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Sample records for geotechnical engineering

  1. Geotechnical engineering in US elementary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data acquisition, the soil profile and foundations activity employed natural and transparent soils as well as LEGO-based foundation models, and the erosion activity utilised a 3D printer to assist with construction of building models. The activities seek to enhance students' academic achievement, excite them about geotechnical engineering, and motivate them to study science and math. Pre- and post-activity evaluations were conducted to assess both the suitability of the activities and the students' learning. Initial results show that students gain a reasonable understanding of engineering principles. Moreover, the geotechnical engineering activities provided students an opportunity to apply their math skills and science knowledge.

  2. Geotechnical Engineering in US Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data…

  3. Sustainable Development and Energy Geotechnology Potential Roles for Geotechnical Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    FragaszyProgram Dire, Dr. R. J.; Santamarina, Carlos; Espinoza, N.; Jang, J.W.; Jung, J.W.; Tsouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The world is facing unprecedented challenges related to energy resources, global climate change, material use, and waste generation. Failure to address these challenges will inhibit the growth of the developing world and will negatively impact the standard of living and security of future generations in all nations. The solutions to these challenges will require multidisciplinary research across the social and physical sciences and engineering. Although perhaps not always recognized, geotechnical engineering expertise is critical to the solution of many energy and sustainability-related problems. Hence, geotechnical engineers and academicians have opportunity and responsibility to contribute to the solution of these worldwide problems. Research will need to be extended to non-standard issues such as thermal properties of soils; sediment and rock response to extreme conditions and at very long time scales; coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-bio-mechanical processes; positive feedback systems; the development of discontinuities; biological modification of soil properties; spatial variability; and emergent phenomena. Clearly, the challenges facing geotechnical engineering in the future will require a much broader knowledge base than our traditional educational programs provide. The geotechnical engineering curricula, from undergraduate education through continuing professional education, must address the changing needs of a profession that will increasingly be engaged in alternative/renewable energy production; energy efficiency; sustainable design, enhanced and more efficient use of natural resources, waste management, and underground utilization.

  4. Incorporating Learning Outcomes into an Introductory Geotechnical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiegel, Gregg L.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the process of incorporating a set of learning outcomes into a geotechnical engineering course. The outcomes were developed using Bloom's taxonomy and define the knowledge, skills, and abilities the students are expected to achieve upon completion of the course. Each outcome begins with an action-oriented verb corresponding…

  5. Incorporating learning outcomes into an introductory geotechnical engineering course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiegel, Gregg L.

    2013-06-01

    The article describes the process of incorporating a set of learning outcomes into a geotechnical engineering course. The outcomes were developed using Bloom's taxonomy and define the knowledge, skills, and abilities the students are expected to achieve upon completion of the course. Each outcome begins with an action-oriented verb corresponding to one of six levels of achievement in the cognitive domain (remember, understand, apply, analyse, evaluate, and create). The article includes a listing of outcomes articulated for several course topics. The article also summarises how the outcomes were linked to lesson plans and assignments. Example formative and summative assessment methods and results are presented with the results of teaching evaluations, which indicate that students value this approach to course design. The article concludes with a discussion of how the above approach has been implemented in upper-division courses. Outcomes are presented for a course on earth retention systems.

  6. Fiber-optic sensor applications in civil and geotechnical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habel, Wolfgang R.; Krebber, Katerina

    2011-09-01

    Different types of fiber-optic sensors based on glass or polymeric fibers are used to evaluate material behavior or to monitor the integrity and long-term stability of load-bearing structure components. Fiber-optic sensors have been established as a new and innovative measurement technology in very different fields, such as material science, civil engineering, light-weight structures, geotechnical areas as well as chemical and high-voltage substations. Very often, mechanical quantities such as deformation, strain or vibration are requested. However, measurement of chemical quantities in materials and structure components, such as pH value in steel reinforced concrete members also provides information about the integrity of concrete structures. A special fiber-optic chemical sensor for monitoring the alkaline state (pH value) of the cementitious matrix in steel-reinforced concrete structures with the purpose of early detection of corrosion-initiating factors is described. The paper presents the use of several fiber-optic sensor technologies in engineering. One example concerns the use of highly resolving concrete-embeddable fiber Fabry-Perot acoustic emission (AE) sensors for the assessment of the bearing behaviour of large concrete piles in existing foundations or during and after its installation. Another example concerns fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors attached to anchor steels (micro piles) to measure the strain distribution in loaded soil anchors. Polymer optical fibers (POF) can be — because of their high elasticity and high ultimate strain — well integrated into textiles to monitor their deformation behaviour. Such "intelligent" textiles are capable of monitoring displacement of soil or slopes, critical mechanical deformation in geotechnical structures (dikes, dams, and embankments) as well as in masonry structures during and after earthquakes.

  7. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND BECHTEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M; I. Arango, I; Michael Mchood, M

    2007-07-17

    The authors describe two aspects of geotechnical engineering; site characterization utilizing the CPT and recognition of aging as a factor affecting soil properties. These methods were pioneered by Professor Schmertmann and are practiced by the Bechtel Corporation in general and at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, in particular. This paper describes a general subsurface exploration approach that we have developed over the years. It consists of ''phasing'' the investigation, employing the principles of the observational method suggested by Peck (1969) and others. In doing so, we have found that the recommendations proposed by Sowers in terms of borehole spacing and exploration cost, are reasonable for developing an investigation program, recognizing that through continuous review the final investigation program will evolve. At the SRS shallow subsurface soils are of Eocene and Miocene age. It was recognized that the age of these deposits would have a marked effect on their cyclic resistance. A field investigation and laboratory testing program was devised to measure and account for aging as it relates to the cyclic resistance of the site soils. Recently, a panel of experts (Youd et al., 2001) has made recommendations regarding the liquefaction assessment of soils. This paper will address some of those recommendations in the context of re-assessing the liquefaction resistance of the soils at the SRS. It will be shown that, indeed, aging plays a major role in the cyclic resistance of the soils at the SRS, and that aging should be accounted for in liquefaction potential assessments for soils older than Holocene age.

  8. The Use of Mini-projects in the Teaching of Geotechnics to Civil Engineering Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, W. F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Geotechnics (which encompasses soil and rock mechanics, engineering geology, foundation design, and ground engineering methods) is a major component of virtually all civil engineering courses. Show how mini-projects are used to teach this subject. Format of projects, development of presentation skills, and assessment considerations are discussed.…

  9. Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking in Geotechnical Engineering Education (Geo-EFFECTs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Charles E.; Gassman, Sarah L.; Huffman, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation, and assessment of instructional materials for geotechnical engineering concepts using the Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking (EFFECTs) pedagogical framework. The central learning goals of engineering EFFECTs are to (i) improve the understanding and retention of a specific…

  10. Environments for fostering effective critical thinking in geotechnical engineering education (Geo-EFFECTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Charles E.; Gassman, Sarah L.; Huffman, Jeffrey T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation, and assessment of instructional materials for geotechnical engineering concepts using the Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking (EFFECTs) pedagogical framework. The central learning goals of engineering EFFECTs are to (i) improve the understanding and retention of a specific set of concepts that provide core knowledge and (ii) encourage students to recognise and develop critical thinking skills that lead to growth in engineering judgement. The practice of geotechnical engineering deals with complex and uncertain soil conditions, where critical thought and judgement are imperative. Three geo-EFFECTs were created in the context of levee reconstruction, levee permeability, and settlement of a tower structure. Students often provided inaccurate estimates to driving questions set in those contexts; when given opportunities for self-exploration and self-correction in the EFFECT structure, students often achieved more accurate final solutions. Overall, results suggest that EFFECTs have a measurable, positive impact on student learning.

  11. Accessibility of geotechnical earthquake Engineering data and the need for data storage and dissemination standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, Arthur C.

    1993-01-01

    Ease of data access and data standards are two issues critical to the success of GIS technology when applied to earthquake hazards research problems that require geotechnical engineering and related data. Efforts to reduce data accession costs and to streamline the data exchange process will result in short-term cost and time saving and will add long-term value to the data sets themselves. Such efforts might include centralized data centers, standardized data base designs and formats, cooperative efforts to fill data gaps, and standardized distribution methods and media.

  12. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  13. Geotechnical and metric engineering applied to building a roman villa in thw Vega of Granada (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, E.; Garrido, A.; Román, J.; Aguirre, J.; Esquive, J. A.

    The excavation of a Roman villa in the city of Granada (Andalusia, Spain) has provided major information about the use of geotechnical principles and methods of building a house in the 1st century A.D. The study of the building techniques shows that the inhabitants of the Granada basin had ample knowledge of architectural engineering and its relationship to the geologic characteristics in the area of Granada. This knowledge was applied by architects to the foundations of buildings to prevent natural risks, mainly rainfall damage to unstable geologic material, a shallow phreatic level, and periodic floods. The architectural design was adapted to these considerations although the building studied is a simple house, more similar to the pars rustica of a villa than a luxury villa.

  14. Use of the Boussinesq solution in geotechnical and road engineering: influence of plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, Marwan; Shahrour, Isam

    2007-09-01

    The Boussinesq solution for the distribution of stresses in a half-space resulting from surface loads is largely used in geotechnical and road engineering. It is based on the assumption of a linear-elastic homogeneous isotropic half-space for the soil media. Since the soil exhibits nonlinear and irreversible behavior, it is of major interest to study the validity of this solution for elastoplastic soils. This paper includes an investigation of this issue using finite element modeling. The study is conducted by comparing the elastic stress distribution to that obtained using elastoplastic finite element analyses. Results show that the plasticity reduces the attenuation of the vertical stresses in the soil mass, which means that the Boussinesq solution underestimates the stresses in an area which contributes to the soil settlement. To cite this article: M. Sadek, I. Shahrour, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  15. Engineering geologic and geotechnical analysis of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects: Field examples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue] for addressing these uncertainties. The first case study is for a site near Memphis, Tennessee, wherein cone penetration test data from side-by-side locations, one of liquefaction and the other of no liquefaction, are used to readily discern that the influence of post-liquefaction "aging" and density changes on the measured in situ soil indices is minimal. In the second case study, 12 sites that are at scattered locations in the Wabash Valley and that exhibit paleoliquefaction features are analyzed. The features are first provisionally attributed to the Vincennes Earthquake, which occurred around 6100 years BP, and are used to illustrate our proposed approach for selecting representative soil indices of the liquefied sediments. These indices are used in back-calculating the strength of shaking at the individual sites, the results from which are then incorporated into a regional assessment of the moment magnitude, M, of the Vincennes Earthquake. The regional assessment validated the provisional assumption that the paleoliquefaction features at the scattered sites were induced by the Vincennes Earthquake, in the main, which was determined to have M ??? 7.5. The uncertainties and assumptions used in the assessment are discussed in detail. ?? 2004 Elsevier B

  16. Geotechnical, Hydrogeologic and Vegetation Data Package for 200-UW-1 Waste Site Engineered Surface Barrier Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.

    2007-11-26

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is designing and assessing the performance of engineered barriers for final closure of 200-UW-1 waste sites. Engineered barriers must minimize the intrusion and water, plants and animals into the underlying waste to provide protection for human health and the environment. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator is being used to optimize the performance of candidate barriers. Simulating barrier performance involves computation of mass and energy transfer within a soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum and requires a variety of input parameters, some of which are more readily available than others. Required input includes parameter values for the geotechnical, physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of the materials comprising the barrier and the structural fill on which it will be constructed as well as parameters to allow simulation of plant effects. This report provides a data package of the required parameters as well as the technical basis, rationale and methodology used to obtain the parameter values.

  17. SoilEngineering: A Microsoft Excel ® spreadsheet © program for geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcep, Ferhat

    2010-10-01

    SoilEngineering is a user-friendly, interactive Microsoft Excel ® spreadsheet program for the geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils. The influence of soil behavior on earthquake characteristics and/or structural design is one of the major elements in investigating earthquake forces, and thus the structural response with static and dynamic loads. With its interactive nature, the program provides the user with an opportunity to undertake soil static and dynamic load analysis. The program is formed by three main options: (1) Data Preparation, (2) Derived Parameters and (3) Analysis of Soil Problems (with Static and Dynamic Loads). The Data Preparation option is divided into four modules: Seismic Refraction Data, Geoelectrical Data, Borehole and SPT ( N) Data and Laboratory Data. The Derived Parameters option is divided into two modules: Geotechnical Parameters Derived from Geophysical Data and Relationships between Vs and SPT ( N) Values. The Analysis of Soil Problems (with Static and Dynamic Loads) option is divided into nine modules: Bearing Capacity for Shallow and Deep Foundations, Settlement Analysis (Static and Dynamic Loads), Estimation of Subgrade Reaction Coefficient, Slope Stability Analysis, Seismic Hazard Analysis, Strong Motion Attenuation Relationships, Acceleration/Velocity/Displacement Spectra, Soil Amplification Analysis and Soil Liquefaction Analysis. Soil engineering also permits plotting geophysical and geotechnical data with analysis.

  18. Use of surface waves for geotechnical engineering applications in Western Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokeshi, K.; Harutoonian, P.; Leo, C. J.; Liyanapathirana, S.

    2013-06-01

    Current in situ methods used to geotechnically characterize the ground are predominantly based on invasive mechanical techniques (e.g. CPT, SPT, DMT). These techniques are localized to the tested area thus making it quite time consuming and costly to extensively cover large areas. Hence, a study has been initiated to investigate the use of the non-invasive Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Multichannel Simulation with One Receiver (MSOR) techniques to provide both an evaluation of compacted ground and a general geotechnical site characterization. The MASW technique relies on the measurement of active ambient vibrations generated by sledgehammer hits to the ground. Generated vibrations are gathered by interconnected electromagnetic geophones set up in the vertical direction and in a linear array at the ground surface with a constant spacing. The MSOR technique relies on one sensor, one single geophone used as the trigger, and multiple impacts are delivered on a steel plate at several distances in a linear array. The main attributes of these non-invasive techniques are the cost effectiveness and time efficiency when compared to current in situ mechanical invasive methods. They were applied to infer the stiffness of the ground layers by inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves to derive the shear wave velocity (Vs) profile. The results produced by the MASW and the MSOR techniques were verified against independent mechanical Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data. This paper identifies that the MASW and the MSOR techniques could be potentially useful and powerful tools in the evaluation of the ground compaction and general geotechnical site characterization.

  19. The Necessity of Combining Geologists and Engineers for Fieldwork in the Practice of Geotechnics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Michael H.

    This paper reviews the post-graduate training that can only be accomplished by having engineers and geologists working together in the field. It describes how meaningful communication and mutual appreciation of fundamental issues concerning a definition of ground and a prediction of how it will respond to engineering, and environmental, change may be established. Fieldwork suitable for achieving this and an awareness of fundamental misconceptions is also described.

  20. Plasticity and Geotechnics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-Sui

    Plasticity and Geotechnics is the first attempt to summarize and present, in one volume, the major developments achieved to date in the field of plasticity theory for geotechnical materials and its applications to geotechnical analysis and design.

  1. Geotechnical practice in dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings, Geotechnical Practice in Dam Rehabilitation, consists of papers presented at the Specialty Conference sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers held in Raleigh, North Carolina, April 25-28, 1993. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of the rehabilitation of dams, including case histories and current geotechnical practice. The topics covered by this proceeding include: (1) inspection and monitoring of dams; (2) investigation and evaluation of dams and foundations; (3) risk and reliability assessment; (4) increasing reservoir capacity, spillway modifications and overtopping; (5) seepage control; (6) improving stability of dams, foundations and reservoir slopes; (7) rehabilitation for seismic stability; and (8) geosynthetics and ground improvement techniques.

  2. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  3. Geotechnical centrifuge under construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Modifications are underway at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in California to transform a centrifuge used in the Apollo space program to the largest geotechnical centrifuge in the free world. The centrifuge, to be finished in August and opened next January, following check out and tuning, will enable geoscientists to model stratigraphic features down to 275 m below the earth's surface. Scientists will be able to model processes that are coupled with body force loading, including earthquake response of earth structures and soil structure interaction; rubbled-bed behavior during in situ coal gasification or in oil shale in situ retorts; behavior of frozen soil; frost heave; behavior of offshore structures; wave-seabed interactions; explosive cratering; and blast-induced liquefaction.The centrifuge will have a load capacity of 900-g-tons (short); that is, it will be able to carry a net soil load of 3 short tons to a centripetal acceleration of 300 times the acceleration caused by gravity. Modified for a total cost of $2.4 million, the centrifuge will have an arm with a 7.6-m radius and a swinging platform or bucket at its end that will be able to carry a payload container measuring 2.1×2.1 m. An additional future input of $500,000 would enable the purchase of a larger bucket that could accommodate a load of up to 20 tons, according to Charles Babendreier, program director for geotechnical engineering at the National Science Foundation. Additional cooling for the motor would also be required. The centrifuge has the capability of accelerating the 20-ton load to 100 g.

  4. Enabling Geotechnical Data for Broader Use by the Spatial Data Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zand, Amir Ghasem

    2011-01-01

    Geotechnical data are one of the most prevalent data types in civil engineering projects. The majority of the civil engineering projects that are in use today are designed using site-specific geotechnical data. The usage of geotechnical data is not limited to construction projects. This data is used in a wide range of applications, including…

  5. Computer Applications in Geotechnical Engineering (CAGE) and Geotechnical aspects of the Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (G-CASE) projects. User's guide. UTEXAS2 slope-stability package. Volume 1: User's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edria, Earl V., Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This report is the user's guide volume of the UTEXAS2 (University of Texas Analysis of Slopes - version 2) slope-stability package. This package describes a slope-stability program which can calculate the factor of safety by Spencer's method, simplified Bishop's procedure, force equilibrium procedure with Corps of Engineers Modified Swedish side-force assumption of parallel side forces at a user-specified inclination and force equilibrium procedure with Lowe and Karafiath's side force assumptions. The program will calculate the safety factor for either a prescribed shear surface or for a search of the critical shear surface. Both circular and noncircular shear surfaces can be evaluated. There are five options for the type of shear strength data and six options for specifying pore pressures. All analysis procedures and major features can be run in a single data file which is free-field format and utilizes command words. Graphics capability for displaying the input data and the final shear surface is available. Special capabilities include pseudo-static seismic analysis, slope reinforcement, curved (multi-linear) shear strength envelope, anisotropic shear strength, and the ability to have multiple piezometric lines.

  6. Development of a geotechnical and pile driving database, Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Carpaneto, R.; Paoletti, L.; Guaita, P.; Pratico, A.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a geotechnical and pile driving data base relevant to offshore installations in the Adriatic Sea. The paper discusses sources of information, structure, content, and engineering applications of the data base. Data available from Agip`s platform installations in the Adriatic was reviewed, and 20 representative platforms were chosen. Two relational data bases were created, for geotechnical and installation data respectively. The data bases provide a comprehensive and organized source of information about past experience in the area. Such experience is now quickly available for geotechnical engineering activities. As a main application of the data bases, information was processed to make data sets for training Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict pile driveability. It is envisioned that the data bases will also be used in ongoing installation program design.

  7. Risk Management in environmental geotechnical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammemäe, Olavi; Torn, Hardi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the basis of risk analysis, assessment and management, accompanying problems and principles of risk management when drafting an environmental geotechnical model, enabling the analysis of an entire territory or developed region as a whole. The environmental impact will remain within the limits of the criteria specified with the standards and will be acceptable for human health and environment. An essential part of the solution of the problem is the engineering-geological model based on risk analysis and the assessment and forecast of mutual effects of the processes.

  8. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  9. In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbust, R.J.; Salomone, L.A.

    1994-07-01

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241- 32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994. The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankments under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: (1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, (2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, (3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, (4) derive properties for seismic soil- structure interaction analysis, (5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and (6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.

  10. In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1999-01-15

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241-32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994.The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankme nts under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: 1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, 2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, 3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, 4) derive properties for seismic soil-structure interaction analysis, 5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and 6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.

  11. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  12. Data dictionary and formatting standard for dissemination of geotechnical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benoit, J.; Bobbitt, J.I.; Ponti, D.J.; Shimel, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot system for archiving and web dissemination of geotechnical data collected and stored by various agencies is currently under development. Part of the scope of this project, sponsored by the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) and by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Lifelines Program, is the development of a data dictionary and formatting standard. This paper presents the data model along with the basic structure of the data dictionary tables for this pilot system.

  13. Geotechnical risk analysis by flat dilatometer (DMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades we have assisted at a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing, to the point that, today, in situ testing is often the major part of a geotechnical investigation. The State of the Art indicates that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT), are fast and convenient in situ tests for routine site investigation. In most cases the DMT estimated parameters, in particular the undrained shear strength su and the constrained modulus M, are used with the common design methods of Geotechnical Engineering for evaluating bearing capacity, settlements etc. The paper focuses on the prediction of settlements of shallow foundations, that is probably the No. 1 application of the DMT, especially in sands, where undisturbed samples cannot be retrieved, and on the risk associated with their design. A compilation of documented case histories that compare DMT-predicted vs observed settlements, was collected by Monaco et al. (2006), indicating that, in general, the constrained modulus M can be considered a reasonable "operative modulus" (relevant to foundations in "working conditions") for settlement predictions based on the traditional linear elastic approach. Indeed, the use of a site investigation method, such as DMT, that improve the accuracy of design parameters, reduces risk, and the design can then center on the site's true soil variability without parasitic test variability. In this respect, Failmezger et al. (1999, 2015) suggested to introduce Beta probability distribution, that provides a realistic and useful description of variability for geotechnical design problems. The paper estimates Beta probability distribution in research sites where DMT tests and observed settlements are available. References Failmezger, R.A., Rom, D., Ziegler, S.R. (1999). "SPT? A better approach of characterizing residual soils using other in-situ tests", Behavioral Characterics of Residual Soils, B

  14. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-08

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  15. Geotechnical analysis report for July 1994--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the WIPP are interpreted and presented in this Geotechnical Analysis Report. The data are used to characterize conditions, assess design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program. They do not include data from tests performed by Sandia National Laboratories, the Scientific Advisor to the project in support of performance assessment studies. Geotechnical Analysis Reports have been prepared routinely and made available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation Program, the Architect/Engineer for the project produced the reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after construction of the underground. Upon completion of the constriction phase of the project in 1987, the reports have been prepared annually by the Management and Operating Contractor for the facility. This report describes the performance and conditions of selected areas from July 1, 1994, to June 30, 1995.

  16. Comparison Between Two Methods for Estimating the Vertical Scale of Fluctuation for Modeling Random Geotechnical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczyńska-Kozłowska, Joanna M.

    2015-12-01

    The design process in geotechnical engineering requires the most accurate mapping of soil. The difficulty lies in the spatial variability of soil parameters, which has been a site of investigation of many researches for many years. This study analyses the soil-modeling problem by suggesting two effective methods of acquiring information for modeling that consists of variability from cone penetration test (CPT). The first method has been used in geotechnical engineering, but the second one has not been associated with geotechnics so far. Both methods are applied to a case study in which the parameters of changes are estimated. The knowledge of the variability of parameters allows in a long term more effective estimation, for example, bearing capacity probability of failure.

  17. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-09-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts.

  18. Geotechnical effects of the 2015 magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Robb E S; Thompson, Eric; Kieffer, D Scott; Tiwari, Binod; Hashash, Youssef M A; Acharya, Indra; Adhikari, Basanta; Asimaki, Domniki; Clahan, Kevin B.; Collins, Brian D.; Dahal, Sachindra; Jibson, Randall W.; Khadka, Diwakar; Macdonald, Amy; Madugo, Chris L M; Mason, H Benjamin; Pehlivan, Menzer; Rayamajhi, Deepak; Uprety, Sital

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the geotechnical effects of the 25 April 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and aftershocks, as documented by a reconnaissance team that undertook a broad engineering and scientific assessment of the damage and collected perishable data for future analysis. Brief descriptions are provided of ground shaking, surface fault rupture, landsliding, soil failure, and infrastructure performance. The goal of this reconnaissance effort, led by Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance, is to learn from earthquakes and mitigate hazards in future earthquakes.

