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Sample records for geosynthetic clay liner

  1. REPORT OF WORKSHOP ON GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the report is to summarize the information presented at the Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) workshop held on July 9-10, 1992. The report does not represent the full extent of the information available on geosynthetic liners. Readers are directed to the summary of th...

  2. GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS (GCLS) IN LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low permeability, compacted clay linters are commonly required as a barrier to water infiltration in landfill covers. elatively new material, known as geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), has been proposed as an alternative to a compacted clay liner. CL has the practical advantages of ...

  3. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THREE GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydraulic conductivity of three 2.9 m2 (32 sq ft) geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) was measured. Tests were performed on individual sheets of the GCLs, on overlapped pieces of GCLs, and on composite liners consisting of a punctured geomembrane overlying a GCL. Hyd...

  4. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    PubMed

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-04-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner. PMID:24718363

  5. SLIDE PRESENTATION: LIMITATIONS OF USE OF GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS (GCLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the design and construction issues pertaining to the use of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLSs) in waste containment. The presentation covers new materials, potential design and construction pitfalls and a summary of ongoing research.

  6. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, D.A.; Daniel, D.E.; Koerner, R.M.; Bonaparte, R.

    1997-12-31

    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project.

  7. Hydraulic conductivity of desiccated geosynthetic clay liners

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, B.T.; Daniel, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Large-scale tests were performed to determine the effect of a cycle of wetting and drying on the hydraulic conductivity of several geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). The GCLs were covered with 0.6 m of pea gravel and permeated with water. After steady seepage had developed, the water was drained away, and the GCL was desiccated by circulating heated air through the overlying gravel. The drying caused severe cracking in the bentonite component of the GCLs. The GCLs were again permeated with water. As the cracked bentonite hydrated and swelled, the hydraulic conductivity slowly decreased from an initially high value. The long-term, steady value of hydraulic conductivity after the wetting and drying cycle was found to be essentially the same as the value for the undesiccated GCL. It is concluded that GCLs possess the ability to self-heal after a cycle of wetting and drying, which is important for applications in which there may be alternate wetting and drying of a hydraulic barrier (e.g. within a landfill final cover).

  8. Slope Stability of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Test Plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourteen full-scale field test plots containing five types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) were constructed on 2H:IV and 3H:IV slopes for the purpose of assessing slope stability. The test plots were designed to simulate typical final cover systems for landfill. Slides occurr...

  9. Hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners after freeze-thaw

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, R.D.; Daniel, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    Hydraulic conductivity tests were performed in large tanks on intact (single panel) and overlapped samples of three geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) that has been subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. The compressive stress applied to the GCLs (7.6--12.4 kPa) was selected to simulate final cover systems for landfills. Laboratory flexible-wall permeameter tests were also performed. With the exception of one overlapped GCL, all three GCLs withstood three freeze-thaw cycles without a significant change in hydraulic conductivity. An overlapped, geo-textile-encased, stitch-bonded GCL did undergo a 1,000-fold increase in hydraulic conductivity after one freeze-thaw cycle, but the overlapped area contained stitches, which are left off the edges of the full-sized material that is deployed in the field. In general, the tests showed that GCLs can withstand at least three freeze-thaw cycles without significant changes in hydraulic conductivity.

  10. Effect of temperature on hydration of geosynthetic clay liners in landfills.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Arden; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2013-03-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) have gained popularity as a barrier system in modern landfill construction. As such, it is depended upon to provide a level of impermeability to prevent the escape of contaminants into the surrounding soil and groundwater. It has been proven that a GCL's hydraulic conductivity is closely related to its moisture content. GCLs are known to absorb moisture from the underlying soil after installation. In a landfill, temperatures near the liner can reach upwards of 55ºC. The effect of these elevated temperatures on the hydration process of the GCL was determined for two types of GCL over two types of subsoil: sand and clay. It was found that elevated temperatures prevented the GCL from reaching moisture content levels that would be acceptable in a real-life scenario. Temperatures in landfills could be expected to cause a GCL to reach a moisture equilibrium at roughly 16% gravimetric moisture content, where GCL at room temperature would reach higher than 100% gravimetric moisture content. The significant difference in moisture equilibrium of GCLs at different temperatures may suggest that the heat naturally produced in landfills could negatively affect the liner's hydraulic performance. The importance of allowing a GCL to properly hydrate before heat exposure must be better understood in order to minimize the potential negative effect of a landfill on our environment and our livelihood. This study also confirmed that the hydration potential of GCL depends on the method of GCL manufacture and the subsoil characteristics. PMID:23315362

  11. Reconstruction and operation of the El Paso Solar Pond with a geosynthetic clay liner system

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.; Swift, A.H.P.

    1996-12-31

    After the original XR-5 membrane liner failed in 1992, the El Paso Solar Pond was reconstructed and operated with a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) system. The solar pond is approximately 3,000 m{sup 2} in surface area, and 3.2 meters deep with a 15{degree} side-wall slope. A new heat extraction system includes 15-cm (6-inch) rubber hoses and two redesigned polypropylene diffusers. A new automated instrumentation system was developed for monitoring pond status. It uses a newly developed scanner combined with a computer for both position control and data logging. The salinity gradient was established using a new scanning method, as opposed to the previously used fixed point method. Fresh water was injected into brine through a newly designed PVC bar shaped diffuser, which scans automatically within preset regions. After two months, the pond bottom reached 80 C and heat extraction began. The performance of the GCL system, characterized by its hydraulic conductivity, has been monitored, and generates the first full scale, elevated temperature data for a GCL system. Preliminary hydraulic conductivity data indicate values comparable with other clay liner systems.

  12. In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)

    SciTech Connect

    Melchior, S.

    1997-12-31

    Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m{sup 2} to 500 m{sup 2}. Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 4 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates.

  13. Hydraulic conductivity testing of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) using the constant volume method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Benson, C.H.

    1999-12-01

    Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted using open and constant-volume permeation systems on specimens from a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). Two constant volume (CV) systems were employed: the falling-head constant-volume (FHCV) system and the constant-head constant-volume (CHCV) system. A conventional burette system using pressurized air was employed for the open system (OS) tests. The test results show that hydraulic conductivity tests can be conducted 30 or more times faster with the FHCV and CHCV systems than with an open system. Typically the permeation portion of the FHCV and CHCV tests can be conducted in one-half day. Slightly lower hydraulic conductivities are measured with the CV systems due to the slightly higher effective stress applied during testing with these systems. The CHCV system has several advantages over the FHCV system, including minimizing initial transient behavior, constant applied effective stress during testing, and simpler calculations.

  14. Characterization of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Bentonite using Micro-analytical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, K.; Rowe, R; Jamieson, H; Flemming, R; Lanzirotti, A

    2010-01-01

    In barrier design, familiarity of the structure and composition of the soil material at the micron scale is necessary for delineating the retention mechanisms of introduced metals, such as the formation of new mineral phases. In this study, the mineralogical and chemical makeup of the bentonite from a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was extensively characterized using a combination of conventional benchtop X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD) with synchrotron-generated micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) elemental mapping and {mu}XRD (S-{mu}XRD). These methods allow for the non-destructive, in situ investigation of a sample, with {micro}m spatial resolution. Synchrotron-based hard X-ray microprobes are specifically advantageous to the study of trace metals due to higher spatial resolution (<10 {micro}m) and higher analytical sensitivity (femtogram detection) than is possible using normal laboratory-based instruments. Minerals comprising less than 5% of the total bentonite sample such as gypsum, goethite and pyrite were identified that were not accessible by other conventional methods for the same GCL bentonite. Two dimensional General Area Diffraction Detector System (GADDS) images proved to be particularly advantageous in differentiating between the microcrystalline clay, which appeared as homogeneous Debye rings, and the 'spotty' or 'grainy' appearance of primary, more-coarsely-crystalline, accessory minerals. For S-{mu}XRD, the tunability of the synchrotron X-rays allowed for efficient distinction of both clay minerals at low scattering angles and in identifying varying Fe oxide minerals at higher angles. GCL samples permeated with metal-bearing mining solutions were also examined in order to consider how mechanisms of metal attenuation may be identified using the same techniques. In addition to the cation exchange capacity from the montmorillonite clay, tests showed how minerals comprising only 1-2% of the bentonite such as goethite could

  15. Electrical resistivity characterization and defect detection on a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) on an experimental site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirieix, C.; Fernández Martínez, J. L.; Riss, J.; Genelle, F.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we analyze the onsite characterization of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) that serves to ensure the impermeability of a landfill cap by DC electrical methods. The imaging of the GCL geoelectrical properties is a challenging problem because it is a very thin (between 4 and 7 mm thick) and resistive layer (from 100,000 to 2,000,000 Ω·m) depending on meteorological conditions and aging. We compare results obtained using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) using two different kinds of arrays (dipole-dipole DD and Wenner-Schlumberger) on an experimental site with engineered defects. To confirm these results and to find the real onsite GCL resistivity we have performed sampling of the posterior distribution of this parameter using vertical electrical sounding (VES) inversions. Different VES methods were extracted from ERT with DD array and converted into a Schlumberger array. As a main conclusion the dipole-dipole array provides a better resistivity resolution of the defects than the Wenner-Schlumberger array. On ERT images, the defect detection seems to be impossible if the GCL has very high resistivity, as it happened when it was put in place. Taking into account the equivalence rules, the inversions are in both cases (ERT and VES) compatible. The GCL resistivity estimated from PSO (particle swarm optimization) varies from 3.0 105 to 1.106 Ω·m depending on saturation conditions during the twenty first months of its placing. Then, the resistivity dropped to 4.104-9.104 Ω·m, indicating a probable chemical damage of the GCL due to aging. Finally the fact that the VES inversions are solved via PSO sampling allows for the detection of a very thin and resistive layer and opens the possibility of performing micro VES surveys along the landfill to detect possible GCL defects.

  16. A comparison of sample preparation methodology in the evaluation of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) hydraulic conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Siebken, J.R.; Lucas, S.

    1997-11-01

    The method of preparing a single needle-punched GCL product for evaluation of hydraulic conductivity in a flexible wall permeameter was examined. The test protocol utilized for this evaluation was GRI Test Method GCL-2 Permeability of GCLs. The GCL product consisted of bentonite clay material supported by a woven and a non-woven geotextile on either side. The method preparation focused on the procedure for separating the test specimen from the larger sample and whether these methods produced difficulty in generating reliable test data. The methods examined included cutting with a razor knife, scissors, and a circular die with the perimeter of the test area under wet and dry conditions. In order to generate as much data as possible, tests were kept brief. Flow was monitored only long enough to determine whether or not preferential flow paths appeared to be present. The results appear to indicate that any of the methods involved will work. Difficulties arose not from the development of preferential flow paths around the edges of the specimens, but from the loss of bentonite from the edges during handling.

  17. Membrane behavior of clay liner materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jong Beom

    Membrane behavior represents the ability of porous media to restrict the migration of solutes, leading to the existence of chemico-osmosis, or the flow of liquid in response to a chemical concentration gradient. Membrane behavior is an important consideration with respect to clay soils with small pores and interactive electric diffuse double layers associated with individual particles, such as bentonite. The results of recent studies indicate the existence of membrane behavior in bentonite-based hydraulic barriers used in waste containment applications. Thus, measurement of the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior in such clay soils is becoming increasingly important. Accordingly, this research focused on evaluating the existence and magnitude of membrane behavior for three clay-based materials that typically are considered for use as liners for waste containment applications, such as landfills. The three clay-based liner materials included a commercially available geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) consisting of sodium bentonite sandwiched between two geotextiles, a compacted natural clay known locally as Nelson Farm Clay, and compacted NFC amended with 5% (dry wt.) of a sodium bentonite. The study also included the development and evaluation of a new flexible-wall cell for clay membrane testing that was used subsequently to measure the membrane behaviors of the three clay liner materials. The consolidation behavior of the GCL under isotropic states of stress also was evaluated as a preliminary step in the determination of the membrane behavior of the GCL under different effective consolidation stresses.

  18. REPORT OF THE 1995 WORKSHOP ON GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop was held at the EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio, on August 9 and 10, 1995. On August 9, attendees were shown field plots of GCLs that have been constructed at a site in Cincinnati, and given a detailed account of the test plot la...

  19. Numerical analysis of soft clay performance reinforced by geosynthetics encased stone columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Nabil M.

    2013-10-01

    To improve the behavior of stone columns, the Geosynthetics is used for encasing the stone column as reinforcement material. The Geosynthetics Encased Stone Column (GESC) system has been developed to increase the confinement effect of the ordinary stone columns, and consequently to improve the load carrying capacity of stone columns. In this paper, finite element based numerical study has been carried out using ABAQUS program to study the performance of the GESC systems under different conditions. The influences of some effective parameters were studied to show the improvement in soil bearing and settlement decrease for the stone column-soil system. These include the column dimensions, the encasement stiffness and shear strength of the foundation soil.

  20. Attenuation of heavy metals by geosynthetics in the coal gangue-filled columns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Hu, Zhenqi; Wang, Peijun

    2013-01-01

    In the subsided areas backfilled with coal gangue, an issue of continuing environmental concern is the migration of hazardous metals to the subsurface soil and groundwater. As an effective isolation material, geosynthetics have been scarcely applied into mining areas reclamation of China. This paper describes research aimed at characterizing the behaviours of different geosynthetics in the leaching columns filled with coal gangues. Four types of geosynthetics were selected: fibres needle-punched nonwoven geotextiles, high-density polyethylene, needle-punched Na-bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL-NP) and Na-bentonite geosynthetic-overbited film. Heavy metals were significantly attenuated and by monitoring aqueous solutions in the whole percolation period, negative correlation was found between pH value and concentration of heavy metals. Generally, GCL-NP showed comparatively better effects on attenuating the migration of heavy metals. According to the meta-analysis of heavy metals present in the leachates and retained in the columns, geosynthetics have good capabilities of sorption and retardation, which can delay the breakthrough time of heavy metals and retard the accumulation in the subsurface. Future research will use X-ray diffraction and micro-imaging (electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy) to further explain retention mechanisms. PMID:24527654

  1. Mechanical and thermal tests of a bentonite clay for use as a liner for solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Almanza, R.; Lozano, M.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The use of clays has been discussed as an alternative for liners in solar ponds. The bentonite used in this experiment was a Ca-montmorillonite. It has a thermal conductivity of 1.14 W/m{degree}C at 50{degree}C before being under the influence of NaCl brine, and a value of 0.42 W/m{degree}C at the same temperature after four months under the influence of the NaCl hot brine. When fresh hot water was used at a temperature of 50{degree}C, the vertical permeability was 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s. After the four months under the hot brine, salinity saturation in the effluent became 70% after filtering it through the clay, and 1.09 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s was the lower permeability reached. Under drastic changes in temperature (10{degree}C or more) the clay starts to form small fissures that increase permeability. However, if these severe changes are not carried out in a solar pond, the clay can be used as a liner. Therefore, it is possible to state that the thermal conductivity and the permeability of this clay are better than those of a kaolinite clay. These properties are reduced by the influence of a hot brine during long exposure periods due to the ion exchange which permits it to be used as a liner.

  2. Evaluating the Long-Term Performance of Geosynethic Clay Liners Exposed to Freeze-Thaw

    SciTech Connect

    Robert K. Podgorney; Jesse E. Bennett

    2006-02-01

    Geosynethic clay liners have become an increasingly common component in landfill liner and cover systems since their introduction in the early 1980’s. An important consideration for landfills and covers constructed in the frost zone of cold climates is the possible deterioration in performance due to freeze-thaw cycling over the design life of the liner or cover system, which can be up to 1,000 years. The literature contains several examples showing that geosynethic clay liners can withstand a limited number of freeze-thaw events, but data on long-term performance are lacking The objective of this study was to examine the long-term performance of geosynethic clay liners exposed to repeated freeze-thaw cycles, encompassing their application as a final cover as well as a bottom liner. Laboratory analysis of hydraulic conductivity was performed after as many as 150 freeze-thaw cycles, with no appreciable changes observed. Based upon an analytical heat transfer analysis, this equates to [at least] 150 years of field service for placement depths greater then approximately 30 cm below the surface of the liner. The long-term insusceptibility of GCLs to increased hydraulic conductivity as a response to repeated freeze-thaw cycling is largely due to the self-healing characteristics of the sodium bentonite used in their construction. GCLs perform well and maintain efficiency as a barrier to flow after 150 freeze-thaw cycles. Other factors, such as permeant chemistry, physical disturbance, desiccation, etc., may be much more important factors to consider when planning for the long-term performance of GCLs.

  3. Interaction of Uranium Mill Tailings Leachate with Soils and Clay Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G. W.; Campbell, A. C.; Sherwood, D. R.; Strickert, R. G.; Phillips, S. J.

    1980-06-01

    This study evaluates leachate-soil interactions that will take place at the Morton Ranch for certain disposal alternatives. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the following: 1) physical and chemical characteristics of geologic materials from the Morton Ranch. 2) physical and chemical characteristics of acid leach tailings and tallings solution, 3) leaching tests with selected tailings materials and leach solutions to evaluate the leachability of contaminants with time under specific disposal alternatives, 4) adsorption studies measuring the sorption characteristics of heavy metals and radionuclides on the geologic materials at Morton Ranch, 5) clay liner stability tests to evaluate effects of acid leachate on clay mineralogy and clay permeability.

  4. The Impact of Leachate From Clean Coal Technology Waste on the Stability of Clay and Synthetic Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.H.; Ghate, M.

    1996-12-31

    This project was developed to provide design criteria for landfill disposal sites used for sludges such as those generated using the Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) tested at the Public Service Company of Colorado`s Arapahoe Power Plant. The CCT wastes used were produced at the Arapahoe Plant Unit No. 4 that was equipped with the integrated dry NO{sub x}/S{sub 2} emissions control system installed under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. The investigation emphasized the potential impact of clean coal technology materials (sodium and calcium injection systems, and urea injection) on the permeability and stability characteristics of clay liner materials and the stability of synthetic liner materials. Flexible-wall permeameters were used to determine the hydraulic conductivities (HC) of the clay liner materials impacted by various compactive conditions. Tests were conducted using the waste materials overlying the clay liner materials under wet/dry cycles, freeze/thaw cycles, and over 120-day periods. The impact of CCT materials on the characteristics of the clay liner materials studied in this project was minimal The HC measurements of the waste/clay liner systems were similar to the water/clay liner systems. HC decreased for clay liners compacted at moisture levels slightly higher than optimum (standard Procter) and increased for liners compacted at moisture levels lower than optimum (standard Procter). Although some swelling was evident in the sodium materials, the sludge materials did not have a negative impact on the integrity of the liners over 120-day tests. Wet/dry cycles tended to result in lower HC, while freeze/thaw cycles substantially increased HC for the liners tested.

  5. A performance-based method for calculating the design thickness of compacted clay liners exposed to high strength leachate under simulated landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Safari, Edwin; Jalili Ghazizade, Mahdi; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali

    2012-09-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) when feasible, are preferred to composite geosynthetic liners. The thickness of CCLs is typically prescribed by each country's environmental protection regulations. However, considering the fact that construction of CCLs represents a significant portion of overall landfill construction costs; a performance based design of liner thickness would be preferable to 'one size fits all' prescriptive standards. In this study researchers analyzed the hydraulic behaviour of a compacted clayey soil in three laboratory pilot scale columns exposed to high strength leachate under simulated landfill conditions. The temperature of the simulated CCL at the surface was maintained at 40 ± 2 °C and a vertical pressure of 250 kPa was applied to the soil through a gravel layer on top of the 50 cm thick CCL where high strength fresh leachate was circulated at heads of 15 and 30 cm simulating the flow over the CCL. Inverse modelling using HYDRUS-1D indicated that the hydraulic conductivity after 180 days was decreased about three orders of magnitude in comparison with the values measured prior to the experiment. A number of scenarios of different leachate heads and persistence time were considered and saturation depth of the CCL was predicted through modelling. Under a typical leachate head of 30 cm, the saturation depth was predicted to be less than 60 cm for a persistence time of 3 years. This approach can be generalized to estimate an effective thickness of a CCL instead of using prescribed values, which may be conservatively overdesigned and thus unduly costly. PMID:22617473

  6. Cu(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of three different clay liner materials.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Parolo, M E; Pettinari, G; Francisca, F M

    2014-12-15

    Sorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on three natural clays meeting the international requirements for use as liners was evaluated by means of batch tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the retention capacities of the clays for metal cations commonly present in urban solid waste leachates. The pH and ionic strength conditions were set at values frequently found in real leachates. The changes observed in the XRD patterns and FTIR spectra upon adsorption can be considered an evidence of clay-metal electrostatic interaction. The Langmuir model was found to best describe the sorption processes, offering maximum sorption capacities from 8.16 to 56.89 mg/g for Cu(II) and from 49.59 to 103.83 mg/g for Zn(II). All samples remove more Zn(II) than Cu(II), which may be related to the different geometry of the hydrated Cu(II) cation. The total amount of metal sorption was strongly influenced by the total specific surface area, the presence of carbonates and the smectite content of the clays. In addition to their known quality as physical barriers, the adsorbed amounts obtained indicate the suitability of the tested clays to contribute to the retardation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) transport through clay liners. PMID:25156265

  7. Potential use of lateritic and marine clay soils as landfill liners to retain heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Chalermyanont, Tanit; Arrykul, Surapon; Charoenthaisong, Nanthanit

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a lateritic soil and a marine clay, typical of those found in hot and humid climatic regions, was assessed for use as a landfill liner material. A series of tests were conducted - physical and chemical, batch adsorption, column, hydraulic conductivity, etc., - to evaluate the heavy metal sorption capacity, chemical compatibility of hydraulic conductivity, and transport parameters of the soils. Experimental results showed that the marine clay had better adsorption capacity than that of the lateritic soil and that its hydraulic conductivity was an order of magnitude lower. In addition, the hydraulic conductivities of both soils when permeated with low concentration heavy metal solutions were below 1x10(-7)cm/s. When permeated with Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni solutions, the retardation factors of the lateritic soil and the marine clay ranged from 10 to 98 and 37 to 165, respectively, while the diffusion coefficients ranged from 1.0x10(-5) to 7.5x10(-6) and 3.0 to 9.14x10(-7)cm2/s, respectively. For both soils, Cr and Pb were retained relatively well, while Cd, Zn, and Ni were more mobile. The marine clay had higher retardation factors and lower diffusion coefficients, and its hydraulic conductivity was more compatible with Cr solution, than that of the lateritic soil. In general, the properties of the marine clay indicate that it has significant advantages over the lateritic soil as landfill liner material. PMID:18550353

  8. Effects of leachate concentration on the integrity of solidified clay liners.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Qian

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of landfill leachate concentration on the degradation behaviour of solidified clay liners and to propose a viable mechanism for the observed degradation. The results indicated that the unconfined compressive strength of the solidified clay decreased significantly, while the hydraulic conductivity increased with the leachate concentration. The large pore proportion in the solidified clay increased and the sum of medium and micro pore proportions decreased, demonstrating that the effect on the solidified clay was evident after the degradation caused by exposure to landfill leachate. The unconfined compressive strength of the solidified clay decreased with increasing leachate concentration as the leachate changed the compact structure of the solidified clay, which are prone to deformation and fracture. The hydraulic conductivity and the large pore proportion of the solidified clay increased with the increase in leachate concentration. In contrast, the sum of medium and micro pore proportions showed an opposite trend in relation to leachate concentration, because the leachate gradually caused the medium and micro pores to form larger pores. Notably, higher leachate concentrations resulted in a much more distinctive variation in pore proportions. The hydraulic conductivity of the solidified clay was closely related to the size, distribution, and connection of pores. The proportion of the large pores showed a positive correlation with the increase of hydraulic conductivity, while the sum of the proportions of medium and micro pores showed a negative correlation. PMID:24532708

  9. Laboratory measurements of contaminant attenuation of uranium mill tailings leachates by sediments and clay liners

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-04-01

    We discuss FY82 progress on the development of laboratory tools to aid in the prediction of migration potential of contaminants present in acidic uranium mill tailings leachate. Further, empirical data on trace metal and radionuclide migration through a clay liner are presented. Acidic uranium mill tailings solution from a Wyoming mill was percolated through a composite sediment called Morton Ranch Clay liner. These laboratory columns and subsequent sediment extraction data show: (1) As, Cr, Pb, Ag, Th and V migrate very slowly; (2) U, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and similar transition metals are initially immobilized during acid neutralization but later are remobilized as the tailings solution exhausts the clay liner's acid buffering capacity. Such metals remain immobilized as long as the effluent pH remains above a pH value of 4 to 4.5, but they become mobile once the effluent pH drops below this range; and (3) fractions of the Se and Mo present in the influent tailings solution are very mobile. Possible controlling mechanisms for the pH-dependent immobilization-mobilization of the trace metals are discussed. More study is required to understand the controlling mechanisms for Se and Mo and Ra for which data were not successfully collected. Using several column lengths (from 4.5 to 65 cm) and pore volume residence times (from 0.8 to 40 days) we found no significant differences in contaminant migration rates or types and extent of controlling processes. Thus, we conclude that the laboratory results may be capable of extrapolation to actual disposal site conditions.

  10. Contact of clay-liner materials with acidic tailings. II. Chemical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R.; Krupka, K.M.

    1981-09-01

    The ion speciation-solubility model WATEQ3 was used to model original aqueous solutions and solutions resulting from liner materials contacted with uranium mill tailings, synthetic mill tailings or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The modeling results indicate solution species which are in apparent equilibrium with respect to particular solids. These solids provide potential solubility controls for their corresponding dissolved constituents. The disequilibrium indices computed by WATEQ3 indicate amorphic Fe(OH)/sub 3/(A), Al0HO/sub 4/, alunite (KA1/sub 3/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/(OH)/sub 6/), gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/ . 2H/sub 2/O), celestite (SrSO/sub 4/), anglesite (PbSO/sub 4/) and MnHPO/sub 4/ may have precipitated in the contacted liner materials and may also provide solubility controls for their dissolved constituents. The disequilibrium indices also show that the solutions resulting from the interaction of Highland Mill tailings are oversaturated with K-, H-, and Na-jarosites ((K,H,Na)Fe/sub 3/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/(OH)/sub 6/). Because jarosite has been identified by x-ray diffraction as a precipitate in these reacted liner materials, it would appear that there is a kinetic barrier which prohibits jarosite from being an effective solubility control. Results of this study also show that the solubilities of many solid phases were pH dependent. This exploratory use of geochemical modeling has demonstrated its capability to test solubility hypotheses for clay liners reacted with tailings solutions and to guide the analyses of important constituents and parameters for these solutions. Geochemical modeling can be used, in parallel with characterization techniques for the solid phases, to support the presence of the solid phase and to guide the search for further solid phases. Geochemical modeling is also an effective tool in delineating the chemical causes for changes in permeability of liner materials.

  11. The impact of hazardous waste leachate on performance of clay liners.

    PubMed

    Mosavat, Nasim; Nalbantoglu, Zalihe

    2013-02-01

    Penetration of hazardous liquids through waste containment barriers exerts contamination and considerable alterations in geotechnical properties of clay liners. In general, these changes are attributed to the variation of the dielectric constant and the chemistry of the pore fluids which cause changes in soil structure. In the present study, a series of laboratory tests were performed on natural and contaminated clay soil permeated with different hazardous liquids: ethylene glycol and toluene which are generally found in petroleum-contaminated sites, possessing intermediate and low dielectric constants. Toluene was used in its pure form and ethylene glycol was used at various percentages of 0, 20, 40 and 60% by the volume of distilled water. In addition, natural sea water was also utilized as an inorganic fluid for permeation and salinization of the clay soil. The overall test results indicated that plasticity, sedimentation time, unconfined compressive strength, swell and compressibility generally decreased with increasing organic fluid/water concentration, while a slight increase in the permeability values was observed. Pure toluene resulted in diminution of plasticity and considerable flocculation of the particles which caused the soil to become granular. Sea water also caused particle flocculation and reduction in plasticity, swell potential and unconfined compressive strength, although it was noted that compressibility properties remained unchanged compared to distilled water. Finally, the correlation between the electrical resistivity and plasticity index values suggested that the electrical resistivity measurements can be used as a detecting technique for subsurface soil and waste barrier contamination. PMID:23188711

  12. Hydraulic performance of compacted clay liners under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    PubMed

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2015-10-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) are commonly used as hydraulic barriers in several landfill applications to isolate contaminants from the surrounding environment and minimize the escape of leachate from the landfill. Prior to waste placement in landfills, CCLs are often exposed to temperature fluctuations which can affect the hydraulic performance of the liner. Experimental research was carried out to evaluate the effects of daily thermal cycles on the hydraulic performance of CCLs under simulated landfill conditions. Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on different soil specimens after being exposed to various thermal and dehydration cycles. An increase in the CCL hydraulic conductivity of up to one order of magnitude was recorded after 30 thermal cycles for soils with low plasticity index (PI = 9.5%). However, medium (PI = 25%) and high (PI = 37.2%) plasticity soils did not show significant hydraulic deviation due to their self-healing potential. Overlaying the CCL with a cover layer minimized the effects of daily thermal cycles, and maintained stable hydraulic performance in the CCLs even after exposure to 60 thermal cycles. Wet-dry cycles had a significant impact on the hydraulic aspect of low plasticity CCLs. However, medium and high plasticity CCLs maintained constant hydraulic performance throughout the test intervals. The study underscores the importance of protecting the CCL from exposure to atmosphere through covering it by a layer of geomembrane or an interim soil layer. PMID:26241932

  13. The impact of leachate from clean coal technology waste on the stability of clay and synthetic liners. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.

    1998-02-01

    This project was developed to provide design criteria for landfill disposal sites used for sludges such as those generated using the Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) tested at the Public Service Company of Colorado`s Arapahoe Power Plant. The CCT wastes used were produced at the Arapahoe Plant Unit No. 4, which was equipped with the integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system installed under the Clean Coal Technology Program. The investigation emphasized the potential impact of clean coal technology materials (sodium and calcium injection systems and urea injection) on the permeability and stability characteristics of clay liner materials and the stability of synthetic liner materials. Flexible-wall permeameters were used to determine the hydraulic conductivities (HC) of the clay liner materials affected by various compactive conditions. Tests were conducted using the waste materials overlying the clay liner materials through wet/dry cycles, freeze/thaw cycles, and over 120-day periods. The impact of CCT materials on the characteristics of the clay liner materials studied in this project was minimal. The HC measurements of the waste/clay liner systems were similar to those of the water/clay liner systems. HC decreased for clay liners compacted at moisture levels slightly higher than optimum (standard Procter) and increased for liners compacted at moisture levels lower than optimum (standard Procter). Although some swelling was evident in the sodium materials, the sludge materials did not have a negative impact on the integrity of the liners over 120-day tests. Wet/dry cycles tended to result in lower HC, while freeze/thaw cycles substantially increased HC for the liners tested.

  14. Hydraulic performance of Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs) under combined temperature and leachate exposures.

    PubMed

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2014-12-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out to investigate the effect of thermo-chemical exposures on the hydraulic performance of Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs) in landfills. Hydraulic conductivity of most CCL specimens was increased by two to three times their initial values when exposed to 55 °C for 75 days. CCL specimens also experienced increases in their hydraulic conductivities when exposed to leachate at room temperature. This behaviour could be due to the decrease in viscosity when the permeant was changed from tap water to leachate. However, as the leachate exposure time exceeded the first 15 days, hydraulic conductivity readings decreased to as much as one order of magnitude after 75 days of leachate permeation at room temperature. The gradual decrease in the CCLs hydraulic conductivities was most likely due to chemical precipitation and clogging of pore voids within the soils which seemed to reduce the effective pore volume. The rate of hydraulic conductivity reduction due to leachate permeation was slower at higher temperatures, which was attributed to the lower permeant viscosity and lower clogging occurrence. The observed hydraulic behaviours were correlated to the physical, mineral, and chemical properties of the CCLs and described below. PMID:25212173

  15. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined the hydraulic conductivity evolution as function of dry density of Tunisian clay soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Follow the hydraulic conductivity evolution at long-term of three clay materials using the waste solution (pH=2.7). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined how compaction affects the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed the concentration of F and P and examined the retention of each soil. - Abstract: Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}, 2.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH = 2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  16. Geosynthetics in geoenvironmental engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Werner W.; Saathoff, Fokke

    2015-06-01

    Geosynthetics are planar polymeric products, which are used in connection with soil, rock or other soil-like materials to fulfill various functions in geoenvironmental engineering. Geosynthetics are of ever-growing importance in the construction industry. Sealing of waste storage facilities to safely prevent the emission of wastewater, landfill gas and contaminated dust as well as the diffusion of pollutants into the environment and coastal protection against storms and floods and reconstruction after natural disaster are important fields of application. We will give an overview of the various geosynthetic products. Two examples of the material problems related to geosynthetics are discussed in detail: the effect of creep on the long-term performance of geocomposite drains and the numerical simulation of the interaction of soil with geogrids. Both issues are of importance for the use of these products in landfill capping systems. The various functions, which geosynthetics may fulfill in the protection of coastal lines, are illustrated by case studies. The geosynthetic market is evaluated and economical and environmental benefits, as well as environmental side effects related to the use of geosynthetics, are discussed.

  17. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-01

    Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10(-10), 2.08 × 10(-9) and 6.8 × 10(-10)m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH=2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity. PMID:22980909

  18. An analytical model for volatile organic compound transport through a composite liner consisting of a geomembrane, a GCL, and a soil liner.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haijian; Jiang, Yuansheng; Zhang, Chunhua; Feng, Shijin

    2015-02-01

    An analytical model for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) transport through a composite liner consisting of a geomembrane (GM), a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and a soil liner (SL) was developed for the assessment of the performance of this triple liner system. Both advection through the defects of GM and diffusion in the intact GM were considered in the model, and dimensionless analytical solution was obtained. The soil concentration profiles obtained by the proposed analytical solution have a good agreement with those obtained by the finite-layer-based software POLLUTE v7. The effects of leachate head, length of the connected wrinkles, and the interface transmissivity of GM/GCL on the breakthrough curves of the liner system were then investigated. Results show that the 30-year base flux of the liner system for the case with leachate head = 10 m and length of the connected wrinkles = 1,000 m can be over 60 times greater than that of the pure diffusion case. The length of the connected wrinkles of the GM has greater influence on the base flux of the liner system than on the base concentration. The interface transmissivity has negligible effect on the solute breakthrough curves of the liner system for relatively low values of the length of the connected wrinkles (e.g., <100 m). The groundwater protection level achieved by GM/CCL is more effective than that by GM/GCL/SL in the earlier times. However, the steady state base flux for GM/GCL/SL can be seven to eight times lower than that for GM/CCL. The analytical solution can also be used for experimental data fitting, verification of complicated numerical models, and preliminary design of composite liners. PMID:25217284

  19. Steady-state analytical models for performance assessment of landfill composite liners.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haijian; Jiang, Yuansheng; Zhang, Chunhua; Feng, Shijin; Qiu, Zhanhong

    2015-08-01

    One-dimensional mathematical models were developed for organic contaminant transport through landfill composite liners consisting of a geomembrane (GM) and a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or a GM and a compacted clay liner (CCL). The combined effect of leakage through GM defects, diffusion in GM and the underlying soil liners, and degradation in soil liners were considered. Steady state analytical solutions were provided for the proposed mathematical models, which consider the different combinations of advection, diffusion, and degradation. The analytical solutions of the time lag for contaminant transport in the composite liners were also derived. The performance of GM/GCL and GM/CCL was analyzed. For GM/GCL, the bottom flux can be reduced by a factor of 4 when the leachate head decreases from 10 to 0.3 m. The influence of degradation can be ignored for GM/GCL. For GM/CCL, when the leachate head decreases from 10 to 0.3 m, the bottom flux decreases by a factor of 2-4. Leachate head has greater influence on bottom flux in case of larger degradation rate (e.g., half-life = 1 year) compared to the case with lower degradation rate (e.g., half-life = 10 years). As contaminant half-life in soil liner decreases from 10 to 1 year, bottom flux decreases by approximately 2.7 magnitudes of orders. It is indicated that degradation may have greater influence on time lag of composite liner than leachate head. As leachate head increases from zero to 10 m, time lag for GM/CCL can be reduced by 5-6 years. Time lag for the same composite liner can be reduced by 10-11 years as contaminant half-life decreases from 10 to 1 year. Reducing leachate head acting on composite liners and increasing the degradation capacity of the soil liner would be the effective methods to improve the performance of the composite liners. The proposed analytical solutions are relatively simple and can be used for preliminary design and performance assessment of composite liners. PMID:25893615

  20. Variation of crack intensity factor in three compacted clay liners exposed to annual cycle of atmospheric conditions with and without geotextile cover.

    PubMed

    Safari, E; Jalili Ghazizade, M; Abduli, M A; Gatmiri, B

    2014-08-01

    Performance of compacted clay liners commonly used as landfill barrier systems can be subject to decline in terms of hydraulic conductivity if left exposed to atmospheric conditions for an extended period of time prior to placement of overlaying layers. The resulting desiccation cracking can lead to increased hydraulic conductivity. Desiccation crack intensity was studied for three clayey soils commonly used for construction of landfill barrier system in a relatively large scale test setup exposed to real time atmospheric conditions over a complete annual cycle. A white separator geotextile cover was presumed to be capable of reducing the intensity of desiccation cracking through absorbing and maintaining higher amounts of moisture and reducing the temperature of the soil surface in comparison to a directly exposed soil surface. Desiccation cracking was monitored using a digital imaging technique for three compacted clay liners in two sets, one open to air and the second covered with the white geotextile. Crack intensity factor approached a relatively stable phase after certain cycles corresponding to atmospheric dry wet cycles. The results indicated that the white separator geotextile was capable of reducing the crack intensity factor by 37.4-45.9% throughout the experiment including the cyclic phase of desiccation cracking. During the stable phase, the maximum reduction in crack intensity factor of 90.4% as a result of applying geotextile cover was observed for the soil with the lowest plastic index and clay content and therefore the lowest magnitude of crack intensity factor. The other two soils with similar clay content but different plastic index showed 23.6% and 52.2% reductions in crack intensity factor after cyclic phase when covered with geotextile. PMID:24820661

  1. An analytical model for solute transport through a GCL-based two-layered liner considering biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Guan, C; Xie, H J; Wang, Y Z; Chen, Y M; Jiang, Y S; Tang, X W

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model for solute advection and dispersion in a two-layered liner consisting of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and a soil liner (SL) considering the effect of biodegradation was proposed. The analytical solution was derived by Laplace transformation and was validated over a range of parameters using the finite-layer method based software Pollute v7.0. Results show that if the half-life of the solute in GCL is larger than 1 year, the degradation in GCL can be neglected for solute transport in GCL/SL. When the half-life of GCL is less than 1 year, neglecting the effect of degradation in GCL on solute migration will result in a large difference of relative base concentration of GCL/SL (e.g., 32% for the case with half-life of 0.01 year). The 100-year solute base concentration can be reduced by a factor of 2.2 when the hydraulic conductivity of the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The 100-year base concentration was reduced by a factor of 155 when the half life of the contaminant in the SL was reduced by an order of magnitude. The effect of degradation is more important in approving the groundwater protection level than the hydraulic conductivity. The analytical solution can be used for experimental data fitting, verification of complicated numerical models and preliminary design of landfill liner systems. PMID:23906856

  2. Geosynthetics `95: Conference proceedings. Volume 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This document (in three volumes) represents the Geosynthetics `95 Conference Proceedings which took place in Nashville, Tennessee. Conference sponsors and organizers included the North American Geosynthetics Society, the Industrial Fabrics Association International, and the International Geosynthetics Society. The topics covered by technical papers presented at the meeting include the following: (in Volume 1) A keynote address, use of geosynthetics in walls, slopes and embankments, use of geosynthetics in construction of roads and railroads, foundations and commercial developments. The topics covered in Volume 2 include: technical advances and innovations, waste and liquid containment, and landfill design. Volume 3 topics include: geosynthetics durability and testing, and student papers.

  3. Load transfer mechanisms in anchored geosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryciw, Roman D.

    1990-12-01

    Success of an anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) depends on the satisfactory transfer of load between: the surface-deployed geosynthetic and anchors (typically ribbed reinforcing rods) driven into the slope; the geosynthetic and soil; and the anchors and soil. A study was performed to evaluate the load transfer mechanisms at these interfaces in an AGS. A mathematical model was developed for predicting the pullout resistance of plane ribbed inclusions. The model considered the contribution of both frictional and passive resistance components of pullout resistance. Optical observation of sand around the ribs was made to determine the behavior of soil around the moving ribs during pullout. A theoretical study disclosed that the optimum anchor orientation for stabilization of infinite slopes depends on several factors including slope angle and in-situ stresses. It typically ranges from 20 to 30 degree from the normal to the slope with the anchor driven upslope. An experimental study confirmed that the soil-geosynthetic interface friction angle may be correctly predicted from the residual or critical state friction angle of the sand. Equations were developed for load transfer at curved soil-fabric interfaces. An experimental study verified that the increases in soil stress with distance from the anchor may be predicted by the developed equations.

  4. Modeling of geosynthetic reinforced capping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanadham, B.V.S.; Koenig, D.; Jessberger, H.L.

    1997-12-31

    The investigation deals with the influence of a geosynthetic reinforcement on the deformation behavior and sealing efficiency of the reinforced mineral sealing layer at the onset of non-uniform settlements. The research program is mainly concentrated in studying the influence of reinforcement inclusion in restraining cracks and crack propagation due to soil-geosynthetic bond efficiency. Centrifuge model tests are conducted in the 500 gt capacity balanced beam Bochum geotechnical Centrifuge (Z1) simulating a differential deformation of a mineral sealing layer of a landfill with the help of trap-door arrangement. By comparing the performance of the deformed mineral sealing layer with and without geogrid, the reinforcement ability of the geogrid in controlling the crack propagation and permeability of the mineral swing layer is evaluated.

  5. Geosynthetic tubes for confining pressurized slurry: Some design aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Leshchinsky, D.; Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, O.; Gilbert, P.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper deals with geosynthetic tubes that are made of several geosynthetic sheets sewn together to form a shell capable of confining pressurized slurry. The slurry is sufficiently fluid so that it is possible to hydraulically fill the tube. After pumping the slurry in, the geosynthetic shell acts as a cheese cloth, allowing seepage of liquid out and retaining the solid particles. The availability of a wide selection of geosynthetics in terms of strength, durability, and permeability enables the use of hydraulically filled tubes in many applications, some of which may be considered critical (e.g., encapsulate contaminated soil). This paper presents an overview of an analysis to calculate both stresses in the geosynthetic and geometry of the tube. It also verifies the correctness and validity of the results obtained from a computer program developed to solve the problem. An instructive parametric study implies that the most critical factor needed to assure successful construction is the pumping pressure; a slight accidental increase in this pressure may result in a very significant stress increase in the encapsulating geosynthetic. Pressure increase beyond a certain level, however, has little influence on the storage capacity of the tube. Guidance in selecting an adequate geosynthetic, including partial safety factors and filtration properties, is also presented. Design aspects associated with required spacing of inlets and head loss of the slurry as it flows through the tube are considered outside the scope of this paper.

  6. Durability of organobentonite-amended liner for decelerating chloroform transport.

    PubMed

    He, Shichong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    Chloroform is added to landfill for suppressing methane generation, which however may transport through landfill liners and lead to contamination of groundwater. To decelerate chloroform transport, the enhanced sorption ability of clay liners following organobentonite addition was tested. In this study, we used batch sorption to evaluate sorption capacity of chloroform to organobentonite, followed by column tests and model simulations for assessing durability of different liners. Results show that adding 10% CTMAB-bentonite (organobentonite synthesized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) increased the duration of a bentonite liner by 88.5%. CTMAB-bentonite consistently showed the highest sorption capacity (Qm) among six typical organobentonites under various environmental conditions. The removal rate of chloroform by CTMAB-bentonite was 3.6-23 times higher than that by natural soils. According to the results derived by model simulation, a 70-cm 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibited much better durability than a 100-cm compact clay liner (CCL) and natural bentonite liner evidenced by the delayed and lower peak of eluent concentration. A minimum thickness of 65.8 cm of the 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner could completely sorb the chloroform in a 100-m-high landfill. The 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibiting much better durability has the promise for reducing environmental risk of chloroform in landfill. PMID:26874063

  7. SERVICE LIFE OF GEOSYNTHETICS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential service life of synthetic polymer materials (geosynthetics) is of immediate importance in all countries where municipal solid waste and hazardous waste landfills are lined with these materials because of the need to know more about the aging characteristics and the ...

  8. USE OF GEOSYNTHETICS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of geosynthetics is increasing in all types of waste management facilities. he use of flexible membranes for containment and geonets and geotextiles for conveyance of liquids and gases will allow the design community to develop innovative designs. owever, the use of geosy...

  9. Slow liner fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    {open_quotes}Slow{close_quotes} liner fusion ({approximately}10 ms compression time) implosions are nondestructive and make repetitive ({approximately} 1 Hz) pulsed liner fusion reactors possible. This paper summarizes a General Atomics physics-based fusion reactor study that showed slow liner feasibility, even with conservative open-line axial magnetic field confinement and Bohm radial transport.

  10. Optimized multisectioned acoustic liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    A critical examination is presented of the use of optimized axially segmented acoustic liners to increase the attenuation of a liner. New calculations show that segmenting is most efficient at high frequencies with relatively long duct lengths where the attenuation is low for both uniform and segmented liners. Statistical considerations indicate little advantage in using optimized liners with more than two segments while the bandwidth of an optimized two-segment liner is shown to be nearly equal to that of a uniform liner. Multielement liner calculations show a large degradation in performance due to changes in assumed input modal structure. Finally, in order to substantiate previous and future analytical results, in-house (finite difference) and contractor (mode matching) programs are used to generate theoretical attenuations for a number of liner configurations for liners in a rectangular duct with no mean flow. Overall, the use of optimized multisectioned liners (sometimes called phased liners) fails to offer sufficient advantage over a uniform liner to warrant their use except in low frequency single mode application.

  11. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners.

    PubMed

    Varank, Gamze; Demir, Ahmet; Top, Selin; Sekman, Elif; Akkaya, Ebru; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Bilgili, M Sinan

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm+10 cm, k=10(-8)m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE)+compacted clay liner (10 cm+10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn)+bentonite liner (2 cm)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn)+zeolite liner (2 cm)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. PMID:21621822

  12. Analysis on the Long Term Effect of Trial Test Road Constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at Recess UTHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrus, M. M. M.; Edayu, A. E.; Adnan, Z.; Ismail, B.

    2016-07-01

    The reinforcement used in soil for construction of roads on the soft clay is very important as it will determine the level of service of the road after it was built. Damage or defects on the road surface to be an indicator of the level of the road has dropped and shows the deformation of the road. For this research, an analysis has carried out on the long-term effect of trial test road constructed on Batu Pahat Soft Clay (BPSC) at RECESS UTHM. Through this research, the reinforcement using Rawell Geosynthetic Clay Liner (RGCL) was the best with the stability is 14964 N, a low flow is 2.69mm, stiffness modulus is 1766 MPa, the peak load is 739.4 N and a lower horizontal deformation which is 1.71 µm compared Woven Geotextile section and section without geotextile [1] [9]. In terms of deformation can be seen clearly from physical observations that section without geotextile suffered significant damage than others. Settlement of road can also be analyzed by a longitudinal section that plotted based on the result of leveling work. After that, settlements are more visible way on the right side of the road trial. Through lab tests conducted, it indicate that the coring samples obtained from sites of each section meets the specifications set by the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in terms of stability, flow and stiffness [1]. Through this study, a trial road built on soft soil can be used as a test site because of the uniqueness of these roads which has three different types of reinforcements.

  13. Application and analysis of anchored geosynthetic systems for stabilization of abandoned mine land slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vitton, S.J.; Whitman, F.; Liang, R.Y.; Harris, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    An anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) was used in the remediation of a landslide associated with an abandoned coal mine located near Hindman, Kentucky. In concept, AGS is a system that provides in-situ stabilization of soil slopes by combining a surface-deployed geosynthetic with an anchoring system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system involves tensioning a geosynthetic over a slope`s surface by driving anchors through the geosynthetic at a given spacing and distance. By tensioning the geosynthetic over the slope`s surface, a compressive load is applied to the slope. Benefits of AGS are described to include the following: (1) increase soil strength due to soil compression including increased compressive loading on potential failure surfaces, (2) soil reinforcement through soil nailing, (3), halt of soil creep, (4) erosion control, and (5) long term soil consolidation. Following installation of the AGS and one year of monitoring, it was found that the anchored geosynthetic system only provided some of the reported benefits and in general did not function as an active stabilization system. This was due in part to the inability of the system to provide and maintain loading on the geosynthetic. The geosynthetic, however, did tension when slope movement occurred and prevented the slope from failing. Thus, the system functioned more as a passive restraint system and appeared to function well over the monitoring period.

