filtering in analytical dynamic orbit determination for Geostationary satellite surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Kyoung-Min; Park, Eunseo; Choi, Byung Kyu

    The neutral atmosphere introduces a time delay in the propagation of GPS signals in the microwave frequencies due to refraction effects. To project this delay in a slant direction towards the satellite position, various mapping functions are proposed. As 90KEYWORDS: GPS based navigation; Tropospheric range error; Hydrostatic Mapping Function Dr. K. Parameswaran is supported by CSIR through Emeritus Scientist Scheme. *Corresponding author: cs ureshraju@vssc.gov.in

  19. GOCK-2002 catalogue of positions and orbital elements of the geosynchronous space objects observed in 2002. Prognosis of uncontrolled geostationary objects motion for identification of the satellites observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizyun, L. O.; Klimik, V. U.

    2004-04-01

    We describe the GOCK-2002 Catalogue (Geosynchronous Objects Catalogue: Kyiv 2002, http://www.mao.kiev.ua) containing the topocentric equatorial coordinates and orbital elements of geosynchronous satellites obtained by photographic method at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 2002. The results of the identification of 30 objects from 193 observations among the total 259 observations of 52 objects are presented. The method of uncontrolled geostationary objects identification on the basis of analytic theory of their motion is discussed. General character of δ and t changes are given for uncontrolled and controlled satellites observed at Kyiv station.

  20. Single-event and total-dose effects in geo-stationary transfer orbit during solar-activity maximum period measured by the Tsubasa satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiishi, H.; Kimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Goka, T.

    The Tsubasa satellite developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency was launched in Feb 2002 into Geo-stationary Transfer Orbit GTO Perigee 500km Apogee 36000km and had been operated well until Sep 2003 The objective of this satellite was to verify the function of commercial parts and new technologies of bus-system components in space Thus the on-board experiments were conducted in the more severe radiation environment of GTO rather than in Geo-stationary Earth Orbit GEO or Low Earth Orbit LEO The Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment SEDA on board the Tsubasa satellite had the Single-event Upset Monitor SUM and the DOSimeter DOS to evaluate influences on electronic devices caused by radiation environment that was also measured by the particle detectors of the SEDA the Standard DOse Monitor SDOM for measurements of light particles and the Heavy Ion Telescope HIT for measurements of heavy ions The SUM monitored single-event upsets and single-event latch-ups occurred in the test sample of two 64-Mbit DRAMs The DOS measured accumulated radiation dose at fifty-six locations in the body of the Tsubasa satellite Using the data obtained by these instruments single-event and total-dose effects in GTO during solar-activity maximum period especially their rapid changes due to solar flares and CMEs in the region from L 1 1 through L 11 is discussed in this paper

  1. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  2. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  3. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  4. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  5. 47 CFR 74.643 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 74... Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.643 Interference to geostationary-satellites. Applicants and... geostationary-satellites....

  6. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horii, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5), which is being developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is the fifth geostationary, spin stabilized, weather satellite. Its purposes are to observe cataclysmic events such as hurricanes, typhoons, and regional weather phenomena; to relay meteorological data from surface collection points to the Data Processing Center in Japan; and to transmit processing imaging data for facsimile reproduction. The satellite will be launched from the Tanegashima Space Center (TaSC) in Japan by a type H-II launch vehicle. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas as prime and the 34-m antenna at Madrid as backup support for launch through drift orbit. Maximum support will consist of two 8-hour tracks per station for a seven day period, plus 23 days of contingency support from all complexes. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command and tracking station responsibility.

  7. Spacecraft Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L. N.; Minow, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    The 700 km x 5.8 Re orbit of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft provide a unique opportunity to investigate surface charging in geostationary transfer orbits. We use records from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) plasma spectrometer to identify candidate surface charging events based on the "ion line" charging signature in the ion records. We summarize the energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment. We discuss the altitude, duration, and magnitude of events observed in the Van Allen Probes from the beginning of the mission to present time. In addition, we explore what information the dual satellites provide on the spatial and temporal variations in the charging environments.

  8. Spacecraft Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    The 700 km x 5.8 Re orbit of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft provide a unique opportunity to investigate spacecraft charging in geostationary transfer orbits. We use records from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) plasma spectrometer to identify candidate surface charging events based on the "ion line" charging signature in the ion records. We summarize the energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment. We discuss the altitude, duration, and magnitude of events observed in the Van Allen Probes from the beginning of the mission to present time. In addition, we explore what information the dual satellites provide on the spatial and temporal variations in the charging environments.

  9. GOCK-2001 catalogue of positions and orbital elements of the geosynchronous space objects observed in 2001. Investigation of the corrections of active geostationary satellites using observation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizyun, L. Ö.; Klimyk, V. U.; Nesteruk, M. R.

    2002-10-01

    We describe the GOCK-2001 Catalogue (Geosynchronous Objects Catalogue: Kyiv 2001) containing the topocentric equatorial coordinates and orbital elements of geosynchronous satellites obtained by photographic method at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 2001. The results of the identification of 46 objects from 318 observations out of the total of 636 observations of 109 objects are presented. The equations of connection between the parameters of the main harmonic of the subsatellite longitude change for the uncontrolled libration satellites of type l1 are derived. Some examples of the investigation of corrections of geostationary objects based on the concordance of the longitude change function with the results of satellite observations are given. (http://www.mao.kiev.ua/ast/cat2001.htm).

  10. 47 CFR 101.145 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... orbit, taking into account atmospheric refraction. However, exception may be made in unusual... account atmospheric refraction. However, exception may be made in unusual circumstances upon a showing... aimed within 2 degrees of the geostationary-satellite orbit, taking into account atmospheric...

  11. A statistical survey of ELF waves in a geostationary orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Parrot, M.; Gaye, C.A.

    1994-11-15

    In this paper the authors summarize data taken by the wave experiment on the GEOS 2 satellite. This instrument looked at extremely low frequency emissions from a geostationary orbit. The authors do a statistical study of the observed ELF emissions, and in particular discuss chorus emissions, which with hiss and electron cyclotron emissions are the prominent low frequency wave features.

  12. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Koichi; Sakabe, Hideo; Suzuki, Takao; Okawara, Motoi

    This paper describes mission features and development of the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5). The purpose of GMS series is the improvement of Japan's meteorological services and the development of meteorological satellite technology. The satellites have been used for the World Weather Watch (WWW) program planned by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The first satellite in this series was launched into geosynchronous orbit at 140 E longitude in July 1977. GMS-2 and GMS-3 were launched in August 1981, and August 1984. GMS-4 was launched in September 1989, and is now being operated for weather services. GMS-5 is now being developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). GMS-5 is a spin-stabilized satellite. It consists of a despun earth-oriented antenna assembly and a spin section rotating at 100 rpm. The spin section contains the visible and infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR), electronic devices, batteries, fuel tanks, thrusters and solar panel. The two new infrared channels have been added to the VISSR and the total number of three infrared channels will be used for observation of the atmospheric water vapor distribution, accurate measurement of sea surface temperatures, etc. The mission of GMS-5 are weather watch by VISSR, collection of weather data, distribution of image data and experiment of search and rescue (SAR). GMS-5 will be launched by a H-II launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center in 1994.

  13. Geostationary operational environmental satellite /GOES/ - A multifunctional satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallette, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    The GOES satellites are multifunctional satellites whose primary function is to provide continuous measurements of the earth's surface and atmosphere from two geostationary orbit locations: 75 deg W and 135 deg W. This objective is accomplished with the visible infrared spin scan radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS), and the Space Environment Monitor (SEM), which includes three instruments: a magnetometer, solar X-ray sensor, and an energetic particle sensor, which monitor the near earth space environment. The satellite's communication system provides several user oriented functions, including: (1) Transmission of VAS data; (2) Transmission of SEM data; (3) Transponder capabilities for stretched VAS (SVAS) data, weather facsimile (WEFAX) data, and trilateration signals; (4) transponder capabilities for data collection platform interrogation and data collection platform reply.

  14. Small Aperture Telescope Observations of Co-located Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Wallace, B.

    As geostationary orbit (GEO) continues to be populated, satellite operators are increasing usage of co-location techniques to maximize usage of fewer GEO longitude slots. Co-location is an orbital formation strategy where two or more geostationary satellites reside within one GEO stationkeeping box. The separation strategy used to prevent collision between the co-located satellites generally uses eccentricity (radial separation) and inclination (latitude separation) vector offsets. This causes the satellites to move in relative motion ellipses about each other as the relative longitude drift between the satellites is near zero. Typical separations between the satellites varies from 1 to 100 kilometers. When co-located satellites are observed by optical ground based space surveillance sensors the participants appear to be separated by a few minutes of arc or less in angular extent. Under certain viewing geometries, these satellites appear to visually conjunct even though the satellites are, in fact, well separated spatially. In situations where one of the co-located satellites is more optically reflective than the other, the reflected sunglint from the more reflective satellite can overwhelm the other. This less frequently encountered issue causes the less reflective satellite to be glint masked in the glare of the other. This paper focuses on space surveillance observations on co-located Canadian satellites using a small optical telescope operated by Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa. The two above mentioned problems (cross tagging and glint masking) are investigated and we quantify the results for Canadian operated geostationary satellites. The performance of two line element sets when making in-frame CCD image correlation between the co-located satellites is also examined. Relative visual magnitudes between the co-located members are also inspected and quantified to determine the susceptibility of automated telescopes to glint masking of co-located satellite members.

  15. European small geostationary communications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei, , Dr.; Ellmers, Frank; Winkler, Andreas; Schuff, Herbert; Sansegundo Chamarro, Manuel Julián

    2011-04-01

    Hispasat Advanced Generation 1 (HAG1) is the first satellite using the SGEO platform, which is under the development in the ESA Artes-11 program. Since the last presentation in the IAC 2007, a European industrial consortium led by OHB has completed the mission and spacecraft design. The platform Preliminary Design Review has been carried out in May 2008. The customer for the first mission is a commercial operator—Hispasat. The contract was signed in December 2008 and the satellite will be launched in 2012. To give confidence to the customer, SGEO platform will use up to date flight proven technologies. HAG1 carries 20/24 Ku-band and 3/5 Ka-band transponders to provide commercial services. Some innovative payload technologies will also be flown on board of HAG1 to gain in-orbit heritage. SGEO has also been selected as the baseline platform for the ESA Data Relay Satellite (EDRS). Phase-A study has just kicked off in January 2009. The targeted launch date is 2013. Heinrich Hertz will also use the SGEO platform. Heinrich Hertz is funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and provides flight opportunities for technologies and components developed by the German Space Industry. With the HAG1 contract in hand, and EDRS and Heinrich Hertz in the line, OHB with its partners has the confidence that it will be able to speed up the product development of the SGEO platform for potential customers in the commercial market. This paper will first present the updated platform design and the status of the product development will be followed with the introduction of innovative payload technologies on board the first mission—HAG1 and ended with the mission concepts of EDRS and Heinrich Hertz missions.

  16. Station keeping of geostationary satellites by electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstein, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    As various types of perturbations tend to drive a geostationary satellite away from its prescribed position, occasional orbit corrections have to be carried out by means of a suitable propulsion system. In future geostationary missions, low thrust electric propulsion is likely to be applied for station keeping because of considerable mass savings. In this paper a station keeping strategy for electric propulsion systems is developed. Both the unconstrained case and the case where thrust operation constraints are present are considered and tested by computer simulation of a realistic example.

  17. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  18. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  19. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  20. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  1. 47 CFR 25.278 - Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite service. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.278 Additional coordination obligation for non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems in frequencies allocated to the fixed-satellite...

  2. Consequences of Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines on Geostationary Transfer Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alby, F.; Deguine, B.; Bonnal, C.; Ratte, P. M.

    The space debris issue has conducted the main Agencies to adopt mitigation guidelines with the objective to reduce the population of objects orbiting the Earth. In the particular case of the geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) where the objects regularly cross the GEO and LEO regions, disposal options shall be taken considering the natural evolution of the orbits, their long term stability together with the possible consequences on the performances of the launcher and on the cost of the positioning operations of the satellite. In a first step, the existing guidelines are examined to identify the rules applicable to the case of launcher upper stages. Possible improvements of the mitigation standards are also discussed. In a second step, the evolution of a typical geostationary transfer orbit under the effect of the natural perturbations is presented. A particular attention is given to the relative position of the Sun and Moon, which corresponds to possible constraints on launch time or launch date. Finally the paper examines the consequences of this natural evolution and presents recommendations concerning the choice of the geostationary transfer orbit together with the end of life options.

  3. Long-term evolution of near-geostationary orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ha, J. C.

    1986-06-01

    A model for the long-term evolution of free-drifting near-geostationary satellite orbits is presented. A first-order analytical averaging transformation is applied to the perturbation equations in order to eliminate the short-term (with period of order of one day) variations of the orbital elements. The model includes lunisolar gravitational forces up to the second parallactic term of the moon, zonal and tesseral harmonics of the earth's potential field up to the fourth degree, as well as the solar radiation force. The algebraic computations have been carried out by an automated Poisson series manipulation. Extremely compact expressions could be established after manually recombining the computer-generated results in terms of a few well-selected parameters. The results obtained are of particular interest for predicting the motion of geostationary spacecraft after their useful lifetime has expired and stationkeeping maneuvers are no longer executed. The validity of the model presented has been evaluated by a comparison with numerical results obtained for the European Space Agency's GEOS-2 satellite, which is at present orbiting about 260 km above geostationary altitude.

  4. 47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non Geostationary Satellite Orbit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... two or more satellite networks with an operating Earth station of one of these networks in such a way... at the Earth station. (c) Default procedure. If no agreed coordination exists between two or more... available in each frequency band for its home base spectrum. The selection order for each satellite...

  5. 47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non Geostationary Satellite Orbit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be determined by and be in accordance with the date that the first space station in each satellite network is launched and operating; (2) The affected space station(s) of the respective satellite networks... spectrum, for the duration of the in-line interference event; (3) All affected space station(s) may...

  6. 47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non Geostationary Satellite Orbit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall be determined by and be in accordance with the date that the first space station in each satellite network is launched and operating; (2) The affected space station(s) of the respective satellite networks... spectrum, for the duration of the in-line interference event; (3) All affected space station(s) may...

  7. Surface albedo based on geostationary satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. L.; Lattanzio, A.; Hankins, B.; Inamdar, A.; Knapp, K.; Privette, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Surface albedo is the fraction of incoming solar radiation reflected by the land surface, and therefore is a sensitive indicator of environmental changes. To this end, surface albedo is identified as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is implementing the Geostationary Surface Albedo (GSA; Lattanzio and Govaerts, 2010) algorithm for GOES data in support of an activity of the Sustained, Coordinated Processing of Environmental Satellite Data for Climate Monitoring (SCOPE-CM). SCOPE-CM helps coordinate ECV production responding to GCOS, WMO, and CEOS goals. The GSA algorithm was developed jointly by EUMETSAT and Joint Research Centre (JRC) using a method proposed by Pinty et al. (2000) to retrieve surface albedo by processing day-time, cloud-free geostationary observations from a single visible band. Currently, the GSA algorithm generates products operationally at EUMETSAT using geostationary data from satellites at 0 and 63E and at JMA using 140E geostationary data. To support development of an aggregate global albedo product, NCDC will apply the GSA algorithm to data from GOES-E (75W) and GOES-W (135W). For the GOES implementation, raw GOES observations are calibrated against AVHRR reflectance data available in PATMOS-x. Surface angular anisotropy is then determined through the inversion of the GSA radiative transfer model using multiple geostationary images collected over a day under different illumination conditions. The inversion process additionally requires ancillary total column ozone and water vapor values, which for the GOES implementation are acquired from the 20th Century Reanalysis V2 data set provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD. The GSA algorithm produces a 10-day composite surface albedo map. This product will initially be developed for the period 2000-2003. Later, it will be applied to the complete GOES data collection (1978-present) as part of NOAA's Climate Data Record Program.

  8. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) mission profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. C.; Defazio, R. L.; Sauter, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The GOES mission profile used to achieve geostationary orbit following separation from the Delta launch vehicle is described. The mission profile was constrained by the solid-propellant apogee kick motor which was undersized relative to the spacecraft weight. The resulting deficiency in delivered delta-V had to be made up by the spacecraft hydrazine propulsion system. The mission profile which best utilizes the on-board hydrazine requires that the transfer orbit apogee height be biased 13,800 km above geosynchronous altitude. This maximizes the effectiveness of the apogee motor in performing the plane change necessary to achieve near-equatorial orbit. The highly eccentric drift orbit which results from the apogee motor firing has an average drift rate of 60 deg/day. Circularizing this orbit requires maneuvers designed to achieve geostationary position within a tightly constrained hydrazine allocation. The sequence takes advantage of the orbit changes resulting from attitude maneuvers and combined inplane/out-of-plane maneuvers to achieve hydrazine savings.

  9. 47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non Geostationary Satellite Orbit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... two or more satellite networks with an operating Earth station of one of these networks in such a way... at the Earth station. (c) Default procedure. If no agreed coordination exists between two or more... of one or more typical earth stations. All parties are required to coordinate in good faith....

  10. 47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non Geostationary Satellite Orbit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... two or more satellite networks with an operating Earth station of one of these networks in such a way... at the Earth station. (c) Default procedure. If no agreed coordination exists between two or more... of one or more typical earth stations. All parties are required to coordinate in good faith....

  11. 47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating authorization provisions for the non-geostationary satellite orbit fixed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... each space station in the NGSO FSS system. The pfd masks shall be generated in accordance with the... the space station regardless of the satellite transmitter power resource allocation and traffic/beam... Earth, for each space station in the NGSO FSS system. The anticipated operational power...

  12. Three-axis attitude control for a geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Applications Technology Satellite-6 was successfully launched into a geostationary orbit in May, 1974. Since that time, its attitude control subsystem has routinely demonstrated its ability to perform precision pointing and precision closed loop maneuvers. This paper describes the ATS-6 attitude control subsystem. The requirements imposed by the spacecraft mission objectives are outlined, and functional descriptions of the principal attitude control subsystem components and control laws are presented. The paper concludes with a summary comparison of in-orbit performance relative to its specified performance requirements.

  13. Local oscillator distribution using a geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardin, Joseph; Weinreb, Sander; Bagri, Durga

    2004-01-01

    A satellite communication system suitable for distribution of local oscillator reference signals for a widely spaced microwave array has been developed and tested experimentally. The system uses a round-trip correction method of the satellite This experiment was carried out using Telstar-5, a commercial Ku-band geostationary satellite. For this initial experiment, both earth stations were located at the same site to facilitate direct comparison of the received signals. The local oscillator reference frequency was chosen to be 300MHz and was sent as the difference between two Ku-band tones. The residual error after applying the round trip correction has been measured to be better than 3psec for integration times ranging from 1 to 2000 seconds. For integration times greater then 500 seconds, the system outperforms a pair of hydrogen masers with the limitation believed to be ground-based equipment phase stability. The idea of distributing local oscillators using a geostationary satellite is not new; several researchers experimented with this technique in the eighties, but the achieved accuracy was 3 to 100 times worse than the present results. Since substantially and the performance of various components has improved. An important factor is the leasing of small amounts of satellite communication bandwidth. We lease three 100kHz bands at approximately one hundredth the cost of a full 36 MHz transponder. Further tests of the system using terminal separated by large distances and comparison tests with two hydrogen masers and radio interferometry is needed.

  14. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  15. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  16. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  17. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  18. 47 CFR 78.106 - Interference to geostationary-satellites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to geostationary-satellites. 78...-satellites. Applicants and licensees must comply with § 101.145 of this chapter to minimize the potential of interference to geostationary-satellites....

  19. Relativistic Electrons at Geostationary Orbit: Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Lyatsky, W.

    2008-05-01

    We developed a new prediction model for forecasting relativistic (>2MeV) electrons, which provides a VERY HIGH correlation between predicted and actually measured electron fluxes at geostationary orbit. This model implies the multi-step particle acceleration and is based on numerical integrating two linked continuity equations for primarily accelerated particles and relativistic electrons. The model includes a source and losses, and used solar wind data as only input parameters. We used the coupling function which is a best-fit combination of solar wind/interplanetary magnetic field parameters, responsible for the generation of geomagnetic activity, as a source. The loss function was derived from experimental data. We tested the model for four year period 2004- 2007. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual values of the electron fluxes for whole four year period as well as for each of these years is stable and incredibly high (about 0.9). The high and stable correlation between the computed and actual electron fluxes shows that the reliable forecasting these electrons at geostationary orbit is possible.

  20. Local Oscillator Distribution Using A Geostationary Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardin, J.; Weinreb, S.; Bagri, D.

    2004-06-01

    A satellite communication system suitable for distribution of local oscillator reference signals for a widely spaced microwave array has been developed and tested experimentally. The system uses a round-trip correction method to remove effects of atmospheric fluctuations and radial motion of the satellite. This experiment was carried out using Telstar-5, a commercial Ku-band geostationary satellite. A typical Ku-band satellite has uplink and downlink capacity at 14 14.5 GHz and 11.7 12.2 GHz, respectively. For this initial experiment, both earth stations were located at the same site to facilitate direct comparison of the received signals. The local oscillator reference frequency was chosen to be 300 MHz and was sent as the difference between two Ku-band tones. The residual error after applying the round trip correction has been measured to be better than 3 ps for integration times ranging from 1 to 2000 s. For integration times greater than 500 s, the system outperforms a pair of hydrogen masers with the limitation believed to be ground-based equipment phase stability. The idea of distributing local oscillators using a geostationary satellite is not new; several researchers experimented with this technique in the eighties, but the achieved accuracy was 3 to 100 times worse than the present results. Since then, the cost of both leased satellite bandwidth and the Ku-band ground equipment has dropped substantially and the performance of various components has improved. An important factor is the availability of narrow bands which can be leased on a communications satellite. We lease three 100 kHz bands at approximately one hundredth the cost of a full 36 MHz-wide transponder. Further tests of the system using terminals separated by large distances and comparison tests with two hydrogen masers and radio interferometry of astronomical objects are needed.

  1. Multicolour Optical Photometry of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, A.; Wade, G.; Bedard, D.

    Although broadband photometry has been used to infer information about artificial satellites since soon after the launch of Sputnik 1, the development of photometric techniques for non-resolved space object identification or characterisation has been hampered by the large number of variables involved. Many individual studies, and some long ongoing experiments, have used costly metre-class telescopes to obtain data despite other experiments demonstrating that much more flexible and affordable small aperture telescopes may be suitable for the task. In addition, due to the highly time consuming and weather dependent nature of obtaining photometric observations, many studies have suffered from data sets of limited size, or relied upon simulations to support their claims. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted with the aim of determining the utility of small aperture telescopes for conducting broadband photometry of satellites for the purpose of non-resolved space object identification and characterisation. A 14 inch Celestron CG-14 telescope was used to gain multiple night-long, high temporal resolution data sets of six active geostationary satellites. The results of the experiment cast doubt on the efficacy of some of the previous approaches to obtaining and analysing photometric data. It was discovered that geostationary satellite lightcurves can vary to a greater degree than has generally been recognised, and colour ratios vary considerably with changes in the illumination/observation geometry, making it difficult to use colour for satellite discrimination. Evidence was also detected of variations in the spectral energy distribution of sunlight reflected off satellite surface materials, which could have implications for surface material characterisation and techniques that aim to separate satellite body and solar panel contributions to the total observed spectra.

  2. Towards high temporal and moderate spatial resolutions in the remote sensing retrieval of evapotranspiration by combining geostationary and polar orbit satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, José Miguel; Ghilain, Nicolas; Arboleda, Alirio; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the water flux going from the surface into the atmosphere as result of soil and surface water evaporation and plant transpiration. It constitutes a key component of the water cycle and its quantification is of crucial importance for a number of applications like water management, climatic modelling, agriculture monitoring and planning, etc. Estimating ET is not an easy task; specially if large areas are envisaged and various spatio-temporal patterns of ET are present as result of heterogeneity in land cover, land use and climatic conditions. In this respect, spaceborne remote sensing (RS) provides the only alternative to continuously measure surface parameters related to ET over large areas. The Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) of Belgium, in the framework of EUMETSAT's "Land Surface Analysis-Satellite Application Facility" (LSA-SAF), has developed a model for the estimation of ET. The model is forced by RS data, numerical weather predictions and land cover information. The RS forcing is derived from measurements by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. This ET model is operational and delivers ET estimations over the whole field of view of the MSG satellite (Europe, Africa and Eastern South America) (http://landsaf.meteo.pt) every 30 minutes. The spatial resolution of MSG is 3 x 3 km at subsatellite point and about 4 x 5 km in continental Europe. The spatial resolution of this product may constrain its full exploitation as the interest of potential users (farmers and natural resources scientists) may lie on smaller spatial units. This study aimed at testing methodological alternatives to combine RS imagery (geostationary and polar orbit satellites) for the estimation of ET such that the spatial resolution of the final product is improved. In particular, the study consisted in the implementation of two approaches for combining the current ET estimations with RS data containing information over vegetation parameters and captured by polar orbit spaceborne sensors. The first tested approach consisted in forcing the operational ET algorithm with RS measurements obtained from a moderate spatial resolution sensor. The variables with improved spatial resolution were leaf area index and albedo. Other variables of the model remained unchanged with respect to the operational version. In the second approach, a two phases procedure was implemented. Firstly, a preliminary approximation of ET was obtained as a function of solar radiation, air temperature and a vegetation index. The value was then statistically adjusted on the basis of the ET estimations by the operational algorithm. The results of implementing the different approaches were tested against eddy covariance ET derived from measurements in Fluxnet towers spread across Europe and representing different landscape characteristics. The analysis allowed the identification of pros and cons of the tested methodological approaches as well as their performance in different land cover arrangements.

  3. Normalization and calibration of geostationary satellite radiances for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desormeaux, Yves; Rossow, William B.; Brest, Christopher L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is comparison of coincident and collocated measurements made by each satellite and the concurrent AVHRR on the 'afternoon' NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite at the same viewing geometry. The results of this comparison allow transfer of the AVHRR absolute calibration, which has been established over the whole series, to the radiometers on the geostationary satellites. Results are given for Meteosat-2, 3, and 4, for GOES-5, 6, and 7, for GMS-2, 3, and 4 and for Insat-1B. The relative stability of the calibrations of these radiance data is estimated to be within +/- 3 percent; the uncertainty of the absolute calibrations is estimated to be less than 10 percent. The remaining uncertainties are at least two times smaller than for the original radiance data.

  4. Interpretation of Spectrometric Measurements of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, D.; Wade, G.

    2014-09-01

    Over 5000 visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectrometric measurements of active geostationary satellites have been collected with the National Research Council (NRC) 1.8m Plaskett telescope located at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, Canada. The objective of this ongoing experiment is to study how reflectance spectroscopy can be used to reliably identify specific material types on the surface of artificial Earth-orbiting objects. Active geostationary satellites were selected as the main subjects for this experiment since their orientation is stable and can be estimated to a high-level of confidence throughout a night of observation. Furthermore, for most geostationary satellites, there is a wide variety of sources that can provide some level of information as to their external surface composition. Notwithstanding the high number of measurements that have been collected to date, it was assumed that the experimenters would have a much greater success rate in material identification given the choice experimental subjects. To date, only the presence of aluminum has been confidently identified in some of the reflectance spectra that have been collected. Two additional material types, namely photovoltaic cells and polyimide film, the first layer of multi-layer insulation (MLI), have also been possibly identified. However uncertainties in the reduced spectral measurements prevent any definitive conclusion with respect to these materials at this time. The surprising lack of results with respect to material identification have forced the experimenters to use other data interpretation methods to characterize the spectral scattering characteristics of the studied satellites. The results from this study have already led to improvements in the ways that reflectance spectra from spacecraft are collected and analysed. Equally important, the data interpretation techniques elaborated over the course of this experiment will also serve to increase the body of knowledge pertaining to the spectral characterization of artificial Earth-orbiting objects.

  5. The scientific and technical aspects of the geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, Luboš

    The GSO is populated at present by less than 170 active satellites, by more than 110 non-functional objects and by an unknown number of debris. The number of radiocommunication Space Stations notified to the IFRB, in the co-ordinating process and with advance publication is 457. The simplified description of the GSO with a spherical Earth as the only attracting body is insufficient and misleading. Perturbations by the attraction of the Moon and the Sun and by other minor natural forces have to be taken into account in order to arrive at a realistic description of the orbit. Since natural forces do not admit of a geostationary satellite, man-made station-keeping is necessary to maintain the satellite at or near its nominal orbital position. The presence of non-functional objects and debris in the GSO is a source of possible danger to active satellites. The probability of a collision is small on the average but may be considerably higher at overcrowded longitudes. The probability of collision will increase in the future and will be very important for large space structures. Scientific grounds underlying sovereignty claims over segments of the GSO are discussed. International agreements on restricting the amount of non-functional objects and debris and on a systematical removal of inactive satellites into disposal orbits are indispensable for a continued use of the benefits of the GSO.

  6. Characterizing the quiet time magnetic field at geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skone, S. H.; Donovan, E. F.; Rostoker, G.

    1995-12-01

    There is now an increasing body of evidence which suggests that the onset of a substorm expansive phase is triggered in the near-Earth tail region, inside X~-12RE [Samson et al., 1992]. For this reason, it is necessary to characterize the magnetic field in the near-Earth region, particularly the quiet time reference field. We have therefore carried out a detailed study of the magnetic field at geostationary orbit, using data acquired during quiet times from the GOES 5 and GOES 6 satellites which operated simultaneously during 1986. Diurnal and seasonal variations of the total field, and the perturbation magnetic field with the IGRF removed, have been identified and attributed to variations in the position of the neutral sheet with respect to the satellite. We have processed the data to remove seasonal effects by using the semiempirical expression developed by Lopez [1990] to express the displacement of the neutral sheet with respect to the magnetic equatorial plane. We then use our magnetic field model, recently developed by Donovan [1993a], to model the observed quiet time magnetic field at geostationary orbit, and also determine the quiet time current configuration.

  7. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Gyro Temperature Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. N.; Noonan, C. H.; Garrick, J.

    1996-01-01

    The geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 1/M series of spacecraft are geostationary weather satellites that use the latest in weather imaging technology. The inertial reference unit package onboard consists of three gyroscopes measuring angular velocity along each of the spacecraft's body axes. This digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) is calibrated and used to maintain spacecraft attitude during orbital delta-V maneuvers. During the early orbit support of GOES-8 (April 1994), the gyro drift rate biases exhibited a large dependency on gyro temperature. This complicated the calibration and introduced errors into the attitude during delta-V maneuvers. Following GOES-8, a model of the DIRA temperature and drift rate bias variation was developed for GOES-9 (May 1995). This model was used to project a value of the DIRA bias to use during the orbital delta-V maneuvers based on the bias change observed as the DIRA warmed up during the calibration. The model also optimizes the yaw reorientation necessary to achieve the correct delta-V pointing attitude. As a result, a higher accuracy was achieved on GOES-9 leading to more efficient delta-V maneuvers and a propellant savings. This paper summarizes the: Data observed on GOES-8 and the complications it caused in calibration; DIRA temperature/drift rate model; Application and results of the model on GOES-9 support.

  8. Future Remote sensing from the Geostationary Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlett, G.; Monks, P.

    The ability of satellite based instrumentation to monitor large regions of the Earth at regular intervals is a key part of remote sensing from space and is inherently linked to the orbit of the host spacecraft. For remote sensing, the vast majority of missions have so far utilised the low Earth orbit (LEO), usually in a sun-synchronous polar orbit. Deficiencies of LEO with respect to remote sensing include poor temporal sampling over low-to-mid latitudes and the inability to monitor Earth system processes that have a rate of change of minutes to hours. Examples of such processes include atmospheric chemistry, clouds, water vapour, fires and cyclonic weather systems. Potentially, use of space-based instruments in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) can overcome the problem of temporal under-sampling. To date, the use of GEO for remote sensing has been restricted in the main to meteorological satellites such as METEOSAT and GOES. The advantage of GEO based observation does not lie solely in the increased revisit time but also in that GEO offers improved sampling, in the VIS-IR, through an increased likelihood of capturing cloud free scenes. Uniquely, the viewing geometry of the GEO offers a fixed viewing and a variable illumination angle that may offer improved data for land surface applications by removing shadowing effects. The GEO does have its disadvantages however, including limited latitudinal and longitudinal total coverage. In addition, the large distance from the Earth to the GEO satellite coupled to the zenith dependence of sun angle can under some circumstances present radiometric limits. The purpose of this talk is to introduce the many areas of Earth system science that will benefit from Geostationary remote sensing, covering the biosphere, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere.

  9. Remote Sensing from Geostationary Orbit: GEO TROPSAT, A New Concept for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Alan D.; Neil, Doreen O.; Sachse, Glen W.; Fishman, Jack; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1997-01-01

    The Geostationary Tropospheric Pollution Satellite (GEO TROPSAT) mission is a new approach to measuring the critical constituents of tropospheric ozone chemistry: ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and aerosols. The GEO TROPSAT mission comprises a constellation of three instruments flying as secondary payloads on geostationary communications satellites around the world. This proposed approach can significantly reduce the cost of getting a science payload to geostationary orbit and also generates revenue for the satellite owners. The geostationary vantage point enables simultaneous high temporal and spatial resolution measurement of tropospheric trace gases, leading to greatly improved atmospheric ozone chemistry knowledge. The science data processing, conducted as a research (not operational) activity, will provide atmospheric trace gas data many times per day over the same region at better than 25 km ground footprint. The high temporal resolution identifies short time scale processes, diurnal variations, seasonal trends, and interannual variation.

  10. Microwave antenna temperature of the earth from geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Smith, E. K.

    1985-01-01

    The microwave antenna temperature of the earth has been computed for the case of a communication satellite antenna viewing the earth from geostationary orbit. An earth-coverage beam is assumed and detailed computations are performed to account for varying land-ocean fractions within the field of view. Emission characteristics of the earth's atmosphere and surface are used with an accurate radiative transfer program to compute observed brightness temperatures. Values of 250 to 290 K commonly used for antenna temperature in satellite communication noise calculations are found to be over-conservative estimates, with more realistic values lying in the 60-240 K range depending on frequency and subsatellite longitude. These values also depend on assumptions concerning antenna beam coverage. Variations in atmospheric and surface conditions, and variations in antenna beam shape (as distinct from coverage), affect the computed results by less than about 10 K.

  11. Sea surface temperature - Observations from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, J. J.; Smith, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Multispectral image data acquired from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (VAS) on the geostationary GOES satellites were used to estimate sea surface temperatures (SST). A procedure was developed to screen VAS visible and infrared data for cloud-free regions for estimation of SST from the clear infrared radiances. A data set of matches between the VAS radiances and high quality buoy estimates of SST was produced. A linear regression analysis of these matches was performed to generate an empirical algorithm relating the VAS window channel brightness temperatures to the estimates of SST recorded by NOAA fixed environment buoys. Daily maps of SST during Hurricanes Alicia (1983) and Debbie (1982) demonstrated the ability of VAS to monitor air-sea interactions at high temporal and spatial scales.

  12. Polar mesospheric clouds seen from geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadsden, M.

    2000-01-01

    The visible image data archived by EUMETSAT have been examined to discover if the whole-Earth images acquired from the geostationary meteorological satellite, METEOSAT, show polar mesospheric clouds above the limb. Images from the northern summer of 1995 show polar mesospheric clouds frequently in June and July at the highest visible latitude (81.3N) and on occasion extending down as low as 65N. A first-look at days through the summer shows that there is no marked forward-scatter of sunlight from the clouds and that it is possible to choose times of day throughout the year when there will be no interference to the detection of polar mesospheric clouds from ghost images of the Sun or from light scattered in the optical system of the radiometer. With over 20 years of data in the archive, available for both northern and southern hemispheres, taken under controlled conditions, studies of the climatology of polar mesospheric clouds can develop significantly.

  13. Radar for Monitoring Hurricanes from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen; Huang, John; Lou, Michael; Smith, Eric; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A document describes a scanning Doppler radar system to be placed in a geostationary orbit for monitoring the three-dimensional structures of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms in general. The system would operate at a frequency of 35 GHz. It would include a large deployable spherical antenna reflector, instead of conventional paraboloidal reflectors, that would allow the reflector to remain stationary while moving the antenna feed(s), and thus, create a set of scanning antenna beams without degradation of performance. The radar would have separate transmitting and receiving antenna feeds moving in spiral scans over an angular excursion of 4 from the boresight axis to providing one radar image per hour of a circular surface area of 5,300-km diameter. The system would utilize a real-time pulse-compression technique to obtain 300-m vertical resolution without sacrificing detection sensitivity and without need for a high-peakpower transmitter. An onboard data-processing subsystem would generate three-dimensional rainfall reflectivity and Doppler observations with 13-km horizontal resolution and line-of-sight Doppler velocity at a precision of 0.3 m/s.

  14. Geostationary payload concepts for personal satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedicto, J.; Rinous, P.; Roberts, I.; Roederer, A.; Stojkovic, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews candidate satellite payload architectures for systems providing world-wide communication services to mobile users equipped with hand-held terminals based on large geostationary satellites. There are a number of problems related to the payload architecture, on-board routing and beamforming, and the design of the S-band Tx and L-band Rx antenna and front ends. A number of solutions are outlined, based on trade-offs with respect to the most significant performance parameters such as capacity, G/T, flexibility of routing traffic to beams and re-configuration of the spot-beam coverage, and payload mass and power. Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular direct radiating arrays, arrays magnified by a reflector and active focused reflectors with overlapping feed clusters for both transmit (multimax) and receive (beam synthesis). Regarding the on-board routing and beamforming sub-systems, analog techniques based on banks of SAW filters, FET or CMOS switches and cross-bar fixed and variable beamforming are compared with a hybrid analog/digital approach based on Chirp Fourier Transform (CFT) demultiplexer combined with digital beamforming or a fully digital processor implementation, also based on CFT demultiplexing.

  15. Geostationary payload concepts for personal satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedicto, J.; Rinous, P.; Roberts, I.; Roederer, A.; Stojkovic, I.

    This paper reviews candidate satellite payload architectures for systems providing world-wide communication services to mobile users equipped with hand-held terminals based on large geostationary satellites. There are a number of problems related to the payload architecture, on-board routing and beamforming, and the design of the S-band Tx and L-band Rx antenna and front ends. A number of solutions are outlined, based on trade-offs with respect to the most significant performance parameters such as capacity, G/T, flexibility of routing traffic to beams and re-configuration of the spot-beam coverage, and payload mass and power. Candidate antenna and front-end configurations were studied, in particular direct radiating arrays, arrays magnified by a reflector and active focused reflectors with overlapping feed clusters for both transmit (multimax) and receive (beam synthesis). Regarding the on-board routing and beamforming sub-systems, analog techniques based on banks of SAW filters, FET or CMOS switches and cross-bar fixed and variable beamforming are compared with a hybrid analog/digital approach based on Chirp Fourier Transform (CFT) demultiplexer combined with digital beamforming or a fully digital processor implementation, also based on CFT demultiplexing.

  16. GeoSTAR - A Microwave Sounder for Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Wilson, William; Tanner, Alan; Gaier, Todd; Ruf, Chris; Piepmeier, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    GeoSTAR represents a new approach to microwave atmospheric sounding that is now under development. It has capabilities similar to sensors currently operating on low earth orbiting weather satellites but is intended for deployment in geostationary orbit - where it will complement future infrared sounders and enable all-weather temperature and humidity soundings and rain mapping. The required spatial resolution of 50 km or better dictates an aperture of 4 meters or more at a sounding frequency of 50 GHz, which is difficult to achieve with a real aperture system - this is the reason why it has until now not been possible to put a microwave sounder on a geostationary platform. GeoSTAR is instead based on a synthetic aperture imaging approach. Among the advantages of such a system are that there are no moving parts, and the size of the aperture is easily expandable to meet future needs. A ground based prototype of GeoSTAR is currently under development in an effort led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  17. Time transfer using geostationary satellites: Implementation of a Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, F.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1988, various experiments have shown that the TV signals transmitted by direct TV satellites may easily be used to perform time transfers at the level of a few tens of nanoseconds, the main source of error being the uncertainty on the satellite position. We first present the two methods used in our experiment to reduce the effects of the satellite residual motion: the first one consists in estimating the longitude variations of the satellite and then using this information to improve other measurements. This allows reducing the uncertainty to values between 9 and 50 nanoseconds according to the position of the involved stations. In the second method we determine the satellite position by using the data collected by three calibrated stations. Time transfer between each of these stations and a fourth one has been shown to be achievable at the precision level of ten nanoseconds. A new approach based on the use of a Kalman filter is proposed in order to take into account the dynamics of the geostationary satellite. The precisions on orbital elements and clock differences and rates determination given by the first simulated applications of the Kalman filter are presented and compared to those obtained by the other methods.

  18. Downburst prediction applications of meteorological geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, Kenneth L.

    2014-11-01

    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective storm downbursts derived from the current generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (13-15). The existing suite of GOES downburst prediction products employs the GOES sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. A diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index (MWPI), is designed to infer attributes of a favorable downburst environment: 1) the presence of large convective available potential energy (CAPE), and 2) the presence of a surface-based or elevated mixed layer with a steep temperature lapse rate and vertical relative humidity gradient. These conditions foster intense convective downdrafts upon the interaction of sub-saturated air in the elevated or sub-cloud mixed layer with the storm precipitation core. This paper provides an updated assessment of the MWPI algorithm, presents recent case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the MWPI product over the Atlantic coastal region, and presents validation results for the United States Great Plains and Mid-Atlantic coastal region. In addition, an application of the brightness temperature difference (BTD) between GOES imager water vapor (6.5μm) and thermal infrared (11μm) channels that identifies regions where downbursts are likely to develop, due to mid-tropospheric dry air entrainment, will be outlined.

  19. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  20. Studies of soundings and imagings measurements from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    Soundings and imaging measurements from geostationary satellites are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) meteorological data processing techniques, (2) sun glitter, (3) cloud growth rate study, satellite stability characteristics, and (4) high resolution optics. The use of perturbation technique to obtain the motion of sensors aboard a satellite is described. The most conditions, and measurement errors. Several performance evaluation parameters are proposed.

  1. Two different attitude control methods for geostationary communication broadcasting satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhenduo

    1990-02-01

    In this paper, two different attitude control methods for the geostationary satellite - attitude control by satellite-ground loop and autonomous attitude control on board are discussed. Attitude controls of the Chinese satellites STW-1 and STW-2 are described. The design of the attitude control system for three-axis-stabilized spacecraft is also discussed.

  2. Geostationary orbit Earth science platform concepts for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jeffery T.; Campbell, Thomas G.; Davis, William T.; Garn, Paul A.; King, Charles B.; Jackson, Cheryl C.

    1991-01-01

    Functionality of a geostationary spacecraft to support Earth science regional process research is identified. Most regional process studies require high spatial and temporal resolution. These high temporal resolutions are on the order of 30 minutes and may be achievable with instruments positioned in a geostationary orbit. A complement of typical existing or near term instruments are identified to take advantage of this altitude. This set of instruments is listed, and the requirements these instruments impose on a spacecraft are discussed. A brief description of the geostationary spacecraft concepts which support these instruments is presented.

  3. Crew Transfer Options for Servicing of Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, NASA and DARPA undertook a study to examine capabilities and system architecture options which could be used to provide manned servicing of satellites in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). The study focused on understanding the generic nature of the problem and examining technology requirements, it was not for the purpose of proposing or justifying particular solutions. A portion of this study focused on assessing possible capabilities to efficiently transfer crew between Earth, Low Earth Orbit (LEO), and GEO satellite servicing locations. This report summarizes the crew transfer aspects of manned GEO satellite servicing. Direct placement of crew via capsule vehicles was compared to concepts of operation which divided crew transfer into multiple legs, first between earth and LEO and second between LEO and GEO. In space maneuvering via purely propulsive means was compared to in-space maneuvering which utilized aerobraking maneuvers for return to LEO from GEO. LEO waypoint locations such as equatorial, Kennedy Space Center, and International Space Station inclinations were compared. A discussion of operational concepts is followed by a discussion of appropriate areas for technology development.

  4. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 mission flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, C. H.; Mcintosh, R. J.; Rowe, J. N.; Defazio, R. L.; Galal, K. F.

    1995-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 spacecraft was launched on April 13, 1994, at 06:04:02 coordinated universal time (UTC), with separation from the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle occurring at 06:33:05 UTC. The launch was followed by a series of complex, intense operations to maneuver the spacecraft into its geosynchronous mission orbit. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) was responsible for GOES-8 attitude, orbit maneuver, orbit determination, and station acquisition support during the ascent phase. This paper summarizes the efforts of the FDF support teams and highlights some of the unique challenges the launch team faced during critical GOES-8 mission support. FDF operations experience discussed includes: (1) The abort of apogee maneuver firing-1 (AMF-1), cancellation of AMF-3, and the subsequent replans of the maneuver profile; (2) The unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) and its effect on GOES-8 attitude targeting in support of perigee raising maneuvers; (3) The significant effect of attitude control thrusting on GOES-8 orbit determination solutions; (4) Adjustment of the trim tab to minimize torque due to solar radiation pressure; and (5) Postlaunch analysis performed to estimate the GOES-8 separation attitude. The paper also discusses some key FDF GOES-8 lessons learned to be considered for the GOES-J launch which is currently scheduled for May 19, 1995.

  5. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 mission flight experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noonan, C. H.; McIntosh, R. J.; Rowe, J. N.; Defazio, R. L.; Galal, K. F.

    1995-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 spacecraft was launched on April 13, 1994, at 06:04:02 coordinated universal time (UTC), with separation from the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle occurring at 06:33:05 UTC. The launch was followed by a series of complex, intense operations to maneuver the spacecraft into its geosynchronous mission orbit. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) was responsible for GOES-8 attitude, orbit maneuver, orbit determination, and station acquisition support during the ascent phase. This paper summarizes the efforts of the FDF support teams and highlights some of the unique challenges the launch team faced during critical GOES-8 mission support. FDF operations experience discussed includes: (1) The abort of apogee maneuver firing-1 (AMF-1), cancellation of AMF-3, and the subsequent replans of the maneuver profile; (2) The unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) and its effect on GOES-8 attitude targeting in support of perigee raising maneuvers; (3) The significant effect of attitude control thrusting on GOES-8 orbit determination solutions; (4) Adjustment of the trim tab to minimize torque due to solar radiation pressure; and (5) Postlaunch analysis performed to estimate the GOES-8 separation attitude. The paper also discusses some key FDF GOES-8 lessons learned to be considered for the GOES-J launch which is currently scheduled for May 19, 1995.

  6. Status of CNES optical observations of space debris in geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alby, F.; Deguine, B.; Escane, I.

    Ground observation of space debris in geostationary orbit (GEO) or close to it is not feasible with radar facilities. Optical systems using a telescope and a CCD camera are effective solutions for such a GEO survey because objects remain fixed with report to the Earth. The photons can be cumulated during the exposure time, thus allowing observing faint objects. CNES has been studying and developing such systems for several years with two main objectives: first to develop systems able to detect debris in the vicinity of the geostationary orbit for statistical evaluation of the population, secondly to develop a tool to accurately determine the orbits: these activities are led in the frame of two projects called Tarot and Rosace. On one hand, the capability of detecting small objects in geostationary orbit was demonstrated during previous studies using a large Schmidt telescope. Now, the software has been transferred on a smaller telescope called Tarot. This telescope has the advantage to be automatic with a real time processing capability and can be remotely controlled. Moreover, its large field of view enables a systematic survey of the geostationary region to detect uncatalogued objects. Beside the detection function, a step by step orbit determination function is implemented. This function is necessary to find again the same object a few minutes or a few hours later. On the other hand, Rosace was designed as a low cost accurate orbit determination system for on-station geostationary satellites. The main application is the calibration of the classical tracking systems. The other objectives are to provide redundancy to existing facilities, to track failed satellites or to monitor co-located satellites. The first operational use is now foreseen in the frame of the Stentor project. This paper presents the main characteristics of both systems, the principle of their image processing software, their development status and the main results obtained. Finally, perspectives for further developments and coupling of the two systems are presented.

  7. Advanced Propulsion for Geostationary Orbit Insertion and North-South Station Keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.; Kluever, Craig A.; Riehl, John P.; Curran, Francis M.

    1997-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion technology is currently being used for geostationary satellite station keeping. Analyses show that electric propulsion technologies can be used to obtain additional increases in payload mass by using them to perform part of the orbit transfer. Three electric propulsion technologies are examined at two power levels for geostationary insertion of an Atlas IIAS class spacecraft. The onboard chemical propulsion apogee engine fuel is reduced in this analysis to allow the use of electric propulsion. A numerical optimizer is used to determine the chemical burns that will minimize the electric propulsion transfer times. For a 1550-kg Atlas IIAS class payload, increases in net mass (geostationary satellite mass less wet propulsion system mass) of 150-800 kg are enabled by using electric propulsion for station keeping, advanced chemical engines for part of the transfer, and electric propulsion for the remainder of the transfer. Trip times are between one and four months.

  8. Apple - Indian experimental geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, U. R.; Vasagam, R. M.

    Developmental steps, responsibilities, design goals, performance characteristics, and support systems for the ISRO Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) experimental GEO communication satellite are described. The spacecraft underwent structural, thermal, engineering, prototype, and flight qualification tests in India before being shipped to Guyana for launch on the third Ariane test flight. APPLE carries a redundant C-band communication transponder fed by a 900 mm diam parabolic reflector. A 6 GHz uplink and 4 GHz downlink are processed through a diplexer, with the receiver employing a low noise GaAs FET amplifier. In-orbit telemetry is provided by a 4095 MHz beacon with a data rate of 64 bits/sec. Two solar panels supply 210 W of power, while an on-board Ni-Cd storage battery stores 240 Wh for the ascent and during eclipse. Teleconferencing has been successfully performed using the spacecraft link.

  9. An approach to ground based space surveillance of geostationary on-orbit servicing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Robert (Lauchie); Ellery, Alex

    2015-07-01

    On Orbit Servicing (OOS) is a class of dual-use robotic space missions that could potentially extend the life of orbiting satellites by fuel replenishment, repair, inspection, orbital maintenance or satellite repurposing, and possibly reduce the rate of space debris generation. OOS performed in geostationary orbit poses a unique challenge for the optical space surveillance community. Both satellites would be performing proximity operations in tight formation flight with separations less than 500 m making atmospheric seeing (turbulence) a challenge to resolving a geostationary satellite pair when viewed from the ground. The two objects would appear merged in an image as the resolving power of the telescope and detector, coupled with atmospheric seeing, limits the ability to resolve the two objects. This poses an issue for obtaining orbital data for conjunction flight safety or, in matters pertaining to space security, inferring the intent and trajectory of an unexpected object perched very close to one's satellite asset on orbit. In order to overcome this problem speckle interferometry using a cross spectrum approach is examined as a means to optically resolve the client and servicer's relative positions to enable a means to perform relative orbit determination of the two spacecraft. This paper explores cases where client and servicing satellites are in unforced relative motion flight and examines the observability of the objects. Tools are described that exploit cross-spectrum speckle interferometry to (1) determine the presence of a secondary in the vicinity of the client satellite and (2) estimate the servicing satellite's motion relative to the client. Experimental observations performed with the Mont Mégantic 1.6 m telescope on co-located geostationary satellites (acting as OOS proxy objects) are described. Apparent angular separations between Anik G1 and Anik F1R from 5 to 1 arcsec were observed as the two satellites appeared to graze one another. Data reduction using differential angular measurements derived from speckle images collected by the 1.6 m telescope produced relative orbit estimates with better than 90 m accuracy in the cross-track and in-track directions but exhibited highly variable behavior in the radial component from 50 to 1800 m. Simulations of synthetic tracking data indicated that the radial component requires approximately six hours of tracking data for an Extended Kalman Filter to converge on an relative orbit estimate with less than 100 m overall uncertainty. The cross-spectrum approach takes advantage of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) permitting near real-time estimation of the relative orbit of the two satellites. This also enables the use of relatively larger detector arrays (>106 pixels) helping to ease acquisition process to acquire optical angular data.

  10. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009-2013 vegetation seasons. To provide the retrieval of Ts.eff, E, Ta, NDVI, B, and LAI the previously developed technologies of AVHRR data processing have been refined and adapted to the region of interest. The updated linear regression estimators for Ts.eff and Tà have been built using representative training samples compiled for above vegetation seasons. The updated software package has been applied for AVHRR data processing to generate estimates of named values. To verify the accuracy of these estimates the error statistics of Ts.eff and Ta derivation has been investigated for various days of named seasons using comparison with in-situ ground-based measurements. On the base of special technology and Internet resources the remote sensing products Tls, E, NDVI, LAI derived from MODIS data and covering the study area have been extracted from LP DAAC web-site for the same vegetation seasons. The reliability of the MODIS-derived Tls estimates has been confirmed via comparison with analogous and collocated ground-, AVHRR-, and SEVIRI-based ones. The prepared remote sensing dataset has also included the SEVIRI-derived estimates of Tls, E, NDVI, Ta at daylight and night-time and daily estimates of LAI. The Tls estimates has been built utilizing the method and technology developed for the retrieval of Tls and E from 15 minutes time interval SEVIRI data in IR channels 10.8 and 12.0 µm (classified as 100% cloud-free and covering the area of interest) at three successive times without accurate a priori knowledge of E. Comparison of the SEVIRI-based Tls retrievals with independent collocated Tls estimates generated at the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF, Lisbon, Portugal) has given daily- or monthly-averaged values of RMS deviation in the range of 2°C for various dates and months during the mentioned vegetation seasons which is quite acceptable result. The reliability of the SEVIRI-based Tls estimates for the study area has been also confirmed by comparing with AVHRR- and MODIS-derived LST estimates for the same seasons. The SEVIRI-derived values of Ta considered as the temperature of the vegetation cover has been obtained using Tls estimates and a previously found multiple linear regression relationship between Tls and Ta formulated accounting for solar zenith angle and land elevation. A comparison with ground-based collocated Ta observations has given RMS errors of 2.5°C and lower. It can be treated as a proof of the proposed technique's functionality. SEVIRI-derived LAI estimates have been retrieved at LSA SAF from measurements by this sensor in channels 0.6, 0.8, and 1.6 μm under cloud-free conditions at that when using data in the channel 1.6 μm the accuracy of these estimates has increased. In the study the AVHRR- and SEVIRI-derived estimates of daily and monthly precipitation sums for the territory under investigation for the years 2009 - 2013 vegetation seasons have been also used. These estimates have been obtained by the improved integrated Multi Threshold Method (MTM) providing detection and identification of cloud types around the clock throughout the year as well as identification of precipitation zones and determination of instantaneous precipitation maximum intensity within the pixel using the measurement data in different channels of named sensors as predictors. Validation of the MTM has been performed by comparing the daily and monthly precipitation sums with appropriate values resulted from ground-based observations at the meteorological stations of the region. The probability of detecting precipitation zones from satellite data corresponding to the actual ones has been amounted to 70-80%. AVHRR- and SEVIRI-derived daily and monthly precipitation sums have been in reasonable agreement with each other and with results of ground-based observations although they are smoother than the last values. Discrepancies have been noted only for local maxima for which satellite-based estimates of precipitation have been much less than ground-based ones. It may be due to the different spatial scales of areal satellite-derived and point ground-based estimates. To utilize satellite-derived vegetation and meteorological characteristics in the model the special procedures have been developed including: - replacement of ground-based LAI and B estimates used as model parameters by their satellite-derived estimates from AVHRR, MODIS and SEVIRI data. Correctness of such replacement has been confirmed by comparing the time behavior of LAI over the period of vegetation as well as modeled and measured values of evapotranspiration Ev and soil moisture content W; - entering AVHRR-, MODIS- and SEVIRI-derived estimates of Ts.eff Tls, and Ta into the model as input variables instead of ground-measured values with verification of adequacy of model operation under such a change through comparison of the calculated and measured values of W and Ev; - inputing satellite-derived estimates of precipitation during vegetation period retrieved from AVHRR and SEVIRI data using the MTM into the model as input variables. When developing given procedure algorithms and programs have been created to transit from assessment of the rainfall intensity to evaluation of its daily values. The implementation of such a transition requires controlling correctness of the estimates built at each time step. This control includes comparison of areal distributions of three-hour, daily and monthly precipitation amounts obtained from satellite data and calculated by interpolation of standard network observation data; - taking into account spatial heterogeneity of fields of satellite AVHRR-, MODIS- and SEVIRI-derived estimates of LAI, B, LST and precipitation. This has involved the development of algorithms and software for entering the values of all named characteristics into the model in each computational grid node. Values of evapotranspiration E, soil water content W, vertical latent and sensible heat fluxes and other water and heat balance components as well as land surface temperature and moisture area-distributed over the territory of interest have been resulted from the model calculations for the years 2009-2013 vegetation seasons. These calculations have been carried out utilizing satellite-derived estimates of the vegetation characteristics, LST and precipitation. E and W calculation errors have not exceeded the standard values.