  19. Geotechnical analysis report, July 1992--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report provides an assessment of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the construction of the principal underground access and experimental areas, reporting was on a quarterly basis. Since 1987, reporting has been carried out annually because additional excavations will take place gradually over an extended period. This report presents and analyzes data collected up to June 30, 1993. The format of the Geotechnical Analysis Report was selected to meet the needs of several audiences. This report focuses on the geotechnical performance of the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, test rooms, and waste storage areas. The results of excavation effects investigations, stratigraphic mapping, and other geologic studies are also included. The report provides an evaluation of the geotechnical aspects of performance in the context of the relevant design criteria and also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments. The depth and breadth of the evaluation for the different underground facilities varies according to the types and quantities of data that are available, and the complexity of the recorded geotechnical responses.

  20. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    HO,CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH,JIM; WILSON,MICHAEL L.

    1999-12-21

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided.

  1. The influence of Stochastic perturbation of Geotechnical media On Electromagnetic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lei; Yang, Weihao; Huangsonglei, Jiahui; Li, HaiPeng

    2015-04-01

    Electromagnetic tomography (CT) are commonly utilized in Civil engineering to detect the structure defects or geological anomalies. CT are generally recognized as a high precision geophysical method and the accuracy of CT are expected to be several centimeters and even to be several millimeters. Then, high frequency antenna with short wavelength are utilized commonly in Civil Engineering. As to the geotechnical media, stochastic perturbation of the EM parameters are inevitably exist in geological scales, in structure scales and in local scales, et al. In those cases, the geometric dimensionings of the target body, the EM wavelength and the accuracy expected might be of the same order. When the high frequency EM wave propagated in the stochastic geotechnical media, the GPR signal would be reflected not only from the target bodies but also from the stochastic perturbation of the background media. To detect the karst caves in dissolution fracture rock, one need to assess the influence of the stochastic distributed dissolution holes and fractures; to detect the void in a concrete structure, one should master the influence of the stochastic distributed stones, et al. In this paper, on the base of stochastic media discrete realizations, the authors try to evaluate quantificationally the influence of the stochastic perturbation of Geotechnical media by Radon/Iradon Transfer through full-combined Monte Carlo numerical simulation. It is found the stochastic noise is related with transfer angle, perturbing strength, angle interval, autocorrelation length, et al. And the quantitative formula of the accuracy of the electromagnetic tomography is also established, which could help on the precision estimation of GPR tomography in stochastic perturbation Geotechnical media. Key words: Stochastic Geotechnical Media; Electromagnetic Tomography; Radon/Iradon Transfer.

  2. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  3. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

  4. Construed geotechnical characteristics of foundation beds by seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Adel A. A.

    2005-06-01

    Applications of geophysical techniques in engineering investigations are currently of growing interest. The October 1992 earthquake in Egypt and its destructive impact on some man-made constructions has increased the use of geophysical methods in engineering surveys. Determining the exact depth to the bedrock and its lithological type, the depth to the water table, the lateral changes in lithology, and the detection of fractures, cracks or faults are important parameters in the assessment of an engineering site. In the present study, collected travel time data are interpreted using the intercept-time technique in order to estimate the dynamic characteristics (N-value; Poisson's ratio; stress ratio; concentration index; rock quality design factor (RQD); ultimate and allowable bearing capacity) of the ground at site. The depths of the subsurface layers are also evaluated. Two new relationships between RQD and both longitudinal and shear velocities are suggested. The resultant geotechnical parameters based on seismic measurements are found to be reasonable and realistic for engineering studies being carried out in New Cairo City.

  5. Development of geotechnical models for verification of in situ coal conversion impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H.; Kempka, T.; Schlüter, R.; Ziegler, M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In situ coal conversion combined with geological carbon dioxide storage in converted coal seams is currently discussed on an international level having led to different preparatory studies and world-wide political activities. During the power generation process from synthesis gas produced by in situ coal conversion, carbon dioxide can be removed prior or subsequent to synthesis gas conversion in a combined cycle plant by application of advanced carbon capture technologies. Exploited fields can serve as storage deposits for carbon dioxide produced during the processes of in situ coal conversion and power generation. Currently, different experimental studies are being carried out at the laboratories of the RWTH Aachen University and the DMT GmbH & Co. KG to investigate medium to low volatile bituminous coals and anthracites from German mining areas considering their applicability for in situ conversion and as subsequent carbon dioxide storage media. This involves the analysis of mineralogical, petrological and geotechnical properties of coals and surrounding rocks such as: CO2/N2 sorption experiments, permeability and porosity tests considering the roof pressure development as well as geotechnical tests (uniaxial compression tests, oedometer, shear tests, triaxial tests, etc.) with regard to in situ conversion parameters. These experimental results are used for parameterizing numerical geotechnical models and other models. The geotechnical models are based on geological information (stratigraphy and geologic structure from borehole data and seismic, engineering geological maps, GIS, etc.). They will be influenced by the designed gasification processes simulating geomechanic response to the combined process. Further studies using these models involve: calculating and estimating ground subsidence resulting from in situ coal conversion; investigating and predicting geotechnical impacts resulting from CO2 storage into converted coal seams; validating the simulation

  6. Rockfall risk evaluation using geotechnical survey, remote sensing data, and GIS: a case study from western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Depountis, Nikolaos; Vagenas, Nikolaos; Kavoura, Katerina; Vlaxaki, Eleni; Kelasidis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a specific example of the synergistic use of geotechnical survey, remote sensing data and GIS for rockfall risk evaluation is presented. The study area is located in Western Greece. Extensive rockfalls have been recorded along Patras - Ioannina highway just after the cable-stayed bridge of Rio-Antirrio, at Klokova site. The rockfalls include medium- sized limestone boulders with volume up to 1.5m3. A detailed engineering geological survey was conducted including rockmass characterization, laboratory testing and geological - geotechnical mapping. Many Rockfall trajectory simulations were done. Rockfall risk along the road was estimated using spatial analysis in a GIS environment.

  7. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2001 - June 2002

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-09-20

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2001, to June 30, 2002. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 10 lists the References and Bibliography.

  8. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2000-June 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-09-26

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the

  9. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 1999-June 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-10-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 1999, to June 30, 2000. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on the WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which includes fracture mapping, borehole logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation

  10. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 1998-June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse

    2002-08-29

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 1998, to June 30, 1999. It is divided into nine chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1.0 provides background information on the WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2.0 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3.0 and 4.0 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8.0 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which includes fracture mapping, borehole logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9.0 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements.

  11. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  12. Assessing subsurface strata using geophysical and geotechnical methods for designing structures near ground cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlFouzan, F.; Dafalla, M.; Mutaz, E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a combined approach using both geophysical and geotechnical approaches to study and evaluate the subsurface strata near ground for sites suffering from faults and cracks. It demonstrates how both techniques can be utilized to gather useful information for design geotechnical engineers. The safe distance for construction close to a ground crack is mainly dependant on the subsurface stratification and the engineering properties of underlying soils or rocks. Other factors include the area geology and concepts of safety margins. This study is carried out for a site in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. This type of faults and cracks can normally occur due to a geological or physical event or due to the nature and properties of the subsurface material. The geotechnical works included advancing rotary boreholes to depths of 25m to 31m with sampling and testing. The geophysical method used included performing 2D electrical resistivity profiles. The results of geophysical and geotechnical works showed good and close agreement. The use of 2D electrical resistivity was found useful to establish the layer thicknesses of shale and highly plastic clay. This cannot be determined without deep and expensive direct boring investigation. The results showed that a thick layer of expansive soil, which is considered a high-risk soil type containing large percentage of highly plastic clay materials, underlies the site. The volume changes due to humidity variations can result in either swelling or shrinking. These changes can have significant impact on engineering structures such as light buildings and roads. The logic of placing structures in close vicinity of the cracks is based on lateral stresses exerted on the crack face. The layer thickness is a detrimental factor to establish a safe design distance. Stress distribution analysis procedure is explained.

  13. Proceedings of the 22nd symposium on engineering geology and soils engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on soil mechanics and engineering geology. Topics considered at the symposium included geotechnical testing and site exploration, design, soil dynamics, geotextiles, earthquake and volcanic hazard studies, slope stability and landslides, seismic considerations in geotechnical engineering, hazardous substances disposal, ground water, environmental and urban geology, and the response of the Boise geothermal aquifer to earth tides.

  14. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2002 - June 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-03-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations.

  15. Filling the gap between geophysics and geotechnics in landslide process understanding: a data fusion methodology to integrate multi-source information in hydro-mechanical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernadie, S.; Gance, J.; Grandjean, G.; Malet, J.

    2013-12-01

    The population increase and the rising issue of climate change impact the long term stability of mountain slopes. So far, it is not yet possible to assess in all cases conditions for failure, reactivation or rapid surges of slopes. The main reason identified by Van Asch et al. (2007) is the excessive conceptualization of the slope in the models. Therefore to improve our forecasting capability, considering local information such as the local slope geometry, the soil material variability, hydrological processes and the presence of fissures are of first importance. Geophysical imaging, combined with geotechnical tests, is an adapted tool to obtain such detailed information. The development of near-surface geophysics in the last three decades encourages the use of multiple geophysical methods for slope investigations. However, fusion of real data is little used in this domain and a gap still exists between the data processed by the geophysicists and the slope hydro-mechanical models developed by the geotechnical engineers. Starting from this statement, we propose a methodological flowchart of multi-source geophysical and geotechnical data integration to construct a slope hydro-mechanical model of a selected profile at the Super-Sauze landslide. Based on data fusion concepts, the methodology aims at integrating various data in order to create a geological and a geotechnical model of the slope profile. The input data consist in seismic and geoelectrical tomographies (that give access to a spatially distributed information on the soil physical state) supplemented by punctual geotechnical tests (dynamic penetration tests). The tomograms and the geotechnical tests are combined into a unique interpreted model characterized by different geotechnical domains. We use the fuzzy logic clustering method in order to take into account the uncertainty coming from each input data. Then an unstructured finite element mesh, adapted to the resolution of the different input data and

  16. Geotechnical properties of sediments from North Pacific and Northern Bermuda Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, A J; Laine, E P; Lipkin, J; Heath, G R; Akers, S A

    1980-01-01

    Studies of geotechnical properties for the Sub-seabed Disposal Program have been oriented toward sediment characterization related to effectiveness as a containment media and determination of detailed engineering behavior. Consolidation tests of the deeper samples in the North Pacific clays indicate that the sediment column is normally consolidated. The in-situ coefficient of permeability (k) within the cored depth of 25 meters is relatively constant at 10/sup -7/ cm/sec. Consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests indicate stress-strain properties characteristic of saturated clays with effective angles of friction of 35/sup 0/ for smectite and 31/sup 0/ for illite. These results are being used in computer modeling efforts. Some general geotechnical property data from the Bermuda Rise are also discussed.

  17. Physical and geotechnical properties of cement-treated clayey soil using silica nanoparticles: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasabkolaei, N.; Janalizadeh, A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Roshan, N.; Ghasemi, Seiyed E.

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the use of nanosilica to improve geotechnical characteristics of cement-treated clayey soil from the coastal area of the eastern Caspian Sea in the Golestan province, Iran. Atterberg limits, unconfined compressive strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were performed to investigate the soil plastic and strength parameters. The specimens were prepared by mixing soil with 9% cement and various contents of nanosilica. An ultrasonic bath device was used to disperse nanosilica in water. The addition of nanosilica enhanced the strength parameters of the clayey soil. Moreover, a nanosilica percentage of 1.5% by weight of cement improved the compressive strength of the cement-treated clay up to 38%, at age of 28 days. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to evaluate specimen morphology. SEM and AFM results confirm the experimental ones. Therefore, nanosilica can be employed for soil improvement in geotechnical engineering.

  18. Filtration and drainage in geotechnical/geoenvironmental engineering. Geotechnical special publication No. 78

    SciTech Connect

    Reddi, L.N.; Bonala, M.V.S.

    1998-07-01

    Existing criteria for soil filter selection were developed primarily in the earth dam industry, and were based largely on retention principles involving comparison of the particle sizes of base soil and filter material. Stability of base soils has been the primary concern of this industry. The evolving industries of waste containment and soil remediation should use filters designed with a broader perspective. The papers in this volume represent the state-of-the-art in laboratory, field, and theoretical investigations on all aspects of filtration and drainage. Topics include granular vs. geotextile filters, leachate collection systems, soil clogging, filter cakes, analytical modeling, strain effects, pipe box testing to stimulate toe drain performance, agricultural drain envelope design and lab testing, and lessons from the failure of the LS Hydroelectric Power Project Dam.

  19. People Interview: Engineering beats Pisa's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    INTERVIEW Engineering beats Pisa's problem John Burland has been professor of soil mechanics at Imperial College London for 20 years and is recognized as a distinguished figure in geotechnical engineering. David Smith talks to him about his work.

  20. Geotechnical zoning of urban foundations: Avilés case study (N Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Arias, Daniel; López-Fernández, Carlos; Pando, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carry out a geotechnical evaluation of the underground within an urban setting in relation to types of foundations, and particularly at expansion zones. The ultimate aim is to produce a foundation zonation map at the scale 1:10,000. Furthermore, a general methodology that way be extrapolated to other cities is proposed. This work focused on the city of Aviles like a case study; a medium-sized city which has significant industrial and port areas and singular equipment in its surroundings. This city is located in the Spanish north coast and spread out on both flanks of the Avilés stuary. This means that there are an important development of recent deposits that implies different geotechnical units with a highly variable behavior, generally poor. In contrast, the bedrock is more homogenous, formed by Permo-Triassic red clay and marl. Locally there are also outcrops of carbonates and conglomeratic Jurassic levels. Also, on the whole area is important to note the presence of heterogeneous anthropic deposits along the whole area as a consequence, mainly, of an intense industrial activity. Permo-Triassic clayey and marly materials imply special engineering issues in foundations as a consequence of their composition (likely weathering, presence of gypsum, low bearing capacity). Moreover, recent deposits (marine and alluvial origin) show different geotechnical behaviors depending on their geometry and grain size. Hence, many areas of the city are especially problematic when designing and implementing foundations. The methodology followed in this study consisted in elaborating a geological-geotechnical exhaustive survey of the urban underground on a scale of 1/10.000. Based on this, a multi criteria analysis of the identified geotechnical units was carried out taking into consideration all the lithological, geomorphological, hidrogeological and geotechnical aspects. Taken into account all of these criteria, a number of areas are defined based

  1. Geotechnical applications of CCPs in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Edil, T.C.; Benson, C.H.

    2006-07-01

    The article reports research case histories on applications of coal combustion products (CCPs) in Wisconsin developed by the University of Wisconsin Consortium for Fly Ash Use in Geotechnical Applications (FAUGA). Fly ash was used to stabilize poor soils during construction of Wisconsin State Highway (STH) 60, and bottom ash was used as a granular working platform. Long term performance is proving good. Nearly all Class C fly ash in Wisconsin is now used in construction. Leaching characteristics of pavements incorporating fly ash are being monitored by pan lysimeters underneath. A computer model, WiscLEACH has been developed to predict the maximum concentration of chemicals in ground water adjacent to roadways using CCPs. 1 photo.

  2. Quality assurance aspects of geotechnical practices for underground radioactive waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    In August 1988, the National Research Council, through the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, held a colloquium to discuss the practice of quality assurance that is being implemented in the high-level radioactive waste storage program. The intent of the colloquium was to bring together program managers of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to discuss with the technical community both the advantages and problems associated with applying current quality assurance practices to underground science and engineering. The colloquium program included talks from 14 individuals that provided a variety of perspectives on both programmatic and technical issues. The talks initiated extended discussions from the 71 participants representing 7 government agencies, 8 academic institutions, and 22 private companies. The competencies of the participants were many and varied including, among others, geochemistry, hydrology, geotechnical engineering, computer programming, engineering and structural geology, underground design and construction, rock mechanics, laboratory testing, systems engineering, nuclear engineering, law, and environmental science. Based on a transcript of the meeting, this report summarizes the talks and discussions which took place. 2 figs.

  3. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  4. Geotechnical analysis report for July 1993--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the WIPP are interpreted and presented in this Geotechnical Analysis Report. The data are used to characterize conditions, assess design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program. The format of the Geotechnical Analysis Report was selected to meet the needs of several audiences. This report focuses on the geotechnical performance of the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, experimental rooms, and waste storage areas. The results of excavation effects, investigations, stratigraphic mapping, and other geologic studies are also included. The report provides an evaluation of the geotechnical aspects of performance in the context of the relevant design criteria and also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments. The depth and breadth of the evaluation for the different underground facilities varies according to the types and quantities of data that are available, and the complexity of the recorded geotechnical responses.

  5. Dynamic strain detection using a fiber Bragg grating sensor array for geotechnical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Naumann, M.; Borm, Gunter

    2003-03-01

    In recent years fiber Bragg gratings have been successfully introduced as sensors for strain, temperature and pressure variations. Their performance and reliability has been proven in many practical applications including strain monitoring in civil engineering and tunneling, downhole monitoring in oil reservoirs and flow assurance monitoring in pipelines. The gratings have great potential to at as true structurally integrated sensor elements. They can be embedded in typical structural or reinforcing elements of civil and geotechnical buildings. Several methods of interrogation schemes are established depending on the desired accuracy and resolution of the measurement. The most important methods are the linear discriminator, the tunable Fbry-Perot filter technique, and several interferometer setups.

  6. Geotechnical properties of Kentucky`s AML landslides and slope failure evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Bhatt, S.K.; Sefton, J.

    1995-12-31

    A large body of geotechnical data, obtained from the U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) and the Kentucky Division of Abandoned Lands, is analyzed in this paper. The analysis includes causes of subsurface failures, phreatic levels, soil profiles, and soil composition data. Soil properties calculated from laboratory procedures and stability analysis techniques were also reviewed. Employing prudent engineering practices and parameters, seven failed slopes were subjected to back analysis for estimating realistic factors of safety. Important factors affecting landslides in eastern Kentucky are presented with appropriate examples.

  7. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Geotechnical properties of PARAHO spent shale

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.E.

    1982-10-01

    A literature review of available geotechnical properties for PARAHO retorted shale was conducted. Also reported are laboratory measurements made at PNL on key hydraulic properties of the PARAHO retorted shale. The PARAHO material can be compacted in the laboratory to dry densities of 12.1 KN/m/sup 3/ (77.0 pcf) to 17.0 Kn/m/sup 3/ (108.4 pcf) depending on compaction effort. Optimum water content for these densities range from 14.4 to 23.7 percent (dry weight), however, PARAHO can achieve high densities without requiring water for compaction. Water retention characteristics indicate that optimum moisture contents (field capacity) range from 13 to 14% (dry weight). Water contents in excess of these values are likely to drain with time. PARAHO shale can be considered as semipervious to pervious with permeability values of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/s depending on compaction effort. PARAHO shale exhibits self-cementing characteristics. Under normal conditions cementing reactions are slow, with strength gains still indicated after 28 days. The shear strength of PARAHO is comparable to similarly graded gravel with effective angles of internal friction, phi', of 33 to 34 degrees. Depending on compactive effort and gradation of the material, effective cohesion values of 0.09 Mn/m/sup 2/ to 0.19 MN/m/sup 2/ (128.05 psi to 277.45 psi) can be expected.

  9. Geotechnical investigation report for proposed array of six 40-meter diameter antennas, Pioneer site, DSS 11, Goldstone, California tracking complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweitzer, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    The geotechnical investigation was conducted in three disciplines: (1) geological field reconnaissance of the general area of proposed construction; (2) geophysical seismic refraction survey of the localized area surrounding the six proposed antenna sites, including shear wave velocity determination; and (3) detailed foundation engineering investigation of each of the six sites. The investigations indicate that the six sites selected are relatively free from geologic hazards which would inhibit the proposed construction or future antenna operations.

  10. A fibre Bragg grating stress cell for geotechnical engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legge, T. Francis H.; Swart, Pieter L.; van Zyl, Gideon; Chtcherbakov, Anatoli A.

    2006-05-01

    Existing technology used to measure stress in granular materials is susceptible to water ingress and resulting damage to the electrical components, which limits this technology's use in long-term monitoring of soil structures. The connections of these instruments to readout or recording devices are also fragile and easily damaged. In order to explore the efficacy of fibre optic technology not just as a replacement component, but rather as a material of robust elastic properties, a series of experiments was devised to test the possibility of applying a transverse lateral stress to the fibre and measuring its transformed longitudinal strain. The fibre was inscribed with a 5 mm long Bragg grating and encapsulated in a softer material of high Poisson's ratio in an attempt to enhance the longitudinal strain developed in the fibre. This encapsulated device was then subjected to one-dimensional stress in a standard sand, and the strain in the fibre measured. The experiment showed that satisfactory correlation exists between the measured strain output when converted to an applied stress and the mathematically (and numerically) derived stresses. The fibre/silicone bonding was also modelled and results showed that slippage on that interface could be considered insignificant. In both theoretical and practical applications, this experiment can be regarded as successfully validating the principle of deriving stress from a longitudinal elastic strain measured normal to the applied stress. Hence, development can move towards both miniaturization (for research) and more robust construction (to withstand field conditions). Further research will encompass investigating the response of the cell to water and saturated soil conditions, particularly the device sensitivity to transient stress conditions. In addition, development of the sensor to read the complete three-dimensional state of stress in a soil remains the ultimate goal. South African Provisional Patent Application no 2005/06016.

  11. Geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission; Proceedings of the Symposium, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 31-Feb. 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.I.; Pettersson, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers and discussions concerning the geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission, sources of remotely sensed data, and glossaries of remote sensing and remote data transmission terms, acronyms, and abbreviations are presented. Aspects of remote sensing use covered include the significance of lineaments and their effects on ground-water systems, waste-site use and geotechnical characterization, the estimation of reservoir submerging losses using CIR aerial photographs, and satellite-based investigation of the significance of surficial deposits for surface mining operations. Other topics presented include the location of potential ground subsidence and collapse features in soluble carbonate rock, optical Fourier analysis of surface features of interest in geotechnical engineering, geotechnical applications of U.S. Government remote sensing programs, updating the data base for a Geographic Information System, the joint NASA/Geosat Test Case Project, the selection of remote data telemetry methods for geotechnical applications, the standardization of remote sensing data collection and transmission, and a comparison of airborne Goodyear electronic mapping system/SAR with satelliteborne Seasat/SAR radar imagery.

  12. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-03-20

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2005. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  14. A case study of GIS-based geotechnical database in urban environment (Oviedo, NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pando, Luis; María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Arias, Daniel; Flor-Blanco, Germán

    2014-05-01

    permeability values for all the rocky units and unconsolidated deposits were estimated, as well as the chemical aggressiveness of groundwater for the structural concrete. The pointed contributions allowed improving noticeably the knowledge about the city subsoil, illustrated by means of two new 1:15,000 scale maps: i) surface geological map; ii) geo-engineering map based on lithological, geotechnical and constructive criteria.