  14. Liner mounting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A mounting assembly includes an annular supporting flange disposed coaxially about a centerline axis which has a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart supporting holes therethrough. An annular liner is disposed coaxially with the supporting flange and includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart mounting holes aligned with respective ones of the supporting holes. Each of a plurality of mounting pins includes a proximal end fixedly joined to the supporting flange through a respective one of the supporting holes, and a distal end disposed through a respective one of the liner mounting holes for supporting the liner to the supporting flange while unrestrained differential thermal movement of the liner relative to the supporting flange.

  15. Hydraulic conductivity of landfill liners containing benzyltriethylammonium-bentonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Franklin, Pamela M.; Jaffe, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    Varying weight percentages of an Ottawa sand, benzyltriethylammonium-bentonite (BTEA-clay), Wyoming bentonite (Na-clay), and water were mixed uniformly and compacted to simulate sand-and-clay liners for waste-disposal facilities. The hydraulic conductivities of the compacted soil cores were measured in triplicate. The hydraulic conductivities of cores containing 92 percent sand and 8 percent BTEA-clay were about of 10-4 cm/s. The hydraulic conductivities of cores containing 92 percent sand and 8 percent Na-clay and of cores containing 88 percent sand, 8 percent Na-clay, and 4 percent BTEA-clay were about 10-8 cm/s.

  16. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  17. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on the global market performance of ball clay in 2009 and presents an outlook for its 2010 performance. Several companies mined ball call in the country including Old Hickey Clay Co., Kentucky-Tennessee Clay Co., and H.C. Spinks Clay Co. Information on the decline in ball clay imports and exports is also presented.

  18. Combustor liner durability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, V.

    1981-01-01

    An 18 month combustor liner durability analysis program was conducted to evaluate the use of advanced three dimensional transient heat transfer and nonlinear stress-strain analyses for modeling the cyclic thermomechanical response of a simulated combustor liner specimen. Cyclic life prediction technology for creep/fatigue interaction is evaluated for a variety of state-of-the-art tools for crack initiation and propagation. The sensitivity of the initiation models to a change in the operating conditions is also assessed.

  19. Clays, specialty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the specialty clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. The specialty clays mined in the U.S. are ball clay, fuller's earth, bentonite, fire clay, and kaolin. Sales of specialty clays in the U.S. were around 17 Mt in 1997. Approximately 53 kt of specialty clays were imported.

  20. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, four companies including H.C. Spinks Clay, Kentucky-Tennessee Clay, Old Hickory Clay and Unimin mined ball clay in four states. Based on a preliminary survey of the ball clay industry, production reached 1.32 Mt valued at $53.3 million. Tennessee was the leading ball clay producer state with 61% of domestic production, followed by Texas, Mississippi and Kentucky.

  1. Development of reactive artificial liner using recycled materials. 2. Chemical transport properties.

    PubMed

    Chin, Johnnie Y; Asavanich, Pitch; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Park, Jae K

    2013-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have so far been found to permeate through geomembranes within days and potentially pollute the surrounding groundwater if no sufficient depth of underlain soil barrier existed In order to cope with the fast breakthrough of VOCs through high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane in the composite liner system, a composite material made of recycled materials was proposed and its mechanical properties were analyzed in a previous study. This artificial liner was composed of crumb rubber, organo-clay, silica fume and epoxy binder together with an environmentally-friendly solvent recycled from paper pulping, and dimethyl sulfoxide as a plasticizer. In this study, the new artificial liner and a typical HDPE geomembrane were tested to compare their abilities to mitigate the movement of VOCs, specifically partition coefficient, diffusion coefficient and mass fluxes. It was found that this new artificial liner had 2-3 orders of magnitude less VOC mass flux than the HDPE geomembrane. The new artificial liner is thought to have a great potential for containing VOCs, even with a thickness of 2.5 cm, and as a substitute for the clay liner. The cost of installing the artificial liner was estimated to be $13.78/m(2). This is lower than the current geomembrane-related price of $19.70-26.91/m(2). The new liner might give a new perspective in future liner design and alleviate the concerning issue of groundwater pollution caused by landfill leachate, which might contain highly mobile VOCs. PMID:23628903

  2. IN-SERVICE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF GCLS IN LANDFILL COVERS - LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments using multi-species inorganic solutions (containing calcium and sodium) were conducted on specimens of a new geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) containing sodium bentonite to determine how cation exchange and desiccation affected the hydraulic conductivity. Calc...

  3. Clay Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  4. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the ball clay industry is provided. In 2000, sales of ball clay reached record levels, with sanitary ware and tile applications accounting for the largest sales. Ball clay production, consumption, prices, foreign trade, and industry news are summarized. The outlook for the ball clay industry is also outlined.

  5. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The article offers information on ball clay. Among the companies that mine ball clay in the U.S. are H.C. Spinks Clay, Kentucky-Tennessee Clay and Old Hickory Clay. In 2006, an estimated 1.2 million tons of the mineral was sold or used domestically and exported. Forty-percent of the total sales is accounted for ceramic floor and wall tile followed by sanitaryware and miscellaneous ceramics. Its average value was $ 45 per ton in 2006.

  6. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global ball clay mining industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It cites several firms that are involved in ball clay mining in the U.S., including HC Spins Clay Co. Inc., the Imerys Group and Old Hickory Clay Co. Among the products made from ball clay are ceramic tiles, sanitaryware, as well as fillers, extenders and binders.

  7. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas

    2014-01-01

    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay. PMID:24220149

  8. [Study on performance of double mineral base liner using modified bentonite as active material].

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Tie-Jun; Ren, He-Jun; Zhou, Rui; Hua, Fei; Wang, Bing; Hou, Yin-Ting; Dai, Yun

    2009-06-15

    The absorbing capacity of clay,roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C and dual-cation organobentonites of the pollutions in landfill leachate was compared through static experiment, and investigations were conducted into availability of controlling the permeating of landfill leachate and feasibility of removing the main pollutants in leachate on the double mineral base liners of clay/roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C and clay/dual-cation organobentonites by using nice landfill leachate as the filter fluid. Experiment indicated that the adsorption equilibrium time of landfill leachate in clay, roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C and dual-cation organobentonites was 24 h; the absorbing capacity of roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C and dual-cation organobentonites was larger than that of clay. Simultaneous the penetration coefficients of the two liners were respective 1.31 x 10(-8) cm x s(-1) and 2.80 x 10(-8) cm x s(-1); Double mineral base liners of clay/roasting bentonites by 450 degrees C owned larger absorbing capacity of NH4+, however, double mineral base liners of clay/dual-cation organobentonites had strong absorbing capacity of organic pollutants and the attenuation rate of COD was 33.82% higher than the other. Conclusion was drawn that different types of modified bentonite should be chosen as "the active layer" according to different styles of landfill pollutants. PMID:19662882

  9. EFFECTS OF SELECTED INORGANIC LEACHATES ON CLAY PERMEABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic conductivity test results for three field clays exposed to two inorganic chemicals are documented. The hydraulic conductivities of clays exposed to waste chemicals is an important consideration in the selection of a liner material for a hazardous waste containment facil...

  10. One-Liners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Nan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an exercise appropriate for all grade levels. This exercise is based on a book of Picasso's contour drawings called "Picasso's One-Liners," which combines a delightful assortment of one-line drawings with accompanying one-line quotes. Students are given a stack of copy paper and a black fine-tip marker. Students then take…

  11. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies — H.C. Spinks Clay Co., Inc., Imerys, Old Hickory Clay Co. and Unimin Corp. — mined ball clay in five U.S. states in 2012. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was 900 kt (992,000 st), with an estimated value of $42.3 million. This was a slight increase in tonnage from 886 kt (977,000 st), with a value of $40.9 million in 2011. Tennessee was the leading ball clay producing state, with 63 percent of domestic production, followed by Texas, Mississippi, Kentucky and Indiana. Reported ball clay production from Indiana probably was fire clay rather than ball clay. About 69 percent of total ball clay production was airfloat, 20 percent was crude and 11 percent was water-slurried.

  12. Transmissivity evolution through interface of composite liners under applied constraint.

    PubMed

    Diagne, M

    2011-08-01

    In landfill liners, geomembranes have defects that constitute preferential passages of leachate from rainwater percolation. Non-woven geotextiles are widely used in wastelandfills as materials having the functions of protection, separation, filtration and drainage. This study seeks to select geotextiles through an investigation conducted among landfill operators who commonly arise a geotextile in the geomembrane-clay interface to facilitate geomembrane welding and to prevent its puncture by angular materials. It also attempts to find out the influence of geotextile in a decimetric transmissivity cell size under 50 kPa stress and smooth ground surface. The results show that the transmissivity in composite liner interface is almost the same as the one calculated with the European standard EN ISO 12958. Transmissivity depends on the mechanical stress applied to the bottom liner, on the geotextile type in the interface and on the ground surface. PMID:20819848

  13. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  14. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  15. Clay Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  16. Discrete Analysis of Clay Layer Tensile Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lê, T. N. H.; Plé, O.; Villard, P.; Gotteland, P.; Gourc, J. P.

    2009-06-01

    The Discrete Element Method is used to investigate the tensile behaviour and cracks mechanisms of a clay material submitted to bending loading. It is the case of compacted clay liners in landfill cap cover application. Such as the soil tested in this study is plastic clay, the distinct elements model was calibrated with previous data results by taking into account cohesive properties. Various contact and cohesion laws are tested to show that the numerical model is able to reproduce the failure mechanism. Numerical results are extending to simulate a landfill cap cover.

  17. Configuration Effects on Liner Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jones, Michael G.; Howerton, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic performance of a duct liner depends not only on the intrinsic properties of the liner but also on the configuration of the duct in which it is used. A series of experiments is performed in the NASA Langley Research Center Curved Duct Test Rig (at Mach 0.275) to evaluate the effect of duct configuration on the acoustic performance of single degree of freedom perforate-over-honeycomb liners. The liners form the sidewalls of the duct's test section. Variations of duct configuration include: asymmetric (liner on one side and hard wall opposite) and symmetric (liner on both sides) wall treatment; inlet and exhaust orientation, in which the sound propagates either against or with the flow; and straight and curved flow path. The effect that duct configuration has on the overall acoustic performance, particularly the shift in frequency and magnitude of peak attenuation, is quantified. The redistribution of incident mode content is shown. The liners constitute the side walls of the liner test section and the scatter of incident horizontal order 1 mode by the asymmetric treatment and order 2 mode by the symmetric treatment into order 0 mode is shown. Scatter of order 0 incident modes into higher order modes is also shown. This redistribution of mode content is significant because it indicates that the liner design can be manipulated such that energy is scattered into more highly attenuated modes, thus enhancing liner performance.

  18. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  19. Preparations to ship EPICOR liners

    SciTech Connect

    Queen, S P

    1983-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of the hydrogen rich atmosphere of the 49 EPICOR II ion-exchange prefilter liners generated in the decontamination of radioactive water at TMI-2 will provide data to ensure safe storage and shipment of highly loaded ion-exchange media. This report discusses the prototype gas sampling tool used to breech the containment of the liners, the tool support equipment for sampling and inerting the liners, and the characterization program used for determining the radiolytic hydrogen generation rates in the liners.

  20. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, six companies mined fire clay in Missouri, Ohio and South Carolina. Production was estimate to be 300 kt with a value of $8.3 million. Missouri was the leading producer state followed by Ohio and South Carolina. For the third consecutive year, sales and use of fire clays have been relatively unchanged. For the next few years, sales of fire clay is forecasted to remain around 300 kt/a.

  1. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The state of the ball clay industry in 1999 is presented. Record highs in the sales and use of ball clay were attained in 1999 due to the continued strength of the U.S. economy. U.S. production was estimated at 1.25 million st for the year, with more than half of that amount mined in Tennessee. Details of the consumption, price, imports, and exports of ball clay in 1999 and the outlook for ball clay over the next few years are provided.

  2. Leakage performance of the GM + CCL liner system for the MSW landfill.

    PubMed

    Jingjing, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The contaminants in the landfill leachate press pose a grave threat to environment of the soil and the groundwater beneath the landfill. Despite there being strict requirements in relevant provisions of both domestic and foreign countries for the design of the bottom liner system. Pollution of the soil and the groundwater still took place in a number of landfills because of the leakage. To investigate the leakage rate of the liner systems, the minimum design requirements of the liner systems are summarized according to the provisions of four countries, including China, USA, Germany, and Japan. Comparative analyses using one-dimensional transport model are conducted to study the leakage performance of these liner systems composed of geomembrance (GM) and compacted clay layer (CCL) meeting the relevant minimum design requirements. Then parametric analyses are conducted to study the effects of the hydraulic head, the thickness of GM, the hydraulic conductivity of CCL, and so forth on the leakage performance of the liner system. It is concluded that the liner system designed according to the minimum design requirements of Germany provide the best antileakage performance, while that of Japan performs the lowest. The key parameters affecting the failure time of the liner system are summarized. Finally, some suggestions for the design of the liner systems are made according to the analyses. PMID:24719569

  3. Development of reactive artificial liner using recycled materials. 1. Mechanical properties and chemical compatibility.

    PubMed

    Chin, Johnnie Y; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Park, Jae K; Park, Daniel J

    2013-07-01

    There have been several studies showing that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can diffuse a geomembrane within days and migrate to groundwater and the surrounding environment. To ease the concern of potential pollution of the surrounding environment, an alternative artificial liner consisting of recycled materials is proposed. This composite liner consisted of recycled crumb rubber, organo-clay, silica fume, and epoxy binder. Dimethyl sulfoxide, an environmentally-friendly solvent recycled from paper pulp, was used as a plasticizer. The objective of this study was to determine the best combination of ingredients used at the initial stage and to develop artificial liners suitable for containing VOCs in leachate by comparing various physical properties. A series of screening tests including bending, tearing and elongating was performed to determine the most suitable mixture ratios. Then, more intensive tests were performed with the specimens that had the best physical properties. The new artificial liner demonstrated satisfactory mechanical properties with the minimum elongation and maximum strength after 40 years. Both artificial liners and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) specimens had ~136 kg cm(-2) after 4 months of thermal stress while the artificial liner had 40% less elongation at break than HDPE. The artificial liner's fully developed strength was about ten times stronger than HDPE. This new type of composite material that can be applied on site may provide a new perspective in liner design and alleviate the issue of potential groundwater pollution caused by landfill leachate and highly mobile VOCs which is a matter of much concern. PMID:23585500

  4. Leakage Performance of the GM + CCL Liner System for the MSW Landfill

    PubMed Central

    Jingjing, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The contaminants in the landfill leachate press pose a grave threat to environment of the soil and the groundwater beneath the landfill. Despite there being strict requirements in relevant provisions of both domestic and foreign countries for the design of the bottom liner system. Pollution of the soil and the groundwater still took place in a number of landfills because of the leakage. To investigate the leakage rate of the liner systems, the minimum design requirements of the liner systems are summarized according to the provisions of four countries, including China, USA, Germany, and Japan. Comparative analyses using one-dimensional transport model are conducted to study the leakage performance of these liner systems composed of geomembrance (GM) and compacted clay layer (CCL) meeting the relevant minimum design requirements. Then parametric analyses are conducted to study the effects of the hydraulic head, the thickness of GM, the hydraulic conductivity of CCL, and so forth on the leakage performance of the liner system. It is concluded that the liner system designed according to the minimum design requirements of Germany provide the best antileakage performance, while that of Japan performs the lowest. The key parameters affecting the failure time of the liner system are summarized. Finally, some suggestions for the design of the liner systems are made according to the analyses. PMID:24719569

  5. Manufacturing Complicated Shells And Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobol, Paul J.; Faucher, Joseph E.

    1993-01-01

    Explosive forming, wax filling, and any one of welding, diffusion bonding, or brazing used in method of manufacturing large, complicated shell-and-liner vessels or structures. Method conceived for manufacture of film-cooled rocket nozzles but applicable to joining large coaxial shells and liners in general.

  6. ACOUSTIC LINERS FOR TURBOFAN ENGINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minner, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed to design acoustic liners for turbofan engines. This program combines results from theoretical models of wave alternation in acoustically treated passages with experimental data from full-scale fan noise suppressors. By including experimentally obtained information, the program accounts for real effects such as wall boundary layers, duct terminations, and sound modal structure. The program has its greatest use in generating a number of design specifications to be used for evaluation of trade-offs. The program combines theoretical and empirical data in designing annular acoustic liners. First an estimate of the noise output of the fan is made based on basic fan aerodynamic design variables. Then, using a target noise spectrum after alternation and the estimated fan noise spectrum, a design spectrum is calculated as their difference. Next, the design spectrum is combined with knowledge of acoustic liner performance and the liner design variables to specify the acoustic design. Details of the liner design are calculated by combining the required acoustic impedance with a mathematical model relating acoustic impedance to the physical structure of the liner. Input to the noise prediction part of the program consists of basic fan operating parameters, distance that the target spectrum is to be measured and the target spectrum. The liner design portion of the program requires the required alternation spectrum, desired values of length to height and several option selection parameters. Output from the noise prediction portion is a noise spectrum consisting of discrete tones and broadband noise. This may be used as input to the liner design portion of the program. The liner design portion of the program produces backing depths, open area ratios, and face plate thicknesses. This program is written in FORTRAN V and has been implemented in batch mode on a UNIVAC 1100 series computer with a central memory requirement of 12K (decimal) of 36 bit words.

  7. Liner setting tool and method

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, J.L.; Fraser, J.M. III; Melenyzer, G.J.

    1989-07-18

    This paper describes a liner setting apparatus for setting a liner suspended from a tubular string in a subterranean well and for releasing from a set liner hanger to permit retrieval of the liner setting apparatus and the tubular string. The liner hanger including gripping members for bitting engagement with side walls of the wellbore in response to axial movement of the tubular string, the liner setting apparatus, and the liner within the well bore, and interior threads for threaded engagement and disengagement with the liner setting apparatus. The liner setting apparatus comprising: a tubular mandrel; a nut positioned about the tubular mandrel; a setting ring assembly positioned about the tubular mandrel and axially spaced between the nut and the upper end of the tubular mandrel. The setting ring assembly including: an annular torque control ring, one or more fingers each axially movable with respect to the torque control ring; a plurality of sleeves each positioned about the tubular mandrel and axially movable with respect to the torque control ring and with respect to each other, an actuating member radially moveable from a lock position such that the actuating member is within one of the plurality of locking recesses and the locking sleeves are axially adjacent each other, to an unlock position such that the actuating member is moved radially outwardly by engagement with the ramp surface during axial movement of the annular setting ring assembly, such that the actuating member separates the sleeves axially during radially outward movement thereof and thereby axially moves each of the one or more fingers to the unlock position.

  8. Megabar liner experiments on Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Bartsch, R.R.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Using pulsed power to implode a liner onto a target can produce high shock pressures for many interesting application experiments. With a Pegasus II facility in Los Alamos, a detailed theoretical analysis has indicated that the highest attainable pressure is around 2 Mbar for a best designed aluminum liner. Recently, an interesting composite liner design has been proposed which can boost the shock pressure performance by a factor 4 over the aluminum liner. This liner design was adopted in the first megabar (Megabar-1) liner experiment carried out on Pegasus last year to verify the design concept and to compare the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities on liner integrity with the code simulations. We present briefly the physical considerations to explain why the composite liner provides the best shock pressure performance. The theoretical modeling and performance of Megabar-1 liner are discussed. Also presented are the first experimental results and the liner design modification for our next experiment.

  9. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  10. Polypropylene Fiber Amendments to Alleviate Initiation and Evolution of Desiccation Cracks in Bentonite Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuller, M.; Gebrenegus, T. B.

    2009-12-01

    Sodium saturated bentonite is a major constituent of compacted and geosynthetic liners and covers for hydraulic isolation of hazardous waste, playing a crucial role in protecting groundwater and other environmental resources from harmful landfill leachates. Due to favorable hydraulic properties (i.e., low permeability), large surface area and associated adsorption capacity for particular contaminants, and relative abundance and low cost, bentonite is the material of choice in many modern waste containment systems. However, long-term interactions between bentonite and waste leachate and exposure of bentonite to desiccative conditions may significantly deteriorate liner or cover performance and ultimately lead to failure of containment systems. In the presented study, the potential usefulness of polypropylene fiber amendments for preventing initiation and evolution of desiccation cracks, while maintaining acceptably low permeability under saturated conditions was investigated. Well-controlled desiccation experiments were conducted using initially saturated bentonite-sand mixtures that contained varying amounts of polypropylene fibers. Initiation and evolution of surface cracks were observed by means of X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT). Advanced image analysis techniques were employed to characterize and quantify 2-D and 3-D features of the evolving crack networks. Potential negative effects of employed additives on saturated hydraulic conductivity were determined with fully-automated Flexible Wall Permeametry (FWP).

  11. FGD liner experiments with wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsch, W.J.; Ahn, C.; Wolfe, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment often requires impermeable liners not only to protect groundwater resources but also to ensure that there is adequate water in the wetland to support appropriate aquatic life, particularly wetland vegetation. Liners or relatively impervious site soils are very important to the success of constructed treatment wetlands in areas where ground water levels are typically close to the ground surface. This study, carried out at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, investigated the use of FGD material from sulfur scrubbers as a possible liner material for constructed wetlands. While several studies have investigated the use of FGD material to line ponds, no studies have investigated the use of this material as a liner for constructed wetlands. They used experimental mesocosms to see the effect of FGD liner materials in constructed wetlands on water quality and on wetland plant growth. This paper presents the results of nutrient analyses and physicochemical investigation of leachate and surface outflow water samples collected from the mesocosms. Plant growth and biomass of wetland vegetation are also included in this paper. First two year results are reported by Ahn et al. (1998, 1999). The overall goal of this study is the identification of advantages and disadvantages of using FGD by-product as an artificial liner in constructed wetlands.

  12. Strain gage installation and survivability on geosynthetics used in flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeremy A.

    The use of foil type strain gages on geosynthetics is poorly documented. In addition, very few individuals are versed in proper installation techniques or calibration methods. Due to the limited number of knowledgeable technicians there is no information regarding the susceptibility of theses gages to errors in installation by inexperienced installers. Also lacking in the documentation related to the use of foil type strain gages on geosynthetics is the survivability of the gages in field conditions. This research documented procedures for installation, calibration, and survivability used by the project team to instruments a full scale field installation in Marked Tree, AR. This research also addressed sensitivity to installation errors on both geotextile and geogrid. To document the process of gage installation an experienced technician, Mr. Joe Ables, formerly of the UASCE Waterways Experiment Station, was consulted. His techniques were combined with those discovered in related literature and those developed by the research team to develop processes that were adaptable to multiple gage geometries and parent geosynthetics. These processes were described and documented in a step by step manner with accompanying photographs, which should allow virtually anyone with basic electronics knowledge to install these gages properly. Calibration of the various geosynthetic / strain gage combinations was completed using wide width tensile testing on multiple samples of each material. The tensile testing process was documented and analyzed using digital photography to analyze strain on the strain gage itself. Calibration factors for each geosynthtics used in the full scale field testing were developed. In addition, the process was thoroughly documented to allow future researchers to calibrate additional strain gage and geosynthetic combinations. The sensitivity of the strain gages to installation errors was analyzed using wide width tensile testing and digital photography to

  13. Design, construction, and performance of a single geomembrane liner system at a residual waste disposal site in western Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Khilji, K.H.; Gould, S.E.; Hamel, T.W.; Thomas, W.B.

    1997-11-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of a single geomembrane-lined deep valley coal ash/coal mine refuse disposal site to maintain ground-water quality after 10 years of operation. The site occupies over 81 hectares (ha) [200 acres (ac)] in western Pennsylvania. The effectiveness of the liner system was evaluated based on an assessment of the site`s ground-water quality. The liner system was designed in 1983. Selection of geosynthetics and drainage materials, interface shear values, and construction control methods were based on laboratory testing, field investigations, slope stability analyses, and construction load analyses. Diligent construction quality control was applied during all aspects of site development. To examine the site`s ground-water quality, the ground-water monitoring network was sampled approximately once every six weeks for one year. Results of statistical analyses show that the liner system is effectively separating disposal site leachate from ground water and that the site is not degrading ground water.

  14. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with specific sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  15. Deformation Behaviors of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Walls on Shallow Weak Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, You-Seong; Won, Myoung-Soo

    In this study, the fifteen-month behavior of two geosynthetic reinforced soil walls, which was constructed on the shallow weak ground, was measured and analyzed. The walls were backfilled with clayey soil obtained from the construction site nearby, and the safety factors obtained from general limit equilibrium analysis were less than 1.3 in both wall. To compare with the measured data from the real GRS walls and unreinforced soil mass, a series of finite element method (FEM) analyses on two field GRS walls and unreinforced soil mass were conducted. The FEM analysis results showed that failure plane of unreinforced soil mass was consistent with the Rankine active state, but failure plane did not occur in GRS walls. In addition, maximum horizontal displacements and shear strains in GRS walls were 50% smaller than those found in unreinforced soil mass. Modeling results such as the maximum horizontal displacements, horizontal pressure, and geosynthetic tensile strengths in GRS wall have a god agreement with the measured data. Based on this study, it could be concluded that geosynthetic reinforcement are effective to reduce the displacement of the wall face and/or the deformation of the backfill soil even if the mobilized tensile stress after construction is very small.

  16. Ball clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Four companies — H.C. Spinks Clay Co., Inc., Imerys Group, Old Hickory Clay Co., and Unimin Corp. — mined ball clay in four states in 2011. Production, on the basis of preliminary data, was 940 kt (1.04 million st) with an estimated value of $44.2 million. This is a 3-percent increase in tonnage from 912 kt (1.01 million st) with a value of $41.3 million that was produced in 2010. Tennessee was the leading producing state with 63 percent of domestic production, followed by Texas, Mississippi and Kentucky. About 69 percent of production was airfloat, 20 percent was crude and 11 percent was water-slurried.

  17. Surface treatment using metal foil liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvey, Ray

    1989-01-01

    A metal foil liner can be used to seal large area surfaces. Characteristics of the two-layer foil liner are discussed. Micrographs for foil-to-foil, foil-to-composite, visible seams, and hidden seams are examined.

  18. Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielak, Gerald W.; Premo, John W.; Hersh, Alan S.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program goal is to reduce aircraft noise by 10 EPNdB by the year 2000 relative, to 1992 technology. The improvement goal for nacelle attenuation is 25% relative to 1992 technology by 1997 and 50% by 2000. The Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts Task work by Boeing presented in this document was in support of these goals. The basis for the technical approach was a Boeing study conducted in 1993-94 under NASA/FAA contract NAS1-19349, Task 6, investigating broadband acoustic liner concepts. As a result of this work, it was recommended that linear double layer, linear and perforate triple layer, parallel element, and bulk absorber liners be further investigated to improve nacelle attenuations. NASA LaRC also suggested that "adaptive" liner concepts that would allow "in-situ" acoustic impedance control also be considered. As a result, bias flow and high-temperature liner concepts were also added to the investigation. The major conclusion from the above studies is that improvements in nacelle liner average acoustic impedance characteristics alone will not result in 25% increased nacelle noise reduction relative to 1992 technology. Nacelle design advancements currently being developed by Boeing are expected to add 20-40% more acoustic lining to hardwall regions in current inlets, which is predicted to result in and additional 40-80% attenuation improvement. Similar advancements are expected to allow 10-30% more acoustic lining in current fan ducts with 10-30% more attenuation expected. In addition, Boeing is currently developing a scarf inlet concept which is expected to give an additional 40-80% attenuation improvement for equivalent lining areas.

  19. Geochemical impact of a low-pH cement liner on the near field of a repository for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, Urs; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Kosakowski, Georg

    In Switzerland the geological storage in the Opalinus Clay formation is the preferred option for the disposal of spent fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The waste will be encapsulated in steel canisters and emplaced into long tunnels that are backfilled with bentonite. Due to uncertainties in the depth of the repository and the associated stress state, a concrete liner might be used for support of emplacement tunnels. Numerical reactive transport calculations are presented that investigate the influence of a concrete liner on the adjacent barrier materials, namely bentonite and Opalinus Clay. The geochemical setup was tailored to the specific materials foreseen in the Swiss repository concept, namely MX-80 bentonite, low-pH concrete (ESDRED) and Opalinus Clay. The heart of the bentonite model is a new conceptual approach for representing thermodynamic properties of montmorillonite which is formulated as a multi-component solid solution comprised of several end-members. The presented calculations provide information on the extent of pH fronts, on the sequence and extent of mineral phase transformations, and on porosity changes on cement-clay interfaces. It was found that the thickness of the zone containing significant mineralogical alterations is at most a few tens of centimeters thick in both the bentonite and the Opalinus Clay adjacent to the liner. Near both interfaces, bentonite-concrete liner and concrete liner-Opalinus Clay, the precipitation of minerals causes a reduction in the porosity. The effect is more pronounced and faster at the concrete liner-Opalinus Clay interface. The simulations reveal that significant pH-changes (i.e. pH > 9) in bentonite and Opalinus Clay are limited to small zones, less than 10 cm thick at the end of the simulations. It is not to be expected that the zone of elevated pH will extend much further at longer times.

  20. High Temperature Acoustic Liner Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Posey, Joe W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes work currently in progress at Langley on liner concepts that employ structures that may be suitable for broadband exhaust noise attenuation in high speed flow environments and at elevated temperatures characteristic of HSCT applications. Because such liners will need to provide about 10 dB suppression over a 2 to 3 octave frequency range, conventional single-degree-of-freedom resonant structures will not suffice. Bulk absorbers have the needed broadband absorption characteristic; however, at lower frequencies they tend to be inefficient.

  1. Field trip guidebook on environmental impact of clays along the upper Texas coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Theron D.; Ming, Douglas W.; Tuck, Lisa Kay

    1991-01-01

    The field trip was prepared to provide an opportunity to see first hand some the environmental hazards associated with clays in the Houston, Texas area. Because of the very high clay content in area soils and underlying Beaumont Formation clay, Houston is a fitting location to host the Clay Mineral Society. Examinations were made of (1) expansive soils, (2) subsidence and surface faulting, and (3) a landfill located southeast of Houston at the Gulf Coast Waste Disposal Authority where clay is part of the liner material.

  2. Reinforcing Liner For Composite Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgeson, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed fiber-reinforced liner for graphite/epoxy fuel tank prevents metal-foil leakage barrier from detaching at low temperatures. Consists of epoxy containing fibers of Spectra 1000. Tank holds inner layers of foil, adhesive, and proposed liner. Liner much thinner than shell, adds little weight, and subtracts little volume. Lined composite tank used to hold liquids from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. Not suitable for oxygen, because organic materials in liner oxidized quickly.

  3. Investigation of degree of saturation in landfill liners using electrical resistivity imaging.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Sahadat

    2015-05-01

    During construction of compacted clay liners and evapotranspiration (ET) covers, quality control involves laboratory and field tests in individual lifts. However, the available methods may be inadequate to determine non-uniform compaction conditions, poor bonding of lifts, and/or variable soil composition. Moreover, the applicability of the available methods is restricted, in many instances, when spatial variability of the subsurface is expected. Resistivity Imaging (RI) is a geophysical method employed to investigate a large area in a rapid and non-destructive way. High resistivity of clay liner soil is an indication of a low degree of saturation, high air-filled voids, and poor lift bonding. To utilize RI as a quality control tool in a landfill liner, it is important to determine the saturation condition of the compacted soils because compaction and permeability of liner soil are functions of degrees of saturation. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the degree of saturation of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill liner, using RI. Electrical resistivity tests were performed in the laboratory, at varied moisture contents and dry unit weights, on four types of soil samples, i.e., highly plastic clay (CH), low plastic clay (CL), Ca-bentonite, and kaolinite. According to the experimental results, electrical resistivity of the specimens decreased as much as 15.3 times of initial value with increase in the degrees of saturation from 23% to 100%. In addition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) substantially affected resistivity. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model was developed to correlate electrical resistivity with degree of saturation and CEC using experimental results. Additionally, RI tests were conducted on compacted clay liners to determine the degrees of saturation, and predicted degrees of saturation were compared with the in-situ density tests. The study results indicated that the developed model can be utilized for liner soils having CEC

  4. Clay for Little Fingers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Joan Bouza

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the renewed interest in clay as a modeling compound in early childhood programs; describes the nature of clay and presents a working vocabulary. Suggests methods of working with clay, including introducing clay to children, discovering its uses, clean up, firing clay, and finishing baked clay. Includes activity suggestions and…

  5. EVALUATION OF LANDFILL-LINER DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of landfill-liner designs is evaluated in terms of the slope, drainage length, and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the lateral drainage layer, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil liner, and the fraction of the area under a synthetic liner where ...

  6. Preventing Cracks in Silicon-Reactor Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1987-01-01

    Correct placement helps prevent contamination while eliminating crack-causing deposits. Repositioning quartz liner in silicon fluidized-bed reactor prevents cracking of liner when cools. Liner protects stainless-steel walls of reactor from abrasion by particles in fluidized bed. Prevents contamination of newly formed silicon by material abraded from wall and ensures high-quality product.

  7. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Seven companies mined fire clay in four states during 2003. From 1984 to 1992, production declined to 383 kt (422,000 st) from a high of 1.04 Mt (1.14 million st) as markets for clay-based refractories declined. Since 1992, production levels have been erratic, ranging from 383 kt (422,000 st) in 1992 and 2001 to 583 kt (642,000 st) in 1995. Production in 2003, based on preliminary data, was estimated to be around 450 kt (496,000 st) with a value of about $10.5 million. This was about the same as in 2002. Missouri remained the leading producer state, followed by South Carolina, Ohio and California.

  8. A new landfill liner to reduce ground-water contamination from heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, T.D.; Vesilind, P.A.

    1998-11-01

    A series of permeameters (columns) was used to evaluate the effects of the percolation of water and 1,000 {micro}g/mL of zinc chloride solution through a mixture of montmorillonite clay, sand, and lime. The column test results show that the addition of lime changes the chemical and physical properties of the clay. The hydraulic conductivities for the mixture of clay with different percentages of lime at first increases with increasing lime and then decreases with increasing lime. The breakthrough curves indicate that the Zn(II) capture is increased and Zn(II) breakthrough is delayed with increasing lime addition. Lime also enhances the clay/lime mixture`s ability to resist puncture by sharp objects. Based on the effects of lime on Zn(II) captured by the clay, an explanation for the interacting effects of lime and Zn(II) capture on changing hydraulic conductivity is suggested. The results of this research demonstrate the potential of using lime-treated clay liners for landfills. Such liners would have lower hydraulic conductivity, better resistance to puncture, and enhanced ability to capture heavy metals.

  9. Acoustic Liner for Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael G.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to reduce aircraft noise in the communities surrounding airports by significantly attenuating the noise generated by the turbomachinery, and enhancing safety by providing a containment barrier for a blade failure. Acoustic liners are used in today's turbofan engines to reduce noise. The amount of noise reduction from an acoustic liner is a function of the treatment area, the liner design, and the material properties, and limited by the constraints of the nacelle or casement design. It is desirable to increase the effective area of the acoustic treatment to increase noise suppression. Modern turbofan engines use wide-chord rotor blades, which means there is considerable treatment area available over the rotor tip. Turbofan engines require containment over the rotors for protection from blade failure. Traditional methods use a material wrap such as Kevlar integrated with rub strips and sometimes metal layers (sandwiches). It is possible to substitute the soft rub-strip material with an open-cell metallic foam that provides noise-reduction benefits and a sacrificial material in the first layer of the containment system. An open-cell foam was evaluated that behaves like a bulk acoustic liner, serves as a tip rub strip, and can be integrated with a rotor containment system. Foams can be integrated with the fan-containment system to provide sufficient safety margins and increased noise attenuation. The major innovation is the integration of the foam with the containment.

  10. Accommodation of liquid metal by cavity liners

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1989-03-01

    Present liquid metal breeder reactor cell liner designs appear adequate to contain postulated leakages of lithium-lead alloy in an air or steam atmosphere and to contain lithium when inert atmospheres are present. If an air or steam atmosphere may be present in a cavity where lithium amy accumulate under postulated accident conditions, then consideration of stainless steel liners and further testing is recommended. Lithium testing of faulted liners should also be considered. SOFIRE II and WATRe computer codes may be useful in establishing liner design requirements and in determining water release from concrete behind the liners (potential hydrogen production) for postulated leakages to steel-lined concrete cavities.

  11. Characterization of EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 16

    SciTech Connect

    Yesso, J D; Pasupathi, V; Lowry, L

    1982-08-01

    As part of the overall TMI-2 Information and Examination Program, EPICOR II Prefilter Liner 16 was examined to provide information to aid in the development of technology for safely processing highly loaded ion-exchange media. The characterization program included sampling and analyses of the liner contents, including ion-exchange media, liquids and gases, as well as examinations of the liner interior and exterior. This report details the handling of the liner, sampling and analysis of the contents, and the examinations of the liner.

  12. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1994-07-26

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

  13. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Andrew H.; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  14. Novel Materials for Prosthetic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragolta, Carolina I.; Morford, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury that reduce quality of life. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material. Moisture vapor permeability was tested by incubating four aerogel varieties with an artificial sweat solution at 37.0 C and less than 20% relative humidity for 24 hours. Two aerogel varieties were eliminated from the study due to difficulties in handling the material, and further testing proceeded with Pyrogel in 2.0 and 6.0 mm thicknesses. Force distribution was tested by compressing samples under a load of 4448 N at a rate of 2.5 mm/min. Biofilm formation was tested in a high-shear CDC Biofilm Reactor. Results showed that 2.0 mm Pyrogel blanket allowed 55.7 plus or minus 28.7% of an artificial sweat solution to transpire, and 35.5 plus or minus 27.8% transpired through 6.0 mm Pyrogel blanket. Samples also outperformed the load-bearing capabilities of existing liner materials. No statistically significant difference was found between the two Pyrogel thicknesses for either moisture vapor permeability or force distribution. In addition, biofilm formation results showed no change between the two Pyrogel thicknesses. The breathability and load bearing properties of aerogel make it a suitable material for application to prosthetic liners.

  15. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000’s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose

  16. Evaluation of oxidative behavior of polyolefin geosynthetics utilizing accelerated aging tests based on temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengjia

    Polyolefin geosynthetics are susceptible to oxidation, which eventually leads to the reduction in their engineering properties. In the application of polyolefin geosynthetics, a major issue is an estimate of the materials durability (i.e. service lifetime) under various aging conditions. Antioxidant packages are added to the polyolefin products to extend the induction time, during which antioxidants are gradually depleted and polymer oxidation reactions are prevented. In this PhD study, an improved laboratory accelerating aging method under elevated and high pressure environments was applied to evaluate the combined effect of temperature and pressure on the depletion of the antioxidants and the oxidation of polymers. Four types of commercial polyolefn geosynthetic materials selected for aging tests included HDPE geogrid, polypropylene woven and nonwoven geotextiles. A total of 33 different temperature/pressure aging conditions were used, with the incubation duration up to 24 months. The applied oven temperature ranged from 35°C to 105°C and the partial oxygen pressure ranged from 0.005 MPa to 6.3 MPa. Using the Oxidative Induction Time (OIT) test, the antioxidant depletion, which is correlated to the decrease of the OIT value, was found to follow apparent first-order decay. The OIT data also showed that, the antioxidant depletion rate increased with temperature according to the Arrhenius equation, while under constant temperatures, the rate increased exponentially with the partial pressure of oxygen. A modified Arrhenius model was developed to fit the antioxidant depletion rate as a function of temperature and pressure and to predict the antioxidant lifetime under various field conditions. This study has developed new temperature/pressure incubation aging test method with lifetime prediction models. Using this new technique, the antioxidant lifetime prediction results are close to regular temperature aging data while the aging duration can be reduced considerably

  17. Filling The Gap of LINERs' SED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curell, Gerold; Petersen, Vaughn; Flohic, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are found in nearly half of nearby galaxies. Some of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in these galaxies may harbor radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs), which may launch powerful outflows in the form of jets and wind. These outflows can influence the growth of the AGN by feedback. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the AGN can help us determine which LINERs have RIAFs. However, published SEDs of LINERs are sparse and lack the data needed to constrain the accretion flow models.In order to build more complete SEDs of LINERs, we present the results of observations of 4 LINERS with APEX in the sub-mm. We also analyzed archival observations of 4 LINERS with ALMA. Finally, we put upper limits on the gamma-ray flux of 12 LINERS with archival FERMI observations.

  18. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Richeson, Jeff; Schmidt, George; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Turchi, Peter J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC). For the successful implementation of the scheme, plasma jets of the requisite momentum flux density need to be produced. Their transport over sufficiently large distances (a few meters) needs to be assured. When they collide and merge into a liner, relative differences in velocity, density and temperature of the jets could give rise to instabilities in the development of the liner. Variation in the jet properties must be controlled to ensure that the growth rate of the instabilities are not significant over the time scale of the liner formation before engaging with the target plasma. On impact with the target plasma, some plasma interpenetration might occur between the liner and the target. The operating parameter space needs to be identified to ensure that a reasonably robust and conducting contact surface is formed between the liner and the target. A mismatch in the "impedance" between the liner and the target plasma could give rise to undesirable shock heating of the liner leading to increased entropy (thermal losses) in the liner. Any irregularities in the liner will accentuate the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities during the compression of the target plasma by the liner.

  19. Segmented Liner to Control Mode Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Brown, Martha C.

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic performance of duct liners can be improved by segmenting the treatment. In a segmented liner treatment, one stage of liner reduces the target sound and scatters energy into other acoustic modes, which are attenuated by a subsequent stage. The Curved Duct Test Rig is an experimental facility in which sound incident on the liner can be generated in a specific mode and the scatter of energy into other modes can be quantified. A series of experiments is performed in which the baseline configuration is asymmetric, that is, a liner is on one side wall of the test duct and the wall opposite is acoustically hard. Segmented liner treatment is achieved by progressively replacing sections of the hard wall opposite with liner in the axial direction, from 25% of the wall surface to 100%. It is found that the energy scatter from the (0,0) to the (0,1) mode reduces as the percentage of opposite wall treatment increases, and the frequency of peak attenuation shifts toward higher frequency. Similar results are found when the incident mode is of order (0,1) and scatter is into the (0,0) mode. The propagation code CDUCT-LaRC is used to predict the effect of liner segmenting on liner performance. The computational results show energy scatter and the effect of liner segmentation that agrees with the experimental results. The experiments and computations both show that segmenting the liner treatment is effective to control the scatter of incident mode energy into other modes. CDUCT-LaRC is shown to be a valuable tool to predict trends of liner performance with liner configuration.

  20. IRIDIUM LINER FOR NASA 5 LBF CLASS MATERIAL TEST CHAMBER IRIDIUM LINER FOR ATLANTIC RESEARCH CORPORA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    IRIDIUM LINER FOR NASA 5 LBF CLASS MATERIAL TEST CHAMBER IRIDIUM LINER FOR ATLANTIC RESEARCH CORPORATION 5 LBF CLASS ROCKET CHAMBER 25 LBF CLASS 75 HFC 25 TAC CERAMIC COMPOSITE ROCKET CHAMBER FROM REFRACTURY COMPOSITES INC. PURCHASE ORDER C-551941-

  1. Graphical Acoustic Liner Design and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An interactive liner design and impedance modeling tool comprises software utilized to design acoustic liners for use in constrained spaces, both regularly and irregularly shaped. A graphical user interface allows the acoustic channel geometry to be drawn in a liner volume while the surface impedance calculations are updated and displayed in real-time. A one-dimensional transmission line model may be used as the basis for the impedance calculations.

  2. Killer clays! Natural antibacterial clay minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, L.B.; Holland, M.; Eberl, D.D.; Brunet, T.; De Courrsou, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    The clay chemical properties that may be important in medicine were investigated. It was found that natural clay minerals can have striking and very specific effects on microbial populations. The effects can range from potentially enhanced microbial growth to complete sterilization. This paper presents evidence that natural clay minerals can be effective antimicrobial agents.

  3. Elastomer liners for geothermal tubulars Y267 EPDM Liner Program:

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasuna, A.R.; Davis, D.L.; Flickinger, J.E.; Stephens, C.A.

    1987-12-01

    The elastomer, Y267 EPDM, has been identified as a hydrothermally stable material which can operate at temperatures in excess of 320/sup 0/C. The goal of the Y267 Liner Program was to demonstrate the feasibility of using this material as a liner for mild steel tubulars to prevent or mitigate corrosion. If successful, the usage of EPDM lined pipe by the geothermal community may have a significant impact on operating costs and serve as a viable alternative to the use of alloyed tubulars. Tooling procedures were developed under this program to mold a 0.64 cm (0.25'') thick Y267 EPDM liner into a tubular test section 61 cm (2') in length and 19.1 cm (7.5'') in diameter (ID). A successful effort was made to identify a potential coupling agent to be used to bond the elastomer to the steel tubular wall. This agent was found to withstand the processing conditions associated with curing the elastomer at 288/sup 0/C and to retain a significant level of adhesive strength following hydrothermal testing in a synthetic brine at 260/sup 0/C for a period of 166 hours. Bonding tests were conducted on specimens of mild carbon steel and several alloys including Hastelloy C-276. An objective of the program was to field test the lined section of pipe mentioned above at a geothermal facility in the Imperial Valley. Though a test was conducted, problems encountered during the lining operation precluded an encouraging outcome. The results of the field demonstration were inconclusive. 6 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Effects of Liner Geometry on Acoustic Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Tracy, Maureen B.; Watson, Willie R.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2002-01-01

    Current aircraft engine nacelles typically contain acoustic liners consisting of perforated sheets bonded onto honeycomb cavities. Numerous models have been developed to predict the acoustic impedance of these liners in the presence of grazing flow, and to use that information with aeroacoustic propagation codes to assess nacelle liner noise suppression. Recent efforts have provided advances in impedance education methodologies that offer more accurate determinations of acoustic liner properties in the presence of grazing flow. The current report provides the results of a parametric study, in which a finite element method was used to assess the effects of variations of the following geometric parameters on liner impedance, with and without the presence of grazing flow: percent open area, sheet thickness, sheet thickness-to-hole diameter ratio and cavity depth. Normal incidence acoustic impedances were determined for eight acoustic liners, consisting of punched aluminum facesheets bonded to hexcell honeycomb cavities. Similar liners were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center grazing incidence tube to determine their response in the presence of grazing flow. The resultant data provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of these perforate, single-layer liner parameters on the acoustic impedance of the liner.

  5. Testing and Characterization of CMC Combustor Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Verrilli, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple combustor liner applications, both segmented and fully annular designs, have been configured for exposure in NASA's High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR). The segmented liners were attached to the rig structure with SiC/SiC fasteners and exposed to simulated gas turbine conditions for nearly 200 hours. Test conditions included pressures of 6 atm., gas velocity of 42 m/s, and gas temperatures near 1450 C. The temperatures of both the cooled and combustion flow sides of the liners were measured using optical and contact measurement techniques. Minor weight loss was observed, but the liners remained structural sound, although damage was noted in some fasteners.

  6. Cracks in Flow Liners and Their Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Raju, I. S.

    2005-01-01

    Cracks were detected in flow liners at the gimbal joints in the LH2 feedlines of the space shuttle's main engines. The cracks initiated at defects in the drainage slots of the flow liners and grew due to high cycle fatigue. Fracture mechanics analyses were conducted to evaluate the life of the liners. These analyses yielded extremely short lives in the presence of small surface or corner cracks. A high fidelity detection method, edge replication, was used to detect the very small cracks. The detected cracks were removed by polishing and the surface quality of the slots was reestablished to improve life of the liners.

  7. CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESES

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS HAVE BEEN USED EXTENSIVELY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS. THIS OVERVIEW DESCRIBES THE SALIENT STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS CLAY MATERIALS AND EXTENDS THE DISCUSSION TO PILLARED CLAYS AND REAGENTS SUPPORTED ON CLAY MATERIALS. A VARIET...