  11. Performance Analysis of the HTTP Protocol on Geostationary Satellite Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krus, Hans; Allman, Mark; Griner, Jim; Tran, Diepchi

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with HTTP protocol on geostationary satellite links are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network reference points; 2) The HTTP 1.0 and 1.1 mechanisms; 3) Experimental setup; 4) TCP and HTTP configuration; 5) Modelling slow start and 6) Results and future work.

  12. Earth-to-Geostationary Orbit Transportation for Space Solar Power System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Schuyler C.; McClanahan, James A.; Carrington, Connie K. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space solar power satellites have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electricity for use on Earth. One concept, the Sun Tower, can be assembled in geostationary orbit from pieces transferred from Earth. The cost of transportation is one of the major hurdles to space solar power. This study found that autonomous solar-electric transfer is a good choice for the transportation from LEO to GEO.

  13. McIDAS-V: A powerful visualization and data analysis tool for geostationary environmental satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtor, T. H.; Rink, T.; Straka, W.; Feltz, J.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) has been at the forefront in developing data analysis and visualization tools for environmental satellite and other geophysical data. The fifth generation of the Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS-V) is a java-based, open-source, freely available system for researchers and algorithm developers that is being adapted and expanded for use with advanced geostationary environmental satellite observations. A key attribute of analysis and visualization systems is access to and display of a large variety of geophysical data. Providing these capabilities for numerous data types provides users with powerful tools for merging information, comparison of products and evaluation. McIDAS-V provides unique capabilities that support creative techniques for developing and evaluating algorithms, visualizing data and products in 4 dimensions, and validating results. For geostationary applications, McIDAS-V provides visualization and analysis support for GOES, MSG, MTSAT and FY2 data. NOAA is supporting the McIDAS-V development program for ABI imagery and products for the GOES-R/S series, which will bring an advanced multi-spectral imager into geostationary orbit. Used together, the geostationary environmental satellites provide the user community with detailed global coverage with rapid update cycles. This poster and demonstration will provide an overview of McIDAS-V with demonstrations of the data acquisition, visualization and analysis tools to support the international geostationary environmental satellite programs. It will also present results from several research projects involving current and future environmental satellites, demonstrating how the McIDAS-V software can be used to acquire satellite and ancillary data, create multi--spectral products using both scripting and interactive data manipulation tools, and evaluate output through on-board validation techniques.;

  14. Ka-band geostationary satellite spacing requirements and access schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caron, Mario; Hindson, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Geostationary satellite systems for wideband personal communications applications have been proposed. This paper looks at the geostationary satellite spacing requirement to meet the ITU-R sharing criterion for FDMA and CDMA access schemes. CDMA capacity equation is first developed. Then the basis for the interference analysis between two systems with an overlapping coverage area is developed for the cases of identical and different access schemes and for bandwidth and power limited systems. An example of an interference analysis between two systems is fully carried out. The paper also points out the inherent problems when comparing systems with different access schemes. It is found that under certain scenarios, CDMA can allow a closer spacing between satellites.

  15. The use of geostationary platforms for future U.S. domestic satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, S.; Stamminger, R.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of the relative costs and utilization of the available geostationary orbital arc and radio spectrum allocations between large spacecraft platforms and future individual satellites used for communications in the U.S. and the Atlantic Basin are presented. Attention is given to the high capacity and the switching capabilities of the platforms, and the frequency ranges (6/4, 14/12, and 30/20 GHz) at which they can operate. In addition, characteristics of conventional satellites, earth station design, and the connectivity of satellite systems are discussed.

  16. Retrieval and verification of fire radiative power using the Korean geostationary meteorological satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Sun; Lee, Yang-Won

    2014-10-01

    Recently, frequency and strength of global wildfire are on the increase. The wildfire encourages the climate change through release of GHGs into the atmosphere over one time occur. The effect of wildfire GHGs can be estimate by FRP(fire radiative power), many research using the remote sensing are trying for its efficient produce. A satellite fire product including fire mask and FRP was produced by polar orbit satellite at first, thereafter it was expanded to geostationary satellites for continuous monitoring of wide areas. However, geostationary satellites observing in East Asia no got a standard to produce the fire product yet. This paper described a retrieval of FRP using the COMS(Communication, Ocean and Meteorological satellite) that is a Korean geostationary satellite. The COMS FRP was retrieved MIR(Middle infrared) radiance method which approaches by brightness temperature of single waveband. Our test was presented that large scale wildfires(FRP > 300MW and confidence level > 9) occurred in the each April. The COMS FRP showed MAE = 103.67 MW(16%) with the MODIS. This result represents much as possibility of the FRP in East Asia. This paper is expected to provide to baseline for the FRP in East Asia, and apply to biomass loss and estimate the GHGs. In addition, the COMS FRP will contribute to studies of aerosols, economic losses and ecosystem damages as basic data.

  17. The Proposed Ku-Band Non Geostationary Communication Satellite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. V.

    2000-07-01

    At the 1997 World Radio Conference France was able to secure agreement for Alcatel-Alsthom to launch a non-geostationary satellite system (called SkyBridge) operating at Ku-band, and utilizing the same spectrum as employed by the existing Ku-band geostationary satellites. Provisional power flux density limits for the level of unwanted interference into existing satellite and ground antennas were also adopted and are presently being reviewed by an ITU-R Joint Task Group. SkyBridge subsequently petitioned the U.S. Federal Communications Commission for a license to operate in the United States, causing the FCC to open a window for others to file for such systems. Five new filings were received and this paper describes the six (including Sky-Bridge) designs that have now been proposed. The paper discusses some of the relative merits of the various designs and also the issues of a) interference with the existing geostationary satellites (which may be solvable albeit with the latter losing some capacity) and b) mutual interference among NGSO systems (which may not be solvable in a manner acceptable to their proponents).

  18. Remote sensing of aerosol and radiation from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, I.; Ciren, P.; Liu, H.; Kondragunta, S.; Tarpley, D.; Goldberg, M.

    Real time monitoring of aerosol and surface insolation from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES data have been routinely conducted With the launch of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES-R in 2012 the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing The instruments onboard GOES-R will offer capabilities for aerosol remote sensing similar to those currently provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MODIS flown on the NASA Earth Observing System EOS satellites The Advanced Baseline Imager ABI on GOES-R will expand NOAA s frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing that can support a wide range of weather and environmental applications including the determination of aerosol properties and more accurate determination of surface insolation This paper describes some of the current and planned work at the NOAA Center for Satellite Applications and Research STAR that will use the new capabilities offered by these sensors for aerosol remote sensing and surface insolation as well as work that addresses the transition from past aerosol retrievals to those obtained from the new instruments Among the latter the information content provided by multispectral radiometers is evaluated by analyzing MODIS-derived and operational single-channel aerosol retrievals

  19. Air Quality Science and Regulatory Efforts Require Geostationary Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, D. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality scientists and regulatory agencies would benefit from the high spatial and temporal resolution trace gas and aerosol data that could be provided by instruments on a geostationary platform. More detailed time-resolved data from a geostationary platform could be used in tracking regional transport and in evaluating mesoscale air quality model performance in terms of photochemical evolution throughout the day. The diurnal cycle of photochemical pollutants is currently missing from the data provided by the current generation of atmospheric chemistry satellites which provide only one measurement per day. Often peak surface ozone mixing ratios are reached much earlier in the day during major regional pollution episodes than during local episodes due to downward mixing of ozone that had been transported above the boundary layer overnight. The regional air quality models often do not simulate this downward mixing well enough and underestimate surface ozone in regional episodes. Having high time-resolution geostationary data will make it possible to determine the magnitude of this lower-and mid-tropospheric transport that contributes to peak eight-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations. We will show ozone and PM(sub 2.5) episodes from the CMAQ model and suggest ways in which geostationary satellite data would improve air quality forecasting. Current regulatory modeling is typically being performed at 12 km horizontal resolution. State and regional air quality regulators in regions with complex topography and/or land-sea breezes are anxious to move to 4-km or finer resolution simulations. Geostationary data at these or finer resolutions will be useful in evaluating such models.

  20. HISPASAT launch and early operations phases: Computation and monitoring of geostationary satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brousse, Pascal; Desprairies, Arnaud

    1993-01-01

    Since 1974, CNES, the French National Space Agency, has been involved in the geostationary launch and early operations phases (LEOP) of moving satellites from a transfer orbit delivered by a launcher to a geostationary point. During the operations and their preparation, the Flight Dynamics Center (FDC), part of CNES LEOP facilities, is in charge of the space mechanics aspects. What is noteworthy about the Spanish HISPASAT satellite positioning is that all the operations were performed on the customer's premises, and consequently the FDC was duplicated in Madrid, Spain. The first part of this paper is the FDC presentation: its role, its hardware configuration, and its space dynamics ground control system called MERCATOR. The second part of this paper details the preparation used by the FDC for the HISPASAT mission: hardware and software installation in Madrid, integration with the other entities, and technical and operational qualifications. The third part gives results concerning flight dynamics aspects and operational activities.

  1. Development of unified propulsion system for geostationary satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Masuda, I.; Kameishi, M.; Miyoshi, K.; Takahashi, M.

    Japan's first Liquid Apogee Propulsion System (LAPS) has been developed for ETS-VI (Engineering Test Satellite - VI) 2-ton class geostationary satellite. The next largest (2-ton class) geostationary satellite, COMETS (Communication and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite), requires a more compact apogee propulsion system in order to increase the space for mission instruments. The study for such a propulsion system concluded with a Unified Propulsion System (UPS), which uses a common N2H4 propellant tank for both bipropellant apogee engines and monopropellant Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters. This type of propulsion system has several significant advantages compared with popular nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) bipropellant satellite propulsion systems: The NTO/N2H4 apogee engine has a high specific impulse, and N2H4 thrusters have high reliability. Residual of N2H4 caused by propellant utilization of apogee engine firing (AEF) can be consumed by N2H4 monopropellant thrusters; that means a considerably prolonged satellite life.

  2. Displaced geostationary orbits using hybrid low-thrust propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiligers, Jeannette; McInnes, Colin R.; Biggs, James D.; Ceriotti, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, displaced geostationary orbits using hybrid low-thrust propulsion, a complementary combination of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) and solar sailing, are investigated to increase the capacity of the geostationary ring that is starting to become congested. The SEP propellant consumption is minimized in order to maximize the mission lifetime by deriving semi-analytical formulae for the optimal steering laws for the SEP and solar sail accelerations. By considering the spacecraft mass budget, the performance is also expressed in terms of payload mass capacity. The analyses are performed both for the use of pure SEP and hybrid low-thrust propulsion to allow for a comparison. It is found that hybrid low-thrust control outperforms the pure SEP case both in terms of payload mass capacity and mission lifetime for all displacements considered. Hybrid low-thrust propulsion enables payloads of 255-487 kg to be maintained in a 35 km displaced orbit for 10-15 years. Adding the influence of the J2 and J terms of the Earth's gravity field has a small effect on this lifetime, which becomes almost negligible for small values of the sail lightness number. Finally, two SEP transfers that allow for an improvement in the performance of hybrid low-thrust control are optimized for the propellant consumption by solving the accompanying optimal control problem using a direct pseudospectral method. The first type of transfer enables a transit between orbits displaced above and below the equatorial plane, while the second type of transfer enables customized service for which a spacecraft is transferred to a Keplerian parking orbit when geostationary coverage is not needed. While the latter requires a modest propellant budget, the first type of transfer comes at the cost of an almost negligible SEP propellant consumption.

  3. Land surface albedo based on GOES geostationary satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. L.; Lattanzio, A.; Hankins, B.; Knapp, K.; Privette, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Land surface albedo is the fraction of incoming solar radiation reflected by the land surface, and therefore can be a sensitive indicator of environmental changes. To this end, surface albedo is identified as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) recently adapted the Geostationary Surface Albedo (GSA; Lattanzio and Govaerts, 2010) algorithm for use with GOES data in support of a global albedo initiative led by the Sustained, Coordinated Processing of Environmental Satellite Data for Climate Monitoring (SCOPE-CM). SCOPE-CM helps coordinate ECV production responding to GCOS, WMO, and CEOS goals. The GSA algorithm was developed jointly by EUMETSAT and Joint Research Centre (JRC) using a method proposed by Pinty et al. (2000) to determine surface albedo using day-time, cloud-free geostationary observations from a single visible band. For the GOES implementation, raw GOES observations are calibrated using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) coefficients. Surface angular anisotropy is determined through the inversion of the GSA radiative transfer model using multiple geostationary images collected over a day under different illumination conditions. The inversion process requires ancillary total column ozone and water vapor values, which are acquired from the 20th Century Reanalysis V2 data set. The GSA algorithm produces a 10-day composite surface albedo map. This product is initially being developed for the years 2000-2003. Product quality is being assessed through comparisons with MODIS products as well as ground-based measurements. NCDC is producing albedo products from both GOES-E (75W) and GOES-W (135W). These are being merged with like products from EUMETSAT based on METEOSAT (0 and 63E) and from JMA based on the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite System (140E). In the near future, NOAA's Climate Data Record Program will provide the albedo product over the entire GOES period of record (1978-present).

  4. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  5. 47 CFR 25.146 - Licensing and operating rules for the non-geostationary orbit Fixed-Satellite Service in the 10.7...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radiated by the space station regardless of the satellite transmitter power resource allocation and traffic... anticipated operational power flux density (PFD) masks, on the surface of the Earth, for each space station in... specific scheduling of the actual measured space station antenna patterns (see § 25.210(k))....

  6. Satellite orbit computation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mathematical and algorithmical techniques for solution of problems in satellite dynamics were developed, along with solutions to satellite orbit motion. Dynamical analysis of shuttle on-orbit operations were conducted. Computer software routines for use in shuttle mission planning were developed and analyzed, while mathematical models of atmospheric density were formulated.

  7. Fuzzy logic techniques for rendezvous and docking of two geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    1995-01-01

    Large assemblings in space require the ability to manage rendezvous and docking operations. In future these techniques will be required for the gradual build up of big telecommunication platforms in the geostationary orbit. The paper discusses the use of fuzzy logic to model and implement a control system for the docking/berthing of two satellites in geostationary orbit. The system mounted in a chaser vehicle determines the actual state of both satellites and generates torques to execute maneuvers to establish the structural latching. The paper describes the proximity operations to collocate the two satellites in the same orbital window, the fuzzy guidance and navigation of the chaser approaching the target and the final Fuzzy berthing. The fuzzy logic system represents a knowledge based controller that realizes the close loop operations autonomously replacing the conventional control algorithms. The goal is to produce smooth control actions in the proximity of the target and during the docking to avoid disturbance torques in the final assembly orbit. The knowledge of the fuzzy controller consists of a data base of rules and the definitions of the fuzzy sets. The knowledge of an experienced spacecraft controller is captured into a set of rules forming the Rules Data Base.

  8. Orbit analysis of a geostationary gravitational wave interferometer detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinto, Massimo; de Araujo, Jose C. N.; Kuga, Helio K.; Alves, Márcio E. S.; Aguiar, Odylio D.

    2015-09-01

    We analyze the trajectories of three geostationary satellites forming the geostationary gravitational wave interferometer (GEOGRAWI) [1], a space-based laser interferometer mission aiming to detect and study gravitational radiation in the (10-4-10) Hz band. The combined effects of the gravity fields of the Earth, the Sun and the Moon make the three satellites deviate from their nominally stationary, equatorial and equilateral configuration. Since changes in the satellites’s relative distances and orientations could negatively affect the precision of the laser heterodyne measurements, we have derived the time-dependence of the inter-satellite distances and velocities, the variations of the polar angles made by the constellation’s three arms with respect to a chosen reference frame and the time changes of the triangle’s enclosed angles. We find that during the time between two consecutive station-keeping maneuvers (about two weeks) the relative variations of the inter-satellite distances do not exceed a value of 0.05%, while the relative velocities between pairs of satellites remain smaller than about 0.7 m s-1. In addition, we find the angles made by the arms of the triangle with the equatorial plane to be periodic functions of time whose amplitudes grow linearly with time; the maximum variations experienced by these angles as well as by those within the triangle remain smaller than 3 arc-minutes, while the east-west angular variations of the three arms remain smaller than about 15 arc-minutes during the two-week period.

  9. Environmental interactions of polar orbiting satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Addressed are questions concerning how large, and/or high-power, polar-orbiting spacecraft will interact with auroral environments. This paper discusses some experiences of spacecraft charging, vehicle shadowing, and current leakage encountered by AFGL measuring systems on small, polar-orbiting satellites. Because spacecraft charging at ionospheric altitudes does not seriously threaten the operation of present systems this subject has not received the widespread attention given to it at geostationary altitudes. As a matter of economics it is desirable to transfer as much as possible of what we have learned about spacecraft interactions at geostationary orbit to the auroral oval. Economics must not however blind us to the real differences between the two problems.

  10. Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) Development in the Context of Other Future Geostationary Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmetz, J.; Stuhlmann, R.; Grandell, J.; Tjemkes, S.; Calbet, X.; Koenig, M.; Rota, S.

    2012-12-01

    Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) will provide continuity to the European Meteosat observations which are currently performed with Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). MSG takes images in 12 channels with a repeat rate of 15 minutes for the full disk. The future MTG satellites will expand the capabilities far beyond those of MSG with an enhanced imager (FCI) which has 16 channels and a 10 minutes repeat cycle for taking images of the earth's full disk. Especially the novel instruments on MTG a) Lightning Imager (LI), hyperspectral InfraRed Sounder (IRS) and the Ultraviolet-Visible-Near infrared spectrometer (UVN) will provide unprecedented observations. The four instruments will fly on two types of satellites, the imaging satellites (MTG-I) carrying the FCI and LI, and the sounding satellites (MTG-S) carrying the IRS and UVN. The UVN instrument is provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European GMES (Global Monitoring and Environmental Security) programme. The first launch of an imaging satellite is foreseen for 2017. In total the MTG series will serve us with four MTG-I and two MTG-S satellites for about two decades. MTG has been defined to meet the requirements of the user community, i.e. mainly users in Europe. However an interesting perspective is to see the development of the European MTG satellite system in the context of the evolution of the global space-based meteorological satellite system, notably those from geostationary orbit. Satellite agencies in the US, Japan, China and Europe will fly advanced imagers comparable to the FCI on MTG. Therefore there is also scope for a common evolution of the applications of the observations which is being addressed inter alia by CGMS (Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites). Various agencies will also realise lightning observations from space. Other instruments on MTG (IRS and UVN) can be seen as pioneering realisations in a geostationary orbit of measurements known from polar orbits. This step into the geostationary orbit will enable a high temporal repeat cycle of the observations. For water vapour this means that for the first time observations from space are being made with a temporal resolution commensurate with the spatial resolution. The presentation will present the status of the instrument and applications development. It will also highlight the current cooperation opportunities created by the similarity of the future observing systems.

  11. Simulation of the water regime for a vast agricultural region territory utilizing measurements from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Uspensky, Alexander; Startseva, Zoya; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    The model of land surface-atmosphere interaction has been developed to calculate the water and heat balance components for vast vegetation covered areas during the growing season. The model is adjusted to utilize estimates of the land surface and meteorological characteristics derived from satellite-based measurements of radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra, Aqua, and SEVIRI/Meteosat-9. The studies have been conducted for the territory of the European Russia Central Black Earth Region (CCR) with area of 227,300 km2 comprising seven regions of the Russian Federation for years 2009-2012 vegetation seasons. The technologies of AVHRR and MODIS data thematic processing have been refined and adapted to the study region providing the retrieval of land surface temperature Tls and emissivity E, land-air temperature (temperature at vegetation cover level) Ta, normalized difference vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, as well as the leaf area index LAI. The updated linear regression estimators for Tls, Ta and LAI have been built using more representative training samples compiled for the above vegetation seasons. The updated software package has been applied for AVHRR data processing to generate named remote sensing products for various dates of the mentioned vegetation periods. On the base of special technology and Internet resources the remote sounding products (Tls, E, NDVI, LAI), derived from MODIS data and covering the CCR, have been downloaded from LP DAAC web-site for the same vegetation seasons. The new method and technology have been developed and adopted for the retrieval of Tls and E from SEVIRI data. The retrievals cover the region of interest and are produced at daylight and nighttime. Method provides the derivation of Tls and E from SEVIRI measurements carried out at three successive times (for example, at 11.00, 12.00, 13.00 UTC), classified as 100% cloud-free for the study region without accurate a priori knowledge of E. The validation of remote sensing data on Tls was carried out through comparison of SEVIRI-based Tls retrievals (after bias correction) with independent collocated Tls estimates generated at LSA SAF (Lisbon, Portugal). It gives monthly-averaged values of RMS deviation in the range of 1.1-2.1°C for various dates and times during the period June-August 2009-2012. In addition the new method and technology have been also developed and tested for the Ta retrievals from SEVIRI data at daylight and nighttime. To derive Ta, the SEVIRI-based Tls estimates were used together with previously found correlation relationship between Tls and Ta. A comparison with collocated in-situ Ta observations, made at the CCR territory weather shelters, gives RMS errors in the range 1.8-2.9°C for the standard synoptic times and 2009-2012 summer periods. The error level is comparable to that inherent for the best foreign analogues as well as for numerical weather forecasting schemes. Developed techniques to assimilate remote sensing data in the model include the following: - replacement the values of the model parameters LAI and B, determined by observations at agricultural meteorological stations, by their satellite-derived estimates. Adequacy of such replacement has been confirmed by the results of comparing time behaviors of LAI built by ground- and satellite-based data, as well as the ground-measured and satellite-derived values of Tls and Ta, and modeled and measured values of evapotranspiration Ev and soil moisture content W. - entering the values of Tls and Ta retrieved from all aforementioned satellite data into the model as the input variables instead of the respective ground-measured temperatures. Availability of the SEVIRI data of fine temporal resolution creates opportunity to calculate the water and heat balance components quite accurately. However, the lack of the long continuous SEVIRI data series (because of the cloudiness) restricts this opportunity in a large extent. - taking into account spatial variability of vegetation and meteorological characteristics when calculating the water and heat balance components by entering the spatially-distributed NOAA-, EOS/Terra and Aqua-, Meteosat-9-derived estimates of LAI, B, Tls and Ta as well as the spatially-interpolated ground-based meteorological inputs (precipitation intensity, air temperature and humidity) into the model. - calculation of evapotranspiration, soil water and heat content and other water and heat balance components for the study area of the CCR for years 2009-2012 vegetation seasons utilizing the spatial fields of the AVHRR- and MODIS-derived values of LAI and B as well as the AVHRR-, MODIS-and SEVIRI-derived values of Tls and Ta; presentation of the results as area-distributions over the whole territory under consideration. The present study was carried out with support of the Russian Foundation of Basic Researches - grant N 13-05-00559.

  12. Fotometrical Ovservations Geostationary Satellites on Small Phase Angles, on Russian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, P., P.

    2013-11-01

    For determination photometrical and dynamic features geostationary satellites required for his identifications as a rule, need long (the half of the year - year) photometrical observations under different positions GSS for observer. The author proposes to carry out photometry GSS times when equatorial satellites (with zero inclination and zero eccentricity) have a small phase angles. That is writing the light curves when GSS entering and output from Earth's shadow near dates equinox, when brightness satellite increases on several magnitude. In this, case pos-sible effectively to use the telescopes with diameter of the mirror 50-70 cm. You can also get much more information about the object than on the long-term observation of large phase angles.

  13. CNES organization for station positioning of geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, Jean

    1993-01-01

    Since 1975, the Toulouse Space Centre (a technical establishment of the French Space Agency, CNES) has successfully brought 15 geostationary satellites on to station. During these 17 years of experience, an organization of human and material resources has been built up that ensures a very high level of reliability in the execution of these station positioning operations. The main characteristics of this organization are a rigourous definition of the roles and responsibilities of each person involved, very detailed operations documentation, and methodical preparation of the operations.

  14. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Product Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, S. L.; Suggs, R. J.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Product Generation System (GPGS) is introduced and described. GPGS is a set of computer programs developed and maintained at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center and is designed to generate meteorological data products using visible and infrared measurements from the GOES-East Imager and Sounder instruments. The products that are produced by GPGS are skin temperature, total precipitable water, cloud top pressure, cloud albedo, surface albedo, and surface insolation. A robust cloud mask is also generated. The retrieval methodology for each product is described to include algorithm descriptions and required inputs and outputs for the programs. Validation is supplied where applicable.

  15. Research on space-based optical surveillance's observation strategy of geostationary-orbit's pitch point region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-ying; An, Wei; Wu, Yu-hao; Li, Jun

    2015-03-01

    In order to surveillance the geostationary (GEO) objects, including man-made satellites and space debris, more efficiently, a space-based optical surveillance system was designed in this paper. A strategy to observe the pinch point region was selected because of the GEO objects' dynamics features. That strategy affects the surveillance satellites orbital type and sensor pointing strategy. In order to minimize total surveillance satellites and the revisit time for GEO objects, a equation was set. More than 700 GEO objects' TLE from NASA's website are used for simulation. Results indicate that the revisit time of the surveillance system designed in this paper is less than 24 hours, more than 95% GEO objects can be observed by the designed system.

  16. Surface solar radiation from geostationary satellites for renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Heidinger, Andrew; Goldberg, Mitchell

    With the launch of the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-R, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing. One of its flagship instruments, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. Products derived from ABI measurements will primarily be heritage meteorological products (cloud and aerosol properties, precipitation, winds, etc.), but some will be for interdisciplinary use, such as for the solar energy industry. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. In this paper we describe a physical, radiative-transfer-based algorithm for the retrieval of surface solar irradiance that uses atmospheric and surface parameters derived independently from multispectral ABI radiances. The algorithm is designed to provide basic radiation budget products (total solar irradiance at the surface), as well as products specifically needed for the solar energy industry (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.). Two alternative algorithms, which require less ABI atmosphere and surface products or no explicit knowledge of the surface albedo, are also explored along with their limitations. The accuracy of surface solar radiation retrievals are assessed using long-term MODIS and GOES satellite data and surface measurements at the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) network.

  17. The geostationary Earth radiation budget (GERB) instrument on EUMETSAT's MSG satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, M. C. W.; Allan, P. M.; Caldwell, M. E.; Delderfield, J.; Oliver, M. B.; Sawyer, E.; Harries, J. E.; Ashmall, J.; Brindley, H.; Kellock, S.; Mossavati, R.; Wrigley, R.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Blake, O.; Butcher, G.; Cole, R.; Nelms, N.; DeWitte, S.; Gloesener, P.; Fabbrizzi, F.

    2003-12-01

    Geostationary Earth radiation budget (GERB) is an Announcement of Opportunity Instrument for EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. GERB will make accurate measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget from geostationary orbit, provide an absolute reference calibration for LEO Earth radiation budget instruments and allow studies of the energetics of atmospheric processes. By operating from geostationary orbit, measurements may be made many times a day, thereby providing essentially perfect diurnal sampling of the radiation balance between reflected and emitted radiance for that area of the globe within the field of view. GERB will thus complement other instruments which operate in low orbit and give complete global coverage, but with poor and biased time resolution. GERB measures infrared radiation in two wavelength bands: 0.32-4.0 and 0.32- 30 μm, with a pixel element size of 44 km at sub-satellite point. This paper gives an overview of the project and concentrates on the design and development of the instrument and ground testing and calibration, and lessons learnt from a short time scale low-budget project. The instrument was delivered for integration on the MSG platform in April 1999 ready for the proposed launch in October 2000, which has now been delayed probably to early 2002. The ground segment is being undertaken by RAL and RMIB and produces near real-time data for meteorological applications in conjunction with the main MSG imager—SEVERI. Climate research and other applications which are being developed under a EU Framework IV pilot project will be served by fully processed data. Because of the relevance of the observations to climate change, it is planned to maintain an operating instrument in orbit for at least 3.5 years. Two further GERB instruments are being built for subsequent launches of MSG.

  18. Satellite orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. F.; Boggs, D. H.; Born, G. H.; Christensen, E. J.; Ferrari, A. J.; Green, D. W.; Hylkema, R. K.; Mohan, S. N.; Reinbold, S. J.; Sievers, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    A historic account of the activities of the Satellite OD Group during the MM'71 mission is given along with an assessment of the accuracy of the determined orbit of the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Preflight study results are reviewed, and the major error sources described. Tracking and data fitting strategy actually used in the real time operations is itemized, and Deep Space Network data available for orbit fitting during the mission and the auxiliary information used by the navigation team are described. A detailed orbit fitting history of the first four revolutions of the satellite orbit of Mariner 9 is presented, with emphasis on the convergence problems and the delivered solution for the first orbit trim maneuver. Also included are a solution accuracy summary, the history of the spacecraft orbit osculating elements, the results of verifying the radio solutions with TV imaging data, and a summary of the normal points generated for the relativity experiment.

  19. Investigation of water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Motions deduced in animated water vapor imagery from geostationary satellites can be used to infer wind fields in cloudless regimes. For the past several years, CIMSS has been exploring this potentially important source of global-scale wind information. Recently, METEOSAT-3 data has become routinely available to both the U.S. operational and research community. Compared with the current GOES satellite, the METEOSAT has a superior resolution (5 km vs. 16 km) in its water vapor channel. Preliminary work: at CIMSS has demonstrated that wind sets derived from METEOSAT water vapor imagery can provide important upper-tropospheric wind information in data void areas, and can positively impact numerical model guidance in meteorological applications. Specifically, hurricane track forecasts can be improved. Currently, we are exploring methods to further improve the derivation and quality of the water vapor wind sets.

  20. Remote sensing of aerosol and radiation from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, Istvan; Ciren, Pubu; Liu, Hongqing; Kondragunta, Shobha; Tarpley, J. Dan; Goldberg, Mitchell D.

    The paper presents a high-level overview of current and future remote sensing of aerosol and shortwave radiation budget carried out at the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) from the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series. The retrievals from the current GOES imagers are based on physical principles. Aerosol and radiation are estimated in separate processing from the comparison of satellite-observed reflectances derived from a single visible channel with those calculated from detailed radiative transfer. The radiative transfer calculation accounts for multiple scattering by molecules, aerosol and cloud and absorption by the major atmospheric gases. The retrievals are performed operationally every 30 min for aerosol and every hour for radiation for pixel sizes of 4-km (aerosol) and 15- to 50-km (radiation). Both retrievals estimate the surface reflectance as a byproduct from the time composite of clear visible reflectances assuming fixed values of the aerosol optical depth. With the launch of GOES-R NOAA will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) onboard GOES-R will offer capabilities for aerosol remote sensing similar to those currently provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flown on the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. The ABI aerosol algorithm currently under development uses a multi-channel approach to estimate the aerosol optical depth and aerosol model simultaneously, both over water and land. Its design is strongly inspired by the MODIS aerosol algorithm. The ABI shortwave radiation budget algorithm is based on the successful GOES Surface and Insolation Product system of NOAA and the NASA Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES), Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) algorithm. In all phases of the development, the algorithms are tested with proxy data generated from existing satellite observations and forward simulations. Final assessment of the performance will be made after the launch of GOES-R scheduled in 2012.

  1. Monitoring Snow Using Geostationary Satellite Retrievals During the SAAWSO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Robert M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Kuligowski, Robert J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2015-12-01

    The SAAWSO (Satellite Applications for Arctic Weather and SAR (Search And Rescue) Operations) field programs were conducted by Environment Canada near St. Johns, NL and Goose Bay, NL in the winters of 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. The goals of these programs were to validate satellite-based nowcasting products, including snow amount, wind intensity, and cloud physical parameters (e.g., cloud cover), over northern latitudes with potential applications to Search And Rescue (SAR) operations. Ground-based in situ sensors and remote sensing platforms were used to measure microphysical properties of precipitation, clouds and fog, radiation, temperature, moisture and wind profiles. Multi-spectral infrared observations obtained from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 provided estimates of cloud top temperature and height, phase (water, ice), hydrometer size, extinction, optical depth, and horizontal wind patterns at 15 min intervals. In this work, a technique developed for identifying clouds capable of producing high snowfall rates and incorporating wind information from the satellite observations is described. The cloud top physical properties retrieved from operational satellite observations are validated using measurements obtained from the ground-based in situ and remote sensing platforms collected during two precipitation events: a blizzard heavy snow storm case and a moderate snow event. The retrieved snow precipitation rates are found to be comparable to those of ground-based platform measurements in the heavy snow event.

  2. A TEMPORAL MAP IN GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT: THE COVER ETCHING ON THE EchoStar XVI ARTIFACT

    SciTech Connect

    Weisberg, Joel M.; Paglen, Trevor

    2012-10-01

    Geostationary satellites are unique among orbital spacecraft in that they experience no appreciable atmospheric drag. After concluding their respective missions, geostationary spacecraft remain in orbit virtually in perpetuity. As such, they represent some of human civilization's longest lasting artifacts. With this in mind, the EchoStar XVI satellite, to be launched in fall 2012, will play host to a time capsule intended as a message for the deep future. Inspired in part by the Pioneer Plaque and Voyager Golden Records, the EchoStar XVI Artifact is a pair of gold-plated aluminum jackets housing a small silicon disk containing 100 photographs. The Cover Etching, the subject of this paper, is etched onto one of the two jackets. It is a temporal map consisting of a star chart, pulsar timings, and other information describing the epoch from which EchoStar XVI came. The pulsar sample consists of 13 rapidly rotating objects, 5 of which are especially stable, having spin periods <10 ms and extremely small spin-down rates. In this paper, we discuss our approach to the time map etched onto the cover and the scientific data shown on it, and we speculate on the uses that future scientists may have for its data. The other portions of the EchoStar XVI Artifact will be discussed elsewhere.

  3. The microwave noise environment at a geostationary satellite caused by the brightness of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. K.; Njoku, E. G.

    1985-01-01

    The microwave antenna temperature due to the earth in the satellite antenna beam has been computed for a series of longitudes for a satellite in geostationary orbit and for frequencies of 1 to 50 GHz. An earth-coverage beam is assumed for simplicity, but the technique is applicable to arbitrary beam shapes. Detailed calculations have been performed to account for varying land-ocean fractions within the field of view. Emission characteristics of the earth's atmosphere and surface are used with an accurate radiation transfer program to compute observed brightness temperatures. The value of 290 K commonly used for antenna temperature in satellite communication noise calculations is overly conservative, with more realistic values lying in the 60 to 240 K range.

  4. The provision of spectrum for feeder links of non-geostationary mobile satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Robert R.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of sharing spectrum in the 30/20 GHz band between geostationary fixed-satellite systems and feeder-links of low-earth orbit (LEO) mobile-satellite systems is addressed, taking into account that International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Radio Regulation 2613 would be a factor in such sharing. Interference into each network in both the uplink at 30 GHz and the downlink at 20 GHz is considered. It is determined that if sharing were to take place the mobile-satellite may have to cease transmission often for intervals up to 10 seconds, may have to use high-gain tracking antennas on its spacecraft, and may find it an advantage to use code-division multiple access. An alternate solution suggested is to designate a band 50 to 100 MHz wide at 28 and 18 GHz to be used primarily for feeder links to LEO systems.

  5. Spacecraft flight control system design selection process for a geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Now, as we launch the Mars observer and the Cassini spacecraft, stability and control have become higher priorities. The flight control system design selection process is reviewed using as an example a geostationary communication satellite which is to have a life expectancy of 10 to 14 years. Disturbance torques including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques are assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torque can be determined. Then control torque options, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, nutation dampers, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, reactions control system (RCS), and RCS sizing, are considered. A flight control system design is then selected and preliminary stability criteria are met by the control gains selection.

  6. A condensed orbital history of Intelsat satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. G.

    1984-03-01

    Intelsat, first established in 1964, has launched a total of 33 satellites between 1965 and 1983, including the Intelsat I, II, III, IV, IV-A and V series. Another 14 satellites, the Intelsat V-A and VI series, are under contract. Geostationary satellite service began in 1965 with the launch of Intelsat I over the Atlantic region. Launches of Intelsat II F-2 and Intelsat III F-3 over the Pacific and Indian Oceans followed in 1967 and 1969. Comsat managed the satellite system until Intelsat had established its own international staff in 1979. The Intelsat system's primary purupose is to provide transmission for public international communication traffic. As international communications increase, provision of spare satellites becomes important in the event of a failure in orbit. All Intelsat satellites operate on the 4 and 6 GHz frequency bands, while Intelsat V and subsequent satellites are also equipped to operate in the 11 and 14 GHz bands and, according to their designations, may be equipped to relay maritime traffic through Inmarsat. Despite several in-orbit incidents such as hydrogen peroxide propellant leakage, nickel-cadium battery deterioration, and uncommanded switching of electronic systems due to electrostatic discharges, it is concluded that the orbital history of Intelsat satellites has proved to be an outstanding success over the past 18 years. A comprehensive chart delineating the chronological evolution of the satellites is included.

  7. Using Geostationary Communications Satellites as a Sensor: Telemetry Search Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, K.; Carlton, A.; Lohmeyer, W. Q.

    2014-12-01

    For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from geostationary (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to mine data archives acquired from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry and identify deviations from nominal operations or other trends of interest. We then examine space weather data to see what role, if any, it might have played. We also closely examine both long and short periods of time before an anomaly to determine whether or not the anomaly could have been predicted.

  8. Space-based sensor management and geostationary satellites tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fallah, A.; Zatezalo, A.; Mahler, R.; Mehra, R. K.; Donatelli, D.

    2007-04-01

    Sensor management for space situational awareness presents a daunting theoretical and practical challenge as it requires the use of multiple types of sensors on a variety of platforms to ensure that the space environment is continuously monitored. We demonstrate a new approach utilizing the Posterior Expected Number of Targets (PENT) as the sensor management objective function, an observation model for a space-based EO/IR sensor platform, and a Probability Hypothesis Density Particle Filter (PHD-PF) tracker. Simulation and results using actual Geostationary Satellites are presented. We also demonstrate enhanced performance by applying the ProgressiveWeighting Correction (PWC) method for regularization in the implementation of the PHD-PF tracker.

  9. Coherent radar measurement of ocean currents from geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A coherent HF radar system developed by Barrick has successfully measured ocean surface currents near shore. This innovative system, called CODAR, can map the current vector for coastal areas as large as 10,000 sq km. CODAR's range is limited owing to the strong attenuation suffered by HF ground waves. An alternate technique was proposed by Schuler, in which the cross-product power spectrum of two (different frequency) microwave signals is processed. The frequency of the resonant peak corresponds close by to the Doppler shift of an ocean gravity wave traveling toward the radar at the phase velocity, v(sub p). The slight difference between the frequency of the measured resonant delta K peak and the Doppler frequency shift caused by the motion of the gravity wave is attributed to be the current velocity in the pointing direction of the radar. The Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) has considered the feasibility of using this technique to measure ocean surface currents from geostationary satellite platforms. Problems are discussed that must be overcome if a satellite current measurement system is to be realized. MIRSL research activities that address some of these problem areas are discussed. Current measurements are presented that were made using a specially-designed C-Band, step-frequency delta K radar. These measurements suggest that progress is being achieved in detecting ocean surface current motion for a wide variety of ocean surface conditions.

  10. Potential for calibration of geostationary meteorological satellite imagers using the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Grant, I.F.

    2005-01-01

    Solar-band imagery from geostationary meteorological satellites has been utilized in a number of important applications in Earth Science that require radiometric calibration. Because these satellite systems typically lack on-board calibrators, various techniques have been employed to establish "ground truth", including observations of stable ground sites and oceans, and cross-calibrating with coincident observations made by instruments with on-board calibration systems. The Moon appears regularly in the margins and corners of full-disk operational images of the Earth acquired by meteorological instruments with a rectangular field of regard, typically several times each month, which provides an excellent opportunity for radiometric calibration. The USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project has developed the capability for on-orbit calibration using the Moon via a model for lunar spectral irradiance that accommodates the geometries of illumination and viewing by a spacecraft. The ROLO model has been used to determine on-orbit response characteristics for several NASA EOS instruments in low Earth orbit. Relative response trending with precision approaching 0.1% per year has been achieved for SeaWiFS as a result of the long time-series of lunar observations collected by that instrument. The method has a demonstrated capability for cross-calibration of different instruments that have viewed the Moon. The Moon appears skewed in high-resolution meteorological images, primarily due to satellite orbital motion during acquisition; however, the geometric correction for this is straightforward. By integrating the lunar disk image to an equivalent irradiance, and using knowledge of the sensor's spectral response, a calibration can be developed through comparison against the ROLO lunar model. The inherent stability of the lunar surface means that lunar calibration can be applied to observations made at any time, including retroactively. Archived geostationary imager data that contains the Moon can be used to develop response histories for these instruments, regardless of their current operational status.

  11. Debris in the geostationary orbit ring, the endless shooting gallery: The necessity for a disposal policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suddeth, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is considering establishing a policy for the limitation of the physical crowding of the geostationary orbit. The proposed policy is intended to address the following issues: (1) deal only with geostationary altitudes; (2) illustrate the unique value and usefulness of the geostationary orbit ring; (3) describe the orbital dynamics as simply as possible; (4) describe the current spacecraft and debris situation; (5) briefly review current industry and agency policies; (6) project future trends of physical crowding with the present nonpolicy; (7) propose solutions that can be implemented in the near future; and (8) use previous work as much as desirable.

  12. Advanced Propulsion for Geostationary Orbit Insertion and North-South Station Keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.; Kluever, Craig A.; Riehl, John P.; Curran, Francis M.

    1995-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is currently being used for geostationary satellite station keeping to increase payload mass. Analyses show that advanced electric propulsion technologies can be used to obtain additional increases in payload mass by using these same technologies to perform part of the orbit transfer. In this work three electric propulsion technologies are examined at two power levels for an Atlas 2AS class spacecraft. The on-board chemical propulsion apogee engine fuel is reduced to allow the use of electric propulsion. A numerical optimizer is used to determine the chemical burns which will minimize the electric propulsion transfer time. Results show that for a 1550 kg Atlas 2AS class payload, increases in net mass (geostationary satellite mass less wet propulsion system mass) of 150 to 800 kg are possible using electric propulsion for station keeping, advanced chemical engines for part of the transfer, and electric propulsion for the remainder of the transfer. Trip times are between one and four months.

  13. Orbit and clock analysis of Compass GEO and IGSO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, P.; Hugentobler, U.; Hauschild, A.; Montenbruck, O.

    2013-06-01

    China is currently focussing on the establishment of its own global navigation satellite system called Compass or BeiDou. At present, the Compass constellation provides four usable satellites in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and five satellites in inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO). Based on a network of six Compass-capable receivers, orbit and clock parameters of these satellites were determined. The orbit consistency is on the 1-2 dm level for the IGSO satellites and on the several decimeter level for the GEO satellites. These values could be confirmed by an independent validation with satellite laser ranging. All Compass clocks show a similar performance but have a slightly lower stability compared to Galileo and the latest generation of GPS satellites. A Compass-only precise point positioning based on the products derived from the six-receiver network provides an accuracy of several centimeters compared to the GPS-only results.

  14. Using Satellite Measurements to Investigate Regional-scale Chemistry: The Case for Geostationary Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack; Wozniak, Amy; Creilson, Jack

    2007-01-01

    One of the recommendations of the Decadal Survey that was recently released by the National Academy of Science was that of a geostationary platform from which to obtain trace gas measurements. The use of such a platform is particularly advantageous when applied to understanding the formation of regional air pollution. This study demonstrates the challenges of trying to utilize information from instruments on satellites in low-earth orbit (LEO). We also demonstrate the advantage gained through a simulation that would provide hourly observations. In this case study, we take advantage of the high resolution Level-2 orbital data available from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), in conjunction with assimilated stratospheric column ozone fields, to evaluate if meaningful tropospheric ozone information can be obtained on a regional scale. We focus on a period on late June 2005 when a widespread pollution episode enveloped the Houston metropolitan area as well as a large region in southeast Texas.

  15. Relativistic electrons near geostationary orbit: Evidence for internal magnetospheric acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Callis, L. B.; Belian, R. D.; Cayton, T. E.

    1989-06-01

    At times, relativistic electron fluxes in Earth's outer magnetosphere are not obviously related to an external (Jovian or solar) source. This finding suggests that an internal magnetospheric acceleration mechanism may operate under some circumstances. A possible mechanism identified for Jupiter's magnetosphere could also be considered in the terrestrial case. Such a model requires the substorm- generation of a spectrally-soft electron component with subsequent inward radial diffusion (violating the third adiabatic invariant). A large electron energy gain transverse to the magnetic field occurs in this process. Eventually, deep within the magnetosphere, substantial pitch angle scattering occurs violating all adiabatic invariants. Then, at low L-values, there occurs an energy-preserving outward transport of energetic electrons near the mirror points. This leads to a return of the accelerated population to the outer magnetosphere. Such low-altitude processes should result in ''conic'' or ''butterfly'' pitch angle distributions at very high energies as the electrons execute trans-L diffusion at the mirror altitudes and then are magnetically focussed near the equator. Data collected concurrently at geostationary orbit at three widely-spaced local times during a relativisic electron event show a butterfly pitch angle distribution, while lower energy electrons simultaneously show pancake-like distributions. The butterfly pitch angle distributions appear in /similar to/25% of the examined relativistic electron events, thereby providing support for acceleration by a recirculation process. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  16. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. 25.259 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. (a) The space...

  17. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. 25.259 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 137-138 MHz band. (a) The space...

  18. Our Understanding of Space Weather features responsible for geostationary satellite anamolies (P39)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, G.; et al.

    2006-11-01

    girija60@yahoo.com The topic of space weather effects on operational anomalies on spacecraft is one of considerable research investigation, with both pure and applied aspects. This is because of the very high costs involved in fabricating and operating spacecraft, and in insuring them against the harmful effects of space weather. This is more true for geostationary satellites than of low-orbiting spacecraft, as the former operate in the high-risk environment of the Earth’s outer radiation belts, with its large vagaries in spatial and time variations of high- energy electron and proton distributions (BAKER 2003). Without doubt, plasma and magnetic field emissions from active regions on the Sun are the root cause for spacecraft anomalies. Our study for 2005 shows that over 95% of anomalies can be related to some definite activity on the Sun, ranging from high-speed solar wind streams with their 27-day recurrence patterns/coronal holes/coronal mass ejections preceded by X or M type of flares/and magnetic cloud events. The most energetic solar activity events are generally accompanied by a large rise in solar MeV proton densities at geo-stationary orbit (WILKINSON 1994), and they account for definite anomalies classified as SEU (Single Event Upsets which most often are reversible through resetting commands). Any particles in the low energy ranges (eV and keV, and these could be of magnetospheric or ionospheric origin), are believed to cause external charging effects in exposed parts of the spacecraft such as solar power arrays and power cables. These mainly result in power losses which are debilitating over a period of time. The most dangerous and often irrecoverable damage is due to electronics in the 1-5 MeV range which cause deep dielectric discharge of arc type in semi-conductors comprising spacecraft instruments. Following major solar activity, the populations of these rise to more than (5x103) particles/cm2.ster.sec, with large spatial and time variations (LOVE et al. 2000). When the influence of these relativistic electrons in the neighborhood of geo-stationary spacecraft builds up to values exceeding 108/cm2.ster.day, satellite anomalies invariably occur.Our study finds that these ‘Relativistic electron events’ accompanied by satellite anomalies invariably occur following sharp, well-defined shocks in the inter-planetary medium, and we are trying to understand the relationship between the two. We also notice that anomalies due to space weather effects are very satellite-specific, with differing threshold values seen for different satellites.

  19. Investigation of water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher S.; Nieman, Steven J.; Wanzong, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from geostationary satellites has been available for over a decade. These data are used extensively by operational analysts and forecasters, mainly in a qualitative mode (Weldon and Holmes 1991). In addition to qualitative applications, motions deduced in animated water vapor imagery can be used to infer wind fields in cloudless regimes, thereby augmenting the information provided by cloud-drift wind vectors. Early attempts at quantifying the data by tracking features in water vapor imagery met with modest success (Stewart et al. 1985; Hayden and Stewart 1987). More recently, automated techniques have been developed and refined, and have resulted in upper-level wind observations comparable in quality to current operational cloud-tracked winds (Laurent 1993). In a recent study by Velden et al. (1993) it was demonstrated that wind sets derived from Meteosat-3 (M-3) water vapor imagery can provide important environmental wind information in data void areas surrounding tropical cyclones, and can positively impact objective track forecasts. M-3 was repositioned to 75W by the European Space Agency in 1992 in order to provide complete coverage of the Atlantic Ocean. Data from this satellite are being transmitted to the U.S. for operational use. Compared with the current GOES-7 (G-7) satellite (positioned near 112W), the M-3 water vapor channel contains a superior horizontal resolution (5 km vs. 16 km ). In this paper, we examine wind sets derived using automated procedures from both GOES-7 and Meteosat-3 full disk water vapor imagery in order to assess this data as a potentially important source of large-scale wind information. As part of a product demonstration wind sets were produced twice a day at CIMSS during a six-week period in March and April (1994). These data sets are assessed in terms of geographic coverage, statistical accuracy, and meteorological impact through preliminary results of numerical model forecast studies.

  20. Land surface thermal characterization of Asian-pacific region with Japanese geostationary satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tamura, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a significant indicator of energy balance at the Earth's surface. It is required for a wide variety of climate, hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical studies. Although LST is highly variable both temporally and spatially, it is impossible for polar-orbiting satellite to detect hourly changes in LST, because the satellite is able to only collect data of the same area at most twice a day. On the other hand, geostationary satellite is able to collect hourly data and has a possibility to monitor hourly changes in LST, therefore hourly measurements of geostationary satellite enables us to characterize detailed thermal conditions of the Earth's surface and improve our understanding of the surface energy balance. Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) is a Japanese geostationary satellite launched in 2005 and covers Asia-Pacific region. MTSAT provides hourly data with 5 bands including two thermal infrared (TIR) bands in the 10.5-12.5 micron region. In this research, we have developed a methodology to retrieve hourly LST from thermal infrared data of MTSAT. We applied Generalized Split-window (GSW) equation to estimate LST from TIR data. First, the brightness temperatures measured at sensor on MTSAT was simulated by radiative transfer code (MODTRAN), and the numerical coefficients of GSW equation were optimized based on the simulation results with non-linear minimization algorithm. The standard deviation of derived GSW equation was less than or equal to 1.09K in the case of viewing zenith angle lower than 40 degree and 1.73K in 60 degree. Then, spatial distributions of LST have been mapped optimized GSW equation with brightness temperatures of MTSAT IR1 and IR2 and emissivity map from MODIS product. Finally, these maps were validated with MODIS LST product (MOD11A1) over four Asian-pacific regions such as Bangkok, Tokyo, UlanBator and Jakarta , It is found that RMSE of these regions were 4.57K, 2.22K, 2.71K and 3.92K, respectively. Large RMSEs of Bangkok and Jakarta in the tropical zone can be result from unsuitable parameters used in the MODTRAN simulations and remained haze or cirrus cloud. However, comparison between MTSAT LST and MODIS LST showed linearity and consistency, therefore MTSAT LST contribute to a better understanding in a wide variety of the surface energy balance research. Finally, thermal characterizations such as the rate of LST change or diurnal LST range and so on have been mapped by using constructed MTSAT LST database.

  1. Developing Geostationary Satellite Imaging at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, G.; von Braun, K.; Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, E. K.; Schmitt, H. R.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Elias, N.; Mozurkewich, D.; Oppenheimer, R.; Restaino, S.

    The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a six-beam long-baseline optical interferometer, located in Flagstaff, Arizona; the facility is operated by a partnership between Lowell Observatory, the US Naval Observatory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. NPOI operates every night of the year (except holidays) in the visible with baselines between 8 and 100 meters (up to 432m is available), conducting programs of astronomical research and technology development for the partners. NPOI is the only such facility as yet to directly observe geostationary satellites, enabling milliarcsecond resolution of these objects. To enhance this capability towards true imaging of geosats, a program of facility upgrades will be outlined. These upgrades include AO-assisted large apertures feeding each beam line, new visible and near-infrared instrumentation on the back end, and infrastructure supporting baseline-wavelength bootstrapping which takes advantage of the spectral and morphological features of geosats. The large apertures will enable year-round observations of objects brighter than 10th magnitude in the near-IR. At its core, the system is enabled by a approach that tracks the low-resolution (and thus, high signal-to-noise), bright near-IR fringes between aperture pairs, allowing multi-aperture phasing for high-resolution visible light imaging. A complementary program of visible speckle and aperture masked imaging at Lowell's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope, for constraining the low-spatial frequency imaging information, will also be outlined, including results from a pilot imaging study.

  2. Analysis of signal to noise ratio for atmospheric ultraviolet remote sensing on geostationary orbit with variations of solar incident angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Chun-guang; Yang, Wen-bo; Tian, Qing-jiu; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zong-ming; Zhang, Han-mo

    2014-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) sensors on a geostationary orbit (GEO) have important potential value in atmospheric remote sensing, but the satellites orbit mode of it is quit different from sun-synchronous orbit satellites, which result in the significant diurnal and seasonal variations in radiation environment of earth observation and radiation signal of sensors, therefore, the effect to sensor radiometric performance, such as signal to noise ratio for atmospheric ultraviolet remote sensing caused by variations of solar angle is significant in the performance design of sensors. The synthetic ultraviolet sensor is set at the geostationary orbit, 36000 km away from the sea level of the Equator with 8.75 degree field of view, and the subsatellite track point of which is located at 90 degrees east longitude and Equator. The Satellite scanning angles (SA) from 0 to 8.648 degree that cover the earth surface are selected corresponding to the 10 degrees equal interval view zenith angle, and the SA from 8.648 to 8.785 degree cover the earth lamb 100 km far away from earth tangent point. Based on the MODTRAN4 model, on normal atmospheric conditions, the distributions of the UV upwelling radiance from surface or limb viewing path of the earth could be simulated with the change of sun's right ascension. Moreover, the average signal to noise ratio to the atmospheric sounding is obtained in different UV spectra using the Sensor signal to noise ratio model. The results show that the thresholds range, tendency and shape of signal to noise ratio have a variety of features affected by variation of Sun hour angles and declinations. These result and conclusions could contribute to performance design of UV sensors on the geostationary orbit.