  15. Interrelationships of organic carbon and submarine sediment geotechnical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.H.; Lehman, L.; Hulbert, M.H.; Harvey, G.R.; Bush, S.A.; Forde, E.B.; Crews, P.; Sawyer, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    Total organic carbon content (TOC) and selected geotechnical properties we measured in submarine sediments of the US central east coast and the Mississippi Delta. TOC values in the near-surface Delta sediments were approximately 1% (dry weight). TOC in surficial sediments from the US east coast outer continental shelf, upper slope, and upper rise was generally less than 1%, but between the upper slope and the upper rise, values ranged from 1 to 3% and exceeded 3% in patches associated with Norfolk and Washington Canyons. TOC displayed positive linear correlations with water content, liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, and the amount (percent) of fine-grained material. Nevertheless, there appeared to be no strong dependence of geotechnical properties on TOC in these sediments. This was in accord with previously reported studies on terrestrial soils with TOC values of less than 5%. Carbohydrate content was strongly correlated with water content and plasticity index, suggesting that measurement of individual components of the organic material may provide more sensitive indications of the effects of organics on geotechnical properties than measurement of bulk TOC. Selected geotechnical properties and TOC content of US continental margin surficial sediments displayed regional trends related to water depth and morphological setting. These trends are probably related to recent biological, sedimentological, and oceanographic processes active on the outer shelf, slope, and rise.

  16. Project-Based Learning in Geotechnics: Cooperative versus Collaborative Teamwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different…

  17. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2003 - June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-03-20

    This report contains an assessment of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the excavation of the principal underground access and experimental areas, the status was reported quarterly. Since 1987, when the initial construction phase was completed, reports have been published annually. This report presents and analyzes data collected from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2004.

  18. Overview of geotechnical methods to characterize rock masses

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    The methods that are used to characterize discontinuous rock masses from a geotechnical point of view are summarized. Emphasis is put on providing key references on each subject. The topics of exploration, in-situ stresses, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and hydraulic properties are addressed.

  19. GEOTECHNICAL QUALITY ASSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION OF DISPOSAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents four major topics related to the permittee's responsibilities during construction,operation, and closure of a hazardous waste disposal facility: (1) geotechnical parameters that should be tested and/or observed, (2) selection of sampling methods and sample si...

  20. Seismic velocities and geotechnical data applied to the soil microzoning of western Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, J.; Torres, L.; Castro, R.; Dias, R.; Mendes-Victor, L.

    2009-06-01

    The Algarve province of Portugal is located near the E-W Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. It is characterized by a moderate seismicity with some important historical and instrumental earthquakes causing important loss of lives, serious damage and economical problems. It has therefore been a target of several risk assessment projects. This paper focuses the evaluation of the most interesting and useful geotechnical near-surface parameters, through the acquisition, processing and interpretation of P and S-waves refraction profiles and the use of SPT parameters. VP/ VS ratios and the Poisson's ratio were estimated and a subsoil classification based on geophysical and geotechnical parameters is presented. The classification based upon the European Code 8 for civil engineering and SPT bedrock data, was carried out for land use planning and design of critical facilities. Other parameters were computed to provide information for future site effect studies. The quality and volume of the data gathered here using established approaches can be quite useful to estimate soil microzoning in the absence of local earthquake records. The results also show that the lithology is the most influent parameter on the values of seismic velocities and SPT data. Therefore, surficial geology is inappropriate for this kind of studies and lithological maps should be used instead.

  1. Analysis of Prognosis of Lowland River Bed Erosion Based on Geotechnical Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaga, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    The river erosion is a complex process, the dynamics of which is very difficult to predict. Its intensity largely depends on hydraulic conditions of the river channel. However, it is also thought that natural resistance of the subsoil has a great influence on the scale of the erosion process. Predicting the effects of this process is extremely important in the case of constructing a piling structure (for example, artificial reservoirs). The partition of the river channel causes significant lowering of the river channel bed downstream the dam which threatens the stability of hydro technical and engineering (bridges) buildings. To stop this unwanted phenomenon, stabilizing thresholds are built. However, random location of thresholds significantly reduces their effectiveness. Therefore, taking under consideration natural geotechnical conditions of the subsoil appears to be extremely important. In the light of the current development of in-situ tests in geotechnics, an attempt to use results from these tests to predict the bed erosion rate was made. The analysis includes results from CPTU and DPL tests, which were carried out in the Warta River valley downstream the Jeziorsko reservoir. In the paper, the general diagrams for the procedure of obtaining and processing the data are shown. As a result, the author presents two multidimensional bed erosion rate models built based on hydraulic data and results from CPTU or DPL tests. These models allow taking more effective actions, leading to the neutralization of the effects of the intensive bed erosion process.

  2. Geotechnical evaluation of Turkish clay deposits: a case study in Northern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Ekrem; Bayraktutan, M. Salih

    2008-09-01

    Clay deposits in Oltu-Narman basins (Erzurum, northern Turkey) have been studied to determine their engineering properties and to evaluate their uses for geotechnical applications. These deposits are concentrated in two different stratigraphic horizons namely the Late Oligocene and the Early Miocene sequences. Clay-rich fine-grained sedimentary units are deposited in shallow marine and lagoonar mixed environments. Their clay minerals originated by the alteration of Eocene calc-alkaline island-arc volcanics, preferably from pyroclastics (trachite and andesite flow), which form the basement for the Oltu depression. Smectite group clay minerals are found abundant in clay deposits. The experimental results show that the clay soils have high plasticity behaviors and low hydraulic conductivity properties. The optimum water content, the free swell, and the swelling pressure of clay samples decreased and the maximum dry unit weight of clay samples increased under high temperature. Consequently, it is concluded that the expanding of clay soils is an important soil problem that cannot be avoided in the significant parts of Oltu city and its villages. However, the soils of clay-rich layers in the outcrops-section of clay deposits can be successfully used to build compacted clay liners for landfill systems and to construct vertical and horizontal barriers for protection of ground water and for preventing soil pollution in geotechnical applications.

  3. Near-surface characterization of a geotechnical site in north-east Missouri using shear-wave velocity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ismail, A.; Anderson, N.

    2007-01-01

    Shear-wave velocity (Vs) as a function of soil stiffness is an essential parameter in geotechnical characterization of the subsurface. In this study, multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) and downhole methods were used to map the shear-wave velocity-structure and depth to the bed-rock surface at a 125m ?? 125m geotechnical site in Missouri. The main objective was to assess the suitability of the site for constructing a large, heavy building. The acquired multichannel surface wave data were inverted to provide 1D shear-wave velocity profile corresponding to each shot gather. These 1D velocity profiles were interpolated and contoured to generate a suite of 2D shear-wave velocity sections. Integrating the shear-wave velocity data from the MASW method with the downhole velocity data and the available borehole lithologic information enabled us to map shear-wave velocity-structure to a depth on the order of 20m. The bedrock surface, which is dissected by a significant cut-and-fill valley, was imaged. The results suggest that the study site will require special consideration prior to construction. The results also demonstrate the successful use of MASW methods, when integrated with downhole velocity measurements and borehole lithologic information, in the characterization of the near surface at the geotechnical sites. ?? 2007 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  4. Geotechnical aspects of the January 2003 Tecoma'n, Mexico, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wartman, Joseph; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Macari, Emir J.; Deaton, Scott; Ramirez-Reynaga, Marti'n; Ochoa, Carlos N.; Callan, Sean; Keefer, David; Repetto, Pedro; Ovando-Shelley, Efrai'n

    2005-01-01

    Ground failure was the most prominent geotechnical engineering feature of the 21 January 2003 Mw 7.6 Tecoma´n earthquake. Ground failure impacted structures, industrial facilities, roads, water supply canals, and other critical infrastructure in the state of Colima and in parts of the neighboring states of Jalisco and Michoaca´n. Landslides and soil liquefaction were the most common type of ground failure, followed by seismic compression of unsaturated materials. Reinforced earth structures generally performed well during the earthquake, though some structures experienced permanent lateral deformations up to 10 cm. Different ground improvement techniques had been used to enhance the liquefaction resistance of several sites in the region, all of which performed well and exhibited no signs of damage or significant ground deformation. Earth dams in the region experienced some degree of permanent deformation but remained fully functional after the earthquake.

  5. [Geotechnical Board activities and funding]. [Annual] activites report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smeallie, P.H.

    1993-07-23

    The Geotechnical Board, a part of the US National Research Council, which is the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, serves to advise the federal government and others on issues where geotechnology can have an impact, such as environmental remediation and infrastructure development. The board met three times during the reporting period to review current projects and to initiate activities that move the knowledge base of geotechnology forward. The board operates with two long-standing national committees, the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics and the US National Committee on Tunneling Technology. It also conducts special studies at the request of the government. A list of attachments is given.

  6. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in hard rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquhar, O. C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air stoage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site were completed. The geotechnical aspects of these storage systems are discussed from a generic viewpoint. Information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design.

  7. Summary of geotechnical information in the Rattlesnake Mountain area

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, K.R.; Gephart, R.E.; Graham, D.L.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes the available geotechnical information from the Rattlesnake Mountain area, located along the southwestern boundary of the Hanford Site. The discussion emphasizes the geohydrologic environment of the anticlinal ridges in the vicinity of Rattlesnake Mountain. Included in the document is information concerning the stratigraphy, structure, geomorphology, seismology, climatology, and hydrology, as well as the resource potential of the Rattlesnake Mountain area. 77 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Geotechnical techniques for the construction of reactive barriers

    PubMed

    Day; O'Hannesin; Marsden

    1999-06-30

    One of the newest and most promising remediation techniques for the treatment of contaminated groundwater and soil is the reactive barrier wall (commonly known as PRB for permeable reactive barrier or reactive barrier). Although a variety of treatment media and strategies are available, the most common technique is to bury granular iron in a trench so that contaminated groundwater passes through the reactive materials, the contaminants are removed and the water becomes 'clean'. The principal advantages of the technique are the elimination of pumping, mass excavation, off-site disposal, and a very significant reduction in costs. The use of this technology is now becoming better known and implemented. Special construction considerations need to be made when planning the installation of reactive barriers or PRBs to ensure the design life of the installation and to be cost-effective. Geotechnical techniques such as slurry trenching, deep soil mixing, and grouting can be used to simplify and improve the installation of reactive materials relative to conventional trench and fill methods. These techniques make it possible to reduce the hazards to workers during installation, reduce waste and reduce costs for most installations. To date, most PRBs have been installed to shallow depths using construction methods such as open trenching and/or shored excavations. While these methods are usable, they are limited to shallow depths and more disruptive to the site's normal use. Geotechnical techniques are more quickly installed and less disruptive to site activities and thus more effective. Recently, laboratory studies and pilot projects have demonstrated that geotechnical techniques can be used successfully to install reactive barriers. This paper describes the factors that are important in designing a reactive barrier or PRB installation and discusses some of the potential problems and pitfalls that can be avoided with careful planning and the use of geotechnical techniques

  9. In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, B.E.; Timian, D.A.

    1995-06-02

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies. This document contains the records of cone penetrometer and dilatometer soundings for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) Geotechnical Report, Volume 3.

  10. In-tank precipitation facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies. This document (Volume 5) contains the laboratory test results for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) Geotechnical Report.

  11. Waste Isolation PIlot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists references.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the Geomechanical Monitoring Program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists the references and bibliography.

  13. Geotechnical characteristics of shallow ocean dredge spoil disposal mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Demars, K.R.; Dowling, J.J.; Long, R.P.; Morton, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna and flora in the water column. Because of the contaminated spoil, improvements in the disposal techniques are needed and methodologies must be developed for evaluating short-term and long-term stability of these shallow ocean deposits which are subjected to loadings from waves, spoil disposal and capping operations.

  14. Geotechnical Perspectives on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Francke, Chris T.; Hansen, Frank D.; Knowles, M. Kathyn; Patchet, Stanley J.; Rempe, Norbert T.

    1999-08-05

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first nuclear waste repository certified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Success in regulatory compliance resulted from an excellent natural setting for such a repository, a facility with multiple, redundant safety systems, and from a rigorous, transparent scientific and technical evaluation. The WIPP story, which has evolved over the past 25 years, has generated a library of publications and analyses. Details of the multifaceted program are contained in the cited references. Selected geotechnical highlights prove the eminent suitability of the WIPP to serve its congressionally mandated purpose.

  15. Geotechnical applications of remote sensing and remote data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ivan

    The International Symposium on Geotechnical Applications of Remote Sensing and Remote Data Transmission was held January 31, 1986, at Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was organized by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and the International Committee on Remote Sensing and Data Transmission (ICRSDT) of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. Cochairs for the symposium were Ivan Johnson of A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Arvada, Colo., and Bernt Pettersson of Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, Tex. Johnson is President of ICRSDT and Pettersson is Chairman of ASTM D18 Subcommittee on Surface and Subsurface Reconnaissance.

  16. Geotechnical characterization and construction methods for SSC tunnel excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.P.; Lundin, T.K. Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX )

    1990-06-01

    The site for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) facility was selected in 1988 after a nationwide proposal competition. The selected site is located in Ellis County, Texas, surrounding the town of Waxahachie which is about 30 miles (48 km) south of the City of Dallas central business district. This paper will describe the geotechnical conditions anticipated for excavation at the SSC site. A general geologic and geomechanical description of the rock present will be followed by a summary of the site-specific conceptual design for the tunneled components of the SSC machine. The Supercollider project will include about 70 miles (113) km of tunnel excavation.

  17. 10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...

  18. 10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...

  19. 10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...

  20. 10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...

  1. 10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...

  2. Geotechnical and geologic design considerations for a shelf mounted OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. S.; Smith, R. E.

    1984-04-01

    Topics relating to the siting of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility off the coast of Oahu, Hawaii are discussed. Anticipated site conditions which would affect information requirements; potential foundation schemes used to identify key geotechnical parameters; techniques available for exploration and site characterization; and geologic and geotechnical factors and uncertainties that may be associated with site exploration and design information are discussed.

  3. Geologic and geotechnical assessment RFETS Building 371, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Maryak, M.E.; Wyatt, D.E.; Bartlett, S.F.; Lewis, M.R.; Lee, R.C.

    1995-12-13

    This report describes the review and evaluation of the geological, geotechnical and geophysical data supporting the design basis analysis for the Rocky Flats Environmental Test Site (RFETS) Building 371. The primary purpose of the geologic and geotechnical reviews and assessments described herein are to assess the adequacy of the crustal and near surface rock and soil model used in the seismic analysis of Building 371. This review was requested by the RFETS Seismic Evaluation Program. The purpose was to determine the adequacy of data to support the design basis for Building 371, with respect to seismic loading. The objectives required to meet this goal were to: (1) review techniques used to gather data (2) review analysis and interpretations of the data; and (3) make recommendations to gather additional data if required. Where there were questions or inadequacies in data or interpretation, recommendations were made for new data that will support the design basis analysis and operation of Building 371. In addition, recommendations are provided for a geologic and geophysical assessment for a new facility at the Rocky Flats Site.

  4. Geotechnical properties of cemented sands in steep slopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation into the geotechnical properties specific to assessing the stability of weakly and moderately cemented sand cliffs is presented. A case study from eroding coastal cliffs located in central California provides both the data and impetus for this study. Herein, weakly cemented sand is defined as having an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of less than 100 kPa, and moderately cemented sand is defined as having UCS between 100 and 400 kPa. Testing shows that both materials fail in a brittle fashion and can be modeled effectively using linear Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters, although for weakly cemented sands, curvature of the failure envelope is more evident with decreasing friction and increasing cohesion at higher confinement. Triaxial tests performed to simulate the evolving stress state of an eroding cliff, using a reduction in confinement-type stress path, result in an order of magnitude decrease in strain at failure and a more brittle response. Tests aimed at examining the influence of wetting on steep slopes show that a 60% decrease in UCS, a 50% drop in cohesion, and 80% decrease in the tensile strength occurs in moderately cemented sand upon introduction to water. In weakly cemented sands, all compressive, cohesive, and tensile strength is lost upon wetting and saturation. The results indicate that particular attention must be given to the relative level of cementation, the effects of groundwater or surficial seepage, and the small-scale strain response when performing geotechnical slope stability analyses on these materials. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  5. Geotechnical and mineralogical characteristics of marl deposits in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqour, Fathi M.; Jarrar, Ghaleb; Hencher, Steve; Kuisi, Mostafa

    2008-10-01

    Marls and marly limestone deposits cover most of Northern Jordan, where Amman City and its suburbs are located. These deposits serve as foundations for most buildings and roads as well as fill material for structural back filling, especially road bases and sub-bases. The present study aims at investigating the geotechnical characteristics and mineral composition of the marl units of these deposits through field investigations and laboratory testing. Using X-ray diffraction technique along with chemical analysis, representative samples of marl horizons were tested for mineral composition, and for a set of index and geotechnical properties including: specific gravity, grain size, Atterberg limits, Proctor compaction and shear strength properties. The test results show a positive linear relationship as expected between the clay content and both liquid and plastic limits. The tests results also show an inverse linear relationship between the clay content and the maximum dry density in both standard and modified compaction. This is attributed to the adsorption of water by the clay minerals. The relationship is more prominent in the case of modified compaction test. The results also indicate a similar relationship for the angle of internal friction. No clear correlation between cohesion and clay content was apparent.

  6. Constitutive models for static and dynamic response of geotechnical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemat-Nasser, S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of this research program has been to develop realistic macroscopic constitutive relations which describe static and dynamic properties of geotechnical materials (soils and rocks). To this end a coordinated theoretical and experimental activity has been followed. The theoretical work includes a balanced combination of statistical microscopic (at the grain size level) modeling and a nonclassical elasto-plastic macroscopic formulation. The latter includes the effects of internal friction, plastic compressibility, and pressure sensitivity, as well as anisotropy which is commonly observed in geotechnical materials. The following specific goals have been sought: (1) to develop three-dimensional constitutive relations under ordinary or high pressures (such as those induced by blasting or tectonic forces which may cause a large amount of densification by relative motion and possible crushing of grains); and (2) to examine and characterize the behavior of saturated granular materials under dynamic loading. The latter item includes characterization of possible liquefaction and subsidence which may be induced in granular materials under confining pressure by ground vibration or passage of waves. The theoretical work has been carefully coordinated with key experiments in order to: (1) understand the basic physics of the process, both at macroscopic and microscopic levels; (2) to verify the corresponding theoretical predictions; and (3) to establish relevant material parameters.

  7. Mini-review of the geotechnical parameters of municipal solid waste: Mechanical and biological pre-treated versus raw untreated waste.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters. However, under the assumption that 'waste is waste', some design engineers might be tempted to use geotechnical parameters of untreated raw municipal solid waste and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste interchangeably. Therefore, to provide guidelines for use and to provide an aggregated source of this information, this mini-review provides comparisons of geotechnical parameters of mechanical and biological pre-treated waste and raw untreated waste at various decomposition stages. This comparison reveals reasonable correlations between the hydraulic conductivity values of untreated and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste. It is recognised that particle size might have a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity of both municipal solid waste types. However, the compression ratios and shear strengths of untreated and pre-treated municipal solid waste do not show such strong correlations. Furthermore, another emerging topic that requires appropriate attention is the recovery of resources that are embedded in old landfills. Therefore, the presented results provide a valuable tool for engineers designing landfills for mechanical and biological pre-treated waste or bioreactor landfills for untreated raw

  8. Digital geospatial presentation of geoelectrical and geotechnical data for the lower American River and flood plain, east Sacramento, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.

  9. Integrated Geophysical and Geotechnical Investigation of the Failed Portion of a Road in Basement Complex Terrain, Southwest Nigeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, O. O.; Oladunjoye, M. A.; Olayinka, A. I.

    2008-05-01

    plastic limit index gave values in the range of 24.0 - 48.5%, 2.1 - 12.9%, 7.5 - 27.4% respectively. The plot of the elevation values from Global Positioning System (GPS) readings gave a 3D topographical model of the area and shows the failed portion to be topographically depressed, lower in elevation than the surrounding stable portion. This study implies that integrated geophysical and geotechnical investigation offer very useful approach for characterizing near surface earth and thus can help in preparation before engineering structures are found on same.

  10. Correlations between the in situ acoustic properties and geotechnical parameters of sediments in the Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baohua; Han, Tongcheng; Kan, Guangming; Li, Guanbao

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge about the marine sediment acoustic properties is a key to understanding wave propagation in sediments and is very important for military oceanography and ocean engineering. We developed a hydraulic-drived self-contained in situ sediment acoustic measurement system, and measured for the first time the in situ acoustic properties of sediments on 78 stations in the Yellow Sea, China, by employing this system. The relationships between the in situ measured acoustic properties and the onboard or laboratory determined geotechnical parameters were analyzed. Porosity was found to be the dominant factor in reducing velocity in a quadratic fashion; velocity showed an increment with bulk density and a decrement with mean grain size and clay content both with a nonlinear dependence; acoustic attenuation showed a bell-shaped correlation with porosity and mean grain size but reduced with clay content of the sediments. The attenuation results indicate that intergrain friction rather than viscous interactions between pore fluid and solid grains is the dominant loss mechanism in our marine sediments. The relationships established would be used to predict the geotechnical parameters from in situ measured acoustic properties and vice versa, as well as being an indicator of the seafloor processes, potential gas bubbles hazard and gas hydrates resources or other suitable targets of acoustic surveys.

  11. Integration of geodetic and geotechnical deformation surveys in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Adam; Chen, Yongqi; Romero, Pablo; Secord, James M.

    1986-11-01

    Ground movement studies can utilize information from conventional geodetic surveying, photogrammetry, and geotechnical measurements of strain, tilt, etc. Each method alone cannot yield a complete picture of the deformation. However, each is complemented by the others. Hence, their integration in a simultaneous analysis in space and in time is advocated. An integrated analysis is readily accommodated by a generalized method of deformation analysis devised by the authors. Any number of measurements of any type can be considered in any fashion of modelling with full statistical assessment of the modelling and of derived characteristics. Such an integration is illustrated using data from a coal mining area in rugged mountainous terrain of western Canada. Conventional terrestrial geodetic methods connected 15 stations. Displacements from an additional 29 points were obtained from aerial photogrammetry. Biaxial tiltmeters continuously measured ground tilts at 3 stations. A surface of subsidence for the whole area was modelled with the graphical depiction in three dimensions.

  12. Project-based learning in Geotechnics: cooperative versus collaborative teamwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different characteristics of the models using cooperative or collaborative teamwork are pointed out and analysed, namely in terms of the students' perceptions. The data collected include informal feedback from students, monitoring of their marks and academic performance, and answers to two sets of questionnaires: developed for these courses, and institutional. The data indicate students have good opinion of the project-based learning model, though collaborative teamwork is the best rated. The overall efficacy of the models was analysed (sum of their effectiveness, efficiency and attractiveness). The collaborative model was found more adequate.

  13. Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.; McTigue, D.F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

  14. Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F.

    1995-05-01

    Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

  15. Problem analysis of geotechnical well drilling in complex environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenov, A. K.; Biletskiy, M. T.; Ratov, B. T.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    The article examines primary causes of problems occurring during the drilling of geotechnical wells (injection, production and monitoring wells) for in-situ leaching to extract uranium in South Kazakhstan. Such a drilling problem as hole caving which is basically caused by various chemical and physical factors (hydraulic, mechanical, etc.) has been thoroughly investigated. The analysis of packing causes has revealed that this problem usually occurs because of insufficient amount of drilling mud being associated with small cross section downward flow and relatively large cross section upward flow. This is explained by the fact that when spear bores are used to drill clay rocks, cutting size is usually rather big and there is a risk for clay particles to coagulate.