  8. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  9. Estimation of leakage rates through flexible membrane liners

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.B.; McBean, E.A.; Sykes, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Leakage rate calculations for both low-permeability soil liners and composite liners using flexible membrane liners (FMLs) overlying low-permeability soil are developed. Latin-Hypercube simulations with uncertainty assigned to the soil liner hydraulic conductivity value and the spatial frequency of FML holes are used to examine the variability in the liner leakage rats. The low-permeability soil hydraulic conductivity is the parameter with the greatest effect on landfill liner leakages rates. Composite liners have a significant impact on reducing leakage rates through the landfill liner.

  10. Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner

    DOEpatents

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.

  11. F-Area Type IV Tank Liner Life Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersman, B. J.

    2005-10-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is proceeding with closure of the Type IV waste tanks that are located in F-area. These tanks are underground concrete vaults and have been in service since the early 1960's. The interior of the concrete vault is lined with carbon steel plate. The time necessary for the carbon steel plate to disintegrate was estimated. These calculations assumed that the concrete structure was degraded and therefore the exterior of the liner is exposed to the soil conditions. Two corrosion mechanisms were examined: pitting and general corrosion. Data from soil corrosion studies performed by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) was utilized to estimate the corrosion rate of the carbon steel liner. The following conclusions were made: (1) Cecil Clay Loam in Atlanta, Georgia, a soil tested by the NBS, is representative of the SRS soil conditions near the F-Area Type IV tanks. (2) The time to tank wall disintegration due to general corrosion only was estimated to be 770 years after concrete vault failure. (3) The time to tank wall disintegration due to pitting corrosion was estimated to be 675 years after concrete vault failure. (4) The lower bound estimate for the time to tank wall disintegration is 675 years.

  12. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  13. Water movement through an experimental soil liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Cartwright, K.; Panno, S.V.; Hensel, B.R.; Rehfeldt, K.R.; Herzog, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A field-scale soil liner was constructed to test whether compacted soil barriers in cover and liner systems could be built to meet the U.S. EPA saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement (???1 x 10-7 cm s-1). The 8 x 15 x 0.9m liner was constructed in 15 cm compacted lifts using a 20,037 kg pad-foot compactor and standard engineering practices. Water infiltration into the liner has been monitored for one year. Monitoring will continue until water break through at the base of the liner occurs. Estimated saturated hydraulic conductivities were 2.5 x 10-9, 4.0 x 10-8, and 5.0 x 10-8 cm s-1 based on measurements of water infiltration into the liner by large- and small-ring infiltrometers and a water balance analysis, respectively. Also investigated in this research was the variability of the liner's hydraulic properties and estimates of the transit times for water and tracers. Small variances exhibited by small-ring flux data suggested that the liner was homogeneous with respect to infiltration fluxes. The predictions of water and tracer breakthrough at the base of the liner ranged from 2.4-12.6 y, depending on the method of calculation and assumptions made. The liner appeared to be saturated to a depth between 18 and 33 cm at the end of the first year of monitoring. Transit time calculations cannot be verified yet, since breakthrough has not occurred. The work conducted so far indicates that compacted soil barriers can be constructed to meet the saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement established by the U.S. EPA.A field-scale soil liner was constructed to test whether compacted soil barriers in cover and liner systems could be built to meet the U.S. EPA saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement (??? 1 ?? 10-7 cm s-1). The 8 ?? 15 ?? 0.9 m liner was constructed in 15 cm compacted lifts using a 20.037 kg pad-foot compactor and standard engineering practices. Water infiltration into the liner has been monitored for one year. Monitoring will continue until water

  14. Accommodation of liquid metal by cavity liners

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1988-10-01

    Present liquid metal breeder reactor cell liner designs appear adequate to contain postulated leakages of lithium-lead alloy in an air or steam atmosphere and to contain lithium when inert atmospheres are present. If an air or steam atmosphere may be present in a cavity where lithium may accumulate under postulated accident conditions, then consideration of stainless steel liners and further testing is recommended. Lithium testing of faulted liners should also be considered. SOFIRE II and WATRE computer codes may be useful in establishing liner design requirements and in determining water release from concrete behind the liners (potential hydrogen production) for postulated leakages to steel-lined concrete cavities. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  15. Stabilized Liner Compressor: The Return of Linus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchi, Peter; Frese, Sherry; Frese, Michael; Mielke, Charles; Hinrichs, Mark; Nguyen, Doan

    2015-11-01

    To access the lower cost regime of magneto-inertial fusion at megagauss magnetic field-levels requires the use of dynamic conductors in the form of imploding cylindrical shells, aka, liners. Such liner implosions can compress magnetic flux and plasma to attain fusion conditions, but are subject to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, both in the launch and recovery of the liner material and in the final few diameters of implosion. These instabilities were overcome in the Linus program at the Naval Research Laboratory, c. 1979, providing the experimentally-demonstrated basis for repetitive operation and leading to an economical reactor concept at low fusion gain. The recent ARPA-E program for low-cost fusion technology has revived interest in this approach. We shall discuss progress in modeling and design of a Stabilized Liner Compressor (SLC) that extends the earlier work to higher pressures and liner speeds appropriate to potential plasma targets. Sponsored by ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  16. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-06-28

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane.

  17. Geotechnical evaluation of Turkish clay deposits: a case study in Northern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Ekrem; Bayraktutan, M. Salih

    2008-09-01

    Clay deposits in Oltu-Narman basins (Erzurum, northern Turkey) have been studied to determine their engineering properties and to evaluate their uses for geotechnical applications. These deposits are concentrated in two different stratigraphic horizons namely the Late Oligocene and the Early Miocene sequences. Clay-rich fine-grained sedimentary units are deposited in shallow marine and lagoonar mixed environments. Their clay minerals originated by the alteration of Eocene calc-alkaline island-arc volcanics, preferably from pyroclastics (trachite and andesite flow), which form the basement for the Oltu depression. Smectite group clay minerals are found abundant in clay deposits. The experimental results show that the clay soils have high plasticity behaviors and low hydraulic conductivity properties. The optimum water content, the free swell, and the swelling pressure of clay samples decreased and the maximum dry unit weight of clay samples increased under high temperature. Consequently, it is concluded that the expanding of clay soils is an important soil problem that cannot be avoided in the significant parts of Oltu city and its villages. However, the soils of clay-rich layers in the outcrops-section of clay deposits can be successfully used to build compacted clay liners for landfill systems and to construct vertical and horizontal barriers for protection of ground water and for preventing soil pollution in geotechnical applications.

  18. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of three LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, R. W.; Keel, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Three galaxies known to be LINERs were observed spectroscopically in the ultraviolet in an attempt to detect the presumed nonthermal continuum source thought to be the source of photoionization in the nuclei. NGC 4501 was found to be too faint for study with the IUE spectrographs, while NGC 5005 had an extended ultraviolet light profile. Comparison with the optical light profile of NGC 5005 indicates that the ultraviolet source is distributed spatially in the same manner as the optical starlight, probably indicating that the ultraviolet excess is due to a component of hot stars in the nucleus. These stars contribute detectable absorption features longward of 2500 A; together with optical data, the IUE spectra suggest a burst of star formation about 1 billion yr ago, with a lower rate continuing to produce a few OB stars. In NGC 4579, a point source contributing most of the ultraviolet excess is found that is much different than the optical light distribution. Furthermore, the ultraviolet to X-ray spectral index in NGC 4579 is 1.4, compatible with the UV to X-ray indices found for samples of Seyfert galaxies. This provides compelling evidence for the detection of the photoionizing continuum in NGC 4579 and draws the research fields of normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei closer together. The emission-line spectrum of NGC 4579 is compared with calculations from a photoionization code, CLOUDY, and several shock models. The photoionization code is found to give superior results, adding to the increasing weight of evidence that the LINER phenomenon is essentially a scaled-down version of the Seyfert phenomenon.

  19. VPS GRCop-84 Liner Development Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Tim; Hickman, Robert; Pickens, Tim

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with Plasma Processes, Inc. (PPI) to fabricate combustion chamber liners using the Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) process. Multiple liners of a variety of shapes and sizes have been created. Each liner has been fabricated with GRCop-84 (a copper alloy with chromium and niobium) and a functional gradient coating (FGC) on the hot wall. While the VPS process offers versatility and a reduced fabrication schedule, the material system created with VPS allows the liners to operate at higher temperatures, with maximum blanch resistance and improved cycle life. A subscal unit (5K lbf thrust class) is being cycle tested in a LOX/Hydrogen thrust chamber assembly at MSFC. To date, over 75 hot-fire tests have been accumulated on this article. Tests include conditions normally detrimental to conventional materials, yet the VPS GRCop-84 liner has yet to show any signs of degradation. A larger chamber (15K lbf thrust class) has also been fabricated and is being prepared for hot-fire testing at MSFC near the end of 2003. Linear liners have been successfully created to further demonstrate the versatility of the process. Finally, scale up issues for the VPS process are being tackled with efforts to fabricate a full size, engine class liner. Specifically, a liner for the SSME's Main Combustion Chamber (MCC) has recently been attempted. The SSME size was chosen for convenience, since its design was readily available and its size was sufficient to tackle specific issues. Efforts to fabricate these large liners have already provided valuable lessons for using this process for engine programs. The material quality for these large units is being evaluated with destructive analysis and these results will be available by the end of 2003.

  20. Refractory liner materials used in slagging gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    Refractory liners are used on the working face of entrained flow slagging gasifiers that react coal, petroleum coke, or other carbon feedstock with oxygen and water. The refractory liners protect the gasifier shell from elevated temperatures, corrosive slags, and thermal cycling during gasification. Refractory failure is primarily by two means, corrosive dissolution and spalling. High chrome oxide refractory materials have evolved as the material of choice to line the hot face of gasifiers, yet the performance of these materials does not meet the service requirements of industry. A review of gasifier liner materials, their evolution, issues impacting their performance, and future research direction are discussed.

  1. Development of plasma spray coated cylinder liners

    SciTech Connect

    Tricard, M.; Hagan, J.; Redington, P.; Subramanian, K.; Haselkorn, M.

    1996-09-01

    Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150 C to over 300 C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.

  2. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  3. Beryllium liner implosion experiments on the Z accelerator in preparation for magnetized liner inertial fusiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, R. D.; Martin, M. R.; Lemke, R. W.; Greenly, J. B.; Jennings, C. A.; Rovang, D. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Slutz, S. A.; Nakhleh, C. W.; Ryutov, D. D.; Davis, J.-P.; Flicker, D. G.; Blue, B. E.; Tomlinson, K.; Schroen, D.; Stamm, R. M.; Smith, G. E.; Moore, J. K.; Rogers, T. J.; Robertson, G. K.; Kamm, R. J.; Smith, I. C.; Savage, M.; Stygar, W. A.; Rochau, G. A.; Jones, M.; Lopez, M. R.; Porter, J. L.; Matzen, M. K.

    2013-05-01

    Multiple experimental campaigns have been executed to study the implosions of initially solid beryllium (Be) liners (tubes) on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The implosions were driven by current pulses that rose from 0 to 20 MA in either 100 or 200 ns (200 ns for pulse shaping experiments). These studies were conducted in support of the recently proposed Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)], as well as for exploring novel equation-of-state measurement techniques. The experiments used thick-walled liners that had an aspect ratio (initial outer radius divided by initial wall thickness) of either 3.2, 4, or 6. From these studies, we present three new primary results. First, we present radiographic images of imploding Be liners, where each liner contained a thin aluminum sleeve for enhancing the contrast and visibility of the liner's inner surface in the images. These images allow us to assess the stability of the liner's inner surface more accurately and more directly than was previously possible. Second, we present radiographic images taken early in the implosion (prior to any motion of the liner's inner surface) of a shockwave propagating radially inward through the liner wall. Radial mass density profiles from these shock compression experiments are contrasted with profiles from experiments where the Z accelerator's pulse shaping capabilities were used to achieve shockless ("quasi-isentropic") liner compression. Third, we present "micro-Ḃ" measurements of azimuthal magnetic field penetration into the initially vacuum-filled interior of a shocked liner. Our measurements and simulations reveal that the penetration commences shortly after the shockwave breaks out from the liner's inner surface. The field then accelerates this low-density "precursor" plasma to the axis of symmetry.

  4. Beryllium liner implosion experiments on the Z accelerator in preparation for magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R. D.; Martin, M. R.; Lemke, R. W.; Jennings, C. A.; Rovang, D. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Slutz, S. A.; Nakhleh, C. W.; Davis, J.-P.; Flicker, D. G.; Rogers, T. J.; Robertson, G. K.; Kamm, R. J.; Smith, I. C.; Savage, M.; Stygar, W. A.; Rochau, G. A.; Jones, M.; and others

    2013-05-15

    Multiple experimental campaigns have been executed to study the implosions of initially solid beryllium (Be) liners (tubes) on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The implosions were driven by current pulses that rose from 0 to 20 MA in either 100 or 200 ns (200 ns for pulse shaping experiments). These studies were conducted in support of the recently proposed Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)], as well as for exploring novel equation-of-state measurement techniques. The experiments used thick-walled liners that had an aspect ratio (initial outer radius divided by initial wall thickness) of either 3.2, 4, or 6. From these studies, we present three new primary results. First, we present radiographic images of imploding Be liners, where each liner contained a thin aluminum sleeve for enhancing the contrast and visibility of the liner's inner surface in the images. These images allow us to assess the stability of the liner's inner surface more accurately and more directly than was previously possible. Second, we present radiographic images taken early in the implosion (prior to any motion of the liner's inner surface) of a shockwave propagating radially inward through the liner wall. Radial mass density profiles from these shock compression experiments are contrasted with profiles from experiments where the Z accelerator's pulse shaping capabilities were used to achieve shockless (“quasi-isentropic”) liner compression. Third, we present “micro-B-dot ” measurements of azimuthal magnetic field penetration into the initially vacuum-filled interior of a shocked liner. Our measurements and simulations reveal that the penetration commences shortly after the shockwave breaks out from the liner's inner surface. The field then accelerates this low-density “precursor” plasma to the axis of symmetry.

  5. Drapery assembly including insulated drapery liner

    DOEpatents

    Cukierski, Gwendolyn

    1983-01-01

    A drapery assembly is disclosed for covering a framed wall opening, the assembly including drapery panels hung on a horizontal traverse rod, the rod having a pair of master slides and means for displacing the master slides between open and closed positions. A pair of insulating liner panels are positioned behind the drapery, the remote side edges of the liner panels being connected with the side portions of the opening frame, and the adjacent side edges of the liner panels being connected with a pair of vertically arranged center support members adapted for sliding movement longitudinally of a horizontal track member secured to the upper horizontal portion of the opening frame. Pivotally arranged brackets connect the center support members with the master slides of the traverse rod whereby movement of the master slides to effect opening and closing of the drapery panels effects simultaneous opening and closing of the liner panels.

  6. Communicating with Clay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit on clay that is centered around sign language in which students explore the slab method of working with clay. States that each student picks a letter of the sign language alphabet and fashions a clay hand to depict the letter. (CMK)

  7. CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Fitzsimmons; Dave Grimmett; Bryan McEnerney

    2007-01-31

    This report provides detailed test results consisting of test data and post-test inspections from Task 1 ''Cooled Liner Coupon Development and Test'' of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources--Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The primary objective of this development and test program is to verify that ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liner materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will successfully withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) designed and fabricated the cooled liner test assembly article that was tested in a slagging gasifier at CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The test program conducted in 2006 met the objective of operating the cooled liner test article at slagging conditions in a small scale coal gasifier at CETC-O for over the planned 100 hours. The test hardware was exposed to at least 30 high temperature excursions (including start-up and shut-down cycles) during the test program. The results of the testing has provided valuable information on gasifier startup and required cooling controls in steady state operation of future advanced gasifiers using similar liners. The test program also provided a significant amount of information in the areas of CMC materials and processing for improved capability in a gasifier environment and insight into CMC liner fabrication that will be essential for near-term advanced gasifier projects.

  8. Liner target interaction experiments on Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Hockaday, M.P.; Chrien, R.E.; Bartsch, R.

    1995-09-01

    The Los Alamos High Energy Density Physics program uses capacitively driven low voltage, inductive-storage pulse power to implode cylindrical targets for hydrodynamics experiments. Once a precision driver liner was characterized an experimental series characterizing the aluminum target dynamics was performed. The target was developed for shock-induced quasi-particle ejecta experiments including holography. The concept for the Liner shock experiment is that the driver liner is used to impact the target liner which then accelerates toward a collimator with a slit in it. A shock wave is set up in the target liner and as the shock emerges from the back side of the target liner, ejecta are generated. By taking a laser hologram the particle distribution of the ejecta are hoped to be determined. The goal for the second experimental series was to characterize the target dynamics and not to measure and generate the ejecta. Only the results from the third shot, Pegasus II-26 fired April 26th, 1994, from the series is discussed in detail. The second experimental series successfully characterized the target dynamics necessary to move forward towards the planned quasi-ejecta experiments.

  9. Animal waste containment in anaerobic lagoons lined with compacted clays

    SciTech Connect

    Reddi, L.N.; Davalos, H.

    2000-03-01

    The practice of animal waste containment has recently drawn much interest from public and regulatory agencies in agriculture-oriented states such as Kansas and North Carolina. In this paper, the debate surrounding the practice is outlined, and results from a research investigation pertinent to the state of Kansas are presented. The research investigation involved two phases. In the first phase, compacted specimens of Kansas soils were tested with animal waste as the influent. The key objective of this phase of research was to assess the range of seepage quantities and the transport characteristics of nitrogen in the ammonium form (NH{sub 4}-N) through the compacted soils. Results from this phase indicated a steady increase of microbial counts in the liquid effluent. However, biological clogging did not appear to be prominent during the NH{sub 4}-N breakthrough time period. The results indicate significant differences in microbial uptake of NH{sub 4}-N among samples of the same soil type. In the second phase, analytical and numerical solutions were used to simulate ammonium transport in the field-scale liners and to estimated upper-bound travel times and final concentrations of NH{sub 4}-N in the underlying soils. Results form this phase showed drastic differences in travel times and end concentrations of NH{sub 4}-N among liners prepared from the same soil type. The potential for significant retardation, decay, and saturation levels of NH{sub 4}-N in clay liners suggests that liner thickness is an important parameter. It is concluded that mass transfer characteristics of liner material, cation exchange capacity and microbial uptake in particular, should be important considerations in the design of animal waste lagoon liners.

  10. The Ringloc liner compared with the Hexloc liner in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Olof, Sköldenberg; Mats, Salemyr; Olle, Muren; Åke, Johansson; Torbjörn, Ahl; Henrik, Bodén

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the 10-year survival rate, pelvic osteolysis frequency and linear head penetration rate of the Hexloc and Ringloc liners used together with a partially threaded porous and hydroxyapatite coated cup and the Bi-Metric uncemented femoral stem. The 15-year results for the cup with the Hexloc liner are also reported. We included 332 consecutive hips (166 Hexloc and 166 Ringloc) on 281 patients in the study. Revisions of prosthesis components were recorded and pelvic osteolytic lesions were assessed using radiographs and computed tomography. The linear head penetration rate was measured using the Martell method. The 10-year survival rate of the liner with revision due to liner wear and/or osteolysis as endpoint was 88% for the Hexloc liner and 98% for the Ringloc liner. The 15-year survival rate of the Hexloc liner was 67%. Pelvic osteolysis was found in 27% of the Hexloc and 19% of the Ringloc hips. After 15 years, 53% of the Hexloc hips had developed an osteolytic lesion. The linear head penetration rate was 0.16 mm/year for the Hexloc liner and 0.12 mm/year for the Ringloc liner. This paper is the first to describe the rapidly deteriorating survival up to 15 years with the old generation gamma-in-air sterilized polyethylene used in Hexloc liners. The newer Ringloc liner with the ArCom™ polyethylene has superior clinical results but a linear wear rate and frequency of osteolytic lesions that is higher than expected. PMID:21808678

  11. Evaluation of liners for a uranium-mill tailings disposal site: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.; Barnes, S.M.; Silviera, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy is conducting a program designed to reclaim or stabilize inactive uranium-mill tailings sites. This report presents the status of the Liner Evaluation Program. The purpose of the study was to identify eight prospective lining materials or composites for laboratory testing. The evaluation was performed by 1) reviewing proposed regulatory requirements to define the material performance criteria; 2) reviewing published literature and communicating with industrial and government experts experienced with lining materials and techniques; and 3) characterizing the tailings at three of the sites for calcium concentration, a selection of anions, radionuclides, organic solvents, and acidity levels. The eight materials selected for laboratory testing are: natural soil amended with sodium-saturated montmorillonite (Volclay); locally available clay in conjunction with an asphalt emulsion radon suppression cover; locally available clay in conjunction with a multibarrier radon suppression cover; rubberized asphalt membrane; hydraulic asphalt concrete; chlorosulfonated polyethylene (hypalon) or high-density polyethylene; bentonite, sand and gravel mixture; and catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The materials will be exposed in test units now being constructed to conditions such as wet/dry cycles, temperature cycles, oxidative environments, ion-exchange elements, etc. The results of the tests will identify the best material for field study. The status report also presents the information gathered during the field studies at Grand Junction, Colorado. Two liners, a bentonite, sand and gravel mixture, and a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane, were installed in a prepared trench and covered with tailings. The liners were instrumented and are being monitored for migration of moisture, radionuclides, and hazardous chemicals. The two liner materials will also be subjected to accelerated laboratory tests for a comparative assessment.

  12. Clays in prebiological chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M.; Oro, J.; Odom, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The ways in which clays have been utilized in studies of prebiological chemistry are reviewed, and an assessment is given of the possible role of clays in prebiological systems. The adsorption of organic molecules on clays has been demonstrated, as has the synthesis of bioorganic monomers in the presence of clays. For instance, amino acids, purines and pyrimidines have been obtained from carbon monoxide and nitric acid in the presence of clays at relatively high temperatures (250-325 C). The oligomerization of biochemical monomers, mediated by clays, has also been shown to result in the formation of polymer molecules basic to life. Clays have also been found to affect the condensation of mononucleotides to oligonucleotides.

  13. Consequence analysis of a liner breach due to steam under the liner

    SciTech Connect

    HIMES, D.A.

    1999-06-01

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are estimated for a steam release from tank C-106 associated with a breach of the tank liner due to formation of steam under the liner after dry-out of the sludge layer in the tank. The consequences are shown to be well below the most restrictive risk guidelines.

  14. Performance of a Checkerboard Liner With Uncertain Impedances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. H.; Watson, W. R.

    2005-01-01

    The current fleet of large commercial aircraft has successfully achieved FAA noise certifications because of, in part, the successful application of uniform passive duct liner treatments to control engine system noise. One goal of NASA's engine system noise reduction program is to develop technologies to improve the sound absorbing properties of duct liner treatments so that they remain effective in modern turbo fan engines. One such technology being studied is checkerboard or periodic axially and circumferentially segmented liners. A preliminary assessment of the potential of this technology was conducted by applying uncertainties associated with manufacturing, installation, source structure, and tonal frequency to a liner developed using deterministic design methods and generating a measure of improvement with respect to a uniform liner subjected to the same uncertainties. Deterministic design and analysis of the candidate checkerboard liner showed that it obtains a 1.5 dB per duct aspect ratio improvement in liner attenuation over a similarly designed uniform liner. When uncertainties in liner impedances, source structure, and frequency are considered, the performance of the checkerboard liner drops off dramatically. The final results of this paper show that the candidate checkerboard liner has a less than 25 percent chance of outperforming the uniform liner when moderate levels of uncertainty are considered. It is important to note that this study did not include the effects of mean flow on liner performance and, more important to note, that as a gradient based optimization process was used to design the checkerboard liner, it is almost certain that a global optimal design was not found for the candidate checkerboard liner. Had it been possible to find a better deterministically performing checkerboard liner, the probability that this candidate liner would outperform the uniform liner would certainly have been higher.

  15. Composite liner design to maximize the shock pressure beyond megabars

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.

    1996-09-01

    Among the solid liners made of a single material which are imploded onto a target under the same driving condition, the aluminum liner produces the highest shock pressure. The authors propose the composite liner design which can increase the shock pressure several times over the best performance obtainable from an aluminum liner. They have also developed a general formulation to optimize the composite liner design for any driving current, and derived a set of very useful scaling relations. Finally, the authors present some 1-D simulations of the optimal composite liners to be fielded at Pegasus and Procyon in the upcoming megabar experiments.

  16. Use of FGD as an impervious liner

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.E.; Butalia, T.S.

    1998-07-01

    Increasing generation of coal combustion products (CCPs), particularly flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material, has led utilities to look for beneficial uses of these products. This paper presents one such utilization application of CCPs, i.e., the use of FGD material as an impervious liner for ponds and lagoons. The construction of a full scale lagoon using compacted FGD as a liner is presented. The project was undertaken primarily to address two critical questions, (1) what is the quality of water that permeates through an FGD liner and (2) what is the quantity of water permeating through a field compacted FGD fill of known thickness? The effects of construction processes on the behavior of compacted FGD are evaluated. The monitoring of the performance of the lagoon liner is discussed. Preliminary results indicate that the permeability of the field compacted FGD liner is reducing with time and is approaching the EPA recommended value of 1 x 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec for waste containment facilities.

  17. Use of FGD as an impervious liner

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.E.; Butalia, T.S.

    1998-04-01

    Increasing generation of coal combustion products (CCPs), particularly flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material, has led utilities to look for beneficial uses of these products. This paper presents one such utilization application of CCPs, i.e., the use of FGD material as an impervious liner for ponds and lagoons. The construction of a full scale lagoon using compacted FGD as a liner is presented. The project was undertaken primarily to address two critical questions, (1) what is the quality of water that permeates through an FGD liner and (2) what is the quantity of water permeating through a field compacted FGD fill of known thickness? The effects of construction processes on the behavior of compacted FGD are evaluated. The monitoring of the performance of the lagoon liner is discussed. Preliminary results indicate that the permeability of the field compacted FGD liner is reducing with time and is approaching the EPA recommended value of 1x10{sup -7} cm/sec for waste containment facilities.

  18. MiniBooNE liner integrity study

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Stefanski, Phil Martin and Jeff Sims

    2001-11-09

    The civil construction for the MiniBooNE project includes a 50-m decay path and beam absorbers. The decay path is a six-foot diameter corrugated metal pipe (CMP). To prevent activation of the groundwater, the CMP and beam absorbers are surrounded by crushed aggregate, and enclosed in a double-walled geotextile membrane, referred to as the liner. The minimum distance from the beam centerline to the liner is 10 feet. The double-wall construction of the liner forms three regions, the containment volume, the interstitial volume, and the exterior. Each of these volumes is connected to monitoring wells at both the upstream and downstream ends of the decay volume, i.e. a total of six monitoring pipes extend to the surface. To confirm the integrity of the liner system following its placement, the firm Earth Tech was contracted to perform tests. Michael Williams was the primary contact with Earth Tech. The following is the report from Earth Tech, with minor changes in the interest of clarity. A sketch of the decay region is shown; only one of the layers of the liner is shown, and only one monitoring port. At the time of these tests, the excavation in general, but particularly in the vicinity of the monitoring wells had not been backfilled in the final grade, as indicated by the dashed lines.

  19. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  20. Permeability of Clay Concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, F.; Ekolu, S. O.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of clay addition on water permeability and air permeability of concretes. Clay concrete mixes consisted of 0 to 40% clay content incorporated as cement replacement. Flow methods using triaxial cells and air permeameters were used for measuring the injected water and air flows under pressure. It was found that the higher the clay content in the mixture, the greater the permeability. At higher water-cement ratios (w/c), the paste matrix is less dense and easily allows water to ingress into concrete. But at high clay contents of 30 to 40% clay, the variation in permeability was significantly diminished among different concrete mixtures. It was confirmed that air permeability results were higher than the corresponding water permeability values when all permeability coefficients were converted to intrinsic permeability values.

  1. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  2. Drag Measurements of Porous Plate Acoustic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of direct drag measurements on a variety of porous plate acoustic liners. The existing literature describes numerous studies of drag on porous walls with injection or suction, but relatively few of drag on porous plates with neither injection nor suction. Furthermore, the porosity of the porous plate in existing studies is much lower than typically used in acoustic liners. In the present work, the acoustic liners consisted of a perforated face sheet covering a bulk acoustic absorber material. Factors that were varied in the experiment were hole diameter, hole pattern, face sheet thickness, bulk material type, and size of the gap (if any) between the face sheet and the absorber material.

  3. Surface modifications of pistons and cylinder liners

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y. )

    1988-01-01

    With higher brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of a diesel engine, pistons and cylinder liners suffer from increasing mechanical and thermal loading which causes several problems on these engine parts. The main critical problems are thermally induced cracking on the piston head and scuffing on the cylinder bore. Hard anodizing the piston head is described. It is currently the most effective countermeasure against heat cracking. Another promising method, to reinforce the piston head by means of SiC-whiskers, is also reported. A new process for improving the surface lubrication of the cylinder liner was developed. The bore has numerous finely distributed micropits which act as good oil reservoir. This improves the antiscuffing property of the cylinder liner.

  4. Engineered clay-shredded tyre mixtures as barrier materials

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Tabbaa, A.; Aravinthan, T.

    1997-12-31

    An engineered clay consisting of kaolin and bentonite was mixed with shredded tyre in various weight percentages and examined for use as a constituent in a landfill liner. The clay-tyre mixtures properties in terms of compaction, unconfined compressive strength, permeability to water and paraffin, leachability, stress-strain behaviour, free swell behaviour and swelling pressure were investigated. The results show that the dry density and strength reduced with the addition of tyre and also with increased tyre content but that good interaction was developed between the clay and tyre. The strain at failure increased showing reinforcing effect of the tyre. The permeability to paraffin was considerably reduced compared to that to water due to the presence of the tyre which caused high swelling pressures to develop. The leachability results indicate initial high concentrations leaching out of the soil-tyre mixtures which will be subjected to dilution in the environment. This work adds evidence to the potential advantages of using soil-tyre mixtures as a landfill liner material.

  5. REVIEW OF LINER AND CAP REGULATIONS FOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its research and field experiences has developed control strategies for hazardous and municipal solid waste landfills and surface impoundments. hese control strategies include liner and cover systems. he liner systems include doubl...

  6. Lifecycle Verification of Tank Liner Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Smith, Barton

    2014-03-01

    This report describes a method that was developed for the purpose of assessing the durability of thermoplastic liners used in a Type IV hydrogen storage tank during the tank s expected service life. In the method, a thermoplastic liner specimen is cycled between the maximum and minimum expected working temperatures while it is differentially pressurized with high-pressure hydrogen gas. The number of thermal cycling intervals corresponds to those expected within the tank s design lifetime. At prescribed intervals, hydrogen permeation measurements are done in situ to assess the ability of the liner specimen to maintain its hydrogen barrier properties and to model its permeability over the tank lifetime. Finally, the model is used to assess whether the steady-state leakage rate in the tank could potentially exceed the leakage specification for hydrogen fuel cell passenger vehicles. A durability assessment was performed on a specimen of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that is in current use as a tank liner. Hydrogen permeation measurements were performed on several additional tank liner polymers as well as novel polymers proposed for use as storage tank liners and hydrogen barrier materials. The following technical barriers from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program MYRDD were addressed by the project: D. Durability of on-board storage systems lifetime of at least 1500 cycles G. Materials of construction vessel containment that is resistant to hydrogen permeation M. Lack of Tank Performance Data and Understanding of Failure Mechanisms And the following technical targets1 for on-board hydrogen storage systems R&D were likewise addressed: Operational cycle life (1/4 tank to full) FY 2017: 1500 cycles; Ultimate: 1500 cycles Environmental health & safety Permeation and leakage: Meets or exceeds applicable standards Loss of useable H2: FY 2017: 0.05 g/h/kg H2; Ultimate: 0.05 g/h/kg H2

  7. Acoustic Panel Liner for an Engine Nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ayle, Earl (Inventor); Ichihashi, Fumitaka (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An acoustic panel liner includes a face sheet, back plate, and liner core positioned there-between, which may be used in an engine nacelle. Elongated chambers contain variable amounts of septa at a calibrated depth or depths. The septa may have varying DC flow resistance. The chambers may have a hexagonal or other polygonal cross sections. The septa, such as mesh caps, may be bonded to an inner wall of a corresponding chamber. The insertion depths may be the same or different. If different, the pattern of distribution of the depths may be randomized.

  8. Advanced liner-cooling techniques for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Component research for advanced small gas turbine engines is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. As part of this program, a basic reverse-flow combustor geometry was being maintained while different advanced liner wall cooling techniques were investigated. Performance and liner cooling effectiveness of the experimental combustor configuration featuring counter-flow film-cooled panels is presented and compared with two previously reported combustors featuring: splash film-cooled liner walls; and transpiration cooled liner walls (Lamilloy).

  9. Assessing liner performance using on-farm milk meters.

    PubMed

    Penry, J F; Leonardi, S; Upton, J; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify and compare the interactive effects of liner compression, milking vacuum level, and pulsation settings on average milk flow rates for liners representing the range of liner compression of commercial liners. A secondary objective was to evaluate a methodology for assessing liner performance that can be applied on commercial dairy farms. Eight different liner types were assessed using 9 different combinations of milking system vacuum and pulsation settings applied to a herd of 80 cows with vacuum and pulsation conditions changed daily for 36d using a central composite experimental design. Liner response surfaces were created for explanatory variables milking system vacuum (Vsystem) and pulsator ratio (PR) and response variable average milk flow rate (AMF=total yield/total cups-on time) expressed as a fraction of the within-cow average flow rate for all treatments (average milk flow rate fraction, AMFf). Response surfaces were also created for between-liner comparisons for standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio (fraction of pulsation cycle during which milk is flowing). The highest AMFf was observed at the highest levels of Vsystem, PR, and overpressure. All liners showed an increase in AMF as milking conditions were changed from low to high standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio. Differences in AMF between liners were smallest at the most gentle milking conditions (low Vsystem and low milk ratio), and these between-liner differences in AMF increased as liner overpressure increased. Differences were noted with vacuum drop between Vsystem and claw vacuum depending on the liner venting system, with short milk tube vented liners having the greater vacuum drop than mouthpiece chamber vented liners. The accuracy of liner performance assessment in commercial parlors fitted with milk meters can be improved by using a central composite experimental design with a repeated center point treatment

  10. Experimental study of Human Adenoviruses interactions with clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellou, Maria; Syngouna, Vasiliki; Paparrodopoulos, Spyros; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos

    2014-05-01

    Clays are used to establish low permeability liners in landfills, sewage lagoons, water retention ponds, golf course ponds, and hazardous waste sites. Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are waterborne viruses which have been used as viral indicators of fecal pollution. The objective of this study was to investigate the survival of HAdV in static and dynamic clay systems. The clays used as a model were crystalline aluminosilicates: kaolinite and bentonite. The adsorption and survival of HAdVs onto these clays were characterized at two different controlled temperatures (4 and 25o C) under static and dynamic batch conditions. Control tubes, in the absence of clay, were used to monitor virus inactivation due to factors other than adsorption to clays (e.g. inactivation or sorption onto the tubes walls). For both static and dynamic batch experiments, samples were collected for a maximum period of seven days. This seven day time - period was determined to be sufficient for the virus-clay systems to reach equilibrium. To infer the presence of infectious HAdV particles, all samples were treated with Dnase and the extraction of viral nucleid acid was performed using a commercial viral RNA kit. All samples were analyzed by Real - Time PCR which was used to quantify viral particles in clays. Samples were also tested for virus infectivity by A549 cell cultures. Exposure time intervals in the range of seven days (0.50-144 hours) resulted in a load reduction of 0.74 to 2.96 logs for kaolinite and a reduction of 0.89 to 2.92 for bentonite. Furthermore, virus survival was higher onto bentonite than kaolinite (p

  11. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonmetallic membrane liner. 193.2187 Section 193.2187 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank....

  13. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonmetallic membrane liner. 193.2187 Section 193.2187 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank....

  15. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic membrane liner. 193.2187 Section 193.2187 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank....

  16. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonmetallic membrane liner. 193.2187 Section 193.2187 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank....

  18. 49 CFR 193.2187 - Nonmetallic membrane liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonmetallic membrane liner. 193.2187 Section 193.2187 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... liner. A flammable nonmetallic membrane liner may not be used as an inner container in a storage tank....

  19. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  20. ELECTRICAL RESPONSE OF A LEAK IN A GEOMEMBRANE LINER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A leak in a geomembrane lined impoundment or landfill has a characteristic electrical response. imulate the waste material, the liner, and the soil under the liner by infinite horizontal layers and express the secondary potential for a leak in the geomembrane liner in terms of a ...

  1. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  2. The Science of Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Students' natural curiosity provides a rich opportunity for teachers to make meaningful scientific connections between art and ceramics that will enhance the understanding of both natural forces and scientific aspects at work in the creation of clay artworks. This article discusses the scientific areas of study related to clay, which include…

  3. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  4. Finicky clay divers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    1998-02-01

    Clay spheres dropped into a dilute vinegar/baking-soda solution accumulate CO2 bubbles on their surfaces. Spheres below a certain size will then float, otherwise they remain sunken. Students must determine the maximum size that will float by considering the net density of the clay/bubble system.

  5. Clay Portrait Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to incorporate sculptural elements into her ceramics program, the author decided to try direct plaster casting of the face to make a plaster mold for clay. In this article, the author shares an innovative ceramics lesson that teaches students in making plaster casts and casting the face in clay. This project gives students the…

  6. Columns in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  7. Diagnostics for the plasma liner experiment.

    PubMed

    Lynn, A G; Merritt, E; Gilmore, M; Hsu, S C; Witherspoon, F D; Cassibry, J T

    2010-10-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical "plasma liners" via merging high Mach number plasma jets to reach peak liner pressures of ∼0.1 Mbar using ∼1.5 MJ of initial stored energy. Such a system would provide HED plasmas for a variety of fundamental HEDLP, laboratory astrophysics, and materials science studies, as well as a platform for experimental validation of rad-hydro and rad-MHD simulations. It could also prove attractive as a potential standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion. Predicted parameters from jet formation to liner stagnation cover a large range of plasma density and temperature, varying from n(i)∼10(16) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼1 eV at the plasma gun mouth to n(i)>10(19) cm(-3), T(e)≈T(i)∼0.5 keV at stagnation. This presents a challenging problem for the plasma diagnostics suite which will be discussed. PMID:21033980

  8. FACTORS CONTROLLING MINIMUM SOIL LINER THICKNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a three-part study to gather information on liquid flow through soil liners in hazardous waste disposal facilities. n the first part of the study a model was developed to simulate flow occurring through discreet channels in lifts (a layer of compacted soil) ...

  9. Precision solid liner experiments on Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Lee, H.

    1995-09-01

    Pulsed power systems have been used in the past to drive solid liner implosions for a variety of applications. In combination with a variety of target configurations, solid liner drivers can be used to compress working fluids, produce shock waves, and study material properties in convergent geometry. The utility of such a driver depends in part on how well-characterized the drive conditions are. This, in part, requires a pulsed power system with a well-characterized current wave form and well understood electrical parameters. At Los Alamos, the authors have developed a capacitively driven, inductive store pulsed power machine, Pegasus, which meets these needs. They have also developed an extensive suite of diagnostics which are capable of characterizing the performance of the system and of the imploding liners. Pegasus consists of a 4.3 MJ capacitor bank, with a capacitance of 850 {micro}f fired with a typical initial bank voltage of 90 kV or less. The bank resistance is about 0.5 m{Omega}, and bank plus power flow channel has a total inductance of about 24 nH. In this paper the authors consider the theory and modeling of the first precision solid liner driver fielded on the LANL Pegasus pulsed power facility.

  10. Diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A. G.; Merritt, E.; Gilmore, M.; Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Cassibry, J. T.

    2010-10-15

    The goal of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding spherical ''plasma liners'' via merging high Mach number plasma jets to reach peak liner pressures of {approx}0.1 Mbar using {approx}1.5 MJ of initial stored energy. Such a system would provide HED plasmas for a variety of fundamental HEDLP, laboratory astrophysics, and materials science studies, as well as a platform for experimental validation of rad-hydro and rad-MHD simulations. It could also prove attractive as a potential standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion. Predicted parameters from jet formation to liner stagnation cover a large range of plasma density and temperature, varying from n{sub i}{approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, T{sub e}{approx_equal}T{sub i}{approx}1 eV at the plasma gun mouth to n{sub i}>10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, T{sub e}{approx_equal}T{sub i}{approx}0.5 keV at stagnation. This presents a challenging problem for the plasma diagnostics suite which will be discussed.

  11. Formed platelet liner concept for regeneratively cooled chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, W. M.; Tobin, S. E.; Mueggenburg, H. H.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the fabrication of a formed platelet regeneratively cooled combustion chamber liner is described, and the benefits offered by the combustor liner are discussed. The advantages of using formed platelet combustor liners include a substantially increased cycle life and decreased coolant pressure drop in conjunction with low manufacturing costs. In the initial experiments, zirconium copper combustor liner sections with a hot gas wall thickness as small as 0.008 inch and channel aspect ratios of 15 have been achieved. It is also shown that HIP provides an excellent bonding technique for joining chamber liner panels.

  12. Statistically Based Approach to Broadband Liner Design and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband liner design optimization includes utilizing in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for one or more liner locations in a bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners having impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increasing weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. One or more broadband design approaches are utilized to produce a broadband liner that targets a full range of frequencies and operating conditions.

  13. Three LINERs Under the Hubble Spectral Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Mallory; Eracleous, Michael; Barth, Aaron J.; Maoz, Dan; Walsh, Jonelle; Ho, Luis C.; Shields, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of low-ionization nuclear emission regions (LINERs) harbor supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with very low accretion rates. Since SMBHs spend most of their lifetimes in these low accretion-rate states, understanding LINERs is important for understanding active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the context of galaxy evolution. On scales of ~100 pc, the energy budget of LINERs appears to be deficient when the only source of power considered is the AGN. Thus, other energy sources are likely to contribute to the excitation of the emission-line gas. To probe these sources, we observed three nearby, bright, and representative LINERs with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We specifically looked at the 0.1-1 arcsecond scale (corresponding to ~5-50 pc) to find what these energy sources are and how far from the nucleus they take over the excitation of the gas. After subtracting both the unresolved nuclear light and the spatially-extended starlight, we measured a number of diagnostic emission line ratios. We find that within 10 pc, the observed line ratios of [O III]/[O II] vs [O IIII]/H-beta are consistent with AGN photoionization. The line ratios of [N II]/H-alpha vs [O III]/H-beta show that at larger distances, the excitation mechanism is most likely consistent with hot stars or shocks. Shocks are particularly appealing in the case of NGC 4278, which harbors a Gigahetz-Peaked radio source with small jets detected by the VLBA. If hot stars are the primary excitation mechanism, these are most likely post-AGB stars (from the old stellar population). We conclude from these representative cases that the characteristic LINER emission-line spectrum does not result from a single excitation mechanism, but rather from a combination of different mechanisms within the central 100 pc of each object that varies from object to object.

  14. Use of fluidized bed combustion by-products for liners and alkali substitutes. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, B.C.; Esling, S.; Pisani, F.; Wells, T.

    1995-12-31

    Fluidized Bed Combustion of coal eliminates most emissions of S and N oxides but produces sizable volumes of a solid residue that EPA may require to be placed in capped and lined landfills. Fluidized Bed Combustors are one of the most promising growth markets for Illinois coal and imposing cap and liner requirements may make the technology uneconomic. Fluidized Bed residues are cementlike and when mixed with soil, produce a material as impermeable as the clay liners used at landfills. This project will demonstrate that the residues can be mixed with soils by regular construction equipment and used in place of clays as liner material. The demonstration cap will cover an area of 7 acres and will prevent water infiltration into acid producing material. Baseline studies of Briar Creek indicate that the water is now highly degraded by acid drainage. Construction delays have enhanced the data collected on Briar Creek by allowing monitoring to continue through major seasonal changes without any effects attributable to the FBC ash. Materials needed to place the wells and lysimeters have been obtained. A contractor will build and deliver a mobile foam generator and spray to the field to demonstrate fugitive dust control from FBC fly ash (dust problem is one key barrier to more widespread use of FBC ash).

  15. Influence of atomic processes on the implosion of plasma liners

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyoungkeun; Zhang Lina; Samulyak, Roman; Parks, Paul

    2012-08-15

    The influence of atomic physics processes on the implosion of plasma liners for magneto-inertial nuclear fusion has been investigated numerically by using the method of front tracking in spherically symmetric geometry and equation of state models accounting for dissociation and ionization. Simulation studies of the self-collapse of argon liners to be used in the Los Alamos Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) program have been performed as well as studies of implosion of deuterium and argon liners on plasma targets. Results show that atomic processes in converging liners reduce the temperature of liners and increase the Mach number that results in the increase of the stagnation pressure and the fusion energy gain. For deuterium and argon liners imploding on plasma targets, dissociation and ionization increased the stagnation pressure and the fusion energy gain by the factor of 1.5 (deuterium) and 2 (argon) correspondingly. Similarly, ionization during the self-collapse of argon liners leads to approximately doubling of the Mach number and the stagnation pressure. The influence of the longitudinal density spread of the liner has also been investigated. The self-collapse stagnation pressure decreased by the factor of 8.7 when the initial position of the liner was shifted from the merging radius (33 cm) to the PLX chamber edge (137.2 cm). Simulations with and without the heat conduction demonstrated that the heat conduction has negligible effect on the self-collapse pressure of argon liners.

  16. Evaluation of multidimensional transport through a field-scale compacted soil liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willingham, T.W.; Werth, C.J.; Valocchi, A.J.; Krapac, I.G.; Toupiol, C.; Stark, T.D.; Daniel, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale compacted soil liner was constructed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Illinois State Geological Survey in 1988 to investigate chemical transport rates through low permeability compacted clay liners (CCLs). Four tracers (bromide and three benzoic acid tracers) were each added to one of four large ring infiltrometers (LRIs) while tritium was added to the pond water (excluding the infiltrometers). Results from the long-term transport of Br- from the localized source zone of LRI are presented in this paper. Core samples were taken radially outward from the center of the Br- LRI and concentration depth profiles were obtained. Transport properties were evaluated using an axially symmetric transport model. Results indicate that (1) transport was diffusion controlled; (2) transport due to advection was negligible and well within the regulatory limits of ksat???1 ?? 10-7 cm/s; (3) diffusion rates in the horizontal and vertical directions were the same; and (4) small positioning errors due to compression during soil sampling did not affect the best fit advection and diffusion values. The best-fit diffusion coefficient for bromide was equal to the molecular diffusion coefficient multiplied by a tortuosity factor of 0.27, which is within 8% of the tortuosity factor (0.25) found in a related study where tritium transport through the same liner was evaluated. This suggests that the governing mechanisms for the transport of tritium and bromide through the CCL were similar. These results are significant because they address transport through a composite liner from a localized source zone which occurs when defects or punctures in the geomembrane of a composite system are present. ?? ASCE.

  17. Liner Stability Experiments at Pegasus: Diagnostics and Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.; Rodriguez, G.

    1998-10-18

    A series of experiments to compare imploding liner performance with magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modeling has been performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus II pulse power machine. Liner instability growth originating from initial perturbations machined into the liner has been observed with high resolution. Three major diagnostics were used: radiography, Velocity Interferometer for a Surface of Any Reflector (VISAR), and fiber optic impact pins. For radiography, three flash x-ray units were mounted radially to observe liner shape at three different times during the implosion. Liner velocity was measured continuously with the VISAR for the entire distance traveled in two experiments. Optical impact pins provide a high-resolution measure of liner symmetry and shape near the end of travel. Liner performance has compared well with predictions.

  18. Clays as prebiotic photocatalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lawless, J.; Lahav, N.; Sutton, S.; Sweeney, M.