  3. Reference Crop Evapotranspiration obtained from the geostationary satellite MSG (METEOSAT).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, H. A. R.; Trigo, I. F.; Lorite, I. J.; Cruz-Blanco, M.; Gavilán, P.

    2012-04-01

    Among others, the scope of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) is to increase benefit from the EUMETSAT geostationary Satellites MSG data related to land, land-atmosphere interactions and biophysical applications. This is achieved by developing techniques, products and algorithms that will allow an effective use of MSG data, if needed, combined with data from numerical weather prediction models (e.g., ECMWF). Although directly designed to improve the observation of meteorological systems, the spectral characteristics, time resolution and area coverage offered by MSG allow for their use in a broad spectrum of other applications, for instance in agro- and hydrometeorology. This study concerns a method to determine how much water is needed for irrigation. Note that this is complementary to the actual evapotranspiration LSA SAF product. The objective of this study is to present a novel semi-empirical method to determine the Reference Crop Evapotranspiration (ET0) from the down-welling shortwave radiation and air temperature obtained through LSF SAF. ET0 is defined in the FAO Irrigation and Drainage report 56 (FAO56) and it is used to determine water requirements of agricultural crops in irrigated regions. It is evaluated with a special version of the Penman-Monteith equation (PM_FAO56) using data of a weather station installed over non-stressed grass. Such stations are expensive and very labor consuming. We developed our method for semi-arid regions where appropriate weather stations needed for FAO56 ET0 are missing. This concerns huge areas in the world. High-quality FAO-grass station near Cordoba, Spain were used, where, besides all input for PM-FAO56, independent lysimeter data are collected. In addition, it will be shown that significant errors in ET0 can occur if meteorological gathered over dry terrain will be used as input of PM-FAO56. For this purpose data sets obtained in different semi-arid regions will be analyzed.

  4. Investigating the Use of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCT) to Monitor On-orbit Performance of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) using Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis E.; Christian, Hugh J.; Koshak, William J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to monitor the on-orbit performance of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) for changes in instrument calibration that will affect GLM's lightning detection efficiency. GLM has no onboard calibration so GLM background radiance observations (available every 2.5 min) of Deep Convective Clouds (DCCs) are investigated as invariant targets to monitor GLM performance. Observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used as proxy datasets for GLM and ABI 11 m measurements.

  5. An LO Phase Link Using a Commercial Geo-Stationary Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardin, Joseph C.; Weinreb, Sander; Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews an experiment to determine feasibility of achieving 1 ps level time transfer using a satellite link and make use of inexpensive Ku band transmit/receive equipment. It reviews the advantages of Two Way Satellite Time Transfer using a commercial Geo-Stationary Satellite: (1) Commercial satellites are available (2) Significant cost reduction when compared to Hydrogen Masers and (3) Large footprint- entire US (including Hawaii) with just one satellite.

  6. Geostationary Satellite and Raingage Network Data for Rainfall Estimation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ke-Sheng

    Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) infrared images and rainfall measurements from raingage network were used together to estimate pixel-averaged rainfall (PXLRN) for ungaged locations. Five storm events that occurred over Central Florida during August 1979 and September 1982 were studied. A threshold value of satellite-derived cloud-top temperature was used to identify cloud-covered area. GOES satellite images were divided into two groups based on the expanding/contracting status of cloud systems over the study area. Clouds of expanding stage were found to have higher cloud-top temperature variation over space than do clouds of contracting stage. Most heavy rainfalls (rainrate >=q 0.2 inch/hr) occurred during the expanding stage. A statistical pattern classification technique using Bayes optimal classifier was applied to assign cloud-covered pixels to either a precipitation-free pixel or precipitating pixel. Two classification features, coldest cloud-top temperature (CCTT) and standard deviation (STD-DEV) of cloud-top temperature within a group of nine pixels, were used for classification. Different cutoff rainrates were used to define precipitation-free and precipitating pixels. The study area includes a training area with high raingage density and a test area with low raingage density. Using cutoff rainrate of 0.02 inch/hr, more than 70% of pixels in the training area were correctly classified for both expanding and contracting images, and 59% and 64% of pixels in the test area were correctly classified for expanding and contracting images, respectively. Co-Kriging method of estimation was used to estimate PXLRN for ungaged precipitating pixels using PXLRN and CCTT of gaged pixels. In addition to PXLRN estimation, Co-Kriging method also provides variance of estimation error. The unbiasness of Co-Kriging was well satisfied. Paired t-test showed no significant difference between PXLRN estimates and their ground-truths. Correlation coefficients of PXLRN estimates and their ground-truths vary from 0.62 to 0.85 for different storms. Overall correlation coefficient is 0.86.

  7. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES I-M) METSAT project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, K.; Thienel, C.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the METSAT project is to provide a satellite system that meets the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) requirements as specified by NOAA. For the GOES I-M spacecraft, these requirements include an imager and sounder system, a data collection system, and a search and rescue system. The Space Transportation System and GOES I-M development philosophy and the satellite transfer orbit philosophy are explained. The spacecraft will be launched from the Kennedy Space Center using Atlas G/Centaur D-1A expendable launch vehicles. The coverage required for launch and the support of transfer and drift orbits will consist of the 26-m antenna as prime and the TBD antenna as backup for 11 days at all complexes. There will be contingency support 15 days for on-station spacecraft checkout. After the initial 30 to 45 days, the Deep Space Network (DSN) is committed for emergency support. Contingency and emergency support will be provided by Goldstone only. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  8. A satellite system synthesis model for orbital arc allotment optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, Charles H.

    1987-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation of a satellite system synthesis problem if presented, which is referred to as the arc allotment problem (AAP). Each satellite administration is to be allotted a weighted-length segment of the geostationary orbital arc within which its satellites may be positioned at any longitudes. The objective function maximizes the length of the unweighted arc segment allotted to every administration, subject to single-entry co-channel interference restrictions and constraints imposed by the visible arc for each administration. Useful relationships between special cases of AAP and another satellite synthesis problem are established. Solutions to two example problems are presented.

  9. Estimates of surface ultraviolet radiation over north America using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhavi, H.; Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.

    2008-11-01

    Information on ultraviolet (UV) radiative fluxes is needed for public safety, understanding biodiversity, and for chemical transport modeling. Space-based observations can provide homogeneous and systematic estimates of the UV flux over large regions. In the past, UV flux estimates have been made from polar orbiting satellites; such estimates lack information on diurnal variability that can result in significant errors in UV dose (diurnally integrated UV flux). An algorithm has been developed to estimate diurnally varying spectral UV flux at the surface based on information from geostationary satellites (cloud amount, surface albedo and aerosols) and from polar orbiting satellites (ozone). Algorithm evaluation is done by comparison with ground-based observations made between January 1998 and December 2000 over eighteen stations of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s UV monitoring network. A good agreement between ground-based observations and satellite estimates is found with a mean bias (satellite - ground) of +3.5% for all-sky (cloudy + clear) cases. A negative mean bias of the same magnitude is found for clear-sky cases. Root mean square (RMS) differences are 25% and 14% for all-sky and clear-sky cases, respectively. Using simulations, it is shown that when only one observation near noontime is used to estimate UV dose, errors in the range of -61% to 48% can result, depending on cloud conditions. The RMS difference is 9% and it increases to 13% when off-noon hour (±2 hrs) observations are used to estimate the UV flux over Queenstown, MD.

  10. Factors affecting frequency and orbit utilization by high power transmission satellite systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhns, P. W.; Miller, E. F.; O'Malley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicate the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.

  11. Factors affecting frequency and orbit utilization by high power transmission satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhns, P. W.; Miller, E. F.; Malley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicated the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.

  12. Factors affecting frequency and orbit utilization by high power transmission satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhns, P. W.; Miller, E.; Malley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicate the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.

  13. Preliminary verification results of the geostationary ocean color satellite data processing software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hee-Jeong; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Cho, Seongick; Yang, Chan-Su; Ahn, Yu-Hwan

    2010-10-01

    The data processing software system of Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is composed of the image preprocessing system (IMPS) and the GOCI data processing system (GDPS). IMPS generate GOCI level 1B from raw satellite data and GDPS is the post-processing system to generate GOCI level 2. IMPS have a radiometric correction module as IRCM and a geometric correction module named as INRSM. The former is focused on equipment's mechanical noise reduction and radiometric accuracy and the latter image navigation and image registration accuracy by landmark matching method and image mosaic method. GDPS have the atmospheric correction algorithms, as the spectral shape matching method (SSMM) and the sun glint correction algorithm (SGCA), and BRDF algorithm to solve bi-directional problem. Several Case-II water analytical algorithms, like chlorophyll concentration, suspended sediment and dissolved organic matter, are contained in GDPS. Also, GDPS will generate the value added product like water quality, fishery ground information, water current vector, etc. During in-orbit test period planned six months after successful launch of satellite, IMPS and GDPS will be verified with respect to those requirements and algorithms and functionality and accuracy by pre-defined test procedure like test, inspection, demonstration. And then those configuration parameters will be modified and the algorithm descriptions will be updated. In this paper, we will present the preliminary analyzed results of data processing system test and update planning during in-orbit test.

  14. The future role of relay satellites for orbital telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Enrico; Letschnik, Jürgen; Wilde, Markus; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Varatharajoo, Renuganth; Artigas, Jordi

    2012-10-01

    Orbital robotics focuses on a variety of applications, as e.g. inspection and repair activities, spacecraft construction or orbit corrections. On-Orbit Servicing (OOS) activities have to be closely monitored by operators on ground. A direct contact to the spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is limiting the operational time of the robotic application. Therefore, geostationary satellites are desirable to relay the OOS signals and extend the servicing time window. A geostationary satellite in the communication chain not only introduces additional boundary conditions to the mission but also increases the time delay in the system. The latter is not very critical if the servicer satellite is operating autonomously. However, if the servicer is operating in a supervised control regime with a human in the loop, the increased time delay will have an impact on the operator's task performance. This paper describes the challenges, which have to be met when utilizing a relay satellite for orbital telerobotics. It shows a series of ground experiments that were undertaken with a relay satellite in the communication chain to simulate the end-to-end system. This case study proves that complex robotic applications in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are controllable by human operators on ground.

  15. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia from a Geostationary Satellite, MTSAT-1R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Yoon, Jong Min

    2009-03-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval from satellite remote sensing is essential to understand aerosol influence on earth climate system. An algorithm to retrieve AOD from geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite allows us to monitor sources, sinks and transport of aerosols in higher temporal resolution. In this study, using 30-day visible channel data from the Multi-Functional Transport Satellite-1 Replacement (MTSAT-1R) to estimate surface reflectance and DIScrete Ordinate Radiative (DISORT) model (6 S) to calculate look up tables (LUT), AODs are retrieved at 0.55 μm over East Asia. The retrieved results are compared with the values of AERONET and MODIS. The calculated correlation coefficient(R) during March 2006 with AERONET showed 0.85 at Anmyon and 0.40 at Shirahama. The R for MODIS ranged from 0.2 to 0.96. This algorithm has relatively larger retrieval error than other multiple-channel algorithm due to the limitation in characterizing surface reflectance and aerosol property.

  16. A feedback control loop for autonomous time synchronisation for mobile satellite systems, including satellites in any Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soprano, C.

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the design, analysis and simulation of a feedback control-loop for application to autonomous epoch synchronization in a satellite mobile synchronous communications system which includes communications satellites in non-geostationary Earth orbits and fast-moving mobile users.

  17. Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on the GOES-R Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafal, Marc D.; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 microseconds) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.

  18. Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on GOES-R Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafal, Marc; Cholvibul, Ruth; Clarke, Jared

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 s) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.

  19. Synergistic Opportunities for the Geostationary Satellite Constellation: Status of the CEOS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Zehner, C.

    2012-12-01

    This talk will summarize activities of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) to collaboratively advance the next generation of air quality monitoring from space. Over the past 2 years, CEOS ACC have developed a position paper describing the benefits to be derived from such collaboration. The resulting ACC recommendations were endorsed by CEOS in May 2011. We will discuss next steps toward implementing this vision, starting with a new 3-year CEOS Action in 2012. Several countries and space agencies are currently planning to launch geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) missions in 2017-2022 to obtain atmospheric composition measurements for characterizing anthropogenic and natural distributions of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and their precursors. These missions include Europe's ESA Sentinel-4 with EUMETSAT IRS, the United States' NASA GEO-CAPE, Korea's ME/MEST/KARI GEMS, and Japan's JAXA GMAP-Asia. GEO observations offer a quantum advance in air quality monitoring from space by providing measurements many times per day. However, a single GEO satellite views only a portion of the globe. These satellites, positioned to view Europe, East Asia, and North America, will collectively provide hourly coverage of the industrialized Northern Hemisphere at similar spatial resolutions. Planned low Earth orbit (LEO) missions will provide complementary daily global observations. Observations from a single LEO satellite will overlap those from each GEO satellite once per day, providing a means for combining the GEO observations and a necessary perspective for interpreting global impacts of smaller scale processes. The EUMETSAT Metop series, NOAA/NASA JPSS series, and ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor and Sentinel-5 missions will each provide such daily overlap with the GEO missions. The Canadian PCW PHEMOS mission will make an additional unique suite of observations. PCW will provide quasi-geostationary coverage over the Arctic that overlaps with each geostationary satellite over 30N - 60N, adding opportunities for intercalibration many times per day. The development of common data products, data distribution protocols, and calibration strategies will synergistically enable critically needed understanding of the interactions between regional and global atmospheric composition. Common air quality trace gas products will be tropospheric column O3, NO2, HCHO, and SO2 nominally at 8 km spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal frequency. Detection of aerosols in the UV will allow absorbing aerosols to be distinguished from total aerosol optical depth, providing information on aerosol speciation and particularly relevant to the air quality/climate interface associated with aerosol radiative forcing. Such activities directly address societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), including Health, Energy, Climate, Disasters, and Ecosystems, and are responsive to the requirements of each mission to provide advanced user services and societal benefits in their own regions.

  20. Geostationary-satellite beacon-receiver array for studies of ionospheric irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, R.C.; Jacobson, A.R.; Wu, Guanghui.

    1992-01-01

    Ionospheric irregularities can be studied by various techniques. These include widely spaced Doppler sounders or ionosondes, Faraday rotation polarimetry, and two-frequency differential Doppler, and radio interferometry. With geostationary satellites, one usually uses Faraday rotation of the beacon signal to measure the ionospheric TEC. With a network of polarimeters, the horizontal wave parameters of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDS) can be deduced, but the shortcoming of this technique is its poor sensitivity. This paper describes a geostationary-satellite beacon-receiver array at Los Alamos, New Mexico, which will be employed for the studying of ionospheric irregularities, especially the fine-scale TIDS.

  1. Geostationary-satellite beacon-receiver array for studies of ionospheric irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, R.C.; Jacobson, A.R.; Wu, Guanghui

    1992-09-01

    Ionospheric irregularities can be studied by various techniques. These include widely spaced Doppler sounders or ionosondes, Faraday rotation polarimetry, and two-frequency differential Doppler, and radio interferometry. With geostationary satellites, one usually uses Faraday rotation of the beacon signal to measure the ionospheric TEC. With a network of polarimeters, the horizontal wave parameters of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDS) can be deduced, but the shortcoming of this technique is its poor sensitivity. This paper describes a geostationary-satellite beacon-receiver array at Los Alamos, New Mexico, which will be employed for the studying of ionospheric irregularities, especially the fine-scale TIDS.

  2. Multiple-baseline detection of a geostationary satellite with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, Ellyn K.; Schmitt, Henrique R.; Restaino, Sergio R.; Clark, James H.; Benson, James A.; Hutter, Donald J.; Zavala, Robert T.

    2015-09-01

    We describe multi-baseline observations of a geostationary satellite using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) during the glint season of March 2015. We succeeded in detecting DirecTV-7S with an interferometer baseline length of 8.8 m on two nights, with a brief simultaneous detection at 9.8 m baseline length on the second night. These baseline lengths correspond to a resolution of ~4 m at geostationary altitude. This is the first multiple-baseline interferometric detection of a satellite.

  3. Tethered Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes concept for placing several communication satellites in geostationary orbit without taking up more space than assigned to single satellite. Proposed scheme eases orbital crowding more economically than space platforms. Concept requires minimal redesign of existing satellites and accommodates many satellites in just one orbital slot. System much lighter in weight than geostationary platform and easier and more economical to transport.

  4. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for Future Geostationary Satellite to Constrain Aerosol Emissions through GEOS-Chem Adjoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Henze, D. K.; Yue, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols in the troposphere have great impacts on weather, climate, and human health. However, aerosol predictions by current chemistry transport models remain inaccurate, in no small part resulting from uncertainty of aerosol emission estimates. Here, we conducted observing system simulation experiments (OSSE) for future geostationary satellite to assess the potential of using hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals to constrain emissions. Specifically, hourly pseudo AOD observations over North America were generated by WRF-Chem, and were applied to constrain emissions through GEOS-Chem adjoint model in two experiments. One experiment simulated assimilating polar-orbiting observations saying MODIS by providing data once a day, while another experiment simulated assimilating geostationary satellite observations saying TEMPO by providing data hourly in the daytime. Results show that SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions constrained by high temporal resolution observations get better agreement with WRF-Chem emissions in terms of total amount and spatial distribution. This suggests that TEMPO could offer better constraints for aerosol emissions than polar-orbiting satellites.

  5. Potential of Geostationary Satellite Observations of CO2 for Constraining Surface Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, M. A.; Michalak, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing observations of column integrated CO2 concentrations (XCO2) offer unprecedented data coverage making it possible to explore unresolved questions in carbon cycle science. The sun synchronous orbits and spatially sparse soundings of the majority of current and planned satellites represent a challenge for flux estimation. Geostationary satellites could provide a complement to such observations by making it possible to continuously monitor one-third of the Earth gathering frequent and spatially nearly contiguous XCO2 observations. Such a density of data may represent a new frontier for constraining local- to continental-scale carbon processes. Data from satellites using sun synchronous orbits are typically coupled with an atmospheric transport model to trace variations in observed XCO2 to spatiotemporal variability in CO2 fluxes within a Bayesian inverse modeling framework. The sparseness of observations, their diffuse sensitivity to underlying fluxes, and uncertainties in atmospheric transport compound to yield relatively high uncertainties on underlying fluxes. Here we explore the degree to which geostationary observations could be used to constrain regional fluxes of CO2 and whether the high frequency and high spatial density of the observations would make it possible to rely on simpler 'mass balance' tools (attributing the change in XCO2 over a given region to a net carbon surface flux) for quantifying fluxes. Several sources of uncertainty would limit the precision and accuracy of such flux estimates. Arguably, chief among these are (1) the retrieval algorithm uncertainties, (2) any spatial correlation in the retrieval errors, (3) data gaps due to geophysical limitations, and (4) errors incurred by not accounting for net advection of CO2 via atmospheric transport. Here we systematically explore the individual and combined impacts of these uncertainties. We explore the impact of the first three types of uncertainties on the ability to quantify average XCO2 over a region using geostatistical block kriging. We explore the impact of advection using a geostatistical quantification of the expected gradient in XCO2 in the advected air mass. Finally we translate the total impact of these XCO2 uncertainties into uncertainties in net flux. Results indicate that the precision in XCO2 at regional scales is well above thresholds cited for space-based observations (e.g., Miller et al. 2007; Rayner and O'Brien 2001) as needed for improving flux characterization. Lateral advection and any spatial correlations in retrieval errors (equivalent to the idea of local biases) dominate the overall error budget, highlighting the importance of high frequency observations and of minimizing any correlations in retrieval errors. Overall, we find that high-density XCO2 data would greatly advance monitoring of CO2 fluxes even at moderate temporal and spatial scales. Future space-based missions involving geostationary satellites could drastically reduce CO2 flux uncertainties helping to address fundamental gaps in our understanding of the global carbon cycle.

  6. Effects of Surface Albedo on Smoke Detection Through Geostationary Satellite Imagery in the Hazard Mapping System (HMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemi, A.; Ruminski, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) of NOAA/NESDIS uses geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery to identify fires and smoke throughout the continental United States. The fires and smoke are analyzed daily on the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) and made available via the internet in various formats. Analysis of smoke plumes generated from wildfires, agricultural and prescribe burns is performed with single channel visible imagery primarily from NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) animations. Identification of smoke in visible imagery is complicated by the presence of clouds, the viewing angle produced by the sun, smoke, satellite geometry, and the surface albedo of the ground below the smoke among other factors. This study investigates the role of surface albedo in smoke detection. LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) instruments are capable of detecting smoke and other aerosols. Through the use of ground and space based LIDAR systems in areas of varying albedo a relationship between the subjective analyst drawn smoke plumes versus those detected by LIDAR is established. The ability to detect smoke over regions of higher albedo (brighter surface, such as grassland, scrub and desert) is diminished compared to regions of lower albedo (darker surface, such as forest and water). Users of the HMS smoke product need to be aware of this limitation in smoke detection in areas of higher albedo.

  7. A simulation for UV-VIS observations of tropospheric composition from a geostationary satellite over Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Hitoshi; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Noguchi, Katsuyuki; Kasai, Yasuko; Kita, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    To investigate the potential for observing tropospheric composition from a geostationary (GEO) satellite over Asia, we perform a simulation for UV-VIS ranges (280-600 nm). A sophisticated radiative transfer model JACOSPAR is used to calculate radiance spectra that would be mea-sured at a GEO point. The air mass factor (AMF) is also calculated at different altitudes, wavelengths, and solar zenith angles (SZAs), to investigate whether the measured backscat-tered photons penetrate deep inside the planetary boundary layer (PBL). According to the AMF dependence on wavelength, visible wavelengths can provide much more PBL information. Compared to the nadir geometry, a geometry observing Tokyo reveals that AMFs near the sur-face drop by only about 15% (30%), at SZA<40 (60) degrees, where the elevated concentration of surface ozone is generally anticipated. This suggests that a GEO satellite would enable ob-servation of elevated ozone events, similar to existing low earth orbit satellites. Next, radiance spectra, to which noises corresponding to given signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are added, are analyzed using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy to estimate the precision for the slant column retrieval as a function of SNR. For the retrieval of ozone from UV (Huggins bands), the precision reaches 1% at SNR>1000. AMF calculations, however, indicate that as a mean path, the measured photons do not penetrate deep inside the PBL. As an alterna-tive way, we analyze Chappuis bands using the fitting window 450-550 nm and find that the precision can be as high as 1% at SNR>1000, with much improved sensitivity to PBL ozone. Similar analyses are made for other trace gases such as NO2 and HCHO, providing a basis for characterizing overall performance of GEO satellite measurements with UV-VIS regions. An instrument design proposed based on these simulations in Japan is also presented.

  8. A Geostationary Satellite Constellation for Observing Global Air Quality: Status of the CEOS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Zehner, C.

    2011-12-01

    Several countries and space agencies are currently planning to launch geostationary satellites in the 2017-2022 time frame to obtain atmospheric composition measurements for characterizing anthropogenic and natural distributions of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and their precursors, which are important factors in understanding air quality and climate change. While a single geostationary satellite can view only a portion of the globe, it is possible for a minimum of three geostationary satellites, positioned to view Europe/Middle East/Africa, Asia/Australasia, and the Americas, to collectively provide near-global coverage. Harmonizing the planned geostationary missions to be contemporaneous and have common observing capabilities and data distribution protocols would synergistically enable critically needed understanding of the interactions between regional and global atmospheric composition and of the implications for air quality and climate. Such activities would directly address societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), including Health, Energy, Climate, Disasters, and Ecosystems, and are responsive to the requirements of each mission to provide advanced user services and societal benefits. Over the past 2 years, the Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a white paper describing such collaboration and the benefits to be derived from it. The resulting ACC recommendations were endorsed by CEOS in May 2011. Here we will present an update on collaborative activities and next steps. This presentation is envisioned to serve as an introduction to the oral sessions associated with Session A.25.

  9. Geostationary satellite positioning by DLR/GSOC operations and management methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittinger, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Starting with a short description of the GSOC (German Space Operations Center) and its role within the wider framework of the research institute DLR, this paper provides a review of the geostationary telecommunications satellites positioned by the GSOC. The paper then proceeds to describe the evolution of the operations and management structures and methods which have been effectively used to accomplish these missions.

  10. Feasibility study for Japanese Air Quality Mission from Geostationary Satellite: Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, K.; Kasai, Y.; Philippe, B.; Suzuki, K.; Kita, K.; Hayashida, S.; Imasu, R.; Akimoto, H.

    2009-12-01

    A Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite is potentially able to monitor the regional distribution of pollution with good spatial and temporal resolution. The Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) and the Japanese Space Exploration Agency (JAXA) initiated a concept study for air quality measurements from a GEO satellite targeting the Asian region [1]. This work presents the results of sensitivity studies for a Thermal Infrared (TIR) (650-2300cm-1) candidate instrument. We performed a simulation study and error analysis to optimize the instrumental operating frequencies and spectral resolution. The scientific requirements, in terms of minimum precision (or error) values, are 10% for tropospheric O3 and CO and total column of HN3 and nighttime HNO2 and 25% for O3 and CO with separating 2 or 3 column in troposphere. Two atmospheric scenarios, one is Asian background, second is polluted case, were assumed for this study. The forward calculations and the retrieval error analysis were performed with the AMATERASU model [2] developed within the NICT-THz remote sensing project. Retrieval error analysis employed the Optimal Estimation Method [3]. The geometry is off-nadir observation on Tokyo from the geostationary satellite at equator. Fine spectral resolution will allow to observe boundary layer O3 and CO. We estimate the observation precision in the spectral resolution from 0.1cm-1 to 1cm-1 for 0-2km, 2-6km, and 6-12km. A spectral resolution of 0.3 cm-1 gives good sensitivity for all target molecules (e.g. tropospheric O3 can be detected separated 2 column with error 30%). A resolution of 0.6 cm-1 is sufficient to detect tropospheric column amount of O3 and CO (in the Asian background scenario), which is within the required precision and with acceptable instrumental SNR values of 100 for O3 and 30 for CO. However, with this resolution, the boundary layer ozone will be difficult to detect in the background abundance. In addition, a spectral resolution of 0.6 cm-1 is sufficient to retrieve the total column of HNO3 and NO2 with a precision better than 10%. IR measurements will thus be useful for tropospheric pollution monitoring. Reference: [1] http://www.stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp/ste-www1/div1/taikiken/eisei/eisei2.pdf, Japanese version only [2] P. Baron et al., AMATERASU: Model for Atmospheric TeraHertz Radiation Analysis and Simulation, Journal of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 55(1), 109-121, 2008. [3] Rodgers. C. D., Inverse methods for atmospheric sounding: Theory and practice, World Scientific, Singapore (2000).

  11. General relativity and satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The general relativistic correction to the position of a satellite is found by retaining Newtonian physics for an observer on the satellite and introducing a potential. The potential is expanded in terms of the Keplerian elements of the orbit and substituted in Lagrange's equations. Integration of the equations shows that a typical earth satellite with small orbital eccentricity is displaced by about 17 cm. from its unperturbed position after a single orbit, while the periodic displacement over the orbit reaches a maximum of about 3 cm. The moon is displaced by about the same amounts. Application of the equations to Mercury gives a total displacement of about 58 km. after one orbit and a maximum periodic displacement of about 12 km.

  12. Precise orbit determination of Beidou Satellites at GFZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhiguo; Ge, Maorong; Uhlemann, Maik; Zhao, Qile

    2014-05-01

    In December 2012 the Signal-In-Space Interface Control Document (ICD) of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BeiDou system) was published. Currently the initial BeiDou regional navigation satellite system consisting of 14 satellites was completed, and provides observation data of five Geostationary-Earth-Orbit (GEO)satellites, five Inclined-GeoSynchronous-Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium-Earth-Orbit (MEO) satellites. The Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) contributes as one of the analysis centers to the International GNSS Service (IGS) since many years. In 2012 the IGS began the "Multi GNSS EXperiment" (MGEX), which supports the new GNSS, such as Galileo, Compass, and QZSS. Based on tracking data of BeiDou-capable receivers from the MGEX and chinese BeiDou networks up to 45 global distributed stations are selected to estimate orbit and clock parameters of the GPS/BeiDou satellites. Some selected results from the combined GPS/BeiDou data processing with 10 weeks of data from 2013 are shown. The quality of the orbit and clock products are assessed by means of orbit overlap statistics, clock stabilities as well as an independent validation with SLR measurements. At the end an outlook about GFZ AC's future Multi-GNSS activities will be given.

  13. Analysing the Advantages of High Temporal Resolution Geostationary MSG SEVIRI Data Compared to Polar Operational Environmental Satellite Data for Land Surface Monitoring in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fensholt, R.; Anyamba, A.; Huber, S.; Proud, S. R.; Tucker, C. J.; Small, J.; Pak, E.; Rasmussen, M. O.; Sandholt, I.; Shisanya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing of the environment has been dominated by polar-orbiting sensors providing useful data for monitoring the earth s natural resources. However their observation and monitoring capacity are inhibited by daily to monthly looks for any given ground surface which often is obscured by frequent and persistent cloud cover creating large gaps in time series measurements. The launch of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite into geostationary orbit has opened new opportunities for land surface monitoring. The Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument on-board MSG with an imaging capability every 15 minutes which is substantially greater than any temporal resolution that can be obtained from existing polar operational environmental satellites (POES) systems currently in use for environmental monitoring. Different areas of the African continent were affected by droughts and floods in 2008 caused by periods of abnormally low and high rainfall, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of monitoring these events from Earth Observation (EO) data the current analyses show that the new generation of geostationary remote sensing data can provide higher temporal resolution cloud-free (less than 5 days) measurements of the environment as compared to existing POES systems. SEVIRI MSG 5-day continental scale composites will enable rapid assessment of environmental conditions and improved early warning of disasters for the African continent such as flooding or droughts. The high temporal resolution geostationary data will complement existing higher spatial resolution polar-orbiting satellite data for various dynamic environmental and natural resource applications of terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. The science benefits of and the antenna requirements for microwave remote sensing from geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, Warren L. (Editor); Brown, Gary S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Space Antenna (LSA) Science Panel was to evaluate the science benefits that can be realized with a 25-meter class antenna in a microwave/millimeter wave remote sensing system in geostationary orbit. The panel concluded that a 25-meter or larger antenna in geostationary orbit can serve significant passive remote sensing needs in the 10 to 60 GHz frequency range, including measurements of precipitation, water vapor, atmospheric temperature profile, ocean surface wind speed, oceanic cloud liquid water content, and snow cover. In addition, cloud base height, atmospheric wind profile, and ocean currents can potentially be measured using active sensors with the 25-meter antenna. Other environmental parameters, particularly those that do not require high temporal resolution, are better served by low Earth orbit based sensors.

  15. Comparison of Cloud Properties from CALIPSO-CloudSat and Geostationary Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Chang, F.; Winker, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Spangenberg, D.; Austin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud properties are being derived in near-real time from geostationary satellite imager data for a variety of weather and climate applications and research. Assessment of the uncertainties in each of the derived cloud parameters is essential for confident use of the products. Determination of cloud amount, cloud top height, and cloud layering is especially important for using these real -time products for applications such as aircraft icing condition diagnosis and numerical weather prediction model assimilation. Furthermore, the distribution of clouds as a function of altitude has become a central component of efforts to evaluate climate model cloud simulations. Validation of those parameters has been difficult except over limited areas where ground-based active sensors, such as cloud radars or lidars, have been available on a regular basis. Retrievals of cloud properties are sensitive to the surface background, time of day, and the clouds themselves. Thus, it is essential to assess the geostationary satellite retrievals over a variety of locations. The availability of cloud radar data from CloudSat and lidar data from CALIPSO make it possible to perform those assessments over each geostationary domain at 0130 and 1330 LT. In this paper, CloudSat and CALIPSO data are matched with contemporaneous Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT), and Meteosat-8 data. Unlike comparisons with cloud products derived from A-Train imagers, this study considers comparisons of nadir active sensor data with off-nadir retrievals. These matched data are used to determine the uncertainties in cloud-top heights and cloud amounts derived from the geostationary satellite data using the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) cloud retrieval algorithms. The CERES multi-layer cloud detection method is also evaluated to determine its accuracy and limitations in the off-nadir mode. The results will be useful for constraining the use of the passive retrieval data in models and for improving the accuracy of the retrievals.

  16. Conservation of the geostationary spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, H. J.

    The present investigation is concerned with the identification and characterization of those technical factors which would have the most significant impact on frequency reuse in communications satellite systems using the geostationary orbit and, hence, on the number of accesses to the geostationary orbit spectrum. Attention is given to the development of a frequency reuse model, the application of the model equation, intra-satellite frequency reuse, polarization discrimination, permissible interference, homogeneity, geometry maintenance, and high frequencies. It is found that satellite antenna technology is a highly significant factor for the frequency reuse potential.

  17. Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.

    1992-01-01

    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  18. Orbit determination in satellite geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, G.; Schildknecht, T.; Hugentobler, U.; Gurtner, W.

    2003-04-01

    For centuries orbit determination in Celestial Mechanics was a synonym for the determination of six so-called Keplerian elements of the orbit of a minor planet or a comet based on a short series of (three or more) astrometric places observed from one or more observatories on the Earth's surface. With the advent of the space age the problem changed considerably in several respects: (1) orbits have to be determined for a new class of celestial objects, namely for artificial Earth satellites; (2) new observation types, in particular topocentric distances and radial velocities, are available for the establishment of highly accurate satellite orbits; (3) even for comparatively short arcs (up to a few revolutions) the orbit model that has to be used is much more complicated than for comparable problems in the planetary system: in addition to the gravitational perturbations due to Moon and planets higher-order terms in the Earth's gravity field have to be taken into account as well as non-gravitational effects like atmospheric drag and/or radiation pressure; (4) the parameter space is often of higher than the sixth dimension, because not only the six osculating elements referring to the initial epoch of an arc, but dynamical parameters defining the (a priori imperfectly known) force field have to be determined, as well. It may even be necessary to account for stochastic velocity changes. Orbit determination is not a well-known task in satellit geodesy. This is mainly due to the fact that orbit determination is often imbedded in a much more general parameter estimation problem, where other parameter types (referred to station positions, Earth rotation, atmosphere, etc.) have to be determined, as well. Three examples of "pure" orbit determination problems will be discussed subsequently: ? The first problem intends to optimize the observation process of one Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) observatory. It is a filter problem, where the orbit is improved in real time with the goal to narrow down the so-called range-gate, defining the time interval when the echo of the LASER pulse is expected. ? Secondly we highlight orbit determination procedures (in particular advanced orbit parametrization techniques) related to the determination of the orbits of GPS satellites and of Low Earth Orbiters (LEOS) equipped with GPS receivers. ? We conclude by discussing the problem of determining the orbits of passive artificial satellites or of space debris using high-precision astrometric CCD-observations of these object.

  19. 47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.260 Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. (a) The...

  20. 47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.260 Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. (a) A...

  1. 47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.260 Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. (a) The...

  2. 47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.260 Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. (a) A...

  3. Monitoring high-ozone events in the US Intermountain West using TEMPO geostationary satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoogman, P.; Jacob, D. J.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Lin, M.; Fiore, A.; Travis, K.

    2014-06-01

    High-ozone events, approaching or exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), are frequently observed in the US Intermountain West in association with subsiding air from the free troposphere. Monitoring and attribution of these events is problematic because of the sparsity of the current network of surface measurements and lack of vertical information. We present an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the ability of the future geostationary satellite instrument Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), scheduled for launch in 2018-2019, to monitor and attribute high-ozone events in the Intermountain West through data assimilation. TEMPO will observe ozone in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) bands to provide sensitivity in the lower troposphere. Our OSSE uses ozone data from the GFDL AM3 chemistry-climate model (CCM) as the "true" atmosphere and samples it for April-June 2010 with the current surface network (CASTNet -Clean Air Status and Trends Network- sites), a configuration designed to represent TEMPO, and a low Earth orbit (LEO) IR (infrared) satellite instrument. These synthetic data are then assimilated into the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) using a Kalman filter. Error correlation length scales (500 km in horizontal, 1.7 km in vertical) extend the range of influence of observations. We show that assimilation of surface data alone does not adequately detect high-ozone events in the Intermountain West. Assimilation of TEMPO data greatly improves the monitoring capability, with little information added from the LEO instrument. The vertical information from TEMPO further enables the attribution of NAAQS exceedances to background ozone. This is illustrated with the case of a stratospheric intrusion.

  4. High Temperal Resolution AOD Retrieval of Northern China in 2014 Winter Based on Geostationary Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, H.; Ma, Y.; Li, D.; Lv, Y.; Qie, L.; Zhang, Y.; Li, L.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from satellite can provide large region, fast and dynamic monitoring of aerosol properties. Polar Satellites provide once a day of observations at most, which is difficult to monitor aerosol temporal variabilities clearly. Only geostationary orbit satellites have the ability to provide both high temporal and spatial resolution observations. The Korea Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard COMs-1 (Communication、Ocean & Meteorological Satellite-1) mainly designed for ocean observation, but it has a good potential for land monitoring. Cross calibration between GOCI and the US Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) can improve the land radiation characteristics of GOCI, which can expand its ability in land observation.Cross calibration results show that the simulated TOA (Top Of Atmosphere) radiance from MODIS and GOCI measured TOA radiance agrees well. The geostationary orbit satellite observing characteristics of the nearly constant view geometry and the high temporal resolution were used in aerosol retrieval algorithm. For images of two adjacent time points, the difference of TOA radiance mostly comes from the change caused by aerosol. AOD retrievals were accomplished using a Look-Up Table (LUT) strategy with assumptions of quickly varied aerosol and slowly varied surface with time. The AOD retrieval algorithm calculates AOD by minimizing the surface reflectance variations of series observations in a short period of time, e.g. several days. GOCI data from January 1, 2014 to April 1, 2014 were used to retrieve AOD, when the haze was very heavy. The monitoring of hourly AOD variations were implemented during this period and the retrieved AOD agrees well with AREONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based measurements. The result was also compared with MODIS AOD products. In conclusion, GOCI was calibrated using MODIS data firstly in order to improve the radiation characteristics of land; then, the AOD retrieval algorithm was developed based on time series GOCI data; third, the AOD retrieval algorithm was developed to retrieve AOD synchronously.In this paper, the GOCI data are used to retrieve AOD with higher temporal resolution, which is important to atmospheric environmental monitoring.

  5. Multiple-Baseline Detection of a Geostationary Satellite with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H.; Armstrong, J. T.; Baines, E. K.; Restaino, S. R.; Clark, J. H., III; Benson, J. A.; Hutter, D. J.; Zavala, R. T.

    Using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI), we have made the first multiple-baseline interferometric detection of a satellite. The observations, carried out during the March 2015 glint season, succeeded in detecting the DirecTV-7S satellite with interferometer baseline lengths of 8.8 m and 9.8 m and wavelengths from 850 nm to 550 nm, corresponding to a resolution of ~0.02 arcsec, or 4 m at geostationary altitude. This is the first multiple-baseline interferometric detection of a satellite.

  6. Investigation of mesoscale meteorological phenomena as observed by geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite imagery plus conventional synoptic observations were used to examine three mesoscale systems recently observed by the GOES-EAST satellite. The three systems are an arc cloud complex (ACC), mountain lee wave clouds and cloud streets parallel to the wind shear. Possible gravity-wave activity is apparent in all three cases. Of particular interest is the ACC because of its ability to interact with other mesoscale phenomena to produce or enhance convection.

  7. The orbit of Pluto's satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen speckle interferometric observations of the Pluto system have been used to improve the determination of the orbital elements for Pluto's satellite. Calibration uncertainties appear to be the dominant source of error, but the observation of a partial occultation of the satellite by Pluto has been used to constrain the orbit solution. The orbital period is found to be in excellent agreement with the rotational period of the planet, reinforcing the belief that the system is completely tidally evolved. The orbital radius and period imply a total mass for the system of 6.8 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the -9th solar masses. Density constraints place an upper limit of 3615 + or - 90 km on the diameter of Pluto, while observations of the first mutual events establish a crude lower limit of about 2800 km.

  8. Adaptive Array for Weak Interfering Signals: Geostationary Satellite Experiments. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steadman, Karl

    1989-01-01

    The performance of an experimental adaptive array is evaluated using signals from an existing geostationary satellite interference environment. To do this, an earth station antenna was built to receive signals from various geostationary satellites. In these experiments the received signals have a frequency of approximately 4 GHz (C-band) and have a bandwidth of over 35 MHz. These signals are downconverted to a 69 MHz intermediate frequency in the experimental system. Using the downconverted signals, the performance of the experimental system for various signal scenarios is evaluated. In this situation, due to the inherent thermal noise, qualitative instead of quantitative test results are presented. It is shown that the experimental system can null up to two interfering signals well below the noise level. However, to avoid the cancellation of the desired signal, the use a steering vector is needed. Various methods to obtain an estimate of the steering vector are proposed.

  9. Practical method to identify orbital anomaly as spacecraft breakup in the geostationary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetsuhara, Masahiko; Hanada, Toshiya

    2013-09-01

    Identifying spacecraft breakup events is an essential issue for better understanding of the current orbital debris environment. This paper proposes an observation planning approach to identify an orbital anomaly, which appears as a significant discontinuity in archived orbital history, as a spacecraft breakup. The proposed approach is applicable to orbital anomalies in the geostationary region. The proposed approach selects a spacecraft that experienced an orbital anomaly, and then predicts trajectories of possible fragments of the spacecraft at an observation epoch. This paper theoretically demonstrates that observation planning for the possible fragments can be conducted. To do this, long-term behaviors of the possible fragments are evaluated. It is concluded that intersections of their trajectories will converge into several corresponding regions in the celestial sphere even if the breakup epoch is not specified and it has uncertainty of the order of several weeks.

  10. Destination directed packet switch architecture for a geostationary communication satellite network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, W. D.; Shalkhauser, M. J.; Bobinsky, E. A.; Soni, N. J.; Quintana, J. A.; Kim, H.; Wagner, P.; Vanderaar, M.

    1992-01-01

    A major effort at NASA/Lewis is to identify and develop critical digital technologies and components that enable new commercial missions or significantly improve the performance, cost efficiency, and/or reliability of existing and planned space comunications systems. NASA envisions the need for low data rate, direct to the user communications services, for data, facsimile, voice, and video conferencing. A report that focuses on destination directed packet switching architectures for geostationary communication satellites is presented.

  11. Methodologies for initialization experiments with NWP mesoscale model and geostationary satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Chen, T.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for the initialization of a mesoscale NWP model with geostationary satellite data and conventional data. The algorithm is a blend of the four-dimensional assimilation technique (Charney, Jastrow and Halem, 1969) for large-scale NWP models and the variational techniques used in cloud models (Gal-Chen, 1978) and large-scale models (Sasaki, 1969). The model's generated winds are combined with rawinsonde measurements.

  12. EHL Transition Temperature Measurements on a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Filter Wheel Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Shogrin, Bradley A.

    2001-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) transition temperature was measured for a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder filter wheel bearing in a vacuum tribometer. Conditions included both an 89 N (20 lb.) hard and soft load, 600 rpm, temperatures between 23 C (73 F) and 85 C (185 F), and a vacuum of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp -5) Pa. Elastohydrodynamic to mixed lubrication started to occur at approximately 70 C (158 F).

  13. Space Weather Measurements Despite Resource Limitations: A Conceptual Overview of Novel Energetic Particle Instruments at a Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burward-Hoy, J.

    2006-12-01

    Solar energetic particle events, cosmic rays, and relativistic electrons in the outer edge of the radiation belts produce single event upsets in the electronics and spacecraft charging on a host satellite located at a geostationary orbit. In order to determine the space weather environment for the host, particle instruments capable of measuring both electrons and protons in a wide energy range, with a large angular coverage but finite angular resolution are necessary. In order to adhere to resource limitations, including weight and power consumption and whether or not a host platform is spinning or three-axis stabilized, energetic particle instruments must be designed accordingly. I will present a conceptual overview of novel LANL instruments, specifically two-element collimated telescopes with solid-state sensors, and describe how the requirements for accurate space weather determination are met despite the resource limitations.

  14. Pulse strobing in VLBI for observation of geostationary earth satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskij, V. M.

    The possibility of broadband synthesis by pulse strobing for observation of slow-moving objects using standard MARK-1 VLBI processing methods is discussed. The possibility of increasing the SNR by using a special type of pulse function is indicated. A specific scheme for application of the method in satellite radiointerferometry is examined.

  15. Identification of geostationary satellites using polarization data from unresolved images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speicher, Andy

    In order to protect critical military and commercial space assets, the United States Space Surveillance Network must have the ability to positively identify and characterize all space objects. Unfortunately, positive identification and characterization of space objects is a manual and labor intensive process today since even large telescopes cannot provide resolved images of most space objects. Since resolved images of geosynchronous satellites are not technically feasible with current technology, another method of distinguishing space objects was explored that exploits the polarization signature from unresolved images. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze visible-spectrum polarization data from unresolved images of geosynchronous satellites taken over various solar phase angles. Different collection geometries were used to evaluate the polarization contribution of solar arrays, thermal control materials, antennas, and the satellite bus as the solar phase angle changed. Since materials on space objects age due to the space environment, it was postulated that their polarization signature may change enough to allow discrimination of identical satellites launched at different times. The instrumentation used in this experiment was a United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Department of Physics system that consists of a 20-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope and a dual focal plane optical train fed with a polarizing beam splitter. A rigorous calibration of the system was performed that included corrections for pixel bias, dark current, and response. Additionally, the two channel polarimeter was calibrated by experimentally determining the Mueller matrix for the system and relating image intensity at the two cameras to Stokes parameters S0 and S1. After the system calibration, polarization data was collected during three nights on eight geosynchronous satellites built by various manufacturers and launched several years apart. Three pairs of the eight satellites were identical buses to determine if identical buses could be correctly differentiated. When Stokes parameters were plotted against time and solar phase angle, the data indicates that there were distinguishing features in S0 (total intensity) and S1 (linear polarization) that may lead to positive identification or classification of each satellite.

  16. Analyzing long observation arcs for objects with high area-to-mass ratios in geostationary orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musci, R.; Schildknecht, T.; Ploner, M.

    2010-03-01

    A new population of objects with high area-to-mass ratios (AMR) in the geostationary orbit (GEO) has been identified recently. The first observations of this new type of objects were acquired in the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) search for space debris in the GEO and the geostationary transfer orbit using ESA's 1-m telescope on Tenerife (ESASDT). Since 2005 some of the newly detected objects with high AMR have been maintained in a catalogue. In addition to the ESASDT, the 1-m telescope of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) in Zimmerwald and several instruments located in the region of the former Soviet Union have been used to acquire the observations needed to maintain the orbital elements of these objects. The data from the latter telescopes is provided to AIUB by the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (KIAM) in the framework of a collaboration. Observation arcs of up to more than three years are currently available for some objects with high AMR. These long observation arcs are used to study the quality of the orbit determination and in particular of the AMR estimation. The results are presented in this paper. Furthermore, the challenges to maintain these orbits, e.g., to recover the objects after several days or weeks, are discussed.

  17. Use of low orbital satellite communications systems for humanitarian programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir N.; Gorkovoy, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    Communication and information exchange play a decisive role in progress and social development. However, in many parts of the world the communication infrastructure is inadequate and the capacity for on-line exchange of information may not exist. This is true of underdeveloped countries, remote and relatively inaccessible regions, sites of natural disasters, and of all cases where the resources needed to create complex communication systems are limited. The creation of an inexpensive space communications system to service such areas is therefore a high priority task. In addition to a relatively low-cost space segment, an inexpensive space communications systems requires a large number of ground terminals, which must be relatively inexpensive, energy efficient (using power generated by storage batteries, or solar arrays, etc.), small in size, and must not require highly expert maintenance. The ground terminals must be portable, and readily deployable. Communications satellites in geostationary orbit at altitudes of about 36,000 km are very expensive and require complex and expensive ground stations and launch vehicles. Given current technology, it is categorically impossible to develop inexpensive satellite systems with portable ground terminals using such satellites. To solve the problem of developing an inexpensive satellite communications system that can operate with relatively small ground stations, including portable terminals, we propose to use a system with satellites in low Earth orbit, at an altitude of 900-1500 km. Because low orbital satellites are much closer to the Earth than geostationary ones and require vastly less energy expenditure by the satellite and ground terminals for transmission of messages, a system using them is relatively inexpensive. Such a system could use portable ground terminals no more complex than ordinary mobile police radios.

  18. Low Bus Voltage Hydrazine Arcjet System for Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zube, Dieter M.; Fye, Dan

    1998-07-01

    The capabilities of arcjet propulsion systems were recently extended to accommodate operation on the NASDA Data Relay Test Satellite (DRTS) providing a power bus voltage between 31 and 51.5 VDC. This paper summarizes the newly attained qualification status of the MR 512 arcjet system demonstrating the flexibility of the current design. A redesign of the Power Processing Unit (PPU) became necessary as well as a delta-qualification of the thruster to validate spacecraft integration and to provide compliance with the DRTS satellite environmental requirements. Two types of thrusters with different thrust levels were made available to meet mission requirements. The delta-qualification included a pyro-shock test, vibration tests to a higher level than previously tested, and performance mapping beyond the original range. Included in the paper is an assessment of the PPU performance characteristics as well as the discussion of the system operation and system telemetry.

  19. Improved monitoring of surface ozone by joint assimilation of geostationary satellite observations of ozone and CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoogman, Peter; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chance, Kelly; Worden, Helen M.; Edwards, David P.; Zhang, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Future geostationary satellite observations of tropospheric ozone aim to improve monitoring of surface ozone air quality. However, ozone retrievals from space have limited sensitivity in the lower troposphere (boundary layer). Data assimilation in a chemical transport model can propagate the information from the satellite observations to provide useful constraints on surface ozone. This may be aided by correlated satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO), for which boundary layer sensitivity is easier to achieve. We examine the potential of concurrent geostationary observations of ozone and CO to improve constraints on surface ozone air quality through exploitation of ozone-CO model error correlations in a joint data assimilation framework. The hypothesis is that model transport errors diagnosed for CO provide information on corresponding errors in ozone. A paired-model analysis of ozone-CO error correlations in the boundary layer over North America in summer indicates positive error correlations in continental outflow but negative regional-scale error correlations over land, the latter reflecting opposite sensitivities of ozone and CO to boundary layer depth. Aircraft observations from the ICARTT campaign are consistent with this pattern but also indicate strong positive error correlations in fine-scale pollution plumes. We develop a joint ozone-CO data assimilation system and apply it to a regional-scale Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) of the planned NASA GEO-CAPE geostationary mission over North America. We find substantial benefit from joint ozone-CO data assimilation in informing US ozone air quality if the instrument sensitivity for CO in the boundary layer is greater than that for ozone. A high-quality geostationary measurement of CO could potentially relax the requirements for boundary layer sensitivity of the ozone measurement. This is contingent on accurate characterization of ozone-CO error correlations. A finer-resolution data assimilation system resolving the urban scale would need to account for the change in sign of the ozone-CO error correlations between urban pollution plumes and the regional atmosphere.

  20. A geostationary satellite system for mobile multimedia applications using portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losquadro, G.; Luglio, M.; Vatalaro, F.

    1997-01-01

    A geostationary satellite system for mobile multimedia services via portable, aeronautical and mobile terminals was developed within the framework of the Advanced Communications Technology Service (ACTS) programs. The architecture of the system developed under the 'satellite extremely high frequency communications for multimedia mobile services (SECOMS)/ACTS broadband aeronautical terminal experiment' (ABATE) project is presented. The system will be composed of a Ka band system component, and an extremely high frequency band component. The major characteristics of the space segment, the ground control station and the portable, aeronautical and mobile user terminals are outlined.

  1. Lightning data study in conjunction with geostationary satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auvine, Brian; Martin, David W.

    1987-01-01

    During the summer of 1985, cloud-to-ground stroke lightning were collected. Thirty minute samples of lightning were compared with GOES IR fractional cold cloud coverage computed for three temperature thresholds (213, 243, and 273 K) twice daily (morning and evening). It was found that satellite measurements of cold cloud have a relationship to the flashrate and, in a more limited way, to the polarity and numbers of return strokes. Results varied little by location. Lightning, especially positive strokes, was found to be correlated with fractional cloud coverage, especially for clouds at or below 213 K. Other data and correlations are discussed.

  2. On the feasibility of monitoring carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere from a constellation of Northern Hemisphere geostationary satellites. (Part 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, Jérôme; Edwards, David; Worden, Helen; Da Silva, Arlindo; Lahoz, William

    2015-07-01

    By the end of the current decade, there are plans to deploy several geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite missions for atmospheric composition over North America, East Asia and Europe with additional missions proposed. Together, these present the possibility of a constellation of geostationary platforms to achieve continuous time-resolved high-density observations over continental domains for mapping pollutant sources and variability at diurnal and local scales. In this paper, we use a novel approach to sample a very high global resolution model (GEOS-5 at 7 km horizontal resolution) to produce a dataset of synthetic carbon monoxide pollution observations representative of those potentially obtainable from a GEO satellite constellation with predicted measurement sensitivities based on current remote sensing capabilities. Part 1 of this study focuses on the production of simulated synthetic measurements for air quality OSSEs (Observing System Simulation Experiments). We simulate carbon monoxide nadir retrievals using a technique that provides realistic measurements with very low computational cost. We discuss the sampling methodology: the projection of footprints and areas of regard for geostationary geometries over each of the North America, East Asia and Europe regions; the regression method to simulate measurement sensitivity; and the measurement error simulation. A detailed analysis of the simulated observation sensitivity is performed, and limitations of the method are discussed. We also describe impacts from clouds, showing that the efficiency of an instrument making atmospheric composition measurements on a geostationary platform is dependent on the dominant weather regime over a given region and the pixel size resolution. These results demonstrate the viability of the "instrument simulator" step for an OSSE to assess the performance of a constellation of geostationary satellites for air quality measurements. We describe the OSSE results in a follow up paper (Part 2 of this study).

  3. On the Feasibility of Monitoring Carbon Monoxide in the Lower Troposphere from a Constellation of Northern Hemisphere Geostationary Satellites (PART 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barre, Jerome; Edwards, David; Worden, Helen; Da Silva, Arlindo; Lahoz, William

    2015-01-01

    By the end of the current decade, there are plans to deploy several geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite missions for atmospheric composition over North America, East Asia and Europe with additional missions proposed. Together, these present the possibility of a constellation of geostationary platforms to achieve continuous time-resolved high-density observations over continental domains for mapping pollutant sources and variability at diurnal and local scales. In this paper, we use a novel approach to sample a very high global resolution model (GEOS-5 at 7 km horizontal resolution) to produce a dataset of synthetic carbon monoxide pollution observations representative of those potentially obtainable from a GEO satellite constellation with predicted measurement sensitivities based on current remote sensing capabilities. Part 1 of this study focuses on the production of simulated synthetic measurements for air quality OSSEs (Observing System Simulation Experiments). We simulate carbon monoxide nadir retrievals using a technique that provides realistic measurements with very low computational cost. We discuss the sampling methodology: the projection of footprints and areas of regard for geostationary geometries over each of the North America, East Asia and Europe regions; the regression method to simulate measurement sensitivity; and the measurement error simulation. A detailed analysis of the simulated observation sensitivity is performed, and limitations of the method are discussed. We also describe impacts from clouds, showing that the efficiency of an instrument making atmospheric composition measurements on a geostationary platform is dependent on the dominant weather regime over a given region and the pixel size resolution. These results demonstrate the viability of the "instrument simulator" step for an OSSE to assess the performance of a constellation of geostationary satellites for air quality measurements.