  16. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  17. Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Soils from in-situ Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Młynarek, Zbigniew; Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Wierzbicki, Jędrzej

    2012-10-01

    The article concentrates on the identification of geotechnical parameters of alluvial soil represented by silts found near Poznan and Elblag. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (static penetration) and SDMT (dilatometric) methods, as well as by the vane test (VT). Geotechnical parameters of the subsoil were analysed with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. The article includes an analysis of the overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 9 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne's formula (1995) was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefullness of the sediments found near Poznan as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterised by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition (Fig. 18 and 19). On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  18. Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Soils from in-situ Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Młynarek, Zbigniew; Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Wierzbicki, Jedrzej

    2012-10-01

    The article concentrates on the identification of geotechnical parameters of alluvial soil represented by silts found near Poznan and Elblag. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (static penetration) and SDMT (dilatometric) methods, as well as by the vane test (VT). Geotechnical parameters of the subsoil were analysed with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. The article includes an analysis of the overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 9 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne's formula (1995) was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefullness of the sediments found near Poznan as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterised by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition (Fig. 18 and 19). On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  19. Geotechnical characteristics and slope stability in the Gulf of Cadiz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.; Baraza, J.

    1999-01-01

    Sedimentological and geotechnical analyses of thirty-seven core samples from the Gulf of Cadiz continental margin were used to define the regional variability of sediment properties and to assess slope stability. Considering the sediment property data set as a whole, there is an association between grain size, plasticity and water content. Any one of these properties can be mapped regionally to provide an indication of the dominant surface sediment lithology. Based on static sediment strength, a simplified slope stability analysis showed that only steep slopes (> 16??for even the most vulnerable sediment) can fail under static loading conditions. Accordingly, transient loads, such as earthquakes or storms, are needed to cause failure on more moderate slopes. A regional seismic slope stability analysis of the Cadiz margin was performed based on detailed geotechnical testing of four gravity core samples. The results showed that the stability of these slopes under seismic loading conditions depends upon sediment density, the cyclic loading shear strength, the slope steepness, and the regional seismicity. Sediment density and cyclic loading shear strength are dependent upon water content, which can act as a proxy for plasticity and texture effects. Specifically, Sediment in the water content range of 50-56% is most vulnerable to failure under cyclic loading within the Cadiz margin. As a result, for a uniform seismicity over the region, susceptibility to failure during seismic loading conditions increases with increasing slope steepness and is higher if the sediment water content is in the 50-56% range than if it is not. The only sampled zone of failure on the continental slope contains sediment with water content in this critical range. Storm-wave-induced instability was evaluated for the continental shelf. The evaluation showed that a storm having hundreds of waves with a height in the range of 16 m might be capable of causing failure on the shelf. However, no

  20. Engineering Geocryological Mapping for Construction in the Permafrost Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, Felix; Kuznetsova, Irina; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Suhodolsky, Sergey

    Results of compiling a digital engineering geological and engineering geocryological maps at all stages of a geotechnical survey for construction are presented. The technique has been used for the engineering survey along the main pipelines in the northern regions of European Russia and Western Siberia and in the mountain regions of Transbaikalia, Eastern Siberia, and the Far East.

  1. Remote sensing techniques of geospatial geotechnical site characterization applied to competence studies of mine tailings impoundments and slope stability investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuer, Wilhelm Max-Otto

    2006-04-01

    The research presented in this dissertation suggests methods of deriving critical engineering properties of soils from appropriate high altitude spectral data, or imagery. Soil interaction with ambient or applied electromagnetic radiation results in spatially varying degrees of reflection and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. Soil properties govern the band-specific interaction of the soil with the applied electromagnetic radiation, visually resulting in a soil's colour and brightness. The visual appearance, or cumulative interaction of the soil with each applied band of electromagnetic radiation, is recorded by cameras mounted on a remote sensing platform. From the resulting imagery, representing the soil's reflection/absorption intensity, key dielectric soil properties are calculated. Dielectric properties govern the soil's reflection and absorption intensities. In turn, dielectric properties are governed by the soil's structure and composition and are indicative of the soil's principal geotechnical properties. Dielectric properties of soil are the tie connection between the engineering properties of soil and geospatial data provided as imagery. This provides a fast, simple, inexpensive, and comprehensive geotechnical site assessment, performed by a single user in a GIS system, with soil spectral data as the principal input. Included with the image-extracted soil properties are principal slope engineering parameters. Using GIS and the prescribed series of computations, image-extracted geospatial data sets representing these key properties are applied to an area-wide modification of a common slope stability analysis method, resulting in a map illustrating the risk of slope failures throughout the area encompassed by imagery. This method is the skeleton of a possible automated satellite-based forecasting and warning system against landslides. In addition to the presented slope stability investigation, ground moisture surveys are also applied to competence

  2. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories: Annual report, fiscal year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises 11 reports in two major interrelated tasks: The technical assistance part of the project includes reviewing the progress of the major projects in the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive waste Management (OCRWM) Program and advising the Engineering and Geotechnology Division on significant technical issues facing each project; analyzing geotechnical data, reports, tests, surveys and plans for the different projects; reviewing and commenting on major technical reports and other program documents such as Site Characterization Plans (SCP) and Study Plans; and providing scientific and technical input at technical meetings. The topical studies activity comprises studies on scientific and technical ions and issues of significance to in-situ testing, test analysis methods, and site characterization of nuclear waste geologic repositories. The subjects of study were selected based on discussions with DOE staff. One minor topic is a preliminary consideration and planning exercise for postclosure monitoring studies. The major task, with subtasks involving various geoscience disciplines, is a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses.

  3. Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A.; Kessel, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones.

  4. Development of AN Open-Source Automatic Deformation Monitoring System for Geodetical and Geotechnical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, P.; Schweimler, B.

    2016-04-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  5. Shallow subsurface structures and geotechnical characteristics of Tal El-Amarna area, middle Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toni, Mostafa; Hosny, Ahmed; Attia, Mohsen M.; Hassoup, Awad; El-Sharkawy, Amr

    2013-12-01

    The shallow seismic refraction profiling was carried out at 18 sites in Tal El-Amarna, which is a flat area on the eastern bank of the Nile River, 50 km south of El Minia Governorate, middle Egypt. The collected data are used to estimate the P-wave velocity and to delineate the near-surface ground model beneath the study area. This study is supported by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics due to the historical interest of the Tal El-Amarna area as a famous tourist place where there exist many Pharaoh temples and tombs. This area is low seismically active, but it is probably of high vulnerability due to the influence of the local geological conditions on earthquake ground motion, as well as the presence of poor constructions in the absence of various issues such as building designs, quality of building materials, etc. Another dataset at the study area is obtained by multi-channel passive source (microtremor) measurements, which have been recorded at four arrays. The frequency-wavenumber (f-k) method was used to derive the dispersion curves from the raw signals at each array. The resulted dispersion curves were inverted using the neighborhood algorithm to obtain the shear and P-wave velocity models. The concluded Vs and Vp values provide a preliminary estimation of the geotechnical parameters and site classification for the shallow soil as they are of great interest in civil engineering applications.

  6. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  7. Aquabeads to model the geotechnical behavior of natural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabe, Kazunori

    Use of transparent synthetic soils to visualize flow and deformation problems has been recently developed. This study proposes a new water-based transparent aquabeads suitable for modeling the geotechnical properties of natural soils. A comprehensive study of the geotechnical properties of several types of Aquabeads, including permeability, compressibility, and yield stress were performed in order to understand the feasibility of deformation and flow modeling using transparent Aquabeads. The geotechnical properties of Aquabeads were similar to those of sands & silts in permeability, with hydraulic conductivity in the 10-2 to 10-5 cm/sec range, and very soft clay in compressibility and yield stress. Soil-structure interaction beneath a reinforced soil foundation was studied to illustrate the beneficial use of Aquabeads in research studies. The bearing capacity of a foundation on a model made of Aquabeads was observed to increases with the presence of geogrid. The results are similar to behavior observed for natural soils. There is an optimum number of the geogrid layers which is 3 for the bearing capacity improvement of Aquabeads. The optimal geogrid layer length for bearing capacity improvement was found to be form the width of the footing. The maximum benefit of geogrid-reinforcement was achievd when the geogrid depth is 0.75 of the footing width. The maximum benefit of geogrid-reinforcement was achieved when the geogrid vertical spacing is set to 0.7B. It is conducted that Aquabeads is suitable for simulating deformation problem in very weak soils. The feasibility of using Aquabeads to visualize geoenvironmental contamination problems was also investigated in this study. Surfactant flushing tests were conducted using a layered soil system and two contaminants, mineral oil and motor oil. Several surfactants were investigated using phase behavior tests, and Triton X-100 was selected. For Mineral oil, the optimal surfactant solution consisted of 0.025% Triton X-100

  8. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  9. Effects of leachate on geotechnical characteristics of sandy clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, N. S.; Ali, Z. Rahman; Rahim, A. S.; Lihan, T.; Idris, R. M. W.

    2013-11-01

    Leachate is a hazardous liquid that poses negative impacts if leaks out into environments such as soil and ground water systems. The impact of leachate on the downgraded quality in terms of chemical characteristic is more concern rather than the physical or mechanical aspect. The effect of leachate on mechanical behaviour of contaminated soil is not well established and should be investigated. This paper presents the preliminary results of the effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit, compaction and shear strength of leachate-contaminated soil. The contaminated soil samples were prepared by mixing the leachate at ratiosbetween 0% and 20% leachate contents with soil samples. Base soil used was residual soil originated from granitic rock and classified as sandy clay soil (CS). Its specific gravity ranged between 2.5 and 2.64 with clay minerals of kaolinite, muscovite and quartz. The field strength of the studied soil ranged between 156 and 207 kN/m2. The effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit clearly indicated by the decrease in liquid and plastic limit values with the increase in the leachate content. Compaction tests on leachate-contaminated soil caused the dropped in maximum dry density, ρdry and increased in optimum moisture content, wopt when the amount of leachate was increased between 0% and 20%. The results suggested that leachate contamination capable to modify some geotechnical properties of the studied residual soils.

  10. Some Basic Considerations about the Necessities and Possibilities of Cooperation between Civil Engineers and Engineering Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzenbach, Rolf; Bachmann, Gregor

    The education of civil engineers and engineering geologists is different. While civil engineers are commonly educated and trained in mathematical and mechanical based sciences as statics, geotechnics, structural engineering etc. the education of engineering geologists is mainly based on natural science, added with some engineering courses. Nevertheless, the careers of both have in spite of their different priorities and capabilities - which all are necessary in complex building projects - several points of contact. Especially during the construction of tunnels, the cooperation of civil engineers and engineering geologists is important. For example the inhomogeneous rock and groundwater conditions have decisive importance for the bearing and deformation behaviour of those constructions. Therefore a detailed investigation program and a qualified geotechnical and geological interpretation and modelling is necessary. The typical field of a civil engineer is the examination of the structural stability (Ultimate Limit State - ULS) and the serviceability (Serviceability Limit State - SLS) of the construction due to Euro-Code (especially EC 1 and EC 7) and the corresponding national technical standards (codes, recommendations, guidelines etc.). A main activity of an engineering geologist is the assessment of the natural circumstances. The cooperation of both professions is settled in the valuation of the subsoil conditions before and during the construction process. The cooperation of engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers lies in the assessment of the subsoil conditions before and during the construction process of ambitious projects with special regard to the bearing and deformation behaviour which is highly influenced by the inhomogeneity and the variance of the subsoil conditions.

  11. Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasana, Andrej; Minárik, Marian; Nikolaj, Maroš

    2015-03-01

    Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the 39 dam constructions, we specified their problems and the concomitant consequences of the problems. Geotechnical risk factors and specific risks that determine the safety of water constructions were characterized. The analysis confirmed the importance of an engineer-geological and geotechnical checkup in the process of preparation and building (alternatively, during reconstructions and sanitation work) of such water constructions and also the importance of monitoring in the process of dam usage. Technical and safety checkups were also shown to be important when analyzing risk factors. The conclusions of the knowledge gained and the recommendations for the practice deal with recommendations to change the flow policy, develop a

  12. In Situ Sensing Guided Geotechnical Modelling of Subglacial Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, A.; Brain, M.; Hart, J. K.; Roberts, D.; Martinez, K.; Rosser, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Data collected by in situ subglacial probes has been used to guide a series of geotechnical tests on till. The testing provides an opportunity to develop a process-based understanding of movement patterns observed in the subglacial environment. The probes were deployed by the Glacsweb project at Skalafellsjökull, Iceland, in 2008 and 2012. They were emplaced in till below 80 m of ice and recorded a number of variables including pore pressure, case stress, movement and conductivity. During the winter of 2008-2009 cyclic pressure changes were recorded in the till. Repeated pore pressure increases of up to 20% occurred over a variable period of one to eight weeks. Each rise was followed by a sharp drop in pore pressure lasting up to a few days. A back pressure shear box was used to replicate the pore pressure changes whilst maintaining a constant horizontal shear stress and normal total stress to examine effects on deformation and strain rate. Till was collected for testing from the ice margin close to the probes in 2012 and remoulded for use in the back pressure shear box. General characterisation of the till was performed to benchmark it against previous work and then a series of pore pressure re-inflation tests were undertaken. These approximated the pore pressure variations observed in the field by linearly increasing pore pressure and so decreasing normal effective stress. The till displayed dilatancy-induced episodic increases in strain rate. These were regulated by consolidation that increased shear strength and so reduced strain rate. Strain rate variations were similar to ice velocity variations recorded by differential GPS deployed on the ice surface above the probes.

  13. The STRATAFORM Project: U.S. Geological Survey geotechnical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minasian, Diane L.; Lee, Homa J.; Locat, Jaques; Orzech, Kevin M.; Martz, Gregory R.; Israel, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    This report presents physical property logs of core samples from an offshore area near Eureka, CA. The cores were obtained as part of the STRATAFORM Program (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995, 1996), a study investigating how present sedimentation and sediment transport processes influence long-term stratigraphic sequences preserved in the geologic record. The core samples were collected during four separate research cruises to the northern California study area, and data shown in the logs of the cores were collected using a multi-sensor whole core logger. The physical properties collected are useful in identifying stratigraphic units, ground-truthing acoustic imagery and sub-bottom profiles, and in understanding mass movement processes. STRATA FORmation on Margins was initiated in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research, Marine Geology and Geophysics Department as a coordinated multi-investigator study of continental-margin sediment transport processes and stratigraphy (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1996). The program is investigating the stratigraphic signature of the shelf and slope parts of the continental margins, and is designed to provide a better understanding of the sedimentary record and a better prediction of strata. Specifically, the goals of the STRATAFORM Program are to (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995): - determine the geological relevance of short-term physical processes that erode, transport, and deposit particles and those processes that subsequently rework the seabed over time scales - improve capabilities for identifying the processes that form the strata observed within the upper ~100 m of the seabed commonly representing 104-106 years of sedimentation. - synthesize this knowledge and bridge the gap between time scales of sedimentary processes and those of sequence stratigraphy. The STRATAFORM Program is divided into studies of the continental shelf and the continental slope; the geotechnical group within the U.S. Geological Survey provides support to both parts

  14. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  15. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  16. Determining the geotechnical properties of planetary regolith using Low Velocity Penetrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seweryn, K.; Skocki, K.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Kolano, M.; Kuciński, T.; Mazurek, J.; Morawski, M.; Białek, A.; Rickman, H.; Wawrzaszek, R.

    2014-09-01

    Measurements of mechanical and thermophysical properties of planetary surface allow determining many important parameters useful for planetologists. For example, effective heat conductivity or thermal inertia of the regolith can help to better understand the processes occurring in the bodies interior. Chemical and mineralogical composition gives us a chance to determine the origin and evolution of moons and satellites. Mechanical properties of the surface are one of the key factors needed by civil engineers for developing future bases on space bodies. Space missions to planetary bodies highly restrict the payload concerning its mass and power consumption. Therefore, it is quite impossible to use a standard terrestrial technique like the Load Plate Test or Direct Shear Tests to determine the geotechnical parameters of the planetary regolith. Even the Dynamic Cone Penetration (DCP) method, which is frequently used for field testing, does not fit well with the constraints imposed by a space mission. Nevertheless, its operation principle is very similar to that of at the Low Velocity Penetrators (LVP), several of them being currently on their way to planetary bodies (e.g. the MUPUS instrument) or which were developed in the last couple of years (e.g. the CHOMIK instrument or the KRET device). In this paper we present a comparison between DCP method and LVP operation which was observed during several tests campaigns during mole KRET and CHOMIK instrument development. The tests were performed in different planetary analogues: JSC-1A, Chenobi and AGK-2010, Phobos analogue, cometary analogues F1, F2 and F3 (SRC) and dry quartz sand. In the last part of the paper the concept of results' interpretation is presented.

  17. Geotechnical field data and analysis report, July 1991--June 1992. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report presents the data for the assessments of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the period of shaft sinking and construction of the principal underground access and experimental areas, reporting was on a quarterly basis. Since 1987, reporting has been carried out annually because excavation of the waste storage panels will take place more slowly and over an extended period. This report presents the data collected up to June 30, 1992. This report focuses on the presentation of geotechnical data from the various underground facilities including the shafts, shaft stations, access drifts, test rooms, and waste storage areas. It also describes the techniques used to acquire the data and the performance history of the instruments.

  18. Distributed fiber optic sensor development, testing, and evaluation for geotechnical monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iten, Michael; Hauswirth, Dominik; Puzrin, Alexander M.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, an overview of optical sensor development, testing and evaluation for several geotechnical monitoring applications is presented. Additionally, sensor integration and data interpretation are addressed as key influences to the overall success of the monitoring project. They should be taken into consideration already in the design stage. Particular focus is given on strain sensor development to minimize the slippage of the fiber inside the protection. For the first time, slippage progression monitoring by high spatially resolved Brillouin measurements is presented as a new tool for sensor testing and evaluation for geotechnical projects. The main findings of the study are that in a geotechnical monitoring project, special care has to be taken by choosing the sensor slippage properties, longitudinal stiffness and robustness, as well as in the design of the sensor system itself (fixation, gauge length and bond strength). With appropriate alignment of these factors, reasonable monitoring data can be obtained, as shown in the applications proposed in this manuscript.

  19. Geotechnical Trainspotting: Early Observations From the New Seattle Liquefaction Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, P.; Yelin, T.; Weaver, C. S.; Steidl, J. H.; Steller, R. A.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Seattle Liquefaction Array (SLA) is a geotechnical monitoring array established by the US Geological Survey earlier this year in industrialized Seattle, Washington. Funding for the array was provided by the Advanced National Seismic System, at the behest of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network's regional advisory committee. The SLA aims to further the understanding of earthquake-induced liquefaction, particularly the processes associated with repeatedly liquefied soils and the liquefaction of deeply buried deposits. The SLA occupies a site at which shaking-induced liquefaction was observed during earthquakes in 1949, 1965, and 2001. The SLA site is seismically noisy but important as it is similar to sites that host many structures in Seattle. The site is comprised chiefly by loose-to-dense interbedded coastal and river outwash sands. Instrumentation at the site includes four 3-component accelerometers at the surface and at depths of 5.4, 44.9, and 56.4 meters, a surface barometer, and six piezometers at depths of 6.9, 22.9, 28.9, 43.1, 46.9, and 51.9 meters. Emplacement depths were selected to sample a variety of liquefaction susceptibilities. Continuous data from all sensors are sampled at 200 samples per second, and are available from the IRIS DMC archive, with a buffer of data stored on site in the event of telemetry failure. To date, only a handful of earthquakes have produced shaking strong enough at the SLA to be observed within the high levels of background noise. However, the noise itself provides data useful to constrain the low-strain seismic and pressure response of the site. Notably, the array is within a few meters of a set of busy railroad tracks. Passing and parked trains expose the site to a broad bandwidth of deformations, including seismic frequencies, albeit with a source at the surface. Many times each day the site experiences both high levels of shaking, and step changes in the pressure field of a variety of amplitudes that may last from

  20. Arra-Funded Geotechnical Characterization of Seismographic Station Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, W. S.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K. H.; Diehl, J.; Martin, A. J.; Jack, S.

    2010-12-01

    Through the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the USGS allocated funding to help support research capabilities, as well as improve and upgrade facilities in the bureau. As part of this effort, the USGS contracted a consortium consisting of principals from academia and commerce to perform geotechnical site characterization at 189 seismographic station sites—185 in California and four in the central U.S. In this pilot project of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), site characterizations will be conducted at: 130 Southern California Seismographic Network (SCSN), 25 California Geological Survey (CGS), 30 Northern California Seismographic Network (NCSN), and four Central U.S. (CEUS) sites. Each site investigation, involving passive and active surface-wave techniques, includes one or more of established approaches such as the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), 2-D array microtremor, 1-D refraction microtremor (ReMi), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), and multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) methods. From this multi-method approach, we determine Vs (shear-wave velocity) profiles and the calculated Vs30 (the average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth) for each site. In general, preliminary results based on field reports indicate observed records match expected values for surficial geologic conditions. Unexpected results are typically attributable to inaccurate or coarse map information and alternative explanations are verified through interpretations of local geologic structure observed during field investigations. For example, we find map-based geology to be consistent with observed records at the SCSN station CI.PLS, but not the case for CI.CWC, where inaccurate map information are at odds with our recorded velocities. At station CI.TIN (near edge of basalt outcrop) and NCSN station NC.MMLB (on rhyolite outcrop), the records observed in the shallow surface do not match expected rock values. Our pilot

  1. TBV-322/TBD-325 RESOLUTION ANALYSIS: GEOTECHNICAL ROCK PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Mrugala

    1999-09-13

    The process of underground excavation design is being performed in several phases to satisfy the requirements of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These phases were conceptualized to satisfy increasingly focused requirements as the YMP progresses and more detailed site characterization data are acquired. At the time that initial design analyses were prepared, the rock mass parameters were derived from the exploratory core drillings, and as such their values were considered preliminary. Field evidence was needed to verify the magnitudes of these parameters. According to the respective YMP procedures, incomplete data that require further verification are flagged by the TBV (To Be Verified) designation and data that are not available are flagged by the TBD (To Be Determined) designation. Field mapping activities performed during the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Loop (i.e., the North Ramp, Main Drift, and South Ramp) tunnel excavation resulted in accumulation of the field data that enlarge and complement the initial, core-derived rock property database. To date, a number of the ESF design confirmation analyses have been completed in a form of topical reports. These reports were prepared to satisfy the requirements of 10 CFR 60.141, ''Confirmation of Geotechnical and Design Parameters''. The design confirmation analyses are documentary in nature and provide a detailed account of the origin and derivation of rock mass parameters. The successive enlargement of the initial, core-derived rock property database created the need for development of meaningful procedures for data interpretation. In effect, each rock parameter has been represented by several values ranging in magnitudes. In a subsequent analysis (CRWMS M&O 1998a) the data were evaluated for consistency. The values of rock property data included in the topical analyses summarize both the initial core-derived and the field-obtained rock property data. Evaluation and verification of the

  2. Gas hydrates - new source of energy and new Geotechnical hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistyakov, V.

    2012-04-01

    regional and even global. Obviously, in the future, much greater dangers should be taken into consideration in many territories and a strong respect for them has to become a new priority in many activities including Geoetics. Key words: Gas hydrates, Geoethical, geotechnical, hazard, methane.

  3. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  4. A PRACTICAL GEOTECHNICAL RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN EMPLOYING RESPONSE SURFACE -SESIMIC DESIGN OF IRRIGATION CHANNEL ON LIQUEFIABLE GROUND-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Yu; Honjo, Yusuke

    The paper proposes a simple and yet practical reliability based design (RBD) scheme which takes into account the characteristics of geotechnical design. The proposed scheme evaluates the reliability by basically separating the geotechnical analysis and the uncertainty analysis, and reuniting them by the response surface (RS) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). As a result, RBD can be easily done making the best use of geotechnical analysis tool newly developed. The philosophy and procedures of the scheme are presented through a real and complex geotechnical structure design, i.e. seismic design of 12 km long irrigation channel against liquefaction. Through this design example, merits of the geotechnical RBD are shown, such as amount and quality of investigation data on the reliability evaluation, major sources of uncertainties in RBD, and suggestions for priority of countermeasure locations and additional investigations.