    1981-01-01

    Clay minerals catalyze peptide bond formation in fluctuating environments. A number of plausible mechanisms have been proposed and tested. The possibility that clays may actually be energizing the reaction by means of electronic excitation, creating mobile or trapped holes and electrons in the lattice, is explored. It has been discovered that clays emit light upon dehydration. The correlation between dehydration-induced, or thermoluminescent, processes and the yield of glycine oligomers after treatments known to affect the luminescent yields is being tested, in an effort to understand the catalytic mechanism

  19. The Performance of Four Different Mineral Liners on the Transportation of Chlorinated Phenolic Compounds to Groundwater in Landfills

    PubMed Central

    Adar, Elanur; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of four different mineral liners (clay, bentonite, kaoline, and zeolite) which could be utilized to prevent the transport of phenolic compounds to groundwater through alternative liner systems. Four laboratory-scale HDPE reactors with 80 cm height and 40 cm inner diameter were operated for a period of 180 days. Results indicated that the transport of mono- or dichlorophenols is significantly prevented by the liner systems used, while the transport of highly chlorinated phenolic compounds cannot be prevented by the landfill liner system effectively. Highly chlorinated phenolic compounds in groundwater can be found in higher concentrations than the leachate, as a result of the degradation and transformation of these compounds. Thus, the analysis of highly chlorinated phenolic compounds such as 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,6-TCP, 3,4,5-TCP, and PCP is of great significance for the studies to be conducted on the contamination of groundwater around landfills. PMID:26759828

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  1. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  2. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cotomacio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P

    2008-08-07

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and {sup 40}K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906{+-}340 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, 40{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 75{+-}9 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 197{+-}38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, 51{+-}26 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 55{+-}24 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  3. Designing in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigrosh, Leon I.

    1977-01-01

    What can be done to transform a lump of wet clay into something more than a lump of glaze-fired clay? It is at this point when forming techniques have been mastered that good design becomes most important. Discusses six criteria involved in the search for good design so that students can discover what good design is and how important it is.…

  4. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.R.; Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P.; Johnson, D.O.

    1997-12-31

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  5. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  6. Stability of Magnetically Implode Liners for High Energy Density Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Reinovsky, R.E.; Anderson, W.E.; Atchison, W.L.; Bartsch, R.R.; Clark, D.A.; Ekdahl, C.E.; Faehl, R.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Keinigs, R.K.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Morgan, D.; Rodriguez, G.; Tasker, D.G.; Trainor, R.J.; Shlachter, J.S.

    1998-10-18

    Magnetically imploded cylindrical metal shells (z-pinch liners) are attractive drivers for a wide variety of hydrodynamics and material properties experiments. The ultimate utility of liners depends on the acceleration of near-solid density shells to velocities exceeding 20 km/sec with good azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity. Two pulse power systems (Ranchero and Atlas) currently operational or under development at Los Alamos provide electrical energy adequate to accelerate {approximately}50 gr. liners to 1-2 MJ/cm kinetic energy. As in all z-pinches, the outer surface of a magnetically imploded liner is unstable to magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) modes during acceleration. Large-scale distortion in the liners from RT modes growing from glide plane interactions or initial imperfections could make liners unusable for man experiments. On the other hand, material strength in the liner should, from first principles, reduce the growth rate of RT modes - and can render some combinations of wavelength and amplitude analytically stable. The growth of instabilities in both soft aluminum liners and in high strength aluminum alloy liners has been studied analytically, computationally and experimentally at liner kinetic energies up to 100 KJ/cm on the Pegasus capacitor bank using driving currents up to 12 MA.

  7. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  8. The utilization of sepiolite in landfill liners.

    PubMed

    Güney, Y; Ozdemir, H V

    2005-05-01

    In this study, sepiolite and natural soil-added sepiolite mixtures were studied to find out whether they can be used as compacted landfill liner, as they are an economic alternative to the other compacted day liners or not. Geotechnical and physico-chemical properties of sepiolite and sepiolite mixtures, containing 25% and 50% natural soil by weight, and compacted at water contents ranging from 35% to 60%, were determined by hydraulic conductivity, leachate analysis, unconfined compression strength, consolidation, volumetric shrinkage and swelling tests. The test results showed that the compacted natural soil-added sepiolite mixtures exhibit lower permeability and swelling properties, and higher compressive strength than pure sepiolite. The overall evaluation of the results has revealed that the natural soil-added sepiolite showed good promise and it can be used as a landfill barrier due to its high capacity of contaminant adsorption. PMID:15974274

  9. Atlas performance and imploding liner parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Reinovsky, R.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Atchison, W. L.; Cochrane, J. C. , Jr.; Faehl, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Ultra-high magnetic fields have many applications in the confining and controlling plasmas and in exploring electron physics as manifested in the magnetic properties of materials. Another application of high fields is the acceleration of metal conductors to velocities higher than that achievable with conventional high explosive drive or gas guns. The Atlas pulse power system is the world's first pulse power system specifically designed to implode solid and near-solid density metal liners for use in pulse power hydrodynamic experiments. This paper describes the Atlas system during the first year of its operational life at Los Alamos, (comprising 10-15 implosion experiments); describes circuit models that adequately predicted the bulk kinematic behavior of liner implosions; and shows how those (now validated) models can be used to describe the range of parameters accessible through Atlas implosions.

  10. Examination of shaped charge liner shock loading

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.J.; Moore, T.W.; Lee, C.G.; Breithaupt, R.; Avara, G.R.

    1996-07-01

    A series of experiments was conducted for the purpose of achieving a more fundamental understanding of the shaped charge liner shock loading environment. The test configuration, representing the middle portion of a shaped charge, consists of a 50 mm deep, 100 mm tall, and 2 mm thick copper plate driven by 50 mm deep, 100 mm tall, tapered thickness wedge of LX-14. An electrically driven 50 mm square flyer is used to surface initiate the base of the LX-14 causing a plane detonation wave to propagate into the explosive wedge along the liner surface. Fabry-Perot laser velocimetry measures the particle velocity time history of the plate. The CTH and DYNA2D hydrocodes are used to simulate the experiments. Calculations of the velocity profiles are compared to the experimental results. The effects of mesh density, copper material failure and strength models, and explosive detonation models are discussed.

  11. Low-Convergence Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutz, Stephen; Vesey, Roger; Sinars, Daniel; Sefkow, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations indicate that pulsed-power driven liner-implosions could produce substantial fusion yields if the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel is first magnetized and preheated [S.A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. As with all inertial fusion, the implosions could be degraded by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Since highly convergent implosions are more susceptible to this instability, we have explored the necessary conditions to obtain significant fusion yield with low-convergence liner-implosions. Such low-convergence implosions can be obtained if the fuel is sufficiently preheated and magnetized. We present analytic and numerical studies of laser plasma heating, which indicate that low convergence implosions should be possible with sufficient laser energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contra.

  12. Acoustic-Liner Admittance in a Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Method calculates admittance from easily obtainable values. New method for calculating acoustic-liner admittance in rectangular duct with grazing flow based on finite-element discretization of acoustic field and reposing of unknown admittance value as linear eigenvalue problem on admittance value. Problem solved by Gaussian elimination. Unlike existing methods, present method extendable to mean flows with two-dimensional boundary layers as well. In presence of shear, results of method compared well with results of Runge-Kutta integration technique.

  13. Investigation of HE driven cylindrical liner

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Tai-Ho

    1995-03-01

    We developed a technique that can compress most materials to densities much higher than their original values and shock them hard enough to undergo phase changes to various partially ionized states. The process involves using high explosives to drive a thin cylindrical liner so that it will progressively implode and converge along the axis at very high velocity. The device is simple yet versatile. Its configuration is ideally suited as a compact laboratory for the investigation of the behavior of dense media under extreme conditions. Code simulations show that liners made from most metals can be successfully imploded to converge on axis, producing over 10 MB pressure. For example, a 2D hydrocode calculation predicts that in a simple configuration where a hollow core PBX-9501 explosive cylinder is corner initiated to drive a thin seamless 304 SS tubing, the final convergence velocity can exceed 1 cm/[Ls to produce a 15 MB pressure at impact as the density increases to 19.5 g/cc. The temperature from shock heating rises rapidly above 8 eV, and the result is a combination of radiation and plasma emissions. We have carried out several experiments with a wide array of diagnostics to investigate the implosion dynamics and final state interaction phenomena, and the results are compared with the code predictions. Radiographs of the liner implosion strongly indicate that the hydrodynamic processes are well behaved and calculable. Temperature measurement from the optical radiation is generally consistent with the code prediction. The velocity of the plasma front is measured by using optical pins and fast framing photography, and is found to lie between 11--17 cm/{mu}s. Fast framing photographs were taken with the aid of self luminous light to observe the evacuated chamber inside the imploding liner. The experimental results and their comparison with the calculation are discussed.

  14. Unveiling the liner nature of NGC1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, S. I. F.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Diniz, M. R.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2014-10-01

    NGC 1052 is an E4 galaxy and classified as a typical LINER harboring a stellar rotating disk. However, the central region is spectroscopically unusual with broad optical emission lines, the nature of its emission line gas remains unclear. According to recent studies NGC 1052 exhibit Hα luminosities an order of magnitude above that estimated for an evolved population of extreme horizontal branch stars. Their Hα equivalent widths and optical-to-near infrared (NIR) spectral energy distributions are consistent with them being young stellar clusters aged < 7 Myr, and according to previous works, NGC 1052 may have experienced a merger event about 1 Gyr ago. There are mainly three possibilities to explain LINER's spectra: i) post asymptotic giant branch stars (post-AGB) that ionize their rapidly expanding shells, (ii) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) powered by the in fall of matter into an accretion disk, and (iii) shocks. The stellar population (SP) of AGNs shows an excess of intermediate age stars. Besides, NIR stellar population studies have revealed that the continuum of active galaxies is dominated by the contribution of intermediate age stellar populations. Hot dust emission unresolved is also commonly detected in NIR nuclear spectra of galaxies Seyfert and LINERs. Aimed to discriminate the dominant ionizing source of NGC 1052 we present preliminary results of high spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy, taken with gemini NIFS to map the dominant stellar population, as well as disentangling the featureless and hot dust components.

  15. Cavitation modeling and diesel engine cylinder liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandekar, Gautam; Pardue, Sally

    2003-10-01

    A common occurrence of cavitation damage is the waterside pitting of a wet sleeve liner in a diesel engine. The automotive industry utilizes an ultrasonic test of 20 kHz according to ASTM standards to quantify the effectiveness of engine coolant additives to prevent damage. However, recent tests indicate a mismatch between the ultrasonic test results and actual engine test runs. The focus of this study is to generate numerical models of bubble dynamics using already published literature. In most of the published papers higher-range frequencies (ultrasonic >15 kHz) are used. It is useful to explore the results of lower excitation frequencies as the vibrating frequencies of a diesel engine liner are between 500-9000 Hz. A Rayleigh-Plesset equation, nonlinear in nature, is used to plot the relation between bubble radius and time. Plots of the numerical solution from MATLAB are compared with plots published in the literature. Results from when the frequency of excitation is changed to the liner wall frequency and the fluid properties are changed to approximate engine conditions will be presented. Future work will examine the energy released by the bubble collapse and its correlation with erosion measured as mass change in a standard test button.

  16. Modified clays for waste containment and pollutant attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, I.M.C.; Mak, R.K.M.; Lee, S.C.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the use of organically modified clay to remove the high-strength organic pollutants in leachate as well as reduce its liquid flow was investigated. Various physical and chemical factors that may affect the suitability of using the modified clay in removing and retarding the movement of contaminants have been examined. These factors include the structural stability of the modified clay, soil and swelling properties, sorption capacity for nonpolar and polar organics at different pH solutions, and chemical permeants on clay permeability under different effective stresses. The uptake of eight organics (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) by organoclay BB-40 is found to be significant and increases with an increase in their hydrophobicity. The hydraulic conductivities of organoclay BB-40 under an effective stress of 70 kN/m{sup 2} ({approximately}10 psi) are 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm/s to tap water, 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm/s to landfill codisposal leachate, and 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s to synthetic leachate. The experimental results suggest that the use of organoclay as a liner material would provide a barrier with the ability to effectively remove dissolved organic contaminants, and to resist the flow of leachate.

  17. 30 CFR 250.425 - What are the requirements for pressure testing liners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liners? 250.425 Section 250.425 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... pressure testing liners? (a) You must test each drilling liner (and liner-lap) to a pressure at least equal to the anticipated pressure to which the liner will be subjected during the formation...

  18. 30 CFR 250.425 - What are the requirements for pressure testing liners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liners? 250.425 Section 250.425 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... pressure testing liners? (a) You must test each drilling liner (and liner-lap) to a pressure at least equal to the anticipated pressure to which the liner will be subjected during the formation...

  19. 30 CFR 250.425 - What are the requirements for pressure testing liners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liners? 250.425 Section 250.425 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... pressure testing liners? (a) You must test each drilling liner (and liner-lap) to a pressure at least equal to the anticipated pressure to which the liner will be subjected during the formation...

  20. 30 CFR 250.425 - What are the requirements for pressure testing liners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liners? 250.425 Section 250.425 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... requirements for pressure testing liners? (a) You must test each drilling liner (and liner-lap) to a pressure at least equal to the anticipated pressure to which the liner will be subjected during the...

  1. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, S.M.; Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.

    1981-11-01

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing.

  2. Method for selectively controlling flow across slotted liners

    SciTech Connect

    Peavy, M.A.; Dees, J.M.

    1993-08-31

    A process is described for decreasing flow rate across the radial boundary of a selected interval in a well bore containing a slotted liner comprising: placing an explosive and an internally catalyzed resin solution inside an elongated container; locating the elongated container opposite the selected interval in the well bore where flow rate through the slotted liner is to be decreased; firing the explosive; and allowing the resin to cure on the slotted liner before initiating flow through the well. A method is described for decreasing production of unwanted fluids from a horizontal well containing a slotted liner comprising: placing an explosive and an internally catalyzed resin inside an elongated container; placing the elongated container opposite an interval in the horizontal well where unwanted fluid is entering the well bore through the slotted liner; firing the explosive; and permitting the resin to cure on the slotted liner before initiating flow in the well.

  3. Flux penetration of an aluminum liner during working fluid compression

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, D.E.; Hussey, T.W.

    1995-08-15

    The Phillips Laboratory working fluid experiment is a research effort to study the compression of a hot hydrogen gas using an electromagnetically imploded solid liner. In our experiments, the solid liner is driven by a 5 MJ discharge which Joule heats the aluminum, melting and eventually vaporizing it. This numerical study explores the vaporization and flux penetration of a solid aluminum liner during its implosion. In particular, it considers the effect that flux which has penetrated the liner has on the hot hydrogen working fluid. A study of the dynamics of the solid liner was performed with one-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, which included a careful treatment of the electrical resistivity near the phase transitions. An analytic snowplow model is developed in order to estimate the minimum working fluid density required to ignore flux penetration through the liner.

  4. Effects of closure cap and liner on contaminant release rates from grouted wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, A.D.; Fowler, J.R.; Bignell, D.T.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a groundwater modeling study of waste disposal concepts using grouted waste forms. The focus of the study is on the effects of clay caps and concrete vaults on contaminant migration. The authors modeled three waste disposal scenarios: (1) Grouted waste was solidified in an earthen trench and covered with soil, there was no vault and no cap; (2) grouted waste was solidified in an earthen trench, the entire waste disposal facility was then closed under a clay cap; (3) grouted waste was solidified in a concrete vault and protected by the same closure as in 2. Because of the huge contrast in hydraulic conductivities and highly non-linear multi-phase flow characteristics, these waste disposal concepts presented a difficult problem for numerical simulation. Advanced fluid flow and contaminant transport codes were used to solve the problem. Among the codes tested, ECLIPSE out-performed other codes in speed, accuracy (smaller material balance errors) and capability in handling sophisticated scenarios. The authors used nitrate as a tracer for the simulation. Nitrate does not absorb in the solid phase and does not decay. As a result, predicted release rate based on nitrate is conservative. They also assumed that the facility is intact for 10,000 years. In other words, properties of the materials used for this study do not change with time. Predicted peak flux for the no vault and no closure case was 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} per year at 12 years. If a clay cap was installed, predicted peak flux was 8.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year at 110 years. If the grout was disposed in a concrete vault and covered by a clay cap, predicted peak flux became 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} per year at 8,000 years. Both concrete liner and clay cap can reduce the rate of contaminant release to the water table and delay the peak time.

  5. Composite liner, multi-megabar shock driver development

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, R.R.; Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.

    1998-12-31

    A magnetically imploded, cylindrical, multi-layer liner is under development for use as an equation of state shock driver using energetic, pulsed-power sources. The stability and uniformity of the imploding liner has been investigated on the Pegasus pulsed-power facility at liner velocities of >7 mm/usec. Using a thick aluminum driver layer to carry the current and a platinum impactor layer to generate the shock on impact with a target, the expected platinum-on-platinum shock level is 6 to 8 Mbar for operation of the Pegasus capacitor bank at the maximum charge voltage of 90 kV. The initial liner design utilized 8 grams of aluminum with a 1 gram (12-micron thick) layer of platinum on the inside. The inner surface was observed with flash radiography oriented transversely to the axis of the collapsing liner, and with fiber-optic time-of-arrival detectors on the target. Short wavelength perturbations of the inner surface along the axial direction were observed with amplitudes between 200 to 400 microns. A second liner was evaluated with increased aluminum mass and thickness to avoid drive current penetration and the resulting melting and susceptibility to Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. With 10 grams of aluminum at an initial radius of 2.5 cm, the initial liner thickness was almost 50% greater than for the first liner. This liner was observed to be more uniform at impact than the initial design, with perturbed amplitudes less than 100 to 200 microns at wavelengths of a few millimeters. Based on these results a third experiment is being prepared with the 10 gram aluminum liner of the second design and with a 1 gram, 15 micron platinum impactor layer. Liner stability measurements will be presented, application of this liner system to EOS measurement will be discussed, and the evolution to higher energy experiments on ATLAS will be presented.

  6. Analysis of dry cylinder liner behavior during engine operation

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, Kazunori; Murata, Katsuhiro; Suzawa, Takashi; Niitsu, Yasuhiko

    1996-09-01

    Engine manufacturers are continuing to develop new engine designs that provide higher power output, lower fuel consumption and lower engine weight. In order to achieve significant engine weight reduction, the light weight cylinder block structure employs dry cylinder liners rather than wet cylinder liners. The cast iron dry liner structure is utilized because of the superior wear and scuff resistance of the cast iron. Thin wall dry cast iron liners are being employed in both gasoline and diesel engines. Dry cylinder liners with wall thickness of 1.5 mm are in production for Japanese automotive diesel engines. In the case of the dry thin wall cast iron liners, 2 design configurations are employed: loose-fit type having a specified clearance between the outer liner surface and the cylinder bore surface; press-in type having an interference fit between the outer surface of liner and the cylinder bore surface. The physical properties of cast iron must be considered during the design phase if successful production designs are to be provided. In addition the operating stress caused by piston slap, combustion pressure variation and resultant effect on operating stress in the liner must be considered during the design. This paper summarizes the results of a series of studies undertaken to determine the effect of piston slap, combustion pressure and initial stress on resultant behavior of thin wall cylinder liners under engine operating conditions. The resultant data may be utilized to improve the overall design of thin wall dry cylinder liners, especially for loose-fit liners.

  7. LIQUID BUTANE FILLED LOAD FOR A LINER DRIVEN PEGASUS EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. SALAZAR; W. ANDERSON; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously [1,2].

  8. Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M. A.; Armijo, E. V.; Anderson, W. E.; Atchison, W. L.; Bartos, J. J.; Garcia, F.; Randolph, B.; Sheppard, M. G.; Stokes, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment (Fig.1) was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously.

  9. Optimization and Control of Acoustic Liner Impedance with Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Houston; Follet, Jesse

    2000-01-01

    Because communities are impacted by steady increases in aircraft traffic, aircraft noise continues to be a growing problem for the growth of commercial aviation. Research has focused on improving the design of specific high noise source areas of aircraft and on noise control measures to alleviate noise radiated from aircraft to the surrounding environment. Engine duct liners have long been a principal means of attenuating engine noise. The ability to control in-situ the acoustic impedance of a liner would provide a valuable tool to improve the performance of liners. The acoustic impedance of a liner is directly related to the sound absorption qualities of that liner. Increased attenuation rates, the ability to change liner acoustic impedance to match various operating conditions, or the ability to tune a liner to more precisely match design impedance represent some ways that in-situ impedance control could be useful. With this in mind, the research to be investigated will focus on improvements in the ability to control liner impedance using a mean flow through the liner which is referred to as bias flow.

  10. Finite element analysis of the impingement on the acetabular liner rim due to wear of the acetabular liner surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, Eko; Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-04-01

    This workstudies the impingement on the rim of acetabular liner due to wear on the surface of acetabular liner using finite element simulation. A three dimensional contact model between a femoral head and an acetabular liner was developed. There are three steps in this simulation, i.e. creating the virtualwear on the surface of acetabular liner, applying the load at the femoral head, and rotating the femoral head from neutral position till the impingement occurrence. The virtualwear is created based on the data of wear depth which was obtained from literature. Results showed that the wear on the acetabular liner surface wouldaffected the impingement occurrence, in which the impingement angle becomes narrow. In addition, the failure possibility of the acetabular liner rimwould become higher.

  11. Evaluation of Skin Friction Drag for Liner Applications in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jasinski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    A parameter that is gaining significance in the evaluation of acoustic liner performance is the skin friction drag induced by air flow over the liner surface. Estimates vary widely regarding the amount of drag the liner induces relative to a smooth wall, from less than a 20% increase to nearly 100%, and parameters such as face sheet perforate hole diameter, percent open area, and sheet thickness are expected to figure prominently in the skin friction drag. Even a small increase in liner drag can impose an economic penalty, and current research is focused on developing 'low drag' liner concepts, with the goal being to approach the skin friction drag of a smooth wall. The issue of skin friction drag takes on greater significance as airframe designers investigate the feasibility of putting sound absorbing liners on the non-lifting surfaces of the wings and fuselage, for the purpose of reducing engine noise reflected and scattered toward observers on the ground. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have embarked on investigations of liner skin friction drag with the aims of: developing a systematic drag measurement capability, establishing the drag of current liners, and developing liners that produce reduced drag without compromising acoustic performance. This paper discusses the experimental procedures that have been developed to calculate the drag coefficient based on the change in momentum thickness and the companion research program being carried out to measure the drag directly using a force balance. Liner samples that are evaluated include a solid wall with known roughness and conventional liners with perforated facesheets of varying hole diameter and percent open area.

  12. Rattles of Clay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Donna

    1983-01-01

    Using the rattles of Native American cultures as inspiration, students used pinching, coiling, and slab and molding techniques to form the bodies of rattles and clay pellets for sound. Surface decoration included glazed and unglazed areas as well as added handles, feathers, and leather. (IS)

  13. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  14. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  15. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  16. Optimal Spray Application Rates for Ornamental Nursery Liner Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray deposition and coverage at different application rates for nursery liners of different sizes were investigated to determine the optimal spray application rates. Experiments were conducted on two and three-year old red maple liners. A traditional hydraulic sprayer with vertical booms was used t...

  17. ONERA-NASA Cooperative Effort on Liner Impedance Eduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, Julien; Piot, Estelle; Simon, Frank; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R

    2013-01-01

    As part of a cooperation between ONERA and NASA, the liner impedance eduction methods developed by the two research centers are compared. The NASA technique relies on an objective function built on acoustic pressure measurements located on the wall opposite the test liner, and the propagation code solves the convected Helmholtz equation in uniform ow using a finite element method that implements a continuous Galerkin discretization. The ONERA method uses an objective function based either on wall acoustic pressure or on acoustic velocity acquired above the liner by Laser Doppler Anemometry, and the propagation code solves the linearized Euler equations by a discontinuous Galerkin discretization. Two acoustic liners are tested in both ONERA and NASA ow ducts and the measured data are treated with the corresponding impedance eduction method. The first liner is a wire mesh facesheet mounted onto a honeycomb core, designed to be linear with respect to incident sound pressure level and to grazing ow velocity. The second one is a conventional, nonlinear, perforate-over-honeycomb single layer liner. Configurations without and with ow are considered. For the nonlinear liner, the comparison of liner impedance educed by NASA and ONERA shows a sensitivity to the experimental conditions, namely to the nature of the source and to the sample width.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner....

  19. QUANTIFICATION OF LEAK RATES THROUGH HOLES IN LANDFILL LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the rate at which liquids leak through flaws in the flexible membrane liner (FML) component of composite FML-soil liners. The variables studied were: flaw size and shape, FML type and thickness, the influence of a geotextile between the compacte...

  20. Verification of a variable rate sprayer for nursery liner applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental variable-rate sprayer designed for liner applications was tested by comparing its spray deposit and coverage, and droplet density inside canopies of six nursery liner varieties with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including water sensitive papers (WSP) and nylon screens, ...

  1. LABORATORY STUDIES OF SOIL BEDDING REQUIREMENTS FOR FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial objective of this study was to investigate the performance of membrane liners during construction of hazardous waste landfills and develop a means for protecting the liners from damage. This objective included the development of laboratory tests that could be used to ...

  2. CONSTRUCTION, MONITORING, AND PERFORMANCE OF TWO SOIL LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype soil liner and a field-scale soil liner were constructed to test whether compacted soil barrier systems could be built to meet the standard set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for saturated hydraulic conductivity (< 1 x 10'7 cm/s). In situ ponded inf...

  3. Frequency and Time Domain Modeling of Acoustic Liner Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a research program directed at the acoustics of advanced subsonic propulsion systems undertaken at NASA Langley, Duke University was funded to develop a boundary condition model for bulk-reacting nacelle liners. The overall objective of the Langley program was to understand and predict noise from advanced subsonic transport engines and to develop related noise control technology. The overall technical areas included: fan and propeller source noise, acoustics of ducts and duct liners, interior noise, subjective acoustics, and systems noise prediction. The Duke effort was directed toward duct liner acoustics for the development of analytical methods to characterize liner behavior in both frequency domain and time domain. A review of duct acoustics and liner technology can be found in Reference [1]. At that time, NASA Langley was investigating the propulsion concept of an advanced ducted fan, with a large diameter housed inside a relatively short duct. Fan diameters in excess of ten feet were proposed. The lengths of both the inlet and exhaust portions of the duct were to be short, probably less than half the fan diameter. The nacelle itself would be relatively thin-walled for reasons of aerodynamic efficiency. The blade-passage frequency was expected to be less than I kHz, and very likely in the 200 to 300 Hz range. Because of the design constraints of a short duct, a thin nacelle, and long acoustic wavelengths, the application of effective liner technology would be especially challenging. One of the needs of the NASA Langley program was the capability to accurately and efficiently predict the behavior of the acoustic liner. The traditional point impedance method was not an adequate model for proposed liner designs. The method was too restrictive to represent bulk reacting liners and to allow for the characterization of many possible innovative liner concepts. In the research effort at Duke, an alternative method, initially developed to handle bulk

  4. Study of imploding liner-electrode wall interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Zharinov, Y.I.; Kudolkin, I.D.; Ruzin, V.N.; Ionov, A.I.

    1994-12-01

    The report gives the results of the experiments on aluminum liner acceleration and their interaction with electrode walls. The liners having the radius of 30 mm, wall thickness of 1mm and 0.7 mm and a length of 30 mm are accelerated by a magnetic field, created by explosive magnetic generator (EMC). A helical generator 100 mm in diameter and 700 mm in length was used to create a magnetic field. During the process of compression a liner shape was recorded using X-ray facility. The report gives experimental set-up, electrical and design data of experimental units and diagnostic equipment data, also raw experimental data, analysis data and description of an analysis method. Based on the experiments the authors chose the method to bring a liner into a contact with electrode walls, which permits continuous contact of a liner with electrode wall is in the process of motion.

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of environmental barrier coatings in CFCC combustor liners.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. G.; Benz, J.; Ellingson, W. A.; Kimmel, J. B.; Price, J. R.; Energy Technology; Solar Turbines, Inc

    2007-01-01

    Advanced combustor liners fabricated of SiC/SiC continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) and covered with environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) have been successfully tested in Solar Turbines Inc. field engines. The primary goal for the CFCC/EBC liners is to reach a 30,000-h lifetime. Because the EBCs, when applied on the hot surfaces of liners, protect the underlying CFCC from oxidation damage, their performance is critical in achieving the lifetime goal. To determine CFCC/EBC liner condition and assess operating damage, the liners were subjected to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) during various processing stages, as well as before and after the engine test. The NDE techniques included pulsed infrared thermal imaging, air-coupled ultrasonic scanning, and X-ray computerized tomography. It was found that EBC damage and spallation depend on the condition of the CFCC material. The NDE results and correlations with destructive examination are discussed.

  6. The effect of base/liner use on restoration leakage.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Marshall, K R; Holman, B G

    2006-01-01

    Central to the success of a restoration is the quality of the restoration-dentin interfacial seal; any compromise of the seal can lead to secondary or recurrent decay. Class V restorations have a high leakage propensity and this study evaluates the effect of base/liner placement on leakage behavior. Class V intracoronal half enamel/half dentin preparations (3.0 x 2.0 x 2.0 mm) were cut in four groups (n = 10) of extracted human teeth with a new bur used for each cavity preparation. All teeth were single-rooted, single-canal anterior teeth. Base/liner usage differed between each group. The first group of teeth had no liner or base, while a liner was placed in the second group of teeth prior to conditioning and restoration. A base was placed in the third group of cavity preparations and both the base and liner were placed in the fourth group. After preparation, a small diameter bare-end PVC-insulated copper wire was inserted within the root canal of each tooth from the apex to firm contact with the pulp chamber roof. The tooth-wire interface and root surface was sealed and leakage was followed electrochemically for 35 days in 0.9% NaCl solution. All of the teeth leaked to some degree; however, teeth that were restored without liner or base demonstrated the smallest amount of leakage. The greatest leakage was noted in teeth restored with both a base and a liner; teeth restored with only a base showed greater leakage than those restored with only a liner. The findings indicate that the presence of a base and/or a liner results in greater leakage compared with intracoronal Class V preparations that were conditioned and restored only. The data suggest that placing both a base and a liner increases restoration leakage significantly. PMID:16689065

  7. High energy imploding liner experiment HEL-1: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.; Anderson, B.G.; Ekdahl, C.A.

    1997-09-01

    Magnetically driven imploding liner systems can be used as a source of shock energy for materials equation of state studies, implosion driven magnetized plasma fusion experiments, and other similar applications. The imploding liner is a cylinder of conducting material through which a current is passed in the longitudinal direction. Interaction of the current with its own magnetic field causes the liner to implode. Sources of electrical energy for imploding liner systems are capacitor banks or explosive pulse power systems seeded by capacitor banks. In August, 1996, a high energy liner experiment (HEL-1) was conducted at the All-Russia Scientific Research Institute (VNIIEF) in Sarov, Russia. A 5 tier 1 meter diameter explosive disk generator provided electrical energy to drive a 48 cm outside diameter, 4 mm thick, aluminum alloy liner having a mass of about 11kg onto an 11 cm diameter diagnostic package. The purpose of the experiment was to measure performance of the explosive pulse power generator and the heavy imploding liner. Electrical performance diagnostics included inductive (B-dot) probes, Faraday Rotation current measurement, Rogowski total current measurement, and voltage probes. Flux loss and conductor motion diagnostics included current-joint voltage measurements and motion sensing contact pins. Optical and electrical impact pins, inductive (B-dot) probes, manganin pressure probes, and continuously recording resistance probes in the Central Measuring Unit (CMU) and Piezo and manganin pressure probes, optical beam breakers, and inductive probes located in the glide planes were used as liner symmetry and velocity diagnostics. Preliminary analysis of the data indicate that a peak current of more than 100 MA was attained and the liner velocity was between 6.7 km/sec and 7.5 km/sec. Liner kinetic energy was between 22 MJ and 35 MJ. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Clay Nanocomposite/Aerogel Sandwich Structures for Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi; Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, J. Chris; Meador, Michael

    2006-01-01

    GRC research has led to the development of epoxy-clay nanocomposites with 60-70% lower gas permeability than the base epoxy resin. Filament wound carbon fiber reinforced tanks made with this nanocomposite had a five-fold lower helium leak rate than the corresponding tanks made without clay. More recent work has produced new composites with more than a 100-fold reduction in helium permeability. Use of these advanced, high barrier composites would eliminate the need for a liner in composite cryotanks, thereby simplifying construction and reducing propellant leakage. Aerogels are attractive materials for use as cryotank insulation because of their low density and low thermal conductivity. However, aerogels are fragile and have poor environmental stability, which have limited their use to certain applications in specialized environments (e.g., in certain types of nuclear reactors as Cerenkov radiation detectors, and as thermal insulators aboard space rovers on Mars). New GRC developed polymer crosslinked aerogels (X-Aerogels) retain the low density of conventional aerogels, but they demonstrate a 300-fold increase in their mechanical strength. Currently, our strongest materials combine a density of approx. 0.45 g/cc, a thermal conductivity of approx. 0.04 W/mK and a compressive strength of 185 MPa. Use of these novel aerogels as insulation materials/structural components in combination with the low permeability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites could significantly reduce cryotank weight and improve durability.

  9. Clay at Nili Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Nili Fossae region of Mars was compiled from separate images taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), two instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images were taken at 0730 UTC (2:30 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 4, 2006, near 20.4 degrees north latitude, 78.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. HiRISE's image was taken in three colors, but its much higher resolution shows features as small as 30 centimeters (1 foot) across.

    CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, discovered that some of the most ancient regions of Mars are rich in clay minerals, formed when water altered the planet's volcanic rocks. From the OMEGA data it was unclear whether the clays formed at the surface during Mars' earliest history of if they formed at depth and were later exposed by impact craters or erosion of the overlying rocks. Clays are an indicator of wet, benign environments possibly suitable for biological processes, making Nili Fossae and comparable regions important targets for both CRISM and HiRISE.

    In this visualization of the combined data from the two instruments, the CRISM data were used to calculate the strengths of spectral absorption bands due to minerals present in the scene. The two major minerals detected by the instrument are olivine, a mineral characteristic of primitive igneous rocks, and clay. Areas rich in olivine are shown in red, and minerals rich in clay are shown in green. The derived colors were then overlayed on the HiRISE image.

    The area where the CRISM and HiRISE data overlap is shown at the upper left, and is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) across. The three boxes outlined in blue are enlarged to show how the different minerals in the scene match up with different landforms. In the image

  10. How clays weaken faults.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pluijm, Ben A.; Schleicher, Anja M.; Warr, Laurence N.

    2010-05-01

    The weakness of upper crustal faults has been variably attributed to (i) low values of normal stress, (ii) elevated pore-fluid pressure, and (iii) low frictional strength. Direct observations on natural faults rocks provide new evidence for the role of frictional properties on fault strength, as illustrated by our recent work on samples from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drillhole at Parkfield, California. Mudrock samples from fault zones at ~3066 m and ~3296 m measured depth show variably spaced and interconnected networks of displacement surfaces that consist of host rock particles that are abundantly coated by polished films with occasional striations. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study of the surfaces reveal the occurrence of neocrystallized thin-film clay coatings containing illite-smectite (I-S) and chlorite-smectite (C-S) phases. X-ray texture goniometry shows that the crystallographic fabric of these faults rocks is characteristically low, in spite of an abundance of clay phases. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the illitic mix-layered coatings demonstrate recent crystallization and reveal the initiation of an "older" fault strand (~8 Ma) at 3066 m measured depth, and a "younger" fault strand (~4 Ma) at 3296 m measured depth. Today, the younger strand is the site of active creep behavior, reflecting continued activation of these clay-weakened zones. We propose that the majority of slow fault creep is controlled by the high density of thin (< 100nm thick) nano-coatings on fracture surfaces, which become sufficiently smectite-rich and interconnected at low angles to allow slip with minimal breakage of stronger matrix clasts. Displacements are accommodated by localized frictional slip along coated particle surfaces and hydrated smectitic phases, in combination with intracrystalline deformation of the clay lattice, associated with extensive mineral dissolution, mass transfer and continued growth of expandable layers. The

  11. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  12. Further Development and Assessment of a Broadband Liner Optimization Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of advanced fan designs (including higher bypass ratios) and shorter engine nacelles has highlighted a need for increased fan noise reduction over a broader frequency range. Thus, improved broadband liner designs must account for these constraints and, where applicable, take advantage of advanced manufacturing techniques that have opened new possibilities for novel configurations. This work focuses on the use of an established broadband acoustic liner optimization process to design a variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom liner for a high speed fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over the conditions of interest. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design a liner aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. The multi-degree of freedom design is carried through design, fabrication, and testing. In-duct attenuation predictions compare well with measured data and the multi-degree of freedom liner is shown to outperform a more conventional liner over a range of flow conditions. These promising results provide further confidence in the design tool, as well as the enhancements made to the overall design process.

  13. Multimegajoule electromagnetic implosion of shaped solid-density liners

    SciTech Connect

    Degnan, J.H.; Baker, W.L.; Alme, M.L.

    1995-03-01

    Electromagnetic implosions of shaped cylindrical aluminum liners that remain at solid density are discussed. The approximate liner parameters have an initial radius of 3 to 4 cm, are 4 cm in height, and are nearly 0.1 cm thick. The liners are driven by the Shiva Star 1300-{mu}f capacitor bank at an 84-kV charging voltage and an nearly 30-nH total initial inductance (including implosion load). The discharge current travels along the length of the liner and rises to 14 MA in nearly 8 {mu}s. The implosion time is nearly 12 {mu}s. Diagnostics include inductive current and capacitive voltage probes, magnetic probes, and radiography. Both right-circular cylinder and conical liner implosion data are displayed and discussed. Radiography indicates implosion behavior substantially consistent with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations, which predict inner surface implosion velocities exceeding 20 km/s, and compressed density of two to three times solid density. Less growth of perturbations is evident for the conical liner (nearly 1% thickness tolerance) than for the right-circular cylindrical liner (nearly 3% thickness tolerance). 12 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Two-dimensional modeling of magnetically imploded liners

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, W.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Lee, H.

    1996-11-01

    Magnetically imploded massive cylindrical liner drivers have been studied in two-dimensions for low, intermediate and high energy pulsed power systems. The simulations have been carried out using a resistive Eulerian magnetohydrodynamics computational model which includes material strength, and models the interactions between the imploding liner and the electrode walls. The computations simulate the generation of perturbations and their subsequent growth during the implosion. At low energies a solid liner remains in the plastic regime, reaching an inner cylindrical target with velocities of a few mm per {mu}s. At higher energies (where one-dimensional models predict implosion velocities of order 1 cm/{mu}s or more) resistive heating of the liner results in melting, and the effects of magnetically driven instabilities become important. We discuss the two-dimensional issues which arise in these systems. These include: the onset of perturbations associated with the motion of the liner along the electrodes; the growth of instabilities in liquid layers; and the suppression of instability growth during the implosion by maintaining a solid inner layer. Studies have been made of liners designed for the Pegasus capacitor bank facility (currents in the 5 - 12 MA regime), and for the Procyon high explosive system (currents in the 20 MA regime). This work focus on the design and performance of the first Pegasus composite megabar liner experiment.

  15. Thermographic inspection of pipes, tanks, and containment liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Lhota, James R.; Muthu, Nathan; Shepard, Steven M.

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear power plants are required to operate at a high level of safety. Recent industry and license renewal commitments aim to further increase safety by requiring the inspection of components that have not traditionally undergone detailed inspected in the past, such as tanks and liners. NEI 09-14 requires the inspection of buried pipes and tanks while containment liner inspections are required as a part of license renewal commitments. Containment liner inspections must inspect the carbon steel liner for defects - such as corrosion - that could threaten the pressure boundary and ideally, should be able to inspect the surrounding concrete for foreign material that could be in contact with the steel liner and potentially initiate corrosion. Such an inspection requires a simultaneous evaluation of two materials with very different material properties. Rapid, yet detailed, inspection results are required due to the massive size of the tanks and containment liners to be inspected. For this reason, thermal NDE methods were evaluated to inspect tank and containment liner mockups with simulated defects. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) was utilized to enhance the images and provide detailed information on the sizes and shapes of the observed defects. The results show that thermographic inspection is highly sensitive to the defects of interest and is capable of rapidly inspecting large areas.

  16. Thermographic inspection of pipes, tanks, and containment liners

    SciTech Connect

    Renshaw, Jeremy B. Muthu, Nathan; Lhota, James R.; Shepard, Steven M.

    2015-03-31

    Nuclear power plants are required to operate at a high level of safety. Recent industry and license renewal commitments aim to further increase safety by requiring the inspection of components that have not traditionally undergone detailed inspected in the past, such as tanks and liners. NEI 09-14 requires the inspection of buried pipes and tanks while containment liner inspections are required as a part of license renewal commitments. Containment liner inspections must inspect the carbon steel liner for defects - such as corrosion - that could threaten the pressure boundary and ideally, should be able to inspect the surrounding concrete for foreign material that could be in contact with the steel liner and potentially initiate corrosion. Such an inspection requires a simultaneous evaluation of two materials with very different material properties. Rapid, yet detailed, inspection results are required due to the massive size of the tanks and containment liners to be inspected. For this reason, thermal NDE methods were evaluated to inspect tank and containment liner mockups with simulated defects. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) was utilized to enhance the images and provide detailed information on the sizes and shapes of the observed defects. The results show that thermographic inspection is highly sensitive to the defects of interest and is capable of rapidly inspecting large areas.

  17. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  18. CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Fitzsimmons; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-10-30

    The test plan detailed in this topical report supports Task 1 of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources - Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The purpose of these tests is to verify that materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed and designed the cooled liner test assembly article that will be tested at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (CETC-O). The Test Plan TP-00364 is duplicated in its entirety, with formatting changes to comply with the format required for this Topical Report. The table of contents has been modified to include the additional material required by this topical report. Test Request example and drawings of non-proprietary nature are also included as appendices.

  19. A sensate liner for personnel monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Eric J.; Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Park, Ms. Sungmee; Rajamanickam, Rangaswamy; Eisler, Robert, , Dr.; Burghart, Mr. George; McKee, Mr. Tony

    This program develops and demonstrates technologies useful for implementing a manageable cost effective systems approach to monitoring the medical condition of personnel by way of an instrumented uniform hereafter referred to as a Sensate Liner (SL). The SL consists of a form fitting garment which contains and interconnects sensing elements and devices to an electronics pack containing a processor and transmitter. The SL prototype requires fiber, textile, garment and sensor development. The SL textile consists of a mesh of electrically and optically conductive fibers integrated into the normal structure (woven or knitted) of fibers and yarns selected for comfort and durability. A suite of SL garment compatible embedded biological and physical sensors are then integrated into the SL. The initial SL sensor suite is selected to improve triage for combat casualties. Additional SL sensor concepts for medical monitoring will be discussed.

  20. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an emerging, relatively unexplored approach to fusion for electrical power and propulsion application. The physical principles of the concept are founded upon both inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). It attempts to combine the favorable attributes of both these orthogonal approaches to fusion, but at the same time, avoiding the extreme technical challenges of both by exploiting a fusion regime intermediate between them. It uses a material liner to compress, heat and contain the fusion reacting plasma (the target plasma) mentally. By doing so, the fusion burn could be made to occur at plasma densities as high as six orders of magnitude higher than conventional MCF such as tokamak, thus leading to an approximately three orders of magnitude reduction in the plasma energy required for ignition. It also uses a transient magnetic field, compressed to extremely high intensity (100's T to 1000T) in the target plasma, to slow down the heat transport to the liner and to increase the energy deposition of charged-particle fusion products. This has several compounding beneficial effects. It leads to longer energy confinement time compared with conventional ICF without magnetized target, and thus permits the use of much lower plasma density to produce reasonable burn-up fraction. The compounding effects of lower plasma density and the magneto-insulation of the target lead to greatly reduced compressional heating power on the target. The increased energy deposition rate of charged-particle fusion products also helps to lower the energy threshold required for ignition and increasing the burn-up fraction. The reduction in ignition energy and the compressional power compound to lead to reduced system size, mass and R&D cost. It is a fusion approach that has an affordable R&D pathway, and appears attractive for propulsion application in the nearer term.

  1. Elastic Properties of Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Prasad, M.; Nur, A.

    2001-12-01

    We present ultrasonic P- and S-waves velocity measurements on pure clay samples using three different experiment setups. These experiments provided petrophysical and acoustic properties of clay minerals as a function both of mineralogy and compaction. In the first experiment, acoustic measurements were performed on cold-pressed clay aggregates at ambient and at hydrostatic pressure conditions. Porosity and grain density values of the different clay mineralogy aggregates ranged from 4 to 43% and 2.13 to 2.83 g cm-3, respectively. In the second experiment, we measured P-wave velocity and attenuation in a kaolinite-water suspension in which clay concentration was increased up to 60%. In the third experiment, P- and S- wave velocities were measured during uniaxial stress compaction of clay powders. Results from all three experiments revealed low bulk (K) and shear (μ ) moduli for kaolinite, montmorillonite, and smectite; the values range between 6-12 GPa for K and 4-6 GPa for μ , respectively. Using these clay moduli values in effective medium and granular porous media models, velocity is predicted in saturated pure kaolinite samples, kaolinite suspension and shaly sandstones fairly well. Experimental results also showed that water interlayers play an important role in the compaction and strength of clay aggregates. Clay minerals carrying on water interlayers in their structure showed high compaction and strength. This study is relevant for a more reliable assessment of the seismic response in reservoirs and/or basins characterized by clay-bearing formations.

  2. Studies of solid liner stability in electromagnetic implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Rienovsky, R.E.; Morgan, D.

    1998-12-31

    The authors have conducted a series of experiments involving electromagnetic implosion of solid aluminum liners on the Pegasus II capacitor bank. These experiments consisted of liners on which single wavelength perturbations had been cut into the outer surface. Typical liner thickness was 400 mm and the usual material was the 1100 aluminum alloy. This alloy is relatively soft with a high conductivity. Recently comparisons have been made with harder but more resistive alloys. The sinusoidal perturbations ranged in amplitude between 10--100 mm and their wavelength between 0.5 and 2.0 mm. Radiographs of the imploding liners showed that the initial perturbations grew to amplitudes of 2000--4000 mm before completely rupturing and injecting flux into the region interior to the liner. Throughout the growth of the perturbations, there was virtually no coupling to other wavelengths. Even after liner disruption, the series of disk-like structures that resulted remained at the same scale length until impact with a center conductor. Two-dimensional MHD simulations of these experiments with the high conductivity Al-1100 alloy have yielded consistently good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Because the magnetic diffusion time in this alloy is comparable to or longer than the growth time, they find that the dynamics can be approximated by theories of Rayleigh-Taylor instability for which strength has been included. Recently, the authors have conducted two experiments with other aluminum alloys. These alloys have a significantly higher tensile yield strength than the 1100 alloy, but also somewhat high resistivity. Because the magnetic diffusion, ohmic heating, and loss of strength all occur on shorter times than does the growth, the forces acting on the liner are more distributed throughout the liner thickness than on the previous experiments. Qualitatively different features have been observed in the radiographs of these experiments. Two-dimensional MHD

  3. Formed platelet combustor liner construction feasibility, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, W. A.; Janke, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Environments generated in high pressure liquid rocket engines impose severe requirements on regeneratively cooled combustor liners. Liners fabricated for use in high chamber pressures using conventional processes suffer from limitations that can impair operational cycle life and can adversely affect wall compatibility. Chamber liners fabricated using formed platelet technology provide an alternative to conventional regeneratively cooled liners (an alternative that has many attractive benefits). A formed platelet liner is made from a stacked assembly of platelets with channel features. The assembly is diffusion bonded into a flat panel and then three-dimensionally formed into a section of a chamber. Platelet technology permits the liner to have very precisely controlled and thin hot gas walls and therefore increased heat transfer efficiency. Further cooling efficiencies can be obtained through enhanced design flexibility. These advantages translate into increased cycle life and enhanced wall compatibility. The increased heat transfer efficiency can alternately be used to increase engine performance or turbopump life as a result of pressure drop reductions within the regeneratively cooled liner. Other benefits can be obtained by varying the materials of construction within the platelet liner to enhance material compatibility with operating environment or with adjoining components. Manufacturing cost savings are an additional benefit of a formed platelet liner. This is because of reduced touch labor and reduced schedule when compared to conventional methods of manufacture. The formed platelet technology is not only compatible with current state-of-the art combustion chamber structural support and manifolding schemes, it is also an enabling technology that allows the use of other high performance and potentially low cost methods of construction for the entire combustion chamber assembly. The contract under which this report is submitted contains three phases: (1) phase

  4. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Walker, Harold; Mitsch, William

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  5. Retrieved Highly Crosslinked UHMWPE Acetabular Liners Have Similar Wear Damage as Conventional UHMWPE

    PubMed Central

    Schroder, David T.; Kelly, Natalie H.; Parks, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Highly crosslinked UHMWPE is associated with increased wear resistance in hip simulator and clinical studies. Laboratory and case studies, however, have described rim fracture in crosslinked acetabular liners. Controversy exists, therefore, on the relative merits of crosslinked liners over conventional liners in terms of wear performance versus resistance to fatigue cracking. Questions/purposes We asked whether crosslinked liners would show less surface damage than conventional liners but would be more susceptible to fatigue damage. Methods We examined 36 conventional UHMWPE and 39 crosslinked UHMWPE retrieved implants with similar patient demographics and identical design for evidence of wear damage, including articular surface damage, impingement, screw-hole creep, and rim cracks. Results We observed no difference in wear damage scores for the two liners. Conventional liners more frequently impinged but were more often elevated with smaller head sizes. We observed creep in approximately 70% of both types of liners. Incipient rim cracks were found in five crosslinked liners, and one liner had a rim fracture. Only one conventional liner had an incipient rim crack. Conclusions Contrary to our expectation, damage was similar between crosslinked and conventional UHMWPE liners. Moreover, the 15% occurrence (six of 39) of incipient or complete fractures in crosslinked liners as compared with a 3% occurrence (one of 36) in conventional liners may have implications for the long-term performance of crosslinked liners. Longer-term studies will be necessary to establish the fate of rim cracks and thus the overall clinical fatigue performance of crosslinked liners. PMID:20844998

  6. Prediction of the acoustic impedance of duct liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.; Tester, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent research which contributes to the prediction of the acoustic impedance of duct liners is reviewed. This review includes the linear and nonlinear properties of sheet and bulk type materials and methods for the measurement of these properties. It also includes the effect of grazing flow on the acoustic properties of materials. Methods for predicting the properties of single or multilayered, point reacting or extended reaction, and flat or curved liners are discussed. Based on this review, methods for predicting the properties of the duct liners which are typically used in aircraft engines are recommended. Some areas of needed research are discussed briefly.