  4. A k-permutation algorithm for Fixed Satellite Service orbital allotments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, Charles H.; Mount-Campbell, Clark A.; Gonsalvez, David J. A.

    1988-01-01

    A satellite system synthesis problem, the satellite location problem (SLP), is addressed in this paper. In SLP, orbital locations (longitudes) are allotted to geostationary satellites in the Fixed Satellite Service. A linear mixed-integer programming model is presented that views SLP as a combination of two problems: (1) the problem of ordering the satellites and (2) the problem of locating the satellites given some ordering. A special-purpose heuristic procedure, a k-permutation algorithm, that has been developed to find solutions to SLPs formulated in the manner suggested is described. Solutions to small example problems are presented and analyzed.

  5. Finding fixed satellite service orbital allotments with a k-permutation algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, Charles H.; Mount-Campbell, Clark A.; Gonsalvez, David J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A satellite system synthesis problem, the satellite location problem (SLP), is addressed. In SLP, orbital locations (longitudes) are allotted to geostationary satellites in the fixed satellite service. A linear mixed-integer programming model is presented that views SLP as a combination of two problems: the problem of ordering the satellites and the problem of locating the satellites given some ordering. A special-purpose heuristic procedure, a k-permutation algorithm, has been developed to find solutions to SLPs. Solutions to small sample problems are presented and analyzed on the basis of calculated interferences.

  6. Precise Orbit Determination of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-04-01

    China has been developing its own independent satellite navigation system since decades. Now the COMPASS system, also known as BeiDou, is emerging and gaining more and more interest and attention in the worldwide GNSS communities. The current regional BeiDou system is ready for its operational service around the end of 2012 with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and four Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites in operation. Besides the open service with positioning accuracy of around 10m which is free to civilian users, both precise relative positioning, and precise point positioning are demonstrated as well. In order to enhance the BeiDou precise positioning service, Precise Orbit Determination (POD) which is essential of any satellite navigation system has been investigated and studied thoroughly. To further improving the orbits of different types of satellites, we study the impact of network coverage on POD data products by comparing results from tracking networks over the Chinese territory, Asian-Pacific, Asian and of global scale. Furthermore, we concentrate on the improvement of involving MEOs on the orbit quality of GEOs and IGSOs. POD with and without MEOs are undertaken and results are analyzed. Finally, integer ambiguity resolution which brings highly improvement on orbits and positions with GPS data is also carried out and its effect on POD data products is assessed and discussed in detail. Seven weeks of BeiDou data from a ground tracking network, deployed by Wuhan University is employed in this study. The test constellation includes four GEO, five IGSO and two MEO satellites in operation. The three-day solution approach is employed to enhance its strength due to the limited coverage of the tracking network and the small movement of most of the satellites. A number of tracking scenarios and processing schemas are identified and processed and overlapping orbit differences are utilized to qualify the estimated orbits and clocks. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. For the current tracking network, deploying tracking stations on the eastern side, for example in New Zealand and/or in Hawaii, will significantly reduce along-track biases of GEOs on the same side. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better but rather moderate. Key words: BeiDou, precise orbit determination (POD), tracking network, ambiguity-fixing

  7. Orbital evolution. [of large natural satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The orbital evolution of a large satellite is governed primarily by tidal interactions between the satellite and the planet it orbits. Tides raised on a planet by a satellite transfer energy and angular momentum to the satellite orbit; this changes the semimajor axes of satellite orbits, increasing the size of those orbits where the satellite mean motion is smaller than the planetary angular velocity, and decreasing those where the opposite is true. Substantial changes caused by such tides for satellites of the terrestrial planets may explain the absence of satellites about Mercury and Venus. For Jovian and Saturnian satellites, such tides probably are only important in bringing about some of the observed orbital resonances. Tides raised on satellites generally cause decreasing orbital eccentricities, indicating why close satellites always have nearly circular orbits. Different processes of orbital evolution dominate for small bodies; their effects probably are critical in positioning material in the primordial dust cloud so that satellite coagulation may occur. A qualitative description is given of the orbital results of gas drag, radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag and electromagnetic forces.

  8. Upper-Tropospheric Winds Derived from Geostationary Satellite Water Vapor Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher S.; Hayden, Christopher M.; Nieman, Steven J.; Menzel, W. Paul; Wanzong, Steven; Goerss, James S.

    1997-01-01

    The coverage and quality of remotely sensed upper-tropospheric moisture parameters have improved considerably with the deployment of a new generation of operational geostationary meteorological satellites: GOES-8/9 and GMS-5. The GOES-8/9 water vapor imaging capabilities have increased as a result of improved radiometric sensitivity and higher spatial resolution. The addition of a water vapor sensing channel on the latest GMS permits nearly global viewing of upper-tropospheric water vapor (when joined with GOES and Meteosat) and enhances the commonality of geostationary meteorological satellite observing capabilities. Upper-tropospheric motions derived from sequential water vapor imagery provided by these satellites can be objectively extracted by automated techniques. Wind fields can be deduced in both cloudy and cloud-free environments. In addition to the spatially coherent nature of these vector fields, the GOES-8/9 multispectral water vapor sensing capabilities allow for determination of wind fields over multiple tropospheric layers in cloud-free environments. This article provides an update on the latest efforts to extract water vapor motion displacements over meteorological scales ranging from subsynoptic to global. The potential applications of these data to impact operations, numerical assimilation and prediction, and research studies are discussed.

  9. Remote Sensing of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2o from Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Natraj, V.; Luo, M.; Zhang, Q.; Shia, R. L.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Geostationary Carbon Process Investigation (GCPI) combines an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a geostationary Earth orbit vantage point to realize a transformational advance in monitoring carbon-bearing molecules and water vapor beyond the synoptic capabilities of Low Earth Orbit instruments such as SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and OCO-2. GCPI is designed to measure, several times every day, high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight with a moderate signal to noise ratio in near-infrared (NIR) bands, that can then be used to obtain simultaneous retrievals of column averaged CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O. The aim of this project is to explore the potential of retrieving vertical profiles of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O from high-resolution NIR spectra. We perform radiative transfer simulations over clear-sky conditions (as expected to be observed by GCPI) and estimate prospective performance of retrievals based on results from Bayesian error analysis and characterization. Through Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), we demonstrate the feasibility of retrieving vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 and partial columns of CO and H2O with high accuracies and precisions. GCPI's unprecedented observations with high temporal and spatial coverage could be used to drive and constrain Earth system models, improve our understanding of the underlying carbon cycle and water cycle processes, and evaluate model forecasting capabilities.

  10. Thermal/optical test setup for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurmehly, G. E.; Hookman, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Telescope is designed to be passively temperature compensated so that focus requirements will be met over a broad range of temperatures. Concerns over the effects of temperature gradients on the optical performance of the telescope and the repeatability of the 'pointing error' of the telescope spawned the need for a detailed thermal/optical test. The telescope temperature compensation system, the thermal environment in which it must work and the test setup used to measure optical performance under varying temperature conditions are discussed in this paper.

  11. A geostationary longitude acquisition planning algorithm. [for maneuver planning of geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petruzzo, C. J.; Bryant, W. C., Jr.; Nickerson, K. G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the phase of the geosynchronous mission termed station acquisition, which involves the maneuvering of a spacecraft to its geostationary longitude by means of the spacecraft propulsion system. An algorithm which assists in maneuver planning is described, and examples of its use are presented. The algorithm can be applied when sequences of more than three maneuvers are to be expected. While, in general, three maneuvers are sufficient to achieve the desired end conditions when orbital mechanics are the only consideration, operational considerations may add constraints resulting in an increased number of maneuvers required.

  12. Application of inclined elliptic orbits - A new dimension in satellite sound broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galligan, K. P.; Robson, D.

    1990-10-01

    The communications link between a geostationary satellite and a mobile user operating in a high latitude region is subject to fading through a combination of shadowing and multipath effects. The properties of the link may be substantially improved by the use of satellites in highly inclined elliptic (HEO) orbits, with a resultant improvement in availability of the satellite service. Such systems have been under study in Europe for several years primarily in connection with voice communications. The application to a sound broadcasting satellite service is currently under investigation within the Archimedes program of the European Space Agency. The design principles of such systems are described and the performance parameters for both applications within the wider European context are indicated. Finally, an initial economic assessment of the HEO system in comparison with geostationary satellite and terrestrial based alternatives is provided.

  13. Retrograde Satellite to Monitor Overcrowded Geosynchronous Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Sei-Ichiro

    In order to mitigate the overcrowding problem of geosynchronous orbits, we propose a monitoring satellite placed in a sub-synchronous, retrograde circular orbit. The monitoring satellite has an on-board optical sensor, and observes look-angles of the target geosynchronous satellites that come into the field of view one after another. This kind of monitoring makes it possible to determine the orbit of every target satellite in a short term. Covariance analyses show that the target position determination can be accurate to 350m. The monitoring satellite's orbit determination will be obtained from ranging at two ground stations, with a sufficient accuracy because range biases can be estimated.

  14. Comparison of Geomagnetically-shielded Solar Energetic Proton Fluxes Observed at Geostationary Orbit by GOES and in Low-earth Orbit by SAMPEX, POES and MetOp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. V.; Mazur, J. E.; Green, J. C.; Machol, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    On the current (13-15) and upcoming (R+) series of NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), solar protons are observed from each satellite in the eastward and westward directions. Solar protons that arrive at a given location in the inner magnetosphere have energies greater than their geomagnetic cutoffs, which depend on direction of arrival as well as the strength of geomagnetic disturbances. Protons arriving from the west at geostationary orbit (GEO) have much lower geomagnetic cutoff energies than protons arriving from the east. As a result, GOES westward observations of >4 MeV protons are representative of the interplanetary population near Earth and serve as the basis for NOAA's real-time solar radiation storm alerts. While the GOES westward observations are similar to the Solar, Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) Proton-Electron Telescope (PET) proton observations in the polar cap (above invariant L = 10), GOES eastward observations more closely approximate the PET observations at invariant L = 4-4.5 in low earth orbit (LEO). Therefore, GOES may potentially provide a real-time, two-point estimate of the radial gradient of solar energetic protons between L = 6.6 and L = 4. However, the PET observations at L = 4-4.5 exhibit a much wider range of variability than the GOES eastward observations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine how representative the GOES two-point gradient estimate is as a function of magnetic local time and geographic longitude. The study encompasses the largest solar proton events (SPE) in Solar Cycle 23 and to date in Solar Cycle 24. From April 1998 through December 2006, GOES 10 provides eastward GEO and SAMPEX PET provides LEO observations of large SPEs. The Solar Cycle 24 GEO observations are provided by GOES 13 and 15. From July 1998 to date, the Space Environment Monitors (SEM-2) on the NOAA Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and EUMETSAT MetOp-A provide SPE observations in additional LEO orbit planes (six as of August 2012). SEM-2 data that are severely contaminated by relativistic electrons are excluded from the study.

  15. The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) for the GOES-R Series Next Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Petersen, Walter; Carey, Larry; Mach, Douglas; Buechler, Dennis; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Bruning, Eric; Albrecht, Rachel; MacGorman, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch in 2015 is a follow on to the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. The system will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. The system provides products including lightning, cloud properties, rainfall rate, volcanic ash, air quality, hurricane intensity, and fire/hot spot characterization. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), an optical transient detector will map total (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning flashes continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions, from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the higher level algorithms and applications using the GLM alone and decision aids incorporating information from the ABI, ground-based weather radar, and numerical models. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time total lightning mapping data are also being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS) national centers and forecast offices via the GOES-R Proving Ground to help improve our understanding of the application of these data in operational settings and facilitate early on-orbit user readiness for this new capability.

  16. Spectrum and orbit conservation as a factor in future mobile satellite system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    Access to the radio spectrum and geostationary orbit is essential to current and future mobile satellite systems. This access is difficult to obtain for current systems, and may be even more so for larger future systems. In this environment, satellite systems that minimize the amount of spectrum orbit resource required to meet a specific traffic requirement are essential. Several spectrum conservation techniques are discussed, some of which are complementary to designing the system at minimum cost. All may need to be implemented to the limits of technological feasibility if network growth is not to be constrained because of the lack of available spectrum-orbit resource.

  17. Next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite: GOES-R, the United States' advanced weather sentinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Hal J.

    2009-08-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series (GOES-R) is the follow-on to the existing GOES system, completing a transition from 1980's technology to state-of-the-art. The product of a collaborative development effort between NOAA, NASA, DOC and industry, the first GOES-R satellite is planned to be launched in April 2015 with readiness to fully replace the heritage GOES constellation in 2017. This next-generation system will continue as the United States' weather sentinel for forecasting hurricanes, severe storms, and flash floods while providing information about air quality, winds, sea surface temperature, and space weather. It will provide advanced capabilities by providing five times more spectral information, temporal coverage six times faster than the current system, and 50% higher spatial resolution. The heart of the GOES-R system is the ABI instrument, a sixteen-channel imager with six visible channels and 10 infrared channels. The GLM instrument will be the first geostationary sensor to detect and monitor lightning strikes. GOES-R also includes several space environment sensors that will increase the capability to monitor and predict solar flare activity. Additionally, GOES-R will continue to provide heritage search and rescue capabilities, a data collection system, and other direct readout capabilities.

  18. Destination-directed, packet-switched architecture for a geostationary communications satellite network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bobinsky, Eric A.; Soni, Nitin J.; Quintana, Jorge A.; Kim, Heechul; Wager, Paul; Vanderaar, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A major goal of the Digital Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to identify and develop critical digital components and technologies that either enable new commercial missions or significantly enhance the performance, cost efficiency, and/or reliability of existing and planned space communications systems. NASA envisions a need for low-data-rate, interactive, direct-to-the-user communications services for data, voice, facsimile, and video conferencing. The network would provide enhanced very-small-aperture terminal (VSAT) communications services and be capable of handling data rates of 64 kbps through 2.048 Mbps in 64-kbps increments. Efforts have concentrated heavily on the space segment; however, the ground segment has been considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints. The focus of current space segment developments is a flexible, high-throughput, fault-tolerant onboard information-switching processor (ISP) for a geostationary satellite communications network. The Digital Systems Technology Branch is investigating both circuit and packet architectures for the ISP. Destination-directed, packet-switched architectures for geostationary communications satellites are addressed.

  19. Thermal physical property-based fusion of geostationary meteorological satellite visible and infrared channel images.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Shi, Lu; Yang, Yiling; Song, Dalei

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary meteorological satellite infrared (IR) channel data contain important spectral information for meteorological research and applications, but their spatial resolution is relatively low. The objective of this study is to obtain higher-resolution IR images. One common method of increasing resolution fuses the IR data with high-resolution visible (VIS) channel data. However, most existing image fusion methods focus only on visual performance, and often fail to take into account the thermal physical properties of the IR images. As a result, spectral distortion occurs frequently. To tackle this problem, we propose a thermal physical properties-based correction method for fusing geostationary meteorological satellite IR and VIS images. In our two-step process, the high-resolution structural features of the VIS image are first extracted and incorporated into the IR image using regular multi-resolution fusion approach, such as the multiwavelet analysis. This step significantly increases the visual details in the IR image, but fake thermal information may be included. Next, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law is applied to correct the distortion, to retain or recover the thermal infrared nature of the fused image. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative evaluation demonstrate that the proposed physical correction method both improves the spatial resolution and preserves the infrared thermal properties. PMID:24919017

  20. Low earth orbit satellite/terrestrial mobile service compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheriff, R. E.; Gardiner, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Digital cellular mobile 'second generation' systems are now gradually being introduced into service; one such example is GSM, which will provide a digital voice and data service throughout Europe. Total coverage is not expected to be achieved until the mid '90's, which has resulted in several proposals for the integration of GSM with a geostationary satellite service. Unfortunately, because terrestrial and space systems have been designed to optimize their performance for their particular environment, integration between a satellite and terrestrial system is unlikely to develop further than the satellite providing a back-up service. This lack of system compatibility is now being addressed by system designers of third generation systems. The next generation of mobile systems, referred to as FPLMTS (future public land mobile telecommunication systems) by CCIR and UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication system) in European research programs, are intended to provide inexpensive, hand-held terminals that can operate in either satellite, cellular, or cordless environments. This poses several challenges for system designers, not least in terms of the choice of multiple access technique and power requirements. Satellite mobile services have been dominated by the geostationary orbital type. Recently, however, a number of low earth orbit configurations have been proposed, for example Iridium. These systems are likely to be fully operational by the turn of the century, in time for the implementation of FPLMTS. The developments in LEO mobile satellite service technology were recognized at WARC-92 with the allocation of specific frequency bands for 'big' LEO's, as well as a frequency allocation for FPLMTS which included a specific satellite allocation. When considering integrating a space service into the terrestrial network, LEO's certainly appear to have their attractions: they can provide global coverage, the round trip delay is of the order of tens of milliseconds, and good visibility to the satellite is usually possible. This has resulted in their detailed investigation in the European COST 227 program and in the work program of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). This paper will consider the system implications of integrating a LEO mobile service with a terrestrial service. Results will be presented from simulation software to show how a particular orbital configuration affects the performance of the system in terms of area coverage and visibility to a terminal for various locations and minimum elevation angle. Possible network topologies are then proposed for an integrated satellite/terrestrial network.

  1. Investigations of the evolution of optical characteristics and dynamics of proper rotation of uncontrolled geostationary artificial satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papushev, P.; Karavaev, Yu.; Mishina, M.

    2009-05-01

    On the base of the photometrical data an analysis of the periods and light curves of the uncontrolled artificial satellites was performed. The equipment used in the observations of the satellites is fast photoelectrical photometer attached to the astronomical telescopes of the Sayan observatory (operated by the ISTP SB RAS). Two-mirror Cassegrain telescope with 0.5 m aperture equipped photoelectrical photometer setup in the fast photometry mode have the ability to track the slow moving objects up to 15-th visual magnitude. The observations started from the second half of the 20-th century and have been continued up to the present time. The standard photometric Johnson-Morgan system UBVR had been used. The basic goals are to present observational data and both discuss the probability of detection of design changes of satellite being a long time in geostationary orbit, and display the periods behavior rarely discussed in the literature. A systematization of the rotation periods is submitted. The light curves of the uncontrolled objects has periodic structure and specific mirror spike features which are a characteristic for identification of an object. Analysis of the standard color index (CI) value can provide additional data on the mirror spike origin. When mirror spikes are eliminated color indexes (B-V) for the diffuse component of the satellites is in the range of 0.9-1.1 and exceed those for the solar type star. Unlike, mirror spikes CI (B-V) are close to zero or negative, indicating a blue excess of radiation spectrum. The processes of the variation rotation periods connected with the satellites construction and their interaction with space environment are discussed.

  2. Impact of geostationary satellite water vapor channel data on weather analysis and forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results from NWP impact studies are indicating that upper-tropospheric wind information provided by tracking motions in sequences of geostationary satellite water vapor imagery can positively influence forecasts on regional scales, and possibly on global scales as well. The data are complimentary to cloud-tracked winds by providing data in cloud-free regions, as well as comparable in quality. First results from GOES-8 winds are encouraging, and further efforts and model impacts will be directed towards optimizing these data in numerical weather prediction (NWP). Assuming successful launches of GOES-J and GMS-5 satellites in 1995, high quality and resolution water vapor imagers will be available to provide nearly complete global upper-tropospheric wind coverage.

  3. Estimation of solar radiation at the sea surface with geostationary meteorological satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Seup; Kimura, Ryuuji

    1992-08-01

    Two methods to estimate solar radiation over oceans near Japan with Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) are presented. One is the estimate by means of cloud amount derived from cloud imagery by GMS. An empirical formula that connects the solar radiation at the sea surface with cloud amount estimated by the satellite is proposed. The other is the estimate based on histogram data of T(sub BB) (Blackbody Temperature) at cloud top. It was found that reduction rate due to high-level clouds is greater than that due to low-level clouds, suggesting that information of cloud height is needed in addition to total cloud amount to make better estimates of solar radiation at the surface.

  4. A Near-Real-Time Global Geostationary Satellite Cloud and Radiation Retreival System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palikonda, R.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Ayers, J. K.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Chang, F.; Heck, P. W.; Chee, T. L.; Nguyen, L.; Nordeen, M.

    2009-12-01

    Weather prediction models need more quantitative weather information for forecasting and nowcasting. This paper describes a prototype system to provide 3-hourly cloud properties from full-disk geostationary satellites (GEOSat) around the globe. Data from GOES11/12, Meteosat.-9, FY2-C/D and MTSAT is analyzed using a common set of algorithms to derive products including cloud mask, cloud phase, cloud base and top height, optical depth, ice and liquid water path, particle sizes, shortwave albedo and longwave flux. Overlap cloud properties are derived from GOES-12 and Meteosat using the CO2 channel 13.3 um. Active and passive remote sensing data from the surface and other satellites are being used to validate the products. Interactive tools for accessing and viewing the data products are demonstrated. Examples of nowcasting application and assimilation of the cloud products in numerical model are presented and future plans and challenges discussed.

  5. Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Born, George H.; Leonard, Jason M.; McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Fujimoto, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    A navigation technology known as LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation) has been known to produce very impressive navigation results for scenarios involving two or more cooperative satellites near the Moon, such that at least one satellite must be in an orbit significantly perturbed by the Earth, such as a lunar halo orbit. The two (or more) satellites track each other using satellite-to-satellite range and/or range-rate measurements. These relative measurements yield absolute orbit navigation when one of the satellites is in a lunar halo orbit, or the like. The geometry between a lunar halo orbiter and a GEO satellite continuously changes, which dramatically improves the information content of a satellite-to-satellite tracking signal. The geometrical variations include significant out-of-plane shifts, as well as inplane shifts. Further, the GEO satellite is almost continuously in view of a lunar halo orbiter. High-fidelity simulations demonstrate that LiAISON technology improves the navigation of GEO orbiters by an order of magnitude, relative to standard ground tracking. If a GEO satellite is navigated using LiAISON- only tracking measurements, its position is typically known to better than 10 meters. If LiAISON measurements are combined with simple radiometric ground observations, then the satellite s position is typically known to better than 3 meters, which is substantially better than the current state of GEO navigation. There are two features of LiAISON that are novel and advantageous compared with conventional satellite navigation. First, ordinary satellite-to-satellite tracking data only provides relative navigation of each satellite. The novelty is the placement of one navigation satellite in an orbit that is significantly perturbed by both the Earth and the Moon. A navigation satellite can track other satellites elsewhere in the Earth-Moon system and acquire knowledge about both satellites absolute positions and velocities, as well as relative positions and velocities in space. The second novelty is that ordinarily one requires many satellites in order to achieve full navigation of any given customer s position and velocity over time. With LiAISON navigation, only a single navigation satellite is needed, provided that the satellite is significantly affected by the gravity of the Earth and the Moon. That single satellite can track another satellite elsewhere in the Earth- Moon system and obtain absolute knowledge of both satellites states.

  6. Spacecraft plume interactions with the magnetosphere plasma environment in geostationary Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, K. A.; Boyd, I. D.

    2016-02-01

    Particle-based kinetic simulations of steady and unsteady hydrazine chemical rocket plumes are presented in a study of plume interactions with the ambient magnetosphere in geostationary Earth orbit. The hydrazine chemical rocket plume expands into a near-vacuum plasma environment, requiring the use of a combined direct simulation Monte Carlo/particle-in-cell methodology for the rarefied plasma conditions. Detailed total and differential cross sections are employed to characterize the charge exchange reactions between the neutral hydrazine plume mixture and the ambient hydrogen ions, and ion production is also modeled for photoionization processes. These ionization processes lead to an increase in local plasma density surrounding the spacecraft owing to a partial ionization of the relatively high-density hydrazine plume. Results from the steady plume simulations indicate that the formation of the hydrazine ion plume are driven by several competing mechanisms, including (1) local depletion and (2) replenishing of ambient H+ ions by charge exchange and thermal motion of 1 keV H+ from the ambient reservoir, respectively, and (3) photoionization processes. The self-consistent electrostatic field forces and the geostationary magnetic field have only a small influence on the dynamics of the ion plume. The unsteady plume simulations show a variation in neutral and ion plume dissipation times consistent with the variation in relative diffusion rates of the chemical species, with full H2 dissipation (below the ambient number density levels) approximately 33 s after a 2 s thruster burn.

  7. Spectrum-orbit utilization - An overview. [domestic satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawitz, P. H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems associated with the efficient utilization of the natural resources of frequency spectrum and geo-stationary orbital arc. The nature of these resources is explained and their quantities are estimated. The present and projected future demand for them is given, and the problem areas are identified and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on mutual interference, launch limitations, propagation effects, and operational restrictions. The technical factors bearing on these problems, such as antenna patterns, modulation methods, emission restrictions, equipment characteristics, and system requirements, are discussed in detail. Some important trade-offs are presented, and special techniques that can be used to increase spectrum-orbit utilization are described. Particular emphasis is given throughout to U.S. domestic satellite communication systems.

  8. The atmospheric composition geostationary satellite constellation for air quality and climate science: Evaluating performance with Observation System Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Barre, J.; Worden, H. M.; Arellano, A. F.; Gaubert, B.; Anderson, J. L.; Mizzi, A. P.; Lahoz, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Current satellite observations of tropospheric composition made from low Earth orbit provide at best one or two measurements each day at any given location. Coverage is global but sparse, often with large uncertainties in individual measurements that limit examination of local and regional atmospheric composition over short time periods. This has hindered the operational uptake of these data for monitoring air quality and population exposure, and for initializing and evaluating chemical weather forecasts. By the end of the current decade there are planned geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite missions for atmospheric composition over North America, East Asia and Europe with additional missions proposed. Together, these present the possibility of a constellation of GEO platforms to achieve continuous time-resolved high-density observations of continental domains for mapping pollutant sources and variability on diurnal and local scales. We describe Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to evaluate the contributions of these GEO missions to improve knowledge of near-surface air pollution due to intercontinental long-range transport and quantify chemical precursor emissions. We discuss the requirements on measurement simulation, chemical transport modeling, and data assimilation for a successful OSSE infrastructure. Our approach uses an efficient computational method to sample a high-resolution global GEOS-5 chemistry Nature Run over each geographical region of the GEO constellation. The demonstration carbon monoxide (CO) observation simulator, which is being expanded to other chemical pollutants, currently produces multispectral retrievals and captures realistic scene-dependent variation in measurement vertical sensitivity and cloud cover. We use the DART Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter to assimilate the simulated observations in a CAM-Chem global chemistry-climate model Control Run. The impact of observing over each region is evaluated using data denial experiments. Finally, we report on international collaborations using the OSSE approach to determine expected performance of planned satellite systems and set requirements for future missions.

  9. System Approach to the Forecast of Electron Fluxes iAT Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Boynton, R. J.; Billings, S. A.; Pakhotin, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    A black box input-output NARMAX approach has been used to develop a one day ahead forecast of the electron fluxes at geostationary orbit. ACE measurements are used as the system inputs and GOES spacecraft data as outputs. An online real time forecasting tool has been developed as the result to this approach, which is available on the Sheffield R. Boynton www page http://www.acse.shef.ac.uk/~cop08rjb/2MeV_EF.html. This tool provides more accurate forecast in comparison to presently available online tools based on local wave acceleration models. As NARMAX provides physically interpretable results, the model terms are analysed in order to improve understanding of underlying physical processes. The identified NARMAX model indicates a significance of solar wind density in the control of high energy electron fluxes. Such a density dependence can be explained as a consequence of ULF pulsations. The alternative explanation relates it to the dynamics of EMIC waves.

  10. An Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The documentation and user's guide for the Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP) computer program is presented. The ASOP is based on mathematical methods that represent a new state-of-the-art for rapid orbit computation techniques. It is intended to be used for computation of near-earth orbits including those of the shuttle/orbiter and its payloads.

  11. THE ORBITS OF THE OUTER URANIAN SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.

    2009-04-15

    We report on the numerically integrated orbits for the nine outer Uranian satellites. The orbits are calculated based on fits to the astrometric observations for the period from 1984 to 2006. The results include the state vectors, post-fit residuals, and mean orbital elements. We also assess the accuracy of the orbital fits and discuss the need for future measurements.

  12. Orbit computation of the TELECOM-2D satellite with a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleflie, Florent; Coulot, David; Vienne, Alain; Decosta, Romain; Richard, Pascal; Lasri, Mohammed Amjad

    2014-07-01

    In order to test a preliminary orbit determination method, we fit an orbit of the geostationary satellite TELECOM-2D, as if we did not know any a priori information on its trajectory. The method is based on a genetic algorithm coupled to an analytical propagator of the trajectory, that is used over a couple of days, and that uses a whole set of altazimutal data that are acquired by the tracking network made up of the two TAROT telescopes. The adjusted orbit is then compared to a numerical reference. The method is described, and the results are analyzed, as a step towards an operational method of preliminary orbit determination for uncatalogued objects.

  13. NEXRAD-In-Space: A Geostationary Orbiting Doppler Radar for Hurricane Monitoring and Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Fang, Houfei; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Under NASA's Earth Science Technology Program, a novel mission concept has been developed for detailed monitoring of hurricanes, cyclones, and severe storms from a geostationary orbit: "NEXRAD in Space" (NIS). By operating in the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), NIS would enable rapid-update sampling (less than or equal to 1 hour cadence) of three dimenional fields of 35 GHz (Ka-band) radar reflectivity factor (Z) and line-of-sight Doppler velocity (VD) profiles, at mesoscale horizontal resolutions (approx. 10 km) over a circular Earth region of approximately 5300 km in diameter (equivalent to much of an oceanic basin, such as the Atlantic). NIS GEO-radar concept was chosen as one of only four potential post-2020 missions for the Weather Focus area in the 2007-2016 NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Plan. The results of the first project aiming at developing the NIS concept highlighted the enormous potential of such mission, and the technological challenges presented by it. In essence, it is because of its rapid-cadence capability that NIS science planning is focusing on hurricane monitoring and prediction. Hurricanes, or generically tropical cyclones (TCs), have always been among the most devastating natural phenomena. This has been painfully reiterated in recent years with a number of powerful TCs landfalling in North America and elsewhere. In April 2007, the first NIS Science Workshop was convened at the University of Miami to galvanize the scientific community's interest in NIS's measurement capabilities for improved TC monitoring and prediction. The general consensus of the workshop was that a GEO Doppler radar would provide a major breakthrough in regards to the observation of TCs, and, when combined with cloud-resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This paper presents brief summaries of the instrument concept, the current technology status, the anticipated impacts on hurricane monitoring and model prediction, and the future science and technology roadmap.

  14. Cloud pattern prediction from geostationary meteorological satellite images for solar energy forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, S.; Sébastien, N.; Liandrat, O.; Schmutz, N.

    2014-10-01

    Surface solar radiation forecasting permits to predict photovoltaic plant production for a massive and safe integration of solar energy into the electric network. For short-term forecasts (intra-day), methods using images from meteorological geostationary satellites are more suitable than numerical weather prediction models. Forecast schemes consist in assessing cloud motion vectors and in extrapolating cloud patterns from a given satellite image in order to predict cloud cover state above a PV plant. Atmospheric motion vectors retrieval techniques have been studied for several decades in order to improve weather forecasts. However, solar energy forecasting requires the extraction of cloud motion vectors on a finer spatial- and time-resolution than those provided for weather forecast applications. Even if motion vector retrieval is a wide research field in image processing related topics, only block-matching techniques are operationally used for solar energy forecasts via satellite images. In this paper, we propose two motion vectors extraction methods originating from video compression techniques (correlation phase and optical flow methods). We implemented them on a 6-day dataset of Meteosat-10 satellite diurnal images. We proceeded to cloud pattern extrapolation and compared predicted cloud maps against actual ones at different time horizons from 15 minutes to 4 hours ahead. Forecast scores were compared to the state-of-the-art (block matching) method. Correlation phase methods do not outperform block-matching but their computation time is about 25 times shorter. Optical flow based method outperforms all the methods with a satisfactory time computing.

  15. Retrieval of fire radiative power and biomass combustion using the Korean geostationary meteorological satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. S.; Lee, Y. W.

    2013-10-01

    Global warming induced by greenhouse gases is increasing wildfire frequencies and scale. Since wildfire again releases greenhouse gases(GHGs) into the air, the vicious cycle is repeated. Satellite remote sensing is a useful tool for detecting wildfire. However, estimating the GHGs emission from wildfire has not been challenged yet. Wildfires are estimated to be responsible for, on average, around 30% of global total CO emissions, 10% of methane emissions, 38% of tropospheric ozone, and over 86% of black carbon. So we need to quantify the emitted gases by biomass combustions, which can be measured by the FRP (fire radiative power) derived from the spectral characteristics of satellite sensors. This paper described the algorithm for retrieval of FRP using COMS(Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite), the Korean geostationary meteorological satellite. The FRP of wildfire is retrieved by single waveband methods suitable to COMS channels. The retrieval of FRP is dependent on the emissivity of each bandwidth. So, we used MODIS NDVI through a spatio-temporal calibration for the emissivity calculations. We made sure that the FRP in wildfire pixel is much higher than its spatially and temporally neighboring pixels. For future work, we should quantify the relationships between FRP and the biomass combustion according to fuel types.

  16. Fire Monitoring from the New Generation of US Polar and Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csiszar, I.; Justice, C. O.; Prins, E.; Schroeder, W.; Schmidt, C.; Giglio, L.

    2012-04-01

    Sensors on the new generation of US operational environmental satellites will provide measurements suitable for active fire detection and characterization. The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, launched on October 28, 2011, carries the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), which is expected to continue the active fire data record from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua Satellites. Early evaluation of the VIIRS active fire product, including comparison to near-simultaneous MODIS data, is underway. The new generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series, starting with GOES-R to be launched in 2015, will carry the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), providing higher spatial and temporal resolution than the current GOES imager. The ABI will also include a dedicated band to provide radiance observations over a wider dynamic range to detect and characterize hot targets. In this presentation we discuss details of the monitoring capabilities from both VIIRS and ABI and the current status of the corresponding algorithm development and testing efforts. An integral part of this activity is explicit product validation, utilizing high resolution satellite and airborne imagery as reference data. The new capabilities also represent challenges to establish continuity with data records from heritage missions, and to coordinate compatible international missions towards a global multi-platform fire monitoring system. These objectives are pursued by the Fire Mapping and Monitoring Implementation Team of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) program, which also provides coordinated contribution to relevant initiatives by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS) and the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).

  17. One-way time transfer using geostationary satellites: Evolution of the experiment on the satellite TDF2

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the results obtained on common-view time transfer measurements using the TV satellite TDF2 between four french laboratories. Different methods have been used to eliminate the inluence of the satellite residual motion with a final precision that can reach 10 ns. The accuracy has been assessed using orbit data provided by the CNES, that also tested orbit restitution based on the time measurements.

  18. Next-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R series): a space segment overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimchansky, Alexander; Machi, Dino; Cauffman, Sandra A.; Davis, Martin A.

    2004-11-01

    The next-generation National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R series) is currently being developed by NOAA in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The GOES-R series satellites represents a significant improvement in spatial, temporal, and spectral observations (several orders of magnitude) over the capabilities of the currently operational GOES-I/M series and GOES-N series satellite to be launched at the end of 2004. The GOES-R series will incorporate technically advanced "third-generation" instruments and spacecraft enhancements to meet evolving observational requirements of forecasting for the era 2012-2025. The GOES-R instrument complement being developed includes an Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), a Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES), a GEO Lightning Mapper (GLM), a Solar Imaging Suite (SIS) and a Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS). Also, candidates for a number of GOES-R Pre-Planned Product Improvements (P3Is) includes a Geo Microwave Sounder, a Coronagraph, a Hyperspectral Imager, and a Solar Irradiance Sensor. Currently, the GOES-R space segment architecture is being evaluated as part of a GOES-R system End-to-End Architecture Study. The GOES-R notional baseline architecture is a constellation of two satellites (A-sat and B-sat) each nominally located at 75 degrees West longitude and at 135 degrees West longitude at geostationary altitude, 0 degrees inclination. The primary mission of the A-sat is to provide imaging from the ABI. The A-sat will also contain the SIS and the GLM. The primary mission of the B-sat is to provide sounding of the hemispherical disk of the earth from the HES. The B-sat also contains the SEISS. Both satellites have mesoscale capabilities for severe weather sounding or imaging. This paper overviews the GOES-R Space Segment development including satellite constellation trade-off, improvements and differences between the current and future instrument and spacecraft capabilities, and technology infusion.

  19. Destination-directed, packet-switching architecture for 30/20-GHz FDMA/TDM geostationary communications satellite network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO

    1992-01-01

    A destination-directed packet switching architecture for a 30/20-GHz frequency division multiple access/time division multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) geostationary satellite communications network is discussed. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Efforts have concentrated heavily on the space segment; however, the ground segment has been considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.

  20. Destination directed packet switch architecture for a 30/20 GHz FDMA/TDM geostationary communication satellite network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO

    1991-01-01

    Emphasis is on a destination directed packet switching architecture for a 30/20 GHz frequency division multiplex access/time division multiplex (FDMA/TDM) geostationary satellite communication network. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Efforts have concentrated heavily on the space segment; however, the ground segment was considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.

  1. Circuit-switch architecture for a 30/20-GHz FDMA/TDM geostationary satellite communications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1992-01-01

    A circuit switching architecture is described for a 30/20 GHz frequency division, multiple access uplink/time division multiplexed downlink (FDMA/TDM) geostationary satellite communications network. Critical subsystems and problem areas are identified and addressed. Work was concentrated primarily on the space segment; however, the ground segment was considered concurrently to ensure cost efficiency and realistic operational constraints.

  2. 47 CFR 25.142 - Licensing provisions for the non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile-Satellite Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Space station application requirements. (1) Each application for a space station system authorization in... operate. (2) Applicants for a non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile-Satellite Service space station license must identify the power flux density produced at the Earth's surface by each space station of...

  3. Sea surface temperature from the new Japanese geostationary meteorological Himawari-8 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Yukio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kachi, Misako

    2016-02-01

    Himawari-8 is a new geostationary meteorological satellite operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The Earth Observation Research Center of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in collaboration with the JMA produces skin sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from Himawari-8 data. A new quasi-physical algorithm was used to calculate SSTs. Cloud screening based on the Bayesian inference method was used to detect cloudy pixels. Himawari-8 SSTs from June to September 2015 were compared with drifting and tropical moored buoy data. This comparison showed a root-mean-square difference of ˜0.59 K and a bias of ˜-0.16 K against the buoy data. Positive and variable biases were found in seas along the viewing boundaries.

  4. Quantifying the relationship between the measurement precision and specifications of a UV/visible sensor on a geostationary satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Hitoshi; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Noguchi, Katsuyuki; Kasai, Yasuko; Kita, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the feasibility of new satellite observations, including air quality (AQ) observations from geostationary (GEO) orbit, it is essential to link the measurement precision (ɛ) with sensor specifications in advance. The present study attempts to formulate the linkage between ɛ and specifications of a UV/visible sensor (signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the slit function, and sampling ratio (SR)) on a GEO satellite. A sophisticated radiative transfer model (JACOSPAR) is used to calculate synthetic radiance spectra that would be measured by a UV/visible sensor observing the atmosphere over Tokyo (35.7°N, 139.7°E) from GEO orbit at 120°E longitude. The spectra, modified according to given sensor specifications, are analyzed by the differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique to estimate the ɛ for slant column densities of O3 and NO2. We find clear relationships: for example, the ɛ of the O3 slant column density (molecules cm-2) and SNR at 330 nm are linked by the equation log(ɛ) = -1.06 · log(SNR) + 20.71 in the UV region, and the ɛ of the NO2 slant column density and SNR at 450 nm are linked by log(ɛ) = -0.98 · log(SNR) + 18.00, at a FWHM = 0.6 nm (for the Gaussian slit function) and SR = 4. The relationships are mostly independent of other specifications (e.g., horizontal and temporal resolutions), as they affect ɛ primarily through SNR, providing constraints in determining the optimal SNR (and alternatively FWHM and SR) for similar UV/visible sensors dedicated for AQ studies.

  5. True Color Images of the Earth created with the Geostationary Satellite Instrument MSG SEVIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Maximilian

    2013-04-01

    One of the most famous pictures ever taken was by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972, showing our Earth from a distance of about 45000km. This picture was named 'Blue Marble' and it reminds us of the beauty and uniqueness of our home planet. With geostationary satellites, such views of the Earth are possible without the need to have a photographer in space. However, up to the present, the production of such Blue Marble type images from geostationary satellite data has been impaired by the lack of channels in the visible spectral region. A method for the generation of full disk MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) SEVIRI (Scanning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) true colour composite images will be presented. The algorithm mainly uses the SEVIRI channels VIS006 (0.6μm), NIR008 (0.8μm) and NIR016 (1.6μm). The lack of information in the blue and green parts of the visible spectrum is compensated by using data from NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration's) Blue Marble next generation (BMNG) project to fill a look-up table (LUT) transforming RGB (red/green/blue) false colour composite images of VIS006/NIR008/NIR016 into true colour images. Tabulated radiative transfer calculations of a pure Rayleigh atmosphere are used to add an impression of Rayleigh scattering towards the sunlit horizon. The resulting images satisfy naive expectations: clouds are white or transparent, vegetated surfaces are greenish, deserts are sandy-coloured, the ocean is dark blue to black and a narrow halo due to Rayleigh scattering is visible at the sunlit horizon. Therefore, such images are easily interpretable also for inexperienced users not familiar with the characteristics of typical MSG false colour composite images. The images can be used for scientific applications to illustrate specific meteorological conditions or for non-scientific purposes, for example, for raising awareness in the public of the Earth's worthiness of protection.

  6. Study of the optimization of satellite system design for transfer orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baetz; Fetzer, K.; Fink, W.; Hufnagel, H.; Kellermeier, H.; Kleinau; Mueller, W.; Chalmers, H.

    1983-04-01

    Geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) characteristics of former geosynchronous satellites; satellite configurations as to GTO requirements; telemetry and telecommand, thermal, power, and attitude control subsystems as to stabilization modes and GTO constraints; and apogee injection strategies (single/multiple burn, steering law) were reviewed. The investigations were confined to 2 Ariane 4 payload classes (2500 kg in GTO, dual-launch and 4200 kg in GTO, single launch), three-axis or slow barbecue stabilization during transfer orbit, and use of a liquid apogee injection system with low thrust level (400 N). A recommendation for an overall system optimization is presented.

  7. 75 FR 17055 - Coordination Between the Non-Geostationary and Geostationary Satellite Orbit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... mobile operations and addresses issues raised in the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), 69 FR 4908...\\ NPRM, 69 FR 4908 (Feb. 02, 2004), para. 64 and Appendix B. A. Need for, and Objectives of, the Report... Telecommunications Carriers'' (partial definition); http://www.census.gov/naics/2007/def/ND517110.HTM#N517110 ....

  8. Rainfall estimation for real time flood monitoring using geostationary meteorological satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerakachen, Watcharee; Raksapatcharawong, Mongkol

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall estimation by geostationary meteorological satellite data provides good spatial and temporal resolutions. This is advantageous for real time flood monitoring and warning systems. However, a rainfall estimation algorithm developed in one region needs to be adjusted for another climatic region. This work proposes computationally-efficient rainfall estimation algorithms based on an Infrared Threshold Rainfall (ITR) method calibrated with regional ground truth. Hourly rain gauge data collected from 70 stations around the Chao-Phraya river basin were used for calibration and validation of the algorithms. The algorithm inputs were derived from FY-2E satellite observations consisting of infrared and water vapor imagery. The results were compared with the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) near real time product (GSMaP_NRT) using the probability of detection (POD), root mean square error (RMSE) and linear correlation coefficient (CC) as performance indices. Comparison with the GSMaP_NRT product for real time monitoring purpose shows that hourly rain estimates from the proposed algorithm with the error adjustment technique (ITR_EA) offers higher POD and approximately the same RMSE and CC with less data latency.

  9. Space weather radiation effects on geostationary satellite solid-state power amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmeyer, W. Q.; Cahoy, K.

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand and mitigate the effects of space weather on the performance of geostationary (GEO) communications satellites, we analyze 16 years of archived telemetry data from Inmarsat, the UK-based telecommunications company. We compare 665,112 operational hours of housekeeping telemetry from two generations of satellites, designated as Fleet A and Fleet B. Each generation experienced 13 solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) anomalies for a total of 26 anomalies from 1996 to 2012. We compare telemetry from the Inmarsat anomalies with space weather observations, including data from the OMNI2 database, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the Advanced Composition Explorer Satellite, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) GEO observations; the evolution of the sunspot number; and the Kp index. Most SSPA anomalies for Fleet A occur as solar activity declines; Fleet B has not yet experienced a full solar cycle. For both fleets, the average value of Kp remained < 2 over time periods of 2 days, 3 days, and 2 weeks around the time of anomaly, which suggests that the anomalies occurred at times of relatively quiet geomagnetic activity and that they were probably not solely caused by surface charging. From 1996 to 2009, the average of the 1.8-3.5 MeV electron flux was 1.98 #/(cm2 s st keV). Five of the 26 anomalies, unfortunately, do not have corresponding science observations (specifically, electron flux data in the LANL data set), so part of this study focuses on the 21 anomalies when science observations were available. Six out of 21 anomalies experienced a high-energy electron flux greater than 1.5 standard deviations above the mean of the log10 of the flux between 7 and 14 days prior to the anomaly. By contrast, a Monte Carlo simulation finds that on average, only 2.8 out of 21 (13%) of randomly assigned "anomalies" occur between 7 and 14 days after an electron flux greater than 1.5 standard deviations above the mean. Our observations suggest that internal charging from either past elevated radiation belt fluxes or some conditions related to relativistic electron enhancements (either causally or accidentally) is most likely responsible for the SSPA anomalies. We next consider the timing of these anomalies with respect to the local time (LT) and season. Anomalies occur at all LT sectors with 46% (Fleet A) and 38.5% (Fleet B) in the midnight to dawn sector and 54% (Fleet A) and 46% (Fleet B) in the local noon to dusk sector. From the local time distribution, surface charging does not appear to be the sole causative agent of the anomalies. Understanding the connection between the space weather conditions and anomalies on subsystems and specific components on identical and similar geostationary communications satellites for periods of time longer than a solar cycle will help guide design improvements and provide insight on their operation during space weather events.

  10. Formation dynamics in geostationary ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonova, Sofya

    2016-05-01

    A relative motion model for a satellite formation composed of two Earth-orbiting spacecraft located in the geostationary ring is developed taking into account major gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A previously existing model featuring perturbation due to J_2 is enhanced by the perturbations due to solar radiation pressure arising from unequal area-to-mass ratios, as well as the secular and long-periodic gravitational perturbations due to the Sun and the Moon. The extended relative motion model is validated using several typical formation geometries against a reference generated by numerical integration of the absolute orbits of the two spacecraft. The results of this work can find application in future on-orbit servicing and formation flying missions in near-geostationary orbit.

  11. Optical Orbit Determination of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite Effected by Baseline Distances between Various Ground-based Tracking Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ju Young; Jo, Jung Hyun; Choi, Jin; Kim, Bang-Yeop; Yoon, Joh-Na; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Park, Sun-Youp; Bae, Young Ho; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye

    2015-09-01

    We estimated the orbit of the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite, through data from actual optical observations using telescopes at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Optical Wide field Patrol (OWL) at KASI, and the Chungbuk National University Observatory (CNUO) from August 1, 2014, to January 13, 2015. The astrometric data of the satellite were extracted from the World Coordinate System (WCS) in the obtained images, and geometrically distorted errors were corrected. To handle the optically observed data, corrections were made for the observation time, light-travel time delay, shutter speed delay, and aberration. For final product, the sequential filter within the Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) was used for orbit estimation based on the results of optical observation. In addition, a comparative analysis was conducted between the precise orbit from the ephemeris of the COMS maintained by the satellite operator and the results of orbit estimation using optical observation. The orbits estimated in simulation agree with those estimated with actual optical observation data. The error in the results using optical observation data decreased with increasing number of observatories. Our results are useful for optimizing observation data for orbit estimation.

  12. Half-Hour Rainfall Retrieval based on multispectral geostationary satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Zhuge, Xiao-Yong

    2015-04-01

    A method for both precipitation area and intensity retrievals is developed based on multispectral geostationary satellite images. This method can be applied to continuous observation of large-scale precipitation so as to solve the problem from the measurements of rainfall radar and rain gauge. Satellite observation is instantaneous, whereas the rain gauge records accumulative data during a time interval, and thus, using the 10-min gauge rainfall data rather than 1-hr gauge rainfall data as the reference value, can obviously improve the accuracy of satellite rainfall retrieval.For this reason, a 10-min rainfall algorithm is established firstly. It includes two steps. 1) A Rainfall probability identification matrix (RPIM) is used to distinguish rainfall clouds from nonrainfall clouds. This RPIM is established by combining infrared brightness temperatures (BTs) with visible reflectivity at daytime and dual-channel brightness temperature differences (BTDs) at nighttime. It is more efficient in improving the retrieval accuracy of rainfall area than previous threshold combination screening methods. 2) the multispectral segmented curve-fitting rainfall algorithm (MSCFRA) is proposed to estimate the 10-min rain rates. Rainfall samples taken from June to August 2008 and 2010 are used to assess the performance of the rainfall algorithm. Assessment results show that the MSCFRA improves the accuracy of rainfall estimation for both stratiform cloud rainfall and convective cloud rainfall. These results are practically consistent with rain gauge measurements in both rainfall area division and rainfall intensity grade estimation. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the temporal resolution of satellite detection is important and necessary in improving the precision of satellite rainfall retrieval. The current geostationary satellite provides an image every half an hour, so the temporal 'gaps' exist when the satellite images are directly used to retrieve 10-min rainfall. To implement continuous and reliable rainfall retrieval, an immediate tracking and continuous accumulation technique (ITCAT) of half-hour rainfall retrieval is proposed. The ITCAT includes two steps. 1) The cross-correlation method is applied to track cloud-motion currents and establish 10-min-interval image sequences. 2) A continuous retrieval of 10-min rain rate is conducted with the image sequences, and finally a total half-hour rainfall is determined by accumulations. The satellite retrieval tests on the typical precipitation process in summer of 2008 show that, compared with the previous direct rainfall retrieval for half-hour to one-hour, this rainfall retrieval technique significantly improves the retrieval accuracy of rainfall scope and rainfall intensity ranging from slight rain to rainstorm for both real-time monitoring or nowcasting processes. This technique is more effective than the previous algorithm, and the fundamental reason lies in its consideration of the movement of cloud cluster. On this basis, coverage duration of rainfall clouds can be reliably estimated. It is of significance to the retrieval of deep convective cloud rainfall with rapid movement speed and drastic intensity variation. This technique also provides a feasible idea for improving the accuracy of rainfall nowcasting.

  13. An Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The documentation and user's guide are presented for the analytical satellite orbit predictor computer program which is intended to be used for computation of near-earth orbits including those of the shuttle orbiter and its payloads. The Poincare-Similar elements used make it possible to compute near-earth orbits to within an accuracy of a few meters. Recursive equations are used instead of complicated formulas. Execution time is on the order of a few milliseconds.

  14. On the reliability of geostationary satellite observations for diagnosing indirect aerosol effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merk, Daniel; Deneke, Hartwig; Pospichal, Bernhard; Seifert, Patric

    2015-10-01

    Aerosol indirect effects are poorly understand and constitute a highly uncertain anthropogenic forcing of climate change. The interaction of aerosols with clouds together with entrainment and turbulent mixing processes modulate cloud microphysics and radiative effects. In the current study we present preliminary results to diagnose indirect aerosol effects from the synergy of geostationary satellite observations, surface observations and MACC aerosol analysis. We examine if the sub-adiabatic factor - representative for entrainment - can be obtained from the combination of passive-satellite observations with ground-based cloud base height from a ceilometer network. Therefore the uncertainty of the sub-adiabatic factor due to its required input parameters, the cloud geometrical thickness and liquid water path, is explored. We use a two year dataset from SEVIRI and compare it to the LACROS supersite at Leipzig, Germany. We find that the comparison of satellite-retrieved cloud top heights shows a RMSD of 1100 m and the liquid water path of 75 gm-2, which are too large to provide a meaningful estimate of the instantaneous sub-adiabtic factor. Linking the cloud microphysical properties from passive satellites with aerosol properties obtained from MACC, we investigate the Twomey hypothesis, namely that smaller droplets and a higher cloud droplet number concentration result from higher aerosol load for a given liquid water path (positive change). A positive relative change is obtained for aerosol optical depth and the sulphate mass integrated from the surface to the cloud top. In contrast, a negative relative change is however found for sea salt.

  15. Global Assessment of Land Surface Temperature From Geostationary Satellites and Model Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Liu, Q.; Minnis, P.; daSilva, A. M., Jr.; Palikonda, R.; Yost, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Land surface (or 'skin') temperature (LST) lies at the heart of the surface energy balance and is a key variable in weather and climate models. In this research we compare two global and independent data sets: (i) LST retrievals from five geostationary satellites generated at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and (ii) LST estimates from the quasi-operational NASA GEOS-5 global modeling and assimilation system. The objective is to thoroughly understand both data sets and their systematic differences in preparation for the assimilation of the LaRC LST retrievals into GEOS-5. As expected, mean differences (MD) and root-mean-square differences (RMSD) between modeled and retrieved LST vary tremendously by region and time of day. Typical (absolute) MD values range from 1-3 K in Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude regions to near 10 K in regions where modeled clouds are unrealistic, for example in north-eastern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and southern Brazil. Typically, model estimates of LST are higher than satellite retrievals during the night and lower during the day. RMSD values range from 1-3 K during the night to 2-5 K during the day, but are larger over the 50-120 W longitude band where the LST retrievals are derived from the FY2E platform

  16. Lunar and Solar Perturbations on Satellite Orbits.

    PubMed

    Upton, E; Bailie, A; Musen, P

    1959-12-18

    Calculations of the solar and lunar effects on highly eccentric satellite orbits show that the sun and the moon may cause large changes in perigee height over extended periods of time. The amplitude and sign of the perigee height variations depend on the orbit parameters and the hour of launch; for a typical orbit and various choices of launch time, the perigee height will either rise or fall at the rate of 1 km/day over the course of several months. These results may be significant in deciding the launch conditions for future satellites with highly eccentric orbits. PMID:17742251

  17. Aerodynamic lift effect on satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Cleland, J. G.; Devries, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical quadrature is employed to obtain orbit perturbation results from the general perturbation equations. Both aerodynamic lift and drag forces are included in the analysis of the satellite orbit. An exponential atmosphere with and without atmospheric rotation is used. A comparison is made of the perturbations which are caused by atmospheric rotation with those caused by satellite aerodynamic effects. Results indicate that aerodynamic lift effects on the semi-major axis and orbit inclination can be of the same order as the effects of atmosphere rotation depending upon the orientation of the lift vector. The results reveal the importance of including aerodynamic lift effects in orbit perturbation analysis.