  5. Geotechnical applications of LiDAR pertaining to geomechanical evaluation and hazard identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lato, Matthew J.

    respect to numerous engineering projects that are affected by geomechanical stability issues. The ability to efficiently and accurately map discontinuities, detect changes, and standardize roadside geomechanical stability analyses from remote locations will fundamentally change the state-of-practice of geotechnical investigation workflows and repeatable monitoring. This, in turn, will lead to earlier detection and definition of potential zones of instability, will allow for progressive monitoring and risk analysis, and will indicate the need for pro-active slope improvement and stabilization.

  6. In-tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies.

  7. Atlantic Margin Coring Project 1976: preliminary report on shipboard and some laboratory geotechnical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Adrian F.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents reduced shipboard geotechnical data collected during the 1976 Atlantic Margin Coring Project; results of laboratory tests of specific gravity, water content, bulk density, and Atterberg limits; and sedimentation-compression e log p curves showing consolidation. A description of the procedures used at sea and in the laboratory and a short preliminary summary of the shipboard results also is included.

  8. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  9. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  10. Underground geotechnical and geological investigations at Ekati Mine-Koala North: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav; Long, Larry; Nowicki, Tom; Dyck, Darren

    2004-09-01

    Since 1998, BHP Billiton has mined diamonds at the Ekati Diamond Mine™ near Lac de Gras in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Current operations are based on mining multiple pipes by the open-pit method, but as some pits deepen, converting to underground mining is being considered. As a test of underground mining methods and to provide access to the lower elevations of the Panda and Koala pipes, the Koala North pipe is being developed for underground mining. Initially, the top 40 m of the pipe were mined as an open pit to provide grade information and a prepared surface for the transition to underground mining. Currently, Koala North is being developed as an open-benching, mechanized, trackless operation. Although the method was successfully used at several De Beers diamond operations in South Africa, it has never been tested in an Arctic environment. This case study describes basic geology, mining method layout and ongoing geological and geotechnical investigation. From the beginning of underground development, geotechnical daily routines have been fully integrated within the technical services department, which supports the operation. Geotechnical, geological and structural information obtained from underground mapping and core logging is compiled, processed, reviewed and analyzed on site by the geotechnical staff. Conclusions and recommendations are implemented as part of the operations in a timely manner. This ongoing "live" process enables the operators to make the most efficient use of resources both for ground support and excavations as well as to address safety issues, which are the top priority.

  11. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  12. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  13. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  14. Geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fill incorporating waste foundry sand.

    PubMed

    Deng, An; Tikalsky, Paul J

    2008-11-01

    Waste foundry sand (WFS) can be converted into flowable fill for geotechnical applications. In this study, WFS samples were obtained from 17 independent metal casting facilities with different casting processes, thus representing a good range of WFS properties. The laboratory studies include physical, geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fills consisting of WFS, cement, and fly ash mixed to different water contents. The main properties measured include WFS physical properties (density, particle gradation, grain shape, and fine content), WFS flowable fill geotechnical properties (unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, setting time, and bleeding), and the fill's leaching properties (heavy metals and organics in the bleed water and the leachate extracted from hardened WFS flowable fills). The test results indicate that in terms of the physical properties, most of the data fall within narrow ranges, although data from the copper/aluminum-based WFS samples might fall beyond the ranges. Geotechnical properties of WFS flowable fills in both fresh and hardened phases were verified conforming to the features of specified flowable fills. Material leaching analyses indicate that the toxicity of WFS flowable fills is below regulated criteria. A mix formulation range originated from this study is proposed for the design of WFS made flowable fill. PMID:18082390

  15. GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS OF BOTTOM SEALING EXISTING HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS BY INJECTION GROUTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary results are given of compatibility testing for various grouts with selected hazardous wastes. The testing is a part of an ongoing project to determine the geotechnical feasibility of utilizing selected grouts and state-of-the-art techniques in the bottom sealing of ex...

  16. Physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling: geotechnical testing and model evaluation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We used the software r.slope.stability for physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling in the 90 km² Collazzone area, Central Italy, exploiting a comprehensive set of lithological, geotechnical, and landslide inventory data. The model results were evaluated against the inventory. r.slope.stability is a GIS-supported tool for modelling shallow and deep-seated slope stability and slope failure probability at comparatively broad scales. Developed as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software, r.slope.stability evaluates the slope stability for a large number of randomly selected ellipsoidal potential sliding surfaces. The bottom of the soil (for shallow slope stability) or the bedding planes of lithological layers (for deep-seated slope stability) are taken as potential sliding surfaces by truncating the ellipsoids, allowing for the analysis of relatively complex geological structures. To take account for the uncertain geotechnical and geometric parameters, r.slope.stability computes the slope failure probability by testing multiple parameter combinations sampled deterministically or stochastically, and evaluating the ratio between the number of parameter combinations yielding a factor of safety below 1 and the total number of tested combinations. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a slope failure probability. The most critical sliding surface is relevant for each pixel. Intensive use of r.slope.stability in the Collazzone Area has opened up two questions elaborated in the present work: (i) To what extent does a larger number of geotechnical tests help to better constrain the geotechnical characteristics of the study area and, consequently, to improve the model results? The ranges of values of cohesion and angle of internal friction obtained through 13 direct shear tests corresponds remarkably well to the range of values suggested by a geotechnical textbook. We elaborate how far an increased number of

  17. Geotechnical evaluation of the alluvial soils for urban land management zonation in Gharbiya governorate, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Alaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Geological and geotechnical information from 534 borehole in-situ- and lab-based measured soil water conditions (Cl- and SO4-2 ion concentrations and depth to water), plasticity, unconfined compression, and consolidation parameters for alluvial clays have been analyzed. Multivariate factorial and clustering along with the geostatistical ordinary kriging techniques were used and evaluated in a Geographic Information systems (GIS) environment. The prime objective was to spatially model the geotechnical variability and to derive the loading factors along with recognition of the distinctive spatial geotechnical zones in terms of their likelihood of occurrence. Results have been, for the first time, presented for the alluvial soils of the Gharbiya governorate, Egypt with the principal management zones and their associated geotechnical risks in the main eight districts were characterized and evaluated for their favorability for construction. Plasticity charts indicated that the soils are inorganic cohesive highly plastic clays. Geotechnical parameters showed wide ranges evidenced by their large standard deviations. Principal five factors dominated with good correlations to the swelling potential (0.90), compression index (0.74), depth to water (-0.41), soil water salinity contents of Cl- (-0.64) and SO4-2 (-0.60), and the clay layer thickness (0.59), arranged respectively in their decreasing contribution to more than 70% of the total spatial variability. Three distinctive management zones were delineated with reference to construction favorability. The first zone showed the highest favorability for construction being characterized by lowest potentials to swelling and the Cl- and SO4-2 contents and hence corrosion. Characterized by a water level approaching the ground surface, largest Cl- and SO4-2 contents violating the severity limits, and largest swelling potential, the second zone attained the lowest construction favorability and therefore safety measures should be

  18. A Machine Learning Approach to Estimate Riverbank Geotechnical Parameters from Sediment Particle Size Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Fabio; Brooks, Andrew; Spencer, John; Borombovits, Daniel; Curwen, Graeme; Olley, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Assessing bank stability using geotechnical models traditionally involves the laborious collection of data on the bank and floodplain stratigraphy, as well as in-situ geotechnical data for each sedimentary unit within a river bank. The application of geotechnical bank stability models are limited to those sites where extensive field data has been collected, where their ability to provide predictions of bank erosion at the reach scale are limited without a very extensive and expensive field data collection program. Some challenges in the construction and application of riverbank erosion and hydraulic numerical models are their one-dimensionality, steady-state requirements, lack of calibration data, and nonuniqueness. Also, numerical models commonly can be too rigid with respect to detecting unexpected features like the onset of trends, non-linear relations, or patterns restricted to sub-samples of a data set. These shortcomings create the need for an alternate modelling approach capable of using available data. The application of the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) approach is well-suited to the analysis of noisy, sparse, nonlinear, multidimensional, and scale-dependent data. It is a type of unsupervised artificial neural network with hybrid competitive-cooperative learning. In this work we present a method that uses a database of geotechnical data collected at over 100 sites throughout Queensland State, Australia, to develop a modelling approach that enables geotechnical parameters (soil effective cohesion, friction angle, soil erodibility and critical stress) to be derived from sediment particle size data (PSD). The model framework and predicted values were evaluated using two methods, splitting the dataset into training and validation set, and through a Bootstrap approach. The basis of Bootstrap cross-validation is a leave-one-out strategy. This requires leaving one data value out of the training set while creating a new SOM to estimate that missing value based on the

  19. Testing the Performance of a Proposed Geotechnical Based Method in Detection of Liquefiable Soil Layers Subjected to Earthquake Excitations - a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Shahri, H.

    2014-12-01

    This Study aims to develop an efficient computational method for evaluation and detection of liquefiable soil layers in a high seismic risk region by considering the importance infrastructures such as earth dams. Several earth dam were affected by happened earthquake in Iran and therefore better knowledge on liquefaction behavior of this type of structures because of providing emergency supplies and ensure structural safety in engineering terms are so important. In this study on base of a developed C# graphical user interface, a geotechnical based procedure were proposed and applied to Nematabad embankment dam in the west of Iran and an estimation of the liquefaction behavior subjected to Avaj-Changureh earthquake (2002, Iran) vibrations has been carried out. To achieve the target, a careful assessment of the involved parameters in liquefaction analyses is considered and for validation of the applied procedure, a detailed comparison between the obtained results of this study and several known procedures were conducted. The obtained results in this study show good agreement and adaptability with other accepted procedures and also analyzed data indicate that the selected area in some depths is susceptible and prone for liquefaction. Keywords: Liquefaction analysis; developed C# computer code, geotechnical based procedure, Avaj-Changureh earthquake

  20. The Contribution of Robert F. Corwin to Self-Potential and Geotechnical Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitterman, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    Throughout his career, Robert F. Corwin developed innovative geophysical methods to solve geotechnical problems. Most notable is his work on self-potential (SP) where his focus was a blend of electricity and water, a potentially lethal brew, to solve very practical problems. Corwin's work in SP started with the idea of applying the technique to marine mineral exploration; this early work is characterized by a theme that ran through his career: understanding the effects that can influence measurements, developing methodologies to obtain consistent and reliable data, and interpreting those data in a conservative and believable manner supported by the facts. He expanded the electricity-water connection to geothermal fluids and the SP signals produced by them. He was involved in geothermal exploration throughout the western U.S. including Alaska and Mexico. In addition to developing reliable field techniques he worked on interpretational methods that made SP interpretation quantitative. Corwin's most significant contribution was the study of leaky dams using SP. Water leakage produces an SP anomaly because of the electrokinetic properties of geologic materials. Through a series of SP studies for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers he developed a methodology for making and interpreting SP measurements that helped locate, assess, and remediate leakage. This success led to numerous surveys throughout Canada for regional power authorities. Corwin returned to marine geophysical studies throughout his career including SP measurements to locate moveable concrete mats placed in the Mississippi River to control bank erosion. Because of changes in river flow, these large articulated mats were often undercut, moved, and reburied causing hazardous bank conditions. SP and electrical resistivity measurements were found to accurately locate the mats. Corwin also worked on electrical resistivity measurements of the ocean floor. Starting with stationary

  1. Integration of centrifuge testing in undergraduate geotechnical engineering education at remote campuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shamy, Usama; Abdoun, Tarek; McMartin, Flora; Pando, Miguel A.

    2013-06-01

    We report the results of a pilot study aimed at developing, implementing, and assessing an educational module that integrates remote major research instrumentation into undergraduate classes. Specifically, this study employs Internet Web-based technologies to allow for real-time video monitoring and execution of cutting-edge experiments. The students' activities within the module are centred on building a model of a shallow foundation on a sand deposit utilising a centrifuge facility and using this model for: (1) visual observation of the response of soil-foundation systems, (2) learning the use of instrumentation, (3) interpretation of acquired data, and (4) comparing experimental results to theoretical predictions. Testing a soil-foundation system helped the students identify the lab experiments needed to analyse and design the system. A survey was used to gauge students' perceptions of learning as a result of introducing the module, which were found to be positive.

  2. Integration of Centrifuge Testing in Undergraduate Geotechnical Engineering Education at Remote Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Shamy, Usama; Abdoun, Tarek; McMartin, Flora; Pando, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a pilot study aimed at developing, implementing, and assessing an educational module that integrates remote major research instrumentation into undergraduate classes. Specifically, this study employs Internet Web-based technologies to allow for real-time video monitoring and execution of cutting-edge experiments. The…

  3. Assessing dry density and gravimetric water content of soils in geotechnics with complex conductivity measurements : preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaouane, C.; Beck, Y.; Fauchard, C.; Chouteau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quality controls of geotechnical works need gravimetric water content (w) and dry density (γd) measurements. Afterwards, results are compared to Proctor tests and referred to soil classification. Depending on the class of soils, different objectives must be achieved. Those measurements are usually carried out with neutron and gamma probes. Combined use of theses probes directly access (w, γd). Theses probes show great disadvantages as: nuclear hazard, heavy on-site, transporation and storage restrictions and low sampling volumes. Last decades showed a strong development of electrical and electromagnetic methods for mapping water content in soils. Still, their use in Geotechnics is limited due to interfacial effects neglected in common models but strong in compacted soils. We first showed that (w, γd) is equivalent to (φ, Sr) assuming density of particles γs=2.7 (g.cm-3). This assumption is true for common soils used in civil engineering. That first relationship allows us to work with meaningful parameters for geophysicists. Revil&Florsh recently adapted Vinegar&Waxman model for Spectal Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements at low frequencies (<50 kHz). This model relates quantitatively the electrical double layer polarization at the surface of grains. It takes into account saturation, porosity and granulometry. Standard granulometry and mineralogy are generally available in geotechnical campaigns. In-phase conductivity would be mostly related to saturation as quadrature conductivity would be related to porosity and surface conductivity. Although this model was developed for oil-bearing sands, we investigated its potential for compacted soils. Former DC-resistivity (ρ) measurements were carried out on a silty fined-grained soil (A1 in GTR classification or ML-CL in USCS) in a cylindrical cell (radius ~4 cm, heigth 7 cm). Median diameter of grain was 50 μm. For each measurement, samples were compacted at Proctor energy. We assessed (w, γd) by weighting and

  4. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing for Earthquake Engineering Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh; Rohay, Alan C.

    2008-10-17

    Downhole seismic testing is one field test that is commonly used to determine compression-wave (P) and shear-wave (S) velocity profiles in geotechnical earthquake engineering investigations. These profiles are required input in evaluations of the responses to earthquake shaking of geotechnical sites and structures at these sites. In the past, traditional downhole testing has generally involved profiling in the 30- to 150-m depth range. As the number of field seismic investigations at locations with critical facilities has increased, profiling depths have also increased. An improved downhole test that can be used for wave velocity profiling to depths of 300 to 600 m or more is presented.

  5. Stereographic Projection Techniques for Geologists and Civil Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisle, Richard J.; Leyshon, Peter R.

    2004-05-01

    An essential tool in the fields of structural geology and geotechnics, stereographic projection allows three-dimensional orientation data to be represented and manipulated. This revised edition presents a basic introduction to the subject with examples, illustrations and exercises that encourage the student to visualize the problems in three dimensions. It will provide students of geology, rock mechanics, and geotechnical and civil engineering with an indispensable guide to the analysis and interpretation of field orientation data. Links to useful web resources and software programs are also provided. First Edition published by Butterworth-Heinemann (1996): 0-750-62450-7

  6. Baseline practices and user needs for Web dissemination of geotechnical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, L.L.; Brown, M.P.; Chambers, D.; Davis, C.A.; Diehl, J.; Hitchcock, C.S.; Holzer, T.L.; Nigbor, R.L.; Plumb, C.; Real, C.; Reimer, M.; Steidl, J.H.; Sun, J.I.; Tinsley, J.C.; Vaughn, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the findings and recommendations of the User Scenario Work Group (USWG) in identifying a baseline of current practices within the geo-professional community and prioritizing desired functional requirements in the development of a comprehensive geotechnical information management system. This work was conducted as an initial phase of a larger project to demonstrate the effectiveness of a web based virtual data center for the dissemination of geotechnical data from multiple linked databases of various government and private sector organizations. An online survey was administered over the course of several months to practitioners across the nation. The results from the survey were compiled and examined to provide direction to the other project teams in the development of user-driven prototype data system.

  7. The Geotechnical Board National Research Council. [Annual] activities report, March 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smeallie, P.H.

    1993-08-11

    This report covers the activities of the Geotechnical Board and its two national committees, the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics (USNC/RM) and the US National Committee on Tunneling Technology (USNC/TT), for the period from March 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992. The report covers a 16-month period, through June of this year, to bring the reporting period in line with the National Research Council`s (NRC) fiscal year. Subsequent reports will cover the 12-month period July 1--June 30, unless individual contracts require otherwise. A description of the Geotechnical Board and its committees within the context of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, as well as lists of current members of the board and national committees can be found in Attachment A.

  8. Geotechnical modeling of high-level nuclear waste disposal by rock melting

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    A new strategy has been developed for the geotechnical modeling of nuclear waste disposal by rock melting (DRM). Three seeparate tasks were performed to reach this objective: a review of the four scenarios which have been proposed for DRM, to date; an evaluation of computer-based numerical models which could be used to analyze the mechanical, thermal, and hydraulic processes involved in DRM; and a critical review of rock mass properties which are relevant to the design and safety of waste disposal by rock melting. It is concluded that several geotechnical aspects of DRM can be studied realistically with current state-of-the-art model capabilities and knowledge of material properties. The next step in the feasibility study of DRM should be a best-estimate calculation of the four cavity-melt and canister-burial concepts. These new analyses will indicate the most critical areas for subsequent research.

  9. Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Valent, P.J.; Riggins, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high-quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep-penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor-resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35/degree/ and in water depths to 1300 m. 74 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Geotechnical Considerations of Canyon Formation: the Case of Cap de Creus Canyon, Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansoucy, M.; Locat, J.; Lee, H. J.

    2006-12-01

    A portion of the Cap de Creus has been selected for a detailed analysis of slope instability. The selected area is located on the north side of the Canyon between water depth ranging between 150 m and 750 m. This sector, which presents geomorphic evidences of landsliding, has been sampled at three different water depths along a line perpendicular to the axis of the canyon. These cores have been analyzed in order to determine the nature of the sediments along with their geotechnical and rheological properties. At the top of the slope, the geotechnical signature suggests that clay sediments are normally consolidated as a result of a regular and steady sedimentation. In contrast, a highly overconsolidated clayey sediment has been encountered in the core taken on the slope, about 60 m below the headwall escarpment which is about 30 m high with a slope of 27 degrees. The third sampling site is at the toe where the slope is 3 degrees. The geotechnical profile of this zone suggests that depositional events, such as debris flows and turbidity currents, occur frequently, under a more or less erosive regime. The geotechnical and rheological properties have been used for failure (sliding conditions) and post-failure analyses (mobility). The stability of the flank has been analyzed with Slope/W, using limit equilibrium methods. The analysis of the initial geometry with drained conditions indicates that the flank is stable, with a static safety factor of 1,7 (neglecting any seismic our excess pore pressure effects). Results of various scenarios on failure development have been tested, and show that axial incision appears to be the main process, largely as drained failures. Post-failure evolution has been modeled with Bing software. Final length and height of the deposit has been analyzed for different initial sliding mass geometries. The analysis has shown that the deposition of soft mudflow layers could only occur by considering superficial failures originating just above the

  11. Geotechnical Analysis of Five Shelby Tube Samples from H-Area Retention Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1999-06-02

    Geotechnical and geochemical analyses were performed on five Shelby tube samples collected in the H-Area Retention Basin (HRB) during July and August of 1998. The samples were collected as part of the HRB characterization study. The test results, which are documented in this report, will be used to support the HRB contaminant fate and transport modeling/analysis and to evaluate remedial options. The results will also be used as a base line for future treatability studies.

  12. Effects of biochar amendment on geotechnical properties of landfill cover soil.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Yaghoubi, Poupak; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2015-06-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product obtained when plant-based biomass is heated in a closed container with little or no available oxygen. Biochar-amended soil has the potential to serve as a landfill cover material that can oxidise methane emissions for two reasons: biochar amendment can increase the methane retention time and also enhance the biological activity that can promote the methanotrophic oxidation of methane. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength are the most important geotechnical properties that are required for the design of effective and stable landfill cover systems, but no studies have been reported on these properties for biochar-amended landfill cover soils. This article presents physicochemical and geotechnical properties of a biochar, a landfill cover soil and biochar-amended soils. Specifically, the effects of amending 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (of different particle sizes as produced, size-20 and size-40) to soil on its physicochemical properties, such as moisture content, organic content, specific gravity and pH, as well as geotechnical properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength, were determined from laboratory testing. Soil or biochar samples were prepared by mixing them with 20% deionised water based on dry weight. Samples of soil amended with 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (w/w) as-is or of different select sizes, were also prepared at 20% initial moisture content. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity of the soil increases, compressibility of the soil decreases and shear strength of the soil increases with an increase in the biochar amendment, and with a decrease in biochar particle size. Overall, the study revealed that biochar-amended soils can possess excellent geotechnical properties to serve as stable landfill cover materials. PMID:25898984

  13. Evaluation of the geotechnical properties of MSW in two Brazilian landfills.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sandro Lemos; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran; Shariatmadari, Nader; Carvalho, Miriam Fatima; do Nascimento, Julio C F

    2010-12-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) play a key role in many aspects of waste disposal facilities and landfills. Because most of a landfill is made up of MSW, the overall stability of the landfill slopes are governed by the strength parameters and physical properties of the MSW. These parameters are also important in interactions involving the waste body and the landfill structures: cover liner, leachate and gas collection systems. On the other hand, the composition of the waste, which affects the geotechnical behavior of the MSW, is dependent on a variety of factors such as climate, disposal technology, the culture and habits of the local community. It is therefore essential that the design and stability evaluations of landfills in each region be performed based on the local conditions and the geotechnical characteristic of the MSW. The Bandeirantes Landfill, BL, in São Paulo and the Metropolitan Center Landfill, MCL, in Salvador, are among the biggest landfills in Brazil. These two disposal facilities have been used for the development of research involving waste mechanics in recent years. Considerable work has been made in the laboratory and in the field to evaluate parameters such as water and organic contents, composition, permeability, and shear strength. This paper shows and analyzes the results of tests performed on these two landfills. The authors believe that these results could be a good reference for certain aspects and geotechnical properties of MSW materials in countries with similar conditions. PMID:20826081

  14. On the geotechnical characterisation of the polluted submarine sediments from Taranto.

    PubMed

    Vitone, Claudia; Federico, Antonio; Puzrin, Alexander M; Ploetze, Michael; Carrassi, Elettra; Todaro, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the first geomechanical laboratory experiments carried out on the polluted submarine clayey sediments of the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (South of Italy). The study had to face with extreme difficulties for the very soft consistency of the sediments and the contaminants. The mineralogy, composition and physical properties of the sediments were analysed, along with their compression and shearing behaviour. The investigation involved sediments up to about 20 m below the seafloor, along three vertical profiles in the most polluted area of the Mar Piccolo, facing the Italian Navy Arsenal. The experimental results were used to derive a preliminary geotechnical model of the site, necessary for the selection and design of the most sustainable in situ mitigation solutions. Moreover, the experimental data reveal that the clayey sediments of the most polluted top layer do not follow the classical geotechnical correlations for normally consolidated deposits. This seems to open interesting perspectives about the effects of pollutants on the geotechnical behaviour of the investigated sediments. PMID:26906004

  15. Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report, July 1991--June 1992. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report documents the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The data are used to characterize conditions, confirm design assumptions, and understand and predict the performance of the underground excavations during operations. The data are obtained as part of a routine monitoring program and do not include data from tests performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Scientific Advisor to the project, in support of performance assessment studies. The purpose of the geomechanical monitoring program is to provide in situ data to support continuing assessments of the design for the underground facilities. Specifically, the program provides: Early detection of conditions that could compromise operational safety; evaluation of room closure to ensure retrievability of waste; guidance for design modifications and remedial actions; and data for interpreting the actual behavior of underground openings, in comparison with established design criteria. This Geotechnical Field Data and Analysis Report covers the period July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992. Volume 1 provides an interpretation of the field data while Volume 2 describes and presents the data itself.