  7. Pegasus liner stability experiments: Diagnostics and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.; Rodriguez, G.

    1998-12-31

    A series of experiments to compare imploding cylindrical liner performance with Magneto-HydroDynamic (MHD) modeling has been performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus capacitor bank. Several configurations of aluminum liners have been used; some with initial perturbations and some smooth. Instability growth resulting from the perturbations has been observed with high resolution. Load diagnostics included radial x-rays, fiber optic impact pins, and VISAR (Velocity Interferometer for a Surface of Any Reflector). Diagnostic results and comparisons for several liner stability (LS) experiments are presented.

  8. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  9. Subscale hot-fire testing of a formed platelet liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Hayes, William A.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate low-cost options for fabricating main combustion chambers, formed platelet liners are being developed. The savings in manufacturing time and cost associated with platelet liners are accompanied by promising thermal advantages, such as lower-wall temperatures and increased cycle life. A subscale liner was tested by NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to demonstrate its thermal performance. Testing to date has provided chamber pressures up to 2524 psia, while a maximum chamber pressure of 2700 psia is planned. In general, the liner has remained in good condition and performed well, with only minor areas of localized roughening. Data from this subscale test program is being used to develop a full size chamber for testing on a Space Shuttle Main Engine at MSFC in 1994.

  10. Method of repairing a wellbore liner for sand control

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, J.M.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a method of repairing a damaged wellbore liner for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises: positioning a quantity of fluid resin material in alignment with the portion of the wellbore liner to be repaired; positioning a gas generator in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to increase wellbore pressure in a substantially instantaneous manner to a pressure substantially in excess of well pressure to force the fluid resin material from the wellbore into the damaged area of the wellbore liner; and subsequently polymerizing the resin material to form a consolidated, porous permeable matrix that allows the flow of production fluid into the well while preventing the flow of sand, or other fine materials into the well through the previously damaged area of the wellbore liner.

  11. Acoustic Liner Drag: A Parametric Study of Conventional Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the characterization of the aerodynamic drag performance of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in NASA Langley's Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several conventional perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations. For a fixed porosity, facesheet hole diameter and cavity depth are varied to study the effect of each. These configurations are selected to span the range of conventional liner geometries used in commercial aircraft engines. Detailed static pressure and acoustic measurements are made for grazing flows up to M=0.5 at 140 dB SPL for tones between 400 and 2800 Hz. These measurements are used to calculate a resistance factor (?) for each configuration. Analysis shows a correlation between perforate hole size and the resistance factor but cavity depth seems to have little influence. Acoustic effects on liner drag are observed to be limited to the lower Mach numbers included in this investigation.

  12. Experimental Impedance of Single Liner Elements with Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follet, J. I.; Betts, J. F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to generate a high quality database, from which the effects of a mean bias flow on the acoustic impedance of lumped-element single-degree-of-freedom liners was determined. Acoustic impedance measurements were made using the standard two-microphone method in the NASA Langley Normal Incidence Tube. Each liner consisted of a perforated sheet with a constant-area cavity. Liner resistance was shown to increase and to become less frequency and sound pressure level dependent as the bias flow was increased. The resistance was also consistently lower for a negative bias flow (suction) than for a positive bias flow (blowing) of equal magnitude. The slope of the liner reactance decreased with increased flow.

  13. Mechanical behavior of tungsten shaped charge liner materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D.H.

    1993-08-01

    Radiographs of jets produced by shaped charges with tungsten liners have documented both ductile and brittle breakup behavior. The relationships between the varying breakup behavior of tungsten shaped charge jets and metallurgical characteristics and/or mechanical behavior of the liner are not understood. In this paper the mechanical behavior of warm-forged and chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) tungsten is discussed relative to the typical deformation history of an element of liner material which becomes part of the jet. The analyses suggest the following: (1) tungsten liner material is damaged, or possibly pulverized, during shock loading at the high-explosive detonation front; (2) pulverized material is consolidated in the convergence zone under conditions of high pressure, and (3) variations in observed breakup behavior of tungsten may be related to high temperature embrittlement. The low temperature ductile-brittle transition temperature of tungsten (DBTT) is not believed to be directly related to observed variations in break-up behavior of jets.

  14. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. High-speed velocimetry inside imploding cylindrical liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Daniel; Lemke, Ray; Dalton, Devon; Harding, Eric; McBride, Ryan; Martin, Matthew; Blue, Brent; Walker, Scott

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic planar compression is conceptually simple but difficult to maintain at extreme pressure (>5 Mbar). Higher pressures are attainable with imploding cylindrical liners, using Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) to track the liner interior. PDV measures Doppler shift directly--1 GHz of beat frequency for every 1 km/s of velocity--requiring a special ``leapfrog'' approach for liners traveling in excess of 20 km/s. Single-point and multi-point PDV measurements have been performed in aluminum, beryllium, and tantalum liners under ramp compression, and the technique can readily applied to other implosion experiments. Combined with electrical current diagnostics, these measurements test thermodynamic equations of state at pressures up to 10 MBar and beyond. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85.

  16. Development of composite pressure vessels with nonmetallic liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Con F.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Schimenti, John D.; Tiller, Dale B.

    1992-07-01

    Brunswick composites has developed metallic liners and composite cylinders for use in military and civilian aircraft, missiles, inflation systems and space applications. At present an all-composite pressurant tank is being developed for use in the natural gas vehicle (NGV). This tank uses a plastic liner of high density polyethylene (HDPE) as a leak-tight permeation barrier. Tank characteristics and testing are described. HDPE reduces cost, meets all space and missile pressurant tank requirements, and is readily availble. Test results indicate that an all-composite pressurant tank with an HDPE liner provides a tough, high cycle life, lightweight, environmentally stable pressurant tank with very low permeability. HDPE offers a viable, low cost alternative to conventional metal liners as well as many design advantages.

  17. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl; Mitsch, William

    2000-12-31

    retention giving rise to the potential use of these materials as a liners for wastewater treatment wetlands. While plant growth was observed to be less vigorous for FGD lined wetland mesocosms compared to the control, the above and below ground biomass were not significantly different. Cost estimates for FGD liners compared favorably with clay liners for varying haul distances.

  18. Configuration Effects on Acoustic Performance of a Duct Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jones, Michael G.; Nark, Douglas; Howerton, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    Continued success in aircraft engine noise reduction necessitates ever more complete understanding of the effect that flow path geometry has on sound propagation in the engine. The Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate sound propagation through a duct of comparable size (approximately the gap of GE90) and physical characteristics to the aft bypass duct of typical aircraft engines. The liner test section is designed to mimic the outer/inner walls of an engine exhaust bypass duct that has been unrolled circumferentially. Experiments to investigate the effect of curvature along the flow path on the acoustic performance of a test liner are performed in the CDTR and reported in this paper. Flow paths investigated include both straight and curved with offsets from the inlet to the discharge plane of and 1 duct width, respectively. The test liners are installed on the side walls of the liner test section. The liner samples are perforate over honeycomb core, which design is typical of liners installed in aircraft nacelles. In addition to fully treated side walls, combinations of treated and acoustically rigid walls are investigated. While curvature in the hard wall duct is found not to reduce the incident sound significantly, it does cause mode scattering. It is found that asymmetry of liner treatment causes scattering of the incident mode into less attenuated modes, which degrades the overall liner attenuation. It is also found that symmetry of liner treatment enhances liner performance by eliminating scattering into less attenuated modes. Comparisons of measured liner attenuation with numerical results predicted by an analytic model based on the parabolic approximation (CDUCT-LaRC) have also been made and are reported in this paper. The effect of curvature in the rigid wall configuration estimated by CDUCT-LaRC is similar to the observed results, and the mode scattering seen in the measurements also occurs in the

  19. Landing Gear Door Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Van De Ven, Thomas (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A landing gear door for retractable landing gear of aircraft includes an acoustic liner. The acoustic liner includes one or more internal cavities or chambers having one or more openings that inhibit the generation of sound at the surface and/or absorb sound generated during operation of the aircraft. The landing gear door may include a plurality of internal chambers having different geometries to thereby absorb broadband noise.

  20. Flap Side Edge Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhari, Meelan M. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    One or more acoustic liners comprising internal chambers or passageways that absorb energy from a noise source on the aircraft are disclosed. The acoustic liners may be positioned at the ends of flaps of an aircraft wing to provide broadband noise absorption and/or dampen the noise producing unsteady flow features, and to reduce the amount of noise generated due to unsteady flow at the inboard and/or outboard end edges of a flap.

  1. Microstructural examination of service exposed coal mill liner material

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Chowdhury, S.G.; Pathak, L.C.; Ray, A.K.

    2007-10-15

    This study mainly focuses the microstructural characterisation of the service exposed coal liner. These liners are generally referred to as bull ring segments in the bowl mill of coal pulveriser systems. The failed bull ring segment was collected from a coal-fired power plant of Kolaghat thermal plant, West Bengal, India. The crack that has been observed in the middle of the liner was observed under SEM and detailed microstructural studies are made for the liner material. The hardness measurements are made and XRD is carried out to identify the phases present in the sample. The results suggest that the material confirms to high chromium cast iron and microstructural studies reveal that the cracks are mainly due to the heavy service exposed conditions where lumps of coal and silica sand falling on these liners causing severe impact and abrasion conditions. High abrasive studies on the liner material are carried out and it showed that increasing the abrasive size as well as load is responsible for higher wear loss. The results suggest that prolonged exposure to abrasion conditions results in the progressive removal of the matrix material and due to various phase transformations from austenite to martensite introduces surface volume changes and causes the generation of cracks and further lead to failure of the component.

  2. Spherically symmetric simulation of plasma liner driven magnetoinertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Samulyak, Roman; Parks, Paul; Wu Lingling

    2010-09-15

    Spherically symmetric simulations of the implosion of plasma liners and compression of plasma targets in the concept of the plasma jet driven magnetoinertial fusion have been performed using the method of front tracking. The cases of single deuterium and xenon liners and double layer deuterium-xenon liners compressing various deuterium-tritium targets have been investigated, optimized for maximum fusion energy gains, and compared with theoretical predictions and scaling laws of [P. Parks, Phys. Plasmas 15, 062506 (2008)]. In agreement with the theory, the fusion gain was significantly below unity for deuterium-tritium targets compressed by Mach 60 deuterium liners. The most optimal setup for a given chamber size contained a target with the initial radius of 20 cm compressed by a 10 cm thick, Mach 60 xenon liner, achieving a fusion energy gain of 10 with 10 GJ fusion yield. Simulations also showed that composite deuterium-xenon liners reduce the energy gain due to lower target compression rates. The effect of heating of targets by alpha particles on the fusion energy gain has also been investigated.

  3. Cylindrical Liner Z-pinch Experiments on the MAGPIE Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdiak, Guy; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Harvey-Thompson, Adam J.; Swadling, George F.; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco; Skidmore, Jonathan; Suttle, Lee; Khoory, Essa; Pickworth, Louisa; de Grouchy, Philip; Hall, Gareth N.; Bland, Simon N.; Weinwurm, Marcus; Chittenden, Jeremy P.

    2012-10-01

    Experimental data from gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch experiments is presented. The MAGPIE current (1.4 MA, 240 ns) is applied to a thin walled (80um) Al tube with a static gas-fill inside. The system is diagnosed axially using interferometry, optical streak photography and optical spectroscopy. We observe a series of cylindrically converging shock waves driven into the gas-fill from the inside liner surface. No bulk motion of the liner occurs. The timing of the shocks and their trajectories provide information on the shock launching mechanisms. This in turn allows a study of the response of the liner to the current pulse. Shock wave timing is compared to measurements of the liner resistance and optical images of the liner's outside surface. The system provides a useful, essentially 1D problem for testing MagLIF relevant MHD codes, particularly with regards to EOS, strength and resistivity models. This work may also be relevant to the study of shocks in astrophysical plasmas. The shocks launched into the gas radiatiate strongly; spatially resolved optical spectroscopy data and radial electron density profiles from interferometry images provide evidence for a radiative precursor ahead of the first shock. Instabilities are seen to develop in the downstream regions.

  4. Composite Liner, Multi-Megabar Shock Driver Development

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, J.C. Jr.; Bartsch, R.R.; Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Lee, H.; Bowers, R.L.; Atchison, W.L.; Oona, H.; Stokes, J.L.; Veeser, L.R.; Broste, W.B.

    1998-10-18

    The multi-megabar shock driver development is a series of experiments in support of the Los Alamos High Energy Density Physics Experimental Program. Its purpose is to develop techniques to impact a uniform, stable, composite liner upon a high Z target to produce a multi-megabar shock for EOS studies. To date, experiments have been done on the Pegasus II capacitor bank with a current of {approximately}12MA driving the impactor liner. The driving field is {approximately}200 T at the target radius of 1cm. Data will be presented on the impactor liner. The driving field is {approximately}200 T at the target radius of 1 cm. Data will be presented on the stability and uniformity of the impactor liner when it impacts the target cylinder. Three experiments have been done with emphasis on liner development. Shock pressures greater than a megabar have been done with emphasis on liner development. Shock pressures greater than a megabar have been produced with an Al target cylinder. A Pt target cylinder should produce shock pressures in th e 5-megabar range.

  5. High Voltage Coaxial Vacuum Gap Breakdown for Pulsed Power Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordaro, Samuel; Bott-Suzuki, Simon; Caballero Bendixsen, Luis Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF)1, are presently under detailed study at Sandia National Laboratories. Alongside this, a comprehensive analysis of the influence of the specific liner design geometry in the MagLIF system on liner initiation is underway in the academic community. Recent work at UC San Diego utilizes a high voltage pulsed system (25kV, 150ns) to analyze the vacuum breakdown stage of liner implosion. Such experimental analyses are geared towards determining how the azimuthal symmetry of coaxial gap breakdown affect plasma initiation within the liner. The final aim of the experimental analysis is to assess to what scale symmetry remains important at high (MV) voltages. An analysis of the above will utilize plasma self-emission via optical MCP, current measurements, voltage measurements near the gap, exact location of breakdown via 2D b-dot probe triangulation, as well as measuring the evolution of the B-field along the length of the liner via b-dot array. Results will be discussed along with analytical calculations of breakdown mechanisms

  6. Effects of Flow Profile on Educed Acoustic Liner Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie r.; Nark, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation of the effects of shear flow profile on impedance eduction processes employed at NASA Langley. Uniform and 1-D shear-flow propagation models are used to educe the acoustic impedance of three test liners based on aeroacoustic data acquired in the Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube, at source levels of 130, 140 and 150 dB, and at centerline Mach numbers of 0.0, 0.3 and 0.5. A ceramic tubular, calibration liner is used to evaluate the propagation models, as this liner is expected to be insensitive to SPL, grazing flow Mach number, and flow profile effects. The propagation models are then used to investigate the effects of shear flow profile on acoustic impedances educed for two conventional perforate-over-honeycomb liners. Results achieved with the uniform-flow models follow expected trends, but those educed with the 1-D shear-flow model do not, even for the calibration liner. However, when the flow profile used with the shear-flow model is varied to increase the Mach number gradient near the wall, results computed with the shear-flow model are well matched to those achieved with the uniform-flow model. This indicates the effects of flow profile on educed acoustic liner impedance are small, but more detailed investigations of the flow field throughout the duct are needed to better understand these effects.

  7. The Nature of the Energy Source in LINER's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colina, L.; Koratkar, Anuradha

    1996-01-01

    LINER's (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) are found in about 30% of all bright galaxies, including luminous infrared galaxies. They form a heterogeneous class powered by a variety of ionizing mechanisms such as low-luminosity AGNs (active galactic nuclei), starbursts, shocks, or any combination of these. In early-type spirals, LINER's are powered by a low-luminosity AGN, or by an AGN surrounded by circumnuclear star-forming regions. In luminous infrared galaxies, LINER's are powered by starbursts with associated wind-related extended shocks, and an AGN may play a minor role, if any. LINER's in some FR I radio galaxies show strong evidence for the presence of a massive central black hole, and there are indications for the existence of shocks in the nuclear disks of these galaxies. Yet, the dominant ionizing mechanism for LINER's in radio-quiet ellipticals and FR I host galaxies is still unclear. Multifrequency high spatial resolution imaging and spectroscopy are essential to discriminate among the different ionizing mechanisms present in LINER's.

  8. Floating junk bonnet protects liner top from debris

    SciTech Connect

    Telfer, G. ); Sweeney, D. )

    1994-09-12

    A new design of debris protection system, the floating junk bonnet, for liner tops prevents well debris from entering the liner top polished bore receptacle (PBR) and sticking the setting tools. The floating junk bonnet improves the recovery of liner setting tools from the well no matter how severe the debris problem is. Well debris (formation cuttings, fines, mud solids, cement solids, foreign bodies, etc) entering the linear top PBR during cementing operations has been a serious problem for many operators. In some cases, this problem has led to liner hanger setting tools sticking in the liner top PBR. The setting tool could then become cemented in place, resulting in an expensive fishing job or sidetrack. A prototype debris protection system was developed and tested prior to offshore application. The liner protection tool was subsequently successfully used on Nelson project development wells in the U.K. North Sea. The paper discusses debris accumulation, the junket basket, the floating junk bonnet design, test procedures, and field test results.

  9. Computer method for design of acoustic liners for turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minner, G. L.; Rice, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A design package is presented for the specification of acoustic liners for turbofans. An estimate of the noise generation was made based on modifications of existing noise correlations, for which the inputs are basic fan aerodynamic design variables. The method does not predict multiple pure tones. A target attenuation spectrum was calculated which was the difference between the estimated generation spectrum and a flat annoyance-weighted goal attenuated spectrum. The target spectrum was combined with a knowledge of acoustic liner performance as a function of the liner design variables to specify the acoustic design. The liner design method at present is limited to annular duct configurations. The detailed structure of the liner was specified by combining the required impedance (which is a result of the previous step) with a mathematical model relating impedance to the detailed structure. The design procedure was developed for a liner constructed of perforated sheet placed over honeycomb backing cavities. A sample calculation was carried through in order to demonstrate the design procedure, and experimental results presented show good agreement with the calculated results of the method.

  10. Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe R.

    2004-10-05

    A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

  11. Mineral resource of the Month: Clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Clays were one of the first mineral commodities used by people. Clay pottery has been found in archeological sites that are 12,000 years old, and clay figurines have been found in sites that are even older.

  12. Precooling an acetabular liner makes its insertion into a metal shell easier.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Richard F; Bourgeault, Craig A; Lew, William D; Bechtold, Joan E

    2006-02-01

    Temporary shrinkage of an acetabular polyethylene liner due to precooling could reduce the force required to snap the liner into its metal shell. This study documented cooling and heating rates of liners with a particular locking mechanism design, determined forces required to seat liners in their shells as a function of temperature, and quantified the force surgeons can exert with their thumbs when seating a liner. It took up to 8 minutes to cool 58- and 70-mm liners in an ice-water bath from room temperature to near 0 degrees C, and up to 24 minutes to subsequently warm these liners to near body temperature. Forces required to seat liners were greater at room and body temperatures than at 0 degrees C. Liners precooled to 0 degrees C required insertion forces that could be generated manually by surgeons. PMID:16520215

  13. Elastic Properties of Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Prasad, M.; Nur, A.

    We present ultrasonic P- and S-waves velocity measurements on pure clay samples us- ing three different experiment setups. These experiments provided petrophysical and acoustic properties of clay minerals as a function both of mineralogy and compaction. In the first experiment, acoustic measurements were performed on cold-pressed clay aggregates at ambient and at hydrostatic pressure conditions. Porosity and grain den- sity values of the different clay mineralogy aggregates ranged from 4 to 43% and 2.13 to 2.83 g cm-3, respectively. In the second experiment, we measured P-wave velocity and attenuation in a kaolinite-water suspension in which clay concentration was in- creased up to 60%. In the third experiment, P- and S- wave velocities were measured during uniaxial stress compaction of clay powders. Results from all three experiments revealed low bulk (K) and shear (µ) moduli for kaolinite, montmorillonite, and smec- tite; the values range between 6-12 GPa for K and 4-6 GPa for µ, respectively. Using these clay moduli values in effective medium and granular porous media (theories) models, velocity is predicted in saturated pure kaolinite samples, kaolinite suspension and shaly sandstone fairly well. Experimental results also showed that water interlay- ers play an important role in the compaction and strength of clay aggregates. Clay minerals carrying on water interlayers in their structure showed high compaction and strength. This study is relevant for a more reliable assessment of the seismic response in reservoirs and/or basins characterized by clay-bearing formations.

  14. Clay energetics in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Clays have been implicated in the origin of terrestrial life since the 1950's. Originally they were considered agents which aid in selecting, concentrating and promoting oligomerization of the organic monomeric substituents of cellular life forms. However, more recently, it has been suggested that minerals, with particular emphasis on clays, may have played a yet more fundamental role. It has been suggested that clays are prototypic life forms in themselves and that they served as a template which directed the self-assembly of cellular life. If the clay-life theory is to have other than conceptual credibility, clays must be shown by experiment to execute the operations of cellular life, not only individually, but also in a sufficiently concerted manner as to produce some semblance of the functional attributes of living cells. Current studies are focussed on the ability of clays to absorb, store and transfer energy under plausible prebiotic conditions and to use this energy to drive chemistry of prebiotic relevance. Conclusions of the work are applicable to the role of clays either as substrates for organic chemistry, or in fueling their own life-mimetic processes.

  15. Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques for Nacelle Liner Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Brown, Martha C.; Nark, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR) has been developed to investigate sound propagation through a duct of size comparable to the aft bypass duct of typical aircraft engines. The axial dimension of the bypass duct is often curved and this geometric characteristic is captured in the CDTR. The semiannular bypass duct is simulated by a rectangular test section in which the height corresponds to the circumferential dimension and the width corresponds to the radial dimension. The liner samples are perforate over honeycomb core and are installed on the side walls of the test section. The top and bottom surfaces of the test section are acoustically rigid to simulate a hard wall bifurcation or pylon. A unique feature of the CDTR is the control system that generates sound incident on the liner test section in specific modes. Uniform air flow, at ambient temperature and flow speed Mach 0.275, is introduced through the duct. Experiments to investigate configuration effects such as curvature along the flow path on the acoustic performance of a sample liner are performed in the CDTR and reported in this paper. Combinations of treated and acoustically rigid side walls are investigated. The scattering of modes of the incident wave, both by the curvature and by the asymmetry of wall treatment, is demonstrated in the experimental results. The effect that mode scattering has on total acoustic effectiveness of the liner treatment is also shown. Comparisons of measured liner attenuation with numerical results predicted by an analytic model based on the parabolic approximation to the convected Helmholtz equation are reported. The spectra of attenuation produced by the analytic model are similar to experimental results for both walls treated, straight and curved flow path, with plane wave and higher order modes incident. The numerical model is used to define the optimized resistance and reactance of a liner that significantly improves liner attenuation in the frequency range 1900-2400 Hz. A

  16. Demonstration of a wireless, self-powered, electroacoustic liner system.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Alex; Liu, Fei; Cattafesta, Louis; Sheplak, Mark; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2009-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the system operation of a self-powered active liner for the suppression of aircraft engine noise. The fundamental element of the active liner system is an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR), which consists of a Helmholtz resonator with one of its rigid walls replaced with a circular piezoceramic composite plate. For this system demonstration, two EMHR elements are used, one for acoustic impedance tuning and one for energy harvesting. The EMHR used for acoustic impedance tuning is shunted with a variable resistive load, while the EMHR used for energy harvesting is shunted to a flyback power converter and storage element. The desired acoustic impedance conditions are determined externally, and wirelessly transmitted to the liner system. The power for the receiver and the impedance tuning circuitry in the liner are supplied by the harvested energy. Tuning of the active liner is demonstrated at three different sound pressure levels (148, 151, and 153 dB) in order to show the robustness of the energy harvesting and storage system. An acoustic tuning range of approximately 200 Hz is demonstrated for each of the three available power levels. PMID:19206864

  17. Analyses of a Reinforced Concrete Containment with Liner Corrosion Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.; Smith, J.A.

    1998-11-19

    Incidents of liner corrosion in nuclear power containment structures have been recorded. These incidents and concerns of other possible liner corrosion in containment have prompted an interest in determining g the capacity of a degraded containment. Finite element analyses of a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) reinforced concrete containment with liner corrosion were conducted using the A13AQUS finite element code with the ANACAP-U nonlinear concrete constitutive model. The effect of liner corrosion on containment capacity was investigated. A loss of coolant accident was simulated by applying pressure and temperature changes to the structure without corrosion to determine baseline failure limits, followed by multiple analyses of the containment with corrosion at different locations and varying degrees of liner degradation. The corrosion locations were chosen at the base of the containment wall, near the equipment hatch, and at the midheight of the containment wall. Using a strain-based failure criterion the different scenarios were evaluated to prioritize their effect on containment capacity

  18. Wear of a composite ceramic head caused by liner fracture.

    PubMed

    Morlock, Michael M; Witt, Florian; Bishop, Nick; Behn, Rainer; Dalla Pria, Paolo; Barrow, Rob; Dymond, Ian

    2014-07-01

    Third-generation composite ceramics (eg, Delta; DePuy Orthopaedics, Warsaw, Indiana; Ceramtec, Plochingen, Germany) have greatly improved material characteristics compared with second-generation products. This case report presents a patient after total hip arthroplasty with a fractured ceramic liner and a heavily worn ceramic head (both third-generation ceramics) retrieved 9 months after surgery. The patient showed no symptoms in the involved hip but presented to the hospital because of other symptoms. The failure was caused by a tilted liner that was overlooked after surgery and fractured consecutively. Rim chipping and splitting were the 2 fracture modes observed for the liner. The head did not fracture completely because of its high strength but became roughened by the ceramic fragments, causing major wear of the metal back of the cup. The phase transformation of the zirconium grains from tetragonal to monoclinic in the aluminum oxide matrix was shown by radiographic diffraction analysis in the heavily worn areas of the head. This transformation increases the fracture strength of the head. Metal debris caused by a roughened ceramic head without fracture is an unreported phenomenon for third-generation ceramic bearings in hip arthroplasty. This case shows that proper impaction of the ceramic liner into the metal shell to prevent later tiling during reduction is as important as correct component positioning. If a tilted ceramic liner is observed postoperatively, the position must be corrected immediately to prevent the major consequences observed in this patient. PMID:24992062

  19. Hydrodynamic Modeling of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassibry, Jason; Hsu, Scott; Witherspoon, Doug; Gilmore, Marc

    2009-11-01

    Implosions of plasma liners in cylindrically or spherically convergent geometries can produce high pressures and temperatures with a confinement or dwell time of the order of the rarefaction timescale of the liner. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX), to be built at LANL, will explore and demonstrate the feasibility of forming imploding plasma liners with the spherical convergence of hypersonic plasma jets. Modeling will be performed using SPHC and MACH2. According to preliminary 3D SPHC results, high Z plasma liners imploding on vacuum with ˜1.5MJ of initial stored energy will reach ˜100kbar, which is a main objective of the experimental program. Among the objectives of the theoretical PLX effort are to assist in the diagnostic analysis of the PLX, identify possible deleterious effects due to instabilities or asymmetries, identify departures from ideal behavior due to thermal and radiative transport, and help determine scaling laws for possible follow-on applications of ˜1 Mbar HEDP plasmas and magneto-inertial fusion. An overview of the plan to accomplish these objectives will be presented, and preliminary results will be summarized.

  20. Thermal energy conservation with draperies and a plastic window liner

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The contributions of draperies, a plastic window liner, and fabric properties to heat loss reduction were studied. Research questions were developed relative to the contribution of the following to heat loss reduction: properties of drapery fabrics, and the effectiveness of 1) a temporary plastic indoor window liner, and 2) combining draperies with a plastic window liner. Four fabrics (Malimo, Maliwatt, glass and coated) for the window treatments were selected from 12 fabrics on the basis of thermal resistance, in combination with air permeability and thickness. Density, weight, yarn count, fabric construction, and yarn construction were also determined. The draperies were tested sealed (Velcro tape and a three-sided cornice) and unsealed, and with and without a plastic window liner. The effectiveness of each treatment was determined by comparing the percentage of heat loss reduction to the heat loss at the bare window. Yarn count, thickness, density and air permeability accounted for 76% of the variability of the thermal resistance of the fabrics; mean values ranged from 0.95 ft/sup 2/ hr /sup 0/F/Btu (Maliwatt) to 0.66 ft/sup 2/ hr /sup 0/F/Btu (coated). The plastic window liner was the most effective in reducing heat loss (75%).

  1. Non-contact optical three dimensional liner metrology.

    SciTech Connect

    Sebring, R. J.; Anderson, W. E.; Bartos, J. J.; Garcia, F.; Randolph, B.; Salazar, M. A.; Edwards, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We optically captured the 'as-built' liner geometry of NTLX (near term liner experiments) for Shiva Star using ultra-precision ranging lasers. We subsequently verified the resulting digitized geometry against the 3D CAD model of the part. The results confirmed that the Liner contours are within designed tolerances but revealed subtle fabrication artifacts that would typically go undetected. These features included centimeters long waviness and saddle and bulge regions of 1 micron or less in magnitude. The laser technology typically provided 10 micron spatial resolution with {+-}12 nanometer ranging precision. Atlas liners in the future may have to be diamond turned and will have the centimeter wavelength and 100 angstrom amplitude requirements. The advantages of using laser technology are (1) it avoids surface damage that may occur with conventional contact probes and (2) dramatically improves spatial resolution over CMM, capacitance and inductance type probes. Our work is the result of a perceived future need to develop precision, non-contact, liner inspection techniques to verify geometry, characterize machining artifacts and map wall thickness on delicate diamond turned surfaces. Capturing 'as-built' geometry in a non-contact way coupled with part-to-CAD verification software tools creates a new metrology competency for MST-7.

  2. Work of Adhesion of Thin Spray-On Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, H.

    2012-11-01

    The interface property known as work of adhesion incorporates both adhesion and effective bond width, which are two important design parameters in thin spray-on liner (TSL) support design. The value of this parameter is yet to be recognized by the mining industry and liner manufacturers. The importance of this parameter is introduced in this study. A new methodology using pull-out load-displacement data was developed to calculate the work of adhesion between a TSL and a substrate. Tests were performed using Tekflex as a liner material, which was applied to concrete, granite or sandstone substrate. It was found that a Tekflex liner, when sprayed onto substrates, will likely have work of adhesion values around 777-973 N/m depending on the type of substrate. In addition, for the first time in TSL literature, an effective bond width calculation is introduced in this study. It was found that Tekflex has average effective bond width of 0.7 mm on different substrates. Liner manufacturers should measure and document work of adhesion for their products on a standard substrate.

  3. Beryllium liner implosion experiments on the Z accelerator in preparation for Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF)*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Ryan D.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) [1] is a concept that involves using a pulsed electrical current to implode an initially-solid, cylindrical metal tube (liner) filled with preheated and magnetized fusion fuel. One- and two-dimensional simulations predict that if sufficient liner integrity can be maintained throughout the implosion, then significant fusion yield (>100 kJ) is possible on the 25-MA, 100-ns Z accelerator. The greatest threat to the liner integrity is the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability, which first develops on the outer liner surface, and then works its way inward toward the inner surface throughout the implosion. Two-dimensional simulations predict that a thick liner, with Router/δR=6, should be robust enough to keep the MRT instability from overly disrupting the fusion burn at stagnation. This talk will present the first experiments designed to study a thick, MagLIF-relevant liner implosion through to stagnation on Z [2]. The use of beryllium for the liner material enabled us to obtain penetrating monochromatic (6151±0.5 eV) radiographs that reveal information about the entire volume of the imploding liner. This talk will also discuss experiments that investigated Z's pulse-shaping capabilities to either shock- or shocklessly-compress the imploding liners [3], as well as our most recent experiments that used 2-micron-thick aluminum sleeves to provide high-contrast tracers for the positions and states of the inner surfaces of the imploding beryllium liners. The radiography data to be presented provide stringent constraints on the simulation tools used by the broader high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion communities, where quantitative areal density measurements, particularly of convergent fusion targets, are relatively scarce. We will also present power-flow tests of the MagLIF load hardware as well as new micro-B-dot measurements of the azimuthal drive magnetic field that penetrates the initially vacuum

  4. Tool for Taking Clay Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clay impression of small parts taken with tool consisting of hollow tube closed at one end. Slots at other end admit part short distance into tube. Impression used to make silicone rubber mold for examination.

  5. Fracture control method for composite tanks with load sharing liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bixler, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental program was based on the premise that the plastic sizing cycle, which each pressure vessel is subjected to prior to operation, acts as an effective proof test of the liner, screening out all flaws or cracks larger than a critical size. In doing so, flaw growth potential is available for cyclic operation at pressures less than the sizing pressure. Static fracture and cyclic life tests, involving laboratory type specimens and filament overwrapped tanks, were conducted on three liner materials: (1) 2219-T62 aluminum, (2) Inconel X750 STA, and (3) cryoformed 301 stainless steel. Variables included material condition, thickness, flaw size, flaw shape, temperature, sizing stress level, operating stress level and minimum-to-maximum operating stress ratio. From the empirical data base obtained, a procedure was established by which the service life of composite tanks with load sharing liners could be guaranteed with a high degree of confidence.

  6. Metal liner-driven quasi-isentropic compression of deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinwurm, Marcus; Bland, Simon N.; Chittenden, Jeremy P.

    2013-09-01

    Properties of degenerate hydrogen and deuterium (D) at pressures of the order of terapascals are of key interest to Planetary Science and Inertial Confinement Fusion. In order to recreate these conditions in the laboratory, we present a scheme, where a metal liner drives a cylindrically convergent quasi-isentropic compression in a D fill. We first determined an external pressure history for driving a self-similar implosion of a D shell from a fictitious flow simulation [D. S. Clark and M. Tabak, Nucl. Fusion 47, 1147 (2007)]. Then, it is shown that this D implosion can be recreated inside a beryllium liner by shaping the current pulse. For a peak current of 10.8 MA cold and nearly isochoric D is assembled at around 12 500 kg/m3. Finally, our two-dimensional Gorgon simulations show the robustness of the implosion method to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability when using a sufficiently thick liner.

  7. Cast adrift: Gortex cast liners allow greater patient activity.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Gerald; Miller, Deborah M

    2003-01-01

    Extremity fractures are a common injury, with nearly 1.5 million cases reported in the United States in 1998. Treatment often involves lengthy periods of immobilization. This report outlines the use of a Gortex cast liner by a subject who was able to engage in swimming and scuba diving during the healing process. We report that a Gortex cast liner may be considered for an active patient who is keen to return to limited activities during fracture healing. Apparently because of a lack of knowledge of their existence, physicians currently are underutilizing this method of casting in active patients. The use of Gortex liners elsewhere has been reported to have higher patient and physician satisfaction in both use and performance, with no reported detrimental effects on outcome. PMID:14518627

  8. Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.

  9. Progress In Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Francis Y. C.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Cassibry, Jason; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Wu, S. T.; Schmidt, George; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) attempts to combine the favorable attributes of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) for energy confinement with the attributes of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for efficient compression heating and wall-free containment of the fusing plasma. It uses a material liner to compress and contain a magnetized plasma. For practical applications, standoff drivers to deliver the imploding momentum flux to the target plasma remotely are required. Spherically converging plasma jets have been proposed as standoff drivers for this purpose. The concept involves the dynamic formation of a spherical plasma liner by the merging of plasma jets, and the use of the liner so formed to compress a spheromak or a field reversed configuration (FRC).

  10. Metal liner-driven quasi-isentropic compression of deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Weinwurm, Marcus; Bland, Simon N.; Chittenden, Jeremy P.

    2013-09-15

    Properties of degenerate hydrogen and deuterium (D) at pressures of the order of terapascals are of key interest to Planetary Science and Inertial Confinement Fusion. In order to recreate these conditions in the laboratory, we present a scheme, where a metal liner drives a cylindrically convergent quasi-isentropic compression in a D fill. We first determined an external pressure history for driving a self-similar implosion of a D shell from a fictitious flow simulation [D. S. Clark and M. Tabak, Nucl. Fusion 47, 1147 (2007)]. Then, it is shown that this D implosion can be recreated inside a beryllium liner by shaping the current pulse. For a peak current of 10.8 MA cold and nearly isochoric D is assembled at around 12 500 kg/m{sup 3}. Finally, our two-dimensional Gorgon simulations show the robustness of the implosion method to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability when using a sufficiently thick liner.

  11. Optimization of a Ranchero driven high energy liner driver system

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, Walter L; Kaul, Ann; Rousculp, Chris L; Watt, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    An experimental series is planned to implode a dense heavy liner to a velocity in excess of 1 cm/microsecond (10 mm/microsecond) using a RANCHERO coaxial explosive flux compression generator. The goal of this study is to choose the liner mass and starting radius that will deliver the greatest amount of kinetic energy to a target at 1 cm final radius. In this study we used the 1D-MHD simulation code RA YEN to search for the proper initial conditions. The results will be used as a starting point for 2-D simulations and preliminary designs for the first experiments planned in the 2009/2010 time frame. The preliminary results indicate that a liner velocity of 1.25 cm/microsecond and a kinetic energy of greater than 4 megajoules may be possible.

  12. Constraining the Accretion Mode in LINER 1.9s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Bassem; Der Sahaguian, Elias; Badr, Elie

    2016-01-01

    The accretion mode and the dominant power source in low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), a class of active galactic nuclei (AGN), are still elusive. We focus on a sample of 22 LINER 1.9s (Ho et al. 1997), a subclass of LINERs that show broad Halpha lines, a signature of blackhole-powered accretion, to test the hypothesis that the ionizing continuum emitted by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) could lead to the LINER ultraviolet (UV) emission-line ratios. Optical line-ratio diagrams are a weak diagnostic tool in distinguishing between possible power sources (Sabra et al. 2003). We search the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) for UV spectra of the objects in the above sample and also perform photoionization simulations using CLOUDY (Ferland et al. 2013). Unfortunately, only one object (NGC 1052; Gabel et al. 2000) of the 22 LINER 1.9s has UV spectra that cover many emission lines; the rest of the objects either do not have any UV spectra, the spectral coverage is in-adequate, or the spectra have very low signal-to-noise ratios. Our photoionization simulations set up two identical grids of clouds with a range of densities and ionization parameters. We illuminate one grid with radiation emitted by a thin accretion disk (AD) and we illuminate the other grid with radiation from a RIAF. We overplot the UV emission-line ratio predictions for AD and RIAF illumination, together with the available line ratios for NGC 1052. Initial results show that UV lines could be used as diagnostics for the accretion mode in AGN. More UV spectral coverage of LINER 1.9s is needed in order to more fully utilize the diagnostic powers of UV emission line ratios.

  13. Optimization of Microphone Locations for Acoustic Liner Impedance Eduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; June, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Two impedance eduction methods are explored for use with data acquired in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. The first is an indirect method based on the convected Helmholtz equation, and the second is a direct method based on the Kumaresan and Tufts algorithm. Synthesized no-flow data, with random jitter to represent measurement error, are used to evaluate a number of possible microphone locations. Statistical approaches are used to evaluate the suitability of each set of microphone locations. Given the computational resources required, small sample statistics are employed for the indirect method. Since the direct method is much less computationally intensive, a Monte Carlo approach is employed to gather its statistics. A comparison of results achieved with full and reduced sets of microphone locations is used to determine which sets of microphone locations are acceptable. For the indirect method, each array that includes microphones in all three regions (upstream and downstream hard wall sections, and liner test section) provides acceptable results, even when as few as eight microphones are employed. The best arrays employ microphones well away from the leading and trailing edges of the liner. The direct method is constrained to use microphones opposite the liner. Although a number of arrays are acceptable, the optimum set employs 14 microphones positioned well away from the leading and trailing edges of the liner. The selected sets of microphone locations are also evaluated with data measured for ceramic tubular and perforate-over-honeycomb liners at three flow conditions (Mach 0.0, 0.3, and 0.5). They compare favorably with results attained using all 53 microphone locations. Although different optimum microphone locations are selected for the two impedance eduction methods, there is significant overlap. Thus, the union of these two microphone arrays is preferred, as it supports usage of both methods. This array contains 3 microphones in the upstream

  14. Assessment of damage to geomembrane liners by shredded scrap tires

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Saichek, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a field and laboratory study performed to assess damage to the geomembrane liner caused by using shredded scrap tires as a leachate drainage layer material in landfills. The field testing was performed to assess the damage that occurred to the geomembrane liner during construction and included nine tests conducted with different combinations of tire chip size and thickness, both with a geotextile and without a geotextile overlying the geomembrane, and under different loading conditions. The laboratory testing was performed to characterize the shredded tires, particularly their size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, and chemical resistance. The laboratory testing also included performing simulation testing to determine the extent of damage that occurs to the geomembrane liner by the shredded tires under long-term waste-loading conditions. the damage that occurred to the geomembrane liners in both field tests and simulated laboratory tests was determined by visual observations as well as by conducting multi-axial tension tests, wide strip tension tests, and water vapor transmission tests on the exhumed geomembrane samples. Based on these results, a 0.46-m thick layer of secondary shred tire chips, with an average size of 7.6 cm, placed over a 543-g/m{sup 2} geotextile installed over a geomembrane liner using low-ground-pressure (<58 kPa) equipment was determined to provide adequate protection in the geomembrane liner during construction. The degree of protection offered under long-term loading conditions depends on the normal stress and the random orientation of the shredded tire chips at the geomembrane interface.

  15. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Za)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Sefkow, A. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Awe, T. J.; McBride, R. D.; Jennings, C. A.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Peterson, K. J.; Rovang, D. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hess, M. H.; Johns, O.; Lamppa, D. C.; Martin, M. R.; Porter, J. L.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, I. C.; Stygar, W. A.; Vesey, R. A.; Blue, B. E.; Ryutov, D.; Schroen, D. G.; Tomlinson, K.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (˜1012 DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmas inertially confined by slow (˜10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 1010. Analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopic x-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ˜3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm3 densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1-2 ns stagnation duration.

  16. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S. B. Gomez, M. R.; Sefkow, A. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Awe, T. J.; McBride, R. D.; Jennings, C. A.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Peterson, K. J.; Rovang, D. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hess, M. H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (∼10{sup 12} DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmas inertially confined by slow (∼10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 10{sup 10}. Analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopic x-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ∼3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1–2 ns stagnation duration.

  17. Novel Processing of 81-mm Cu Shaped Charge Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A; Korzekwa, D

    2002-01-16

    A seven-step procedure was developed for producing shaped charge liner blanks by back extrusion at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Starting with a 38.1-mm diameter, 101.6-mm long cylinder at 77K, three forging steps with a flat-top die are required to produce the solid cone while maintaining low temperature. The solid cone is forged in four individual back extrusions at 77K to produce the rough liner blank. This procedure is capable of being run in batch processes to improve the time efficiency.

  18. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Hahn, Kelly; Harding, Eric; Knapp, Patrick; Schmit, Paul; Awe, Thomas James; McBride, Ryan D.; Jennings, Christopher; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Peterson, K. J.; Rovang, Dean C.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Herrmann, Mark C.; Mark Harry Hess; Johns, Owen; Lamppa, Derek C.; Martin, Matthew; Porter, J. L.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, I. C.; Stygar, W. A.; Vesey, R. A.; Blue, B. E.; Ryutov, D.; Schroen, Diana; Tomlinson, K.

    2015-05-14

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (~1012 DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmasinertially confined by slow (~10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Moreover, effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 1010. Further analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopicx-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ~3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm3 densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1–2 ns stagnation duration.

  19. Fracture Test Methods for Plastically Responding COPV Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, David S.; Lewis, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental procedure for evaluating the validity of using uniaxial tests to provide a conservative bound on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior small cracks in bi-axially loaded Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) liners is described. The experimental procedure included the use of a laser notch to quickly generate small surface fatigue cracks with the desired size and aspect ratios. An out-of-plane constraint system was designed to allow fully reversed, fully plastic testing of thin sheet uniaxial coupons. Finally, a method was developed to determine to initiate small cracks in the liner of COPVs.

  20. Wakefield and impedance studies of a liner using MAFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W.; Barts, T.

    1993-12-01

    The liner is a perforated beam tube which is coaxial with an outer bore tube. The 3D code MAFIA version 3.1 is used to study the wakefields, impedances, and resonances of this structure. The short range wakes and low frequency (below the cutoff) impedances are in agreement with the theoretical model. The long range wakes and high frequency resonances are associated with the distribution of the holes (or slots). The dependence of the impedance on the size, shape, and pattern of the holes (or slots) is studied. The impact of the liner impedance on the SSC impedance budget is discussed.

  1. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Hahn, Kelly; Harding, Eric; Knapp, Patrick; Schmit, Paul; Awe, Thomas James; et al

    2015-05-14

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (~1012 DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmasinertially confined by slow (~10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Moreover, effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 1010. Further analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopicx-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ~3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm3 densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1–2 ns stagnation duration.

  2. Liner Optimization Studies Using the Ducted Fan Noise Prediction Code TBIEM3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Farassat, F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of the ducted fan noise prediction code TBIEM3D as a liner optimization design tool. Boundary conditions on the interior duct wall allow for hard walls or a locally reacting liner with axially segmented, circumferentially uniform impedance. Two liner optimization studies are considered in which farfield noise attenuation due to the presence of a liner is maximized by adjusting the liner impedance. In the first example, the dependence of optimal liner impedance on frequency and liner length is examined. Results show that both the optimal impedance and attenuation levels are significantly influenced by liner length and frequency. In the second example, TBIEM3D is used to compare radiated sound pressure levels between optimal and non-optimal liner cases at conditions designed to simulate take-off. It is shown that significant noise reduction is achieved for most of the sound field by selecting the optimal or near optimal liner impedance. Our results also indicate that there is relatively large region of the impedance plane over which optimal or near optimal liner behavior is attainable. This is an important conclusion for the designer since there are variations in liner characteristics due to manufacturing imprecisions.

  3. Hard X-Ray Emission and the Ionizing Source in LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terashima, Y.; Ho, L. C.; Ptak, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    We report X-ray luminosities of 21 LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) and 17 low-luminosity Seyferts obtained with ASCA and discuss the ionizing source in LINERs. Most LINERs with broad H-alpha emission in their optical spectra (LINER 1s) have a compact hard X-ray source and their 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities (LX) are proportional to their H alpha luminosities (L-H-alpha). This correlation strongly supports the hypothesis that the dominant ionizing source in LINER 1s is photoionization by hard photons from low-luminosity AGNs. Although some LINERs without broad H-alpha emission (LINER 2s) have X-ray properties similar to LINER 1s, the X-ray luminosities of many LINER 2s in our sample are lower than LINER 1s at a given H-alpha luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities in these objects are insufficient to power their H-alpha luminosities, suggesting that their primary ionizing source is something other than an AGN, or that an AGN, if present, is obscured even at energies above 2 keV. LINER 2s having small LX/LH-alpha occupy a localized region with small [OI]/H-alpha on the excitation diagram. Such LINER spectra can be reproduced by photoionization by very hot stars.