  18. 0.5-4 Å X-RAY BRIGHTENINGS IN THE MAGNETOSPHERE OBSERVED BY THE GEOSTATIONARY OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Miyoshi, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We found 217 X-ray brightening events in Earth's magnetosphere. These events occur in the high-energy band (0.5-4 Å) of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) X-ray light curves, although GOES X-ray light curves are frequently used as indices of solar flare magnitudes. We found that (1) brightening events are absent in the low-energy band (1-8 Å), unlike those associated with solar flares; and (2) the peak fluxes, durations, and onset times of these events depend on the magnetic local time (MLT). The events were detected in 2006, 2010, and 2011 at around 19-10 MLT, that is, from night to morning. They typically lasted for 2-3 hr. Their peak fluxes are less than 3 × 10{sup –8} W m{sup –2} in the 0.5-4 Å band and are maximized around 0-5 MLT. From these MLT dependencies, we constructed an MLT time profile of X-ray brightening events. Because 0.5-4 and 1-8 Å fluxes were observed and had the same order of magnitude when GOES 14 passed through Earth's shadow, we expected that X-ray brightening events in the 1-8 Å band are obscured by high-background X-ray fluxes coming from the Sun. We also found coincidence between X-ray brightening events and aurora substorms. In the majority of our events, the minimum geomagnetic field values (AL index) are below –400 nT. From these results and consideration of the GOES satellite orbit, we expect that these X-ray brightening events occur in the magnetosphere. We cannot, however, clarify the radiative process of the observed X-ray brightening events.

  19. Empirical predictive models of daily relativistic electron flux at geostationary orbit: Multiple regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, Laura E.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Clilverd, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The daily maximum relativistic electron flux at geostationary orbit can be predicted well with a set of daily averaged predictor variables including previous day's flux, seed electron flux, solar wind velocity and number density, AE index, IMF Bz, Dst, and ULF and VLF wave power. As predictor variables are intercorrelated, we used multiple regression analyses to determine which are the most predictive of flux when other variables are controlled. Empirical models produced from regressions of flux on measured predictors from 1 day previous were reasonably effective at predicting novel observations. Adding previous flux to the parameter set improves the prediction of the peak of the increases but delays its anticipation of an event. Previous day's solar wind number density and velocity, AE index, and ULF wave activity are the most significant explanatory variables; however, the AE index, measuring substorm processes, shows a negative correlation with flux when other parameters are controlled. This may be due to the triggering of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves by substorms that cause electron precipitation. VLF waves show lower, but significant, influence. The combined effect of ULF and VLF waves shows a synergistic interaction, where each increases the influence of the other on flux enhancement. Correlations between observations and predictions for this 1 day lag model ranged from 0.71 to 0.89 (average: 0.78). A path analysis of correlations between predictors suggests that solar wind and IMF parameters affect flux through intermediate processes such as ring current (Dst), AE, and wave activity.

  20. Los Alamos geostationary orbit synoptic data set: a compilation of energetic particle data

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Aiello, W.P.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Tech, E.R.; Halbig, M.F.; Payne, J.B.; Robinson, R.; Kedge, S.

    1981-08-01

    Energetic electron (30 to 2000 keV) and proton (145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at geostationary orbit 6.6 R/sub E/ are summarized. The data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-h local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The compilations correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and, thus, are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. Most of this report is comprised of data plots that are organized according to Carrington solar rotations so that the data can be easily compared to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary data. As shown in prior studies, variations in solar wind conditions modulate particle intensity within the terrestrial magnetosphere. The effects of these variations are demonstrated and discussed. Potential uses of the Synoptic Data Set by the scientific and applications-oriented communities are also discussed.

  1. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Used for Inclined Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is operated by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ACTS, which was launched in September 1993, is in its 7th year of operations, far exceeding the system s planned 2 years of operations and 4 years of designed mission life. After 5 successful years of operating as a geostationary satellite, the spacecraft s North-South stationkeeping was discontinued in August 1998. The system is now operating in an inclined orbit that increases at a rate of 0.8 /yr. With only scarce fuel remaining, operating in this mode extends the usage of the still totally functional payload. Although tracking systems are now needed on the experimenter Earth stations, experiment operations have continued with very little disruption. This is the only known geosynchronous Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot-beam satellite operating in an inclined orbit. The project began its transition from geostationary operations to inclined operations in August 1998. This did not interrupt operations and was transparent to the experimenters on the system. For the space segment, new daily procedures were implemented to maintain the pointing of the system s narrow 0.3 spot beams while the spacecraft drifts in the North-South direction. For the ground segment, modifications were designed, developed, and fielded for the three classes of experimenter Earth stations. With the next generation of commercial satellite systems still being developed, ACTS remains the only operational testbed for Ka-band geosynchronous satellite communications over the Western hemisphere. Since inclined orbit operations began, the ACTS experiments program has supported 43 investigations by industry, Government, and academic organizations, as well as four demonstrations. The project s goals for inclined-orbit operations now reflect a narrower focus in the types of experiments that will be done. In these days of "faster, better, cheaper," NASA is seeking to gain greater relevance to the agency s mission from these experiments. One area that is of much interest both to NASA and the commercial world is the investigation of protocol issues related to the interoperability of satellites with terrestrial networks, such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over wideband satellites. Other experiment areas of interest are supporting the U.S. Government and NASA as they begin using commercial space assets to meet their communications needs, evaluating issues related to operating a spot-beam satellite in inclined orbit, and evaluating new Ka-band hardware that requires a satellite link. ACTS is now in its last year of operations. Operations are planned through June 2000, when after 81 months of operations, this very successful spacecraft will be superorbited and made inert.

  2. Derivation and evaluation of land surface temperature from the geostationary operational environmental satellite series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been continuously monitoring the earth surface since 1970, providing valuable and intensive data from a very broad range of wavelengths, day and night. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is currently operating GOES-15 and GOES-13. The design of the GOES series is now heading to the 4 th generation. GOES-R, as a representative of the new generation of the GOES series, is scheduled to be launched in 2015 with higher spatial and temporal resolution images and full-time soundings. These frequent observations provided by GOES Image make them attractive for deriving information on the diurnal land surface temperature (LST) cycle and diurnal temperature range (DTR). These parameters are of great value for research on the Earth's diurnal variability and climate change. Accurate derivation of satellite-based LSTs from thermal infrared data has long been an interesting and challenging research area. To better support the research on climate change, the generation of consistent GOES LST products for both GOES-East and GOES-West from operational dataset as well as historical archive is in great demand. The derivation of GOES LST products and the evaluation of proposed retrieval methods are two major objectives of this study. Literature relevant to satellite-based LST retrieval techniques was reviewed. Specifically, the evolution of two LST algorithm families and LST retrieval methods for geostationary satellites were summarized in this dissertation. Literature relevant to the evaluation of satellite-based LSTs was also reviewed. All the existing methods are a valuable reference to develop the GOES LST product. The primary objective of this dissertation is the development of models for deriving consistent GOES LSTs with high spatial and high temporal coverage. Proper LST retrieval algorithms were studied according to the characteristics of the imager onboard the GOES series. For the GOES 8-11 and GOES R series with split window (SW) channels, a new temperature and emissivity separation (TES) approach was proposed for deriving LST and LSE simultaneously by using multiple-temporal satellite observations. Two split-window regression formulas were selected for this approach, and two satellite observations over the same geo-location within a certain time interval were utilized. This method is particularly applicable to geostationary satellite missions from which qualified multiple-temporal observations are available. For the GOES M(12)-Q series without SW channels, the dual-window LST algorithm was adopted to derive LST. Instead of using the conventional training method to generate coefficients for the LST regression algorithms, a machine training technique was introduced to automatically select the criteria and the boundary of the sub-ranges for generating algorithm coefficients under different conditions. A software package was developed to produce a brand new GOES LST product from both operational GOES measurements and historical archive. The system layers of the software and related system input and output were illustrated in this work. Comprehensive evaluation of GOES LST products was conducted by validating products against multiple ground-based LST observations, LST products from fine-resolution satellites (e.g. MODIS) and GSIP LST products. The key issues relevant to the cloud diffraction effect were studied as well. GOES measurements as well as ancillary data, including satellite and solar geometry, water vapor, cloud mask, land emissivity etc., were collected to generate GOES LST products. In addition, multiple in situ temperature measurements were collected to test the performance of the proposed GOES LST retrieval algorithms. The ground-based dataset included direct surface temperature measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM), and indirect measurements (surface long-wave radiation observations) from the SURFace RADiation Budget (SURFRAD) Network. A simulated dataset was created to analyse the sensitivity of the proposed retrieval algorithms. In addition, the MODIS LST and GSIP LST products were adopted to cross-evaluate the accuracy of the GOES LST products. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed GOES LST system is capable of deriving consistent land surface temperatures with good retrieval precision. Consistent GOES LST products with high spatial/temporal coverage and reliable accuracy will better support detections and observations of meteorological over land surfaces.

  3. Analyzing radiometric requirements for diurnal observations of coastal/oceanic waters from geostationary orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Lee, Zhongping; Hu, Chuanmin; Schott, John R.

    2013-06-01

    Over the decades, ocean color imaging sensors placed in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) have enabled nearly daily measurements of ocean water properties. Such observations, however, are restricted by cloud/atmospheric conditions. More importantly, such systems could not provide sufficient number of measurements to study the diurnal dynamics of coastal/oceanic ecosystems. One way to surmount such limitations is to leverage geo-stationary orbits to significantly improve temporal observations over such dynamical coastal/oceanic environments. In this study, it is desired to examine whether 50% changes in chlorophyll-a concentration (< 1.5 ug⁄l) on a semi-diurnal basis are above the noise level. To do so, the top-of-atmosphere radiance (Lt) is modeled for the planned GEO-CAPE mission intended for monitoring coastal ecosystem and river plumes. The input to the simulations includes diurnal remote sensing reflectances (Rrs), which are propagated through a moderately clear atmospheric conditions using a radiative transfer code. The simulations are carried out for two footprints to investigate two extremely different sun-sensor geometries. From these simulations, the temporal change in spectral reflectances between the hours relative to an average noise is examined. Based on the preliminary results, it was found that while the signal change is, on average, 13x the average noise for near-nadir footprints, the change in signal, on average, is only 1.5x the average noise level for near-edge footprints at top of the atmosphere. Such a contrast suggests difficulties in retrieving diurnal variability for locations near the edge of the field of regard (FOR).

  4. Coastal water quality estimation from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite data using machine learning approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jungho; Ha, Sunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Ha, Hokyung; Choi, Jongkuk; Kim, Miae

    2014-05-01

    It is important to monitor coastal water quality using key parameters such as chlorophyll-a concentration and suspended sediment to better manage coastal areas as well as to better understand the nature of biophysical processes in coastal seawater. Remote sensing technology has been commonly used to monitor coastal water quality due to its ability of covering vast areas at high temporal resolution. While it is relatively straightforward to estimate water quality in open ocean (i.e., Case I water) using remote sensing, coastal water quality estimation is still challenging as many factors can influence water quality, including various materials coming from inland water systems and tidal circulation. There are continued efforts to accurately estimate water quality parameters in coastal seawater from remote sensing data in a timely manner. In this study, two major water quality indicators, chlorophyll-a concentration and the amount of suspended sediment, were estimated using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite data. GOCI, launched in June 2010, is the first geostationary ocean color observation satellite in the world. GOCI collects data hourly for 8 hours a day at 6 visible and 2 near-infrared bands at a 500 m resolution with 2,500 x 2,500 km square around Korean peninsula. Along with conventional statistical methods (i.e., various linear and non-linear regression), three machine learning approaches such as random forest, Cubist, and support vector regression were evaluated for coastal water quality estimation. In situ measurements (63 samples; including location, two water quality parameters, and the spectra of surface water using a hand-held spectroradiometer) collected during four days between 2011 and 2012 were used as reference data. Due to the small sample size, leave-one-out cross validation was used to assess the performance of the water quality estimation models. Atmospherically corrected radiance data and selected band-ratioed images were used as predictor variables. Results show that support vector regression outperformed the other two machine learning approaches as well as conventional statistical models, yielding calibration R2 of 0.9 and cross validation RMSE of 1.7 mg/m3 for chlorophyll-a concentration, and calibration R2 of 0.97 and cross validation RMSE of 11.4 g/m3 for suspended sediment. Relative importance of the predictor variables was examined and the spatiotemporal patterns of the water quality parameter distribution were analyzed along with tidal information.

  5. Revised Orbits of Saturn's Small Inner Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Spitale, J.; Porco, C. C.; Beurle, K.; Cooper, N. J.; Evans, M. W.; Murray, C. D.

    2007-01-01

    We have updated the orbits of the small inner Saturnian satellites using additional Cassini imaging observations through 2007 March. Statistically significant changes from previously published values appear in the eccentricities and inclinations of Pan and Daphnis, but only small changes have been found in the estimated orbits of the other satellites. We have also improved our knowledge of the masses of Janus and Epimetheus as a result of their close encounter observed in early 2006.

  6. Use of geostationary meteorological satellite images in convective rain estimation for flash-flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardah, T.; Abu Bakar, S. H.; Bardossy, A.; Maznorizan, M.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryFrequent flash-floods causing immense devastation in the Klang River Basin of Malaysia necessitate an improvement in the real-time forecasting systems being used. The use of meteorological satellite images in estimating rainfall has become an attractive option for improving the performance of flood forecasting-and-warning systems. In this study, a rainfall estimation algorithm using the infrared (IR) information from the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5) is developed for potential input in a flood forecasting system. Data from the records of GMS-5 IR images have been retrieved for selected convective cells to be trained with the radar rain rate in a back-propagation neural network. The selected data as inputs to the neural network, are five parameters having a significant correlation with the radar rain rate: namely, the cloud-top brightness-temperature of the pixel of interest, the mean and the standard deviation of the temperatures of the surrounding five by five pixels, the rate of temperature change, and the sobel operator that indicates the temperature gradient. In addition, three numerical weather prediction (NWP) products, namely the precipitable water content, relative humidity, and vertical wind, are also included as inputs. The algorithm is applied for the areal rainfall estimation in the upper Klang River Basin and compared with another technique that uses power-law regression between the cloud-top brightness-temperature and radar rain rate. Results from both techniques are validated against previously recorded Thiessen areal-averaged rainfall values with coefficient correlation values of 0.77 and 0.91 for the power-law regression and the artificial neural network (ANN) technique, respectively. An extra lead time of around 2 h is gained when the satellite-based ANN rainfall estimation is coupled with a rainfall-runoff model to forecast a flash-flood event in the upper Klang River Basin.

  7. First results of measurements of extreme ultraviolet radiation onboard a geostationary satellite "ELECTRO-L"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Gonjukh, David

    Measurements of the intensity of EUV emission in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha line were conducted by a broadband photometer VUSS-E onboard geostationary Hydrometeorological satellite "Electro" since March 2011. The solar hydrogen Lyman-alpha line (lambda = 121.6 nm) was monitored. The photomultiplier with LiF window used as a detector insensitive to visible light. Long-wavelength limit of the spectral band sensitivity of the instrument is about 200 nm, so the signal of the device is defined as the flux of solar radiation in the region of 123-200 nm. Its exclusion was carried out by calculation. Since the satellite "Electro" designed for remote sensing of the Earth, its line of sight focused on Earth. Alignment of instrument in the Sun direction was achieved by installing it on the solar panel, periodically moved in the solar direction. Correction of instrument readings, reduced due to the deviation of its axis from the Sun direction, carried out by calculation. Measurements were carried out every second. The first results of the measurements are presented. The difference in absolute calibration Electro-L/VUSS-E is within 5% of corresponding values for measurements TIMED satellite in those days, that is in agreement with laboratory calibrations. It is useful to measure the temperature of the instrument, as its variation on a small interval of time makes change the value of the output signal about 1-2 %. During first year of operation, the sensitivity of the apparatus remained within ± 2% of measured value, significant degradation of sensitivity was not observed. Over time of observation there have been several large flares of X class. The increase of the signal in the ultraviolet range does not exceed a few percent during these flares.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Pitch Angle Distribution of Radiation Belt Energetic Electrons Near the Geostationary Orbit: CRRES Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Gu, X.; Ni, B.; Shprits, Y.; Zhou, C.; Ionosphere Laboratory of Wuhan University

    2011-12-01

    A statistical analysis of energetic radiation belt electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) at the radial distances of 6 RE and 6.6 RE is performed on the basis of the pitch angle resolved flux observations from the Medium Electrons A (MEA) instrument onboard the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). While previous studies of Vampola [1998] and Gannon et al. [2007] have used CRRES MEA data to investigate the general variations in electron PAD at particular energies, in this study we present a detailed statistical analysis of electron PADs including the dependence on electron kinetic energy, magnetic local time (MLT), and the level of geomagnetic activity. By fitting the measured PADs with a power law function of sine of local pitch angle, the power law index n that relates to the category of radiation belt electron PAD is quantified in detail as a function of electron kinetic energy, MLT interval and geomagnetic index Kp. Statistical averaged n-values vary considerably with respect to MLT, ranging from n ~ 0 within 00-04 MLT to n ~ 1.5 within 12-16 MLT, due to the MLT dependence of wave scattering and the effects associated with drift shell splitting and magnetopause shadowing. Drift shell splitting and magnetopause shadowing result in often observed negative values of n. At lower energies of a few hundred keV the pitch angle distributions are more flat than at MeV energies, which is consistent with faster pitch angle scattering at low energies by chorus waves. These quantitative results of radiation belt electron PAD, consistent with the previous studies by Vampola [1998] and Gannon et al. [2007], provide further insight into the global dynamics of energetic radiation belt electrons near the geostationary orbit and also are useful for inferring electron phase space densities and assimilating their radial profiles using omni-directional electron flux measurements.

  9. The Orbits of the Regular Jovian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R.

    2014-04-01

    At the conclusion of the Galileo Mission we produced ephemerides for the Galilean and four inner Jovian satellites, Amalthea, Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis [1]. The satellite orbits were determined by fitting a data set that included Earthbased astrometry through 2001 and data acquired by the Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Cassini, and Galileo spacecraft. The spacecraft tracking data provided additional information on the Jovian system gravity parameters. In preparation for the Juno mission currently enroute to Jupiter, we have been developing new ephemerides from updated satellite orbits. As before, the orbits are determined through a comprehensive data fit which also redetermines the gravity parameters and spacecraft trajectories to be consistent with the revised satellite orbits. Our standard model for the orbits, both satellite and spacecraft, is a numerical integration of their equations of motion. We include the gravitational effects of the point mass mutual interactions of Jupiter, the Galilean satellites, and Amalthea (Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis are assumed to be massless), the effects of an oblate Jupiter, and perturbations from the Sun and planets. For our new orbits we also take into account the effects of tides raised on Jupiter by the satellites. Lainey et al. [4] have pointed out the importance of the tidal accelerations. The spacecraft are also affected by nongravitational forces, e.g., solar radiation pressure, trajectory correction maneuvers. These forces are discussed by several authors [2, 3, 5]. Our current data set is an expansion of that used previously. We have extended the Galilean satellite Earthbased astrometry back to 1891 and forward to 2013 and the inner satellite astrometry back to 1892 and forward to 2002. We added the Galilean satellite mutual events from 2003 and 2009, the Galilean satellite eclipse timings from 1878 to 2013, and the Earthbased radar ranges to Ganymede and Callisto measured in 1992. We also augmented our spacecraft data set with imaging acquired by the New Horizons spacecraft when it flew through the Jovian system in February 2007. In this paper we present the results of our latest determination of the satellite orbits and associated gravity parameters. We compare the orbits and gravity parameters to those that we found previously and our tidal parameters to those of Lainey et al.. We comment on possible future modifications and enhancements before our ephemeris delivery to the Juno Project for orbital operations.

  10. Faraday polarization fluctuations of VHF geostationary satellite signals near the geomagnetic equator

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Rastogi, R.G. )

    1987-08-01

    A two-slope power law spectrum for the equatorial F region irregularities has been introduced in the theory of Faraday polarization fluctuations (FPF) in place of a single-slope power law spectrum. The break scale length, at which the transition from a shallow to a steep slope in the irregularity power spectrum occurs, is found to play an important role in determining the strength of FPF. Analysis of Faraday rotation data for 40- and 140-MHz linearly polarized signals transmitted form the geostationary satellite ATS6 and received at the equatorial station Ootacamund (magnetic dip 6{degrees}N) yielded the following results: (1) FPF for the 140-MHz signal is negligible (<{delta}{omega}{sup 2} > {sup 1/2} << 0.1 rad) although the quadrature components from which the Faraday rotation angle {omega} is derived show large fluctuations in the event of strong amplitude scintillations; (2) there is appreciable FPF (< {Delta} {Omega}{sup 2} > {sup 1/2} {ge} 0.1rad) for the 40-MHz signal in these cases, which is explained on the basis of the two-component nature of the irregularity power spectrum.

  11. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-14 super rapid scan operations to prepare for GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Timothy J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Rabin, Robert M.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Cintineo, John L.; Velden, Christopher S.; Scott Bachmeier, A.; Lindstrom, Scott S.; Schmidt, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-14 imager was operated by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in an experimental rapid scan 1-min mode that emulates the high-temporal resolution sampling of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on the next generation GOES-R series. Imagery with a refresh rate of 1 min of many phenomena were acquired, including clouds, convection, fires, smoke, and hurricanes, including 6 days of Hurricane Sandy through landfall. NOAA had never before operated a GOES in a nearly continuous 1-min mode for such an extended period of time, thereby making these unique datasets to explore the future capabilities possible with GOES-R. The next generation GOES-R imager will be able to routinely take mesoscale (1000 km1000 km) images every 30 s (or two separate locations every minute). These images can be acquired even while scanning continental United States and full disk images. These high time-resolution images from the GOES-14 imager are being used to prepare for the GOES-R era and its advanced imager. This includes both the imagery and quantitative derived products such as cloud-top cooling. Several animations are included to showcase the rapid change of the many phenomena observed during super rapid scan operations for GOES-R (SRSOR).

  12. Diurnal-seasonal and weather-related variations of land surface temperature observed from geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnikov, Konstantin Y.; Yu, Yunyue; Rama Varma Raja, M. K.; Tarpley, Dan; Goldberg, Mitchell D.

    2008-11-01

    The time series of clear-sky Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for one year, 2001, obtained from pyrgeometric observations at five selected US surface radiation (SURFRAD) stations and independently retrieved for the locations of these stations from Infrared Imager hourly observations of two geostationary satellites, GOES-8 and GOES-10, are presented as a sum of time-dependent expected value (diurnal and seasonal cycles), and weather-related anomalies. The availability of three independent observations is used to assess random and systematic errors in LST data. Temporal variation of the expected value is approximated as a superposition of the first two annual and diurnal Fourier harmonics. This component of temporal variations of LST absorbs all systematic errors; which themselves are often a subject of diurnal and seasonal variations. The results revealed that the weather-related temporal variation of LST is much smaller than the temporal variations of the expected value, but much larger than the random errors of observation. Scale of temporal autocorrelation of weather-related component of clear-sky LST variations is about 3 days.

  13. Time and frequency comparisons in Europe by means of ECS 5 geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Pettiti, V.; Cenci, A.; Fermi, M.; Sciarretta, C.

    1990-01-01

    A time synchronization experiment between some European laboratories using the passive television method applied to the signals broadcasted by Eutelsat I-F5 telecommunication satellite was completed in 1990. The results obtained in the last period, when also range measurements from a Telespazio ground station were performed, are analyzed to evaluate the accuracy level of the time comparisons corrected for the effect of the satellite movement with position data obtained either from the European Space Agency (ESA) or from orbit determination with range data entered into GEODYN program of NASA/GSFC.

  14. The geo-control system for station keeping and colocation of geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montenbruck, O.; Eckstein, M. C.; Gonner, J.

    1993-01-01

    GeoControl is a compact but powerful and accurate software system for station keeping of single and colocated satellites, which has been developed at the German Space Operations Center. It includes four core modules for orbit determination (including maneuver estimation), maneuver planning, monitoring of proximities between colocated satellites, and interference and event prediction. A simple database containing state vector and maneuver information at selected epochs is maintained as a central interface between the modules. A menu driven shell utilizing form screens for data input serves as the central user interface. The software is written in Ada and FORTRAN and may be used on VAX workstations or mainframes under the VMS operating system.

  15. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  16. PREDICT: Satellite tracking and orbital prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliacane, John A.

    2011-12-01

    PREDICT is an open-source, multi-user satellite tracking and orbital prediction program written under the Linux operating system. PREDICT provides real-time satellite tracking and orbital prediction information to users and client applications through: the system console the command line a network socket the generation of audio speechData such as a spacecraft's sub-satellite point, azimuth and elevation headings, Doppler shift, path loss, slant range, orbital altitude, orbital velocity, footprint diameter, orbital phase (mean anomaly), squint angle, eclipse depth, the time and date of the next AOS (or LOS of the current pass), orbit number, and sunlight and visibility information are provided on a real-time basis. PREDICT can also track (or predict the position of) the Sun and Moon. PREDICT has the ability to control AZ/EL antenna rotators to maintain accurate orientation in the direction of communication satellites. As an aid in locating and tracking satellites through optical means, PREDICT can articulate tracking coordinates and visibility information as plain speech.

  17. Antenna Pointing to the Geo Satellite Using Converted NORAD TLE from Osculating Orbital Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Hae-Yeon; Hwang, Yoola; Kim, Jaehoon

    2007-06-01

    Antenna pointing analysis for a geostationary satellite has been performed for using the NORAD Two-Line-Elements (TLE) converted from osculating Keplerian orbital elements. In order to check the possibility of the reception of the satellite signal, the antenna offset angles have been derived for the Communications, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) which carries out weekly East-West and North-South station-keeping maneuvers and twice a day thruster assisted momentum dumping. Throughout the analysis, it is shown that the use of converted NORAD TLE simplifies the antenna pointing related interfaces in satellite mission control system. For a highly eccentric transfer orbit cases, further analysis presents that the converted NORAD TLE from near apogee gives more favorable results.

  18. Satellite Proving Ground for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Gurka, James; Bruning, E. C.; Blakeslee, J. R.; Rabin, Robert; Buechler, D.

    2009-01-01

    The key mission of the Satellite Proving Ground is to demonstrate new satellite observing data, products and capabilities in the operational environment to be ready on Day 1 to use the GOES-R suite of measurements. Algorithms, tools, and techniques must be tested, validated, and assessed by end users for their utility before they are finalized and incorporated into forecast operations. The GOES-R Proving Ground for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) focuses on evaluating how the infusion of the new technology, algorithms, decision aids, or tailored products integrate with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks; nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing forecasts and warning products. Additionally, the testing concept fosters operation and development staff interactions which will improve training materials and support documentation development. Real-time proxy total lightning data from regional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMA) in Northern Alabama, Central Oklahoma, Cape Canaveral Florida, and the Washington, DC Greater Metropolitan Area are the cornerstone for the GLM Proving Ground. The proxy data will simulate the 8 km Event, Group and Flash data that will be generated by GLM. Tailored products such as total flash density at 1-2 minute intervals will be provided for display in AWIPS-2 to select NWS forecast offices and national centers such as the Storm Prediction Center. Additional temporal / spatial combinations are being investigated in coordination with operational needs and case-study proxy data and prototype visualizations may also be generated from the NASA heritage Lightning Imaging Sensor and Optical Transient Detector data. End users will provide feedback on the utility of products in their operational environment, identify use cases and spatial/temporal scales of interest, and provide feedback to the developers for adjusted or new products.

  19. Lifetimes of lunar satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kurt W.; Buglia, James J.; Desai, Prasun N.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative has generated a renewed interest in lunar mission planning. The lunar missions currently under study, unlike the Apollo missions, involve long stay times. Several lunar gravity models have been formulated, but mission planners do not have enough confidence in the proposed models to conduct detailed studies of missions with long stay times. In this report, a particular lunar gravitational model, the Ferrari 5 x 5 model, was chosen to determine the lifetimes for 100-km and 300-km perilune altitude, near-circular parking orbits. The need to analyze orbital lifetimes for a large number of initial orbital parameters was the motivation for the formulation of a simplified gravitational model from the original model. Using this model, orbital lifetimes were found to be heavily dependent on the initial conditions of the nearly circular orbits, particularly the initial inclination and argument of perilune. This selected model yielded lifetime predictions of less than 40 days for some orbits, and other orbits had lifetimes exceeding a year. Although inconsistencies and limitations are inherent in all existing lunar gravity models, primarily because of a lack of information about the far side of the moon, the methods presented in this analysis are suitable for incorporating the moon's nonspherical gravitational effects on the preliminary design level for future lunar mission planning.

  20. Properties of satellite orbits - Ephemerides, dynamical constants, and satellite phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksnes, K.

    1977-01-01

    A short account is given of the history of the observation of the Galilean satellites, with an emphasis on early orbital work and practical applications thereof to world mapping and navigation. The general character of satellite motion is described from a geometric and physical point of view without reference to mathematics. This is followed by a similar discussion of ordinary and mutual satellite phenomena. The accuracies of published ephemerides are discussed on the basis of the observations and theories available for the various satellites. The ephemeris tables need to be revised and, perhaps, partly replaced by well-documented computer programs. The determination of physical parameters (planetary masses and oblatenesses; masses, sizes, and albedo maps of satellites) from positional observations of satellites and photometric observations of ordinary and mutual satellite phenomena is discussed.

  1. Comparison of winter-nocturnal geostationary satellite infrared-surface temperature with shelter-height temperature in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, E.; Allen, L. H., Jr.; Bartholic, J. F.; Gerber, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Geostationary satellite surface temperatures derived from a Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) sensor (10.5 to 12.6 microns) were compared with 1.5-m air temperatures collected by a thermocouple on a traversing vehicle along rural highway transects in Florida, and with two fixed thermographs located in rural and agricultural areas. Statistical comparisons between satellite and 1.5-m observations yielded a mean correlation coefficient of 0.87 and an average sample standard deviation from regression of 1.57 C during clear nights for four winters (1978-1981). The satellite-temperature image of Lake Okeechobee was compared with its geographic outline for areal image registration. Manual overlays of temporal images were repeatable to within one pixel. Satellite-sensed water temperature of Lake Okeechobee was used as an indicator of satellite radiometer repeatability and stability.

  2. Observations in the thermal IR and visible of a retired satellite in the graveyard orbit, and comparisons to active satellites in GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Mark A.; Russell, Ray W.; Kelecy, Tom; Gregory, Steve; Rudy, Richard J.; Kim, Daryl L.; Crawford, Kirk

    2014-12-01

    There exists a population of defunct satellites in the geo-stationary arc that potentially pose a hazard to current and future operational satellites. These drifting, non-station-kept objects have a variety of ages and sizes, and many are trapped in libration orbits around the Earth's two gravitational potential wells (the non-spherical nature of the Earth gives rise to two geo-potential wells or "stable points" that affect objects in geostationary and geosynchronous orbits), whereas others were boosted to higher altitudes into so-called "graveyard" orbits. We have observed several of the approximately 49 objects in libration orbits about the Western stable point (R. Choc, T. Flohrer, and B. Bastida, "Classification of Geosynchronous Objects," Issue 13, ESA/ESOC, February 2011), as well as objects in graveyard orbits. We have carried out an observational campaign utilizing The Aerospace Corporation's 3-13 μm Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS), as well as with several optical sensors to collect data on a representative sample of these objects at a variety of solar phase angles. Here we report on recent BASS observations of a retired satellite in the "graveyard" orbit, and compare them with data we had collected over six years ago, while the satellite was still active. Data are also presented on similar satellites that are still active. We describe our methods, the data collected, our results, and our future plans.

  3. Experimental study on the precise orbit determination of the BeiDou navigation satellite system.

    PubMed

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better. PMID:23529116

  4. Experimental Study on the Precise Orbit Determination of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    PubMed Central

    He, Lina; Ge, Maorong; Wang, Jiexian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The regional service of the Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system is now in operation with a constellation including five Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), five Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Besides the standard positioning service with positioning accuracy of about 10 m, both precise relative positioning and precise point positioning are already demonstrated. As is well known, precise orbit and clock determination is essential in enhancing precise positioning services. To improve the satellite orbits of the BeiDou regional system, we concentrate on the impact of the tracking geometry and the involvement of MEOs, and on the effect of integer ambiguity resolution as well. About seven weeks of data collected at the BeiDou Experimental Test Service (BETS) network is employed in this experimental study. Several tracking scenarios are defined, various processing schemata are designed and carried out; and then, the estimates are compared and analyzed in detail. The results show that GEO orbits, especially the along-track component, can be significantly improved by extending the tracking network in China along longitude direction, whereas IGSOs gain more improvement if the tracking network extends in latitude. The involvement of MEOs and ambiguity-fixing also make the orbits better. PMID:23529116

  5. Predicting the Orbits of Satellites with a TI-85 Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, Kate; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that predicts the orbits of satellites using a TI-85 calculator. Enables students to achieve a richer understanding of longitude, latitude, time zones, orbital mechanics of satellites, and the terms associated with satellite tracking. (JRH)

  6. Future Plan and Recent Activities for the Japanese Follow-on Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Himawari-8/9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurino, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 1977, Japan launched the first geostationary meteorological satellite " Himawari-1 (GMS-1)" onto the geo-synchronous orbit at 140°E mainly to cover the western Pacific and the east part of Asia as part of a space segment of the Global Observation System (GOS) of the WMO World Weather Watch (WWW) programme up to the present. JMA plans to launch Himawari-8 in summer 2014 and commence its operation in 2015, when Himawari-7 (MTSAT-2) is scheduled to complete its period of operation. The Agency also plans to launch Himawari-9 in 2016. Himawari-8 and -9 carry Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) units comparable to the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on board GOES-R with the following functions: - Multi-channel capacity (16 channels in visible and infrared bands) - High spatial resolution (0.5 - 1.0 km for visible and 1.0 - 2.0 km for infrared) - High temporal resolution (within 10 minutes for full disk) - Rapid scanning with flexible area selection and scheduling The follow-on satellites will offer high observation potential, which will enable users to analyze cloud properties and extract other meteorological parameters. To make the most of these functions as well as to provide users with effective information from the start of Himawari-8's operation, JMA has set up an environment for the development of new products from the follow-on satellites in collaboration with its Meteorological Satellite Center (MSC) and other internal related divisions in JMA. The Agency also plans to start the development of related products, and is interested in pursuing scientific and prototyping activities in collaboration with Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS) members. This is particularly the case with EUMETSAT and NOAA/NESDIS, which already operate or are preparing to use a new generation of multi-channel imaging instruments (e.g. MSG/MTG, GOES-R). To support these developments, Himawari-8/9 simulated images are generated in two ways - one involving the accumulation of high-spectral-channel observations from hyper sounders such as AIRS and IASI, and the other using radiative transfer computation based on the provisional response functions of Himawari-8/9. To deliver the more accurate satellite observations, it is vital that satellite instrument calibration is of the highest quality and that a capability exists to intercalibrate the satellite sensors. JMA has been participating in the Global Space-Based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) since the system's establishment in 2007. The primary goal of GSICS is to achieve operational inter-calibration of the space component of the WWW's GOS and Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) that addresses the climate, weather forecasting and other environmental needs of WMO Members.

  7. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... interference from any lawfully operating satellite network or radio communication system. ... geostationary satellite orbit under this part is also authorized to transmit in connection with...

  8. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.

    1989-07-01

    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  9. Estimating Density Using Precision Satellite Orbits from Multiple Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Craig A.; Lechtenberg, Travis; Fattig, Eric; Krishna, Dhaval Mysore

    2012-06-01

    This article examines atmospheric densities estimated using precision orbit ephemerides (POE) from several satellites including CHAMP, GRACE, and TerraSAR-X. The results of the calibration of atmospheric densities along the CHAMP and GRACE-A orbits derived using POEs with those derived using accelerometers are compared for various levels of solar and geomagnetic activity to examine the consistency in calibration between the two satellites. Densities from CHAMP and GRACE are compared when GRACE is orbiting nearly directly above CHAMP. In addition, the densities derived simultaneously from CHAMP, GRACE-A, and TerraSAR-X are compared to the Jacchia 1971 and NRLMSISE-00 model densities to observe altitude effects and consistency in the offsets from the empirical models among all three satellites.

  10. THE ORBITS OF NEPTUNE'S OUTER SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Brozovic, Marina; Jacobson, Robert A.; Sheppard, Scott S. E-mail: raj@jpl.nasa.gov

    2011-04-15

    In 2009, we used the Subaru telescope to observe all the faint irregular satellites of Neptune for the first time since 2004. These observations extend the data arcs for Halimede, Psamathe, Sao, Laomedeia, and Neso from a few years to nearly a decade. We also report on a search for unknown Neptune satellites in a half-square degree of sky and a limiting magnitude of 26.2 in the R band. No new satellites of Neptune were found. We numerically integrate the orbits for the five irregulars and summarize the results of the orbital fits in terms of the state vectors, post-fit residuals, and mean orbital elements. Sao and Neso are confirmed to be Kozai librators, while Psamathe is a 'reverse circulator'. Halimede and Laomedeia do not seem to experience any strong resonant effects.

  11. History of on-orbit satellite fragmentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauer, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Since the first serious satellite fragmentation occurred in Jun. 1961, and instantaneously increased the total Earth satellite population by more than 400 percent, the issue of space operations within the finite region of space around the Earth has been the subject of increasing interest and concern. The prolific satellite fragmentations of the 1970's and the marked increase in the number of fragmentations in the 1980's served to widen international research into the characteristics and consequences of such events. Plans for large, manned space stations in the next decade and beyond demand a better understanding of the hazards of the dynamic Earth satellite population. The contribution of satellite fragmentations to the growth of the Earth satellite population is complex and varied. The majority of detectable fragmentation debris have already fallen out of orbit, and the effects of 40 percent of all fragmentations have completely disappeared. In this volume, satellite fragmentations are categorized by their assessed nature and to a lesser degree by their effect on the near-Earth space environment. A satellite breakup is the usually destructive disassociation of an orbital payload, rocket body, or structure, often with a wide range of ejecta velocities. A satellite breakup may be accidental or the result of intentional actions, e.g., due to a propulsion system malfunction or a space weapons test, respectively. An anomalous event is the unplanned separation, usually at low velocity, of one or more detectable objects from a satellite which remains essentially intact. Anomalous events can be caused by material deterioration of items such as thermal blankets, protective shields, or solar panels. As a general rule, a satellite breakup will produce considerably more debris, both trackable and non-trackable, than an anomalous event. From one perspective, satellite breakups may be viewed as a measure of the effects of man's activity on the environment, while anomalous events may be a measure of the environment on man-made objects.

  12. A method for diagnosing surface parameters using geostationary satellite imagery and a boundary-layer model. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polansky, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    A method for diagnosing surface parameters on a regional scale via geosynchronous satellite imagery is presented. Moisture availability, thermal inertia, atmospheric heat flux, and total evaporation are determined from three infrared images obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Three GOES images (early morning, midafternoon, and night) are obtained from computer tape. Two temperature-difference images are then created. The boundary-layer model is run, and its output is inverted via cubic regression equations. The satellite imagery is efficiently converted into output-variable fields. All computations are executed on a PDP 11/34 minicomputer. Output fields can be produced within one hour of the availability of aligned satellite subimages of a target area.

  13. Estimating Surface Energy Fluxes via Assimilation of Land Surface Temperature from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    xu, T.; Bateni, S.; Liang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, a number of studies have focused on estimating surface energy fluxes via assimilation of land surface temperature observations into variational data assimilation (VDA) schemes. With a simple soil heat transfer model as the constraint, the surface energy balance equation can be solved based on the VDA techniques. In this study, combined-source (CS) and dual-source (DS) VDA schemes are tested extensively over six FLUXNET sites in USA with grassland, cropland and forest land cover types during the vegetation growing season. The CS model assumes the canopy and soil as a combined source and does not consider their different contributions to total surface energy fluxes, while DS model considers them as different sources. Land surface temperature (LST) data retrieved from geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES) are assimilated into these two VDA models. The model estimates are compared with sensible and latent heat fluxes measurements obtained from eddy covariance instrument mounted on the flux towers. The results indicate that the performance of the CS and DS models are better in dry and lightly vegetated sites than wet and densely vegetated sites. Also, the DS model outperforms the CS model in all sites, implying that the DS scheme can characterize the physics of the problem better. The six sites-averaged root mean square error (RMSE) of sensible heat flux estimates from the CS and DS schemes are respectively 67.4 and 60.2 W m-2. Corresponding RMSE values for latent heat flux retrievals from the CS and DS VDA models are 123.9 and 109.4 W m-2, respectively.

  14. Orbit Design of Earth-Observation Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owis, Ashraf

    The purpose of this study is to design a reliable orbit for a medium-resolution scientific satellite to observe Earth for developmental issues such as water resources, agricultural, and industrial. To meet this objective this study firstly, defines the mission, secondly, determines mission constraints, thirdly, design the attitude and orbit control system. As for the observation requirements, and the revisit time are provided as a function of the orbital parameters. Initial orbital parameters are obtained by optimal analysis between observation characteristics and attitude and orbit maintenance costs. Long term station-keeping strategies will be provided for the proposed solutions. Impulsive control will be investigated to provide a reliable and affordable attitude and orbit control system.

  15. Patterns of fire activity over Indonesia and Malaysia from polar and geostationary satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Prins, Elaine M.; Hoffman, Jay P.; Schmidt, Christopher C.; Miettinen, Jukka I.; Giglio, Louis

    2013-03-01

    Biomass burning patterns over the Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia are examined using a new active fire detection product based on application of the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) to data from the imagers on the MTSAT geostationary satellites operated by the Japanese space agency JAXA. Data from MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2 covering 34 months from September 2008 to July 2011 are examined for a study region consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, and nearby environs. The spatial and temporal distributions of fires detected in the MTSAT WF_ABBA product are described and compared with active fire observations from MODIS MOD14 data. Land cover distributions for the two instruments are examined using a new 250 m land cover product from the National University of Singapore. The two products show broadly similar patterns of fire activity, land cover distribution of fires, and pixel fire radiative power (FRP). However, the MTSAT WF_ABBA data differ from MOD14 in important ways. Relative to MODIS, the MTSAT WF_ABBA product has lower overall detection efficiency, but more fires detected due to more frequent looks, a greater relative fraction of fires in forest and a lower relative fraction of fires in open areas, and significantly higher single-pixel retrieved FRP. The differences in land cover distribution and FRP between the MTSAT and MODIS products are shown to be qualitatively consistent with expectations based on pixel size and diurnal sampling. The MTSAT WF_ABBA data are used to calculate coverage-corrected diurnal cycles of fire for different regions within the study area. These diurnal cycles are preliminary but demonstrate that the fraction of diurnal fire activity sampled by the two MODIS sensors varies significantly by region and vegetation type. Based on the results from comparison of the two fire products, a series of steps is outlined to account for some of the systematic biases in each of these satellite products in order to produce a successful merged fire detection product.

  16. Online Visualization and Analysis of Merged Global Geostationary Satellite Infrared Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Leptoukh, G.; Mehta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC) is home of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. The global merged IR product also known as the NCEP/CPC 4-km Global (60 degrees N - 60 degrees S) IR Dataset, is one of TRMM ancillary datasets. They are globally merged (60 degrees N - 60 degrees S) pixel-resolution (4 km) IR brightness temperature data (equivalent blackbody temperatures), merged from all available geostationary satellites (GOES-8/10, METEOSAT-7/5 and GMS). The availability of data from METEOSAT-5, which is located at 63E at the present time, yields a unique opportunity for total global (60 degrees N- 60 degrees S) coverage. The GES DISC has collected over 8 years of the data beginning from February of 2000. This high temporal resolution dataset can not only provide additional background information to TRMM and other satellite missions, but also allow observing a wide range of meteorological phenomena from space, such as, mesoscale convection systems, tropical cyclones, hurricanes, etc. The dataset can also be used to verify model simulations. Despite that the data can be downloaded via ftp, however, its large volume poses a challenge for many users. A single file occupies about 70 MB disk space and there is a total of approximately 73,000 files (approximately 4.5 TB) for the past 8 years. In order to facilitate data access, we have developed a web prototype to allow users to conduct online visualization and analysis of this dataset. With a web browser and few mouse clicks, users can have a full access to over 8 year and over 4.5 TB data and generate black and white IR imagery and animation without downloading any software and data. In short, you can make your own images! Basic functions include selection of area of interest, single imagery or animation, a time skip capability for different temporal resolution and image size. Users can save an animation as a file (animated gif) and import it in other presentation software, such as, Microsoft PowerPoint. The prototype will be integrated into GIOVANNI and existing GIOVANNI capabilities, such as, data download, Google Earth KMZ, etc will be available. Users will also be able to access other data products in the GIOVANNI family.

  17. Exposure estimates for repair satellites at geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2013-02-01

    Communications and weather satellites in geosynchronous (GEO, altitude: 35,793 km.) and geostationary orbits (GSO) are revolutionizing our ability to almost instantly communicate with each other, capture high resolution global imagery for weather forecasting and obtain a multitude of other geophysical data for environmental protection purposes. The rapid increase in the number of satellites at GEO is partly due to the exponential expansion of the internet, its commercial potential and the need to deliver a large amount of digital information in near real time. With the large number of satellites operating at GEO and particularly at GSO, there is a need to think of viable approaches to retrieve, rejuvenate and perhaps repair these satellites. The first step in this process is a detailed understanding of the ionizing radiation environment at GEO. Currently, the most widely used trapped particle radiation environment definition near Earth is based on the NASA's static AP8/AE8 models which define the trapped proton and electron intensities. These models are based on a large number of satellite measurements carried out in the 1960s and 1970s. In this paper, the AP8/AE8 models as well as a heavy ion galactic cosmic ray (GCR) model are used to define the radiation environments for protons, electrons and heavy ions at low Earth orbit (LEO), medium Earth orbit (MEO) and GEO. LEO and MEO dosimetric calculations are included in the analysis since any launch platform capable of delivering a payload to GEO will accumulate exposure during its transit through LEO and MEO. The computational approach (particle transport) taken in this paper is to use the static LEO, MEO, GEO and geomagnetically attenuated GCR environments as input to the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) developed deterministic particle transport codes high charge and energy transport (HZETRN) and coupled electron photon transport (CEPTRN). This is done through exposure prediction within a spherical shell, a legacy Apollo era command service module (CSM) configuration, and a large modular structure represented by a specific configuration of the international Space Station (ISS-11A, circa 2005). Based on the results of the simulations, conclusions are drawn on the exposure levels accumulated by these geometries throughout a mission to GEO.

  18. Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanipe, David B.; Provence, Robert Steve; Straube, Timothy M.; Reed, Helen; Bishop, Robert; Lightsey, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat) will demonstrate autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) in low Earth orbit (LEO) and gather flight data with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver strictly designed for space applications. ARD is the capability of two independent spacecraft to rendezvous in orbit and dock without crew intervention. DRAGONSat consists of two picosatellites (one built by the University of Texas and one built by Texas A and M University) and the Space Shuttle Payload Launcher (SSPL); this project will ultimately demonstrate ARD in LEO.

  19. Low Earth Orbit satellite traffic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelzel, John

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a significant tool for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) capacity analysis, needed to support marketing, economic, and design analysis, known as a Satellite Traffic Simulator (STS). LEO satellites typically use multiple beams to help achieve the desired communication capacity, but the traffic demand in these beams in usually not uniform. Simulations of dynamic, average, and peak expected demand per beam is a very critical part of the marketing, economic, and design analysis necessary to field a viable LEO system. An STS is described in this paper which can simulate voice, data and FAX traffic carried by LEO satellite beams and Earth Station Gateways. It is applicable world-wide for any LEO satellite constellations operating over any regions. For aeronautical applications to LEO satellites. the anticipates aeronautical traffic (Erlangs for each hour of the day to be simulated) is prepared for geographically defined 'area targets' (each major operational region for the respective aircraft), and used as input to the STS. The STS was designed by Constellations Communications Inc. (CCI) and E-Systems for usage in Brazil in accordance with an ESCA/INPE Statement Of Work, and developed by Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI) to execute on top of its Satellite Tool Kit (STK) commercial software. The STS simulates constellations of LEO satellite orbits, with input of traffic intensity (Erlangs) for each hour of the day generated from area targets (such as Brazilian States). accumulated in custom LEO satellite beams, and then accumulated in Earth Station Gateways. The STS is a very general simulator which can accommodate: many forms of orbital element and Walker Constellation input; simple beams or any user defined custom beams; and any location of Gateways. The paper describes some of these features, including Manual Mode dynamic graphical display of communication links, to illustrate which Gateway links are accessible and which links are not, at each 'step' of the satellite orbit. In the two Performance Modes, either Channel capacity or Grade Of Service (GOS) for objects (Satellite beams, Gateways, and an entire satellite) are computed respectively by standard traffic table capacity lookup and blocking probability equations. GOS can be input, with number of channels calculated, or number of channels can be input, with GOS calculated. Also described are some of the STS Test Procedure approach and results. AGI plans to make the STS features available through their normal commercial STK products. E-Systems is a co-developer, tester, and user of the STS. The Test Procedure for the STS was prepared by E-Systems, as an independent tester for CCI, to support the CCI delivery of the STS to ESCA, for their customer INPE.

  20. Preliminary orbit determination for lunar satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Methods for the determination of orbits of artificial lunar satellites from earth-based range rate measurements developed by Koskela (1964) and Bateman et al. (1966) are simplified and extended to include range measurements along with range rate measurements. For illustration, a numerical example is presented.

  1. Visible infrared spin-scan radiometers (VISSR) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) B and C application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Two visible infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) instruments provided for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite B and C (GOES B and C) spacecrafts are described. The instruments are identical to those supplied previously are summarized. A significant number of changes primarily involving corrections of drawing errors and omissions were also performed. All electrical changes were breadboarded (where complexity required this), were incorporated into the test module, and subjected to verification of proper operation throughout fall instrument temperature range. Evaluation of the changes also included design operating safety margins to account for component variations and life.

  2. History of on-orbit satellite fragmentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, N. L.; Gabbard, J. R.; Devere, G. T.; Johnson, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    The causes of on-orbit fragmentations are varied and may be intentional or accidental. The cause of many fragmentations remains unknown. While a few cases are currently under investigation as on-orbit collision candidates, man is directly responsible for the vast majority of artificial debris polluting the near-Earth space environment. It should be emphasized that the number of fragments listed with each event in this document represent only those debris officially cataloged by NORAD. Each known on-orbit satellite fragementation is described within this document in module format. Also listed are pertinent characteristics of each fragmentation event. Comments regarding the nature of the satellite and additional details of the events are given.

  3. Investigation of biomass burning and aerosol loading and transport in South America utilizing geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzel, Paul; Prins, Elaine

    1995-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the extent of burning and associated aerosol transport regimes in South America and the South Atlantic using geostationary satellite observations, in order to explore the possible roles of biomass burning in climate change and more directly in atmospheric chemistry and radiative transfer processes. Modeling and analysis efforts have suggested that the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols from biomass burning may play a major role in the radiative balance of the earth and are an important factor in climate change calculations. One of the most active regions of biomass burning is located in South America, associated with deforestation in the selva (forest), grassland management, and other agricultural practices. As part of the NASA Aerosol Interdisciplinary Program, we are utilizing GOES-7 (1988) and GOES-8 (1995) visible and multispectral infrared data (4, 11, and 12 microns) to document daily biomass burning activity in South America and to distinguish smoke/aerosols from other multi-level clouds and low-level moisture. This study catalogues the areal extent and transport of smoke/aerosols throughout the region and over the Atlantic Ocean for the 1988 (July-September) and 1995 (June-October) biomass burning seasons. The smoke/haze cover estimates are compared to the locations of fires to determine the source and verify the haze is actually associated with biomass burning activities. The temporal resolution of the GOES data (half-hourly in South America) makes it possible to determine the prevailing circulation and transport of aerosols by considering a series of visible and infrared images and tracking the motion of smoke, haze and adjacent clouds. The study area extends from 40 to 70 deg W and 0 to 40 deg S with aerosol coverage extending over the Atlantic Ocean when necessary. Fire activity is estimated with the GOES Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA). To date, our efforts have focused on GOES-7 and GOES-8 ABBA development, algorithm development for aerosol monitoring, data acquisition and archiving, and participation in the SCAR-C and SCAR-B field programs which have provided valuable information for algorithm testing and validation. Implementation of the initial version of the GEOS-8 ABBA on case studies in North, Central, and South America has demonstrated the improved capability for monitoring diurnal fire activity and smoke/aerosol transport with the GOES-8 throughout the Western Hemisphere.

  4. Orbit-spectrum sharing between the fixed-satellite and broadcasting-satellite services with applications to 12 GHz domestic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    A systematic, tutorial analysis of the general problem of orbit-spectrum sharing among inhomogeneous satellite system is presented. Emphasis is placed on extrapolating and applying the available data on rain attenuation and on reconciling differences in the results of various measurements of the subjective effects of interference on television picture quality. An analytic method is presented for determining the approximate values of the intersatellite spacings required to keep mutual interference levels within prescribed limits when many dissimilar satellites share the orbit. A computer model was developed for assessing the interference compatibility of arbitrary configurations of large numbers of geostationary satellite systems. It is concluded that the band from 11.7 c GHz can be shared effectively by broadcasting-satellite and fixed-satellite systems. Recommendations for future study are included.

  5. Real-Time Orbit Determination for Future Korean Regional Navigation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kihae; Oh, Hyungjik; Park, Sang-Young; Park, Chandeok

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for Real-Time Orbit Determination (RTOD) of navigation satellites for the Korean Regional Navigation Satellite System (KRNSS), when the navigation satellites generate ephemeris by themselves in abnormal situations. The KRNSS is an independent Regional Navigation Satellite System (RNSS) that is currently within the basic/preliminary research phase, which is intended to provide a satellite navigation service for South Korea and neighboring countries. Its candidate constellation comprises three geostationary and four elliptical inclined geosynchronous orbit satellites. Relative distance ranging between the KRNSS satellites based on Inter-Satellite Ranging (ISR) is adopted as the observation model. The extended Kalman filter is used for real-time estimation, which includes fine-tuning the covariance, measurement noise, and process noise matrices. Simulation results show that ISR precision of 0.3-0.7 m, ranging capability of 65,000 km, and observation intervals of less than 20 min are required to accomplish RTOD accuracy to within 1 m. Furthermore, close correlation is confirmed between the dilution of precision and RTOD accuracy.

  6. Acquisition and Re-orbiting of GEO Satellites Using Low Thrust Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourão, Décio; Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Winter, Othon; Silva Moraes, Brunno; Giuliatti Winter, Silvia Maria

    The Plasma Laboratory of the University of Brasilia is developing a special type of plasma thruster, a P-HALL, which is now in the second prototype. Plasma thrusters generate low thrust propulsion, but with high specific impulse, and they can work continuously for long periods of time. In the present work we explore three different types of orbital missions needs. 1) Transference between two circular orbits, from LEO to GEO. We analysed a set of satellite maneuvers, and compared the use continuous and pulsed propulsion to achieve the transference. Using the data obtained in the laboratory, we simulated several possibilities to transfer a satellites from an orbit of 700km altitude to a geostationary position. Using continuous thruster, we mapped several values of the maneuver time, the satellite mass, the mass ejection and the impulse. The results show that, for example, it is possible to achieve the maneuver using 150 kg of propellant taking about 200 days. 2) Transference through circularization of the orbit. Considering an eccentric orbit whose pericenter has altitude of 700km and apocenter close to a GEO, it is proposed to circularize the orbit such that the final orbit become GEO. The approach adopted is to turn on the thruster along an arc, ∆θ, at each pericenter passage. The results are found in terms of the whole transference time as a function of ∆θ. 3) Re-orbiting GEO satellites. In this case the goal is to place a GEO satellite at a higher orbit to release its current position from occupation. The procedure adopted was to turn on the thruster along two fixed size arcs, ∆θ, 180 degrees apart from each other. The results are found in terms of the fuel consumption as a function of ∆θ.