  16. Geotechnical properties of dredged marine sediments treated at high water/cement ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekik, Boubaker; Boutouil, Mohamed

    2009-06-01

    Cement and lime are widely employed in soil and sediment treatment for an improvement of geotechnical properties, such as an increase in mechanical strength which enables beneficial use in various geotechnical applications. In this study, fine organic-rich dredged harbour sediments of 120% relative water content were treated with dry cement at contents varying between 2% and 10% of bulk sediment wet weight. Tests based on assessments of one-dimensional compression and Atterberg limits were performed on untreated and cement-treated sediments for various curing periods, as well as grain-size, SEM and X-ray diffraction analyses. The results confirm that increasing the cement content improves the geotechnical properties of these harbour sediments. Already in the early phase of curing (first 3 days of curing), particle size increases while sediment plasticity decreases. Changes in the compressibility behaviour include an increase in apparent preconsolidation pressure, in the compression index C c and in the primary consolidation coefficient C v, and a decrease in the secondary compression index C_α . This means that the new materials are characterized by a behaviour intermediate between that of fine and that of coarser soils.

  17. Cape Blanco Wind Farm Feasibility Study : Technical Report, No. 3. Geotechnical.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-04-01

    This preliminary geotechnical investigation of the proposed Cape Blanco Wind Farm site was directed towards the identification and evaluation of significant geologic features, so that a preliminary evaluation could be made of the project feasibility. To accomplish this, two borings were drilled, preliminary geologic reconnaissances were made, and available geologic and geotechnical literature relating to the project area was researched. Preliminary observations and conclusions are presented. The site under evaluation consists of 1600 acres located immediately south of Cape Blanco on the southern Oregon Coast. The project as presently envisioned would have a total design capacity of as much as 80 megawatts. The explorations and research revealed that the site is underlain by variable thicknesses of soil sediments, such as sand, gravel and silt. Typical examples of these sediments are exposed in the very steep ocean-facing bluffs along the western edge of the site. The soils are underlain by sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Otter Point Formation. This formation includes lithified sandstone, submarine basalt and sheared clay shales. The various geotechnical/geological conditions discussed in the report include: slope stability, foundation considerations, groundwater, earthquakes and earthquake-induced ocean waves, erosion, earthwork, and vibrations.

  18. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  19. Geophysical/Geotechnical Applications to Urban Transformation: Example of District of Yildirim of Bursa City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Savas; Imre, Nazire; Yeziz, Hatice; Caglak, Faruk; Tezel, Okan; Ozcep, Ferhat

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bursa, which is located near to the North Anatolian Fault Zone has a very active tectonic regime. The city has a local site effect problem, which is the subject of many studies for this region due to take place in the middle of the basin of the city center. However, in line with the law of new urban transformation, Turkey has started renovation of damaged old buildings and sub-urban buildings. The first example of study has been conducted in Bursa City Center in the district of Yıldırım and that has covered a big area. We used Turkish/Eurocode-8 Standard and Microzonation Criteria for all of this study. The study area covered 7 sub-district areas in particular the southern part of the conservancy district of the plains and northern part of the Uludag slope. We carried out geophysical (microtremors, seismic refraction method, surface wave analysis methods (MASW-MAM) and vertical electrical sounding) and geotechnical (boring up to 20 m and laboratory testing) studies at 75 sites to estimate elastical parameters, soil group, soil classification, and geological cross-sections. The study area was divided into two sub-areas as slope rubble (in the southern part) and alluvial deposits by using borehole data. Standard penetration tests were applied for each 1.5 m to all the boreholes and to estimate mechanical and index properties of soils, several laboratory test were applied to soil/rock specimens. Several soil problems such as soil bearing capacity, soil liquefaction potential, soil settlement analysis, soil amplification, soil expansion analysis were solved by using the results of geophysical, geotechnical and laboratory data. For the study area, deterministic and probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis was performed and ground motion level (magnitude and accelaration of design earthquake) was estimated as Mw:7.4 and a: 0.41 g for exceedence rate of 30% in 50 years. These values guided the solution of soil dynamic analysis. Vs30 map of soils for the

  20. New Insights From Geotechnical and Geophysical Data From the 1996 Finneidfjord Landslide, Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, C. F.; Vanneste, M. W.; L'Heureux, J.; Longva, O.; Vardy, M. E.; Haflidason, H.; Brendryen, J.; Steiner, A.; Kreiter, S.; Mörz, T.; Kvalstad, T.

    2011-12-01

    Acquisition of an extensive and multi-disciplinary data set, consisting of high-resolution swath bathymetry, 2D/3D seismic data, multiple short (up to 6 m) and two long (12 m and 14 m, respectively) sediment cores, and in situ FF-CPTu/CPTu (free fall, FF, and traditional cone penetration tests with pore pressure measurements) profiles complemented with geotechnical laboratory data, allows for a detailed analysis of the landslide morphology and stratigraphic controls on the 1996 Finneidfjord landslide. High-resolution geotechnical data from the in situ FF-CPTu/CPTu and boreholes, complemented with geological imaging (CT and X-ray scans) and analyses (e.g., XRF) reveal that the shallow slip plane lies within a thin, seismically-stratified unit, with clay layers sandwiching a sandy layer, identified from the peak in tip resistance (CPTu). This slip plane is currently being analyzed geotechnically (e.g., direct simple shear testing, grain size analyses and plasticity measurements). Of particular importance is the correlation of the slip plane with regional 2D Topas profiles and a targeted decimetre-resolution 3D Chirp seismic volume (1000 m x 150 m), on which it corresponds with a regionally extensive, high-amplitude, composite reflection. The top part of this composite reflection has been eroded underneath the mass-transport deposit. The latter is extensively deformed. Within the body of the landslide, several different flow facies are identified, along with translated blocks, ramps and flats, and pressure ridges. The geophysical data connect the landslide area with an adjacent zone characterized by the presence of a distinct, shallow-gas front. However, the gas does not appear to have played a role in the landslide development. This integrated assessment of the landslide morphology and internal architecture from combined geological, geotechnical and geophysical data supports previous work indicating a complex, multi-phase failure, with the later stages possibly

  1. MSW fly ash stabilized with coal ash for geotechnical application.

    PubMed

    Kamon, M; Katsumi, T; Sano, Y

    2000-09-15

    The solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash for the purpose of minimizing the geo-environmental impact caused by toxic heavy metals as well as ensuring engineering safety (strength and soaking durability) are experimentally evaluated. The mixtures of MSW fly ash stabilized with cement and fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash (FCA) were used for unconfined compressive strength tests, leachate tests, and soaking tests. The behavior of soluble salts contained in the MSW fly ash significantly affects strength development, soaking durability, and the hardening reaction of the stabilized MSW fly ash mixtures. The cement stabilization of the MSW fly ash does not have enough effect on strength development and soaking durability. The addition of cement only contributes to the containment of heavy metals due to the high level of alkalinity. When using FCA as a stabilizing agent for MSW fly ash, the mixture exhibits high strength and durability. However, the Cd leachate cannot be prevented in the early stages of curing. Using a combination of cement and FCA as a MSW fly ash stabilizer can attain high strength, high soaking durability, and the containment of heavy metals. The stabilized MSW fly ash with cement and FCA can be practically applied to embankments. PMID:10936538

  2. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  3. A marine dynamic penetrometer for the determination of sea floor geotechnical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, S.; Kaul, N. E.; Villinger, H. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present a seafloor lance penetration monitoring system: the Lance Insertion Retardation Meter (LIRmeter). The device can be used to infer geotechnical seafloor properties, such as bearing capacity by monitoring the deceleration of a free-fall penetrating lance. The deceleration record can be furthermore used to estimate mean grain size and mud content of the sea floor as well as total penetration depth. The LIRmeter is contained in a pressure vessel (440 x 110 mm) and equipped with accelerometers of different sensitivities to (i) determine sea floor resistance during penetration and (ii) to generate a depth axis. Typically, measurements are carried out in a pogo style fashion to allow a rapid measurement progress during field campaigns. The LIRmeter is intended to determine sea floor properties on the sole basis of deceleration measurements in order to achieve a mechanically and electronically robust system. Data is sampled at a resolution of 16 bit and at a rate of typically 500 Hz for each channel. The device can either be installed in any type of lance i.e. marine heat flow probes, gravity corers, piston corers or can be used in combination with a purpose built lance as a standalone instrument. It has a usable length of four meters, a total weight of 280 kg in air and can be operated up to full ocean depth (6000m). The bearing capacity of the sea floor is a critical factor for marine engineering projects such as burial of marine cables, pipeline laying and foundations. Knowledge of the mud content can provide constraints for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity. The identification of weak zones along a slope can moreover provide vital information for risk assessment studies. Traditionally, frame based, quasi static Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) or sampling methods like gravity coring are used to conduct these types of investigation. In comparison to established but time consuming and rather costly methods, the LIRmeter is intended (i) for near surface

  4. Cone penetration and bevameter geotechnical tests in lunar regolith simulants: discrete element method analysis and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchitsky, A. V.; Johnson, J.; Duvoy, P.; Wilkinson, A.; Creager, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    For in situ resource utilization on the Moon, asteroids, Mars, or other space body it is necessary to be able to simulate the interaction of mobile platforms and excavation machines with the regolith for engineering design, planning, and operations. For accurate simulations, tools designed to measure regolith properties will need to be deployed and interpreted. Two such tools are the penetrometer, used to measure a soil strength index as a function of depth, and the bevameter, used to characterize regolith surface properties of strength, friction and sinkage. The penetrometer interrogates regolith properties from the surface to a depth limited only by the capabilities of the instrument to penetrate the regolith while a bevameter interrogates only the upper few centimeters needed to describe a mobility platform's traction and sinkage. Interpretation of penetrometer and bevameter data can be difficult, especially on low gravity objects. We use the discrete element method (DEM) model to simulate the large regolith deformations and failures associated with the tests to determine regolith properties. The DEM simulates granular material behavior using large aggregates of distinct particles. Realistic physics of particle-particle interaction introduces many granular specific phenomena such as interlocking and force chain formation that cannot be represented using continuum methods. In this work, experiments using a cone penetrometer test (CPT) and bevameter on lunar simulants JSC-1A and GRC-1 were performed at NASA Glenn Research Center. These tests were used to validate the physics in the COUPi DEM model. COUPi is a general physical DEM code being developed to model machine/regolith interactions as part of a NASA Lunar Science Institute sponsored project on excavation and mobility modeling. The experimental results were used in this work to build an accurate model to simulate the lunar regolith. The CPT consists of driving an instrumented cone with opening angle of 60

  5. Application of computational intelligence tools for the analysis of marine geotechnical properties in the head of Zakynthos canyon, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferentinou, Maria; Hasiotis, Thomas; Sakellariou, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This paper uses a computational approach to provide insight into the relationships among marine geotechnical properties that characterize the recent sedimentary cover at the head of Zakynthos Canyon in western Greece. Self-organizing maps (SOM) and generic interaction matrix (GIM) theory were used to investigate the tendency of the data to cluster and to examine the sediment property relationships. This analysis has also focused on the assessment of the dominance and interaction intensity between the related parameters following GIM theory definition. The principal results refer to the identification of clusters in the original multivariate data set. SOM-based analysis distinguished five clusters, with similar geotechnical characteristics, which led to the separation of the surficial (˜80 cm) unconsolidated sediments from the deeper normally consolidated sediments and depicted better relations between the geotechnical properties within each cluster. The combination of SOM with GIM theory also demonstrates the dominance of fine-grained sediments (especially silts) and their associated Atterberg limits. The strongest interaction intensity is observed between silt and water content, whereas the undrained shear strength of the surficial deposits appears to be least interactive. The application of computational intelligence methods in the study of marine geotechnical properties allows insight into the relationships between the various geotechnical parameters and provides a promising tool for knowledge extraction in marine geo-environments.

  6. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Márquez Ramírez, V. H.; Robles, B.; Nava, F. A.; Farfán, F.; García Arthur, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500-3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008) in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C.) have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015). The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain more information

  7. Predicting 2D geotechnical parameter fields in near-surface sedimentary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, M.; Tronicke, J.

    2014-02-01

    For a detailed characterization of near-surface environments, geophysical techniques are increasingly used to support more conventional point-based techniques such as borehole and direct-push logging. Because the underlying parameter relations are often complex, site-specific, or even poorly understood, a remaining challenging task is to link the geophysical parameter models to the actual geotechnical target parameters measured only at selected points. We propose a workflow based on nonparametric regression to establish functional relationships between jointly inverted geophysical parameters and selected geotechnical parameters as measured, for example, by different borehole and direct-push tools. To illustrate our workflow, we present field data collected to characterize a near-surface sedimentary environment. Our field data base includes crosshole ground penetrating radar (GPR), seismic P-, and S-wave data sets collected between 25 m deep boreholes penetrating sand- and gravel dominated sediments. Furthermore, different typical borehole and direct-push logs are available. We perform a global joint inversion of traveltimes extracted from the crosshole geophysical data using a recently proposed approach based on particle swarm optimization. Our inversion strategy allows for generating consistent models of GPR, P-wave, and S-wave velocities including an appraisal of uncertainties. We analyze the observed complex relationships between geophysical velocities and target parameter logs using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm. This nonparametric statistical tool allows us to perform multivariate regression analysis without assuming a specific functional relation between the variables. We are able to explain selected target parameters such as characteristic grain size values or natural gamma activity by our inverted geophysical data and to extrapolate these parameters to the inter-borehole plane covered by our crosshole experiments. We conclude that

  8. Geotechnical parameter spatial distribution stochastic analysis based on multi-precision information assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial distribution of important geotechnical parameter named compression modulus Es contributes considerably to the understanding of the underlying geological processes and the adequate assessment of the Es mechanics effects for differential settlement of large continuous structure foundation. These analyses should be derived using an assimilating approach that combines in-situ static cone penetration test (CPT) with borehole experiments. To achieve such a task, the Es distribution of stratum of silty clay in region A of China Expo Center (Shanghai) is studied using the Bayesian-maximum entropy method. This method integrates rigorously and efficiently multi-precision of different geotechnical investigations and sources of uncertainty. Single CPT samplings were modeled as a rational probability density curve by maximum entropy theory. Spatial prior multivariate probability density function (PDF) and likelihood PDF of the CPT positions were built by borehole experiments and the potential value of the prediction point, then, preceding numerical integration on the CPT probability density curves, the posterior probability density curve of the prediction point would be calculated by the Bayesian reverse interpolation framework. The results were compared between Gaussian Sequential Stochastic Simulation and Bayesian methods. The differences were also discussed between single CPT samplings of normal distribution and simulated probability density curve based on maximum entropy theory. It is shown that the study of Es spatial distributions can be improved by properly incorporating CPT sampling variation into interpolation process, whereas more informative estimations are generated by considering CPT Uncertainty for the estimation points. Calculation illustrates the significance of stochastic Es characterization in a stratum, and identifies limitations associated with inadequate geostatistical interpolation techniques. This characterization results will provide a multi

  9. Geotechnical Analysis of Paleoseismic Shaking Using Liquefaction Features: Part I. Major Updating of Analysis Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Obermeier, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed for the geotechnical analysis of strength of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects. The proposed method provides recommendations for selection of both individual and regionally located test sites, techniques for validation of field data for use in back-analysis, and use of a recently developed energy-based solution to back-calculate paleoearthquake magnitude and strength of shaking. The proposed method allows investigators to assess the influence of post-earthquake density change and aging. The proposed method also describes how the back-calculations from individual sites should be integrated into a regional assessment of paleoseismic parameters.

  10. Update of assessment of geotechnical risks, strategic petroleum reserve, Weeks Island site

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a critical reassessment of the geotechnical risks of continuing oil storage at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. It reviews all previous risk abatement recommendations, subsequent mitigative actions, and new information. Of increased concern, due to the discovery of a surface levels, is the long term maintainability of the mine as an oil storage repository. Mine operational changes are supported in order to facilitate monitoring of water entry diagnostics. These changes are also intended to minimize the volume in the mine available for water entry. Specific recommendations are made to implement the mine changes.

  11. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Krishna R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Degraded synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) anaerobically in controlled bench-scale reactors. > Performed laboratory tests to determine geotechnical properties of MSW at different phases of degradation. > Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. > Compression ratio reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. > Friction angle reduced, but cohesion increased with degradation. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation conducted to determine the variation of geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) at different phases of degradation. Synthetic MSW samples were prepared based on the composition of MSW generated in the United States and were degraded in bioreactors with leachate recirculation. Degradation of the synthetic MSW was quantified based on the gas composition and organic content, and the samples exhumed from the bioreactor cells at different phases of degradation were tested for the geotechnical properties. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength of initial and degraded synthetic MSW were all determined at constant initial moisture content of 50% on wet weight basis. Hydraulic conductivity of synthetic MSW was reduced by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. Compression ratio was reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. Direct shear tests showed that the fresh and degraded synthetic MSW exhibited continuous strength gain with increase in horizontal deformation, with the cohesion increased from 1 kPa for fresh MSW to 16-40 kPa for degraded MSW and the friction angle decreased from 35{sup o} for fresh MSW to 28{sup o} for degraded MSW. During the triaxial tests under CU condition, the total strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were found to vary from 21 to 57 kPa and 1{sup o} to 9{sup o}, respectively, while the effective strength parameters

  12. Geologic logs of geotechnical cores from the subsurface Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, Katherine L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Tinsley, John C., III; Gatti, Emma; Pagenkopp, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents and summarizes descriptive geologic logs of geotechnical cores collected from 2009–12 in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, by the California Department of Water Resources. Graphic logs are presented for 1,785.7 ft of retained cores from 56 borehole sites throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Most core sections are from a depth of ~100–200 feet. Cores primarily contain mud, silt, and sand lithologies. Tephra (volcanic ash and pumice), paleosols, and gravels are also documented in some core sections. Geologic observations contained in the core logs in this report provide stratigraphic context for subsequent sampling and data for future chronostratigraphic subsurface correlations.

  13. Geotechnical, geological, and selected radionuclide retention characteristics of the radioactive waste disposal site near the Farallon Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Poppe, L.J.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A geotechnical and geological investigation of the Farallon Islands low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal area was conducted to qualitatively assess the host sediments' relative effectiveness as a barrier to radionuclide migration, to estimate the portion of the barrier that is in contact with the waste packages at the three primary disposal sites, and to provide a basic physical description of the sediments. Box cores recovered from within the general disposal area at depths of 500, 1000, and 1500 m were subcored to provide samples (~30 cm in length) for detailed descriptions, textural and mineralogical analyses, and a suite of geotechnical tests (index property, CRS consolidation, and CIU triaxial compression). -from Authors

  14. JSC-1: Lunar Simulant of Choice for Geotechnical Applications and Oxygen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Hill, Eddy; Liu, Yang; Day, James M. D.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar simulant JSC-1 was produced as the result of a workshop held in 1991 to evaluate the status of simulated lunar material and to make recommendations on future requirements and production of such material (McKay et al., 1991). JSC-1 was prepared from a welded tuff that was mined, crushed, and sized from the Pleistocene San Francisco volcanic field, northern Arizona. As the initial production of approxiamtely 12,300kgs is nearly depleted, new production has commenced. The mineralogy and chemical properties of JSC-1 are described in McKay et al. (1994) and Hill et al. (this volume); description of its geotechnical properties appears in Klosky et al. (1996). Although other lunar-soil simulants have been produced (e.g., MLS-1: Weiblen et al., 1990; Desai et al., 1992; Chua et al., 1994), they have not been as well standardized as JSC-I; this makes it difficult to standardize results from tests performed on these simulants. Here, we provide an overview of the composition, mineralogy, strength and deformation properties, and potential uses of JSC-1 and outline why it is presently the 'lunar simulant of choice' for geotechnical applications and as a proxy for lunar-oxygen production.

  15. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in had rock. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Farquhar, O.C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air storage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site in Maryland were completed recently by EPRI, DOE, and the Potomac Electric Power Company. The present report deals with the geotechnical aspects of these storage systems from a generic viewpoint. Because both technologies are virtually new to the electric utility industry, information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered in the report. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design. Review of the documentary evidence in rock mechanics and related fields indicates that construction can meet reasonable time and cost schedules and that operation of the underground openings should be on a maintenance-free, near-permanent basis.

  16. Influence of benthic macrofauna on the geotechnical and geophysical properties of surficial sediment, North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowden, A. A.; Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.

    1998-09-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the structure of an Amphiura-Echinocardium macrobenthic community were studied in relation to geotechnical and geophysical properties of the seabed at a muddy-sand site in the seasonally stratified region of the southern North Sea. Vertical profiles of geotechnical properties were recorded in sediments collected by box corer. Maxima in water, organic matter, and fine particle contents coincided with the presence of the burrowing brittle star Amphiura filiformis and the mud shrimp Callianassa subterranea in the upper and lower parts, respectively, of the cores. A significant relationship existed between the abundance of A. filiformis and the water content of the upper 0.05 m of the bed. There were important temporal variations in rigidity modulus, derived from acoustic shear wave propagation in freshly recovered cores, of the upper 0.06 m of the sediment. The rigidity modulus was 45% greater in January than in May and this has been related to the burrowing/feeding activity of the macrobenthic community; there was an inverse relationship between A. filiformis abundance and bed rigidity. Thus the bed had a lower bulk density and lower rigidity in summer due to biological modification of the sediment fabric. This implies that the bed was less resistant to erosion in the summer. Such an effect may be important during summer storms in the shallowest parts of the seasonally stratified zone (ie close to shelf fronts).

  17. Geotechnical Risk Classification for Underground Mines / Klasyfikacja Poziomu Zagrożenia Geotechnicznego W Kopalniach Podziemnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Rinne, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Underground mining activities are prone to major hazards largely owing to geotechnical reasons. Mining combined with the confined working space and uncertain geotechnical data leads to hazards having the potential of catastrophic consequences. These incidents have the potential of causing multiple fatalities and large financial damages. Use of formal risk assessment in the past has demonstrated an important role in the prediction and prevention of accidents in risk prone industries such as petroleum, nuclear and aviation. This paper proposes a classification system for underground mining operations based on their geotechnical risk levels. The classification is done based on the type of mining method employed and the rock mass in which it is carried out. Mining methods have been classified in groups which offer similar geotechnical risk. The rock mass classification has been proposed based on bulk rock mass properties which are collected as part of the routine mine planning. This classification has been subdivided for various stages of mine planning to suit the extent of available data. Alpha-numeric coding has been proposed to identify a mining operation based on the competency of rock and risk of geotechnical failures. This alpha numeric coding has been further extended to identify mining activity under `Geotechnical Hazard Potential (GHP)'. GHP has been proposed to be used as a preliminary tool of risk assessment and risk ranking for a mining activity. The aim of such classification is to be used as a guideline for the justification of a formal geotechnical risk assessment. Górnictwo podziemne pociąga za sobą różnorakie zagrożenia spowodowane przez uwarunkowania geotechniczne. Urabianie złoża w połączeniu z pracą w zamkniętej przestrzeni oraz z niepewnymi danymi geotechnicznymi powodować może zagrożenia, które w konsekwencji prowadzić mogą do wypadków, a te potencjalnie powodować mogą skutki śmiertelne dla osób oraz

  18. Seismic no-data zone, offshore Mississippi delta: depositional controls on geotechnical properties, velocity structure, and seismic attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.A.; Meeder, C.A.; Tinkle, A.R.; Wener, K.R.