  4. Transition (LINER/HII) nuclei as evolved Composite (Seyfert 2/Starburst) nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Brandt, C. H.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Schmitt, H. R.; González Delgado, R.

    2004-11-01

    We compare the circumnuclear stellar population and environmental properies of Seyfert and Composite (Seyfert + Starburst) nuclei with those of LINERs and LINER/HII transition galaxies (TOs), and discuss evidence for evolution from Seyfert/Composite to LINER/TO nuclei.

  5. Retrospective Study of In-Service CIPP Liners

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) has been used for rehabilitation of deteriorating wastewater pipes for nearly 30 years in the US with much success. However, little quantitative data is available regarding the performance of these liners, to verify their estimated design life of 50 yea...

  6. Fracture of the alumina-bearing couple delta ceramic liner.

    PubMed

    Taheriazam, Afshin; Mohajer, Mohammad Azizbaig; Aboulghasemian, Mansoour; Hajipour, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The fracture rate of third-generation ceramic liners is greatly reduced compared with first- and second-generation liners because of improvements in the design and manufacturing process. Fractures of the alumina-bearing couple are rare for the same reason.This article describes a case of a fracture of an alumina-bearing couple delta ceramic liner without trauma history that was treated with ceramic-on-polyethylene revision total hip arthroplasty. A 57-year-old man was admitted to the hip ward because of an alumina-bearing couple delta ceramic liner fracture. He underwent hip replacement by anterior approach 18 months previously in the same center because of left hip primary osteoarthritis. He received a 54×36-mm modular press-fit cup ceramic alumina-bearing couple delta insert. Probable causes of such fractures are manufacture production failure and edge loading based on cup inclination, but in our patient, inacceptable range of motion, failure of the locking mechanism during implantation insertion, or cracking were possible causes of fracture.Although the fracture rate of third-generation alumina-bearing couples is low, we believe that it may not be possible to eliminate the actual risk of alumina head fracture. Patients should be informed about the potential for this complication before receiving an alumina-bearing couple. PMID:22229622

  7. RESISTANCE OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS TO CHEMICALS AND WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The function of flexible membrane liners (FML's) is to contain waste and leachates. FML's based on synthetic polymeric materials may be degraded and permeated by the fluids that must be contained. Qualitative and quantitative information on the chemical resistance of FML's materi...

  8. Conductivity and transit time estimates of a soil liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Cartwright, K.; Panno, S.V.; Hensel, B.R.; Rehfeldt, K.H.; Herzog, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field-scale soil linear was built to assess the feasibilty of constructing a liner to meet the saturated hydraulic conductivity requirement of the U.S. EPA (i.e., less than 1 ?? 10-7 cm/s), and to determine the breakthrough and transit times of water and tracers through the liner. The liner, 8 ?? 15 ?? 0.9 m, was constructed in 15-cm compacted lifts using a 20,037-kg pad-foot compactor and standard engineering practices. Estimated saturated hydraulic conductivities were 2.4 ?? 10-9 cm/s, based on data from large-ring infiltrometers; 4.0 ?? 10-8 cm/s from small-ring infiltrometers; and 5.0 ?? 10-8 cm/s from a water-balance analysis. These estimates were derived from 1 year of monitoring water infiltration into the linear. Breakthrough of tracers at the base of the liner was estimated to be between 2 and 13 years, depending on the method of calculation and the assumptions used in the calculation.

  9. Examination of resistivity issues in solid liner z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments being conducted at the Los Alamos National lab Pegasus facility are examining driving an aluminum liner with a pulsed magnetic field. The Pegasus facility provides a current of 5 to 8 Mega-amps to compress a cylindrical liner. Liners of various size and thickness are used, depending on the specific experimental objectives. In several of these experiments, a B-dot probe has been used to measure the field diffused through the liners. This data has been compared to predictions of field penetrations using numerical simulations. These predictions were made with a 2D Eulerian and a 1D Lagrangian MHD code. The simulations were made with a wide variety of resistivity models including both SESAME tabular values and analytic models. the results of these comparisons show that the behavior of aluminum in the region from a few tenths of a eV to 1eV and densities from about .2 to 3.0 g/cc is not reproduced well. While this is understandable based on the back of conclusive data in the region, these experiments confirm the in-applicability of extrapolating existing models into this region where phase changes are drastically changing the behavior.

  10. Creep and stress relaxation behavior of two soft denture liners.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alaa'a M

    2014-03-01

    Numerous investigators stated the indications of soft denture lining materials; but no one determined the indications of these materials according to their chemical structure. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of acrylic and silicon lining materials. This study investigated and compared viscoelastic properties of two resilient denture lining materials. Tested materials were laboratory processed; one of them was silicone-based liner product (Molloplast-B), and the other was plasticized acrylic resin (Vertex™ Soft). Twenty cylindrical specimens (10-20 mm in length, 11.55 mm in diameter) were fabricated in an aluminum mold from each material for creep and stress relaxation testing (the study of viscoelastic properties). Tests were performed by using the universal testing machine DY-34. Collected data were analyzed with t test statistics for statistically significant differences at the 95 % confidence level. There was a clear difference in creep and stress relaxation behavior between acrylic and silicone liners. Statistical study of Young's moduli illustrated that Vertex™ Soft was softer than Molloplast-B. On the other hand, the results explained that the recovery of silicone material was better than of acrylic one. The creep test revealed that the plasticized acrylic resin lining material exhibited considerable creep, whereas silicone-based liner exhibited elastic behavior. Besides, the stress relaxation test showed that relaxation of the plasticized acrylic resin material was bigger than of the silicone-based liner. PMID:24605004

  11. Development of variable-rate sprayer for nursery liner applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensor-guided application technologies are needed to achieve constant spray deposition for the rapid growth of nursery liner trees during a growing season. An experimental real-time variable-rate sprayer that implemented 20 Hz ultrasonic sensors and pulse width modulation (PWM) solenoid valve-contro...

  12. Mesoscale Probing of Local Perturbations in PBX-driven Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaksin, Igor; Guirguis, Raafat; Rodrigues, Luis; Mendes, Ricardo; Plaksin, Svyatoslav; ADAI, Univ of Coimbra; NSWC-IH Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    Efforts are aimed on experimental studies of how to improve a dynamic performance of the shaped charge jet. We postulated four basic elements to the problem: (1) The fluctuations in properties inherent in PBXs cause kinetic localizations in the detonation reaction zone (DRZ) structure, which cause (2) perturbations in the detonation products velocity and pressure, which induce (3) Perturbations in the response of the PBX-driven liner; and (4) Local perturbations/instabilities in liner are amplified during its collapse phase causing micro-fragmentations and ejected debris from the cumulative jet at initial stage, and then the incoherence and premature breakup of the resulting shaped charge jet. Spatially-resolved scenarios of each of phenomena (1-4) were obtained in experiments with copper-liners and HMX-based PBXs fabricated on maximum packing density of crystalline constituents, in which the DRZ-induced perturbations were recorded and quantitatively measured in the mesoscale range with application of the 96-channel optical analyzer MCOA-UC. Obtained experimental evidence is indicative that ejecta from the DRZ and ejecta-driven detonation cells are dominating in wide spectrum perturbations translated to a PBX-driven liner. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under the ONR and ONR Global Grants N00014-12-1-0477 and N62909-12-1-7131 with Drs. Clifford Bedford and Shawn Thorne Program Managers.

  13. LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

  14. LINER MATERIALS EXPOSED TO HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage ...

  15. EFFECT OF FLUE GAS CLEANING SLUDGES ON SELECTED LINER MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project examines the effects of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludges on 18 liner materials used to contain them. Seventy-two special test cells were constructed 1 ft. in diameter by 2 ft. high. Devices were installed to collect the leachate from each test cell for dete...

  16. Contoured-gap coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, F. D.; Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cassibry, J. T.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Arrays of supersonic, high momentum flux plasma jets can be used as standoff compression drivers for generating spherically imploding plasma liners for driving magneto-inertial fusion, hence the name plasma-jet-driven MIF (PJMIF). HyperV developed linear plasma jets for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL where two guns were successfully tested. Further development at HyperV resulted in achieving the PLX goal of 8000 μg at 50 km/s. Prior work on contoured-gap coaxial guns demonstrated an approach to control the blowby instability and achieved substantial performance improvements. For future plasma liner experiments we propose to use contoured-gap coaxial guns with small Minirailgun injectors. We will describe such a gun for a 60-gun plasma liner experiment. Discussion topics will include impurity control, plasma jet symmetry and topology (esp. related to uniformity and compactness), velocity capability, and techniques planned for achieving gun efficiency of >50% using tailored impedance matched pulse forming networks. Mach2 and UAH SPH code simulations will be included. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-05ER54810.

  17. FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF A GENERATION OLD CIPP LINER

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is limited information regarding the in-situ performance of rehabilitation methods used for prolonging the service life of buried municipal pipeline systems. With some CIPP liners nearly 30 years in service, municipalities are expressing a strong interest in the collection ...

  18. Fracture Mechanics Analysis of LH2 Feed Line Flow Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark A.; Dawicke, David S.; Brzowski, Matthew B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Harris, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Inspections of the Space Shuttle Main Engine revealed fatigue cracks growing from slots in the flow liner of the liquid hydrogen (LH2) feed lines. During flight, the flow liners experience complex loading induced by flow of LH2 and the resonance characteristics of the structure. The flow liners are made of Inconel 718 and had previously not been considered a fracture critical component. However, fatigue failure of a flow liner could have catastrophic effect on the Shuttle engines. A fracture mechanics study was performed to determine if a damage tolerance approach to life management was possible and to determine the sensitivity to the load spectra, material properties, and crack size. The load spectra were derived separately from ground tests and material properties were obtained from coupon tests. The stress-intensity factors for the fatigue cracks were determined from a shell-dynamics approach that simulated the dominant resonant frequencies. Life predictions were obtained using the NASGRO life prediction code. The results indicated that adequate life could not be demonstrated for initial crack lengths of the size that could be detected by traditional NDE techniques.

  19. 225-B Pool Cell 5 Liner Leak Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-07

    This document describes the actions taken to confirm and respond to a very small (0.046 ml/min) leak in the stainless steel liner of Hanford`s Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) storage pool cell 5 in Building 225-B. Manual level measurements confirmed a consistent weekly accumulation of 0.46 liters of water in the leak detection grid sump below the pool cell 5 liner. Video inspections and samples point to the capsule storage pool as the source of the water. The present leak rate corresponds to a decrease of only 0.002 inches per week in the pool cell water level, and consequently does not threaten any catastrophic loss of pool cell shielding and cooling water. The configuration of the pool cell liner, sump system, and associated risers will limit the short-term consequences of even a total liner breach to a loss of 1 inch in pool cell level. The small amount of demineralized pool cell water which has been in contact with the concrete structure is not enough to cause significant structural damage. However, ongoing water-concrete interaction increases. The pool cell leak detection sump instrumentation will be modified to improve monitoring of the leak rate in the future. Weekly manual sump level measurements continue in the interim. Contingency plans are in place to relocate the pool cell 5 capsules if the leak worsens.

  20. High-Yield Magnetized Liner Fusion Explosions and Blast Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutz, Stephen; Vesey, Roger; Cuneo, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Cylindrical liner implosions with preheated and magnetized deuterium-tritium (DT) are predicted to reach fusion conditions on present pulsed power machines [S.A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We present simulations indicating that high yields (1-10 GJ) and gains (100-1000) may be possible at currents of about 60-70 MA if a cryogenic layer of solid DT is provided on the inside surface of the metal liner. A hot spot is formed from the central preheated magnetized low-density gas and a burn wave propagates radially into the surrounding cold dense fuel. These yields and gains are more than adequate for inertial fusion energy. However, the pulsed-power driver must be protected from the blast of these high-yield explosions. Numerical simulations are presented which show that the blast can be deflected and the fusion neutrons absorbed by a blanket that partially surrounds the liner. Thus a modest length transmission line can be used to deliver power to the liner. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Risk assessment for the transportation of radioactive zeolite liners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The risk is estimated for the shipment of radioactive zeolite liners in support of the Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program currently underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. This program will establish the feasibility of zeolite vitrification as an effective means of immobilizing high-specific-activity wastes. In this risk assessment, it is assumed that two zeolite liners, each loaded around July 1, 1981 to 60,000 Ci, will be shipped by truck around January 1, 1982. However, to provide a measure of conservatism, each liner is assumed to initially hole 70,000 Ci, with the major radioisotopes as follow: /sup 90/Sr = 3000 Ci, /sup 134/Cs = 7000 Ci, /sup 137/Cs = 60,000 Ci. Should shipment take place with essentially no delay after initial loading (regardless of loading date), the shipment loading would be only 2.7% higher than that for the assumed six-month delay. This would negligibly affect the overall risk. As a result of this risk assessment, it is concluded that the transport of the radioactive zeolite liners from TMI to PNL by truck can be conducted at an insignificant level of risk to the public.

  2. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950`s, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F{sub {mu}} factor. The calculated value of F{sub {mu}} exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F{sub {mu}} value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ``Moment Reduction Factor``, R{sub w} or F{sub {mu}} for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects.

  3. High-temperature combustor liner tests in structural component response test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, Paul E.

    1988-01-01

    Jet engine combustor liners were tested in the structural component response facility at NASA Lewis. In this facility combustor liners were thermally cycled to simulate a flight envelope of takeoff, cruise, and return to idle. Temperatures were measured with both thermocouples and an infrared thermal imaging system. A conventional stacked-ring louvered combustor liner developed a crack at 1603 cycles. This test was discontinued after 1728 cycles because of distortion of the liner. A segmented or float wall combustor liner tested at the same heat flux showed no significant change after 1600 cycles. Changes are being made in the facility to allow higher temperatures.

  4. Small gas turbine combustor experimental study: Compliant metal/ceramic liner and performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, W. A.; Norgren, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    Combustor research relating to the development of fuel efficient small gas turbine engines capable of meeting future commercial and military aviation needs is currently underway at NASA Lewis. As part of this combustor research, a basic reverse-flow combustor has been used to investigate advanced liner wall cooling techniques. Liner temperature, performance, and exhaust emissions of the experimental combustor utilizing compliant metal/ceramic liners were determined and compared with three previously reported combustors that featured: (1) splash film-cooled liner walls; (2) transpiration cooled liner walls; and (3) counter-flow film cooled panels.

  5. RQL Sector Rig Testing of SiC/SiC Combustor Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Martin, Lisa C.; Brewer, David N.

    2002-01-01

    Combustor liners, manufactured from silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) were tested for 260 hr using a simulated gas turbine engine cycle. This report documents the results of the last 56 hr of testing. Damage occurred in one of the six different components that make up the combustor liner set, the rich zone liner. Cracks in the rich zone liner initiated at the leading edge due to stresses resulting from the component attachment configuration. Thin film thermocouples and fiber optic pyrometers were used to measure the rich zone liner's temperature and these results are reported.

  6. Performance of semi-transportation-cooled liner in high-temperature-rise combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Trout, A. M.; Smith, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Results from tests with the Lamilloy combustor liner are compared with results obtained from a conventionally designed, film cooled, step-louver liner. Operation of the Lamilloy liner with counterrotating swirl combustor fuel modules with mixing venturis was possible to a fuel-air ratio of 0.065 without obtaining excessive liner metal temperatures. At the 0.065 fuel-air condition the average liner metal temperature was 140 K and the maximum local temperature 280 K above the inlet air temperature. Combustion efficiency, pattern factor, and smoke data are discussed.

  7. Comparison of Two Acoustic Waveguide Methods for Determining Liner Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.; Tracy, Maureen B.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2001-01-01

    Acoustic measurements taken in a flow impedance tube are used to assess the relative accuracy of two waveguide methods for impedance eduction in the presence of grazing flow. The aeroacoustic environment is assumed to contain forward and backward-traveling acoustic waves, consisting of multiple modes, and uniform mean flow. Both methods require a measurement of the complex acoustic pressure profile over the length of the test liner. The Single Mode Method assumes that the sound pressure level and phase decay-rates of a single progressive mode can be extracted from this measured complex acoustic pressure profile. No a priori assumptions are made in the Finite Element. Method regarding the modal or reflection content in the measured acoustic pressure profile. The integrity of each method is initially demonstrated by how well their no-flow impedances match those acquired in a normal incidence impedance tube. These tests were conducted using ceramic tubular and conventional perforate liners. Ceramic tubular liners were included because of their impedance insensitivity to mean flow effects. Conversely, the conventional perforate liner was included because its impedance is known to be sensitive to mean flow velocity effects. Excellent comparisons between impedance values educed with the two waveguide methods in the absence of mean flow and the corresponding values educed with the normal incident impedance tube were observed. The two methods are then compared for mean flow Mach numbers up to 0.5, and are shown to give consistent results for both types of test liners. The quality of the results indicates that the Single Mode Method should be used when the measured acoustic pressure profile is clearly dominated by a single progressive mode, and the Finite Element Method should be used for all other cases.

  8. Liners and Low Luminosity AGN in the ROSAT Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This program has led to a series of papers being written and published in the Astrophysical Journal. Together these papers try to explain major parts of the LINER and low luminosity AGN puzzle. One paper ('Accretion Disk Instabilities, Cold Dark Matter Models, and Their Role in Quasar Evolution', Hatziminaoglou E., Siemiginowska A., & Elvis M., 2001, ApJ, 547, 90) describes an analytical model for the evolution of the quasar luminosity function. By combining the Press-Schechter formalism for the masses of initial structures with the luminosity distribution for a population of single mass black holes given by an unstable accretion disk an almost complete end-to-end physics-based model of quasar evolution is produced. In this model black holes spend 75% of their time in a low accretion state (at L(Edd)). This low state population of black holes is likely to be observed as the LINER and low luminosity AGNs in the local universe. Another paper ('Broad Emission Line Regions in AGN: the Link with the Accretion Power', Nicastro F., 2000, ApJ Letters, 530, L65) gives a physical basis for why low state black holes appear as LINERS. By linking the Lightman-Eardley instability in an accretion disk to the ori.gin of a wind that contains the broad emission line cloud material this model explains the large widths seen in these lines as being the Keplerian velocity of the disk at the instability radius. For LINERS the key is that below an accretion rate of 10(exp -3)M(sub Edd)the Lightman-Eardley instability falls within the innermost stable orbit of the disk, and so leaves the entire disk stable. No wind occurs, and so no broad emission lines are seen. Most LINERS are likely to be black holes in this low state. Tests of this model are being considered.

  9. Biodegradable pectin/clay aerogels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Bing; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Schiraldi, David A

    2013-03-13

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. The addition of multivalent cations (Ca(2+) and Al(3+)) resulted in apparent cross-linking of the polymer and enhancement of aerogel properties. The compressive properties increased as the solid contents (both pectin and clay) increased; moduli in the range of 0.04-114 MPa were obtained for materials with bulk densities ranging from 0.03 g/cm(3) to 0.19 g/cm(3), accompanied by microstructural changes from a lamellar structure to a cellular structure. Biodegradability of the aerogels was investigated by detecting CO2 release for 4 weeks in compost media. The results revealed that pectin aerogels possess higher biodegradation rates than wheat starch, which is often used as a standard for effective biodegradation. The addition of clay and multivalent cations surprisingly increased the biodegradation rates. PMID:23406325

  10. A Comparative Study of Four Impedance Eduction Methodologies Using Several Test Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of four commonly used impedance eduction methods is presented for a range of liner structures and test conditions. Two of the methods are restricted to uniform flow while the other two accommodate both uniform and boundary layer flows. Measurements on five liner structures (a rigid-wall insert, a ceramic tubular liner, a wire mesh liner, a low porosity conventional liner, and a high porosity conventional liner) are obtained using the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. The educed impedance of each liner is presented for forty-two test conditions (three Mach numbers and fourteen frequencies). In addition, the effects of moving the acoustic source from upstream to downstream and the refractive effects of the mean boundary layer on the wire mesh liner are investigated. The primary conclusions of the study are that: (1) more accurate results are obtained for the upstream source, (2) the uniform flow methods produce nearly identical impedance spectra at and below Mach 0.3 but significant scatter in the educed impedance occurs at the higher Mach number, (3) there is better agreement in educed impedance among the methods for the conventional liners than for the rigid-wall insert, ceramic, or wire mesh liner, and (4) the refractive effects of the mean boundary layer on the educed impedance of the wire mesh liner are generally small except at Mach 0.5.

  11. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  12. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  13. Clay Mineralogy: The clay mineral composition of soils and clays is providing an understanding of their properties.

    PubMed

    Grim, R E

    1962-03-16

    The structures of the clay minerals are reasonably well known, but greater detail and more precision are needed if the properties of clays and soils are to be fully understood. For example, the selective adsorptive and catalytic properties and the reaction with organic materials vary with the character of the clay mineral, but the structural factors that control such properties are not well understood. Research is urgently needed on the structure of pure clay minerals and on the reactions of pure clay minerals with organic and inorganic materials. Much past research on clay-mineral reactions has little fundamental value because the clay that was used was composed of a mixture of minerals which were not well characterized. It is not a simple matter to find pure samples of many of the clay minerals, and to a considerable extent progress depends on finding such pure minerals or preparing them in the laboratory. PMID:17816101

  14. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, Mark A.; Seitz, Robert R.; Suttora, Linda C.

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  15. Picasso Masks: Cubism in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an art project developed by the author which provides a way to further the children's understanding of Picasso's Cubism style in 3-D. Through this project, upper-elementary students learn a bit about the life and art of Picasso as they gain a firm understanding of the style of art known as Cubism, and apply clay techniques…

  16. Biodegradable Pectin/clay Aerogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradable, foamlike materials based on renewable pectin and sodium montmorillonite clay were fabricated through a simple, environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. Addition of multivalent cations (Ca2+ and Al3+) resulted in apparent crosslinking of the polymer, and enhancement of aerogel p...

  17. Potassium hydroxide clay stabilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.

    1981-07-28

    An aqueous solution having potassium hydroxide dissolved therein is injected into a subterranean sandstone formation containing water-sensitive fine particles, including clays. Potassium hydroxide stabilizes the fine particles for a substantial period of time thereby substantially preventing formation permeability damage caused by encroachment of aqueous solutions having a distinct ionic makeup into the treated formation.

  18. Amitriptyline removal using palygorskite clay.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yo-Lin; Chang, Po-Hsiang; Gao, Zong-You; Xu, Xiao-Yuan; Chen, Yan-Hsin; Wang, Zheng-Hong; Chen, Xin-Yu; Yang, Zheng-Ying; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh

    2016-07-01

    With the increased detections of commonly used pharmaceuticals in surface water and wastewater, extensive attentions were paid recently to the fate and transport of these pharmaceuticals in the environment. Amitriptyline (AMI) is a tricyclic antidepressant widely applied to treat patients with anxiety and depression. In this study, the removal of AMI with palygorskite clay (PFl-1) was investigated under different physico-chemical conditions and supplemented by instrumental analyses. The uptake of AMI on PFl-1 was well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm with an adsorption capacity of 0.168 mmol g(-1) at pH 6-7. The AMI uptake was fast and reached equilibrium in 15 min. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed no shift of the (110) peak position of palygorskite after AMI uptake. However, the (001) peak position of the minor component smectite (about 10%) shifted to lower angle as the amounts of AMI input increased. These results suggested surface uptake of AMI on palygorskite and interlayer uptake of AMI in smectite. As smectite is a common component of palygorskite clays, its role in assessing the properties and performances of palygorskite clays for the uptake and removal of contaminants should not be neglected. Overall, the high affinity of AMI for PFl-1 and strong retention of AMI on PFl-1 suggested that it could be a good adsorbent to remove AMI from wastewater. Palygorskite clays can also be a sink for many cationic pharmaceuticals in the environmental of the arid regions. PMID:27131449

  19. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  20. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003129.htm Stools - pale or clay-colored To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stools that are pale, clay, or putty-colored may be due to problems ...

  1. Multifunctional epoxy composites with natural Moroccan clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsif, M.; Zerouale, A.; Kandri, N. Idrissi; Allali, F.; Sgarbossa, P.; Bartolozzi, A.; Tamburini, S.; Bertani, R.

    2016-05-01

    Two natural Moroccan clays, here firstly completely characterized, have been used as fillers without modification in epoxy composites. Mechanical properties resulted to be improved and a significant antibacterial activity is exhibited by the epoxy composite containing the C2 clay.

  2. Adsorption of RDX on clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Yleana M.; Alzate, Liliana F.; Ramos, Carmen M.; Santana, Alberto; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.; Castro, Miguel E.; Munoz, Miguel; Mina, Nairmen

    2004-09-01

    The chemical spectroscopic signature of the RDX-clay mineral complex has been investigated by means of reflectance FT-IR micro spectroscopy. The mechanical analysis method was used to separate the clay from the other soil components. The soil was obtained from the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag'ez (UPRM) campus backyard. B3LYP/6-311G** calculations performed on RDX helped to determine the most stable conformations, their symmetry, and vibrational spectra. The FTIR technique confirmed the existence of two different RDX solid phases, known as the α-RDX and β-RDX, which have different symmetries and revealed significant differences in their spectra. The IR microspectroscopic study showed that the RDX-clay mineral complex and its interactions can be detected using the FTIR technique at a low concentration of 1000 part-per-millions. The results also suggest that the vibrational modes presenting changes in the different vibrational spectra correspond to the C-N and NO2 groups. In comparison with α-RDX spectrum, the complex exhibits three bands at 740, 754 and 792 cm-1. A 12 cm-1 red shift is observed in this last band assign to the C-N stretching and NO2 scissoring vibrations in the equatorial position. Differences in the spectra were also seen in the shifted bands at 942 and 953 cm-1. These vibrational modes are assigned to the ring breathing and N-N stretching vibration in the axial position for the -phase. Comparison of the spectra of the α-RDX, the β-RDX and the RDX mixed with clay in the range from 1190 to 1700 cm-1 clearly indicated that the FTIR technique can be used to study the interaction between RDX and clay. The results also indicate that the interaction between the RDX and the clay minerals affects mainly the NO2 groups of the explosive molecules. It is suggested that the electron donor nitrogen atoms from RDX are interacting with the electron acceptor oxygen atoms of the siloxane surface that is present in the majority of clays.

  3. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin)...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and....1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain varying quantities of alkalies...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin)...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin)...

  7. Mineral resource of the month: clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Clays represent one of the largest mineral commodities in the world in terms of mineral and rock production and use. Many people, however, do not recognize that clays are used in an amazingly wide variety of applications. Use continues to increase worldwide as populations and their associated needs increase. Robert Virta, clay and shale commodity specialist for the U.S. Geological Survey, has prepared the following information about clays.

  8. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin)...

  9. Innovative Liner Concepts: Experiments and Impedance Modeling of Liners Including the Effect of Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Jeff; Betts, Juan Fernando; Fuller, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The study of normal impedance of perforated plate acoustic liners including the effect of bias flow was studied. Two impedance models were developed by modeling the internal flows of perforate orifices as infinite tubes with the inclusion of end corrections to handle finite length effects. These models assumed incompressible and compressible flows, respectively, between the far field and the perforate orifice. The incompressible model was used to predict impedance results for perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 5% to 15%. The predicted resistance results showed better agreement with experiments for the higher percent open area samples. The agreement also tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. For perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 1% to 5%, the compressible model was used to predict impedance results. The model predictions were closer to the experimental resistance results for the 2% to 3% open area samples. The predictions tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. The reactance results were well predicted by the models for the higher percent open area, but deteriorated as the percent open area was lowered (5%) and bias flow was increased. A fit was done on the incompressible model to the experimental database. The fit was performed using an optimization routine that found the optimal set of multiplication coefficients to the non-dimensional groups that minimized the least squares slope error between predictions and experiments. The result of the fit indicated that terms not associated with bias flow required a greater degree of correction than the terms associated with the bias flow. This model improved agreement with experiments by nearly 15% for the low percent open area (5%) samples when compared to the unfitted model. The fitted model and the unfitted model performed equally well for the higher percent open area (10% and 15%).

  10. CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESES: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-0866 Varma*, R.S. Clay and Clay-Supported Reagents in Organic Syntheses. Tetrahedron (Sir J.E. Baldwin (Ed.), Elsevier Science Ltd) 58 (7):1235-1255 (2002). EPA/600/J-02/032. 10/28/1999 CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS HAVE BEEN USED EXTENSIVELY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGA...

  11. Clay & Children: More than Making Pots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbe, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Working with clay enables young children to express, explore, and communicate their feelings and ideas. This resource booklet for early childhood practitioners and it promotes the clay table as a special place for shared discoveries, social interaction, and discussion. The booklet provides a glossary of terms used in clay work, as well as reasons…

  12. Clay Cuffman: A Cool, Calm, Relaxed Guy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Clay Cuffman, a simple clay-sculpture project that requires two or three sessions, and works for students from the upper-elementary level through high school. It takes about 1.5 pounds of clay per student--about the size of a small grapefruit. The Cuffman project is a great way for upper-elementary through high-school…

  13. Impedance Eduction in Sound Fields With Peripherally Varying Liners and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional impedance eduction theory is extended to three-dimensional sound fields and peripherally varying duct liners. The approach is to first measure the acoustic pressure field at a series of flush-mounted wall microphones located around the periphery of the flow duct. The numerical solution for the acoustic pressure field at these microphones is also obtained by solving the three-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation using the finite element method. A quadratic objective function based on the difference between the measured and finite element solution is constructed and the unknown impedance function is obtained by minimizing this objective function. Impedance spectra educed for two uniform-structure liners (a wire-mesh and a conventional liner) and a hard-soft-hard peripherally varying liner (for which the soft segment is that of the conventional liner) are presented. Results are presented at three mean flow Mach numbers and fourteen sound source frequencies. The impedance spectra of the uniform-structure liners are also computed using a two-dimensional impedance eduction theory. The primary conclusions of the study are: 1) when measured data is used with the uniform-structure liners, the three-dimensional theory reproduces the same impedance spectra as the two-dimensional theory except for frequencies corresponding to very low or very high liner attenuation; and 2) good agreement between the educed impedance spectra of the uniform structure conventional liner and the soft segment of the peripherally varying liner is obtained.

  14. The evolution of instabilities during magnetically driven liner implosions.

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; McBride, Ryan D.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Sinars, Daniel Brian

    2010-11-01

    Numerical simulations [S.A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] indicate that fuel magnetization and preheat could enable cylindrical liner implosions to become an efficient means to generate fusion conditions. A series of simulations has been performed to study the stability of magnetically driven liner implosions. These simulations exhibit the initial growth and saturation of an electro-thermal instability. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability further amplifies the resultant density perturbations developing a spectrum of modes initially peaked at short wavelengths. With time the spectrum of modes evolves towards longer wavelengths developing an inverse cascade. The effects of mode coupling, the radial dependence of the magnetic pressure, and the initial surface roughness will be discussed.

  15. Precision high energy liner implosion experiments PHELIX [1

    SciTech Connect

    Reass, William A; Baca, David M; Griego, Jeffrey R; Reinovsky, Robert E; Rousculp, Christopher L; Turchi, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware design of a small megajoule sized transformer coupled pulse power system utilized to drive hydrodynamic liner experiments with a nominal current capability of 10 megAmperes. The resulting liner velocities and characteristics provide properties of physics interest. The capacitor banks utilize the ''Atlas'' plastic cased 60 kV, 60 kJ capacitors [2] and railgaps [3]. The air insulated marx'S are configured to dive a multi-filar toroidal transformer. The 4:1 multi-filar toroidal transformer is mechanically part of a circular disc line and this feature results in an attractive inductance budget. Because of the compact size, re-usable transformer, and resulting low maintenance cost, shot rates can be high compared to other ''large'' machines or explosively driven hydrodynamic methods. The PHELIX modeling, construction status, and test results will also be provided.

  16. Skin friction on a flat perforated acoustic liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldman, D. R.; Brinich, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    The report concerns the measurement of friction coefficients of a typical perforated acoustic liner installed in the side of a wind tunnel. The results are compared with measured friction coefficients of a smooth hard wall for the same mean flow velocities in a wind tunnel. At a velocity of 61 m/sec, an increase in the local skin coefficient of only a few percent was observed, but at the highest velocity of 213 m/sec an increase of about 20% was obtained. This velocity is a realistic velocity for turbo-machinery components utilizing such liners, so a loss in performance is to be expected. Some tests were also performed to see if changes in the mean boundary layer induced by imposed noise would result in friction increase, but only at low velocity levels was such an increase in friction noted.

  17. Active Control of Liner Impedance by Varying Perforate Orifice Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuji, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The present work explored the feasibility of controlling the acoustic impedance of a resonant type acoustic liner. This was accomplished by translating one perforate over another of the same porosity creating a totally new perforate that had an intermediate porosity. This type of adjustable perforate created a variable orifice perforate whose orifices were non-circular. The key objective of the present study was to quantify, the degree of attenuation control that can be achieved by applying such a concept to the buried septum in a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) acoustic liner. An additional objective was to examine the adequacy of the existing impedance models to explain the behavior of the unique orifice shapes that result from the proposed silding perforate concept. Different orifice shapes with equivalent area were also examined to determine if highly non-circular orifices had a significant impact on the impedance.

  18. Composite-Material Tanks with Chemically Resistant Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids . especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in gLightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids h (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids. The manufacture of a tank of this type begins with the fabrication of a reusable multisegmented aluminum mandrel in the shape and size of the desired interior volume. One or more segments of the mandrel can be aluminum bosses that will be incorporated into the tank as end fittings. The mandrel is coated with a mold-release material. The mandrel is then heated to a temperature of about 400 F (approximately equal to 200 C) and coated with a thermoplastic liner material to the desired thickness [typically approxiamtely equal to 15 mils (approximately equal to 0.38 mm)] by thermal spraying. In the thermal-spraying process, the liner material in powder form is sprayed and heated to the melting temperature by a propane torch and the molten particles land on the mandrel. The sprayed liner and mandrel are allowed to cool, then the outer surface of the liner is chemically and/or mechanically etched to enhance bonding of a composite overwrap. The etched liner is wrapped with multiple layers of an epoxy resin reinforced with graphite fibers; the wrapping can be done either by manual application of epoxy-impregnated graphite cloth or by winding of epoxy-impregnated filaments. The entire assembly is heated in an autoclave to cure the epoxy. After the curing process, the multisegmented mandrel is disassembled and removed from inside, leaving the finished tank. If the tank is to be used for storing hydrogen peroxide, then the liner material

  19. Hydrocarbon-fuel/combustion-chamber-liner materials compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of material compatibility experiments using hydrocarbon fuels in contact with copper-based combustion chamber liner materials are presented. Mil-Spec RP-1, n- dodecane, propane, and methane fuels were tested in contact with OFHC, NASA-Z, and ZrCu coppers. Two distinct test methods were employed. Static tests, in which copper coupons were exposed to fuel for long durations at constant temperature and pressure, provided compatibility data in a precisely controlled environment. Dynamic tests, using the Aerojet Carbothermal Test Facility, provided fuel and copper compatibility data under realistic booster engine service conditions. Tests were conducted using very pure grades of each fuel and fuels to which a contaminant, e.g., ethylene or methyl mercaptan, was added to define the role played by fuel impurities. Conclusions are reached as to degradation mechanisms and effects, methods for the elimination of these mechanisms, selection of copper alloy combustion chamber liners, and hydrocarbon fuel purchase specifications.

  20. Micro-beam friction liner and method of transferring energy

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana, Charles

    2007-07-17

    A micro-beam friction liner adapted to increase performance and efficiency and reduce wear in a piezoelectric motor or actuator or other device using a traveling or standing wave to transfer energy in the form of torque and momentum. The micro-beam friction liner comprises a dense array of micro-beam projections having first ends fixed relative to a rotor and second ends projecting substantially toward a plurality of teeth of a stator, wherein the micro-beam projections are compressed and bent during piezoelectric movement of the stator teeth, thereby storing the energy, and then react against the stator teeth to convert the stored energy stored to rotational energy in the rotor.

  1. Proposed ATLAS liner design fabricated for hydrodynamics experiments on Shiva Star

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W. E.; Adams, C. D.; Armijo, E. V.; Bartos, J. J.; Cameron, B. J.; Garcia, F.; Henneke, B.; Randolph, B.; Salazar, M. A.; Steckle, W. P. , Jr.; Turchi, Peter J.; Gale, D.

    2001-01-01

    An entirely new cylindrical liner system has been designed and fabricated for use on the Shiva Star capacitor bank. The design incorporates features expected to be applicable to a future power flow channel of the Atlas capacitor bank with the intention of keeping any required liner design modifications to a minimum when the power flow channel at Atlas is available. Four shots were successfully conducted at Shiva Star that continued a series of hydrodynamics physics experiments started on the Los Alamos Pegasus capacitor bank. Departures from the diagnostic suite that had previously been used at Pegasus required new techniques in the fabrication of the experiment insert package. We describe new fabrication procedures that were developed by the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division to fabricate the Shiva Star experiment loads. Continuing MST-7 development of interference fit processes for liner experiment applications, current joints at the glide planes were assembled by thermal shrink fit using liquid nitrogen as a coolant. The liner material was low strength, high conductance 1100 series aluminum. The liner glide plane electrodes were machined from full hard copper rod with a 10 ramp to maintain liner to glide plane contact as the liner was imploded. The parts were fabricated with 0.015 mm radial interference fit between the liner inside diameter (ID) and the glide plane outside diameter (OD). to form the static liner current joints. The liner was assembled with some axial clearance at each end to allow slippage if any axial force was generated as the liner assembly cassette was bolted into Shiva Star, a precaution to guard against buckling the liner during installation of the load cassette. Other unique or unusual processes were developed and are described. Minor adaptations of the liner design are now being fabricated for first Atlas experiments.

  2. X-ray variability in AGN: LINER vs. Seyfert 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, Lorena; Masegosa, Josefa; Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Marquez, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Although variability is a general property characterizing active galactic nuclei (AGN), it is not well stablished if the changes occur in the same way in every nuclei . The main purpose of this work is to study the X-ray variability pattern(s) in low luminosity AGN in a large sample, including 18 low ionization nuclear emission line regions (LINERs) and 26 type 2 Seyferts (Sy2), using the public archives in Chandra and/or XMM-Newton. Spectra of the same source gathered at different epochs were simultaneously fitted to study long term variations, whereas the variability patterns were studied allowing different parameters to vary during the spectral fit. Whenever possible, short term variations from the analysis of the light curves and long term UV flux variability were studied. Short term variations are not found at X-rays, but variations in timescales of months/years is very common in both families. The main driver of the long term X-ray variations seems to be related to changes in the nuclear power in both LINERs and Sy2, but other variability patterns cannot be discarded in a few cases, because changes of the column density or at soft energies are also found. The X-ray variations occur in the same way in LINERs and type 2 Seyferts, i.e., related to the nuclear continuum, but they might have different accretion mechanisms. As absorption variations and changing-look sources are not observed in LINERs, but UV nuclear variations are common, we speculate that the BLR and the torus might disappear in these sources.

  3. Liner Compression of a MAGO / Inverse-Pinch Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R E; Atchison, W L; Awe, T; Bauer, B S; Buyko, A M; Chernyshev, V K; Cowan, T E; Degnan, J H; Faehl, R J; Fuelling, S; Garanin, S F; Goodrich, T; Ivanovsky, A V; Lindemuth, I R; Makhin, V; Mokhov, V N; Reinovsky, R E; Ryutov, D D; Scudder, D W; Taylor, T; Yakubov, V B

    2005-05-18

    In the ''metal liner'' approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), a preheated magnetized plasma target is compressed to thermonuclear temperature and high density by externally driving the implosion of a flux conserving metal enclosure, or liner, which contains the plasma target. As in inertial confinement fusion, the principle fusion fuel heating mechanism is pdV work by the imploding enclosure, called a pusher in ICF. One possible MTF target, the hard-core diffuse z pinch, has been studied in MAGO experiments at VNIIEF, and is one possible target being considered for experiments on the Atlas pulsed power facility. Numerical MHD simulations show two intriguing and helpful features of the diffuse z pinch with respect to compressional heating. First, in two-dimensional simulations the m=0 interchange modes, arising from an unstable pressure profile, result in turbulent motions and self-organization into a stable pressure profile. The turbulence also gives rise to convective thermal transport, but the level of turbulence saturates at a finite level, and simulations show substantial heating during liner compression despite the turbulence. The second helpful feature is that pressure profile evolution during compression tends towards improved stability rather than instability when analyzed according to the Kadomtsev criteria. A liner experiment is planned for Atlas to study compression of magnetic flux without plasma as a first step. The Atlas geometry is compatible with a diffuse z pinch, and simulations of possible future experiments show that keV temperatures and useful neutron production for diagnostic purposes should be possible if a suitable plasma injector is added to the Atlas facility.

  4. THE COMPATIBILITY OF DENTURE CLEANSERS AND RESILIENT LINERS

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Luciana Valadares; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Henriques, Guilherme Elias Pessanha; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Fragoso, Wagner Sotero

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Difficulty in cleaning resilient denture liners remains a material disadvantage. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of denture cleansers on hardness of resilient liner materials. Materials and Methods: Three resilient liners, Luci Sof® (Dentsply), Molloplast-B® (Dentax), and Sofreliner® (Tokuyama), and two denture cleansers, Efferdent® (Warner-Lamber), and 0.5% alkaline hypochlorite preparation were used. Twenty specimens of each material were prepared, measuring 25X15X3mm. Two denture cleansing approaches were used: 1) alkaline hypochlorite, for 20 minutes; 2) alkaline peroxide, for 30 minutes. This procedure was repeated 8 times a day, during 90 days. The specimens were evaluated before and after 360 and 720 cycles, to simulate 1 and 2 years of clinical cleaning procedures, respectively. The Shore A hardness was evaluated in a durometer (Teclock GS-709A), with a penetrating load of 10N for 1 second. Any macroscopic changes, such as loss of color or alteration in surface texture were recorded by one observer. All numeric data were subject to ANOVA with repeated measures followed by Tukey's test (α= 0.05). Results: All materials were significantly different, independently to time and treatment. Initially, Luci Sof® and Sofreliner® immersed in either hypochlorite or peroxide increased the hardness mean values significantly. These hardness mean values decreased significantly after 720 cycles. Molloplast-B® showed no significant difference after the treatments, in any time. Conclusions: Denture cleansers had no effect on hardness of the resilient denture liners evaluated after 2 years of in vivo simulated conditions of hygiene. Sofreliner® was the smoothest material before and after all treatments. PMID:19089278

  5. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R.

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs.

  6. Thin walled liner hanger equipment enables well deepening project

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.; Weaver, C.; Aiello, P.

    1996-12-31

    Shell Canada estimates that a thin-walled, slimhole design for liner equipment can save up to $3--4 million (US) per well in deep re-entry applications by allowing existing wells to be deepened (or sidetracked) rather than drilling new wells from surface. The design makes it possible to reenter existing wells, successfully isolate depleted zones, and deepen the well into virgin-pressured reservoirs. The design includes thin-walled, close-tolerance liner hangers, liner top packers, tie-back seal assemblies, and liner setting sleeves that provide reasonable burst and collapse resistance while maintaining an inside diameter to facilitate drilling deep, deviated 4-3/4 in. hole with a tapered 2-7/8 in. x 3-1/2 in. drill string. The authors will explain the design and the rationale behind it, and illustrate its value, using case studies from Shell Canada`s Waterton field as examples. In this field, gas-producing wells originally drilled in the 1950s, `60s and `70s to depths of up to 14,760 ft (4,500 m) were completed with perforations in 7 in. casing and open hole. These wells are now being reentered in an attempt to tap new reserves. The reentries encounter particularly challenging sour-gas/low-temperature/diverse-formation-pressure conditions. The objective of the reentry program is to seal off the depleted bottom zones of the wells and tap into the same fault-repeated formations at virgin pressure, at a deeper level.

  7. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2015-05-15

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  8. Magnetized Target Fusion With Centimeter-Size Liner

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D

    2005-07-21

    The author concentrates on the version of magnetized target fusion (MTF) that involves 3D implosions of a wall-confined plasma with the density in the compressed state {approx} 10{sup 21}-10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}. Possible plasma configurations suitable for this approach are identified. The main physics issues are outlined (equilibrium, stability, transport, plasma-liner interaction, etc). Specific parameters of the experiment reaching the plasma Q{approx}1 are presented (Q is the ratio of the fusion yield to the energy delivered to the plasma). It is emphasized that there exists a synergy between the physics and technology of MTF and dense Z-pinches (DZP). Specific areas include the particle and heat transport in a high-beta plasma, plasma-liner interaction, liner stability, stand-off problem for the power source, reaching a rep-rate regime in the energy-producing reactor, etc. Possible use of existing pulsed-power facilities for addressing these issues is discussed.

  9. Ceramic composite liner material for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercegovic, D. B.; Walker, C. L.; Norgren, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced commercial and military gas turbine engines may operate at combustor outlet temperatures in excess of 1920 K (3000 F). At these temperatures combustors liners experience extreme convective and radiative heat fluxes. The ability of a plasma sprayed ceramic coating to reduce liner metal temperature has been recognized. However, the brittleness of the ceramic layer and the difference in thermal expansion with the metal substrate has caused cracking, spalling and some separation of the ceramic coating. Research directed at turbine tip seals (or shrouds) has shown the advantage of applying the ceramic to a compliant metal pad. This paper discusses recent studies of applying ceramics to combustor liners in which yttria stabilized zirconia plasma sprayed on compliant metal substrates which were exposed to near stoichiometric combustion, presents performance and durability results, and describes a conceptual design for an advanced, small gas turbine combustor. Test specimens were convectively cooled or convective-transpiration cooled and were evaluated in a 10 cm square flame tube combustor at inlet air temperatures of 533 K (500 F) and at a pressure of 0.5 MPa (75 psia). The ceramics were exposed to flame temperatures in excess of 2000 K (3320 F). Results appear very promising with all 30 specimens surviving a screening test and one of two specimens surviving a cyclic durability test.

  10. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  11. A Computational Study of the Flow Physics of Acoustic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation is a continuation of a previous joint project between the Florida State University and the NASA Langley Research Center Liner Physics Team. In the previous project, a study of acoustic liners, in two dimensions, inside a normal incidence impedance tube was carried out. The study consisted of two parts. The NASA team was responsible for the experimental part of the project. This involved performing measurements in an impedance tube with a large aspect ratio slit resonator. The FSU team was responsible for the computation part of the project. This involved performing direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the NASA experiment in two dimensions using CAA methodology. It was agreed that upon completion of numerical simulation, the computed values of the liner impedance were to be sent to NASA for validation with experimental results. On following this procedure good agreements were found between numerical results and experimental measurements over a wide range of frequencies and sound-pressure-level. Broadband incident sound waves were also simulated numerically and measured experimentally. Overall, good agreements were also found.

  12. Experimental progress toward magnetized liner inertial fusion on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinars, Daniel; Herrmann, Mark; Cuneo, Michael; Lamppa, Derek; Lopez, Andrew; McBride, Ryan; Rovang, Dean; Hanson, David; Harding, Eric; Nakhleh, Charles; Slutz, Stephen; Vesey, Roger; Sefkow, Adam; Peterson, Kyle

    2011-10-01

    Yields exceeding 100 kJ may be possible on the 25 MA Z facility at Sandia using the implosion of cylindrical metal liners onto magnetized (>10 T) and preheated (100-500 eV) deuterium-tritium fuel [S.A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The fusion fuel in such targets absorbs about 100 kJ, so a 100 kJ yield would be `scientific breakeven.' Suitable liner targets (Al and Be) have been fabricated and used in experiments on the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Magnetic field coil prototypes for >10 T axial fields are being tested. Preheat experiments using the multi-kJ Z-Beamlet laser are planned. Cryogenic deuterium fuel systems have been developed. Integrated magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) tests using deuterium fuel are expected in 2013. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Elastic Plastic Fracture Analysis of an Aluminum COPV Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott; Gregg, Bradley; Bailey, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Onboard any space-launch vehicle, composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) may be utilized by propulsion or environmental control systems. The failure of a COPV has the potential to be catastrophic, resulting in the loss of vehicle, crew or mission. The latest COPV designs have reduced the wall-thickness of the metallic liner to the point where the material strains plastically during operation. At this time, the only method to determine the damage tolerance lifetime (safe-life) of a plastically responding metallic liner is through full-scale COPV testing. Conducting tests costs substantially more and can be far more time consuming than performing an analysis. As a result of this cost, there is a need to establish a qualifying process through the use of a crack growth analysis tool. This paper will discuss fracture analyses of plastically responding metallic liners in COPVs. Uni-axial strain tests have been completed on laboratory specimens to collect elastic-plastic crack growth data. This data has been modeled with the crack growth analysis tool, NASGRO 6.20 to predict the response of laboratory specimens and subsequently the complexity of a COPV.