  7. Estimation of SW radiation budget using geostationary satellites and quasi-real-time monitoring of PV power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Inoue, T.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Teruyuki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. In this study, we developed the high speed and accurate algorithm for shortwave (SW) radiation budget and it's applied to five geostationary satellites for global analysis. There are validated by SKYNET and BSRN ground observation data. The analysis results showed a distinctive trend of direct and diffuse component of surface SW fluxes in North Pacific and North Atlantic ocean. Similarly, developed algorithm is applied to quasi-real time analysis synchronous to geostationary satellite observation. It enabled highly accurate monitoring of solar radiation and photo voltaic (PV) power generation. It indicates the possibility of the fusion analysis of climate study and renewable energy.

  8. Nodding feed antenna for communications with satellites in synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, J.; Zavesky, R.

    1978-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of a parabolic, ground receiving antenna system with a feed that nods in one axis producing a maximum beam deviation 1.1 deg from boresight is described. The antenna design was: (1)to lower the weight (and the subsequent cost) of the supporting structure and the actuator motors for a tracking antenna by moving just the feed; (2) to use a manual tracking system eliminating the need for expensive electronic controls or computers; (3) to provide for several hours of unattended operation; and (4)to permit operation of the antenna by unskilled personnel. Also described are some physical and orbital phenomenon that effect the operation or design of the antenna. One is the motion of a nearly geostationary satellite due to gravitational forces from the sun, the moon, and other stellar bodies. Others are the rotation of the nodding axis and the feed polarization as a function of the location of the station on the earth. A comparison of per unit cost was made for one unit and a quantity of 100.

  9. Ionospheric Pc5 plasma oscillations observed by the King Salmon HF radar and their comparison with geomagnetic pulsations on the ground and in geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Ogawa, T.; Obara, T.; Troshichev, O. A.

    2012-03-01

    We analyzed Pc5 (1.7-6.7 mHz) oscillations of ionospheric Doppler plasma velocity observed on a westward pointing beam 3 of the SuperDARN King Salmon HF radar in Alaska during the solar maximum in 2002 and the minimum in 2007. Local time distributions of the ionospheric Pc5 oscillations showed peculiar asymmetric characteristics in both years; that is, the occurrence probability had a maximum around the magnetic midnight, whereas backscatter echoes exhibited almost no oscillation on the dayside. We compared these ionospheric Pc5 events with magnetic field variations on the ground under the radar beam at Pebek and King Salmon and the geostationary ETS-8 satellite at almost conjugate longitude. We found only a few nightside events where both the radar and magnetometers detected similar sinusoidal oscillations. On the other hand, from statistical spectral analyses we found that there were positive correlations between the integrated Pc5 range spectral power of velocity oscillations and the geomagnetic pulsations both on the ground and in geostationary orbit although the pulsation powers were quite low. For these ionospheric Pc5 events, we found that both solar wind bulk flow speed and dynamic pressure showed no correlation with the spectral power and more than half of the Pc5 events were observed when the geomagnetic activities were low as inferred from the AE and Dst indices. These results indicate that the azimuthal Pc5 oscillation in the ionospheric plasma flow does not represent well-known characteristics of Pc5 pulsations driven by solar wind changes. We consider that the nightside occurrence peak of the ionospheric Pc5 oscillation might be related to diurnal changes in the ionospheric conductivity, which controls the amplitude of wave electric fields in the ionosphere. Therefore, the Pc5 wave power distributions obtained by radar observations provide features different from those obtained from magnetic field observations.

  10. Orbital positioning of domestic satellites. [area coverage and radio frequency interference optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubin, S.; Kane, D.

    1973-01-01

    An important factor in establishing domestic or regional communication satellite systems which share a given frequency band is the positioning of the satellites in the arc of the geostationary orbit that is visible to the area to be served. A description is given of the results of orbit spacing studies performed with respect to the eight different space systems proposed to provide U.S. domestic communication services. Some tentative guidelines which may be of general use are proposed. Four sets of computer models were studied, taking into account quasi-homogeneous models, a five-system model, a heterogeneous model with 3-degree spacings, and a heterogeneous model with unequal spacings and with coordination.

  11. Organization of space navigation system based on use of geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullayev, V. E.

    1985-09-01

    The modern navigation problem is inseparably related to the need for constant and operational support of the navigational personnel with meteorological, navigational and other types of information which could not possibly be provided without use of radio communications. The determination of a ship's position by such fundamental methods as observation of celestial bodies, the use of every possible radioelectronic and radar apparatus, is well known and has been developed in the form of an independent science called marine astronomy. However, with the appearance of present-day requirements, taking into account the high speeds of modern ships when there is a need at all times for reliable information on their position with an accuracy to a meter, all known marine astronomy methods are becoming greatly outmoded. Space navigation systems based on the Doppler method for determining the position of a ship by satellites moving in different circular orbits have good accuracy characteristics. However, a shortcoming of such systems is that the navigationl devices of a ship provide a correction of its position only in the period of presence of the transiting satellite in the zone of radiovisibility. For example, for the American Transit navigational system the mean time between observations at the equator is approximately 1.2 hours.

  12. Combined system for the compensation of the solar pressure-induced disturbing torque for geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatov, S. I.; Mordvinkin, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The problem is considered of determining the shape and dimensions of the passive component in a combined system for offsetting the solar pressure-induced disturbing torque for geostationary spacecraft with asymmetrical solar arrays. The problem statement, numerical solution algorithm, and calculated results are presented. The resulting shape, the study suggests, not only has the required compensation properties but is also the most efficient from the standpoint of manufacture and functional reliability.

  13. A simple analytic method for satellite orbit anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Weidong; Wang, Ronglan

    Satellite orbit anomalies draw worldwide concerns from users and col-lision warning department. There are three reasons for satellite orbit anomalies: 1atellite orbit maneuver; 2) collision with another space object; 3)explosive fragmentation. When satellite orbit anomalies occur, orbit parameters are likely to undergo sudden changes which are usually characterized by the change of the orbit semimajor axis or mean motion over time. This paper proposed a method for determining the orbit anomalies. This method uses the changes of the orbit semimajor axis over time as a criterion. The outliers are deleted. Through the analysis of nearly 1,000 operational satellites currently in orbit around Earth, the method is proved to be quick and efficient to identify the satellite orbit anomalies. Corresponding author: Weidong Song, Email:swdgh@bit.edu.cn

  14. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES): R series hyperspectral environmental suite (HES) overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Gene; Criscione, Joseph C.; Cauffman, Sandra A.; Davis, Martin A.

    2004-11-01

    The Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) instrument is currently under development by the NASA GOES-R Project team within the framework of the GOES Program to fulfill the future needs and requirements of the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Office. As part of the GOES-R instrument complement, HES will provide measurements of the traditional temperature and water vapor vertical profiles with higher accuracy and vertical resolution than obtained through current sounder technologies. HES will provide measurements of the properties of the shelf and coastal waters and back up imaging (at in-situ resolution) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The HES team is forging the future of remote environmental monitoring with the development of an operational instrument with high temporal, spatial and spectral-resolution and broad hemispheric coverage. The HES development vision includes threshold and goal requirements that encompass potential system solutions. The HES team has defined tasks for the instrument(s) that include a threshold functional complement of Disk Sounding (DS), Severe Weather/Mesoscale Sounding (SW/M), and Shelf and Coastal Waters imaging (CW) and a goal functional complement of Open Ocean (OO) imaging, and back up imaging (at in-situ resolution) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). To achieve the best-value procurement, the GOES-R Project has base-lined a two-phase procurement approach to the HES design and development; a Formulation/study phase and an instrument Implementation phase. During Formulation, currently slated for the FY04-05 timeframe, the developing team(s) will perform Systems Requirements Analysis and evaluation, System Trade and Requirements Baseline Studies, Risk Assessment and Mitigation Strategy and complete a Preliminary Conceptual Design of the HES instrument. The results of the formulation phase will be leveraged to achieve an effective and efficient system solution during the Implementation Phase scheduled to begin FY05 for a resultant FY12 launch. The magnitude of complexity of the HES development requires an appreciation of the technologies required to achieve the functional objectives. To this end, the GOES-R project team is making available all NASA developed technologies to potential HES vendors, including, the NASA New Millennium Program"s (NMP) Earth Observing-3, Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) instrument developed technologies, as applicable. It is anticipated that the instrument(s) meeting the HES requirements will be either a dispersive spectrometer or an interferometric spectrometer or perhaps a combination. No instrument configuration is preferred or favored by the Government. This paper outlines the HES development plan; including an overview of current requirements, existing partnerships and the GOES-R project methodologies to achieve the advanced functional objectives of the GOES Program partnership.

  15. Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Hong Kong from a Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Using Critical Reflectance with Background Optical Depth Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Wong, Man Sing; Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Jaehwa; Wu, Dong L.; Chan, P.W.; Nichol, Janet E.; Chung, Chu-Yong; Ou, Mi-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous efforts to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a conventional 5-channelmeteorological imager in geostationary orbit, the accuracy in urban areas has been poorer than other areas primarily due to complex urban surface properties and mixed aerosol types from different emission sources. The two largest error sources in aerosol retrieval have been aerosol type selection and surface reflectance. In selecting the aerosol type from a single visible channel, the season-dependent aerosol optical properties were adopted from longterm measurements of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-photometers. With the aerosol optical properties obtained fromthe AERONET inversion data, look-up tableswere calculated by using a radiative transfer code: the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S). Surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method, awidely used technique for geostationary retrievals. Over East Asia, the AOD retrieved from the Meteorological Imager showed good agreement, although the values were affected by cloud contamination errors. However, the conventional retrieval of the AOD over Hong Kong was largely underestimated due to the lack of information on the aerosol type and surface properties. To detect spatial and temporal variation of aerosol type over the area, the critical reflectance method, a technique to retrieve single scattering albedo (SSA), was applied. Additionally, the background aerosol effect was corrected to improve the accuracy of the surface reflectance over Hong Kong. The AOD retrieved froma modified algorithmwas compared to the collocated data measured by AERONET in Hong Kong. The comparison showed that the new aerosol type selection using the critical reflectance and the corrected surface reflectance significantly improved the accuracy of AODs in Hong Kong areas,with a correlation coefficient increase from0.65 to 0.76 and a regression line change from tMI [basic algorithm] = 0.41tAERONET + 0.16 to tMI [new algorithm] = 0.70tAERONET + 0.01.

  16. Development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Park, M. E.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Choi, M. J.; Ghim, Y. S.; Woo, J.-H.

    2015-07-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semi-continuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatio-temporal (ST) kriging method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages to using the ST-kriging method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the ST-kriging method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ~ 60 and ~ 70 %, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors (such as choices of observation operators and control variables) on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC and low air-volume sample instruments at a site near Seoul. To improve the overall performances of the short-term PM forecast system, several future research directions were also discussed and suggested.

  17. Orbit determination and time synchronization for a GEO/IGSO satellite navigation constellation with regional tracking network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, ShanShi; Hu, XiaoGong; Wu, Bin; Liu, Li; Qu, WeiJing; Guo, Rui; He, Feng; Cao, YueLing; Wu, XiaoLi; Zhu, LingFeng; Shi, Xin; Tan, HongLi

    2011-06-01

    Aiming at regional services, the space segment of COMPASS (Phase I) satellite navigation system is a constellation of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), Inclined Geostationary Earth Orbit (IGSO) and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Precise orbit determination (POD) for the satellites is limited by the geographic distribution of regional tracking stations. Independent time synchronization (TS) system is developed to supplement the regional tracking network, and satellite clock errors and orbit data may be obtained by simultaneously processing both tracking data and TS data. Consequently, inconsistency between tracking system and TS system caused by remaining instrumental errors not calibrated may decrease navigation accuracy. On the other hand, POD for the mixed constellation of GEO/IGSO/MEO with the regional tracking network leads to parameter estimations that are highly correlated. Notorious example of correlation is found between GEO's orbital elements and its clock errors. We estimate orbital elements and clock errors for a 3GEO+2IGSO constellation in this study using a multi-satellite precise orbit determination (MPOD) strategy, with which clock error elimination algorithm is applied to separate orbital and clock estimates to improve numerical efficiency. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data are used to evaluate User Ranging Error (URE), which is the orbital error projected on a receiver's line-of-sight direction. Two-way radio-wave time transfer measurements are used to evaluate clock errors. Experimenting with data from the regional tracking network, we conclude that the fitting of code data is better than 1 m in terms of Root-Mean-Square (RMS), and fitting of carrier phase is better than 1 cm. For orbital evaluation, difference between computed receiver-satellite ranging based on estimated orbits and SLR measurements is better than 1 m (RMS). For clock estimates evaluation, 2-hour linear-fitting shows that the satellite clock rates are about 1.E-10 s/s, while receiver clock rates are about 1×10-13-1×10-12 s/s. For the 72-hour POD experiment, the average differences between POD satellite clock rates estimates and clock measurements based on TS system are about 1×10-13 s/s, and for receiver clock rates, the differences are about 1×10-15 s/s.

  18. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor, Vol 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.; Garrett, James, Major

    1984-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the LUTs. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite. Additionally, a table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  19. Orbit-spectrum sharing between the fixed-satellite and broadcasting-satellite services at 12 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper identifies and evaluates strategies for sharing the geostationary orbit in the band 11.7 to 12.2 GHz between domestic systems in the fixed-satellite and broadcasting-satellite services. The effectiveness of two distinct types of sharing strategies, referred to as spectrum division and orbit division, is determined for various deployments of selected baseline systems representing the two services and for various combinations of sharing tactics such as frequency interleaving, crossed-polarization operation, and crossed-beam operation. Effectiveness is measured by the 'utilization factor', defined as the number of channels provided by the baseline systems when using an assigned share of the orbit-spectrum resource, relative to what they could provide if given the entire resource. Computer simulation is used to verify the intra- and interservice interference compatibility of the assumed deployments. It is concluded that total utilization factors close to 100 percent can be achieved with both spectrum-division and properly-chosen orbit-division strategies.

  20. ESTIMATE OF SOLAR MAXIMUM USING THE 1-8 Å GEOSTATIONARY OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES X-RAY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, L. M.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.

    2014-10-01

    We present an alternate method of determining the progression of the solar cycle through an analysis of the solar X-ray background. Our results are based on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray data in the 1-8 Å band from 1986 to the present, covering solar cycles 22, 23, and 24. The X-ray background level tracks the progression of the solar cycle through its maximum and minimum. Using the X-ray data, we can therefore make estimates of the solar cycle progression and the date of solar maximum. Based upon our analysis, we conclude that the Sun reached its hemisphere-averaged maximum in solar cycle 24 in late 2013. This is within six months of the NOAA prediction of a maximum in spring 2013.

  1. Cost competitive space transportation system for geostationary payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    A geostationary satellite system designer will have a number of launch vehicles to consider in the system designs for the 1980s. The Space transportation System (the shuttle orbiter plus upper stage) offers the opportunity for lower system cost in comparison with the expendable launch vehicles. An analysis of a spin stabilized solid rocket motor stage has demonstrated the feasibility of this upper stage concept. A cost competitive Space Transportation System (STS) for geostationary payloads is made possible by achievement of the STS cost goals, multiple launch from the STS orbiter, and a user-provided spin stabilized upper stage.

  2. Orbital evolution of the Galilean satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    The orbital motions of the Galilean satellites exert dramatic control over their physical properties (most notably Io's) through tidal heating. In turn, tidal dissipation in the satellites, as well as in Jupiter, has governed the evolution of the orbits and, in particular, of the Laplace resonance. If the system started out of the resonance and evolved into it, forced eccentricities would have increased with time. Hence, the tidal melting of Io and the cracking of Europa'a surface may have occurred relatively recently. This theory requires that Jupiter's tidal dissipation factor be greater than about two million, a rather low value (high rate of tidal dissipation) compared with most models of Jovian interior processes. Alternatively, the system may have started even deeper in the resonance than it is today, a scenario which is consistent with larger values of the tidal dissipation factor. This model, with its correspondingly large initial forced eccentricities, would imply (1) that Io melted early and fast, and may have remained molten with only a thin solid skin until the present and (2) that the water mantles of both Europa and Ganymede remained largely molten for considerably longer than Callisto did, but later froze as their eccentricities and tidal heating decreased.

  3. Jupiter orbiter lifetime: The hazard of Galilean satellite collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    The four Galilean satellites of Jupiter present a long-term collision hazard to an uncontrolled orbiting spacecraft that repeatedly enters the spatial region occupied by the satellites. Satellite close encounters and the likelihood of collision over a wide range of initial orbit conditions were analyzed. The effect of orbit inclination was of key interest. The scope of the analysis was restricted to orbital dynamic considerations alone, i.e. the question of biological contamination given the event of collision was not considered. A quarantine or orbiter lifetime of 50 years was assumed. This time period begins at spacecraft shutdown following completion of the mission objectives. A numerical approach was adopted wherein each initial orbit is propagated for 50 years, and satellite closest encounter distances recorded on every revolution. The computer program includes approximations of the three major perturbation effects on the long-term motion of the orbiter: (1) Jupiter oblateness, (2) solar gravity, and (3) satellite gravity.

  4. Monthly mean large-scale analyses of upper-tropospheric humidity and wind field divergence derived from three geostationary satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schmetz, J.; Menzel, W.P.; Hayden, C.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the results from a collaborative study between the European Space Operations Center, the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Cooperative Institute for Meterological Satellite Studies investigating the relationship between satellite-derived monthly mean fields of wind and humidity in the upper troposphere for March 1994. Three geostationary meteorological satellites GOES-7, Meteosat-3, and Meteosat-5 are used to cover an area from roughly 160{degrees}W to 50{degrees}E. The wind fields are derived from tracking features in successive images of upper-tropospheric water vapor (WV) as depicted in the 6.5-{mu} absorption band. The upper-tropospheric relative humidity (UTH) is inferred from measured water vapor radiances with a physical retrieval scheme based on radiative forward calculations. Quantitative information on large-scale circulation patterns in the upper troposphere is possible with the dense spatial coverage of the WV wind vectors. The monthly mean wind field is used to estimate the large-scale divergence; values range between about -5 x 10{sup -6} and 5 x 10{sup -6} sec{sup -1} when averaged over a scale length of about 1000-2000 km. The spatial patterns of the UTH field and the divergence of the wind field closely resemble one another, suggesting that UTH patterns are principally determined by the large-scale circulation. Since the upper-tropospheric humidity absorbs upwelling radiation from lower-tropospheric levels and therefore contributes significantly to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, this work implies that studies on the climate relevance of water vapor should include three-dimensional modeling of the atmospheric dynamics. The fields of UTH and WV winds are useful parameters for a climate-monitoring system based on satellite data. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Monthly mean large-scale analyses of upper-tropospheric humidity and wind field divergence derived from three geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmetz, Johannes; Menzel, W. Paul; Velden, Christopher; Wu, Xiangqian; Vandeberg, Leo; Nieman, Steve; Hayden, Christopher; Holmlund, Kenneth; Geijo, Carlos

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a collaborative study between the European Space Operations Center, the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies investigating the relationship between satellite-derived monthly mean fields of wind and humidity in the upper troposphere for March 1994. Three geostationary meteorological satellites GOES-7, Meteosat-3, and Meteosat-5 are used to cover an area from roughly 160 deg W to 50 deg E. The wind fields are derived from tracking features in successive images of upper-tropospheric water vapor (WV) as depicted in the 6.5-micron absorption band. The upper-tropospheric relative humidity (UTH) is inferred from measured water vapor radiances with a physical retrieval scheme based on radiative forward calculations. Quantitative information on large-scale circulation patterns in the upper-troposphere is possible with the dense spatial coverage of the WV wind vectors. The monthly mean wind field is used to estimate the large-scale divergence; values range between about-5 x 10(exp -6) and 5 x 10(exp 6)/s when averaged over a scale length of about 1000-2000 km. The spatial patterns of the UTH field and the divergence of the wind field closely resemble one another, suggesting that UTH patterns are principally determined by the large-scale circulation. Since the upper-tropospheric humidity absorbs upwelling radiation from lower-tropospheric levels and therefore contributes significantly to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, this work implies that studies on the climate relevance of water vapor should include three-dimensional modeling of the atmospheric dynamics. The fields of UTH and WV winds are useful parameters for a climate-monitoring system based on satellite data. The results from this 1-month analysis suggest the desirability of further GOES and Meteosat studies to characterize the changes in the upper-tropospheric moisture sources and sinks over the past decade.

  6. Orbital elements of Saturn's F ring and its shepherding satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    The orbital parameters of Saturn's F-ring and the shepherding satellites were estimated from Voyager images. The method, results and associated uncertainties are described. Braids were observed in a few frames near shepherd satellite conjunctions.

  7. Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth - Duration: 116 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth on August 27, 2005 by revealing MODIS true-color imagery for that day. This animation is on a cartesian map projection, so the satellite w...

  8. NASA-Langley Web-Based Operational Real-time Cloud Retrieval Products from Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palikonda, Rabindra; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Ayers, Jeffrey K.; Nguyen, Louis; Yi, Yuhong; Chan, P. K.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chang, Fu-Lung; Smith, William L, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), radiances from multiple satellites are analyzed in near real-time to produce cloud products over many regions on the globe. These data are valuable for many applications such as diagnosing aircraft icing conditions and model validation and assimilation. This paper presents an overview of the multiple products available, summarizes the content of the online database, and details web-based satellite browsers and tools to access satellite imagery and products.

  9. Climatological assessment of desert targets over East Asia — Australian region for the solar channel calibration of geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Sohn, B. J.

    2014-02-01

    Desert targets for solar channel calibration of geostationary satellites in the East Asia — Australian region were selected and their qualities were assessed with aid of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (i.e., white-sky surface albedo, aerosol optical thickness, and cloud fraction) from 2002 to 2008. The magnitude, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability of the white-sky surface albedo are examined in order to select bright and stable targets. Subsequently those selected targets over China, India, and Australia are further checked for their qualities in terms of data yielding ratio, aerosol optical thickness, cloud fraction, satellite viewing angle, and solar zenith angle. Results indicate that Chinese targets are found to be not adequate as calibration targets in spite of excellent surface conditions because of high percentage of cloud, possibly heavy aerosol loading, and lower solar elevation angle in particular during winter time. Indian site should be take care about relatively high temporal variation of surface condition and heavy aerosol loading. On the other hand, Australian desert targets are considered to be best when surface brightness, spatial and temporal stability, data yielding ratio, aerosol, and cloud are counted.

  10. Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Satellites at AIUB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, A.; Bock, H.; Thaller, D.; Dach, R.; Beutler, G.; Prange, L.; Meyer, U.

    2010-12-01

    Many low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are nowadays equipped with on-board receivers to collect the observations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), or with retro-reflectors for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). At the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) LEO precise orbit determination (POD) using either GPS or SLR data is performed for satellites at very different altitudes. The classical numerical integration techniques used for dynamic orbit determination of LEO satellites at high altitudes are extended by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling techniques for satellites at low altitudes to efficiently cope with force model deficiencies. Accuracies of a few centimeters are achieved by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling, e.g., for the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE).

  11. Sentinels in the Sky: Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Robert

    This publication describes forecasting weather activity using satellites. Information is included on the development of weather satellites, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite System (including the polar-orbiting satellites), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). The publication…

  12. Effects of the Forecasting Methods, Precipitation Character, and Satellite Resolution on the Predictability of Short-Term Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting (QPN) from a Geostationary Satellite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Xi, Du-Gang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of the short-term quantitative precipitation nowcasting (QPN) from consecutive gestational satellite images has important implications for hydro-meteorological modeling and forecasting. However, the systematic analysis of the predictability of QPN is limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate effects of the forecasting model, precipitation character, and satellite resolution on the predictability of QPN usingimages of a Chinese geostationary meteorological satellite Fengyun-2F (FY-2F) which covered all intensive observation since its launch despite of only a total of approximately 10 days. In the first step, three methods were compared to evaluate the performance of the QPN methods: a pixel-based QPN using the maximum correlation method (PMC); the Horn-Schunck optical-flow scheme (PHS); and the Pyramid Lucas-Kanade Optical Flow method (PPLK), which is newly proposed here. Subsequently, the effect of the precipitation systems was indicated by 2338 imageries of 8 precipitation periods. Then, the resolution dependence was demonstrated by analyzing the QPN with six spatial resolutions (0.1atial, 0.3a, 0.4atial rand 0.6). The results show that the PPLK improves the predictability of QPN with better performance than the other comparison methods. The predictability of the QPN is significantly determined by the precipitation system, and a coarse spatial resolution of the satellite reduces the predictability of QPN. PMID:26447470

  13. Circumnutations of sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Lewis, R. F.; Venditti, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objective of the research reported here was to determine whether a plant's periodic growth oscillations, called circumnutations, would persist in the absence of a significant gravitational or inertial force. The definitive experiment was made possible by access to the condition of protracted near weightlessness in an earth satellite. The experiment, performed during the first flight of Spacelab on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle, Columbia, in November and December, 1983, tested a biophysical model, proposed in 1967, that might account for circumnutation as a gravity-dependent growth response. However, circumnutations were observed in microgravity. They continued for many hours without stimulation by a significant g-force. Therefore, neither a gravitational nor an inertial g-force was an absolute requirement for initiation [correction of initation] or continuation of circumnutation. On average, circumnutation was significantly more vigorous in satellite orbit than on earth-based clinostats. Therefore, at least for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) circumnutation, clinostatting is not the functional equivalent of weightlessness.

  14. Satellite orbit and data sampling requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, William

    1993-01-01

    Climate forcings and feedbacks vary over a wide range of time and space scales. The operation of non-linear feedbacks can couple variations at widely separated time and space scales and cause climatological phenomena to be intermittent. Consequently, monitoring of global, decadal changes in climate requires global observations that cover the whole range of space-time scales and are continuous over several decades. The sampling of smaller space-time scales must have sufficient statistical accuracy to measure the small changes in the forcings and feedbacks anticipated in the next few decades, while continuity of measurements is crucial for unambiguous interpretation of climate change. Shorter records of monthly and regional (500-1000 km) measurements with similar accuracies can also provide valuable information about climate processes, when 'natural experiments' such as large volcanic eruptions or El Ninos occur. In this section existing satellite datasets and climate model simulations are used to test the satellite orbits and sampling required to achieve accurate measurements of changes in forcings and feedbacks at monthly frequency and 1000 km (regional) scale.

  15. Satellite orbital conjunction reports assessing threatening encounters in space (SOCRATES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.; Alfano, S.

    2006-05-01

    While many satellite operators are aware of the possibility of a collision between their satellite and another object in earth orbit, most seem unaware of the frequency of near misses occurring each day. Until recently, no service existed to advise satellite operators of an impending conjunction of a satellite payload with another satellite, putting the responsibility for determining these occurrences squarely on the satellite operator's shoulders. This problem has been further confounded by the lack of a timely, comprehensive data set of satellite orbital element sets and computationally efficient tools to provide predictions using industry-standard software. As a result, hundreds of conjunctions within 1 km occur each week, with little or no intervention, putting billions of dollars of space hardware at risk, along with their associated missions. As a service to the satellite operator community, the Center for Space Standards & Innovation (CSSI) offers SOCRATES-Satellite Orbital Conjunction Reports Assessing Threatening Encounters in Space. Twice each day, CSSI runs a list of all satellite payloads on orbit against a list of all objects on orbit using the catalog of all unclassified NORAD two-line element sets to look for conjunctions over the next seven days. The runs are made using STK/CAT-Satellite Tool Kit's Conjunction Analysis Tools-together with the NORAD SGP4 propagator in STK. This paper will discuss how SOCRATES works and how it can help satellite operators avoid undesired close approaches through advanced mission planning.

  16. ORBITAL DEPENDENCE OF GALAXY PROPERTIES IN SATELLITE SYSTEMS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.k

    2010-09-01

    We study the dependence of satellite galaxy properties on the distance to the host galaxy and the orbital motion (prograde and retrograde orbits) using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. From SDSS Data Release 7, we find 3515 isolated satellite systems of galaxies at z < 0.03 that contain 8904 satellite galaxies. Using this sample, we construct a catalog of 635 satellites associated with 215 host galaxies whose spin directions are determined by our inspection of the SDSS color images and/or by spectroscopic observations in the literature. We divide satellite galaxies into prograde and retrograde orbit subsamples depending on their orbital motion with respect to the spin direction of the host. We find that the number of galaxies in prograde orbit is nearly equal to that of retrograde orbit galaxies: the fraction of satellites in prograde orbit is 50% {+-} 2%. The velocity distribution of satellites with respect to their hosts is found to be almost symmetric: the median bulk rotation of satellites is -1 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. It is found that the radial distribution of early-type satellites in prograde orbit is strongly concentrated toward the host while that of retrograde ones shows much less concentration. We also find the orbital speed of late-type satellites in prograde orbit increases as the projected distance to the host (R) decreases while the speed decreases for those in retrograde orbit. At R less than 0.1 times the host virial radius (R < 0.1r{sub vir,host}), the orbital speed decreases in both prograde and retrograde orbit cases. Prograde satellites are on average fainter than retrograde satellites for both early and late morphological types. The u - r color becomes redder as R decreases for both prograde and retrograde orbit late-type satellites. The differences between prograde and retrograde orbit satellite galaxies may be attributed to their different origin or the different strength of physical processes that they have experienced through hydrodynamic interactions with their host galaxies.

  17. Instrument and Method for Determination of High-Precision Coordinates of Geostationary Artificial Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, D. P.; Kizjun, L. N.; Laptienko, N. I.; Melnikov, M. A.; Safronov, Y. I.

    An experiment for determining precise positions of artificial satellites has been carried out at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR with the help of the Carl-Zeiss double wide-angle astrograph (2 m focal length, 40 cm objective diameter). Estimates of the precision of the satellite position obtained from 9 plates are given. The standard errors are in the range 0.48arcsec - 1.67arcsec.

  18. Geostationary satellite position determination for common-view two-way time transfer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Qixiang; Douglas, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    In common-view two-way time transfer, each earth station receives an unwanted return signal from its own transmission as well as the desired signal from the other earth station. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Research Council (NRC), and the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) have been cooperating in a three-corner common-view two-way time transfer experiment. Some systematic effects are known to depend on the position of the satellite (Sagnac effect and the cross-correlation pulling of the pseudo-random codes). A method is presented for deriving accurate satellite ranges from each of three stations doing common-view two-way satellite time transfer measurements, when one (and only one) station also takes ranging measurements on its 'unwanted return signal' for a brief period. The method is applied to determine the variations in position of the satellite used over the course of the NIST/NRC/USNO SBS-3 experiment, with ranging data taken at NRC, where no additional hardware was required to automate the process. The fit and extrapolation which are employed in this method have an estimated precision of 2 m. If the delays of SBS-3 satellite KU band transponder and earth station equipment were measured accurately as well as the tropospheric refractions were well modeled and corrected, we would expect a ranging accuracy of 2.5 m and satellite positioning accuracy would be 200 m (latitude) 50 m (longitude) and 20 m (height above ellipsoid).

  19. Lithium-Ion Battery Performance On Board Geostationary And Lunar Orbiter NASA Missions- SDO And LRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzon, David; Thwaite, Carl; Buckle, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    ABSLSpace Products have worked together with NASA GSFC to build both the 120Ah LRO and the 150Ah SDO Battery modules. ABSL have used in- house software tools to perform analysis of the battery size to optimize performance. The battery units have been successfully launched into orbit and are meeting all performance requirements. ABSL have also carried out real time life tests based on the simulated mission profile for both projects. ABSL has now correlated the information from the life tests results and the in orbit telemetry data to provide a status of battery health and inputs for system operations and potential for mission extension. This paper provides details of the process applied, and the options available for system optimization.

  20. GPS early-orbit subsystem for earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laczo, V. T.; Maury, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The early-orbit capability of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System, which determines starting vectors for earth satellites from angles-only or range-angles observations, is described and documented. Early-orbit results obtained from a variety of satellites, data types and methods of solution are also presented.

  1. Towards High Spa-Temporal Resolution Estimates of Surface Radiative Fluxes from Geostationary Satellite Observations for the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X.; Yang, K.; Tang, W.; Qin, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) plays an important role of the hydrological and land process modeling, which particularly contributes more than 90% to the total melt energy for the Tibetan Plateau (TP) ice melting. Neither surface measurement nor existing remote sensing products can meet that requirement in TP. The well-known satellite products (i.e. ISCCP-FD and GEWEX-SRB) are in relatively low spatial resolution (0.5º-2.5º) and temporal resolution (3-hourly, daily, or monthly). The objective of this study is to develop capabilities to improved estimates of SSR in TP based on geostationary satellite observations from the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) with high spatial (0.05º) and temporal (hourly) resolution. An existing physical model, the UMD-SRB (University of Maryland Surface Radiation Budget) which is the basis of the GEWEX-SRB model, is re-visited to improve SSR estimates in TP. The UMD-SRB algorithm transforms TOA radiances into broadband albedos in order to infer atmospheric transmissivity which finally determines the SSR. Specifically, main updates introduced in this study are: implementation at 0.05º spatial resolution at hourly intervals integrated to daily and monthly time scales; and improvement of surface albedo model by introducing the most recently developed Global Land Surface Broadband Albedo Product (GLASS) based on MODIS data. This updated inference scheme will be evaluated against ground observations from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) radiation stations and three TP radiation stations contributed from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research.

  2. Considerations relating to geostationary intersatellite links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, H. J.

    Factors affecting the frequency reuse potential of geostationary intersatellite links and their impact on orbit spectrum utilization efficiency are discussed. The use of such links may be to interconnect widely separated earth stations, to alleviate satellite orbit location constraints, and to permit international programs exchange. The links offer high reuse potential and may accommodate several hundred intersatellite links within acceptable interference bonds. It is found that reuse potential is improved by a high sidepole discrimination and low orbit ellipticals, resulting in the highest orbit spectrum utilization efficiency. In addition, interleaving is not possible in short links with codirectional frequency assignments, but higher antenna discrimination and lower orbit ellipticity allow the smallest possible link length. It seems that a maximum antenna beamwidth for links and maximum orbit eccentricity for space stations are worth developing.

  3. Selection of orbits for the CRRES dual mission satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Bill; Stone, Russ; Thompson, Paul

    1986-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is somewhat unusual, in that it performs related scientific experiments in two very different orbits. The selection of the Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit requires a number of scientific and engineering trade-offs. Issues in this design process discussed here are launch and insertion capabilities, altitude regimes of scientific interest and orbit stability, ground track and lighting considerations, lifetime of both missions, and the transfer between the two orbits.

  4. Orbits of the ten small satellites of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.M. Jr.; Synnott, S.P.

    1987-05-01

    Orbital elements are presented for the ten small satellites discovered by Voyager 2 at Uranus. These ten new satellites, whose provisional IAU designations are 1985UI and 1986UI through 1986U9, lie for the most part in equatorial, circular orbits; the most notable exception is 1986U8, the outer epsilon-ring shepherd, whose eccentricity e = 0.0101. Unlike the Voyager discoveries at Saturn, which included two co-orbiting satellites and three librators, the ten small Uranian satellites all have quite different semimajor axes. 11 references.

  5. Galilean satellite remote sensing by the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeates, C. M.; Klaasen, K. P.; Clarke, T. C.

    The derivation of a mission design strategy for the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter which best satisfies the requirements for remote sensing of the surfaces of the Galilean satellites during a 20-month orbital tour of the Jovian system is described. The celestial mechanics of a spacecraft orbiting about Jupiter and interacting with the Galilean satellites is discussed. A satellite tour strategy designed to optimize the accomplishment of remote sensing, field and particle science, and radio science objectives is developed. Finally, an assessment is made of how well these objectives can be met given the spacecraft, the capabilities of the scientific instruments, and the structure of the satellite tour.

  6. Orbit Modelling for Satellites Using the NASA Prediction Bulletins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonavito, N. L.; Koch, D. W.; Maslyar, G. A.; Foreman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    For some satellites the NASA Prediction Bulletins are the only means available to the general user for obtaining orbital information. A computational interface between the information given in the NASA Prediction Bulletins and standard orbit determination programs is provided. Such an interface is necessary to obtain accurate orbit predictions. The theoretical considerations and their computational verification in this interface modelling are presented. This analysis was performed in conjunction with satellite aided search and rescue position location experiments where accurate orbits of the Amateur Satellite Corporation (AMSAT) OSCAR-6 and OSCAR-7 spacecraft are a prerequisite.

  7. The Use of the Deep Convective Cloud Technique (DCCT) to Monitor On-Orbit Performance of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM): Use of Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Data as Proxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis E.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, William J.; Goodman, Steve J.

    2013-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) will not have onboard calibration capability to monitor its performance. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been providing observations of total lightning over the Earth's Tropics since 1997. The GLM design is based on LIS heritage, making it a good proxy dataset. This study examines the performance of LIS throughout its time in orbit. This was accomplished through application of the Deep Convective Cloud Technique (DCCT) (Doelling et al., 2004) to LIS background pixel radiance data. The DCCT identifies deep convective clouds by their cold Infrared (IR) brightness temperatures and using them as invariant targets in the solar reflective portion of the solar spectrum. The GLM and LIS operate in the near-IR at a wavelength of 777.4 nm. In the present study the IR data is obtained from the Visible Infrared Sensor (VIRS) which is collocated with LIS onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The DCCT is applied to LIS observations for July and August of each year from 1998-2010. The resulting distributions of LIS background DCC pixel radiance for each July August are very similar, indicating stable performance. The mean radiance of the DCCT analysis does not show a long term trend and the maximum deviation of the July August mean radiance for each year is within 0.7% of the overall mean. These results demonstrate that there has been no discernible change in LIS performance throughout its lifetime. A similar approach will used for monitoring the performance of GLM, with cold clouds identified using IR data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) which will also be located on GOES-R. Since GLM is based on LIS design heritage, the LIS results indicate that GLM should also experience stable performance over its lifetime.

  8. Monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Pertica, Alexander J.; Riot, Vincent J.; De Vries, Willem H.; Bauman, Brian J.; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R.; Phillion, Donald W.

    2015-06-30

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  9. Quasi-geostationary viewing of high latitudes for Weather, Climate and Air quality data using highly elliptical orbits: PCW/PHEOS-WCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, J. C.; McElroy, C. T.; Sioris, C. E.; Walker, K. A.; Buijs, H.; Rahnama, P.; Trishchenko, A. P.; Garand, L.; Nassar, R.; Martin, R. V.; Bergeron, M.; O'Neill, N. T.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic climate is changing and the multi-year sea-ice cover is disappearing more rapidly that climate models estimate. With declining ice cover, the Arctic Ocean will likely be subject to increased shipping traffic in addition to exploration activity for natural resources with a concomitant increase in air pollution. Thus there is a need to monitor the polar region and an important method that can address many of the atmospheric issues is by quasi-geostationary viewing at high temporal resolution. For this reason, several Canadian government departments led by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) are proposing the PCW (Polar Communications and Weather) mission to provide improved communications and critically important meteorological and air quality information for the Arctic, in particular wind information using an operational meteorological imager. Two satellites are planned to be in a highly eccentric orbit with apogee at ~ 40,000 km over the Arctic in order to have both quasi-geostationary viewing over the Arctic and environs and 24x7 coverage in the MIR and solar reflected light (UV-Vis-NIR) in the summer period. The planned operational meteorological instrument is a 21-channel spectral imager with UV, visible, NIR and MIR channels similar to MODIS or ABI. This presentation will focus on PHEOS WCA (Polar Highly Elliptical Orbital Science Weather, Climate and Air quality) mission, which is an atmospheric science complement to the operational PCW mission. The PHEOS WCA instrument package consists of FTS and UVS imaging sounders with viewing range of ~4.5 degrees or a FoR ~ 3400x3400 km2 from near apogee. The spatial resolution at apogee of each imaging sounder is targeted to be 10×10 km2 or better and the image repeat time is targeted at ~ 1-2 hours or better. The FTS has 4 bands that span the MIR and NIR. The MIR bands cover 700-1500 cm-1 and 1800-2700 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 0.25 cm-1 i.e., a similar spectral resolution to IASI. They should provide vertical tropospheric profiles of temperature and water vapour in addition to partial columns of other gases of interest for air quality such as O3, CO, HCN, CH3OH, etc. and also CO2 and CH4. The two NIR bands cover 5990-6010 cm-1 (0.25 cm-1) and 13060-13168 cm-1 (0.5 cm-1) and target columns of CO2 and CH4 and the O2-A band for surface pressure, aerosol OD and albedo. The UVS is an imaging spectrometer that covers the spectral range of 280 - 650 nm with 0.9 nm resolution and targets the tropospheric column densities of O3 and NO2. It is also planned to obtain the tropospheric columns of BrO, SO2, HCHO and (HCO)2 on an opportunity basis and the aerosol index (AI) as well as stratospheric columns of O3, NO2 and BrO. One of the important goals for PHEOS-FTS is to measure changes in CO2 and CH4 throughout the day-lit hours in the NIR near apogee. The imaging design is to be sufficiently flexible so that it can be directed at special events and the FoR reduced to have more rapid spatial coverage. In this presentation we will outline the scientific objectives, status of retrieval algorithms and also the viewing geometry necessary with 2 satellites and the outcome of the PHEOS WCA Phase A study, funded by the CSA, which was completed in the spring of 2012.

  10. An orbit determination from debris impacts on measurement satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Koki; Tasaki, Mitsuhiko; Furumoto, Masahiro; Hanada, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a method to determine orbital plane of a micron-sized space debris cloud utilizing their impacts on measurement satellites. Given that debris impacts occur on a line of intersection between debris and satellites orbital planes, a couple of debris orbital parameters, right ascension of the ascending node, inclination, and nodal regression rate can be determined by impact times and locations measured from more than two satellites in different earth orbits. This paper proves that unique solution for the debris orbital parameters is obtained from the measurement data, and derives a computational scheme to estimate them. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is finally demonstrated by a simulation test, in which measurement data are obtained from a numerical simulation considering realistic debris' and satellites' orbits.

  11. Measurements of SEU and total dose in geostationary orbit under normal and solar flare conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, L.; Daly, E. J.; Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Holmes-Siedle, A. G.; Ward, A. K.; Bull, R. A.

    1991-12-01

    The Meteosat-3 Radiation Effects Experiment includes two 256-kb SRAMs configured for SEU detection and a RADFET array for dose measurement. SEU rates and doses are enhanced during solar flares. Two years of orbital data are compared with ground tests and prediction. The measured background dose is found to be lower than prediction. The measured solar flare dose agrees well with prediction. The view angle of the RADFETs was insufficient to allow the relative efficiency of low-Z/high-Z shielding to be verified.

  12. State Geography Using NOAA Polar-Orbiting Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Stephen J.

    1985-01-01

    NOAA polar-orbiting satellites have the capability of providing views of entire states. This article describes the characteristics of data from these satellites, indicates their advantages and disadvantages, and shows how the satellite data can be used in a statewide representation of physical geography for students at the introductory level. (RM)

  13. Why no orbital resonances among the satellites of Uranus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    Most of the orbital resonances among the satellites of the major planets are thought to be assembled by differential tidal expansion of their orbits. Why this has not occurred for the Uranus system can be investigated by determining the resonances which would be encountered for various values of Uranus' tidal effective Q. The comparison and the possible escape of Ariel-Umbriel from the 5:3 resonance mean that it is not unreasonable that no orbital resonances are found among these satellites.

  14. Discovery of 12 satellites of Saturn exhibiting orbital clustering.

    PubMed

    Gladman, B; Kavelaars, J J; Holman, M; Nicholson, P D; Burns, J A; Hergenrother, C W; Petit, J M; Marsden, B G; Jacobson, R; Gray, W; Grav, T

    2001-07-12

    The giant planets in the Solar System each have two groups of satellites. The regular satellites move along nearly circular orbits in the planet's orbital plane, revolving about it in the same sense as the planet spins. In contrast, the so-called irregular satellites are generally smaller in size and are characterized by large orbits with significant eccentricity, inclination or both. The differences in their characteristics suggest that the regular and irregular satellites formed by different mechanisms: the regular satellites are believed to have formed in an accretion disk around the planet, like a miniature Solar System, whereas the irregulars are generally thought to be captured planetesimals. Here we report the discovery of 12 irregular satellites of Saturn, along with the determinations of their orbits. These orbits, along with the orbits of irregular satellites of Jupiter and Uranus, fall into groups on the basis of their orbital inclinations. We interpret this result as indicating that most of the irregular moons are collisional remnants of larger satellites that were fragmented after capture, rather than being captured independently. PMID:11449267

  15. Implementation of a state of the art automated system for the production of cloud/water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The research objectives in this proposal were part of a continuing program at UW-CIMSS to develop and refine an automated geostationary satellite winds processing system which can be utilized in both research and operational environments. The majority of the originally proposed tasks were successfully accomplished, and in some cases the progress exceeded the original goals. Much of the research and development supported by this grant resulted in upgrades and modifications to the existing automated satellite winds tracking algorithm. These modifications were put to the test through case study demonstrations and numerical model impact studies. After being successfully demonstrated, the modifications and upgrades were implemented into the NESDIS algorithms in Washington DC, and have become part of the operational support. A major focus of the research supported under this grant attended to the continued development of water vapor tracked winds from geostationary observations. The fully automated UW-CIMSS tracking algorithm has been tuned to provide complete upper-tropospheric coverage from this data source, with data set quality close to that of operational cloud motion winds. Multispectral water vapor observations were collected and processed from several different geostationary satellites. The tracking and quality control algorithms were tuned and refined based on ground-truth comparisons and case studies involving impact on numerical model analyses and forecasts. The results have shown the water vapor motion winds are of good quality, complement the cloud motion wind data, and can have a positive impact in NWP on many meteorological scales.

  16. Use of Geostationary Satellite Data to Force Land Surface Schemes within Atmospheric Mesoscale Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Dembek, Scott R.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite-observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The technique has been employed on a semi-operational basis at the GHCC within the PSU/NCAR MM5. Assimilation has been performed on a grid centered over the Southeastern US since November 1998. Results from the past year show that assimilation of the satellite data reduces both the bias and RMSE for simulations of surface air temperature and relative humidity. These findings are based on comparison of assimilation runs with a control using the simple 5-layer soil model available in MM5. A significant development in the past several months was the inclusion of the detailed Oregon State University land surface model (OSU/LSM) as an option within MM5. One of our working hypotheses has been that the assimilation technique, although simple, may provide better short-term forecasts than a detailed LSM that requires significant number initialized parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilation out performs the OSU/LSM as it is incorporated in MM5. Details will be presented at the symposium.

  17. GEO/SAMS - The Geostationary Synthetic Aperture Microwave Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has for many years operated two weather satellite systems, the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite system (POES), using low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), using geostationary earth orbiting (GEO) satellites. (Similar systems are also operated by other nations.) The POES satellites have been equipped with both infrared (IR) and microwave (MW) atmospheric sounders, which makes it possible to determine the vertical distribution of temperature and humidity in the troposphere even under cloudy conditions. Such satellite observations have had a significant impact on weather forecasting accuracy, especially in regions where in situ observations are sparse. In contrast, the GOES satellites have only been equipped with IR sounders, since it has not been feasible to build a large enough antenna to achieve sufficient spatial resolution for a MW sounder in GEO. As a result, GOES soundings can only be obtained in cloud free areas and in the less important upper atmosphere, above the cloud tops. This has hindered the effective use of GOES data in numerical weather prediction. Full sounding capabilities with the GOES system is highly desirable because of the advantageous spatial and temporal coverage that is possible from GEO. While POES satellites provide coverage in relatively narrow swaths, and with a revisit time of 12-24 hours or more, GOES satellites can provide continuous hemispheric coverage, making it possible to monitor highly dynamic phenomena such as hurricanes.

  18. Orbit determination accuracies using satellite-to-satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Argentiero, P. D.; Schmid, P. E.

    1977-01-01

    The uncertainty in relay satellite sate is a significant error source which cannot be ignored in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data. Based on simulations and real data reductions, it is numerically impractical to use simultaneous unconstrained solutions to determine both relay and user satellite epoch states. A Bayesian or least squares estimation technique with an a priori procedure is presented which permits the adjustment of relay satellite epoch state in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data without the numerical difficulties introduced by an ill-conditioned normal matrix.

  19. The east Pacific ITCZ complex (northern only, southern only, double) in 30 years of geostationary satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffke, C. M.; Magnusdottir, G.; Henke, D.; Smyth, P.

    2014-12-01

    The double Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the east Pacific has been identified in previous observational studies in terms of time mean data, e.g. monthly mean fields. Little is known about the instantaneous occurrence of this feature. Here we use a new method for automated daily identification of convection associated with the east Pacific ITCZ in visible and infrared geostationary satellite images from 1980-2012. The method uses the satellite images to extract information about the spatial features of the clouds comprising the convergence zones. Features are then used as input to a temporal classification algorithm that is based on a combination of hidden semi-Markov model and support vector machine methods. Five 'states' are used to describe the location of the ITCZ: northern hemisphere only (nITCZ), southern hemisphere only (sITCZ), double ITCZ (dITCZ), ITCZ located directly on the equator (eITCZ), and no ITCZ present (aITCZ). Most of the year, particularly from May-Dec, is dominated by the nITCZ state. The boreal springtime is characterized by a high number of days classified as dITCZ, but the state of the ITCZ is quite variable during this time and can frequently transition between dITCZ, nITCZ, sITCZ, and aITCZ states. Our results will show ITCZ variability in terms of the different states on daily to interannual time scales. We will show how the large scale environment, including SST and atmospheric moisture availability, influences the occurrence of each ITCZ state, focusing on the dITCZ in the boreal springtime.

  20. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  1. Mechanism for Retrieving Satellites From Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, W. D.; Gardner, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Pair of documents describe mechanism allowing astronaut to capture in extravehicular activity small artificial satellite for retrieval and return to Earth. Mechanism operates by insertion of probe in nozzle of rocket motor on satellite, followed by expansion of inserted probe end to grasp motor inside nozzle and thereby capture satellite. Designed for specific satellite, but operating principle adapted to almost any satellite equipped with rocket motor or possibly used in retrieval of hollow-shaped objects in marine and other salvage operations.

  2. Impulse strobing method in superlong baseline radiointerferometry for observing geostationary artificial Earth satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskij, V. M.

    The new possibility of synthesizing the wide frequency band for the VLBI observation of slowly moving objects with the standard MARK-1 processing system using the impulse strobing method is described. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio may be improved due to specific type of the impulse function. An original system of realization of these methods in the satellite VLBI observation is suggested.

  3. Orbital evolution and origin of the Martian satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Szeto, A.M.K.

    1983-07-01

    The orbital evolution of the Martian satellites is considered from a dynamical point of view. Celestial mechanics relevant to the calculation of satellite orbital evolution is introduced and the physical parameters to be incorporated in the modeling of tidal dissipation are discussed. Results of extrapolating the satellite orbits backward and forward in time are presented and compared with those of other published work. Collision probability calculations and results for the Martian satellite system are presented and discussed. The implications of these calculations for the origin scenarios of the satellites are assessed. It is concluded that Deimos in its present form could not have been captured, for if it had been, it would have collided with Phobos at some point. An accretion model is therefore preferred over capture, although such a model consistent with the likely carbonaceous chondritic composition of the satellites has yet to be established. 91 references.

  4. Intercomparisons of ground-based and satellite-based lightning measurements used in creating a proxy dataset for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Thompson, K. B.; Mach, D. M.; Goodman, S. J.; Heckman, S.; Holzworth, R. H.; Koshak, W. J.; Blakeslee, R.

    2011-12-01

    We have been comparing several ground-based lightning RF sensing networks (LMA, WTLN, WWLLN) with the satellite-based, optical sensing Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The desire is to create a realistic proxy dataset for the upcoming Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), also an optical sensor. The LIS data are the closest approximation that we have for GLM data, but since it is a Low-Earth Orbiting (LEO) sensor, any spot on the ground is observed for no more than 80 s. The goal is to be able to use any ground-based sensing network, which are typically operated 24x7, and build a transfer function that will allow us to generate proxy GLM pixels. This process is complicated because ground networks are RF sensors and the LIS is an optical sensor. This means that (1) they are sensing different physics during the flash, and (2) the cloud does not scatter RF, but is a very effective light scatterer. The North Alabama Lightning Mapper Array (NALMA) is a VHF sensing network and in a comparison with LIS over many years but limited space (about 150 km from Huntsville, AL), we find a coincidence rate of 70-80%. The WTLN senses a range of the spectrum from VLF to HF; a comparison with LIS of a few months of data that ranges across the Western Hemisphere, we find a coincidence rate of 50-70%. The WWLLN network senses VLF radiation and a comparison with LIS of one month of data also covering the Western Hemisphere, we find a coincidence rate of 7-15%. We will show how a transfer function is derived and give details about how GLM proxy data are generated.

  5. HY-2A altimetry satellite GPS orbits processing and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, F.; Houry, S.; Couhert, A.; Cerri, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Chinese HY-2A altimetry satellite is on the mission orbit since 1st october 2011. This satellite uses a Doris receiver (French cooperation), a GPS receiver and a SLR retro-reflector for the precise orbit determination. The GPS is a dual frequency semi-codeless receiver. Precise orbits are computed at CNES on the basis of 7 days arcs since the beginning of the mission (repeat cycle is 14 days). This presentation describes the current processing performed at CNES for this satellite. The GPS only orbits perform very well and are compared with the Doris only orbits (floating ambiguity resolution, as for Jason 1 and 2). SLR measurements are also available at ILRS, and allow an external validation of the actual radial orbit performance. This talk adresses the current status of POE solutions and the prospects for improvement based on the preliminary analysis of the tracking data.

  6. Long time dynamical evolution of highly elliptical satellites orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E.; Zakharova, P.

    2015-08-01

    Dynamical evolution of objects near Molniya-type orbits is considered. Initial conditions correspond to highly elliptical satellite orbits with eccentricities 0.65 and a critical inclination 63.4°. Semi-major axis is varied near resonant value 26560 km in an interval 500 km. Variations were analyzed for positional orbital elements, an ascending node longitude and an argument of pericenter. Initial conditions determined when orbital elements variations are minimal. These regions can be used as orbits for safe stationing satellites which finish work on Molniya-type orbits. The study of dynamical evolution on long time intervals was performed on the basis of the results of numerical simulation. The model of disturbing forces taken into account the main perturbing factors. Time interval was up to 24 yr. Area-to-mass ratio varied from small values corresponding to satellites to big ones corresponding to space debris.

  7. GPS-Based Navigation and Orbit Determination for the AMSAT Phase 3D Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George; Carpenter, Russell; Moreau, Michael; Bauer, Frank H.; Long, Anne; Kelbel, David; Martin, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of processing GPS data from the AMSAT Phase 3D (AP3) satellite for real-time navigation and post-processed orbit determination experiments. AP3 was launched into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) on November 16, 2000 from Kourou, French Guiana, and then was maneuvered into its HEO over the next several months. It carries two Trimble TANS Vector GPS receivers for signal reception at apogee and at perigee. Its spin stabilization mode currently makes it favorable to track GPS satellites from the backside of the constellation while at perigee, and to track GPS satellites from below while at perigee. To date, the experiment has demonstrated that it is feasible to use GPS for navigation and orbit determination in HEO, which will be of great benefit to planned and proposed missions that will utilize such orbits for science observations. It has also shown that there are many important operational considerations to take into account. For example, GPS signals can be tracked above the constellation at altitudes as high as 58000 km, but sufficient amplification of those weak signals is needed. Moreover, GPS receivers can track up to 4 GPS satellites at perigee while moving as fast as 9.8 km/sec, but unless the receiver can maintain lock on the signals long enough, point solutions will be difficult to generate. The spin stabilization of AP3, for example, appears to cause signal levels to fluctuate as other antennas on the satellite block the signals. As a result, its TANS Vectors have been unable to lock on to the GPS signals long enough to down load the broadcast ephemeris and then generate position and velocity solutions. AP3 is currently in its eclipse season, and thus most of the spacecraft subsystems have been powered off. In Spring 2002, they will again be powered up and AP3 will be placed into a three-axis stabilization mode. This will significantly enhance the likelihood that point solutions can be generated, and perhaps more important, that the receiver clock can be synchronized to GPS time. This is extremely important for real-time and post-processed orbit determination, where removal of receiver clock bias from the data time tags is needed, for time-tagging of science observations. Current analysis suggests that the inability to generate point solutions has allowed the TANS Vector clock bias to drift freely, being perhaps as large as 5-7 seconds by October, 2001, thus causing up to 50 km of along-track orbit error. The data collected in May, 2002 while in three-axis stabilized mode should provide a significant improvement in the orbit determination results.