    1986-09-01

    Seismic acquisition problems plague exploration and production offshore the Mississippi delta. Geologic and geotechnical analyses of 300-ft borings and 20-ft piston cores, combined with subbottom acoustic measurements, help identify and predict the locations, types, and magnitudes of anomalous seismic zones. This knowledge is used to design acquisition and processing techniques to circumvent the seismic problems.

  19. Geotechnical conditions contributing to negative geological process development in urban areas (the case of Kemerovo-city)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonova, A. V.; Khabibullin, R. R.; Baranova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper addresses the issue of intensive urban development in the area of Kemerovo-city. Underestimation of geotechnical conditions of the area at the project and construction stages results in negative geological processes such as erosion, waterlogging, soil subsidence, and underflooding. These processes can lead to deformation and failure of buildings and constructions.

  20. New Geophysical and Geotechnical Data on Quaternary Layers in the Metropolitan Area of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Ritter, Joachim; Bala, Andrei; Rohn, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Bucharest, the capital of Romania, with approximately 2.5 million inhabitants, is considered after Istanbul the second-most earthquake-endangered metropolis in Europe. It is identified as a natural disaster hotspot by a global study of the World Bank and the Columbia University (Dilley et al., 2005). Four major earthquakes with moment-magnitudes between 6.9 and 7.7 hit Bucharest in the last 70 years. The most recent destructive earthquake of 4th March 1977, with a moment magnitude of 7.4, caused about 1.500 casualties in the capital alone. All disastrous earthquakes are generated within a small epicentral area - the Vrancea region - about 150 km northeast of Bucharest. Thick unconsolidated sedimentary layers in the area of Bucharest amplify the arriving seismic shear-waves causing severe destruction. Thus, disaster prevention and mitigation of earthquake effects is an issue of highest priority for Bucharest and its population. An international research project was initiated and recently finished - NATO SfP Project 981882: Site-effect analyses for the earthquake-endangered metropolis Bucharest, Romania. This project had the target to fill gaps in knowledge concerning seismic and geotechnical parameters in the shallow (h < 50 m) Quaternary layers in Bucharest. The project was conducted by the National Institute for Earth Physics, Bucharest, Romania and the Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany. The main objective was earthquake risk mitigation and better seismic safety of Bucharest City. Ten 50 m deep boreholes were successfully drilled and studied in detail. The values of the mean weighted seismic velocities computed in the present study are within a narrow range as others obtained by seismic in situ measurements. vs30 values below 360 m/s indicate intermediate soil as near-surface material which tends to amplify earthquakes waves. This means that the near-surface layer and its elastic properties are crucial for understanding the seismic hazard imposed to Bucharest

  1. Geotechnical characteristics and slope stability on the Ebro margin, western Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Lee, H.J.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sedimentological and geotechnical analyses of core samples from the Ebro continental slope define two distinct areas on the basis of sediment type, physical properties and geotechnical behavior. The first area is the upper slope area (water depths of 200-500 m), which consists of upper Pleistocene prodeltaic silty clay with a low water content (34% dry weight average), low plasticity, and high overconsolidation near the seafloor. The second area, the middle and lower slope (water depths greater than 500 m), contains clay- and silt-size hemipelagic deposits with a high water content (90% average), high plasticity, and a low to moderate degree of overconsolidation near the sediment surface. Results from geotechnical tests show that the upper slope has a relatively high degree of stability under relatively rapid (undrained) static loading conditions, compared with the middle and lower slopes, which have a higher degree of stability under long-term (drained) static loading conditions. Under cyclic loading, which occurs during earthquakes, the upper slope has a higher degree of stability than the middle and lower slopes. For the surface of the seafloor, calculated critical earthquake accelerations that can trigger slope failures range from 0.73 g on the upper slope to 0.23 g on the lower slope. Sediment buried well below the seafloor may have a critical acceleration as low as 0.09 g on the upper slope and 0.17 g on the lower slope. Seismically induced instability of most of the Ebro slope seems unlikely given that an earthquake shaking of at least intensity VI would be needed, and such strong intensities have never been recorded in the last 70 years. Other cyclic loading events, such as storms or internal waves, do not appear to be direct causes of instability at present. Infrequent, particularly strong earthquakes could cause landslides on the Ebro margin slope. The Columbretes slide on the southwestern Ebro margin may have been caused by intense earthquake shaking

  2. IHG: an Integrated Hydrological-Geotechnical model for large landslides' susceptibility assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passalacqua, R.; Bovolenta, R.

    2012-04-01

    A large area (~ 5 km2) in the north-east sector of the Genoa-Province (Liguria - Italy) is subjected to a diffused, continuous kinematic phenomenon. It is shaped into a top-valley gentle slope (circa 11° ), which downgrades directly from the south-side faces of the Northern Apennines summits (1800 meters a.s.l.). On this endangered site are situated a small town and six of its surrounding hamlets. In consequence of the widespread and differential movements at ground level, many buildings and structures are continuously damaged. Institutions, Land-Authorities, as well as the Citizens, are applying their economical efforts in the rehabilitations and the assessment/control of the active phenomena. From the geological and morphological points of view, the topmost sediment is formed by a pliocenic glacial till and its body of widely assorted sediments had been reckoned as a large relict landslide. The loose-soils' thickness spans from few meters up to 90, before of reaching the local bedrock formations (argillites, sandstones, mudstones, ophiolites and diabases in pillows). Former studies have underlined that the main trigger actions are represented by the seasonal rain/snow falls on the watershed and that the kinematic phenomenon is heavily influenced by the subsoil features. The Authors have recently dealt with the characterization and study of this complex landslide [ref. @: the International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Conference, Salzburg (A), September 5-9, 2011 and the 2nd World Landslide Forum, Rome (I), October 3-9, 2011], giving particular attention to both the geotechnical and the hydrological aspects of the site. Since the buried bedrock spatial morphology, depth and steepness have a key role, geophysical and seismic array techniques were used toinvestigate the micro-tremor characteristics and to correlate the emerging data to the geotechnical and geophysical properties of the shallowsediments. Noise measurements were made at more than

  3. Nondestructive laboratory measurement of geotechnical and geoacoustic properties through intact core-liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Lee, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution automated measurement of the geotechnical and geoacoustic properties of soil at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is performed with a state-of-the-art multi-sensor whole-core logging device. The device takes measurements, directly through intact sample-tube wall, of p-wave acoustic velocity, of soil wet bulk density, and magnetic susceptibility. This paper summarizes our methodology for determining soil-sound speed and wet-bulk density for material encased in an unsplit liner. Our methodology for nondestructive measurement allows for rapid, accurate, and high-resolution (1 cm-spaced) mapping of the mass physical properties of soil prior to sample extrusion.

  4. Comparison of Shear-wave Profiles for a Compacted Fill in a Geotechnical Test Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvain, M. B.; Pando, M. A.; Whelan, M.; Bents, D.; Park, C.; Ogunro, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the use of common methods for geological seismic site characterization including: i) multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW),ii) crosshole seismic surveys, and iii) seismic cone penetrometer tests. The in-situ tests were performed in a geotechnical test pit located at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte High Bay Laboratory. The test pit has dimensions of 12 feet wide by 12 feet long by 10 feet deep. The pit was filled with a silty sand (SW-SM) soil, which was compacted in lifts using a vibratory plate compactor. The shear wave velocity values from the 3 techniques are compared in terms of magnitude versus depth as well as spatially. The comparison was carried out before and after inducing soil disturbance at controlled locations to evaluate which methods were better suited to captured the induced soil disturbance.

  5. Sludge ash/hydrated lime on the geotechnical properties of soft soil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Lin, Kae-Long; Hung, Min-Jui; Luo, Huan-Lin

    2007-06-25

    In this study, an effort to improve the properties and strength of soil, sewage sludge ash (SSA) and hydrated lime are applied to stabilize soft cohesive subgrade soil. Five different ratios (in weight percentage), 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16%, of sludge ash/hydrated lime are proposed for mixture with cohesive soil. Then, the effects of the different proportions of SSA/hydrated lime on soft cohesive soil are studied. Test results indicate that the unconfined compressive strength of specimens with additives was raised from three to seven times better than that of the untreated soil, and swelling behaviors were also effectively reduced for those specimens. Results of triaxial compression test indicate that the shear strength parameter, c, rose with an increased amount of additives and improved from 30 to 50-70kPa. On the whole, SSA/hydrated lime could particularly improve the geotechnical properties of cohesive subgrade soil. PMID:17141407

  6. Interrogation of fibre Bragg gratings through a fibre optic rotary joint on a geotechnical centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Ricardo; James, Stephen W.; Marshall, Alec; Heron, Charles; Korposh, Sergiy

    2016-05-01

    The monitoring of an array of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) strain sensors was performed through a single channel, single mode fibre optic rotary joint (FORJ) mounted on a geotechnical centrifuge. The array of three FBGs was attached to an aluminum plate that was anchored at the ends and placed on the model platform of the centrifuge. Acceleration forces of up to 50g were applied and the reflection signal of the monitored FBGs recorded dynamically using a 2.5kHz FBG interrogator placed outside the centrifuge. The use of a FORJ allowed the monitoring of the FBGs without submitting the FBG interrogator to the high g-forces experienced in the centrifuge.

  7. A wireless high-speed data acquisition system for geotechnical centrifuge model testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, C.; White, D. J.; Boylan, N.; Breen, J.; Brown, T.; DeCatania, S.; Hortin, P.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes a novel high-speed wireless data acquisition system (WDAS) developed at the University of Western Australia for operation onboard a geotechnical centrifuge, in an enhanced gravitational field of up to 300 times Earth's gravity. The WDAS system consists of up to eight separate miniature units distributed around the circumference of a 0.8 m diameter drum centrifuge, communicating with the control room via wireless Ethernet. Each unit is capable of powering and monitoring eight instrument channels at a sampling rate of up to 1 MHz at 16-bit resolution. The data are stored within the logging unit in solid-state memory, but may also be streamed in real-time at low frequency (up to 10 Hz) to the centrifuge control room, via wireless transmission. The high-speed logging runs continuously within a circular memory (buffer), allowing for storage of a pre-trigger segment of data prior to an event. To suit typical geotechnical modelling applications, the system can record low-speed data continuously, until a burst of high-speed acquisition is triggered when an experimental event occurs, after which the system reverts back to low-speed acquisition to monitor the aftermath of the event. Unlike PC-based data acquisition solutions, this system performs the full sequence of amplification, conditioning, digitization and storage on a single circuit board via an independent micro-controller allocated to each pair of instrumented channels. This arrangement is efficient, compact and physically robust to suit the centrifuge environment. This paper details the design specification of the WDAS along with the software interface developed to control the units. Results from a centrifuge test of a submarine landslide are used to illustrate the performance of the new WDAS.

  8. Geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste materials taken from abandoned mine deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Ji, Sang Woo; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    According to the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy in Korean (MOTIE), approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread in the Republic of Korea, but almost 80% mines are still left without any proper remediation and cleanup. The physic-chemical properties of waste materials in the mountainous area are strongly affected by heavy rainfall. Failed sediments pose the largest threat to the mountain communities and environments. In particular, a significant amount of heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead etc., is introduced to soil systems. This study examined the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials collected from mine deposits, located in Imgi-ri, Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. We used a ring shear apparatus for geotechnical properties and a rheometer for rheological properties. The materials collected from mines are classified as gravelly sand soils. A series of drained and undrained ring shear tests were performed to examine the stress characteristics with regard to (i) shearing time dependency, (ii) shear speed dependency, and (iii) normal stress dependency. In addition, the grain crushing in the shear zone was examined to explain a high mobile failed masses. This work is also concerned with post-failure characteristics of rainfall-induced debris flows. From the rheological tests, the materials examined exhibited the shear-thinning behavior, which is the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rates. In the relationship between shear stress and shear rate, one of simplest rheological models, i.e., the ideal Bingham fluid model, is selected to examine the debris flow potential. There are positive relationships between the volumetric concentration of sediment ranging from 50% to 65% and rheological values (i.e., yield stress and viscosities). However, the difference in rheological parameters is of significance for given shear rates. The effect of wall-slip in different geometries between ball and vane

  9. Stability of spoil piles at two coal mines in Turkey: Geotechnical characterization and design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kasmer, O.; Ulusay, R.

    2006-11-15

    One of the major problems in surface mining of coal is the stability of disposed overburden materials. Geotechnical considerations are thus very important in rational planning for disposal, reclamation, treatment, and utilization of mine waste material. The subject of this study is the stability of spoil piles at open pit coal mines located in the Central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal is produced from two adjacent open pits. While a large portion of the spoil piles dumped at the Central Pit has experienced slope failure, no spoil pile instability has been experienced at the South Pit. This article outlines the results of field and laboratory investigations to describe the mechanism of the spoil pile failure in the Central Pit and the geotechnical design considerations for the spoil piles at the South Pit based on the experience gained from the previous spoil failures. Limit equilibrium analysis carried out for the large-scale spoil failure indicated that deep-seated sliding along the interface between underclay and dragline spoil piles and rotational slip through the overburden spoil material may be all occurring simultaneously as water migrates through these areas. Sensitivity analyses revealed that spoil pile instability is not expected at the South Pit when the current spoil placement method is used as long as the generation of high water pressures in the spoil piles is not permitted. Comparisons between the results of finite element analysis and long-term monitoring data also confirmed the results of sensitivity analyses and indicated a vertical deformation associated with compaction of the spoil material.

  10. Geotechnical characterization of a Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash from a Michigan monofill.

    PubMed

    Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kabalan, Mohammad; Syal, Sita Marie; Hambright, Matt; Sahadewa, Andhika

    2013-06-01

    A field and laboratory geotechnical characterization study of a Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Ash disposed of at the Carleton Farms monofill in Michigan was performed. Field characterization consisted of field observations, collection of four bulk samples and performance of shear wave velocity measurements at two locations. Laboratory characterization consisted of basic geotechnical characterization, i.e., grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, specific gravity tests, compaction tests as well as moisture and organic content assessment followed by direct shear and triaxial shear testing. The test results of this investigation are compared to results in the literature. The grain size distribution of the samples was found to be very similar and consistent with the grain size distribution data available in the literature, but the compaction characteristics were found to vary significantly. Specific gravities were also lower than specific gravities of silicic soils. Shear strengths were higher than typically reported for sandy soils, even for MSWI ash specimens at a loose state. Strain rate was not found to impact the shear resistance. Significant differences in triaxial shear were observed between a dry and a saturated specimen not only in terms of peak shear resistance, but also in terms of stress-strain response. In situ shear wave velocities ranged from 500 to 800 m/s at a depth of about 8m, to 1100-1200 m/s at a depth of 50 m. These high shear wave velocities are consistent with field observations indicating the formation of cemented blocks of ash with time, but this "ageing" process in MSWI ash is still not well understood and additional research is needed. An improved understanding of the long-term behavior of MSWI ash, including the effects of moisture and ash chemical composition on the ageing process, as well as the leaching characteristics of the material, may promote unbound utilization of the ash in civil infrastructure. PMID:23528205

  11. Geotechnical studies related to in situ lignite-gasification trials. Semi-annual technical report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, E.R.; Russell, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Petroleum Engineering Department at Texas A and M University has conducted field tests on in situ gasification of lignite first at the Easterwood Site near the main campus during 1978 and more recently at the Rockdale Site adjacent to the Sandow Mine near the town of Rockdale in Milam County, Texas. The present project is related to the gasification trials at the Rockdale Site. The objective of the current study is to investigate those geotechnical factors that may influence the performance of the in situ gasification process. These factors include: (1) pre-existing fracture patterns in the lignite and their influence on permeability; (2) strength and deformability of the overburden materials and how these properties are changed by the gasification process and their relationship to subsidence; and (3) the size, shape, and orientation of cavities produced by the process and their relationship to local fracture patterns and geologic structure. The current study is necessarily site specific and related to the Rockdale Site. Ultimately, the goal is to develop models that would be adaptable to any site with a minimum amount of site-specific investigation.

  12. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration

  13. Geotechnical soil characterization of intact Quaternary deposits forming the March 22, 2014 SR-530 (Oso) landslide, Snohomish County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riemer, Michael F.; Collins, Brian D.; Badger, Thomas C.; Toth, Csilla; Yu, Yat Chun

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a description of the methods used to obtain and test the intact soil stratigraphy behind the headscarp of the March 22 landslide. Detailed geotechnical index testing results are presented for 24 soil samples representing the stratigraphy at 19 different depths along a 650 ft (198 m) soil profile. The results include (1) the soil's in situ water content and unit weight (where applicable); (2) specific gravity of soil solids; and (3) each sample's grain-size distribution, critical limits for fine-grain water content states (that is, the Atterberg limits), and official Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) designation. In addition, preliminary stratigraphy and geotechnical relations within and between soil units are presented.

  14. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybeł, Piotr; Wałach, Daniel; Jaskowska-Lemańska, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  15. Analysis of hydrological and geotechnical aspects related to landslides caused by rainfall infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capparelli, Giovanna; La Sala, Gabriella; Vena, Mirko; Donato, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    A landslide is defined as a perceptible downward and outward movement of slope-forming soil, rock, and vegetation under the influence of gravity. Landslides can be triggered by both natural and human-induced changes in the environment. However rainfall is recognized as a major precursor for many types of slope movements. As a result of rainfall events and subsequent infiltration into the subsoil, the soil moisture can be significantly changed with a decrease in matric suction in unsaturated soil layers and/or increase in pore-water pressure in saturated layers. As a consequence, in these cases, the shear strength can be reduced enough to trigger the failure. An effective way to develop such an understanding is by means of computer simulation using numerical model. As part of the project PON "Integrated Early Warning System" our main objective was just to develop a numerical models that was able to consider the relation between rainfall, pore pressure and slope stability taking into account several components, including specific site conditions, mechanical, hydraulic and physical soil properties, local seepage conditions, and the contribution of these to soil strength. In this work the mechanism behind rainfall-triggered landslides is modeled by using combined infiltration, seepage and stability analyses. This method allows the evaluation of the terrain and its response based on geological, physical, hydrogeological and mechanical characteristics. The model is based on the combined use of two modules: an hydraulic module, to analyze the subsoil water circulation due to the rainfall infiltration under transient conditions and a geotechnical module, which provides indications regarding the slope stability. With regard to hydraulic module, variably saturated porous media flows have been modeled by the classical nonlinear Richards equation; in the geotechnical module the differential equilibrium equations have been solved taking into account the linear constitutive

  16. Geomorphological and geotechnical issues affecting the seismic slope stability of the Duwamish River Delta, Port of Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Palmer, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Young Holocene deposits of the Duwamish River valley underlie a highly developed transportation-industrial corridor, extending from the City of Kent to the Elliott Bay-Harbor Island marine terminal facilities. The deposits have been shaped by relative sea-level rise, but also by episodic volcanism and seismicity. A geologic and geotechnical investigation of these river-mouth deposits indicates high initial liquefaction susceptibility during earthquakes, and possibly the potential for unlimited-strain disintegrative flow failure of the delta front.

  17. 3D-GEM: Geo-technical extension towards an integrated 3D information model for infrastructural development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegtmeier, W.; Zlatanova, S.; van Oosterom, P. J. M.; Hack, H. R. G. K.

    2014-03-01

    In infrastructural projects, communication as well as information exchange and (re-)use in and between involved parties is difficult. Mainly this is caused by a lack of information harmonisation. Various specialists are working together on the development of an infrastructural project and all use their own specific software and definitions for various information types. In addition, the lack of and/or differences in the use and definition of thematic semantic information regarding the various information types adds to the problem. Realistic 3D models describing and integrating parts of the earth already exist, but are generally neglecting the subsurface, and especially the aspects of geology and geo-technology. This paper summarises the research towards the extension of an existing integrated semantic information model to include surface as well as subsurface objects and in particular, subsurface geological and geotechnical objects. The major contributions of this research are the definition of geotechnical objects and the mechanism to link them with CityGML, GeoSciML and O&M standard models. The model is called 3D-GEM, short for 3D Geotechnical Extension Model.

  18. Quantitative analysis of physical and geotechnical factors affecting methane emission in municipal solid waste landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecle, Dawit; Lee, Jejung; Hasan, Syed

    2009-01-01

    The amount of methane that vent from landfills is dependent on the physical, chemical and biological components of the soil cover. Especially moisture content and temperature of the soil are known as the major controlling factors. In situ moisture content measurement is very critical because the moisture content of the soil continuously changes within minutes to hours as a result of change in temperature. The presented study used time domain reflectometry to measure in situ moisture content and analyzed moisture content, temperature and methane data of the landfill soil cover in a quantitative manner. Geotechnical factors including soil grain size and uniformity coefficient of the soil were analyzed and their influence on moisture content and methane emission was examined. The authors used kriging and polynomial regression methods to characterize the spatial distribution of moisture content and methane emission. Methane emission showed good temporal correlation with soil temperature, however, no significant relationship between moisture content and methane emission was observed. Spatial distribution of soil attributes was also analyzed to examine its effect on those variables. The spatial pattern of moisture content was quite similar to that of uniformity coefficient, C u and that of clay content of the soil but strongly contrasted to that of methane emission.

  19. Biogeomorphological implications of microscale interactions between sediment geotechnics and marine benthos: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, John M. H.; Meadows, Azra; Meadows, Peter S.

    2002-09-01

    At the foundations of biogeomorphological processes in the sea lie interactions between the activities of marine benthic animals and the geotechnical properties of their sedimentary environments. The potential significance of these interactions, which take place at a microscale level of millimetres to metres, for the large-scale geomorphology of the seabed has rarely been appreciated. In the context of this review, large-scale is defined as greater than 50 m to hundreds of kilometres. The present review addresses this link, drawing examples from a wide range of marine environments, including estuaries, the intertidal zone, continental shelves and slopes, and the deep sea. It firstly considers sediment stabilisation, slope failure, sediment mixing, biodeposition, sediment compaction, and hydrodynamic effects. This is followed by a consideration of two extremes of the ecological pyramid—the effects of marine meiofauna and marine vertebrates. The final section draws attention to the central role of faunal mucus and extracellular polymeric material (ECPM) in many of the microscale interactions that we describe. The implications of these microscale biological processes and features are discussed in terms of their influence on and control of the large-scale geomorphology of the seabed.

  20. Geotechnical aspects in the epicentral region of the 2011, Mw5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Russell A.; Lasley, Samuel; Carter, Mark W.; Munsey, Jeffrey W.; Maurer, Brett W.; Tuttle, Martitia P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconnaissance team documented the geotechnical and geological aspects in the epicentral region of the Mw (moment magnitude) 5.8 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake of 23 August 2011. Tectonically and seismically induced ground deformations, evidence of liquefaction, rock slides, river bank slumps, ground subsidence, performance of earthen dams, damage to public infrastructure and lifelines, and other effects of the earthquake were documented. This moderate earthquake provided the rare opportunity to collect data to help assess current geoengineering practices in the region, as well as to assess seismic performance of the aging infrastructure in the region. Ground failures included two marginal liquefaction sites, a river bank slump, four minor rockfalls, and a ~4-m-wide, ~12-m-long, ~0.3-m-deep subsidence on a residential property. Damage to lifelines included subsidence of the approaches for a bridge and a water main break to a heavily corroded, 5-cm-diameter valve in Mineral, Virginia. Observed damage to dams, landfills, and public-use properties included a small, shallow slide in the temporary (“working”) clay cap of the county landfill, damage to two earthen dams (one in the epicentral region and one further away near Bedford, Virginia), and substantial structural damage to two public school buildings.