  14. Clay-based Nanocomposites Possibilities and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoulis, Dimitris

    2011-09-01

    In the last decades, clay mineral based nanocomposites and polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNC) have been proposed as very useful materials for many uses including photocatalysis, medicinal uses as tissue engineering or modified drug delivery systems. Clay minerals and especially montmorillonite, kaolinite, halloysite palygorskite and sepiolite are the most used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, colloidal dimensions of their particles and other properties. This lecture aims at reporting on very recent developments in the use of clay minerals and PCNC as materials with photocatalytic and medical interest.

  15. Effects of tacky mat contamination on bond degradation for Chemlok/liner and NBR/liner bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    Tacky mats are placed by the rubber lay-up areas for the solid rocket motor segments. These mats dust off the shoes prior to entering the platform where the lay-up work is performed. The possibility exists that a tacky mat could be touched with gloved hands prior to handling the uncured nitride butadiene rubber (NBR). Tests were run to determine if NBR were accidentally touched would there be any degradation of the liner/NBR bond. The tacky mats were judged solely on the basis of bond degradation caused by either direct or indirect contamination. Test results all indicate that there was no notable NBR/Chemlok or liner/NBR bond degradation on samples that came into contact with the tacky mat material. Testing procedures are described. The tacky mat adhesive composition does not contain fluorocarbons or release agents that would affect bonding.

  16. Liner surface improvements for low friction piston ring packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderberg, C.; Dimkovski, Z.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of engine components in the automotive industry is governed by several constraints such as environmental legislation and customer expectations. About a half of the frictional losses in an internal combustion engine come from the interactions between the piston assembly and cylinder liner surface. The tribological considerations in the contact between the piston ring and cylinder liner have attracted much attention over the past few decades. Many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes have been, and are being, developed with the aim to reduce friction losses and oil consumption, but the effects of the surface finish on piston ring pack performance is not well understood. One way of reducing friction in the cylinder system is to reduce the tangential load from the piston ring pack, focusing on the oil control ring. However, the side-effect of this is a disappointingly increased oil consumption. In this study a number of different cylinder liner surface specifications were developed and implemented in test engines with the aim of maintaining the level for oil consumption when decreasing the tangential load for the piston ring pack. To improve our understanding of the result, the same surfaces were evaluated in elastic and elasto-plastic rough contact and hydrodynamic flow simulation models. It is shown that oil consumption is strongly related to surface texture on the cylinder liners and at lower speeds (900-1200 rpm), a ‘rougher surface’ with a high core (e.g. Sk) and valley roughness (e.g. Svk) results in higher oil consumption. At the medium speed range (1200-3600 rpm), oil consumption continues to dominate for the ‘rough’ surfaces but with a visible influence of a lower oil consumption for a decreased roughness within the ‘rough’ surface group. ‘Smooth’ surfaces with a ‘smooth’ core (Sk), irrespective of the valley component (Svk), show similar oil consumption. For engine speeds above 3600 rpms, an increase in plateau

  17. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect

    Ita, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  18. Foam-Metal Liner Attenuation of Low-Speed Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    A foam-metal liner for attenuation of fan noise was developed for and tested on a low speed fan. This type of liner represents a significant advance over traditional liners due to the possibility for placement in close proximity to the rotor. An advantage of placing treatment in this region is the modification of the acoustic near field, thereby inhibiting noise generation mechanisms. This can result in higher attenuation levels than can be achieved by liners located in the nacelle inlet. In addition, foam-metal liners could potentially replace the fan rub-strip and containment components, ultimately reducing engine components and thus weight, which can result in a systematic increase in noise reduction and engine performance. Foam-metal liners have the potential to reduce fan noise by 4 dB based on this study.

  19. Low-Speed Fan Noise Attenuation from a Foam-Metal Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    A foam-metal liner for attenuation of fan noise was developed for and tested on a low-speed fan. This type of liner represents a significant advance over traditional liners, due to the possibility of placement in close proximity to the rotor. An advantage of placing treatment in this region is that the acoustic near field is modified, thereby inhibiting the noise-generation mechanism. This can result in higher attenuation levels than could be achieved by liners located in the nacelle inlet. In addition, foam-metal liners could potentially replace the fan rub strip and containment components, ultimately reducing engine components and thus weight, which can result in a systematic increase in noise reduction and engine performance. Foam-metal liners have the potential to reduce fan noise by 4 dB based on this study.

  20. On the structure of plasma liners for plasma jet induced magnetoinertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyoungkeun; Zhang, Lina; Samulyak, Roman; Parks, Paul

    2013-02-15

    The internal structure and self-collapse properties of plasma liners, formed by the merger of argon plasma jets, have been studied via 3-dimensional numerical simulations using the FronTier code. We have shown that the jets merger process is accomplished through a cascade of oblique shock waves that heat the liner and reduce its Mach number. Oblique shock waves and the adiabatic compression heating have led to the 10 times reduction of the self-collapse pressure of a 3-dimensional argon liner compared to a spherically symmetric liner with the same pressure and density profiles at the merging radius. We have also observed a factor of 10 variations of pressure and density in the leading edge of the liner along spherical surfaces close to the interaction with potential plasma targets. Such a non-uniformity of imploding plasma liners presents problems for the stability of targets during compression.

  1. Fabrication of Machined and Shrink Fitted Impactor; Composite Liners for the Los Alamos HEDP Program

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, B.

    1999-10-19

    Composite liners have been fabricated for the Los Alamos liner driven HEDP experiments using impactors formed by physical vapor deposition (PVD), electroplating, machining and shrink fitting. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been proposed for some ATLAS liner applications. This paper describes the processes used to fabricate machined and shrink fitted impactors which have been used for copper impactors in 1100 aluminum liners and 6061 T-6 aluminum impactors in 1100 aluminum liners. The most successful processes have been largely empirically developed and rely upon a combination of shrink fitted and light press fitting. The processes used to date will be described along with some considerations for future composite liners requirements in the HEDP Program.

  2. Acoustic properties of multiple cavity resonance liner for absorbing higher-order duct modes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Wang, Xiaoyu; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes analytical and experimental studies conducted to investigate the acoustic properties of axially non-uniform multiple cavity resonance liner for absorbing higher-order duct modes. A three-dimensional analytical model is proposed based upon transfer element method. The model is assessed by making a comparison with results of a liner performance experiment concerning higher-order modes propagation, and the agreement is good. According to the present results, it is found that the performance of multiple cavity resonance liner is related to the incident sound waves. Moreover, an analysis of the corresponding response of liner perforated panel-cavity system is performed, in which the features of resonance frequency and dissipation of the system under grazing or oblique incidence condition are revealed. The conclusions can be extended to typical non-locally reacting liners with single large back-cavity, and it would be beneficial for future non-locally reacting liner design to some extent. PMID:27586753

  3. Energy efficient engine pin fin and ceramic composite segmented liner combustor sector rig test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.; Lohmann, R. P.; Tanrikut, S.; Morris, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt and Whitney has successfully completed a comprehensive test program using a 90-degree sector combustor rig that featured an advanced two-stage combustor with a succession of advanced segmented liners. Building on the successful characteristics of the first generation counter-parallel Finwall cooled segmented liner, design features of an improved performance metallic segmented liner were substantiated through representative high pressure and temperature testing in a combustor atmosphere. This second generation liner was substantially lighter and lower in cost than the predecessor configuration. The final test in this series provided an evaluation of ceramic composite liner segments in a representative combustor environment. It was demonstrated that the unique properties of ceramic composites, low density, high fracture toughness, and thermal fatigue resistance can be advantageously exploited in high temperature components. Overall, this Combustor Section Rig Test program has provided a firm basis for the design of advanced combustor liners.

  4. Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Total-Pressure Loss and Airflow Distribution in Tubular Turbojet Combustors with Tapered Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, Jack S.

    1959-01-01

    Incompressible-flow calculations were performed to determine the effects of combustor geometric and operating variables on pressure loss and airflow distribution in a tubular combustor with a tapered liner. The calculations include the effects of momentum transfer between annulus and liner gas streams, annulus wall friction, heat release, and discharge coefficients of liner air-entry holes. Generalized curves are presented which show the effects of liner-wall inclination, liner open hole area, and temperature rise across the combustor on pressure loss and airflow distribution for a representative parabolic liner hole distribution. A comparison of the experimental data from 12 tapered liners with the theoretical calculations indicates that reasonable design estimates can be made from the generalized curves. The calculated pressure losses of the tapered liners are compared with those previously reported for tubular liners.

  5. A mechanism of basal spacing reduction in sodium smectitic clay materials in contact with DNAPL wastes.

    PubMed

    Ayral-Cinar, Derya; Otero-Diaz, Margarita; Demond, Avery H

    2016-09-01

    There has been concern regarding the possible attack of clays in aquitards, slurry walls and landfill liners by dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) wastes, resulting in cracking. Despite the fact that a reduction in basal spacing in sodium smectitic clay materials has been linked to cracking, no plausible mechanism by which this reduction occurs in contact with waste DNAPLs has been formulated. To elucidate a mechanism, screening studies were conducted that showed that the combination of an anionic surfactant (AOT), a nonionic surfactant (TritonX-100) and a chlorinated solvent, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), could replicate the basal spacing reduction and cracking behavior of water-saturated bentonite caused by two waste DNAPLs obtained from the field. FTIR measurements of this system showed a displacement of the HOH bending band of water symptomatic of desiccation. Sorption measurements showed that the uptake of AOT by bentonite increased eight fold in the presence of TritonX-100 and PCE. The evidence presented here supports a mechanism of syneresis, involving the extraction of water from the interlayer space of the clay through the synergistic sorption of a nonionic and anionic surfactant mixture. It is speculated that the solvation of water in reverse micellar aggregates is the process driving the syneresis. PMID:27343864

  6. Comparative Study between Dermo, Pelite, and Seal-In X5 Liners: Effect on Patient's Satisfaction and Perceived Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sadeeq; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Arifin, Nooranida; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abd Razak, Nasrul Anwar; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to compare the effect of satisfaction and perceived problems between Pelite, Dermo with shuttle lock, and Seal-In X5 liners on the transtibial amputees. Material and Methods. A total of thirty transtibial amputees (17 male, 13 female) volunteered to take part in this research. Two prostheses were fabricated for each participant. Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) was filled in by the participants with the three liners. Results. The statistics highlight that Dermo liner showed significantly higher score (P = 0.05) in walking, walking on uneven surfaces, stairs walking, fitting, donning/doffing, sitting, suspension, and overall satisfaction with Dermo liner compared with Seal-In X5 and Pelite liners. Overall satisfaction was 34% higher with Dermo liner than Seal-In X5 liner and 28% higher than Pelite liner. Participants reported less problems with Dermo liner and significant differences (P < 0.05) were recorded between the three liners in sweating, skin irritation, frustration, and pain compared with Seal-In X5 and Pelite liners. Conclusion. Participants experienced high level of satisfaction and practiced fewer problems with Dermo liner. These results showed that there is good indication to believe that Dermo liner might be a good choice for transtibial users and might help the clinicians and prosthetic practitioners in selection criteria of prosthetic liners. PMID:25184154

  7. Ultrasonic inspection of a diffusion-bonded platelet rocket chamber liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Douglas M.; Lansaw, John T.; Suits, Michael W.; Rose, Angela W.; Danek, Peg; Nelligan, Thomas J.; Mooney, Philip P.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasonic inspection technique, which applies pulse-echo technology for examining the rocket chamber's liner-to-jacket interface was developed, which makes it possible to characterize disbonded layers in intimate contact. The method was used to inspect a simulated flat-geometry rocket chamber liner structure with debonded liner layers and to validate the use of boron nitride powder as a flaw introduction technique.

  8. Investigation of Liner Characteristics in the NASA Langley Curved Duct Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    The Curved Duct Test Rig (CDTR), which is designed to investigate propagation of sound in a duct with flow, has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The duct incorporates an adaptive control system to generate a tone in the duct at a specific frequency with a target Sound Pressure Level and a target mode shape. The size of the duct, the ability to isolate higher order modes, and the ability to modify the duct configuration make this rig unique among experimental duct acoustics facilities. An experiment is described in which the facility performance is evaluated by measuring the sound attenuation by a sample duct liner. The liner sample comprises one wall of the liner test section. Sound in tones from 500 to 2400 Hz, with modes that are parallel to the liner surface of order 0 to 5, and that are normal to the liner surface of order 0 to 2, can be generated incident on the liner test section. Tests are performed in which sound is generated without axial flow in the duct and with flow at a Mach number of 0.275. The attenuation of the liner is determined by comparing the sound power in a hard wall section downstream of the liner test section to the sound power in a hard wall section upstream of the liner test section. These experimentally determined attenuations are compared to numerically determined attenuations calculated by means of a finite element analysis code. The code incorporates liner impedance values educed from measured data from the NASA Langley Grazing Incidence Tube, a test rig that is used for investigating liner performance with flow and with (0,0) mode incident grazing. The analytical and experimental results compare favorably, indicating the validity of the finite element method and demonstrating that finite element prediction tools can be used together with experiment to characterize the liner attenuation.

  9. Thin-Walled Cross-Linked Acetabular Liners Need Not Exhibit Reduced Locking Strength.

    PubMed

    Murtha, Andrew S; Roy, Marcel E; Whiteside, Leo A; Tilden, David S; Schmitt, Krystal L

    2015-08-01

    Use of larger diameter femoral heads has emerged as a promising strategy to reduce the risk of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty, but thinning the walls of cross-linked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) acetabular liners to accommodate these larger heads may compromise the locking mechanism of the liner. The purpose of this study was to test the mechanical integrity of the locking mechanism in cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE acetabular components with reduced wall thickness. The locking mechanism of cross-linked (100 kGy/re-melted) acetabular liners in sizes 50/28, 50/36, and 52/36 mm of 1 design was evaluated by lever-out tests and torsion tests. Torsion tests were performed at 2 angles to isolate the liner's locking tabs independent of the contribution of its central post. Lever-out testing demonstrated nominally reduced failure strength in 50/36-mm liners (13.3 N · m) compared with 50/28-mm liners (12.3 N · m; P=.0502), whereas the lever-out strength of 52/36-mm liners was 12.2±0.94 N · m. Failure torques were similar between 50/28- and 50/36-mm liners at 45° and 90°, but the failure torque of size 52/36-mm liners was significantly higher at each angle. The use of larger diameter femoral heads does not compromise the locking mechanism of thinned MicroSeal (Signal Medical Corp, Marysville, Michigan) acetabular liners. Use of a cross-linked UHMWPE acetabular liner, with a locking mechanism that is not compromised when the liner is thinned to a thickness of at least 2.86 mm, appears to be a biomechanically sound construct when articulated with large diameter femoral heads. PMID:26270761

  10. Aerogel Use as a Skin Protective Liner In Space Suits and Prosthetic Limbs Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications for use in space suits and orthopedics. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material, and our initial findings demonstrated that these materrials would be excellent candidates for liner applications for prosthetics and space suits. The project is currently on hold until additional funding is obtained for application testing at the VH Hospitals in Tampa

  11. Above-cutoff impedance measurements of pumping holes for the Collider Liner

    SciTech Connect

    Walling, L.; Barts, T.; Ruiz, E.; Turner, W.; Spayd, N.

    1994-04-01

    A holed liner was considered for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Collider Ring because of vacuum problems caused by photon-induced desorption. The liner would serve to shield the cold surface of the beam tube from the synchrotron radiation and the holes (or slots) would allow distributed pumping by gas-absorption material that could be placed between the liner and the beam tube. The impedance of holes and slots in a liner were studied by means of simulations using both MAFIA and HFSS, analytical modelling, wire measurements and electron beam measurements.

  12. Gas-puff liner implosion in the configuration with helical current return rods

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, S. A.

    2013-02-15

    Results of experiments with double-shell gas-puff liners carried out on a high-current MIG generator (2 MA, 80 ns) are presented. To stabilize the process of liner implosion and increase the efficiency of energy transfer from the generator to the liner plasma, a current return in the form of a multifilar helix was used. The effect of the configuration of the current return on the parameters of the generated pulses of argon and neon K-shell radiation (with photon energies of 3-5 and 0.9-1.5 keV, respectively) and the neutron yield from a deuterium liner were studied.

  13. Ceramic coating effect on liner metal temperatures of film-cooled annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. W.; Wear, J. D.; Liebert, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a ceramic coating on the average metal temperatures of full annular, film cooled combustion chamber liner. The investigation was conducted at pressures from 0.50 to 0.062. At all test conditions, experimental results indicate that application of a ceramic coating will result in significantly lower wall temperatures. In a simplified heat transfer analysis, agreement between experimental and calculated liner temperatures was achieved. Simulated spalling of a small portion of the ceramic coating resulted in only small increases in liner temperature because of the thermal conduction of heat from the hotter, uncoated liner metal.

  14. A Method for Optimizing Non-Axisymmetric Liners for Multimodal Sound Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.; Parrott, T. L.; Sobieski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Central processor unit times and memory requirements for a commonly used solver are compared to that of a state-of-the-art, parallel, sparse solver. The sparse solver is then used in conjunction with three constrained optimization methodologies to assess the relative merits of non-axisymmetric versus axisymmetric liner concepts for improving liner acoustic suppression. This assessment is performed with a multimodal noise source (with equal mode amplitudes and phases) in a finite-length rectangular duct without flow. The sparse solver is found to reduce memory requirements by a factor of five and central processing time by a factor of eleven when compared with the commonly used solver. Results show that the optimum impedance of the uniform liner is dominated by the least attenuated mode, whose attenuation is maximized by the Cremer optimum impedance. An optimized, four-segmented liner with impedance segments in a checkerboard arrangement is found to be inferior to an optimized spanwise segmented liner. This optimized spanwise segmented liner is shown to attenuate substantially more sound than the optimized uniform liner and tends to be more effective at the higher frequencies. The most important result of this study is the discovery that when optimized, a spanwise segmented liner with two segments gives attenuations equal to or substantially greater than an optimized axially segmented liner with the same number of segments.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multifrequency catalog of LINERs (Carrillo+, 1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, R.; Masegosa, J.; Dultzin-Hacyan, D.; Ordonez, R.

    2000-05-01

    We present the first Catalog of Low Ionization Emission Line Galaxies (LINERs or Liners, which is the simplest name, and which we shall adopt in what follows). The Catalog "MCL" (Multifrequency Catalog of Liners), contains 476 entries and contains both broad-band and monochromatic emission data (ranging from radio to X-ray frequencies) of colors, and other data compiled from the literature and various data bases, as indicated in the references. Most of the galaxies can be considered "pure" Liners on the basis of the Veilleux & Osterbrock (1987ApJS...63..295V) classification as suggested by Ho, Filippenko, & Sargent (1997ApJS..112..315H). However, a considerable number of transition (Liners-H II or Liners-Starburst) objects are also included. One of the open questions, is whether Liners should be considered as a class of galaxies (like Seyfert galaxies for instance) or rather, as an heterogeneous group of objects. We believe the study of Liners as a group is very interesting, precisely because they very likely represent a transition between non-thermal and starburst activity, and probably also between "active" and "non- active" galaxies. This catalog may be used as a basis for statistical research. A preliminary discussion of the main statistical properties of Liners, in the range from radio to X-ray frequencies, is given here. (7 data files).

  16. Variation in rubber chemistry and dynamic mechanical properties of the milking liner barrel with age.

    PubMed

    Boast, D; Hale, M; Turner, D; Hillerton, J E

    2008-06-01

    The milking liner is the interface between the milking machine and the cow. Liner properties important to milking performance were investigated for liners of different ages using discriminating tests rather than the normal, rubber-industry quality control-based tests. Large variations in the liner mechanical properties occurred depending on where the sample was taken; stiffness increased 4-fold 40 to 50 mm below the top of the liner. This was related to changes in the chemistry of the rubber created by absorption of milk-derived products (MDP) into the rubber and losses of formulation components, particularly 50% of the plasticizer and all of the antidegradent 40 to 50 mm below the top of the liner, with age and use. The presence of MDP leads to calcium and phosphate deposits on the inner surface of the liner barrel where the MDP was absorbed. The detailed liner properties can be used to explain the forces on the cow's teat and its reactions and effects on milk flow behavior, and to guide future liner development. PMID:18487647

  17. Modernity and putty-clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, Trichur Kailas

    This dissertation addresses issues arising out of the problems of capital accumulation, productivity growth and 'putty-clay' technology. The concept of economic modernity occupies a central place in the subject-matter studied here in that it expresses both the incessant drive for newness that characterizes economic reality and the persistence of dated techniques that successfully resist replacement. This study examines the way in which an expansive development-theoretic 'putty-clay' framework may be employed to explain the historical processes behind both the avalanche of newness (innovations) and the conservatism of technology in the U.S. economy. The guiding link is the fixity of investments in physical capital equipment over time and space. The dilemma of fixed capital is studied in the context of the constant entrepreneurial search for flexibility and liquidity. The thesis advanced is that a development (Entwicklung)-theoretic 'putty-clay' conceptualization of the economic system adequately addresses the recurring problems of fixity, flexibility, and liquidity, and thereby permits important insights into the enigma surrounding the persistent productivity growth slowdown and 'stagflation' of the late sixties and seventies and the related phenomena of physical 'capital obsolescence' and the financial or 'speculative explosions' of our times. The notion of 'putty-clay' used here is an innovative one in that it departs from the growth-theoretic literature to re-appear as a Schumpeterian theory of modernity modified by a Veblenite view of an economic system directed by the exigencies of the 'machine-process'. The empirical aptitude of a macroeconomic 'putty-clay' model to explain capital obsolescence mediated by the energy 'crises' (supply shocks) of the seventies and eighties is examined in a separate chapter with results that differ markedly from the standard (Berndt and Wood) conclusions for the U.S. economy. The final chapter in the dissertation reverts to the

  18. The use of volcanic soil as mineral landfill liner--I. Physicochemical characterization and comparison with zeolites.

    PubMed

    Navia, Rodrigo; Hafner, Georg; Raber, Georg; Lorber, Karl E; Schöffmann, Elke; Vortisch, Walter

    2005-06-01

    The main physicochemical characteristics of the volcanic soil of Southern Chile, with allophane as the main pedogenic mineral phase were analysed and compared with common zeolites (clinoptilolite) of the European market. The ultimate goal of this study was to test volcanic soil for the use as mineral landfill liner. The main results indicated that the clay and silt fractions together of the volcanic soil were between 38 and 54%. The buffering capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared with the studied zeolites, whereas the cationic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil (between 5.2 and 6.5 cmol + kg(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude of the studied zeolites (between 9.7 and 11.4 cmol + kg(-1)). Moreover, the anionic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared to the zeolites analysed. The hydraulic conductivity of the volcanic soil, measured in the laboratory at maximum proctor density, ranges between 5.16 x 10(-9) and 6.48 x 10(-9) m s(-1), a range that is comparable to the value of 4.51 x 10(-9) m s(-1) of the studied zeolite. The Proctor densities of the volcanic soil are in a lower range (between 1.11 and 1.15 g ml(-1)) compared with zeolites (between 1.19 and 1.34 g ml(-1)). The volcanic soil physicochemical characteristics are comparable to all the requirements established in the Austrian landfill directive (DVO, 2000). Therefore, the use as mineral landfill basal sealing of the analysed volcanic soil appears reasonable, having a pollutant adsorption capacity comparable to zeolites. It is of special interest for Southern Chile, because there are no alternative mineral raw materials for basal liners of landfills. PMID:15988944

  19. Reducing the distal profile of dual mobility liners can mitigate soft-tissue impingement and liner entrapment without affecting mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Kartik Mangudi; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Duffy, Michael Patrick; Patel, Rajan; Freiberg, Andrew A; Rubash, Harry E; Malchau, Henrik; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2016-05-01

    Soft-tissue impingement with dual mobility liners can cause anterior hip pain and intra-prosthetic dislocation. The hypothesis of this study was that reducing liner profile below the equator (contoured design) can mitigate soft-tissue impingement without compromising inner-head pull-out resistance and hip joint stability. The interaction of conventional and contoured liners with anterior soft tissues was evaluated in cadaver specimens via visual observation and fluoroscopic imaging. Resistance to inner-head pull-out was evaluated via finite element analyses, and hip joint stability was evaluated by rigid-body mechanics simulation of dislocation in two modes (A, B). Cadaveric experiments showed that distal portion of conventional liners impinge on anterior hip capsule and cause iliopsoas tenting at low flexion angles (≤30°). During hip extension, the rotation imparted to the liner from posterior engagement with femoral neck was impeded by anterior soft-tissue impingement. The iliopsoas tenting was significantly reduced with contoured liners (p ≤ 0.04). Additionally, the contoured and conventional liners had identical inner-head pull-out resistance (901 N vs. 909 N), jump distance (9.4 mm mode-A, 11.7 mm mode-B) and impingement-free range of motion (47° mode-A, 29° mode-B). Thus, soft-tissue impingement with conventional dual mobility liners may be mitigated by reducing liner profile below the equator, without affecting mechanical performance. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:889-897, 2016. PMID:26496522

  20. Failure analysis of retrieved PE-UHMW acetabular liners.

    PubMed

    Laska, Anna; Archodoulaki, Vasiliki-Maria; Duscher, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE-UHMW) acetabular liners have a limited lifespan in a patient's body. There are many factors affecting the performance of the implant and furthermore the properties of the polymeric material are changing after implantation. In this work material changes according to structure and morphology and their implication on mechanical properties are in focus. The physical and mechanical properties of ten crosslinked (xL) PE-UHMW and nine conventional (conv) gamma-sterilized PE-UHMW hip components, used as sliding surface in total hip joint replacement, with different in-vivo times are compared. The evaluation of the retrieved acetabular liners is performed in view of crosslinking and conventional gamma-sterilization but also in terms of the influence of gender concerning alteration in properties. The oxidative degradation in the PE-UHMW is investigated by means of Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterization of the morphology is carried out via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A depth profile of the micro-hardness and elastic modulus is taken over the cross-section of the components in order to find the influence of chemical constitution and morphology on the micro-mechanical properties. It could be shown that crosslinking and oxidative degradation influence the degree of crystallinity of the polymer. Oxidation occurs for both types of the material due to in-vivo time. Higher degree of crystallinity can be correlated to higher hardness and indentation modulus. No unequivocal superiority of crosslinked over conventional liners can be observed. The influence of sex concerning alteration of the evaluated properties matters but need to be further investigated. PMID:26849029

  1. Fusion Ignition Rocket Engine with Ballistic Ablative Lithium Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Adam; Eskridge, Richard; Fimognari, Peter J., III.

    2005-01-01

    Thermo-nuclear fusion may be the key to a high Isp, high specific power (low alpha) propulsion system. In a fusion system energy is liberated within, and imparted directly to, the propellant. In principle, this can overcome the performance limitations inherent in systems that require thermal power transfer across a material boundary, and/or multiple power conversion stages (NTR, NEP). A thermo-nuclear propulsion system, which attempts to overcome some of the problems inherent in the ORION concept, is described. A passive tapered liner is launched behind a vehicle, through a hole in a pusher-plate, that is connected to the vehicle by a shock-absorbing mechanism. A dense FRC plasmoid is then accelerated to high velocity (in excess of 1,000 km/s) and shot through the hole into the liner, when it has reached a given point down-range. The kinetic energy of the FRC is converted into thermal and magnetic-field energy, igniting a fusion bum in the magnetically confined plasma. The fusion reaction serves as an ignition source for the liner, which is made out of detonable materials. The energy liberated in this process is converted to thrust by the pusher-plate, as in the classic ORION concept. However with this concept, the vehicle does not carry a magazine of pre-fabricated pulse-units. A magnetic nozzle may also be used, in place of the pusher-plate. Estimates of the conditions needed to achieve a sufficient gain will be presented, along with a description of the driver characteristics. The incorporation of this concept into the propulsion system of a spacecraft will also be discussed.

  2. Flow Duct Data for Validation of Acoustic Liner Codes for Impedance Eduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Munro, Scott; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to acquire acoustic and flow data with hard and lined duct wall duct sections for validation of a liner prediction code being developed at NASA LaRC. Both the mean flowfield and acoustic flowfields were determined in a cross-plane of the rectangular duct. A flow duct facility with acoustic drivers connected to a rectangular (4.7 x 2.0 inch) source section and a linear acoustic liner mounted downstream of the source section was used in this study. The liner section was designed to allow liner materials to be placed on all 4 walls of the duct. The test liner was of the locally-reacting type and was made from a ceramic material. The material, consisting of a tubular structure, was provided by NASA LaRC. The liner was approximately 8.89 cm (3.5 inches) thick. For the current study, only the two "short" sides of the duct were lined with liner material. The other two sides were hard walls. Two especially built instrumentation sections were attached on either sides of the liner section to allow acoustic and flow measurements to be made upstream and downstream of the liner. The two instrumentation duct sections were built to allow measurement of acoustic and flow properties at planes perpendicular to flow upstream and downstream of the liner section. The instrumentation section was also designed to provide a streamwise gradient in acoustic (complex) pressure from which the acoustic particle velocity, needed for the model validation, can be computed. Flow measurements included pressure, temperature, and velocity profiles upstream of the liner section. The in-flow sound pressure levels and phases were obtained with a microphone probe equipped with a nose cone in two cross planes upstream of the liner and two cross plane downstream of the liner. In addition to the acoustic measurements at the cross planes. axial centerline acoustic data was acquired using an axially traversing microphone probe which was traversed from a location

  3. Ultrasonic measurement of lubricant film thickness in sliding bearings with thin liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Tao; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhang, Kai; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Jia, Qian

    2015-02-01

    When conducting ultrasonic measurements of the lubricant film thickness in sliding bearings with thin liners, the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the bearing liner-lubricant film interface will superimpose on the pulse reflected from the bearing substrate-liner interface. The thickness information of the lubricant film is contained in the reflected pulse from the liner-lubricant film interface. In this case, the film thickness could not be obtained directly from the superimposed reflected signals. The thin liner indicates that the thickness of the bearing liner is less than half the ultrasonic pulse width. Based on the spectrum analysis method of superimposed signals, a new method is proposed to measure the lubricant film thickness in sliding bearings with thin liners. The frequency-domain amplitude ratio between the echo component containing thickness information and the steady echo component from the bearing substrate-liner interface is extracted from the superimposed signal. The reflection coefficient of the liner-lubricant film interface is obtained by this amplitude ratio to determine the film thickness. The lubricant films of different thicknesses in a thin-liner thrust pad were measured in a high-precision experimental apparatus. The measurement results were compared with the known film thickness set by the experimental apparatus. In the thinner film region, the measurement results agreed well with the set film thickness. In the thicker film region, the mean values of the multiple measurement results represented the film thickness. The experimental results show that the method can be used to measure the lubricant film thickness in sliding bearings with thin liners.

  4. Effective stress of the SSC 80-K synchrotron radiation liner in a quenching dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.K.; Shu, Q.S.; Yu, K.; Zbasnik, J.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes the effective stress on a proposed SSC beam tube. The new issue for the Collider compared to earlier accelerators is the combination of synchrotron radiation with the 4.2-K bore tube of the superconducting magnets. One design option is to use a liner within a bore tube to remove the radiated power and the accompanying photodesorbed gas that impair the beam tube vacuum. Design of the SSC 80-K synchrotron radiation liner requires vacuum luminosity lifetime = 150 hours and liner electrical conductivity, {sigma}*t > 2E5 {Omega}-1. The bimetallic liner tube is subjected to cool down and eddy current loads. The liner tube is a two-shell laminate with Nitronic-40 steel for strength and a copper inner layer for low impedance to the image currents induced by the circulating protons. High electrical conductivity of the copper layer is essential for minimizing the power losses. Perforated holes are used to remove the photodesorbed gases for vacuum maintenance. The tube is cooled by 80-K lines. Structural design of the liner is not covered by the ASME code. The life of the liner involves structural integrity and keeping the copper laminate within yield stress limits to maintain the high surface finish for minimizing the power losses. The copper layer stress governs the structural design of the liner. The liner tube analysis is a three-dimensional non-linear stress problem. Thermal transient cool down stress is not considered in this analysis because of the floating support design of the liner. This analysis will address the axial thermal stress, non-axisymmetrical eddy current loads, dynamic and non-linear material effect on the liner that have not been considered in publications on beam tube structural analyses.

  5. Effective stress of the SSC 80-K synchrotron radiation liner in a quenching dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.K.; Shu, Q.S.; Yu, K.; Zbasnik, J.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes the effective stress on a proposed SSC beam tube. The new issue for the Collider compared to earlier accelerators is the combination of synchrotron radiation with the 4.2-K bore tube of the superconducting magnets. One design option is to use a liner within a bore tube to remove the radiated power and the accompanying photodesorbed gas that impair the beam tube vacuum. Design of the SSC 80-K synchrotron radiation liner requires vacuum luminosity lifetime = 150 hours and liner electrical conductivity, [sigma]*t > 2E5 [Omega]-1. The bimetallic liner tube is subjected to cool down and eddy current loads. The liner tube is a two-shell laminate with Nitronic-40 steel for strength and a copper inner layer for low impedance to the image currents induced by the circulating protons. High electrical conductivity of the copper layer is essential for minimizing the power losses. Perforated holes are used to remove the photodesorbed gases for vacuum maintenance. The tube is cooled by 80-K lines. Structural design of the liner is not covered by the ASME code. The life of the liner involves structural integrity and keeping the copper laminate within yield stress limits to maintain the high surface finish for minimizing the power losses. The copper layer stress governs the structural design of the liner. The liner tube analysis is a three-dimensional non-linear stress problem. Thermal transient cool down stress is not considered in this analysis because of the floating support design of the liner. This analysis will address the axial thermal stress, non-axisymmetrical eddy current loads, dynamic and non-linear material effect on the liner that have not been considered in publications on beam tube structural analyses.

  6. Extent of fungal growth on fiberglass duct liners with and without biocides under challenging environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Behzad S; Ross, Kristen

    2003-03-01

    Eight brands of fiberglass duct liners, including three that contained biocides, were exposed to challenging environmental conditions that would promote fungal growth. Twenty-four rectangular sheet metal ducts in three groups of eight ducts per group were lined with the eight selected liners. Each group of ducts was exposed to one of the three test conditions within an environmental chamber for a period of 15 days. These conditions were a) 75 percent RH, b) 75 percent RH plus water spray, c) 75 percent RH plus dry nutrient, and d) 75 percent RH plus water plus nutrient. Viable spores of Aspergillus niger were aerosolized into each duct as seed. On the 16th day, air and surface samples for fungal spores were collected from inside ducts. The results of air sampling using N6 sampler and visual inspection indicated that two out of three biocide-containing liners, Permacote and Toughgard, inhibited fungal growth but only under condition A. The third biocide-containing liner, Aeroflex Plus, was effective even when it was wet (conditions A and B). All three biocide-containing liners failed to inhibit fungal growth under conditions C and D. Among the five other types of liners that did not contain biocides, ATCO Flex with a smooth Mylar coating was more preferable, exhibiting lower fungal activity during conditions A, B, and C. All liners failed under condition D when nutrient and water were added together. Surface sampling using adhesive tape failed to produce representative results, apparently due to rough/porous surface of duct liners. It was concluded that duct liners with biocide treatment could be less promoting to microbial growth under high humidity as long as their surfaces remain clean and water-free. A liner with an impermeable and smooth surface seems to be less subject to microbial growth under most conditions than biocide-containing liners having porous and/or rough surfaces. PMID:12573965

  7. Analytical Prediction of Temperature Distribution in Cylinder Liner during Various Boring Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yulong; Sasahara, Hiroyuki

    During the boring process of the engine cylinder liner in automotive manufacturing, the heat at the cutting point flows into the cylinder liner and causes it to thermally expand, which is an inescapable machining issue. This affects the machining accuracy of the machined liner. However, the thermal expansion can be minimized under suitable cutting conditions and boring operations. The boring operation of an engine cylinder liner usually has two stages, semi-finishing boring and finishing. Different from the conventional boring operation, a new boring operation which can perform semi-finishing boring and finishing boring in one stage is explored in this paper. By this boring operation, the influence of the thermal expansion of the machined liner can be minimized. This boring operation is called a “simultaneous boring operation” in this paper. To prove the validity of the simultaneous boring operation, a finite element method (FEM) model was developed to predict the thermal behavior in the cylinder liner during the simultaneous boring operation/conventional boring operation. The results show that the machining errors caused by the thermal expansion of the cylinder liner during the simultaneous boring operation are smaller than those of the cylinder liner during the conventional boring operation. To investigate the influence of the cutting conditions on temperature distribution in the cylinder liner during simultaneous boring operation, FEM analysis of the temperature and thermal expansion on the cylinder liner under three levels of cutting speeds (300,600, and 900m/min) combined with two types of cutting fluid (dry, wet) during simultaneous boring was performed. The results showed that the temperature rise of the cylinder liner during a high-speed, wet simultaneous boring operation is small.

  8. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces.

  9. Liner conformality in ionized magnetron sputter metal deposition processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaguchi, S.; Rossnagel, S.M.

    1996-07-01

    The conformality of thin metal films (liners) formed on high-aspect-ratio trench structures in ionized magnetron sputter deposition processes is studied numerically and experimentally. The numerical simulator (SHADE) used to predict the surface topography is based on the shock-tracking method for surface evolution. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimentally observed thin-film topography. It is shown that combination of direct deposition and trench-bottom resputtering results in good conformality of step coverages and the amount of the resputtering needed for the good conformality is almost independent of trench aspect ratios. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  10. Laser speckle technique for burner liner strain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal and mechanical strains were measured on samples of a common material used in jet engine burner liners, which were heated from room temperature to 870 C and cooled back to 220 C, in a laboratory furnance. The physical geometry of the sample surface was recorded at selected temperatures by a set of 12 single exposure speckle-grams. Sequential pairs of specklegrams were compared in a heterodyne interferometer which give high precision measurement of differential displacements. Good speckle correlation between the first and last specklegrams is noted which allows a check on accumulate errors.

  11. Nonlinear structural and life analyses of a combustor liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, V.; Meyers, G. J.; Kaufman, A.; Halford, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Three dimensional, nonlinear finite element structural analyses were performed for a simulated combustor liner specimen to assess the capability of nonlinear analyses using classical inelastic material models to represent the thermoplastic creep response of the one half scale component. Results indicate continued cyclic hardening and ratcheting while experimental data suggested a stable stress strain response after only a few loading cycles. The computed stress strain history at the critical location was put into two life prediction methods, strainrange partitioning and a Pratt and Whitney combustor life prediction method to evaluate their ability to predict cyclic crack initiation. It is found that the life prediction analyses over predicted the observed cyclic crack initiation life.

  12. Liner/target/CMU cassette design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey Randall

    2011-01-07

    As part of an ongoing collaboration in pulsed power technology and condensed matter shock physics with RFNCNNIIEF, the initial design for the target and central measuring unit (CMU) for a high-pressure, high-precision ({approx}1 %), Hugoniot, equation of state (EOS) experiment is shown. VNIIEF would design and construct the disk explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) with peak currents {approx}100 MA, and cylindrical liner system with peak velocity {approx}10-20 km/s. LANL would design and construct the target and velocimetry diagnostic system. The initial mechanical design features a 2 cm diameter target system and a 1 cm diameter CMU with 32 lines of sight for PDV.

  13. Mars, clays and the origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Hyman

    1989-01-01

    To detect life in the Martian soil, tests were designed to look for respiration and photosynthesis. Both tests (labeled release, LR, and pyrolytic release, PR) for life in the Martian soils were positive. However, when the measurement for organic molecules in the soil of Mars was made, none were found. The interpretation given is that the inorganic constituents of the soil of Mars were responsible for these observations. The inorganic analysis of the soil was best fitted by a mixture of minerals: 60 to 80 percent clay, iron oxide, quartz, and soluble salts such as halite (NaCl). The minerals most successful in simulating the PR and LR experiments are iron-rich clays. There is a theory that considers clays as the first organisms capable of replication, mutation, and catalysis, and hence of evolving. Clays are formed when liquid water causes the weathering of rocks. The distribution of ions such as aluminum, magnesium, and iron play the role of bases in the DNA. The information was stored in the distribution of ions in the octahedral and tetrahedral molecules, but that they could, like RNA and DNA, replicate. When the clays replicated, each sheet of clay would be a template for a new sheet. The ion substitutions in one clay sheet would give rise to a complementary or similar pattern on the clay synthesized on its surface. It was theorized that it was on the surface of replicating iron-rich clays that carbon dioxide would be fixed in the light into organic acids such as formic or oxalic acid. If Mars had liquid water during a warm period in its past, clay formation would have been abundant. These clays would have replicated and evolved until the liquid water was removed due to cooling of Mars. It is entirely possible that the Viking mission detected life on Mars, but it was clay life that awaits the return of water to continue its evolution into life based on organic molecules.

  14. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  15. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. PMID:26057987

  16. 77 FR 2717 - High Liner Foods Incorporated; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission High Liner Foods Incorporated; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding High Liner Foods Incorporated's application for...

  17. USER'S GUIDE TO FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINER ADVISORY EXPERT SYSTEM: FLEX VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide is a user manual for the Flexible Membrane Liner Advisory Expert System (FLEX). The system assists in determining if a proposed synthetic liner material will be chemically resistant to a proposed or anticipated leachate from a hazardous waste land disposal site. More sp...

  18. Experimental Validation of Numerical Simulations for an Acoustic Liner in Grazing Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Pastouchenko, Nikolai N.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.

    2013-01-01

    A coordinated experimental and numerical simulation effort is carried out to improve our understanding of the physics of acoustic liners in a grazing flow as well our computational aeroacoustics (CAA) method prediction capability. A numerical simulation code based on advanced CAA methods is developed. In a parallel effort, experiments are performed using the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube at the NASA Langley Research Center. In the experiment, a liner is installed in the upper wall of a rectangular flow duct with a 2 inch by 2.5 inch cross section. Spatial distribution of sound pressure levels and relative phases are measured on the wall opposite the liner in the presence of a Mach 0.3 grazing flow. The computer code is validated by comparing computed results with experimental measurements. Good agreements are found. The numerical simulation code is then used to investigate the physical properties of the acoustic liner. It is shown that an acoustic liner can produce self-noise in the presence of a grazing flow and that a feedback acoustic resonance mechanism is responsible for the generation of this liner self-noise. In addition, the same mechanism also creates additional liner drag. An estimate, based on numerical simulation data, indicates that for a resonant liner with a 10% open area ratio, the drag increase would be about 4% of the turbulent boundary layer drag over a flat wall.

  19. [Comparative study of the antimicrobial effect of various cavity liners used in conservative dentistry].

    PubMed

    Pumarola Suñé, J; Espias Gómez, A; Canalda Sahli, C

    1989-01-01

    We have compared the microbiological activity of the following cavity liners: Life, Dycal II, Calcipulpe, Pure calcium hydroxide and Cavitec; against five different bacterial strains: Veillonella parvula, Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus s.p., Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus beta hemolytic: The results demonstrate the higher antimicrobial activity of the manufactured cavity liners with calcium hydroxide base in comparison with the pure calcium hydroxide. PMID:2638022

  20. Evaluation of Variable-Depth Liner Configurations for Increased Broadband Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Howerton, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of variable-depth geometry on the amount of noise reduction that can be achieved with acoustic liners. Results for two variable-depth liners tested in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube demonstrate significant broadband noise reduction. An impedance prediction model is combined with two propagation codes to predict corresponding sound pressure level profiles over the length of the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. The comparison of measured and predicted sound pressure level profiles is sufficiently favorable to support use of these tools for investigation of a number of proposed variable-depth liner configurations. Predicted sound pressure level profiles for these proposed configurations reveal a number of interesting features. Liner orientation clearly affects the sound pressure level profile over the length of the liner, but the effect on the total attenuation is less pronounced. The axial extent of attenuation at an individual frequency continues well beyond the location where the liner depth is optimally tuned to the quarter-wavelength of that frequency. The sound pressure level profile is significantly affected by the way in which variable-depth segments are distributed over the length of the liner. Given the broadband noise reduction capability for these liner configurations, further development of impedance prediction models and propagation codes specifically tuned for this application is warranted.

  1. Modeling of Broadband Liners Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with an increase in bypass ratio and incorporation of advanced fan designs. Therefore, while the attenuation of fan tones remains a major factor in engine nacelle acoustic liner design, the simultaneous reduction of broadband fan noise levels has received increased interest. As such, a previous investigation focused on improvements to an established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) rig as a demonstrator. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom liner designs were carried through design, fabrication, and testing. This paper addresses a number of areas for further research identified in the initial assessment of the ANCF study. Specifically, incident source specification and uncertainty in some aspects of the predicted liner impedances are addressed. This information is incorporated in updated predictions of the liner performance and comparisons with measurement are greatly improved. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of various liner designs. This study also provides further confidence in the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  2. 75 FR 1596 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Register (74 FR 14956, 4-2-2009) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act and the... (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock), Louisville, Kentucky Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones... to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the aluminum foil liner...

  3. Optimization of Variable-Depth Liner Configurations for Increased Broadband Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Schiller, N. H.; Born, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs three acoustic propagation codes to explore variable-depth liner configurations for the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube (GFIT). The initial study demonstrates that a variable impedance can acceptably be treated as a uniform impedance if the spatial extent over which this variable impedance occurs is less than one-third of a wavelength of the incident sound. A constrained optimization study is used to design a variable-depth liner and to select an optimization metric. It also provides insight regarding how much attenuation can be achieved with variable-depth liners. Another optimization study is used to design a liner with much finer chamber depth resolution for the Mach 0.0 and 0.3 test conditions. Two liners are designed based on spatial rearrangement of chambers from this liner to determine whether the order is critical. Propagation code predictions suggest this is not the case. Both liners are fabricated via additive manufacturing and tested in the GFIT for the Mach 0.0 condition. Predicted and measured attenuations compare favorably across the full frequency range. These results clearly suggest that the chambers can be arranged in any order, thus offering the potential for innovative liner designs to minimize depth and weight.

  4. Testing of elastomeric liners used in limb prosthetics: classification of 15 products by mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; Nicholson, Brian S; Zachariah, Santosh G; Cassisi, Damon V; Karchin, Ari; Fergason, John R

    2004-03-01

    The mechanical properties of 15 elastomeric liner products used in limb prosthetics were evaluated under compressive, frictional, shear, and tensile loading conditions. All testing was conducted at load levels comparable to interface stress measurements reported on transtibial amputee subjects. For each test configuration, materials were classified into four groups based on the shapes of their response curves. For the 15 liners tested, there were 10 unique classification sets, indicating a wide range of unique materials. In general, silicone gel liners classified within the same groups thus were quite similar to each other. They were of lower compressive, shear, and tensile stiffness than the silicone elastomer products, consistent with their lightly cross-linked, high-fluid content structures. Silicone elastomer products better spanned the response groups than the gel liners, demonstrating a wide range of compressive, shear, and tensile stiffness values. Against a skin-like material, a urethane liner had the highest coefficient of friction of any liner tested, although coefficients of friction values for most of the materials were higher than interface shear:pressure ratios measured on amputee subjects using Pelite liners. The elastomeric liner material property data and response groupings provided here can potentially be useful to prosthetic fitting by providing quantitative information on similarities and differences among products. PMID:15558371

  5. Field-scale investigation of infiltration into a compacted soil liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, Samuel V.; Herzog, Beverly L.; Cartwright, Keros; Rehfeldt, Kenneth R.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Hensel, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey constructed and instrumented an experimental compacted soil liner. Infiltration of water into the liner has been monitored for two years. The objectives of this investigation were to determine whether a soil liner could be constructed to meet the U.S. EPA's requirement for a saturated hydraulic conductivity of less than or equal to 1.0 ?? 10-7 cm/s, to quantify the areal variability of the hydraulic properties of the liner, and to determine the transit time for water and tracers through the liner. The liner measures 8m ?? 15m ?? 0.9m and was designed and constructed to simulate compacted soil liners built at waste disposal facilities. The surface of the liner was flooded to form a pond on April 12, 1988. Since flooding, infiltration has been monitored with four large-ring (LR) and 32 small-ring (SR) infiltrometers, and a water-balance (WB) method that accounted for total infiltration and evaporation. Ring-infiltrometer and WB data were analyzed using cumulative-infiltration curves to determine infiltration fluxes. The SR data are lognormally distributed, and the SR and LR data form two statistically distinct populations. Small-ring data are nearly identical with WB data; because there is evidence of leakage in the LRs, the SR and WB data are considered more reliable.