  8. Investigation of cloud/water vapor motion winds from geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research work accomplished on the NASA grant contract NAG8-892 during 1992. Research goals of this contract are the following: to complete upgrades to the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) wind system procedures for assigning heights and incorporating first guess information; to evaluate these modifications using simulated tracer fields; to add an automated quality control system to minimize the need for manual editing, while maintaining product quality; and to benchmark the upgraded algorithm in tests with NMC and/or MSFC. Work progressed on all these tasks and is detailed. This work was done in collaboration with CIMSS NOAA/NESDIS scientists working on the operational winds software, so that NASA funded research can benefit NESDIS operational algorithms.

  9. Precise science orbits for the Swarm satellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den IJssel, Jose; Encarnação, João; Doornbos, Eelco; Visser, Pieter

    2015-09-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm mission was launched on 22 November 2013 to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interaction with the Earth system. The mission consists of three identical satellites, flying in carefully selected near polar orbits. Two satellites fly almost side-by-side at an initial altitude of about 480 km, and will descend due to drag to around 300 km during the mission lifetime. The third satellite was placed in a higher orbit of about 530 km altitude, and therefore descends much more slowly. To geolocate the Swarm observations, each satellite is equipped with an 8-channel, dual-frequency GPS receiver for Precise Orbit Determination (POD). Onboard laser retroreflectors provide the opportunity to validate the orbits computed from the GPS observations using Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data. Precise Science Orbits (PSOs) for the Swarm satellites are computed by the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering at Delft University of Technology in the framework of the Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility (SCARF). The PSO product consists of both a reduced-dynamic and a kinematic orbit solution. After a short description of the Swarm GPS data characteristics, the adopted POD strategy for both orbit types is explained and first PSO results from more than one year of Swarm GPS data are presented. Independent SLR validation shows that the reduced-dynamic Swarm PSOs have an accuracy of better than 2 cm, while the kinematic orbits have a slightly reduced accuracy of about 4-5 cm. Orbit comparisons indicate that the consistency between the reduced-dynamic and kinematic Swarm PSO for most parts of the Earth is at the 4-5 cm level. Close to the geomagnetic poles and along the geomagnetic equator, however, the kinematic orbits show larger errors, which are probably due to ionospheric scintillations that affect the Swarm GPS receivers over these areas.

  10. Photometric Database of the geostationary satellites Astronomical Observatory of I. Mechnikov Odessa national university (in Russian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, P., P.

    In many cases role not coordinate information (photometrical, polarization, spectral) can be key when determining a class spacecraft, its functional purpose. At each class GSS can be design and dynamic features which are shown on a form light curve also have a characteristic appearance (signature). What features help to classify GSS on light curve. The light curves GSS can determine the operating mode on the device orbit reveal signs of an emergency operation, the transition from the GSS conserved active state. In recent years, for the identification of the GSS, many experts make photometric database (DB) comprising a set of characteristics, with sufficient probability characterizing a particular class of spacecraft. Database AO ONU contains more than 800 light curves in B, V, R filters 120 GSS. Showing light curves several GSS with distinctive structural and dynamic features, peculiar to the respective classes of spacecraft.

  11. Quasi-real-time monitoring of SW radiation budget using geostationary satellite for Climate study and Renewable energy. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.; Kuze, H.; Takamura, T.; Pinker, R. T.; Nakajima, T.

    2013-12-01

    Solar radiation is the only source of energy that drives the weather and climate of the Earth's surface. Earth is warmed by incoming solar radiation, and emitted energy to space by terrestrial radiation due to its temperature. It has been kept to the organisms viable environment by the effect of heating and cooling. Clouds can cool the Earth by reflecting solar radiation and also can keep the Earth warm by absorbing and emitting terrestrial radiation. They are important in the energy balance at the Earth surface and the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and are connected complicatedly into the Earth system as well as other climate feedback processes. Thus it is important to estimate Earth's radiation budget for better understanding of climate and environmental change. We have shared several topics related to climate change. Energy issues close to the climate change, it is an environmental problems. Photovoltaics is one of the power generation method to converts from solar radiation to electric power directly. It does not emit greenhouse gases during power generation. Similarly, drainage, exhaust, vibration does not emit. PV system can be distributed as a small power supply in urban areas and it can installed to near the power demand points. Also solar thermal is heat generator with high efficiency. Therefor it is an effective energy source that the solar power is expected as one of the mitigation of climate change (IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation). It is necessary to real-time-monitoring of the surface solar radiation for safety operation of electric power system. We introduce a fusion analysis of renewable energy and Quasi-real-time analysis of SW radiation budget. Sample of estimated PV power mapping using geostationary satellite.

  12. Tidal debris morphology and the orbits of satellite galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendel, David; Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2015-12-01

    How do galaxies move relative to one another? While we can examine the motion of dark matter subhaloes around their hosts in simulations of structure formation, determining the orbits of satellites around their parent galaxies from observations is impossible except for a small number of nearby cases. In this work, we outline a novel approach to probing the orbital distributions of infalling satellite galaxies using the morphology of tidal debris structures. It has long been understood that the destruction of satellites on near-radial orbits tends to lead to the formation of shells of debris, while those on less eccentric orbits produce tidal streams. We combine an understanding of the scaling relations governing the orbital properties of debris with a simple model of how these orbits phase-mix over time to produce a `morphology metric' that more rigorously quantifies the conditions required for shells to be apparent in debris structures as a function of the satellite's mass and orbit and the interaction time. Using this metric we demonstrate how differences in orbit distributions can alter the relative frequency of shells and stream structures observed around galaxies. These experiments suggest that more detailed modelling and careful comparisons with current and future surveys of low surface brightness features around nearby galaxies should be capable of actually constraining orbital distributions and provide new insights into our understanding of structure formation.

  13. The Role of Orograph and Parallax Corrections on High Resolution Geostationary Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Flash Flood Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Davenport, Clay; Scofield, Rod

    1999-01-01

    The current generation of geosynchronous satellites exhibits considerably improved capabilities in the area of resolution, gridding accuracy, and sampling frequency as compared to their predecessors. These improvements have made it possible to accurately observe the life cycle of small scale, short-live phenomenon like rapidly developing thunderstorms, at a very high spatial and temporal resolutions. While the gain in the improved resolution is not significant for synoptic scale cloud systems, it plays a major role on the computation of precipitation values for mesoscale and stonn scale systems. Two of the important factor on the accurate precision of precipitation from satellite imagery are the position of the cloud tops as viewed by the satellite and the influence of orographic effects on the distribution of precipitation. The first problem has to do with the fact that the accurate estimation of precipitation from data collected by a satellite in geosynchronous orbit requires the knowledge of the exact position of the cloud tops with respect to the ground below. This is not a problem when a cloud is located directly below the satellite; at large viewing angles the geographic coordinates on satellite images are dependent on cloud heights and distance from the sub-satellite point. The latitude and longitude coordinates for high convective cloud tops are displaced away from the sub-satellite point and may be shifted by as much as 20 Km from the sea level coordinates. The second problem has to do with the variations in rainfall distribution with elevation. Ground observations have shown that precipitation amounts tend to increase with height and that the slope of the hill or mountain that is facing the prevailing wind normally receives greater rainfall then do the lee slopes. The purpose of the study is to show the recent developments at the Office of Research and Applications (ORA) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NESDIS) in Camp Springs, MD, USA, to adjust any satellite rainfall estimation technique and account for orographic and parallax corrections. Description and examples of the procedure applied to the current NOAA/NESDIS experimental satellite rainfall estimation technique for flash flood applications will be presented at the conference.

  14. Method of resolving radio phase ambiguity in satellite orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Councelman, Charles C., III; Abbot, Richard I.

    1989-01-01

    For satellite orbit determination, the most accurate observable available today is microwave radio phase, which can be differenced between observing stations and between satellites to cancel both transmitter- and receiver-related errors. For maximum accuracy, the integer cycle ambiguities of the doubly differenced observations must be resolved. To perform this ambiguity resolution, a bootstrapping strategy is proposed. This strategy requires the tracking stations to have a wide ranging progression of spacings. By conventional 'integrated Doppler' processing of the observations from the most widely spaced stations, the orbits are determined well enough to permit resolution of the ambiguities for the most closely spaced stations. The resolution of these ambiguities reduces the uncertainty of the orbit determination enough to enable ambiguity resolution for more widely spaced stations, which further reduces the orbital uncertainty. In a test of this strategy with six tracking stations, both the formal and the true errors of determining Global Positioning System satellite orbits were reduced by a factor of 2.

  15. Electric Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    1997-01-01

    Electric propulsion was evaluated for orbit insertion, satellite positioning and de-orbit applications on big (hundreds of kilograms) and little (tens of kilograms) low earth orbit communication satellite constellations. A simple, constant circumferential thrusting method was used. This technique eliminates the complex guidance and control required when shading of the solar arrays must be considered. Power for propulsion was assumed to come from the existing payload power. Since the low masses of these satellites enable multiple spacecraft per launch, the ability to add spacecraft to a given launch was used as a figure of merit. When compared to chemical propulsion ammonia resistojets, ion, Hall, and pulsed plasma thrusters allowed an additional spacecraft per launch Typical orbit insertion and de-orbit times were found to range from a few days to a few months.

  16. Characterization of an In-Situ Ground Terminal via a Geostationary Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piasecki, Marie; Welch, Bryan; Mueller, Carl

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed project completed an S-Band ground station located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. This S-Band ground station was developed to create a fully characterized and controllable dynamic link environment when testing novel communication techniques for Software Defined Radios and Cognitive Communication Systems. In order to provide a useful environment for potential experimenters, it was necessary to characterize various RF devices at both the component level in the laboratory and at the system level after integration. This paper will discuss some of the laboratory testing of the ground station components, with a particular focus emphasis on the near-field measurements of the antenna. It will then describe the methodology for characterizing the installed ground station at the system level via a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), with specific focus given to the characterization of the ground station antenna pattern, where the max TDRS transmit power limited the validity of the non-noise floor received power data to the antenna main lobe region. Finally, the paper compares the results of each test as well as provides lessons learned from this type of testing methodology.

  17. Characterization of an In-Situ Ground Terminal via a Geostationary Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piasecki, Marie T.; Welch, Bryan W.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed project completed an S-Band ground station located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. This S-Band ground station was developed to create a fully characterized and controllable dynamic link environment when testing novel communication techniques for Software Defined Radios and Cognitive Communication Systems. In order to provide a useful environment for potential experimenters, it was necessary to characterize various RF devices at both the component level in the laboratory and at the system level after integration. This paper will discuss some of the laboratory testing of the ground station components, with a particular focus/emphasis on the near-field measurements of the antenna. It will then describe the methodology for characterizing the installed ground station at the system level via a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), with specific focus given to the characterization of the ground station antenna pattern, where the max TDRS transmit power limited the validity of the non-noise floor received power data to the antenna main lobe region. Finally, the paper compares the results of each test as well as provides lessons learned from this type of testing methodology.

  18. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-N report). Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The GOES-N study consisted of five distinct tasks including: determining replication costs of GOES I-M and GOES-7 in the GOES-N time frame; defining and evaluating modifications to GOES I-M to improve efficiency or reduce costs; and defining evolutionary changes to the GOES I-M design to satisfy National Weather Service (NWS) 1983 and NOAA 1989 requirements. The categorization and disposition of NOAA requirements is reported in volume 1 section 4. Results of the GOES I-M efficiency/cost improvement modifications study are described in Section 7.1. The system concept options 1, 2, and 3 that generally represent the results of the Task 2, 3A, and 3B studies are summarized in Section 7.2. Another result of the GOES-N study, the determination of which NWS 1983 and NOAA 1989 requirements can be met with the three options, is contained in volume 1 section 7. Conclusions and recommendations are covered in volume 1 section 8. Imager, sounder, control system, space environment monitor, search and rescue, weather facsimile, data collection system, and products/process/communications recommendations were extracted from sections 9, 10, and 11. Section 8 also contains conclusions pertaining to programmatic operational satellite issues (prerequisite development strategies, the direct procurement of instruments by the government, protoflight mission, etc.). Sections 9, 10, and 11 address instrument, control system, image/navigation/registration, and other system design considerations and surveys. These sections are supported by the appendices in volume 2.

  19. Qualitative features of the evolution of some polar satellite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashkov'yak, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Two special cases of the problem of the secular perturbations in the orbital elements of a satellite with a negligible mass produced by the joint influence of the oblateness of the central planet and the attraction by its most massive (or main) satellites and the Sun are considered. These cases are among the integrable ones in the general nonintegrable evolution problem. The first case is realized when the plane of the satellite orbit and the rotation axis of the planet lie in its orbital plane. The second case is realized when the plane of the satellite orbit is orthogonal to the line of intersection between the equatorial and orbital planes of the planet. The corresponding particular solutions correspond to those polar satellite orbits for which the main qualitative features of the evolution of the eccentricity and pericenter argument are described here. Families of integral curves have been constructed in the phase plane of these elements for the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus.

  20. The effect of observation geometry on single-channel aerosol retrievals from geostationary satellites in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paronis, Dimitris; Hatzopoulos, John; Dulac, Francois

    2010-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing is nowadays used for aerosol monitoring on an operational basis via specially designed algorithms which are based on multidimensional data. The development of sensors suitable for aerosol monitoring, has given way to the implementation of algorithms for multispectral (e.g. MODIS, MERIS and SEVIRI sensors), hyper-spectral (e.g. CHRIS sensor), multi-angle (e.g. MISR and CHRIS sensors) and multi-polarization observations (e.g. POLDER sensor) both over ocean and land. These sensors have been providing data on a continuous basis for less than two decades (e.g. MODIS archived aerosol data are available since 2001), a period which cannot be considered adequate for studies related to global climate change. On the other hand, archived data from the first generation meteorological sensors such as AVHRR and MVIRI (aboard the NOAA and METEOSAT series satellites respectively) span a period of almost thirty years a fact that is challenging as regards re-processing of such data. In the past, single channel algorithms developed for operational AOD retrievals over oceans have been successfully applied with METEOSAT data (Moulin et al. 1997) and are still used on an operational basis in several cases for AVHRR (Ignatov et al. 2004), SEVIRI (Bridley & Ignatov 2006) and MODIS (Ignatov et al. 2006).One of the main limitations of such algorithms affecting the accuracy of the AOD retrievals is the need for a universal aerosol model. Such an approach although have led to accurate results in open oceanic areas it can be problematic in more complex environments such as the Mediterranean where multiple types of aerosol particles (i.e. desert dust, pollution aerosol and oceanic particles) are encountered (Myhre et al. 2005). In the present paper the expected accuracy of a single channel algorithm developed for the visible MVIRI band is assessed as a function of the aerosol model and the geometry of observation of the geostationary METEOSAT satellite. Two different aerosol models are used as candidate models corresponding to desert dust and water soluble particles encountered in the Mediterranean region. The theoretical simulations were based on radiative transfer computations performed with the 6S code. Results showed that that optimum geometries can be defined where the AOD error is minimized. The results are confirmed using Meteosat-6 data along with concurrent AERONET measurements from the Mediterranean. References Brindley, H, and A. Ignatov, 2006: Retrieval of mineral aerosol optical depth and size information from Meteosat Second Generation solar reflectance bands, Remote Sens. Env., 102, 344-363. Ignatov, A., Sapper, J., Laszlo, I., Nalli, N., and K. Kidwell, 2004: Operational Aerosol Observations (AEROBS) from AVHRR/3 onboard NOAA-KLM satellites. J.Atm.Ocean.Tech., 21, 3-26. Ignatov, A., Minnis, P., Miller, W., Wielicki, B., and L.Remer, 2006: Consistency of global MODIS Aerosol Optical Depths over ocean on Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets. J.Geophys.Res., 111, D14202. Moulin, C., Guillard, F. , Dulac, F. , and C. E. Lambert, 1997 : Long-term daily monitoring of Saharan dust load over ocean using Meteosat ISCCP-B2 data 1. Methodology and preliminary results for 1983-1994 in the Mediterranean, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 16,947-16,958. Myhre, G., Stordal, F., Johnsrud, M., Diner, D.J., Geogdzhayev, I.V., Haywood, J.M., Holben, B., Holzer-Popp, T., Ignatov, A., Kahn, R., Kaufman, Y.J., Loeb, N., Martonshik, J., Mishchenko, M.I., Nalli, N.R., Remer, L.A., Schroedter- Homscheidt, M., Tanré, D., Torres, O. and Want, M., 2005: Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000, Atmos Chem and Phys, 5, 1697-1719.

  1. Effects of the Satellite Power System on low Earth orbit and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, W. B.; Morrison, E. L.; Juroshek, J. R.

    1981-06-01

    The large amount of power contained in the main beam and principal sidelobes of the proposed Solar Power System (SPS), now under study by DOE and NASA, potentially presents an EMC problem for other satellite systems. This report examines selected geosynchronous orbit (GEO) satellites in adjacent slots to an SPS, GEO satellites on a chord passing an Earth horizon, and low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites which may pass throught the SPS power beam. Potential functional and operational impacts to on-board systems are analyzed. Mitigation techniques for SPS effects are examined, and recommendations summarized to allow satellites to operate satisfactorily in an SPS environment.

  2. A simple method to directly retrieve reference evapotranspiration from geostationary satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.

    2013-04-01

    Application of FAO-56 methodology for the assessment of reference evapotranspiration, ET0, is challenging in areas of the world with sparse meteorological network stations. For this reason alternative procedures using remotely observed data have been proposed in the literature. In this work, a simplified version of the Makkink approach [J. Inst. Wat. Eng. 11: 277-288, 1957] was tested in a typical Mediterranean environment (Sicily, Italy). The implemented Makkink approach (MAK) uses remotely estimated solar radiation derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data and in situ observations of air temperature to assess ET0 at daily time scale. Alternatively, taking advantage of well-defined relationships that exist between seasonality, elevation and air temperature, a deterministic procedure for estimating air temperature inputs used in the MAK approach (named RS) was also tested. This approach allows the assessment of daily ET0 without the need of auxiliary air temperature ground observations. A comparison between the FAO-56 and MAK approaches was performed for 45 sites in Sicily over the period 2007-2010. Assuming FA0-56 as the benchmark, the average accuracy of the MAK methodology was 0.4 mm d-1, with a relative error of 12%. Similar to other applications of the same procedure, the MAK approach showed a slightly underestimation of ET0 high values; however, an average regression slope of 0.96 (and negligible intercept) suggests a satisfactory agreement with the FAO-56 modeled values. Air temperature observations acquired during 2002-2006 were used to calibrate the deterministic relation between air temperature, seasonality (as a function of the DOY) and orography (as a function of elevation). For the period 2007-2010, the RS approach performs similarly to MAK, with an average difference of less than 0.05 mm d-1. Analysis of monthly, seasonal and yearly ET0 maps shows a slight decrease in RS performance during June and July; nevertheless, the differences between MAK and RS approaches are negligible at all analyzed temporal scales.

  3. Long range orbital error estimation for applications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonavito, N. L.; Foreman, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A method of optimum orbital averaging was employed to study the long range accuracy potential of polar orbiting applications satellites. This approach involved the determination of the boundary conditions of one set of differential equations of motion by adjusting the initial conditions in a least square sense with the use of data generated by another set of differential equations of motion.

  4. Orientation and resonance locks for satellites in the elliptic orbit.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1972-01-01

    In order to achieve the maximum strength of higher resonance locks for satellites in the elliptic orbit, the condition of satellite orientation during the process of deployment is established. It is shown that for maximum strength locks the axis of the minimum moment of inertia of satellites should point toward the attracting body at plus or minus (5/8) pi and 0 values of the true anomaly f. This condition of deployment is applicable to all cases of resonance rotation regardless of the value of lock number k and orbit eccentricity e.

  5. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natra, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The GeoFTS instrument is a half meter cube size instrument designed to operate in geostationary orbit as a secondary "hosted" payload on a commercial geostationary satellite mission. The advantage of GEO is the ability to continuously stare at a region of the earth, enabling frequent sampling to capture the diurnal variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental scales. The science goal is to obtain a process-based understanding of the carbon cycle from simultaneous high spatial resolution measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) many times per day in the near infrared spectral region to capture their spatial and temporal variations on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales. The GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design with a number of advanced features incorporated. Two of the most important advanced features are the focal plane arrays and the optical path difference mechanism. A breadboard GeoFTS instrument has demonstrated functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and IR in the laboratory and subsequently in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson overlooking the Los Angeles basin. A GeoFTS engineering model instrument is being developed which will make simultaneous visible and IR measurements under space flight like environmental conditions (thermal-vacuum at 180 K). This will demonstrate critical instrument capabilities such as optical alignment stability, interferometer modulation efficiency, and high throughput FPA signal processing. This will reduce flight instrument development risk and show that the GeoFTS design is mature and flight ready.

  6. Pluto Satellite Orbits in Support of New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We propose a sequence of observations that will significantlyimprove the orbit of P/2011 P1 and P/2012 P1 and provide useful improvementsto the orbits of other satellites in the Pluto system. The orbit determinationwork for the newest satellite discoveries are critically needed so thatNew Horizons can know where to point its instruments at close approach.These data will also be useful for improved mass constraints on the outersatellites as well as refining our knowledge of the photometric propertiesof all objects in the Pluto system. In particular, lightcurve and color evolution willbe monitored by these observations for use in constrainingmodels of seasonal evolution on Pluto.

  7. Orbit determination of Tance-1 satellite using VLBI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Hu, X. G.; Huang, C.; Jiang, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    On 30 December, 2003, China successfully launched the first satellite Tance-1 of Chinese Geospace Double Star Exploration Program, i.e. "Double Star Program (DSP)", on an improved Long March 2C launch vehicle. The Tance-1 satellite is operating at an orbit around the earth with a 550km perigee, 78000km apogee and 28.5 degree inclination.VLBI technique can track Tance-1 satellite or even far satellites such as lunar vehicles. To validate the VLBI technique in the on-going Chinese lunar exploration mission, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) organized to track the Tance-1 satellite with Chinese three VLBI stations: Shanghai, Kunming and Urumchi Orbit Determination (OD) of the Tance-1 satellite with about two days VLBI dada, and the capability of OD with VLBI data are studied. The results show that the VLBI-based orbit solutions improve the fit level over the initial orbit. The VLBI-delay-based orbit solution shows that the RMS of residuals of VLBI delay data is about 5.5m, and about 2.0cm/s for the withheld VLBI delay rate data. The VLBI-delay-rate-based orbit solution shows that the RMS of residuals of VLBI delay rate data is about 1.3cm/s, and about 29m for the withheld VLBI delay data. In the situation of orbit determination with VLBI delay and delay rate data with data sigma 5.5m and 1.3cm/s respectively, the RMS of residuals are 5.5,m and 2.0cm/s respectively. The simulation data assess the performance of the solutions. Considering the dynamic model errors of the Tance-1 satellite, the accuracy of the position is about km magnitude, and the accuracy of the velocity is about cm/s magnitude. The simulation work also show the dramatic accuracy improvement of OD with VLBI and USB combined.

  8. A Numerical Testbed for Remote Sensing of Aerosols, and its Demonstration for Evaluating Retrieval Synergy from a Geostationary Satellite Constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, together with a demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation. The testbed combines inverse (optimal-estimation) software with a forward model containing linearized code for computing particle scattering (for both spherical and non-spherical particles), a kernel-based (land and ocean) surface bi-directional reflectance facility, and a linearized radiative transfer model for polarized radiance. Calculation of gas absorption spectra uses the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption) database of spectroscopic line parameters and other trace species cross-sections. The outputs of the testbed include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements and their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol single scattering and physical parameters (such as size and shape parameters, refractive index, and plume height), but also DFS (Degree of Freedom for Signal) values for retrieval of these parameters. This testbed can be used as a tool to provide an objective assessment of aerosol information content that can be retrieved for any constellation of (planned or real) satellite sensors and for any combination of algorithm design factors (in terms of wavelengths, viewing angles, radiance and/or polarization to be measured or used). We summarize the components of the testbed, including the derivation and validation of analytical formulae for Jacobian calculations. Benchmark calculations from the forward model are documented. In the context of NASA's Decadal Survey Mission GEOCAPE (GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), we demonstrate the use of the testbed to conduct a feasibility study of using polarization measurements in and around the O2 A band for the retrieval of aerosol height information from space, as well as an to assess potential improvement in the retrieval of aerosol fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) through the synergic use of two future geostationary satellites, GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series) and TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution). Strong synergy between GEOS-R and TEMPO are found especially in their characterization of surface bi-directional reflectance, and thereby, can potentially improve the AOD retrieval to the accuracy required by GEO-CAPE.

  9. A numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, and its demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Ding, Shouguo; Zeng, Jing; Spurr, Robert; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Mishchenko, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We present a numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, together with a demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation. The testbed combines inverse (optimal-estimation) software with a forward model containing linearized code for computing particle scattering (for both spherical and non-spherical particles), a kernel-based (land and ocean) surface bi-directional reflectance facility, and a linearized radiative transfer model for polarized radiance. Calculation of gas absorption spectra uses the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption) database of spectroscopic line parameters and other trace species cross-sections. The outputs of the testbed include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements and their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol single scattering and physical parameters (such as size and shape parameters, refractive index, and plume height), but also DFS (Degree of Freedom for Signal) values for retrieval of these parameters. This testbed can be used as a tool to provide an objective assessment of aerosol information content that can be retrieved for any constellation of (planned or real) satellite sensors and for any combination of algorithm design factors (in terms of wavelengths, viewing angles, radiance and/or polarization to be measured or used). We summarize the components of the testbed, including the derivation and validation of analytical formulae for Jacobian calculations. Benchmark calculations from the forward model are documented. In the context of NASAs Decadal Survey Mission GEO-CAPE (GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), we demonstrate the use of the testbed to conduct a feasibility study of using polarization measurements in and around the O2A band for the retrieval of aerosol height information from space, as well as an to assess potential improvement in the retrieval of aerosol fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) through the synergic use of two future geostationary satellites, GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series) and TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution). Strong synergy between GEOS-R and TEMPO are found especially in their characterization of surface bi-directional reflectance, and thereby, can potentially improve the AOD retrieval to the accuracy required by GEO-CAPE.

  10. Orbit and clock determination of BDS regional navigation satellite system based on IGS M-GEX and WHU BETS tracking network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GENG, T.; Zhao, Q.; Shi, C.; Shum, C.; Guo, J.; Su, X.

    2013-12-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) began to provide the regional open service on December 27th 2012 and will provide the global open service by the end of 2020. Compared to GPS, the space segment of BDS Regional System consists of 5 Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), 5 Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and 4 Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. Since 2011, IGS Multiple-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) focuses on tracking the newly available GNSS signals. This includes all signals from the modernized satellites of the GPS and GLONASS systems, as well as signals of the BDS, Galileo and QZSS systems. Up to now, BDS satellites are tracked by around 25 stations with a variety of different antennas and receivers from different GNSS manufacture communities in M-GEX network. Meanwhile, there are 17 stations with Unicore Communications Incorporation's GPS/BDS receivers in BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) network by Wuhan University. In addition, 5 BDS satellites have been tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). BDS performance is expected to be further studied by the GNSS communities. Following an introduction of the BDS system and above different tracking network, this paper discusses the achieved BDS characterization and performance assessment. Firstly, the BDS signal and measurement quality are analyzed with different antennas and receivers in detail compared to GPS. This includes depth of coverage for satellite observation, carrier-to-noise-density ratios, code noise and multipath, carrier phase errors. Secondly, BDS Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is processed. Different arc lengths and sets of orbit parameters are tested using Position And Navigation Data Analysis software (PANDA) which is developed at the Wuhan University. GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites orbit quality will be assessed using overlap comparison, 2-day orbit fit and external validations with Satellite Laser Range (SLR). Then BDS satellites are equipped with Rubidium clocks and clocks performance are also presented. Finally, benefits of BDS processing strategies and further developments are concluded.

  11. Orbit determination and prediction for Beidou GEO satellites at the time of the spring/autumn equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, XiaoJie; Zhou, JianHua; Hu, XiaoGong; Liu, Li; Guo, Rui; Zhou, ShanShi

    2015-08-01

    Geostationary (GEO) satellites form an indispensable component of the constellation of Beidou navigation system (BDS). The ephemerides, or predicted orbits of these GEO satellites(GEOs), are broadcast to positioning, navigation, and timing users. User equivalent ranging error (UERE) based on broadcast message is better than 1.5 m (root formal errors: RMS) for GEO satellites. However, monitoring of UERE indicates that the orbital prediction precision is significantly degraded when the Sun is close to the Earth's equatorial plane (or near spring or autumn Equinox). Error source analysis shows that the complicated solar radiation pressure on satellite buses and the simple box-wing model maybe the major contributor to the deterioration of orbital precision. With the aid of BDS' two-way frequency and time transfer between the GEOs and Beidou time (BDT, that is maintained at the master control station), we propose a new orbit determination strategy, namely three-step approach of the multi-satellite precise orbit determination (MPOD). Pseudo-range (carrier phase) data are transformed to geometric range (biased geometric range) data without clock offsets; and reasonable empirical acceleration parameters are estimated along with orbital elements to account for the error in solar radiation pressure modeling. Experiments with Beidou data show that using the proposed approach, the GEOs' UERE when near the autumn Equinox of 2012 can be improved to 1.3 m from 2.5 m (RMS), and the probability of user equivalent range error (UERE)<2.0 m can be improved from 50% to above 85%.

  12. Cultures in orbit: Satellite technologies, global media and local practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Lisa Ann

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, satellite technologies have had a profound impact upon cultures around the world. "Cultures in Orbit" examines these seemingly disembodied, distant relay machines in relation to situated social and cultural processes on earth. Drawing upon a range of materials including NASA and UNESCO documents, international satellite television broadcasts, satellite 'development' projects, documentary and science fiction films, remote sensing images, broadcast news footage, World Wide Web sites, and popular press articles I delineate and analyze a series of satellite mediascapes. "Cultures in Orbit" analyzes uses of satellites for live television relay, surveillance, archaeology and astronomy. The project examines such satellite media as the first live global satellite television program Our World, Elvis' Aloha from Hawaii concert, Aboriginal Australian satellite programs, and Star TV's Asian music videos. In addition, the project explores reconnaissance images of mass graves in Bosnia, archaeological satellite maps of Cleopatra's underwater palace in Egypt, and Hubble Space Telescope images. These case studies are linked by a theoretical discussion of the satellite's involvement in shifting definitions of time, space, vision, knowledge and history. The satellite fosters an aesthetic of global realism predicated on instantaneous transnational connections. It reorders linear chronologies by revealing traces of the ancient past on the earth's surface and by searching in deep space for the "edge of time." On earth, the satellite is used to modernize and develop "primitive" societies. Satellites have produced new electronic spaces of international exchange, but they also generate strategic maps that advance Western political and cultural hegemony. By technologizing human vision, the satellite also extends the epistemologies of the visible, the historical and the real. It allows us to see artifacts and activities on earth from new vantage points; it allows us to read the surface of the earth as a text; and it enables us to see beyond the limits of human civilization and into the alien domain of deep space.

  13. PCW/PHEOS-WCA: quasi-geostationary Arctic measurements for weather, climate, and air quality from highly eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance, Richard L.; McConnell, John C.; McElroy, C. Tom; O'Neill, Norm; Nassar, Ray; Buijs, Henry; Rahnama, Peyman; Walker, Kaley; Martin, Randall; Sioris, Chris; Garand, Louis; Trichtchenko, Alexander; Bergeron, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The PCW (Polar Communications and Weather) mission is a dual satellite mission with each satellite in a highly eccentric orbit with apogee ~42,000 km and a period (to be decided) in the 12-24 hour range to deliver continuous communications and meteorological data over the Arctic and environs. Such as satellite duo can give 24×7 coverage over the Arctic. The operational meteorological instrument is a 21-channel spectral imager similar to the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The PHEOS-WCA (weather, climate and air quality) mission is intended as an atmospheric science complement to the operational PCW mission. The target PHEOS-WCA instrument package considered optimal to meet the full suite of science team objectives consists of FTS and UVS imaging sounders with viewing range of ~4.5° or a Field of Regard (FoR) ~ 3400×3400 km2 from near apogee. The goal for the spatial resolution at apogee of each imaging sounder is 10×10 km2 or better and the goal for the image repeat time is targeted at ~2 hours or better. The FTS has 4 bands that span the MIR and NIR with a spectral resolution of 0.25 cm-1. They should provide vertical tropospheric profiles of temperature and water vapour in addition to partial columns of many other gases of interest for air quality. The two NIR bands target columns of CO2, CH4 and aerosol optical depth (OD). The UVS is an imaging spectrometer that covers the spectral range of 280-650 nm with 0.9 nm resolution and targets the tropospheric column densities of O3 and NO2 and several other Air Quality (AQ) gases as well the Aerosol Index (AI).

  14. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  15. Optimal scheduling for satellite refuelling in circular orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Haijun

    The necessity of refuelling satellites arises from the idea of abandoning the current practice of replacing an existing satellite with a new one if the existing satellite is depleted of its onboard fuel. Being able to refuel satellites significantly reduces the cost in production, launching, and maintenance. This dissertation focuses on the scheduling issues arising from refuelling or servicing multiple satellites. The problem of refuelling a satellite constellation in a circular orbit in a given total time is considered primarily. Four major results are presented in this context. (1) An improvement has been developed to calculate the minimum-DeltaV fixed-time two-impulse rendezvous between two satellites in coplanar circular orbit using multiple-revolution Lambert's solution. In particular, a procedure is developed to quickly pick the minimum-DeltaV transfer orbit from multiple candidates. (2) Battin's formulation for solving Lambert's problem is extended so that it can be used to calculate the multiple-revolution solution. The basic idea is to reverse the order of the successive substitution described in Battin's method. (3) A solution to the scheduling problem of refuelling a satellite constellation with a single Refuelling Spacecraft (RSc) is obtained. First, given n satellites in a particular order and a total time, integer programming is used to obtain the minimum cost for the RSc to refuel these n satellites in the given order. A heuristic study is then conducted to determine the best refuelling sequence. It is found that the optimal refuelling sequence can be chosen from the sequences with the minimum total sweep angle. (4) Two variations of the peer-to-peer refuelling problem are studied. One problem assumes that the cost of rendezvous maneuvers between two satellites is negligible, and the other takes into consideration the rendezvous cost. Each of these problems is formulated and solved as a maximum-weight matching problem.

  16. High-resolution satellite imagery for mesoscale meteorological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David B.; Flament, Pierre; Bernstein, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In this article high-resolution satellite imagery from a variety of meteorological and environmental satellites is compared. Digital datasets from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Landsat, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellites were archived as part of the 1990 Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) and form the basis of the comparisons. During HaRP, GOES geostationary satellite coverage was marginal, so the main emphasis is on the polar-orbiting satellites.

  17. WARC and CCIR support for spectrum-orbit planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawitz, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Papers prepared for the use of the U.S. delegation to the 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference; papers contributed to the National CCIR study groups on broadcasting satellites and spectrum-orbit utilization; responses to specific requests for technical analyses and evaluations; and papers presented at technical conferences on related topics are presented. Nonlinear optimization methods for finding optimum positions of satellites in the fixed satellite service; the effects of geography on the use of the geostationary orbit; intercontinental orbit sharing; traffic coordination in interfering satellites operating in the fixed satellite service; and domestic fixed and broadcasting satellite systems are covered. A possible channel orbit plan for broadcasting satellite service in the U.S. and Canada; polarization for broadcasting satellite systems; and the communication capacity of the geostationary satellite orbit are also examined.

  18. Numerical orbit generators of artificial earth satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugar, H. K.; Dasilva, W. C. C.

    1984-04-01

    A numerical orbit integrator containing updatings and improvements relative to the previous ones that are being utilized by the Departmento de Mecanica Espacial e Controle (DMC), of INPE, besides incorporating newer modellings resulting from the skill acquired along the time is presented. Flexibility and modularity were taken into account in order to allow future extensions and modifications. Characteristics of numerical accuracy, processing quickness, memory saving as well as utilization aspects were also considered. User's handbook, whole program listing and qualitative analysis of accuracy, processing time and orbit perturbation effects were included as well.

  19. Tether de-orbiting of satellites at end of mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmartin, Juan R.; Sánchez-Torres, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    The accumulation of space debris around the Earth has become critical for Space security. The BETs project, financed by the European Commission through its FP7-Space program, is focusing on preventing generation of new debris by de-orbiting satellites at end of mission. The de-orbiting system considered, involving an electrodynamic bare tape-tether, uses no propellant and no power supply, while generating power for on-board use during de-orbiting. As an example, preliminary results are here presented on a specific orbit/satellite case: 1300 km altitude and 65 degrees inclination, and 500 kg mass. Design tether dimensions are 8 km length, 1.5 cm width, and 0.05 mm thickness; subsystem masses are limited to twice tether mass. Simple calculations, using orbit-averaging, solar mid-cycle phase, and ionospheric and geomagnetic field models, yield 2.6 months time for de-orbiting down to 200 km, with a probability of about 1 percent of debris cutting the tape. References: Sanmartin, J.R., Lorenzini, E.C., and Martinez-Sanchez, M., Electrodynamic Tether Applications and Constraints, J. Space. Rockets 47, 442-456, 2010. Sanmartin, J.R. et al., A universal system to de-orbit satellites at end of life, Journal of Space Technology and Science, to appear.

  20. Cassini orbit determination performance during the first eight orbits of the Saturn satellite tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, P. G.; Bordi, J. J.; Criddle, K. E.; Ionasescu, R.; Jacobson, R. A.; Jones, J. B.; MacKenzie, R. A.; Meek, M. C.; Pelletier, F. J.; Roth, D. C.; Roundhill, I. M.; Stauch, J.

    2005-01-01

    From June 2004 through July 2005, the Cassini/Huygens spacecraft has executed nine successful close-targeted encounters by three major satellites of the Saturnian system. Current results show that orbit determination has met design requirements for targeting encounters, Hugens descent, and predicting science instrument pointing for targetd satellite encounters. This paper compares actual target dispersion against, the predicte tour covariance analyses.

  1. Analysis of the angle-only orbit determination for optical tracking strategy of Korea GEO satellite, COMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin; Jo, Jung Hyun; Roh, Kyoung-Min; Son, Ju-Young; Kim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Young-Jun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Bang-Yeop; Park, Jang-Hyun; Pavlis, Erricos C.

    2015-09-01

    Increasing numbers of Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites have led to the requirement of accurate station keeping and precise orbit prediction to avoid collision between satellites. In the case of ground-based optical observation, angular resolution is better than other tracking systems, such as radar systems; however, the observation time of optical observation is limited by weather or lighting conditions. To develop an effective optical observation strategy, the optical observation campaign from January to February 2014 for Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) was conducted. Because COMS is a controlled satellite with station keeping manoeuvres performed twice a week, the observation results for 1- and 2-day observations were analysed. Sparse and sporadic cases for the sequential observation of multiple satellites and a dense case for the intensive observation of specific targets were assumed for the experiments. In the 1-day arc observation experiment, the estimated orbits for dense observation cases over 10% of the orbital period showed that the maximum difference was less than 40 km (station keeping area) for 7-day propagation compared to the estimation result using the whole 1-day measurement. For the 2-day arc observation, the orbit estimation difference could be maintained within 2 km using a more frequent observation than the 1-h interval for 13 h that was used in the sparse case. Additionally, the longitudinal and latitudinal positions via the estimation result using the optical observation were compared with the Two-Line Elements (TLEs) and operator's data. Through this study, an adequate optical tracking strategy was studied, and the possibility of cooperation with other systems was also validated.

  2. Satellite Imaging in the Study of Pennsylvania's Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nous, Albert P.

    This document focuses on using satellite images from space in the classroom. There are two types of environmental satellites routinely broadcasting: (1) Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), and (2) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). Imaging and visualization techniques provide students with a better…

  3. Mapping Daily Evapotranspiration at Field to Global Scales using Geostationary and Polar Orbiting Satellite Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST) provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetati...

  4. Satellite orbit determination - A first-hand experience with the first Brazilian satellite SCD1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuga, Helio K.; Kondapalli, Rama R.

    1993-10-01

    Under the Complete Brazilian Space Mission (MECB) project, the first Brazilian satellite SCDI was lofted on February 9, 1993 by a Pegasus rocket. This weather data collecting satellite was injected into a near-circular orbit of approximately 760 km altitude with an orbital inclination of 25 deg. The European Space Agency (ESA) kindly agreed to use their ground station facilities at Mas Palomas, Spain, to give tracking assistance to Brazil in the very first orbit of the satellite. However due to the failure of the clock in the launch vehicle, the Flight Mechanics group of INPE, Brazil, responsible for the flight dynamics software preparation and operation, had a great difficulty in determining the orbit at the injection point. This paper describes the difficulties faced by the group during that early phase, which critical decisions which had to be taken, how the hurdles were overcome, and how a very quick and good early orbit determination was achieved using the minimum data available.

  5. Orbit design and control of planetary satellite orbiters in the Hill 3-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possner, Marci Paskowitz

    The exploration of planetary satellites by robotic spacecraft is currently of strong scientific interest. However, sending a spacecraft to a planetary satellite can be challenging due to strong perturbations from the central planet. The primary goal of this dissertation is to identify and utilize the main dynamical features of the system in the orbit design process. The system is modeled using a modified form of Hill's 3-body problem, where the effect of the planetary satellite's gravity field is included in the low-altitude analysis. A thorough study of the dynamics of the system is performed by applying averaging theory to reduce the complexity and degrees of freedom of the system. The reduced system has one degree of freedom (DOF) and has equilibrium solutions called frozen orbits. These frozen orbits are first used as targets for transfers from capture trajectories in 'safe zones'. The 'safe zones' in phase space are numerically determined; they contain trajectories that enter the Hill region and allow an uncontrolled spacecraft to remain in orbit without impact or escape for specified time periods. Transfers from safe trajectories to frozen orbits are identified and criteria on their costs evaluated. Unstable low-altitude, near-polar frozen orbits are the basis for the design of long lifetime science orbits. The stable and unstable manifolds of these frozen orbits in the 1-DOF system are investigated and the desired path for long lifetime orbits is identified. An algorithm is developed to systematically compute initial conditions in the full system such that the orbits follow the desired path and have sufficiently long lifetimes to be practical as science orbits about planetary satellites. The analysis of the control of a planetary satellite orbiter begins with the evaluation of the effect of orbit uncertainty on the science orbits and the identification of criteria to ensure that the orbits have the desired behavior. Then, two control schemes are developed: (a) given the terminal conditions of a science orbit, redesign a new science orbit and execute a low-cost transfer to it, (b) return the spacecraft to its nominal trajectory via a two-sequence set of maneuvers.

  6. An autonomous orbit determination method for MEO and LEO satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jin; Yu, Guobin; Zhong, Jie; Lin, Ling

    2014-09-01

    A reliable and secure navigation system and assured autonomous capability of satellite are in high demand in case of emergencies in space. This paper introduces a novel autonomous orbit determination method for Middle-Earth-Orbit and Low-Earth-Orbit (MEO and LEO) satellite by observing space objects whose orbits are known. Generally, the geodetic satellites, such as LAGEOS and ETALONS, can be selected as the space objects here. The precision CCD camera on tracking gimbal can make a series of photos of the objects and surrounding stars when MEO and LEO satellite encounters the space objects. Then the information processor processes images and attains sightings and angular observations of space objects. Several clusters of such angular observations are incorporated into a batch least squares filter to obtain an orbit determination solution. This paper describes basic principle and builds integrated mathematical model. The accuracy of this method is analyzed by means of computer simulation. Then a simulant experiment system is built, and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. The experimental results show that this method can attain the accuracy of 150 meters with angular observations of 1 arcsecond system error.

  7. Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Andrew B.; Reasoner, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km.

  8. Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, A.B.; Reasoner, D.L. NASA, Washington, DC )

    1992-01-01

    The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km. 4 refs.

  9. On-Orbit Calibration of Satellite Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Radomski, Mark; Sedlak, Joseph; Harman, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In order to maneuver satellites accurately from one attitude to another, onboard rate sensing gyroscopes usually must be calibrated after launch. Several algorithms have been used to determine gyro biases, misalignments, and scale factors. This paper describes algorithms that have been used in the past, discusses their advantages and limitations, and describes a new algorithm and the gyro calibration results obtained using this new algorithm. The new algorithm has significant operational advantages in addition to being at least as accurate as other algorithms.

  10. Orbits design for LEO space based solar power satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addanki, Neelima Krishna Murthy

    2011-12-01

    Space Based Solar Power satellites use solar arrays to generate clean, green, and renewable electricity in space and transmit it to earth via microwave, radiowave or laser beams to corresponding receivers (ground stations). These traditionally are large structures orbiting around earth at the geo-synchronous altitude. This thesis introduces a new architecture for a Space Based Solar Power satellite constellation. The proposed concept reduces the high cost involved in the construction of the space satellite and in the multiple launches to the geo-synchronous altitude. The proposed concept is a constellation of Low Earth Orbit satellites that are smaller in size than the conventional system. 7For this application a Repeated Sun-Synchronous Track Circular Orbit is considered (RSSTO). In these orbits, the spacecraft re-visits the same locations on earth periodically every given desired number of days with the line of nodes of the spacecraft's orbit fixed relative to the Sun. A wide range of solutions are studied, and, in this thesis, a two-orbit constellation design is chosen and simulated. The number of satellites is chosen based on the electric power demands in a given set of global cities. The orbits of the satellites are designed such that their ground tracks visit a maximum number of ground stations during the revisit period. In the simulation, the locations of the ground stations are chosen close to big cities, in USA and worldwide, so that the space power constellation beams down power directly to locations of high electric power demands. The j2 perturbations are included in the mathematical model used in orbit design. The Coverage time of each spacecraft over a ground site and the gap time between two consecutive spacecrafts visiting a ground site are simulated in order to evaluate the coverage continuity of the proposed solar power constellation. It has been observed from simulations that there always periods in which s spacecraft does not communicate with any ground station. For this reason, it is suggested that each satellite in the constellation be equipped with power storage components so that it can store power for later transmission. This thesis presents a method for designing the solar power constellation orbits such that the number of ground stations visited during the given revisit period is maximized. This leads to maximizing the power transmission to ground stations.

  11. A refined orbit for the satellite of asteroid (107) Camilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajuelo, Myriam Virginia; Carry, Benoit; Vachier, Frederic; Berthier, Jerome; Descamp, Pascal; Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, Peter M.; Conrad, Al; Storrs, Alex; Margot, Jean-Luc; Marchis, Frank; Kervella, Pierre; Girard, Julien H.

    2015-11-01

    The satellite of the Cybele asteroid (107) Camilla was discovered in March 2001 using the Hubble Space Telescope (Storrs et al., 2001, IAUC 7599). From a set of 23 positions derived from adaptive optics observations obtained over three years with the ESO VLT, Keck-II and Gemini-North telescopes, Marchis et al. (2008, Icarus 196) determined its orbit to be nearly circular.In the new work reported here, we compiled, reduced, and analyzed observations at 39 epochs (including the 23 positions previously analyzed) by adding additional observations taken from data archives: HST in 2001; Keck in 2002, 2003, and 2009; Gemini in 2010; and VLT in 2011. The present dataset hence contains twice as many epochs as the prior analysis and covers a time span that is three times longer (more than a decade).We use our orbit determination algorithm Genoid (GENetic Orbit IDentification), a genetic based algorithm that relies on a metaheuristic method and a dynamical model of the Solar System (Vachier et al., 2012, A&A 543). The method uses two models: a simple Keplerian model to minimize the search-time for an orbital solution, exploring a wide space of solutions; and a full N-body problem that includes the gravitational field of the primary asteroid up to 4th order.The orbit we derive fits all 39 observed positions of the satellite with an RMS residual of only milli-arcseconds, which corresponds to sub-pixel accuracy. We found the orbit of the satellite to be circular and roughly aligned with the equatorial plane of Camilla. The refined mass of the system is (12 ± 1) x 10^18 kg, for an orbital period of 3.71 days.We will present this improved orbital solution of the satellite of Camilla, as well as predictions for upcoming stellar occultation events.

  12. TADPOLE satellite. [low cost synchronous orbit satellite to evaluate small mercury bombardment ion thruster applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A low cost synchronous orbit satellite to evaluate small mercury bombardment ion thruster applications is described. The ion thrusters provide the satellite with precise north-south and east-west stationkeeping capabilities. In addition, the thrusters are used to unload the reaction wheels used for attitude control and for other purposes described in the report. The proposed satellite is named TADPOLE. (Technology Application Demonstration Program of Low Energy).

  13. History of On-orbit Satellite Fragmentations (14th Edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Stansbery, Eugene; Whitlock, David O.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Shoots, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Since the first serious satellite fragmentation occurred in June 1961 (which instantaneously increased the total Earth satellite population by more than 400%) the issue of space operations within the finite region of space around the Earth has been the subject of increasing interest and concern. The prolific satellite fragmentations of the 1970s and the marked increase in the number of fragmentations in the 1980s served to widen international research into the characteristics and consequences of such events. Continued events in all orbits in later years make definition and historical accounting of those events crucial to future research. Large, manned space stations and the growing number of operational robotic satellites demand a better understanding of the hazards of the dynamic Earth satellite population.

  14. Evaluation and modeling of autonomous attitude thrust control for the Geostation Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forcey, W.; Minnie, C. R.; Defazio, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 experienced a series of orbital perturbations from autonomous attitude control thrusting before perigee raising maneuvers. These perturbations influenced differential correction orbital state solutions determined by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The maneuvers induced significant variations in the converged state vector for solutions using increasingly longer tracking data spans. These solutions were used for planning perigee maneuvers as well as initial estimates for orbit solutions used to evaluate the effectiveness of the perigee raising maneuvers. This paper discusses models for the incorporation of attitude thrust effects into the orbit determination process. Results from definitive attitude solutions are modeled as impulsive thrusts in orbit determination solutions created for GOES-8 mission support. Due to the attitude orientation of GOES-8, analysis results are presented that attempt to absorb the effects of attitude thrusting by including a solution for the coefficient of reflectivity, C(R). Models to represent the attitude maneuvers are tested against orbit determination solutions generated during real-time support of the GOES-8 mission. The modeling techniques discussed in this investigation offer benefits to the remaining missions in the GOES NEXT series. Similar missions with large autonomous attitude control thrusting, such as the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft and the INTELSAT series, may also benefit from these results.

  15. Japanese first optical interorbit communications engineering satellite (OICETS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Hori, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Takafumi; Nakagawa, Keizo

    1994-09-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) plans to conduct an optical inter-orbit ling experiment in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA). ESA will launch the ARTEMIS geostationary satellite equipped with the SILEX optical terminal. NASDA will launch the Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS) equipped with the LUCE optical inter-orbit communications equipment into low earth orbit. The link experiment will be conducted between these satellites with associated ground equipment in Europe and Japan.

  16. The Orbital Design of Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite (ACESat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, Sasha; Belikov, Rus; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet candidates discovered by Kepler are too distant for biomarkers to be detected with foreseeable technology. Alpha Centauri has high separation from other stars and is of close proximity to Earth, which makes the binary star system 'low hanging fruit' for scientists. Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite (ACESat) is a mission proposed to Small Explorer Program (SMEX) that will use a coronagraph to search for an orbiting planet around one of the stars of Alpha Centauri. The trajectory design for this mission is presented here where three different trajectories are considered: Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) and a Heliocentric Orbit. Uninterrupted stare time to Alpha Centauri is desirable for meeting science requirements, or an orbit that provides 90% stare time to the science target. The instrument thermal stability also has stringent requirements for proper function, influencing trajectory design.

  17. Application and analysis of satellite orbit prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The numerical accuracy of a satellite orbit computation program was investigated. The effects of roundoff and truncation errors on the solution were determined. New formulations that have the mean motion based on the total energy are compared to the more classical formulations and evaluated via numerical experiments.

  18. Microlensing planet detection via geosynchronous and low Earth orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogavero, F.; Beaulieu, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Planet detection through microlensing is usually limited by a well-known degeneracy in the Einstein timescale tE, which prevents mass and distance of the lens to be univocally determined. It has been shown that a satellite in geosynchronous orbit could provide masses and distances for most standard planetary events (tE ≈ 20 days) via a microlens parallax measurement. This paper extends the analysis to shorter Einstein timescales, tE ≈ 1 day, when dealing with the case of Jupiter-mass lenses. We then study the capabilities of a low Earth orbit satellite on even shorter timescales, tE ≈ 0.1 days. A Fisher matrix analysis is employed to predict how the 1-σ error on parallax depends on tE and the peak magnification of the microlensing event. It is shown that a geosynchronous satellite could detect parallaxes for Jupiter-mass free floaters and discover planetary systems around very low-mass brown dwarfs. Moreover, a low Earth orbit satellite could lead to the discovery of Earth-mass free-floating planets. Limitations to these results can be the strong requirements on the photometry, the effects of blending, and in the case of the low orbit, the Earth's umbra.

  19. Determination of the orbits of inner Jupiter satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdyushev, V. A.; Ban'shikova, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    Some problems in determining the orbits of inner satellites associated with the complex behavior of the target function, which is strongly ravine and which possesses multiple minima in the case of the satellite orbit is determined based on fragmentary observations distributed over a rather long time interval, are studied. These peculiarities of the inverse problems are considered by the example of the dynamics of the inner Jupiter satellites: Amalthea, Thebe, Adrastea, and Metis. Numerical models of the satellite motions whose parameters were determined based on ground-based observations available at the moment to date have been constructed. A composite approach has been proposed for the effective search for minima of the target function. The approach allows one to obtain the respective evaluations of the orbital parameters only for several tens of iterations even in the case of very rough initial approximations. If two groups of observations are available (Adrastea), a formal minimization of the target function is shown to give a solution set, which is the best solution from the point of view of representation of the orbital motion, which is impossible to choose. Other estimates are given characterizing the specific nature of the inverse problems.

  20. Orbits of the small inner satellites of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager images led to the discovery of the three small inner satellites of Jupiter, Adrastea, Metis, and Thebe. Attention is presently given to orbital parameter estimates and associated uncertainties that have been determined from Voyager imaging data, the achievable angular accuracy of which is about 0.00005 rad.

  1. An Earth Orbiting Satellite Service and Repair Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Andrew; Cardoza, Mike; Chen, John; Daley, Gunter; Frizzell, Andy; Linton, Richard; Rast, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design was produced for the Geosynchronous Satellite Servicing Platform (GSSP), an orbital facility capable of repairing and servicing satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The GSSP is a man-tended platform, which consists of a habitation module, operations module, service bay and truss assembly. This design review includes an analysis of life support systems, thermal and power requirements, robotic and automated systems, control methods and navigation, and communications systems. The GSSP will utilize existing technology available at the time of construction, focusing mainly on modifying and integrating existing systems. The entire facility, along with two satellite retrieval vehicles (SRV), will be placed in geosynchronous orbit by the Advanced Launch System. The SRV will be used to ferry satellites to and from the GSSP. Technicians will be transferred from Earth to the GSSP and back in an Apollo-derived Crew Transfer Capsule (CTC). These missions will use advanced telerobotic equipment to inspect and service satellites. Four of these missions are tentatively scheduled per year. At this rate, the GSSP will service over 650 satelites during the projected 25 year lifespan.

  2. Observations of orbital debris and satellites in Slovak Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silha, Jiri; Toth, Juraj

    There are many accidental optically tracked artificial objects during observations at Astronom-ical and Geophysical Observatory FMPI CU, Modra, Slovak Republic (AGO). Those objects are usually orbital debris or satellites. A tool to identify such a type of objects was necessary to create. Our software is called SatEph and is used to identify tracked artificial objects and to compute their orbital elements. SatEph is based on analytic propagation model SGP4 and TLE data. Program is still under development and in the near future it will be a part of software for automated search telescope for small near Earth asteroids at AGO. We present orbital debris observation simulation for the new optical searching system. Unlike other aster-oids searching systems (Catalina Sky Survey, LINEAR, Spacewatch etc.) our system should be capable to detect small asteroids in close vicinity of the Earth (smaller then Lunar distance) with high angular speed. The limiting magnitude of observable objects is about +16 magnitude and the pixel scale is 4,6 arcsec/px. This allows us to detect man made objects as well. We studied how many satellites and orbital debris with known orbital elements are able to track per given observing night. We also studied frequency detection of tracked object during one night. The searching system field of view will be 4.4 x 4.4 square degrees and the system will search more then 2000 square degrees per night. Exposure time for every single CCD shot is set to 30 seconds. We found out, there is possible to track from 250 to 450 objects (mostly with geosynchronous orbits) per one night in dependence on given day of the year. More then 200 objects have at least 3 astrometric positions per one night, which can be useful for orbit determination process. The tracked objects are mostly satellites and rocket bodies, which have different orbits, from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit. Data of orbital debris astrometric positions will be offered for national space agencies and used for our own orbit determination. Those data could be useful for orbital elements updating of catalogue, or non catalogue artificial objects.

  3. Near-optimal geostationary transfer maneuvers with cooperative en-route inspection using hybrid optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Daniel J.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2014-12-01

    This research investigates the performance of bi-level hybrid optimal control algorithms in the solution of minimum delta-velocity geostationary transfer maneuvers with cooperative en-route inspection. The maneuvers, introduced here for the first time, are designed to populate a geostationary constellation of space situational awareness satellites while providing additional characterization of objects in lower-altitude orbit regimes. The maneuvering satellite, called the chaser, performs a transfer from low Earth orbit to geostationary orbit, during which it performs an inspection of one of several orbiting targets in conjunction with a ground site for the duration of the target's line-of-site contact with that site. A three-target scenario is used to test the performance of multiple bi-level hybrid optimal control algorithms. A bi-level hybrid algorithm is then utilized to solve fifteen-, and thirty-target scenarios and shown to have increasing benefit to complete enumeration as the number of targets is increased. Results indicate that the en-route inspection can be accomplished for a small increase in the delta-velocity required for a simple transfer to geostationary orbit given the same initial conditions.

  4. Benefits Derived From Laser Ranging Measurements for Orbit Determination of the GPS Satellite Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2007-01-01

    While navigation systems for the determination of the orbit of the Global Position System (GPS) have proven to be very effective, the current research is examining methods to lower the error in the GPS satellite ephemerides below their current level. Two GPS satellites that are currently in orbit carry retro-reflectors onboard. One notion to reduce the error in the satellite ephemerides is to utilize the retro-reflectors via laser ranging measurements taken from multiple Earth ground stations. Analysis has been performed to determine the level of reduction in the semi-major axis covariance of the GPS satellites, when laser ranging measurements are supplemented to the radiometric station keeping, which the satellites undergo. Six ground tracking systems are studied to estimate the performance of the satellite. The first system is the baseline current system approach which provides pseudo-range and integrated Doppler measurements from six ground stations. The remaining five ground tracking systems utilize all measurements from the current system and laser ranging measurements from the additional ground stations utilized within those systems. Station locations for the additional ground sites were taken from a listing of laser ranging ground stations from the International Laser Ranging Service. Results show reductions in state covariance estimates when utilizing laser ranging measurements to solve for the satellite s position component of the state vector. Results also show dependency on the number of ground stations providing laser ranging measurements, orientation of the satellite to the ground stations, and the initial covariance of the satellite's state vector.

  5. Planning satellite communication services and spectrum-orbit utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawitz, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between approaches to planning satellite communication services and spectrum-orbit utilization is considered, with emphasis on the fixed-satellite and the broadcasting-satellite services. It is noted that there are several possible approaches to planning space services, differing principally in the rigidity with which technical parameters are prescribed, in the time for which a plan remains in force, and in the procedures adopted for implementation and modifications. With some planning approaches, spectrum-orbit utilization is fixed at the time the plan is made. Others provide for greater flexibility by making it possible to postpone some decisions on technical parameters. In addition, the two political questions of what is equitable access and how it can be guaranteed in practice play an important role.

  6. On-orbit checkout of satellites, volume 2. Part 3 of on-orbit checkout study. [space maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. I.

    1978-01-01

    Early satellite failures significantly degrading satellite operations are reviewed with emphasis on LANDSAT D, the Technology Demonstration Satellite, the ATREX/AEM spacecraft, STORMSAT 2, and the synchronous meteorological satellite. Candidates for correction with on-orbit checkout and appropriate actions are analyzed. On-orbit checkout subsystem level studies are summarized for electrical power, attitude control, thermal control, reaction control and propulsion, instruments, and angular rate matching for alignment of satellite IRU.

  7. Advances in precision orbit determination of GRACE satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettadpur, Srinivas; Save, Himanshu; Kang, Zhigui

    The twin Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites carry a complete suite of instrumentation essential for precision orbit determination (POD). Dense, continuous and global tracking is provided by the Global Positioning System receivers. The satellite orientation is measured using two star cameras. High precision measurements of non-gravitational accel-erations are provided by accelerometers. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors are used for collecting data for POD validation. Additional validation is provided by the highly precise K-Band ranging system measuring distance changes between the twin GRACE satellites. This paper presents the status of POD for GRACE satellites. The POD quality will be vali-dated using the SLR and K-Band ranging data. The POD quality improvement from upgraded modeling of the GPS observations, including the transition to the new IGS05 standards, will be discussed. In addition, the contributions from improvements in the gravity field modeling -partly arising out of GRACE science results -will be discussed. The aspects of these improve-ments that are applicable for the POD of other low-Earth orbiting satellites will be discussed as well.

  8. GIST-PM-Asia v1: development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Park, M. E.; Han, K. M.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; Ghim, Y. S.; Woo, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    To improve short-term particulate matter (PM) forecasts in South Korea, the initial distribution of PM composition, particularly over the upwind regions, is primarily important. To prepare the initial PM composition, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) which covers a part of Northeast Asia (113-146° E; 25-47° N), were used. Although GOCI can provide a higher number of AOD data in a semicontinuous manner than low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite sensors, it still has a serious limitation in that the AOD data are not available at cloud pixels and over high-reflectance areas, such as desert and snow-covered regions. To overcome this limitation, a spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method was used to better prepare the initial AOD distributions that were converted into the PM composition over Northeast Asia. One of the largest advantages in using the STK method in this study is that more observed AOD data can be used to prepare the best initial AOD fields compared with other methods that use single frame of observation data around the time of initialization. It is demonstrated in this study that the short-term PM forecast system developed with the application of the STK method can greatly improve PM10 predictions in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) when evaluated with ground-based observations. For example, errors and biases of PM10 predictions decreased by ˜ 60 and ˜ 70 %, respectively, during the first 6 h of short-term PM forecasting, compared with those without the initial PM composition. In addition, the influences of several factors on the performances of the short-term PM forecast were explored in this study. The influences of the choices of the control variables on the PM chemical composition were also investigated with the composition data measured via PILS-IC (particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography) and low air-volume sample instruments at a site near Seoul. To improve the overall performances of the short-term PM forecast system, several future research directions were also discussed and suggested.

  9. Orbital simulations of satellite escape/capture and the origin of satellites such as Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Lance A. M.; Mckinnon, William B.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate satellite escape/capture in the context of the restricted, circular three body problem as applied to the Sun, Neptune, and Triton. We have computed a large number of coplanar prograde and retrograde orbital simulations over a range of initial distances and velocities. The satellite starts at superior conjunction within approximately 2 Hill radii of Neptune and has a velocity orthogonal to the Sun-planet line. Orbits with these initial conditions can be reflected with respect to time, so an escape is simply the reverse of a capture. We numerically integrate the equations of motion to compute the satellite's position until it escapes, collides with Neptune, or after 100 planetary years fails to escape, when computations cease. The initial distance x and velocity v in the restricted problem uniquely define the Jacobi constant C, a conserved energy-like quantity. Plots of the simulation outcomes in the prograde and retrograde C, x phase spaces reveal distinct zones in which temporary satellites approach the planet closely enough that permanent capture can be effected by gas drag with a protoplanetary nebula or by collision with a pre-existing satellite. Single and double close-flybys constitute the most common possible capture orbits. Long term multiple flyby orbits occur near the stability limits between bound and unbound orbits, and are more common among retrograde captures.

  10. On-Orbit Calibration of a Multi-Spectral Satellite Satellite Sensor Using a High Altitude Airborne Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. O.; Shimada, M.

    1996-01-01

    Earth-looking satellites must be calibrated in order to quantitatively measure and monitor components of land, water and atmosphere of the Earth system. The inevitable change in performance due to the stress of satellite launch requires that the calibration of a satellite sensor be established and validated on-orbit. A new approach to on-orbit satellite sensor calibration has been developed using the flight of a high altitude calibrated airborne imaging spectrometer below a multi-spectral satellite sensor.

  11. Control System and Flexible Satellite Interaction During Orbit Transfer Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Adenilson Roberto; GadelhadeSouza, Luiz Carlos

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the interaction between the attitude control system and the flexible structure of an artificial satellite during orbit transfer maneuver has been investigated. The satellite was modeled by a rigid central body with one or more flexible appendages. The dynamics equations were obtained by Lagrangean approach. The flexible appendages were treated as clamped-free beam and its displacement was discretized by assumed- mode method. In order to transfer the satellite, a typical Hohmann transfer and a burn-coast-burn strategy were used and the attitude was controlled by an on-off controller. During transfer procedure a global analysis of satellite has been done, such as: performance of control system, influence of elastic response in control system, thruster firing frequency, fuel consumption and variation of orbital elements. In order to avoid the interaction with structure motion, a control system with bandwidth of one decade bellow the fundamental frequency was used. In the simulations the firing frequency was evaluated in an approximately way but kept below the fundamental frequency of the structure. The control system has kept the attitude below the specifications. As a result, the orbit transfer maneuvering has been done correctly without excessive excitation of flexible appendage.

  12. NASA Now: Orbital Mechanics: Earth Observing Satellites - Duration: 6 minutes, 3 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This NASA Now program is all about satellites and their orbits. Dr. James Gleason, project scientist for NPP, explains what it takes for a satellite to stay in orbit, why there are different types ...

  13. Galileo satellites measurement biases and orbit determination : preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perosanz, Felix; Loyer, Sylvain; Mercier, Flavien; Boulanger, Cyrille; Capdeville, Hugues; Mezerette, Adrien

    2013-04-01

    Thanks to the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX), signals from new GNSS satellites like Galileo are now available. CNES and IGN joined their efforts to contribute to the densification of this multi-GNSS global network through the REGINA project. However this network includes geodetic receivers from several manufacturers. For this reason we realized a dedicated test campaign to characterize the different receivers available in order to be able to process in a consistent way the data from the MGEX network. The test consisted in zero baseline measurements between receivers. Pseudo range as well as phase and wide-lane biases have been identified between Trimble, Leica, Javad and Septentrio receivers. Then the data from the global M-GEX tracking network have been processed for the Precise Orbit determination (POD) of the Galileo satellite. The strategy followed the one that the CNES-CLS IGS Analysis Center uses to compute hybrid GPS-GLONASS products. Since July 2012, Galileo data are processed and orbit solutions are routinely produced and evaluated. Pseudo-range and phase biases between receiver as well as inter-system biases have been quantified. We also demonstrated that a sub-decimeter 3D-WRMS orbit accuracy of Galileo satellite orbit can be achieved even during the constellation deployment.

  14. Galileo satellites measurement biases and orbit determination: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perosanz, F.; Loyer, S.; Mercier, F.; Boulanger, C.; Capdeville, H.; Mezerette, A.

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX), signals from new GNSS satellites like Galileo are now available. CNES and IGN joined their efforts to contribute to the densification of this multi-GNSS global network through the REGINA project. However this network includes geodetic receivers from several manufacturers. For this reason we realized a dedicated test campaign to characterize the different receivers available in order to be able to process in a consistent way the data from the MGEX network. The test consisted in zero baseline measurements between receivers. Pseudo range as well as phase and wide-lane biases have been identified between Trimble, Leica, Javad and Septentrio receivers. Then the data from the global M-GEX tracking network have been processed for the Precise Orbit determination of the Galileo satellite. The strategy followed the one that the CNES-CLS IGS Analysis Center uses to compute hybrid GPS-GLONASS products. Since July 2012, Galileo data are processed and orbit solutions are routinely produced and evaluated. Pseudo-range and phase biases between receiver as well as inter-system biases have been quantified. We also demonstrated that a decimeter 3D-WRMS orbit accuracy of Galileo satellite orbit can be achieved even during the constellation deployment.

  15. Measurement of total electron content of midlatitude ionosphere and protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group relay techniques using transmission from geostationary satellites ATS-3 and ATS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of integrated columnar electron content and total electron content for the local ionosphere and the overlying protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group delay techniques has proven very useful. A field station was established having the geographic location of 31.5 deg N latitude and 91.06 deg W longitude to accomplish these objectives. A polarimeter receiving system was set up in the beginning to measure the Faraday rotation of 137.35 MHz radio signal from geostationary satellite ATS 3 to yield the integrated columnar electron content of the local ionosphere. The measurement was continued regularly, and the analysis of the data thus collected provided a synopsis of the statistical variation of the ionosphere along with the transient variations that occurred during the periods of geomagnetic and other disturbances.

  16. Evaluation of Temperature and Material Combinations on Several Lubricants for Use in the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Mission Filter Wheel Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2001-01-01

    A bearing test apparatus was used to investigate lubricant degradation rates and elastohydrodynamic transition temperatures for several perfluoropolyether (Krytox) formulations, a pentasilahydrocarbon, and a synthetic hydrocarbon (Pennzane 2001 A) in an MPB 1219 bearing, which is used in the geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) mission filter wheel assembly. Test conditions were the following: 1000-hr duration, 75 C, 20 lb axial load, vacuum level less than 1 x 10(exp -6) Torr, and a 600-rpm rotational speed. Baseline tests were performed using unformulated Krytox 143AB, the heritage lubricant. Krytox additive formulations showed small reductions in degradation rate. Krytox GPL-105, a higher viscosity version, yielded the least amount of degradation products. Both the silahydrocarbon and Pennzane 2001A showed no signs of lubricant degradation and had ample amounts of free oil at test conclusion.

  17. Use of elliptical orbits for a Ka-band personal access satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud; Estabrook, Polly

    1990-01-01

    The use of satellites in elliptical orbits for a Ka-band personal communications system application designed to provide voice and data service within the continental U.S. is examined. The impact of these orbits on system parameters such as signal carrier-to-noise ratio, roundtrip delay, Doppler shift, and satellite antenna size is quantized for satellites in two elliptical orbits, the Molniya and the ACE orbits. The number of satellites necessary for continuous CONUS coverage has been determined for the satellites in these orbits. The increased system complexity brought about by the use of satellites at such altitudes is discussed.

  18. High-orbit satellite magnitude estimation using photometric measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shixue

    2015-12-01

    The means to get the accurate high-orbit satellite magnitude can be significant in space target surveillance. This paper proposes a satellite photometric measurement method based on image processing. We calculate the satellite magnitude by comparing the output value of camera's CCD between the known fixed star and the satellite. We calculate the luminance value of a certain object on the acquired image using a background-removing method. According to the observation parameters such as azimuth, elevation, height and the situation of the telescope, we can draw the star map on the image, so we can get the real magnitude of a certain fixed star in the image. We derive a new method to calculate the magnitude value of a certain satellite according to the magnitude of the fixed star in the image. To guarantee the algorithm's stability, we evaluate the measurement precision of the method, and analysis the restrict condition in actual application. We have made plenty of experiment of our system using large telescope in satellite surveillance, and testify the correctness of the algorithm. The experimental result shows that the precision of the proposed algorithm in satellite magnitude measurement is 0.24mv, and this method can be generalized to other relative fields.

  19. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite Now Operating in an Inclined Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system has been modified to support operation in an inclined orbit that is virtually transparent to users, and plans are to continue this final phase of its operation through September 2000. The next 2 years of ACTS will provide a new opportunity for using the technologies that this system brought online over 5 years ago and that are still being used to resolve the technical issues that face NASA and the satellite industry in the area of seamless networking and interoperability with terrestrial systems. New goals for ACTS have been defined that align the program with recent changes in NASA and industry. ACTS will be used as a testbed to: Show how NASA and other Government agencies can use commercial systems for 1. future support of their operations Test, characterize, and resolve technical issues in using advanced communications 2. protocols such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) over long latency links as found when interoperating satellites with terrestrial systems Evaluate narrow-spot-beam Ka-band satellite operation in an inclined orbit 3. Verify Ka-band satellite technologies since no other Ka-band system is yet 4. available in the United States

  20. The Orbits and Masses of Pluto's Satellites after New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Robert A.; Brozovic, Marina; Buie, Marc; Porter, Simon; Showalter, Mark; Spencer, John; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold; Young, Leslie; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Cathy

    2015-11-01

    Brozović et al. (2015 Icarus 246, 317) reported on Pluto's mass and the masses and numerically integrated orbits of Pluto's satellites, Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx. These were determined via a fit to an extensive set of astrometric, mutual event, and stellar occultation observations over the time interval April 1965 to July 2012. The data set contained the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Charon relative to Pluto that were corrected for the Pluto center-of-figure center-of-light offset due to the Pluto albedo variations (Buie et al. 2012 AJ 144, 15). Also included were all of the available HST observations of Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx. For the New Horizons encounter with the Pluto system, the initial satellite ephemerides (PLU043) and the initial planet and satellite masses were taken from the Brozović et al. analysis. During the New Horizons approach, the ephemerides and masses were periodically updated along with the spacecraft trajectory by the New Horizons navigation team using imaging of the planet and satellites against the stellar background. In this work, we report on our post-flyby analysis of the masses and satellite orbits derived from a combination of the original PLU043 data set, the New Horizions imaging data, and HST observations acquired after 2012.

  1. Analysis of Satellite and Sub-Orbital Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James (Technical Monitor); Martin, Randall V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is to support the INTEX aircraft mission by developing experience in the integrated analysis of existing sub-orbital observations and satellite observations with numerical models. Specific tasks include providing guidance to INTEX by identifying discrepancies in satellite observations with (1) in situ measurements, (2) bottom-up emission inventories of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, and (3) model calculations of the export of pollution from North America to the global atmosphere. An important focus area is developing and improving bottom-up emission inventories by combining top-down and bottom-up information.

  2. Shuttle orbiter - IUS/DSP satellite interface contamination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R. O.; Strange, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a contamination analysis on the Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite during launch and deployment by the Space Transportation System (STS) are presented. Predicted contaminant deposition was also included on critical DSP surfaces during the period soon after launch when the DSP is in the shuttle orbiter bay with the doors closed, the bay doors open, and during initial deployment. Additionally, a six sided box was placed at the spacecraft position to obtain directional contaminant flux information for a general payload while in the bay and during deployment. The analysis included contamination sources from the shuttle orbiter, IUS and cradle, the DSP sensor and the DSP support package.

  3. A method for capturing asteroids into earth satellite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledkov, A. A.; Eismont, N. A.; Nazirov, R. R.; Boyarsky, M. N.

    2015-08-01

    At present, the capture of a suitable asteroid into an Earth satellite orbit is proposed as one of the methods for investigating asteroids within the framework of manned missions. Once the asteroid has been transferred to such an orbit, an expedition with the participation of astronauts is planned to the asteroid surface, where research is carried out and asteroid rock samples are selected and subsequently delivered to the Earth. It is in this way that the American Keck project is described at the current planning and preliminary design stage. In this paper, we solve the capture problem by a method alternative to that planned in the Keck project.

  4. A Study on the Strategies of the Positioning of a Satellite on Observed Images by the Astronomical Telescope and the Observation and Initial Orbit Determination of Unidentified Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin; Jo, Jung Hyun; Choi, Young-Jun; Cho, Gi-In; Kim, Jae-Hyuk; Bae, Young-Ho; Yim, Hong-Suh; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    An optical tracking system has advantages for observing geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites relatively over other types of observation system. Regular surveying for unidentified space objects with the optical tracking system can be an early warning tool for the safety of five Korean active GEO satellites. Two strategies of positioning on the observed image of Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite 1 are tested and compared. Photometric method has a half root mean square error against streak method. Also null eccentricity method for initial orbit determination (IOD) is tested with simulation data and real observation data. Under 10 minutes observation time interval, null eccentricity method shows relatively better IOD results than the other time interval. For follow-up observation of unidentified space objects, at least two consecutive observations are needed in 5 minutes to determine orbit for geosynchronous orbit space objects.

  5. The accuracy of orbit estimation for the low-orbit satellites LARETS and WESTPAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowska, Milena

    The LARETS satellite was launched on September 26, 2004, into a circular orbit at an altitude of 690 km and with an inclination of 98.2°. This mission is a successor to the WESTPAC satellite which was launched to an altitude of 835 km six years before. The study is based on the observations taken by the global network of laser stations during the period from December 30, 2003 to March 17, 2004 for LARETS. This study is aimed at the precise orbit computation of LARETS. The experience acquired during the orbit estimation of WESTPAC was applied to the orbit investigation of LARETS. The WESTPAC was merely used for reference and initial parameters of the force model [Rutkowska, M., Noomenn, R., Global orbit analysis of the satellite WESTPAC, Adv. Space Res., 30(2), 265-270, 2002]. The orbit of LARETS was estimated with an rms-of-fit to the SLR measurements of 3.9 cm, using the following computation model: the CSR TEG-4 gravity field up to degree and order (200,200), the Ray tide model, the MSIS86 model for atmospheric density [Hedin, A.E., MSIS-86 Thermospheric Model, J. Geophys. Res., 92 (A5), 4649-4662, 1987], and the solution of 8-hourly CD-values. It has been verified that the modeling of the gravity field up to degree and order (100,100) which gives the same rms-of-fit value. Estimated orbits for both satellites are compared to each other in Fig. 2. All computations are performed with the NASA program GEODYN II [Eddy, W.F, McCarthy, J.J., Pavlis, D.E., Marshall, J.A., Luthce, S.B., Tsaoussi, L.S., GEODYN II System Operations Manual, vol. 1-5, ST System Corp., Lanham MD, USA, 1990].

  6. In-Space Transportation for GEO Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donnahue, Benjamin B.; Henley, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes results of study tasks to evaluate design options for in-space transportation of geostationary Space Solar Power Satellites. Referring to the end-to-end architecture studies performed in 1988, this current activity focuses on transportation of Sun Tower satellite segments from an initial low Earth orbit altitude to a final position in geostationary orbit (GEO; i.e., 35,786 km altitude, circular, equatorial orbit). This report encompasses study activity for In-Space Transportation of GEO Space Solar Power (SSP) Satellites including: 1) assessment of requirements, 2) design of system concepts, 3) comparison of alternative system options, and 4) assessment of potential derivatives.

  7. ROSETTA mission: satellite orbits around a cometary nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Marzari, F.; Tomasella, L.; Vanzani, V.

    1998-02-01

    This paper discusses the problem of orbiting a comet nucleus from a perspective of orbital stability. The main forces perturbing the motion of the spacecraft around the comet: shape and rotation rate of the nucleus, comet outgassing, solar radiation pressure; are derived and quantified for the nominal case of the ROSETTA spacecraft at the comet Wirtanen. Their effects on the stability of the spacecraft orbit are analyzed in detail and orbital stability criteria are developed analytically. These criteria have been tested numerically, for select cases of interest, integrating the spacecraft orbit about a Wirtanen model constructed from mascons (mass concentrations at a point). This numerical model allows very irregular nucleus shapes to be modelled accurately if a large number of point masses is used. The stability criteria derived in this paper denote stability of the spacecraft against crashing onto the comet surface or escaping from the comet on a hyperbolic orbit. They are developed and applied only over the relatively short time scales that are of interest to a spacecraft mission. The stability criteria are expressed in terms of minimum periapsis radii for stability against the non-spherical gravitational field, in terms of maximum semi-major axis for stability against escape due to the solar radiation pressure, and in terms of preferred planes and orbit elements of a spacecraft orbit for stability against the combined non-gravitational forces of comet outgassing and solar radiation pressure. For orbits close to an irregular body the gravity perturbations are minimized, and orbital stability achieved, if the periapsis radius is above five mean comet radii if the inclination is close to 0° and above three mean comet radii if inclinations are between 90 and 180° with respect to the comet rotation pole. When considering the combined solar radiation pressure and comet outgassing forces, stable orbits can be found which "freeze" the orbit geometry with respect to the rotating reference frame defined along the comet-sun line. The dependence of these stability criteria on the comet model parameters is discussed. The analysis in this paper is general enough to be applicable to a wide range of orbital cases, including spacecraft orbits about asteroids and natural satellites about comets and asteroids.

  8. Orbital Perturbations of the Galilean Satellites during Planetary Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Nesvorn, David; Vokrouhlick, David; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    The Nice model of the dynamical instability and migration of the giant planets can explain many properties of the present solar system, and can be used to constrain its early architecture. In the jumping-Jupiter version of the Nice model, required from the terrestrial planet constraint and dynamical structure of the asteroid belt, Jupiter has encounters with an ice giant. Here, we study the survival of the Galilean satellites in the jumping-Jupiter model. This is an important concern because the ice-giant encounters, if deep enough, could dynamically perturb the orbits of the Galilean satellites and lead to implausible results. We performed numerical integrations where we tracked the effect of planetary encounters on the Galilean moons. We considered three instability cases from Nesvorn & Morbidelli that differed in the number and distribution of encounters. We found that in one case, where the number of close encounters was relatively small, the Galilean satellite orbits were not significantly affected. In the other two, the orbital eccentricities of all moons were excited by encounters, Callisto's semimajor axis changed, and, in a large fraction of trials, the Laplace resonance of the inner three moons was disrupted. The subsequent evolution by tides damps eccentricities and can recapture the moons in the Laplace resonance. A more important constraint is represented by the orbital inclinations of the moons, which can be excited during the encounters and not appreciably damped by tides. We find that one instability case taken from Nesvorn & Morbidelli clearly does not meet this constraint. This shows how the regular satellites of Jupiter can be used to set limits on the properties of encounters in the jumping-Jupiter model, and help us to better understand how the early solar system evolved.

  9. Orbital perturbations of the Galilean satellites during planetary encounters

    SciTech Connect

    Deienno, Rogerio; Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    The Nice model of the dynamical instability and migration of the giant planets can explain many properties of the present solar system, and can be used to constrain its early architecture. In the jumping-Jupiter version of the Nice model, required from the terrestrial planet constraint and dynamical structure of the asteroid belt, Jupiter has encounters with an ice giant. Here, we study the survival of the Galilean satellites in the jumping-Jupiter model. This is an important concern because the ice-giant encounters, if deep enough, could dynamically perturb the orbits of the Galilean satellites and lead to implausible results. We performed numerical integrations where we tracked the effect of planetary encounters on the Galilean moons. We considered three instability cases from Nesvorný and Morbidelli that differed in the number and distribution of encounters. We found that in one case, where the number of close encounters was relatively small, the Galilean satellite orbits were not significantly affected. In the other two, the orbital eccentricities of all moons were excited by encounters, Callisto's semimajor axis changed, and, in a large fraction of trials, the Laplace resonance of the inner three moons was disrupted. The subsequent evolution by tides damps eccentricities and can recapture the moons in the Laplace resonance. A more important constraint is represented by the orbital inclinations of the moons, which can be excited during the encounters and not appreciably damped by tides. We find that one instability case taken from Nesvorný and Morbidelli clearly does not meet this constraint. This shows how the regular satellites of Jupiter can be used to set limits on the properties of encounters in the jumping-Jupiter model, and help us to better understand how the early solar system evolved.

  10. Prototype development of a Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer, GeoSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, A. B.; Wilson, W. J.; Kangaslahti, P. P.; Lambrigsten, B. H.; Dinardo, S. J.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Ruf, C. S.; Rogacki, S.; Gross, S. M.; Musko, S.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary details of a 2-D synthetic aperture radiometer prototype operating from 50 to 55 GHz will be presented. The laboratory prototype is being developed to demonstrate the technologies and system design needed to do millimeter-wave atmospheric soundings with high spatial resolution from Geostationary orbit. The concept is to deploy a large thinned aperture Y-array on a geostationary satellite, and to use aperture synthesis to obtain images of the Earth without the need for a large mechanically scanned antenna. The laboratory prototype consists of a Y-array of 24 horn antennas, MMIC receivers, and a digital cross-correlation sub-system.

  11. The enigma of the Uranian satellites' orbital eccentricities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. W.; Reynolds, R. T.; Lissauer, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The eccentricity decay times for the Uranian satellites are calculated using recent observations (Brown et al., 1982) of the diameters and orbital elements of the satellites and assuming reasonable dissipation functions and rigidities for icy satellites. For the outer two satellites, Titania and Oberon, the decay times are found to be very long, whereas the inner three satellites, Miranda, Ariel, and Umbriel, have decay times on the order of 10 to the 7th to 10 to the 8th years and have a near-commensurability in their mean motions that cannot force their eccentricities. There are several possible solutions for the lack of resonant forcing: (1) the reported eccentricities are incorrect, and are very nearly zero, (2) the reported mean motions are incorrect, and an exact commensurability exists, (3) the physical properties assumed for the satellites are grossly in error, and (4) the system is evolving rapidly, perhaps from a previous state of higher eccentricity. A new lower bound of about 17,000 on the dissipation function of Uranus is calculated from the mass of Ariel and its proximity to Uranus.

  12. Tracking target objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    DOEpatents

    De Vries, Willem H; Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J

    2014-10-14

    A system for tracking objects that are in earth orbit via a constellation or network of satellites having imaging devices is provided. An object tracking system includes a ground controller and, for each satellite in the constellation, an onboard controller. The ground controller receives ephemeris information for a target object and directs that ephemeris information be transmitted to the satellites. Each onboard controller receives ephemeris information for a target object, collects images of the target object based on the expected location of the target object at an expected time, identifies actual locations of the target object from the collected images, and identifies a next expected location at a next expected time based on the identified actual locations of the target object. The onboard controller processes the collected image to identify the actual location of the target object and transmits the actual location information to the ground controller.

  13. An Intensive Research of Satellite Orbit Theory and Application in Orbit Determination, Forecast and Parameter Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. S.

    2011-03-01

    It has been over half a century since the launch of the first artificial satellite Sputnik in 1957, which marks the beginning of the Space Age. During the past 50 years, with the development and innovations in various fields and technologies, satellite application has grown more and more intensive and extensive. This thesis is based on three major research projects which the author joined in. These representative projects cover main aspects of satellite orbit theory and application of precise orbit determination (POD), and also show major research methods and important applications in orbit dynamics. Chapter 1 is an in-depth research on analytical theory of satellite orbits. This research utilizes general transformation theory to acquire high-order analytical solutions when mean-element method is not applicable. These solutions can be used in guidance and control or rapid orbit forecast within the accuracy of 10-6. We also discuss other major perturbations, each of which is considered with improved models, in pursuit of both convenience and accuracy especially when old models are hardly applicable. Chapter 2 is POD research based on observations. Assuming a priori force model and estimation algorithm have reached their accuracy limits, we introduce empirical forces to Shenzhou-type orbit in order to compensate possible unmodeled or mismodeled perturbations. Residuals are analyzed first and only empirical force models with actual physical background are considered. This not only enhances a posteriori POD accuracy, but also considerably improves the accuracy of orbit forecast. This chapter also contains theoretical discussions on modeling of empirical forces, computation of partial derivatives and propagation of various errors. Error propagation helps to better evaluate orbital accuracy in future missions. Chapter 3 is an application of POD in space geodesy. GRACE satellites are used to obtain Antarctic temporal gravity field between 2004 and 2007. Various changes from traditional methods are implemented to better represent the regional temporal gravity field in this work. As a thesis in astrodynamics, this chapter will concentrate on orbit problems and estimation approaches. Although most details in geophysics are skipped, gravity field solutions will be displayed and the preliminary images of Antarctic mass flux will be revealed. These researches are summarized but not concluded in this thesis. Many problems have been left in all the aspects mentioned in this thesis and need to be studied in future researches, not to mention that the fast developing space technology keeps redefining our traditional knowledge with new concepts and elements. So future work and directions will be discussed at the end of the thesis, expecting further progress upon the present achievements.

  14. Evaluation of IGS Orbits with Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Yuan, D. N.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy with which orbits for the Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft, can be computed directly affects the accuracy of the resulting site coordinates and polar motion. Several groups routinely analyze GPS ground tracking data to compute precise orbits and terrestrial reference frame solutions. In this paper, we infer the accuracy of the orbits of two of the GPS satellites by comparing to independent laser ranges of subcentimeter accuracy obtained by a small but reasonably well distributed network of tracking sites. We find that all seven International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) analysis centers achieve range residual root mean square (rms) errors at or below the 100 mm level. The best orbit solutions, from JPL, CODE, and the IGS combined product, yield a residual rms of about 50 mm. These residuals are consistent with three dimensional orbit errors of less than 150 mm. Estimating yaw rates for the spacecraft during shadow events, and using these estimates to compute the laser residual, significantly improves the fit. A small mean residual value of -15 to -30 mm seems to exist for most centers and laser sites which is not fully explained at present, but may be due to uncertainties in the corrections to the laser data, such as the reflector to spacecraft center of mass vector or small reference frame differences between the SLR sites and the GPS orbits.

  15. Atmospheric density estimation using satellite precision orbit ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arudra, Anoop Kumar

    The current atmospheric density models are not capable enough to accurately model the atmospheric density, which varies continuously in the upper atmosphere mainly due to the changes in solar and geomagnetic activity. Inaccurate atmospheric modeling results in erroneous density values that are not accurate enough to calculate the drag estimates acting on a satellite, thus leading to errors in the prediction of satellite orbits. This research utilized precision orbit ephemerides (POE) data from satellites in an orbit determination process to make corrections to existing atmospheric models, thus resulting in improved density estimates. The work done in this research made corrections to the Jacchia family atmospheric models and Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) family atmospheric models using POE data from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and the Terra Synthetic Aperture Radar-X Band (TerraSAR-X) satellite. The POE data obtained from these satellites was used in an orbit determination scheme which performs a sequential filter/smoother process to the measurements and generates corrections to the atmospheric models to estimate density. This research considered several days from the year 2001 to 2008 encompassing all levels of solar and geomagnetic activity. Density and ballistic coefficient half-lives with values of 1.8, 18, and 180 minutes were used in this research to observe the effect of these half-life combinations on density estimates. This research also examined the consistency of densities derived from the accelerometers of the Challenging Mini Satellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites by Eric Sutton, from the University of Colorado. The accelerometer densities derived by Sutton were compared with those derived by Sean Bruinsma from CNES, Department of Terrestrial and Planetary Geodesy, France. The Sutton densities proved to be nearly identical to the Bruinsma densities for all the cases considered in this research, thus suggesting that Sutton densities can be used as a substitute for Bruinsma densities in validating the POE density estimates for future work. Density estimates were found using the ICESat and TerraSAR-X POE data by generating corrections to the CIRA-72 and NRLMSISE-00 atmospheric density models. The ICESat and TerraSAR-X POE density estimates obtained were examined and studied by comparing them with the density estimates obtained using CHAMP and GRACE POE data. The trends in how POE density estimates varied for all four satellites were found to be the same or similar. The comparisons were made for different baseline atmospheric density models, different density and ballistic coefficient correlated half-lives, and for varying levels of solar and geomagnetic activity. The comparisons in this research help in understanding the variation of density estimates for various satellites with different altitudes and orbits.

  16. Simulated retrievals for the remote sensing of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O from geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Natraj, V.; Shia, R. L.; Luo, M.; Zhang, Q.; Newman, S.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-06-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is designed to measure high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in three near-infrared bands centered around 0.76, 1.6, and 2.3 μm and to deliver simultaneous retrievals of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O (denoted XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XH2O, respectively) at different times of day over North America. In this study, we perform radiative transfer simulations over both clear-sky and all-sky scenes expected to be observed by GeoFTS and estimate the prospective performance of retrievals based on results from Bayesian error analysis and characterization. We find that, for simulated clear-sky retrievals, the average retrieval errors and single-measurement precisions are < 0.2% for XCO2, XCH4, and XH2O, and < 2% for XCO, when the a priori values have a bias of 3% and an uncertainty of 3%. In addition, an increase in the amount of aerosols and ice clouds leads to a notable increase in the retrieval errors and slight worsening of the retrieval precisions. Furthermore, retrieval precision is a strong function of signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution. This simulation study can help guide decisions on the design of the GeoFTS observing system, which can result in cost-effective measurement strategies while achieving satisfactory levels of retrieval precisions. The simultaneous retrievals at different times of day will be important for more accurate estimation of carbon sources and sinks on fine spatiotemporal scales and for studies to better understand the close coupling between the carbon and water cycles.

  17. Simulated retrievals for the remote sensing of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O from geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Natraj, V.; Shia, R. L.; Luo, M.; Zhang, Q.; Newman, S.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-11-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is designed to measure high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in three near-infrared bands centered around 0.76, 1.6, and 2.3 μm and to deliver simultaneous retrievals of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2, CH4, CO, and H2O (denoted XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XH2O, respectively) at different times of day over North America. In this study, we perform radiative transfer simulations over both clear-sky and all-sky scenes expected to be observed by GeoFTS and estimate the prospective performance of retrievals based on results from Bayesian error analysis and characterization. We find that, for simulated clear-sky retrievals, the average retrieval biases and single-measurement precisions are < 0.2 % for XCO2, XCH4, and XH2O, and < 2 % for XCO, when the a priori values have a bias of 3 % and an uncertainty of 3 %. In addition, an increase in the amount of aerosols and ice clouds leads to a notable increase in the retrieval biases and slight worsening of the retrieval precisions. Furthermore, retrieval precision is a strong function of signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution. This simulation study can help guide decisions on the design of the GeoFTS observing system, which can result in cost-effective measurement strategies while achieving satisfactory levels of retrieval precisions and biases. The simultaneous retrievals at different times of day will be important for more accurate estimation of carbon sources and sinks on fine spatiotemporal scales and for studies related to the atmospheric component of the water cycle.

  18. The orbits and masses of satellites of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozović, Marina; Showalter, Mark R.; Jacobson, Robert A.; Buie, Marc W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the numerically integrated orbits of Pluto's satellites. The orbits have been fit to a data set that includes Earth-based and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) astrometry of Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx, as well as the lightcurves from the Pluto-Charon mutual events. We also report new, 2010-2012 HST astrometry of all satellites including recently discovered Styx plus a pre-discovery detection of Kerberos in 2006. Pluto-relative data sets have been corrected for the center-of-light vs. center-of-mass offsets with the Pluto albedo model. The results are summarized in terms of the postfit residuals, state vectors, and mean orbital elements. Orbits of Charon, Styx, Nix, and Kerberos are nearly circular, while Hydra's shows a small eccentricity. All satellites are in near-resonance conditions, but we did not uncover any resonant arguments. Our model yields 975.5 ± 1.5 km3 s-2, 869.6 ± 1.8 km3 s-2, and 105.9 ± 1.0 km3 s-2 for the system's, Pluto's, and Charon's GM values. The uncertainties reflect both systematic and random measurement errors. The GM values imply a bulk density of 1.89 ± 0.06 g cm-3 for Pluto and 1.72 ± 0.02 g cm-3 for Charon. We also obtain GMNix = 0.0030 ± 0.0027 km3 s-2 GMHydra = 0.0032 ± 0.0028 km3 s-2, GMKerberos = 0.0011 ± 0.0006 km3 s-2, and an upper bound on Styx's GM of 0.0010 km3 s-2. The 1σ errors are based on the formal covariance from the fit and they reflect only measurement errors. In-orbit (or along the track), radial, and out-of-plane orbital uncertainties at the time of New Horizons encounter are on the order of few tens of km or less for Charon, Nix, and Hydra. Kerberos and Styx have their largest uncertainty component of ∼140 km and ∼500 km respectively in the in-orbit direction.

  19. A retrospective analysis of the Shinmoedake (Japan) eruption of 26-27 January 2011 by means of Japanese geostationary satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, F.; Falconieri, A.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2014-01-01

    During the sub-plinian eruptions of Mt. Shinmoedake (Japan) on 26-27 January 2011 a significant amount of ash was emitted into the atmosphere, destroying thousands of hectares of farm land, causing air traffic disruption, and forcing the closure of four railroad lines located around the volcano. In this work, a retrospective analysis of these eruptive events is presented, exploiting the high temporal resolution of the Japanese Multi-functional Transport Satellites (MTSAT) data to study thermal volcanic activity, to identify and track volcanic ash, and to determine the cloud-top height, inferring information about eruption features and space-time evolution. We show that a strong and sudden increase in the thermal signal occurred at Mt. Shinmoedake as a consequence of above mentioned eruptive events, generating hot spots timely detected by the RSTVOLC algorithm for the first time implemented here on data provided by geostationary satellites. This study also shows that the emitted ash plume, identified by means of the RSTASH algorithm, strongly fluctuated in altitude, reaching a maximum height around 7.4 km above sea level, in agreement with information provided by the Tokyo VAAC. The plume heights derived in this work, by implementing the widely accepted cloud-top temperature method, appear also compatible with the values provided by independent weather radar measurements, with the main differences characterizing the third sub-plinian event that occurred in the afternoon of 27 January. The estimates of discharge rate, the temporal trend of ash affected areas, and the results of thermal monitoring reported in this work seem to indicate that the third sub-plinian event was the least intense. In spite of some limitations, this study confirms the potential of Japanese geostationary satellites in effectively monitoring volcanoes located in the West Pacific region, providing continuous information also about such critical parameters of ash clouds as the plume height. Such information is useful not only for driving numerical models, forecasting ash dispersion into the atmosphere, but also for characterizing eruption features and dynamics.

  20. Gravity and Tide Parameters Determined from Satellite and Spacecraft Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Robert A.

    2015-05-01

    As part of our work on the development of the Jovian and Saturnian satellite ephemerides to support the Juno and Cassini missions, we determined a number of planetary system gravity parameters. This work did not take into account tidal forces. In fact, we saw no obvious observational evidence of tidal effects on the satellite or spacecraft orbits. However, Lainey et al. (2009 Nature 459, 957) and Lainey et. al (2012 Astrophys. J. 752, 14) have published investigations of tidal effects in the Jovian and Saturnian systems, respectively. Consequently, we have begun a re-examination of our ephemeris work that includes a model for tides raised on the planet by the satellites as well as tides raised on the satellites by the planet. In this paper we briefly review the observations used in our ephemeris production; they include astrometry from the late 1800s to 2014, mutual events, eclipses, occultatons, and data acquired by the Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Cassini, Galileo, and New Horizons spacecraft. We summarize the gravity parameter values found from our original analyses. Next we discuss our tidal acceleration model and its impact on the gravity parameter determination. We conclude with preliminary results found when the reprocessing of the observations includes tidal forces acting on the satellites and spacecraft.

  1. Orbit transfer operations for the Space Shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Orbit transfer operations are reviewed relative to the objectives, operational factors, and crew model concepts of future mission requirements. The review is based on studies presently underway and on projected needs and goals of the Space Shuttle era. Numerous tradeoff studies and further analyses are needed before the best form of the manned geostationary vehicle becomes fixed. However, the Shuttle can provide the necessary low-orbit logistics service for dispatching manned geostationary missions on as frequent a schedule as will be needed to serve the advanced geostationary satellites of the near future.

  2. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-08-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg a-1, compared with 1.92 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg a-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg a-1), livestock (0.87 Tg a-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg a-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock, while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08 Tg a-1 that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  3. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-02-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg yr-1, compared with 1.92 Tg yr-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg yr-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg yr-1), livestock (0.87 Tg yr-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg yr-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08, respectively. An observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) shows that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  4. Correction of sub-pixel topographical effects on land surface albedo retrieved from geostationary satellite (FengYun-2D) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roupioz, L.; Jia, L.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.

    2014-03-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is characterised by a very strong relief which affects albedo retrieval from satellite data. The objective of this study is to highlight the effects of sub-pixel topography and to account for those effects when retrieving land surface albedo from geostationary satellite FengYun-2D (FY-2D) data with 1.25km spatial resolution using the high spatial resolution (30 m) data of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from ASTER. The methodology integrates the effects of sub-pixel topography on the estimation of the total irradiance received at the surface, allowing the computation of the topographically corrected surface reflectance. Furthermore, surface albedo is estimated by applying the parametric BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) model called RPV (Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete) to the terrain corrected surface reflectance. The results, evaluated against ground measurements collected over several experimental sites on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, document the advantage of integrating the sub-pixel topography effects in the land surface reflectance at 1km resolution to estimate the land surface albedo. The results obtained after using sub-pixel topographic correction are compared with the ones obtained after using pixel level topographic correction. The preliminary results imply that, in highly rugged terrain, the sub-pixel topography correction method gives more accurate results. The pixel level correction tends to overestimate surface albedo.

  5. Analysis on high-altitude earth Orbit Satellite Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Hou, Y. W.; Yang, L.

    2016-02-01

    The difference is introduced between approx circular apogee orbit and approx circular perigee one by error transmitting at first. Then the characteristic of secant compensation is analysed when radar tracking object with high elevation. And two kinds of orbit force be pressed to, their perturbation influence and their earth-core angles are explained. And then the series of emulation results are shown including error data emulated with Monte Carlo method, the influence of the velocity increment from the ejecting force of spring while satellite-rocket separating and their perturbation influence and the length of influence of the data arc. Then decision analysis of Wald method and Bayesian statistics rule and the results from the two rule are introduced. So the suitable orbit determination decision is put forward from the decision method. Finally the result is tested reasonable and feasible via the real data. In the end it is useful to reference to make orbit decision in short injection of circular orbit far from the earth for calculating concurrently precise and timely.

  6. An investigation of selected on-orbit satellite servicing issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of three separate investigations performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) between August 1985 and October 1986 as the second phase of the two-phase Satellite Services System Program Plan contract for the Engineering Directorate of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center are discussed. The objectives of the first phase of this contract (reported in SAIC-85/1762) were to determine the potential for servicing a diverse range of spacecraft from the Space Shuttle Orbiter and to assess NASA's role as the catalyst in enabling routine on-orbit servicing. The second area of investigation was prompted by the need to understand satellite servicing requirements in the far term (1995 to 2010) and how results from the first phase of this contract could support these requirements. The mission model developed during the first phase was extended using new data and information from studies which address the later time period. The third area of investigation looked at a new servicing mode which had not been studied previously. This mode involves the on-orbit exchange of very large modules with masses greater than approximately 9,000 kilograms and/or lengths greater than approximately nine meters. The viewgraphs used for the final briefing for each of the three investigations, as presented to NASA are given.

  7. Real - Time Orbit Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites Using Radar System and SGP4 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Sung-Seub; Yoon, Jae-Cheol; Choi, Kyu-Hong

    2003-03-01

    In case that we independently obtain orbital informations about the low earth satellites of foreign countries using radar systems, we develop the orbit determination algorithm for this purpose using a SGP4 model with an analytical orbit model and the extended Kalman filter with a real-time processing method. When the state vector is Keplerian orbital elements, singularity problems happen to compute partial derivative with respect to inclination and eccentricity orbit elements. To cope with this problem, we set state vector osculating to mean equinox and true equator cartesian elements with coordinate transformation. The state transition matrix and the covariance matrix are numerically computed using a SGP4 model. Observational measurements are the type of azimuth, elevation and range, filter process to each measurement in a lump. After analyzing performance of the developed orbit determination algorithm using TOPEX/POSEIDON POE(Precision Orbit Ephemeris), its position error has about 1 km. To be similar to performance of NORAD system that has up to 3km position accuracy during 7 days need to radar system performance that have accuracy within 0.1 degree for azimuth and elevation and 50m for range.

  8. A sensitivity study for the calibration of hyperspectral spectrometer on board the geostationary multipurpose satellite of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Myoung-Hwan; Kang, Mina; Liu, Xiong; Kim, Jhoon

    2015-06-01

    A spectral calibration algorithm for the hyperspectral geostationary environmental monitoring spectrometer (GEMS) onboard GEO-KOMPSAT-2B (GK-2B) planned to launch in 2019 has been developed. Although spectral registration for the CCD detector is done by the optical parameters prepared during the ground test of the instrument, the algorithm is applied for the improved spectral accuracy. The prototype algorithm is based on the best fitting of the measured spectrum to the known high resolution reference spectrum such as the solar irradiance. To characterize the prototype algorithm, a series of sensitivity tests for various spectral parameters, such as squeeze, shift, spectral response function, and reference solar spectrum, has been performed. The prototype algorithm shows a minimal sensitive to the uncertainties associated with several parameters such as squeeze, shift, or spectral band. However, the algorithm performance degrades by an order if the spectral response function including its shape has uncertainty. Thus, it is recommended to measure the spectral response function at the ground test as accurately as possible. Furthermore, the prototype algorithm is also highly sensitive to the used reference solar spectrum, which needs further investigation.

  9. Orbit Determination of the SELENE Satellites Using Multi-Satellite Data Types and Evaluation of SELENE Gravity Field Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    The SELENE mission, consisting of three separate satellites that use different terrestrial-based tracking systems, presents a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of these tracking systems to orbit determination precision. The tracking data consist of four-way Doppler between the main orbiter and one of the two sub-satellites while the former is over the far side, and of same-beam differential VLBI tracking between the two sub-satellites. Laser altimeter data are also used for orbit determination. The contribution to orbit precision of these different data types is investigated through orbit overlap analysis. It is shown that using four-way and VLBI data improves orbit consistency for all satellites involved by reducing peak values in orbit overlap differences that exist when only standard two-way Doppler and range data are used. Including laser altimeter data improves the orbit precision of the SELENE main satellite further, resulting in very smooth total orbit errors at an average level of 18m. The multi-satellite data have also resulted in improved lunar gravity field models, which are assessed through orbit overlap analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data. Improvements over a pre-SELENE model are shown to be mostly in the along-track and cross-track directions. Orbit overlap differences are at a level between 13 and 21 m with the SELENE models, depending on whether l-day data overlaps or I-day predictions are used.

  10. Space environment measurements by JAXA satellites and ISS/JEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Koga, Kiyokazu

    2012-02-01

    In order to monitor space environment and its temporal variations, JAXA Space Environment Group has been developing space radiation detectors as well as magnetometers and installing them on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites, Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) satellite, Quasi Zenith Orbit (QZO) satellite and Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). We are using these space environment data to know the situation of space environment and to provide warning messages to the satellite operators as well as ISS/JEM manager, when the space environment will be harmful. Based on our observation data, we also have constructed an advanced electron belt model for the use in satellite manufacturing. With space radiation data obtained by JAXA satellites and ISS, some findings related to the space radiation environment have been obtained. We will review our activities related to the space environment research and development in JAXA.

  11. Artificial Crater Formation on Satellite Surfaces Using an Orbiting Railgun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dissly, R. W.; Miller, K. L.; Carlson, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The specification of greater than 45kW of disposable power available on the JIMO spacecraft raises the possibility of a new class of instrumentation that has utility at such power levels. In this presentation we discuss the concept of an electromagnetic mass driver that can launch projectiles from orbit around one of the Galilean satellites directed on a trajectory that will impact the satellite surface. The resulting impact will create a crater that will provide information on the mechanical properties of surface and near-surface materials, expose subsurface materials for remote spectral identification, and form a vapor cloud that can be sensed for composition either remotely or in-situ. An analog for such a controlled cratering experiment is Deep Impact, a mission to observe the crater and ensuing ejecta cloud formed by a ballistic projectile into a comet surface in July, 2005.

  12. Cloud-top Height Esimation Method by Geostationary Satellite Split-Window Measurements Trained with CALIPSO and CloudSat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Noriyuki; Hamada, Atsushi; Hirose, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    We released a database of cloud top height and visible optical thickness (CTOP) with one-hour resolution over the tropical western Pacific and Maritime Continent, by using infrared split-window data of the geostationary satellites (MTSAT) (http://database.rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp/arch/ctop/). We made lookup tables for estimating cloud top height only with geostationary infrared observations by comparing them with the direct cloud observation by CloudSat (Hamada and Nishi, 2010, JAMC). We picked out the same-time observations by MTSAT and CloudSat and regressed the cloud top height observation of CloudSat back onto 11 micro m brightness temperature (Tb) and the difference between the 11 micro m Tb and 12 micro m Tb of MTSAT. The database contains digital data and quick look images from Jul 2005 to real time and the area in 85E-155W (MTSAT2) and 20S-20N. Though the CTOP dataset is particularly useful for the upper tropospheric clouds, it has one serious problem. The cloud radar onboard CloudSat cannot well detect the optically thin cirrus clouds composed of small ice crystals and misses a certain part of cirriform clouds in the upper troposphere. In order to overcome this weakness, we are now making next version of the CTOP by using the lidar data (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO satellite. One problem on the use of lidar observation is that they observe very thin cirrus formed around the tropopause. The main purpose of CTOP dataset is to provide the top height of clouds that originate from cloud clusters including cumulonimbus and nimbostratus, not of in-situ cirrus clouds formed near the tropopause. To exclude the very thin tropopause cirrus, we define cloud-top height of CALIOP observation as the height at which the optical depth accumulated from the cloud top is 0.2, instead of the CALIOP cloud top itself. With this criterion we can succeed in estimating the top height of cirruiform clouds, but it has another problem for thick clouds like cumulonimbus. For such clouds, the height of accumulated optical depth 0.2 is considerably lower than the real cloud top, possibly due to rather small number of large cloud particles near the top. Therefore, the estimation using CloudSat data is closer to the real top for the thick clouds, while that using CALIOP data is closer for cirriform clouds. So we are now making a lookup table with using both CloudSat and CALIPSO data to estimate cloud-top heights both for thick and thin clouds seamlessly.

  13. Analysis on the long term orbital evolution of Molniya satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Long term evolution of the Molniya satellites are investigated by means of historical data analysis, theoretical analysis and numerical integration. Both the mean motion resonance problem and the critical inclination problem are studied. The period and the amplitude of the semi-major axis for each satellite are obtained analytically and compared with the observational data. In addition, the reason of the observed sudden changes in the center and the amplitude of the oscillating semi-major axes is determined as the effect of the atmosphere drag. For the long period perigee motion, the dominant perturbations come from the luni-solar gravity. A two-degree-of freedom system is established by adding the two periodic terms of the neighbor resonances to the Hamiltonian of the classical single resonance model. In theory, the resulting resonance overlap model is responsible for the chaotic layer between the libration region and the circulation region. In practice, it is applied to explain the quick decay of the earliest Molniya satellites and to study the satellites that still orbiting the Earth at present.

  14. Analysis of Errors in a Special Perturbations Satel