  6. 30 CFR 250.426 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? 250.426 Section 250.426 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? You must record the time, date, and results...

  7. 30 CFR 250.426 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? 250.426 Section 250.426 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... § 250.426 What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? You must...

  8. Tendency of spherically imploding plasma liners formed by merging plasma jets to evolve toward spherical symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cassibry, J. T.; Stanic, M.; Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Abarzhi, S. I.

    2012-05-15

    We have performed three-dimensional (3D) simulations using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in order to study the effects of discrete plasma jets on the processes of plasma liner formation, implosion on vacuum, and expansion. It was found that the pressure histories of the inner portion of the liner from 3D SPH simulations with a uniform liner and with 30 discrete plasma jets were qualitatively and quantitatively similar from peak compression through the complete stagnation of the liner. The 3D simulations with a uniform liner were first benchmarked against results from one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations [T. J. Awe et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 072705 (2011)]. Two-dimensional plots of the pressure field show that the discrete jet SPH case evolves towards a profile that is almost indistinguishable from the SPH case with a uniform liner, thus indicating that non-uniformities due to discrete jets are smeared out by late stages of the implosion. The processes of plasma liner formation and implosion on vacuum were shown to be robust against Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. Finally, interparticle mixing for a liner imploding on vacuum was investigated. The mixing rate was found to be very small until after the peak compression for the 30 jet simulations.

  9. 30 CFR 250.426 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? 250.426 Section 250.426 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? You must record the time, date, and results...

  10. 30 CFR 250.426 - What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? 250.426 Section 250.426 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... recordkeeping requirements for casing and liner pressure tests? You must record the time, date, and results...

  11. Liner velocity, current, and symmetry measurements on the 32 MEGAMP flux compression generator experiment ALT-1

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B. G.; Rodriguez, G.; Stokes, J. L.; Tabaka, L. J.; Clark, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    A flux compression generator pulse power system, designed, built, and fielded by a Russian team at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF), was used to successfully drive an aluminum liner to velocities greater than 12 km/sec. The experiment objective was to demonstrate performance of a precision liner implosion at an Atlas current of 30 MA or greater. Diagnostics to measure liner performance were an essential part of the experiment. An experimental team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided a suite of diagnostics to measure liner performance. Three diagnostics were fielded: (1) A velocity interferometer (VISAR) to continuously measure the liner innersurface velocity throughout the entire range of travel, (2) Two Faraday rotation devices to measure liner current during the implosion, and, (3) Sixteen fiber optic impact pins to record liner impact time and provide axial and azimuthal symmetry information. All diagnostics performed very well. Major results are maximum current: 32.3 MA, velocity at impact: greater than 12 km/sec, symmetry: the impact pins indicated that the liner was smooth, solid, and axially symmetric upon arrival at the diagnostic package. The LANL team fabricated, installed, and recorded the three diagnostics presented here. All necessary equipment was brought to the site in Russia. The VNIIEF team fielded other diagnostics to measure machine performance. Results of machine diagnostics are reported in other presentations.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF THE CURRENT AND SYMMETRY OF THE IMPACT LINER ON THE NTLX EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J. STOKES; J. PARKER; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    A series of four liner implosion experiments, denoted the Near Term Liner Experiments (NTLX) was recently conducted on the Shiva Star capacitor bank at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Measurement of the driving currents in these experiments is required for post-shot analysis of the liner implosion and experiments conducted in the target cylinder. A Faraday rotation measurement was fielded on Shiva Star to measure the current and compare with the current measured by a Rogowski coil technique. The Faraday rotation technique measured the 16 MA currents in these experiments with better than 1% precision. In addition, six B-dot probes were fielded at equal angles around a circle in the powerflow channel outside the liner to measure the symmetry of the liner impact on the target cylinder. The B-dot probes measure the local I-dot, which has a jump when the liner impacts the target cylinder. A high-pass filter allows one to measure this jump more accurately. From the relative timing of the jump signals, the offset of the liner axis and the circularity of liner are inferred.

  13. Evaluation of a Variable-Impedance Ceramic Matrix Composite Acoustic Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Howerton, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of significant progress in the reduction of fan and jet noise, there is growing concern regarding core noise. One method for achieving core noise reduction is via the use of acoustic liners. However, these liners must be constructed with materials suitable for high temperature environments and should be designed for optimum absorption of the broadband core noise spectrum. This paper presents results of tests conducted in the NASA Langley Liner Technology Facility to evaluate a variable-impedance ceramic matrix composite acoustic liner that offers the potential to achieve each of these goals. One concern is the porosity of the ceramic matrix composite material, and whether this might affect the predictability of liners constructed with this material. Comparisons between two variable-depth liners, one constructed with ceramic matrix composite material and the other constructed via stereolithography, are used to demonstrate this material porosity is not a concern. Also, some interesting observations are noted regarding the orientation of variable-depth liners. Finally, two propagation codes are validated via comparisons of predicted and measured acoustic pressure profiles for a variable-depth liner.

  14. Status of Duct Liner Technology for Application to Aircraft Engine Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.

    2005-01-01

    Grazing flows and high acoustic intensities impose unusual design requirements on acoustic liner treatments used in aircraft engine nacelles. Increased sound absorption efficiency (requiring increased accuracy of liner impedance specification) is particularly critical in the face of ever decreasing nacelle wall area available for liner treatments in modern, high-bypass ratio engines. This paper reviews the strategy developed at Langley Research Center for achieving a robust measurement technology that is crucial for validating impedance models for aircraft liners. Specifically, the paper describes the current status of computational and data acquisition technologies for reducing impedance in a flow duct. Comparisons of reduced impedances for a "validation liner" using 1980's and 2000's measurement technology are consistent, but show significant deviations (up to 0.5 c exclusive of liner anti-resonance region) from a first principles impedance prediction model as grazing flow centerline Mach numbers increase up to 0.5. The deviations, in part, are believed related to uncertainty in the choice of grazing flow parameters (e.g. cross-section averaged, core-flow averaged, or centerline Mach number?). Also, there may be an issue with incorporating the impedance discontinuities corresponding to the hard wall to liner interface (i.e. leading and trailing edge of test liner) within the discretized finite element model.

  15. Model and analysis of a cylindrical in-line hydraulic suppressor with a solid compressible liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, K. A.; Earnhart, N. E.; Cunefare, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    An in-line hydraulic noise suppressor with a lossy, compressible liner made of foamed polyurethane liner is introduced which is intended to provide an alternative to current in-line silencing devices using compressed nitrogen gas volumes. The liner is engineered to be compressible at elevated pressures, such that it can provide effective noise abatement for practical hydraulic systems. In support of such work, a multimodal model is developed to characterize the device and the liner material. Because the hydraulic system is pressurized after insertion of the liner, the model must address liner compression and the corresponding small gaps introduced in the expansion volume; additionally, both compression and shear wave propagation must be considered in the liner. Several mode matching solutions are investigated, and a pseudoinverse mode matching method is found to provide good convergence characteristics. The multimodal model is validated against a finite element model, and also used in an optimization algorithm to estimate the material properties of a prototype liner using experimental transmission loss data. Experimental results show broadband transmission loss performance at 2.8 MPa system pressure; transmission loss decreases with increasing system pressure, and data at 4.1 MPa system pressure produces about 4 dB less transmission loss than a similarly sized commercial device. The multimodal model with estimated material properties at 2.8 MPa achieves a root mean squared error of 1.7 dB or less for two different length devices over a frequency range of 50-2000 Hz.

  16. Evaluation of Parallel-Element, Variable-Impedance, Broadband Acoustic Liner Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Howerton, Brian M.; Ayle, Earl

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends in aircraft engine design have highlighted the need for acoustic liners that provide broadband sound absorption with reduced liner thickness. Three such liner concepts are evaluated using the NASA normal incidence tube. Two concepts employ additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate liners with variable chamber depths. The first relies on scrubbing losses within narrow chambers to provide acoustic resistance necessary for sound absorption. The second employs wide chambers that provide minimal resistance, and relies on a perforated sheet to provide acoustic resistance. The variable-depth chambers used in both concepts result in reactance spectra near zero. The third liner concept employs mesh-caps (resistive sheets) embedded at variable depths within adjacent honeycomb chambers to achieve a desired impedance spectrum. Each of these liner concepts is suitable for use as a broadband sound absorber design, and a transmission line model is presented that provides good comparison with their respective acoustic impedance spectra. This model can therefore be used to design acoustic liners to accurately achieve selected impedance spectra. Finally, the effects of increasing the perforated facesheet thickness are demonstrated, and the validity of prediction models based on lumped element and wave propagation approaches is investigated. The lumped element model compares favorably with measured results for liners with thin facesheets, but the wave propagation model provides good comparisons for a wide range of facesheet thicknesses.

  17. Performance evaluation of a newly developed variable rate sprayer for nursery liner applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental variable-rate sprayer designed for liner applications was tested by comparing its spray deposit, coverage, and droplet density inside canopies of six nursery liner varieties with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including water sensitive papers (WSP) and nylon screens, wer...

  18. USER'S GUIDE TO FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINER ADVISORY EXPERT SYSTEM: FLEX VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    A user manual for the Flexible Membrane Liner Advisory Expert System (FLEX). his system assists in determining if a proposed synthetic liner material will be chemically resistant to a proposed or anticipated leachate from a hazardous waste land disposal site. ore specifically, it...

  19. Long-term behavior of water content and density in an earthen liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, T.E.; Krapac, I.G.; Stark, T.D.; Strack, G.D.

    2005-01-01

    An extensively instrumented compacted earthen liner was constructed at the Illinois State Geological Survey facility in Champaign, III. in 1987. A pond of water 0.31 m deep was maintained on top of the 7.3 m ?? 14.6 m ?? 0.9 m thick liner for 14 years. One of the goals of the project was to evaluate the long-term performance of a compacted earthen liner by monitoring the long-term changes in water content and density. The water content of the earthen liner showed no trend with depth or time. The liner density remained essentially constant from construction through excavation in 2002. The liner did not become fully saturated. Upon excavation of the liner, the degree of saturation was 80.0??6.3% after 14 years of ponding under a hydraulic head of 0.31 m. The results imply that properly designed and constructed earthen liners may reduce the possibility of pollutants leaching from municipal solid waste containment facilities by remaining partially saturated for years and maintaining the placement density. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering ?? ASCE.

  20. Effect of surface treatment and liner material on the adhesion between veneering ceramic and zirconia.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-in; Yeo, In-sung; Yi, Yang-jin; Kim, Sung-hun; Lee, Jai-bong; Han, Jung-suk

    2014-12-01

    Fully sintered zirconia blocks, each with one polished surface, were treated with one of the followings: 1) no treatment, 2) airborne-particle abrasion with 50μm alumina, and 3) airborne-particle abrasion with 125μm alumina. Before veneering with glass ceramic, either liner Α or liner B were applied on the treated surfaces. All veneered blocks were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine. For the groups with liner A, irrespective of the particle size, air abrasion on Y-TZP surfaces provided greater bond strength than polishing. Application of liner B on an abraded zirconia surface yielded no significant influence on the adhesion. In addition, specimens with liner A showed higher bond strength than those with liner B, if applied on roughened surfaces. Fractured surfaces were observed as mixed patterns in all groups. For the liner A, surface treatment was helpful in bonding with veneering ceramic, while it was ineffective for the liner B. PMID:25282467

  1. Effects of Liner Length and Attenuation on NASA Langley Impedance Eduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effects of liner length and attenuation on the CHE (convected Helmholtz equation) impedance eduction method, in which the surface impedance of an acoustic liner is inferred through an iterative process based on repeated solutions to the convected Helmholtz equation. Wire mesh-over-honeycomb and perforate-over-honeycomb acoustic liners are tested in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube, and the resultant data are processed using two impedance eduction methods. The first is the CHE method, and the second is a direct method (labeled the KT method) that uses the Kumaresan and Tufts algorithm to compute the impedance directly. The CHE method has been extensively used for acoustic liner evaluation, but experiences anomalous behavior under some test conditions. It is postulated that the anomalies are related to the liner length and/or attenuation. Since the KT method only employs data measured over the length of the liner, it is expected to be unaffected by liner length. A comparison of results achieved with the two impedance eduction methods is used to explore the interactive effects of liner length and attenuation on the CHE impedance eduction method.

  2. In situ clay formation : evaluation of a proposed new technology for stable containment barriers.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; DiGiovanni, Anthony Albert; Fredrich, Joanne T.

    2004-03-01

    Containment of chemical wastes in near-surface and repository environments is accomplished by designing engineered barriers to fluid flow. Containment barrier technologies such as clay liners, soil/bentonite slurry walls, soil/plastic walls, artificially grouted sediments and soils, and colloidal gelling materials are intended to stop fluid transport and prevent plume migration. However, despite their effectiveness in the short-term, all of these barriers exhibit geochemical or geomechanical instability over the long-term resulting in degradation of the barrier and its ability to contain waste. No technologically practical or economically affordable technologies or methods exist at present for accomplishing total remediation, contaminant removal, or destruction-degradation in situ. A new type of containment barrier with a potentially broad range of environmental stability and longevity could result in significant cost-savings. This report documents a research program designed to establish the viability of a proposed new type of containment barrier derived from in situ precipitation of clays in the pore space of contaminated soils or sediments. The concept builds upon technologies that exist for colloidal or gel stabilization. Clays have the advantages of being geologically compatible with the near-surface environment and naturally sorptive for a range of contaminants, and further, the precipitation of clays could result in reduced permeability and hydraulic conductivity, and increased mechanical stability through cementation of soil particles. While limited success was achieved under certain controlled laboratory conditions, the results did not warrant continuation to the field stage for multiple reasons, and the research program was thus concluded with Phase 2.

  3. Tank 241-AY-102 Secondary Liner Corrosion Evaluation - 14191

    SciTech Connect

    Boomer, Kayle D.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-07

    In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) determined that the primary tank of 241-AY-102 (AY-102) was leaking. A number of evaluations were performed after discovery of the leak which identified corrosion from storage of waste at the high waste temperatures as one of the major contributing factors in the failure of the tank. The propensity for corrosion of the waste on the annulus floor will be investigated to determine if it is corrosive and must be promptly removed or if it is benign and may remain in the annulus. The chemical composition of waste, the temperature and the character of the steel are important factors in assessing the propensity for corrosion. Unfortunately, the temperatures of the wastes in contact with the secondary steel liner are not known; they are estimated to range from 45 deg C to 60 deg C. It is also notable that most corrosion tests have been carried out with un-welded, stress-relieved steels, but the secondary liner in tank AY-102 was not stress-relieved. In addition, the cold weather fabrication and welding led to many problems, which required repeated softening of the metal to flatten secondary bottom during its construction. This flame treatment may have altered the microstructure of the steel.

  4. Surface treatment of a temporary soft liner for increased longevity.

    PubMed

    Casey, D M; Scheer, E C

    1993-03-01

    This is a preliminary report on the use of several surface-conditioning agents on a commonly used temporary soft lining material. The surface of the material was treated with either poly(ethyl methacrylate) monomer, mono-poly glaze, or Minute-Stain glaze. Samples were compared with untreated soft liner before and after it was worn by a patient for 30 days. The scanning electron microscope was used to analyze samples. Initially the surface of all samples was intact, with the samples treated with mono-poly glaze and Minute-Stain glaze having fewer irregularities. After 30 days, untreated liner and that treated with monomer showed severe wear with resultant exposure of generalized pits and holes. Most of the defects represented exposure of subsurface air bubbles incorporated during mixing. The mono-poly glaze-treated specimen retained the glasslike appearance that it had before it was worn for 30 days. The Minute-Stain glaze specimen appeared irregular, although without the extensive pitting seen in the first two types of specimens. PMID:8445565

  5. A duty cycle hypothesis for the central engines of LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eracleous, Michael; Livio, Mario; Binete, Luc

    1995-01-01

    A recent ultraviolet snaphsot imaging survey of the nuclei of nearby galaxies detected a compact nuclear ultraviolet source in only five of the 26 LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) included in the observed sample. Motivated by this observational result, we examine the possibility that all LINERs are powered by photoionization from a nuclear source, which is, however, active only for 20% of the time. We show that decay times of low-ionization species can be of the order of one to a few centuries, and we demonstrate through time-dependent photoionization calculations that if the nuclear ionizing source is active for only a fraction of the time, this would not be readily noticeable in the emission-line spectrum. We suggest that the activity cycle is related to episodic accretion events which are associated with the tidal disruption of stars by a central black hole. The time interval between tidal disruptions is of the same order as the emission-line decay time, with the accretion episode following each disruption lasting a few decades. These estimates appear to support the duty cycle hypothesis. Some observational consequences of the proposed scenario are also discussed.

  6. Development of improved performance refractory liner materials for slagging gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Powell, Cynthia; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

    2005-01-01

    Refractory liners for slagging gasifiers used in power generation, chemical production, or as a possible future source of hydrogen for a hydrogen based economy, suffer from a short service life. These liner materials are made of high Cr2O3 and lower levels of Al2O3 and/or ZrO2. As a working face lining in the gasifier, refractories are exposed to molten slags at elevated temperature that originate from ash in the carbon feedstock, including coal and/or petroleum coke. The molten slag causes refractory failure by corrosion dissolution and by spalling. The Albany Research Center is working to improve the performance of Cr2O3 refractories and to develop refractories without Cr2O3 or with Cr2O3 content under 30 wt pct. Research on high Cr2O3 materials has resulted in an improved refractory with phosphate additions that is undergoing field testing. Results to date of field trials, along with research direction on refractories with no or low Cr2O3, will be discussed.

  7. Ceramic composite liner material for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercegovic, D. B.; Walker, C. L.; Norgren, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The application of ceramics to gas turbine combustor liners to reduce liner metal temperature was studied in an experiment in which yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma was sprayed on compliant metal substrates exposed to near stoichiometric combustion. The strain isolation pad materials chosen were Hoskins Alloy 875 and BRUNSLLOY 534 Fiber Metal of 0.25 and 0.38 cm thicknesses and 35 and 45 percent density levels. Combustor screening tests of all specimens showed no evidence of deterioration or failure. Specimens exposed to flame temperatures in excess of 2100 K were convectively or convective-transpiration cooled and were evaluated in a 10 cm sq flame tube at inlet air temperature of 533 K and pressure of 0.5 MPa. The results suggest the superiority of a system composed of the Hoskins Alloy 875 compliant pad with 0.25 cm thickness and 35 percent density coupled with a NiCrAlY bond coat and a 8 percent Y2O3-ZrO2 ceramic top coat of 0.19 cm thickness.

  8. Liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    The Liner Evaluation for Uranium Mill Tailings Program was conducted to evaluate the need for and performance of prospective lining materials for the long-term management of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. On the basis of program results, two materials have been identified: natural foundation soil amended with 10% sodium bentonite; catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The study showed that, for most situations, calcareous soils typical of Western US sites adequately buffer tailings leachates and prevent groundwater contamination without additional liner materials or amendments. Although mathematical modeling of disposal sites is recommended on a site-specific basis, there appears to be no reason to expect significant infiltration through the cover for most Western sites. The major water source through the tailings would be groundwater movement at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Even so column leaching studies showed that contaminant source terms were reduced to near maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water within one or two pore volumes; thus, a limited source term for groundwater contamination exists. At sites where significant groundwater movement or infiltration is expected and the tailings leachates are alkaline, however, the sodium bentonite or asphalt membrane may be necessary.

  9. FIREBALL: Fusion Ignition Rocket Engine with Ballistic Ablative Lithium Liner

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Adam K.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Lee, Michael H.; Fimognari, Peter J.

    2006-01-20

    Thermo-nuclear fusion may be the key to a high Isp, high specific power propulsion system. In a fusion system energy is liberated within, and imparted directly to, the propellant. In principle, this can overcome the performance limitations inherent in systems that require thermal power transfer across a material boundary, and/or multiple power conversion stages (NTR, NEP). A thermo-nuclear propulsion system, which attempts to overcome some of the problems inherent in the Orion concept, is described. A dense FRC plasmoid is accelerated to high velocity (in excess of 500 km/s) and is compressed into a detached liner (pulse unit). The kinetic energy of the FRC is converted into thermal and magnetic-field energy, igniting a fusion burn in the magnetically confined plasma. The fusion reaction serves as an ignition source for the liner, which is made out of detonable materials. The energy liberated in this process is converted to thrust by a pusher-plate, as in the classic Orion concept. However with this concept, the vehicle does not carry a magazine of autonomous pulse-units. By accelerating a second, heavier FRC, which acts as a piston, right behind the first one, the velocity required to initiate the fusion burn is greatly reduced.

  10. One-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics of a cylindrical liner imploded by an azimuthal magnetic field and compressing an axial field

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, F. Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2015-08-15

    The one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics of a plasma cylindrical liner is addressed in the case of a two components magnetic field. The azimuthal component is responsible for the implosion of the liner and the axial field is compressed inside the liner. A complete set of analytical profiles for the magnetic field components, the density, and the local velocity are proposed at the scale of the liner thickness. Numerical simulations are also presented to test the validity of the analytical formulas.

  11. Freeze-agglomeration: An alternative mechanism for clay film formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriented clay coatings (argillans, clay cutans, clay films, lamellae) are often interpreted to be caused by illuviation (pervection, lessivage) of fine clay particles. In montane meadow soils (Typic Humaquepts) of the northern Sierra Nevada Range, prominent clay cutans occur on ped faces of a paleos...

  12. The origins of liner material in a shaped charge jet particle

    SciTech Connect

    Zernow, L. ); Chapyak, E.J.; Meyer, K.A. ); Zernow, R.H. )

    1992-01-01

    An improved high resolution LaGrangean tracer particle technique (using 198 identified tracer particles arranged as 99 particle pairs) has been used with an Eulerian Code (MESA 2D) to determine the locations in the jet to which liner material flows from various tagged locations in the liner, during the collapse, jet formation and jet stretching process. Time dependent strain and strain rate data has been computed, using the identified particle pairs of LaGrangean tracer particles as linear strain gauges. Sharp radial gradients of strain and strain rate have been found in the jet, with the liner material flowing nearest the jet axis being subjected to the highest strains and strain rates. Liner material from many extended initial locations along the liner can be traced by this method to jet locations corresponding to individual jet particles. The new quantitative data derived is illustrated with selected examples whose interpretation is discussed.

  13. The origins of liner material in a shaped charge jet particle

    SciTech Connect

    Zernow, L.; Chapyak, E.J.; Meyer, K.A.; Zernow, R.H.

    1992-02-01

    An improved high resolution LaGrangean tracer particle technique (using 198 identified tracer particles arranged as 99 particle pairs) has been used with an Eulerian Code (MESA 2D) to determine the locations in the jet to which liner material flows from various tagged locations in the liner, during the collapse, jet formation and jet stretching process. Time dependent strain and strain rate data has been computed, using the identified particle pairs of LaGrangean tracer particles as linear strain gauges. Sharp radial gradients of strain and strain rate have been found in the jet, with the liner material flowing nearest the jet axis being subjected to the highest strains and strain rates. Liner material from many extended initial locations along the liner can be traced by this method to jet locations corresponding to individual jet particles. The new quantitative data derived is illustrated with selected examples whose interpretation is discussed.

  14. A finite element simulation of sound attenuation in a finite duct with a peripherally variable liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Using multimodal analysis, a variational finite element method is presented for analyzing sound attenuation in a three-dimensional finite duct with a peripherally variable liner in the absence of flow. A rectangular element, with cubic shaped functions, is employed. Once a small portion of a peripheral liner is removed, the attenuation rate near the frequency where maximum attenuation occurs drops significantly. The positioning of the liner segments affects the attenuation characteristics of the liner. Effects of the duct termination are important in the low frequency ranges. The main effect of peripheral variation of the liner is a broadening of the attenuation characteristics in the midfrequency range. Because of matrix size limitations of the presently available computer program, the eigenvalue equations should be solved out of core in order to handle realistic sources.

  15. Effect of microseparation and third-body particles on dual-mobility crosslinked hip liner wear.

    PubMed

    Netter, Jonathan D; Hermida, Juan C; Chen, Peter C; Nevelos, James E; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2014-09-01

    Large heads have been recommended to reduce the risk of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty. One of the issues with larger heads is the risk of increased wear and damage in thin polyethylene liners. Dual-mobility liners have been proposed as an alternative to large heads. We tested the wear performance of highly crosslinked dual-mobility liners under adverse conditions simulating microseparation and third-body wear. No measurable increase in polyethylene wear rate was found in the presence of third-body particles. Microseparation induced a small increase in wear rate (2.9mm(3)/million cycles). A finite element model simulating microseparation in dual-mobility liners was validated using these experimental results. The results of our study indicate that highly crosslinked dual-mobility liners have high tolerance for third-body particles and microseparation. PMID:24891003

  16. Reaching High-Yield Fusion with a Slow Plasma Liner Compressing a Magnetized Target

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D D; Parks, P B

    2008-03-18

    Dynamics of the compression of a magnetized plasma target by a heavy liner made of partially ionized high high-Z material is discussed. A 'soft-landing' (shockless) mode of the liner deceleration is analyzed. Conclusion is drawn that such mode is possible for the liners whose thickness at the time of the first contact with the target is smaller than, roughly, 10% of the initial (un-compressed) target radius. A combination of the plasma liner with one or two glide cones allows for a direct access to the area near the center of the reactor chamber. One can then generate plasma target inside the plasma liner at the optimum time. The other advantage of the glide cones is that they can be used to deliver additional fuel to the center of the target near the point of a maximum compression and thereby increase the fusion yield.

  17. Field performance assessment of synthetic liners for uranium tailings ponds: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.H.; Spanner, G.E.

    1984-03-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a database to support US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing of uranium tailings leachate isolation impoundments. This objective is being accomplished by determining the effectiveness of design, installation, and quality assurance practices associated with uranium mill tailings impoundments with flexible membrane liners. The program includes testing of chemical resistance and physical performance of liners, leak detection systems, and seam inspection techniques. This report presents the status of the program through September 1983. The report addresses impoundment design, installation, and inspection techniques used by the uranium milling industry. To determine the relative successes of these techniques, information has been collected from consultants, mill operators, and the synthetic liner industry. Progress in experimental tasks on chemical resistance of liners, physical properties of liners, and nondestructive examination of seams is reported. 25 references, 9 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Development of a Tunable Electromechanical Acoustic Liner for Engine Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Fei; Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a tunable electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR) for engine nacelles using smart materials technology. This effort addresses both near-term and long-term goals for tunable electromechanical acoustic liner technology for the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program. Analytical models, i.e. lumped element model (LEM) and transfer matrix (TM) representation of the EMHR, have been developed to predict the acoustic behavior of the EMHR. The models have been implemented in a MATLAB program and used to compare with measurement results. Moreover, the prediction performance of models is further improved with the aid of parameter extraction of the piezoelectric backplate. The EMHR has been experimentally investigated using standard two-microphone method (TMM). The measurement results validated both the LEM and TM models of the EMHR. Good agreement between predicted and measured impedance is obtained. Short- and open circuit loads define the limits of the tuning range using resistive and capacitive loads. There is approximately a 9% tuning limit under these conditions for the non-optimized resonator configuration studied. Inductive shunt loads result in a 3 degree-of-freedom DOF) system and an enhanced tuning range of over 20% that is not restricted by the short- and open-circuit limits. Damping coefficient ' measurements for piezoelectric backplates in a vacuum chamber are also performed and indicate that the damping is dominated by the structural damping losses, such as compliant boundaries, and other intrinsic loss mechanisms. Based on models of the EMHR, a Pareto optimization design of the EMHR has been performed for the EMHR with non-inductive loads. The EMHR with non-inductive loads is a 2DOF system with two resonant fiequencies. The tuning ranges of the two resonant frequencies of the EMHR with non-inductive loads cannot be optimized simultaneously; a trade-off (i.e., a Pareto solution) must be reached. The Pareto solution

  19. Effects of overmilking and liner type and characteristics on teat tissue in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Manuel; Roca, Amparo; Romero, Gema; Díaz, José-Ramón

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect on teat wall thickness and canal length in sheep and goats of overmilking for 2 min (OM+2) and of milking with used (AL; +3000 milkings) and twisted (TL; 45°) liners in sheep and goats, as well as the effect of milking goats with liners designed for sheep (SL, shorter length and diameter than liners for goats). To this end, we performed four experiments in goats and three in sheep, in a Latin square design with two experimental periods. During the experimental period 4 controls were carried out, performing ultrasound scans before and immediately after milking to determine the teat wall thickness (TWT), teat wall area (TWA), teat end area (TEWA) and teat canal length (TCL). OM+2 caused a significant increase in TWT, TWA, TEWA and TCL in goats and in TWA, TEWA and TCL in sheep. Liner features had a strong influence on the variables studied; aged liners caused significant changes in TWT and TCL in goats and in TWT in sheep; twisted liners produced a significant effect on the increase of TWT and TCL in goats, without reaching significance level in sheep; and milking goats with sheep liners led to a significant increase in TWT, TWA, TEWA and TCL. In practice, it is therefore important to avoid overmilking and the use of worn-out liners. It is also necessary to use liners designed for the morphological features of each species, taking special care to carry out periodic liner positioning revisions to ensure the benefits of pulsation on the teat end. Finally, it would be necessary to carry out long-term experiments to study whether the increase in thickness observed in some experiments is sufficient to affect milking efficiency and mammary gland health status. PMID:24594275

  20. Formation of imploding plasma liners for fundamental HEDP studies and MIF Standoff Driver Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Cassibry, Jason; Hatcher, Richard; Stanic, Milos

    2013-08-17

    The disciplines of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are characterized by hypervelocity implosions and strong shocks. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is focused on reaching HEDP and/or ICF relevant regimes in excess of 1 Mbar peak pressure by the merging and implosion of discrete plasma jets, as a potentially efficient path towards these extreme conditions in a laboratory. In this work we have presented the first 3D simulations of plasma liner, formation, and implosion by the merging of discrete plasma jets in which ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation are all included in the physics model. The study was conducted by utilizing a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHC) and was a part of the plasma liner experiment (PLX). The salient physics processes of liner formation and implosion are studied, namely vacuum propagation of plasma jets, merging of the jets (liner forming), implosion (liner collapsing), stagnation (peak pressure), and expansion (rarefaction wave disassembling the target). Radiative transport was found to significantly reduce the temperature of the liner during implosion, thus reducing the thermal leaving more pronounced gradients in the plasma liner during the implosion compared with ideal hydrodynamic simulations. These pronounced gradients lead to a greater sensitivity of initial jet geometry and symmetry on peak pressures obtained. Accounting for ionization and transport, many cases gave higher peak pressures than the ideal hydrodynamic simulations. Scaling laws were developed accordingly, creating a non-dimensional parameter space in which performance of an imploding plasma jet liner can be estimated. It is shown that HEDP regimes could be reached with ~ 5 MJ of liner energy, which would translate to roughly 10 to 20 MJ of stored (capacitor) energy. This is a potentially significant improvement over the currently available means via ICF of achieving HEDP and nuclear fusion relevant parameters.

  1. Clay Corner: Light up a Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Presents two activities that enable students to work with clay: a tile project and turkey candle-holders. Explains that before students actually create their own projects, they get an opportunity to experience the clay itself. Asserts that the new vocabulary, unusual equipment, and intriguing techniques make ceramics a motivating activity. (CMK)

  2. Clay smear: Review of mechanisms and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrolijk, Peter J.; Urai, Janos L.; Kettermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Clay smear is a collection of fault processes and resulting fault structures that form when normal faults deform layered sedimentary sections. These elusive structures have attracted deep interest from researchers interested in subsurface fluid flow, particularly in the oil and gas industry. In the four decades since the association between clay-smear structures and oil and gas accumulations was introduced, there has been extensive research into the fault processes that create clay smear and the resulting effects of that clay smear on fluid flow. We undertake a critical review of the literature associated with outcrop studies, laboratory and numerical modeling, and subsurface field studies of clay smear and propose a comprehensive summary that encompasses all of these elements. Important fault processes that contribute to clay smear are defined in the context of the ratio of rock strength and in situ effective stresses, the geometric evolution of fault systems, and the composition of the faulted section. We find that although there has been progress in all avenues pursued, progress has been uneven, and the processes that disrupt clay smears are mostly overlooked. We highlight those research areas that we think will yield the greatest benefit and suggest that taking these emerging results within a more process-based framework presented here will lead to a new generation of clay smear models.

  3. Dehydration-induced luminescence in clay minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lahav, N.; Lawless, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports of triboluminescent phenomena in organic crystalline materials prompted a search for related processes in clay minerals. The reported extensive mechanical distortion produced on freezing and drying of montmorillonite was particularly interesting because of studies of condensation reactions in a wet/dry cycled reaction sequence. The discovery of an unusual luminescent process in several clay minerals is reported and its characteristics are described.

  4. Desert varnish: the importance of clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Potter, R M; Rossman, G R

    1977-06-24

    Desert varnish has been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. It is a distinct morphological entity having an abrupt boundary with the underlying rock. Clay minerals comprise more than 70 percent of the varnish. Iron and manganese oxides constitute the bulk of the remainder and are dispersed throughout the clay layer. PMID:17776923

  5. Sectioning Clay Models Makes Anatomy & Development Tangible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Carina Endres; Howell, James Endres

    2010-01-01

    Clay models have proved to be useful teaching aids for many topics in biology that depend on three-dimensional reasoning. Students studying embryonic development struggle to mentally reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of embryos and larvae by observing prepared slides of cross-sectional slices. Students who build clay models of embryos…

  6. The colloidal chemistry of ceramic clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    The colloidal chemistry and mineralogy of two argil minerals were studied. Deposits of kaolin and of ceramic clays in the United States and England are discussed for the probable mechanism of formation. The structural modifications of the bed, original material associated with the clays and the proper use of flocculants are discussed.

  7. Inductively Driven, 3D Liner Compression of a Magnetized Plasma to Megabar Energy Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Slough, John

    2015-02-01

    To take advantage of the smaller scale, higher density regime of fusion an efficient method for achieving the compressional heating required to reach fusion gain conditions must be found. What is proposed is a more flexible metallic liner compression scheme that minimizes the kinetic energy required to reach fusion. It is believed that it is possible to accomplish this at sub-megajoule energies. This however will require operation at very small scale. To have a realistic hope of inexpensive, repetitive operation, it is essential to have the liner kinetic energy under a megajoule which allows for the survivability of the vacuum and power systems. At small scale the implosion speed must be reasonably fast to maintain the magnetized plasma (FRC) equilibrium during compression. For limited liner kinetic energy, it becomes clear that the thinnest liner imploded to the smallest radius consistent with the requirements for FRC equilibrium lifetime is desired. The proposed work is directed toward accomplishing this goal. Typically an axial (Z) current is employed for liner compression. There are however several advantages to using a θ-pinch coil. With the θ-pinch the liner currents are inductively driven which greatly simplifies the apparatus and vacuum system, and avoids difficulties with the post implosion vacuum integrity. With fractional flux leakage, the foil liner automatically provides for the seed axial compression field. To achieve it with optimal switching techniques, and at an accelerated pace however will require additional funding. This extra expense is well justified as the compression technique that will be enabled by this funding is unique in the ability to implode individual segments of the liner at different times. This is highly advantageous as the liner can be imploded in a manner that maximizes the energy transfer to the FRC. Production of shaped liner implosions for additional axial compression can thus be readily accomplished with the modified power

  8. Clays and other minerals in prebiotic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Clays and other minerals have been investigated in context with prebiotic processes, mainly in polymerization of amino acids. It was found that peptides adsorbed on the clay, prior to polymerization, influence the reaction. The ratio between the amount of the peptides adsorbed and that of the clay is important for the yield as well as for the degrees of polymerization obtained. Adsorption prior to reaction produces a certain order in the aggregates of the clay particles which might induce better reaction results. Excess of added peptides disturbs this order and causes lesser degrees of polymerization. In addition to adsorption, clays are also able to occlude between their layers substances out of the environment, up to very high concentrations.

  9. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    SciTech Connect

    Lundie, P. |; McLeod, N.

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  10. Preconsolidation versus aging behavior of kaolinite clay

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasopoulos, G.A. )

    1993-06-01

    Results of resonant column tests were used to determine the effects of overconsolidation ratio (OCR) and of aging on the normalized rate of secondary increase N[sub G] of low-amplitude shear modulus G[sub 0] of a remolded kaolinite clay. The value of N[sub G] decreased approximately linearly with the logarithm of OCR and with the logarithm of duration of aging of the clay. The similarity of behavior provided a basis for establishing an equivalency between age-and-stress-induced equivalent overconsolidation for the clay in question. It was concluded that up to a certain limiting duration of aging the age-induced OCR increases linearly with elapsed time, whereas the effect starts diminishing for longer durations of aging. It is suggested that the results of similar studies on natural clay soils be used for predicting the long-term behavior of clays from the results of short-duration tests.

  11. Effects of broadened property fuels on radiant heat flux to gas turbine combustor liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggard, J. B., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of fuel type, inlet air pressure, inlet air temperature, and fuel/air ratio on the combustor radiation were investigated. Combustor liner radiant heat flux measurements were made in the spectral region between 0.14 and 6.5 microns at three locations in a modified commercial aviation can combustor. Two fuels, Jet A and a heavier distillate research fuel called ERBS were used. The use of ERBS fuel as opposed to Jet A under similar operating conditions resulted in increased radiation to the combustor liner and hence increased backside liner temperature. This increased radiation resulted in liner temperature increases always less than 73 C. The increased radiation is shown by way of calculations to be the result of increased soot concentrations in the combustor. The increased liner temperatures indicated can substantially affect engine maintenance costs by reducing combustor liner life up to 1/3 because of the rapid decay in liner material properties when operated beyond their design conditions.

  12. Cylindrical liner Z-pinch experiments for fusion research and high-energy-density physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G. F.; Bland, S. N.; Niasse, N.; Suttle, L.; Bennet, M.; Hare, J.; Weinwurm, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J.; Espinosa, G.

    2015-06-01

    A gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch configuration has been used to drive convergent radiative shock waves into different gases at velocities of 20-50 km s-1. On application of the 1.4 MA, 240 ns rise-time current pulse produced by the Magpie generator at Imperial College London, a series of cylindrically convergent shock waves are sequentially launched into the gas-fill from the inner wall of the liner. This occurs without any bulk motion of the liner wall itself. The timing and trajectories of the shocks are used as a diagnostic tool for understanding the response of the liner z-pinch wall to a large pulsed current. This analysis provides useful data on the liner resistivity, and a means to test equation of state (EOS) and material strength models within MHD simulation codes. In addition to providing information on liner response, the convergent shocks are interesting to study in their own right. The shocks are strong enough for radiation transport to influence the shock wave structure. In particular, we see evidence for both radiative preheating of material ahead of the shockwaves and radiative cooling instabilities in the shocked gas. Some preliminary results from initial gas-filled liner experiments with an applied axial magnetic field are also discussed.

  13. Construction and performance of a long-term earthen liner experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Keros; Krapac, Ivan G.

    1990-01-01

    In land burial schemes, compacted soil barriers with low hydraulic conductivity are commonly used in cover and liner systems to control the movement of liquids and prevent groundwater contamination. An experimental liner measuring 8 x 15 x 0.9 m was constructed with design criteria and equipment to simulate construction of soil liners built at waste disposal facilities. The surface of the liner was flooded with a 29.5 cm deep pond on April 12, 1988. Infiltration of water into the liner has been monitored for two years using 4 large-ring (1.5 m OD) and 32 small-ring (0.28 m OD) infiltrometers, and a water-balance that accounts for total infiltration and evaporation. Average long-term infiltration fluxes based on two years of monitoring are 5.8 x 10-9 cm/s, 6.0 x 10-8 cm/s and 5.6 x 10-8 for the large-ring, small-ring, and water-balance data, respectively. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the liner based on small-ring data, estimated using Darcy's Law and the Green-Ampt Approximation, is 3 x 10-8 and 4 x 10-8 cm/s, respectively. All sets of data indicate that the liner's performance exceed that which is required by the U.S. EPA.

  14. Ultrathin DPN STI SiON liner for 40 nm low-power CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chan-Yuan; Chen, Jone F.; Chen, Shih-Chih; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Lee, Kay-Ming; Lee, Chih-Ping

    2010-05-01

    At sub-40 nm CMOS technology nodes, the implementation of shallow trench isolation (STI) becomes more challenging due to shrinking geometries and stricter device leakage requirements. As device geometries are shrinking, STI liner is also becoming thinner and plays an important role for the minimal consumption of device active area while effectively rounding the STI corner and minimizing stress-induced defects. Consequently, STI stress is enhanced by the scaling of STI-pitch, the volume expansion induced by STI liner and film stress of filling materials. This paper discusses the benefits of SiON liner growth by decoupled-plasma-nitridation (DPN) and SiON liner induced stress compared to conventional pure oxide liner growth by in situ steam generation (ISSG). Thin STI SiON liner offers lower sub-threshold leakage current without drive current loss for transistor performance. Moreover, junction leakage current is also reduced with scaling device active area. Thus, better device performance results in better minimum operation voltage (Vcc_min) of low-power 6T-SRAM. This paper demonstrates the influences of thin STI SiON liner growth by DPN in STI manufacture.

  15. Hard X-Ray Emission and the Ionizing Source in LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Ho, Luis C.; Ptak, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    We report X-ray fluxes in the 2-10 keV band from LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) and low-luminosity Seyfert galaxies obtained with the ASCA satellite. Observed X-ray luminosities are in the range between 4 x 10(exp 39) and 5 x 10(exp 41) ergs/s, which are significantly smaller than that of the "classical" low-luminosity Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051. We found that X-ray luminosities in 2-10 keV of LINERs with broad H.alpha emission in their optical spectra (LINER 1s) are proportional to their Ha luminosities. This correlation strongly supports the hypothesis that the dominant ionizing source in LINER 1s is photoionization by hard photons from low-luminosity AGNs. On the other hand, the X-ray luminosities of most LINERs without broad H.alpha emission (LINER 2s) in our sample are lower than LINER 1s at a given H.alpha luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities in these objects are insufficient to power their H.alpha luminosities, suggesting that their primary ionizing source is other than an AGN, or that an AGN, if present, is obscured even at energies above 2 keV.

  16. Energy transfer through a multi-layer liner for shaped charges

    DOEpatents

    Skolnick, Saul; Goodman, Albert

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the determination of parameters for selecting materials for use as liners in shaped charges to transfer the greatest amount of energy to the explosive jet. Multi-layer liners constructed of metal in shaped charges for oil well perforators or other applications are selected in accordance with the invention to maximize the penetrating effect of the explosive jet by reference to four parameters: (1) Adjusting the explosive charge to liner mass ratio to achieve a balance between the amount of explosive used in a shaped charge and the areal density of the liner material; (2) Adjusting the ductility of each layer of a multi-layer liner to enhance the formation of a longer energy jet; (3) Buffering the intermediate layers of a multi-layer liner by varying the properties of each layer, e.g., composition, thickness, ductility, acoustic impedance and areal density, to protect the final inside layer of high density material from shattering upon impact of the explosive force and, instead, flow smoothly into a jet; and (4) Adjusting the impedance of the layers in a liner to enhance the transmission and reduce the reflection of explosive energy across the interface between layers.

  17. Effects of broadened property fuels on radiant heat flux to gas turbine combustor liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of fuel type, inlet air pressure, inlet air temperature, and fuel/air ratio on the combustor radiation were investigated. Combustor liner radiant heat flux measurements were made in the spectral region between 0.14 and 6.5 microns at three locations in a modified commercial aviation can combustor. Two fuels, Jet A and a heavier distillate research fuel called ERBS were used. The use of ERBS fuel as opposed to Jet A under similar operating conditions resulted in increased radiation to the combustor liner and hence increased backside liner temperature. This increased radiation resulted in liner temperature increases always less than 73 C. The increased radiation is shown by way of calculations to be the result of increased soot concentrations in the combustor. The increased liner temperatures indicated can substantially affect engine maintenance costs by reducing combustor liner life up to 1/3 because of the rapid decay in liner material properties when operated beyond their design conditions.

  18. Beryllium liner z-pinches for Magneto-Rayleigh--Taylor studies on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Ryan D.; Martin, Matthew Ryan; Vesey, Roger Alan; Lemke, Raymond William; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Herrmann, Mark C.; Jennings, Christopher A.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) [S. A. Slutz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 056303 (2010)] is a promising new concept for achieving >100 kJ of fusion yield on Z. The greatest threat to this concept is the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. Thus an experimental campaign has been initiated to study MRT growth in fast-imploding (<100 ns) cylindrical liners. The first sets of experiments studied aluminum liner implosions with prescribed sinusoidal perturbations (see talk by D. Sinars). By contrast, this poster presents results from the latest sets of experiments that used unperturbed beryllium (Be) liners. The purpose for using Be is that we are able to radiograph 'through' the liner using the 6-keV photons produced by the Z-Beamlet backlighting system. This has enabled us to obtain time-resolved measurements of the imploding liner's density as a function of both axial and radial location throughout the field of view. This data is allowing us to evaluate the integrity of the inside (fuel-confining) surface of the imploding liner as it approaches stagnation.

  19. Beryllium liner z-pinches for Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor studies on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, R.; Slutz, S.; Jennings, C.; Sinars, D.; Lemke, R.; Martin, M.; Vesey, R.; Cuneo, M.; Herrmann, M.

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) [S. A. Slutz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 056303 (2010)] is a promising new concept for achieving >100 kJ of fusion yield on Z. The greatest threat to this concept is the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. Thus an experimental campaign has been initiated to study MRT growth in fast-imploding (<100 ns) cylindrical liners. The first sets of experiments studied aluminum liner implosions with prescribed sinusoidal perturbations (see talk by D. Sinars). By contrast, this poster presents results from the latest sets of experiments that used unperturbed beryllium (Be) liners. The purpose for using Be is that we are able to radiograph ``through'' the liner using the 6-keV photons produced by the Z-Beamlet backlighting system. This has enabled us to obtain time-resolved measurements of the imploding liner's density as a function of both axial and radial location throughout the field of view. This data is allowing us to evaluate the integrity of the inside (fuel-confining) surface of the imploding liner as it approaches stagnation.

  20. Numerical and experimental studies of magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in solid liners

    SciTech Connect

    Faehl, R.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Morgan, D.V.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have studied the nonlinear evolution of Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability in solid aluminum liners. Two-dimensional MHD modeling of the configuration have been performed using the measured current pulseform of the PEGASUS II capacitor bank as a magnetic field source. The liner configuration consisted of a solid aluminum annulus 20 mm long and 0.4 mm thick. The outer surface of the liner was machined with a sinusoidal ripple. Half of the liner was scribed with one wavelength, the other half with another wavelength. A series of experiments was conducted with a smooth surface and ripple wavelengths of 0.5, 0.75, and 2.0 mm. The peak-to-peak ripple amplitude was varied between 0.025 and 0.10 mm, but the ratio of the initial amplitude to wavelength never exceeded 7%. Diagnostics consisted of radiography, a center-conductor B-dot probe, and transmission line pulsed power diagnostics. The inner surfaces of the liners were coated with a thin film of gold (Au) to permit measurement of material deformation at various stages of the instability growth. Three radiographs, at different times, were taken for each experiment. The center-conductor magnetic probe was used to measure the magnetic field penetration through the liner. Initial comparisons between the data and the MHD calculations showed excellent agreement with respect to nonlinear instability growth and with the time of field rupture of the liner.