  1. Geotechnical Analysis of the Chaos Jumbles Rockfall Avalanches at Lassen Volcanic Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninivaggi, S.; Watters, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Chaos Jumbles rockfall avalanches are a series of three slope failures that occurred from the northwest side of the Chaos Crags approximately 300 years ago. Run out distances for the three rockfall avalanches range from 4.3km to 2.5km. Previous investigations have shown that the failure occurred from one of the six domes of the Chaos Crags. The cause of the failure has been investigated, but has not been determined (Crandell et al, 1974 and Eppler et al, 1987). This research uses geotechnical data obtained from field investigations, laboratory testing and computer modeling to determine the failure processes. Samples and discontinuity data were collected from the accessible areas along the base of the failure scarp. Samples included in situ rock discontinuities for shear strength analysis, rock cores for uniaxial and triaxial strength analyses and field measurement of discontinuity orientations. The data is used to model different failure scenarios along the existing scarp using limit equilibrium, finite difference and distinct element programs. The preliminary results of our analysis show that a set of discontinuities parallel to the failure surface along with there conjugate set perpendicular to the failure surface played a major role in the in the failure at the Chaos Jumbles rockfall avalanches. Research continues on modeling the failure and the run out distances of the avalanches.

  2. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M

    2016-01-01

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized. PMID:27447630

  3. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M.

    2016-01-01

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized. PMID:27447630

  4. Geotechnical assessment of a landslide along a natural gas pipeline for possible remediations (Karacabey-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Tamer; Akin, Muge

    2009-04-01

    A new natural gas pipeline with a 0.90-m diameter is under construction to provide a gas connection between Turkey and Greece as well as to create a gas ring for southern Europe. The new pipeline route lies next to an existing small diameter gas pipeline broken by a landslide that occurred in February 2006 near Karacabey (Bursa). Although the existing pipeline has been temporarily repaired, either the pipeline route should be relocated or the landslide should be stabilized. The geological survey conducted in the study area reveals that relocation is not feasible due to the existence of other landslides in close vicinity to the site. In order to investigate the causes of the landslide and to suggest possible remedial measures, geotechnical investigations including surface geological mapping, trial pitting, drilling with field tests, inclinometer measurements, laboratory testing, and limit equilibrium analyses were conducted. The investigation revealed that the unconsolidated clayey soil slid on claystone along a non-circular failure surface. Based on the gathered data, possible remedial measures including partial removal of landslide material and construction of toe buttresses, slope flattening, lowering the pipeline, and surface drainage systems were evaluated. These are suggested to prevent the reactivation of the landslide, and thus to establish a safe route for both the existing and the new pipelines.

  5. Piezometer-probe technology for geotechnical investigations in coastal and deep-ocean environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.H.; Burns, J.T.; Lipkin, J.; Percival, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Three multisensor piezometer probes were developed and field tested for use in coastal (shallow water) fine-grained Marine soils. Offshore sites were investigated in the Mississippi Delta. Pore water pressure measurements were determined at several depths below the sea floor using both absolute and differential pressure sensors placed in a four inch diameter probe. Pressure sensors were hard-wired to nearby platforms where signals were conditioned and analog recording devices monitored pore water pressure changes in the marine soils. Pore water pressures were monitored for several months. Two single sensor piezometer probes, eight millimeters in diameter, were developed for deep-ocean investigations. These probes use differential pressure sensors and were tested in a hyperbaric chamber pressurized to 55 MPa (8000 psi). Testing was performed for a period of five weeks under high hydrostatic pressure with the probes inserted in reconstituted illitic marine soil. Small differential pore water pressures responded to both mechanically and thermally generated forcing functions. During shallow water investigations and simulated deep-ocean pressure tests, the sensors exhibited excellent sensitivity and stability. These developments in piezometer probe technology provide a means of assessing important geotechnical parameters of fine-grained seabed deposits.

  6. Use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste in geotechnical applications: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Rafaela; Silva, Rui Vasco; de Brito, Jorge; Dhir, Ravindra

    2016-03-01

    The use of recycled aggregates (RA) in construction constitutes a significant step towards a more sustainable society and also creates a new market opportunity to be exploited. In recent years, several case-studies have emerged in which RA were used in Geotechnical applications, such as filling materials and in unbound pavement layers. This paper presents a review of the most important physical properties of different types of RA and their comparison with natural aggregates (NA), and how these properties affect their hydraulic and mechanical behaviour when compacted. Specifically, the effects of compaction on grading size distribution curves and density are analysed, as well as the consequences of particle crushing on the resilient modulus, CBR and permeability. The paper also contains an analysis of the influence of incorporating different RA types on the performance of unbound road pavement layers as compared with those built with NA by means of the International Roughness Index and deflection values. The results collected from the literature indicate that the performance of most RA is comparable to that of NA and can be used in unbound pavement layers or in other applications requiring compaction. PMID:26748436

  7. Combining airborne electromagnetic and geotechnical data for automated depth to bedrock tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Craig William; Pfaffhuber, Andreas Aspmo; Anschütz, Helgard; Smaavik, Tone Fallan

    2015-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data was used to supplement geotechnical investigations for a highway construction project in Norway. Heterogeneous geology throughout the survey and consequent variable bedrock threshold resistivity hindered efforts to directly track depth to bedrock, motivating us to develop an automated algorithm to extract depth to bedrock by combining both boreholes and AEM data. We developed two variations of this algorithm: one using simple Gaussian or inverse distance weighting interpolators, and another using ordinary kriging and combined probability distribution functions of input parameters. Evaluation shows that for preliminary surveys, significant savings in boreholes required can be made without sacrificing bedrock model accuracy. In the case study presented, we estimate data collection savings of 1000 to 10,000 NOK/km (c. 160 to 1600 USD/km) would have been possible for early phases of the investigation. However, issues with anthropogenic noise, low signal, and uncertainties in the inversion model likely reduced the comparative advantage that including AEM provided. AEM cannot supersede direct sampling where the model accuracy required exceed the resolution possible with the geophysical measurements. Nevertheless, with the algorithm we can identify high probability zones for shallow bedrock, identify steep or anomalous bedrock topography, and estimate the spatial variability of depth at earlier phases of investigation. Thus, we assert that our method is still useful where detailed mapping is the goal because it allows for more efficient planning of secondary phases of drilling.

  8. Geotechnical stability analysis, fragility of structures and velocity of movement to assess landslides vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuanalo, O.; Bernal, E.; Polanco, G.

    2014-09-01

    Landslides are geohazards that can be potential risks to life and property; these phenomena usually cause disasters when they occur in densely populated communities as those that inhabit mountainous and steep regions. Hazard and vulnerability are parameters determined by probability mathematical analysis with values between 0 and 1. When there are no records or enough information regards historical events on the phenomenon in study, that have occurred in a specific area (as in several mountainous regions of Mexico inhabited by ethnic groups), it has the disadvantage of not being able to perform a statistical analysis to properly evaluate the hazard nor the vulnerability. To solve the problem, this paper presents a proposal for evaluating the physical and functional vulnerability of the elements at risk, from two fundamental aspects: (a) the exposure level (EL), and (b) the expected damage degree (EDD). First of these factors is determined by the severity index (SI) and the safety factor from geotechnical stability analysis (SFgeo); the second one from the construction type (degree of fragility of structures) and the velocity that may have the landslide. For evaluating the parameters aforementioned, included tables, graphs and equations proposed by the authors.

  9. Computer Applications in Geotechnical Engineering (CAGE) and Geotechnical aspects of the Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (G-CASE) projects. User's guide. UTEXAS2 slope-stability package. Volume 2: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edris, Earl V., Jr.; Wright, Stephen G.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the theory of a two-dimensional slope-stability analysis and covers the mechanics of limit-equilibrium procedures that utilize the wedge and slices methods. The mechanics of the four different procedures contained in the computer program UTEXAS2 (University of Texas Analysis of Slopes - version 2) are discussed as well as sources of potential errors. The limit-equilibrium equations and the calculation procedures used in the program are described in an appendix.

  10. Supporting Active Learning in an Undergraduate Geotechnical Engineering Course Using Group-Based Audience Response Systems Quizzes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The use of audience response systems (ARSs) or "clickers" in higher education has increased over the recent years, predominantly owing to their ability to actively engage students, for promoting individual and group learning, and for providing instantaneous feedback to students and teachers. This paper describes how group-based ARS…

  11. Geotechnical studies for evaluation and limitations of environmental and engineering hazards that affect the economic infrastructure in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Fathy; Al-Salami, Ali E.

    2014-12-01

    Abha is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. It is situated 2200 meters (7200 ft) above the sea level in the fertile mountains of the south-western Saudi Arabia. One of the most important structures of this region is Abha dam that acts as a barrier that impounds water or underground streams thereby retaining the ground water of the region. With the passage of time, various environmental factors such as ground movement, wind and changes in temperature may have significant effect on these various structure factors and may lead to invisible cracks and other structural defects. Because the dams and tunnels are prone to sudden collapse, there is potential great risk to lives of the people and significant economic loss in this area. The use of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity techniques is a non-invasive scan and could assess the conditions of various built structures as well as the earth beneath or surrounding it. So the GPR system with appropriate types of antennas (1.5 GH, 1 GH, 400 MH and 100 MH) and electrical resistivity in one dimension (VES) and two dimensions (electrical profiling and imaging) is used in this work. This work aims to investigate the dam structure, developing cracks or areas of increased moisture. Also to study the surrounding areas to detect seepage from pond that may affect nearby buildings and the dam itself. It reveals that, the depth of water bearing layer ranges from 2 m to 10 m, where the three geoelectric layers are present. The first layer has resistivity values ranging from 44 Ω m-1200 Ω m with thickness ranging from 3 m to 18 m that is interpreted as the wadi deposits. The second layer having resistivity values from 11 Ω m to 137 Ω m is interpreted as the water saturated in the fractured basements. The third layer of resistivity values ranging from 2200 Ω m to 90,000 Ω m is interpreted as dry, massive basements. The GPR results provided internal images of the slab, showing its morphology, areas of possible damage and changes to the structure, and the situation of the steel reinforcements. It showed the presence of different shapes of fractures and voids with the growing of moisture zones.

  12. Finite-element formulation for the analysis of interfaces, nonlinear and large displacement problems in geotechnical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeevaert, A. E.

    1980-03-01

    A mathematical formulation to model the behavior under load of a reinforced soil system, where a fabric is placed over a soft soil and covered with stone for use as a temporary haul road is discussed. This approach is used to improve the behavior of temporary roadways, particularly where very soft soils are encountered. The stress distribution and the load-deformation characteristics of the soil-fabric system for varying geometries and material properties are defined. Included in the mathematical formulation are such features as: nonlinear behavior of the soil and fabric materials, friction parameters of the interface, tension characteristics of the fabric materials, large displacements in finite deformation, "no tension" conditions of the cohesionless materials, and yielding of plastic materials. The mathematical model is a more complete approximation of the actual fabric-soil system than is presently available.

  13. Submarine landslides in contourite drifts along the Pianosa Ridge (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea): A geotechnical approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramontes Garcia, Elda; Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sebastien; Jouet, Gwenael; Cauquil, Eric; Cattaneo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    softening behaviour. The aim of this study is to understand the mechanical processes that control slope instability in a context of a contourite system by focusing on a plastered drift and by applying slope stability modelling, using the geotechnical data from cores and in situ measurements. 1D consolidation modelling with the SeCo software shows that the sedimentation rates found in the plastered drift during the last 150 kyr are not enough to generate significant overpressure. We propose that two factors probably favoured the instability of the plastered drift: 1) the geotechnical properties of the sediment layer containing zeolites, and 2) the presence of an incision (moat) created by bottom currents in the lower part of the plastered drift, generating locally a slope gradient up to 15°.

  14. Delineating Bukit Bunuh impact crater boundary by geophysical and geotechnical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azwin, I. N.; Rosli, S.; Mokhtar, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Ragu, R. R.; Mark, J.

    2015-03-01

    Evidences of crater morphology and shock metamorphism in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Malaysia were found during the archaeological research conducted by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. In order to register Bukit Bunuh as one of the world meteorite impact site, detailed studies are needed to verify the boundary of the crater accordingly. Geophysical study was conducted utilising the seismic refraction and 2-D electrical resistivity method. Seismic refraction survey was done using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph with 14Hz geophones and 40kg weight drop while 2-D electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS4000 Terrameter and ES10-64C electrode selector with pole-dipole array. Bedrock depths were digitized from the sections obtained. The produced bedrock topography map shows that there is low bedrock level circulated by high elevated bedrock and interpreted as crater and rim respectively with diameter approximately 8km. There are also few spots of high elevated bedrock appear at the centre of the crater which interpreted as rebounds zone. Generally, the research area is divided into two layers where the first layer with velocity 400-1100 m/s and resistivity value of 10-800 Om predominantly consists of alluvium mix with gravel and boulders. Second layer represents granitic bedrock with depth of 5-50m having velocity >2100 m/s and resistivity value of >1500 Om. This research is strengthen by good correlation between geophysical data and geotechnical borehole records executed inside and outside of the crater, on the rim, as well as at the rebound area.

  15. Geomorphological mapping and geotechnical testing of the March 22, 2014, SR530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Reid, M. E.; Vallance, J. W.; Iverson, R. M.; Schmidt, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The March 22, 2014 landslide near Oso, Washington devastated a community, killing 43 people, destroying dozens of homes, and temporarily closing a section of State Route (SR) 530. The landslide, characterized as a debris avalanche - debris flow - rotational slide, was triggered by heavy precipitation in the region and initiated from a 200 m tall section of Pleistocene glacial deposits. The entire landslide encompassed an area of 1.2 km2. To understand the mobility of this landslide, we performed geological and geomorphological mapping throughout the initiation, transport, and deposition zones. In addition, we mapped a 450-m-long cross-section through the western distal lobe created by the excavation to reopen the SR530 roadbed to temporary traffic. Samples collected during mapping were used for geotechnical testing to evaluate the mobility of the landslide materials. Our detailed (1:300) geological mapping of the excavation revealed the juxtaposition of sand (glacial outwash) and clay (glaciolacustrine) debris avalanche hummocks towards the distal end of the landslide. Further, we found that two sections of the roadbed, having a combined length of at least 150 m, were entrained in the landslide. Throughout the debris avalanche deposit, 1:1200-scale geomorphological mapping identified a preponderance of sand boils located within thinner deposits between hummocks, suggesting that liquefaction played a role in the landslides mobility. In the central distal end of the landslide, we mapped on-lap deposits, wherein distal debris flow material overrode smaller hummocks of the larger debris avalanche deposit. Discovery of these deposits indicates that the run out of the landslide might have been even longer in places had topographic barriers (i.e., the other side of the valley) not reflected the flow back towards itself.

  16. Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography for Geotechnical Monitoring Using "Large N" Distributed Acoustic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Lindsey, N.; Martin, E. R.; Wagner, A. M.; Robertson, M.; Bjella, K.; Gelvin, A.; Ulrich, C.; Wu, Y.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.; Dou, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface wave tomography using ambient noise sources has found broad application at the regional scale but has not been adopted fully for geotechnical applications despite the abundance of noise sources in this context. The recent development of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) provides a clear path for inexpensively recording high spatial resolution (< 1m sampling) surface wave data in the context of infrastructure monitoring over significant spatial domains (10s of km). Infrastructure monitoring is particularly crucial in the context of high-latitude installations where a changing global climate can trigger reductions in soil strength due to permafrost thaw. DAS surface wave monitoring systems, particularly those installed in/near transport corridors and coupled to ambient noise inversion algorithms, could be a critical "early warning" system to detect zones of decreased shear strength before failure. We present preliminary ambient noise tomography results from a 1.3 km continuously recording subsurface DAS array used to record traffic noise next to an active road in Fairbanks, AK. The array, depolyed at the Farmer's Loop Permafrost Test Station, was designed as a narrow 2D array and installed via trenching at ~30 cm. We develop a pre-processing and QC approach to analyze the large resulting volume of data, equivalent to a 1300 geophone array sampled at 1 khz. We utilize automated dispersion analysis and a quasi-2D MC inversion to generate a shear wave velocity profile underneath the road in a region of discontinuous permafrost. The results are validated against a high-resolution ERT survey as well as direct-push data on ice content. We also compare vintages of ambient noise DAS data to evaluate the short-term repeatability of the technique in the face of changing noise environments. The resulting dataset demonstrates the utility of using DAS for real-time shear-modulus monitoring in support of critical infrastructure.

  17. River embankment characterization: The joint use of geophysical and geotechnical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Maria Teresa; Boaga, Jacopo; Bersan, Silvia; Cassiani, Giorgio; Cola, Simonetta; Deiana, Rita; Simonini, Paolo; Patti, Salvatore

    2014-11-01

    Recent flood events in Northern Italy (particularly in the Veneto Region) have brought river embankments into the focus of public attention. Many of these embankments are more than 100 years old and have been repeatedly repaired, so that detailed information on their current structure is generally missing. The monitoring of these structures is currently based, for the most part, on visual inspection and localized measurements of the embankment material parameters. However, this monitoring is generally insufficient to ensure an adequate safety level against floods. For these reasons there is an increasing demand for fast and accurate investigation methods, such as geophysical techniques. These techniques can provide detailed information on the subsurface structures, are non-invasive, cost-effective, and faster than traditional methods. However, they need verification in order to provide reliable results, particularly in complex and reworked man-made structures such as embankments. In this paper we present a case study in which three different geophysical techniques have been applied: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), frequency domain electromagnetic induction (FDEM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Two test sites have been selected, both located in the Province of Venice (NE Italy) where the Tagliamento River has large embankments. The results obtained with these techniques have been calibrated against evidence resolving from geotechnical investigations. The pros and cons of each technique, as well as their relative merit at identifying the specific features of the embankments in this area, are highlighted. The results demonstrate that geophysical techniques can provide very valuable information for embankment characterization, provided that the data interpretation is constrained via direct evidence, albeit limited in space.

  18. Fluidization process in landslides from failure to post-failure: geotechnical and rheological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Chambon, Guillaume; Naaim, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies of landslide mechanisms in the literatures (e.g., measurements of shear strength under fully saturated water condition, Cat-scanning or MRI imaging techniques during shearing, normalized rheological strength parameters for fluid, thixotropy model for describing the landslide motion, etc) may help to understand the phenomena of structural change, causing major damaging landslides with a large travelling distance. However, the phase ‘transition' from slide to flow, which is treated as a landslide from failure to post-failure associated with a sudden reduction of shear strength, is still poorly understood. To improve our understanding of landslide mechanisms, a fluidization process is thus important related to the strength loss from intact shear strength, through remoulded shear strength, to the yield stress in a mud/debris flow. This process can result from increasing pore water pressure and thereby decreasing effective stress in sliding body, but instead of these factors we would take into account the structural variation due to strength loss during the flow after pre-failure and onset of failure stage. This is one of on-going ‘Mountain-Risks' research projects: mechanical analysis of fluidization process in landslides. For this purpose, we first set up the laboratory test method with regard to geotechnical and rheological properties of clayey soils in terms of the strength evolution. The remoulded shear strength/yield stress for clayey soils related to the landslides can be estimated, when linking soil consistency and strength measured from fall cone apparatus and rheology obtained from viscometer. It is due to the fact that, for the mobility analysis of landslides to debris flows, index and rheological properties are one of important correlations. We then concern the thixotropy model for describing a fluidization process from failure to post-failure.

  19. Delineating Bukit Bunuh impact crater boundary by geophysical and geotechnical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Azwin, I. N. Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Ragu, R. R.; Mark, J.; Mokhtar, S.

    2015-03-30

    Evidences of crater morphology and shock metamorphism in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Malaysia were found during the archaeological research conducted by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. In order to register Bukit Bunuh as one of the world meteorite impact site, detailed studies are needed to verify the boundary of the crater accordingly. Geophysical study was conducted utilising the seismic refraction and 2-D electrical resistivity method. Seismic refraction survey was done using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph with 14Hz geophones and 40kg weight drop while 2-D electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS4000 Terrameter and ES10-64C electrode selector with pole-dipole array. Bedrock depths were digitized from the sections obtained. The produced bedrock topography map shows that there is low bedrock level circulated by high elevated bedrock and interpreted as crater and rim respectively with diameter approximately 8km. There are also few spots of high elevated bedrock appear at the centre of the crater which interpreted as rebounds zone. Generally, the research area is divided into two layers where the first layer with velocity 400-1100 m/s and resistivity value of 10-800 Om predominantly consists of alluvium mix with gravel and boulders. Second layer represents granitic bedrock with depth of 5-50m having velocity >2100 m/s and resistivity value of >1500 Om. This research is strengthen by good correlation between geophysical data and geotechnical borehole records executed inside and outside of the crater, on the rim, as well as at the rebound area.

  20. Geotechnical properties of core sample from methane hydrate deposits in Eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, J.; Masui, A.; Egawa, K.; Konno, Y.; Ito, T.; Kida, M.; Jin, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Tenma, N.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    To date, MH extraction has been simulated in several ways to help ensure the safe and efficient production of gas, with a particular focus on the investigation of landsliding, uneven settlement, and production well integrity. The mechanical properties of deep sea sediments and gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, typically obtained through material tests, are essential for the geomechanical response simulation to hydrate extraction. We conducted triaxial compression tests and the geotechnical properties of the sediments was investigated. Consolidated undrained compression tests were performed for silty sediments. And consolidated drained tests were performed for sandy samples. In addition, permeability was investigated from isotropic consolidation results. These core samples recovered from methane hydrate deposits of Daini Atsumi Knoll in Eastern Nankai Trough during the 2012 JOGMEC/JAPEX Pressure coring operation. The pressure core samples were rapidly depressurized on the ship and it were frozen using liquid nitrogen to prevent MH dissociation. Undrained shear strength of the core samples increase linearly with depth from sea floor. These core samples should be normally consolidated sample in-situ. Drained shear strength increases dramatically with hydrate saturation increases. Peak stress ratio q/p' of the core sample which has 73% of hydrate saturation was approximately 2.0 and it decrease down to 1.3 at the critical state. Dilatancy also changed from compressive tendency to dilative tendency with hydrate saturation increase. This study was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  1. Morphology of sea-floor landslides on Horizon Guyot: application of steady-state geotechnical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.; Schwab, W.C.; Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; Hein, J.R.; Quinterno, P.J.; Levin, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Mass movement and erosion have been identified on the pelagic sediment cap of Horizon Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Trends in the size, shape and preservation of bedforms and sediment textural trends on the pelagic cap indicate that bottom-current-generated sediment transport direction is upslope. Slumping of the sediment cap occurred on and that the net bedload transport direction is upslope. Slumping of the sediment cap occurred on the northwest side of the guyot on a 1.6?? to 2.0?? slope in the zone of enhanced bottom-current activity. Submersible investigations of these slump blocks show them to be discrete and to have a relief of 6-15 m, with nodular chert beds cropping out along the headwall of individual rotated blocks. An evaluation of the stability of the sediment cap suggests that the combination of the current-induced beveling of the sea floor and infrequent earthquake loading accompanied by cyclic strength reduction is responsible for the initiation of slumps. The sediment in the area of slumping moved short distances in relatively coherent masses, whereas sediment that has moved beyond the summit cap perimeter has fully mobilized into sediment gravity flows and traveled large distances. A steady-state geotechnical analysis of Horizon Guyot sediment indicates the predisposition of deeply buried sediment towards disintegrative flow failure on appropriately steep slopes. Thus, slope failure in this deeper zone would include large amounts of internal deformation. However, gravitational stress in the near-surface sediment of the summit cap (sub-bottom depth < 14 m) is insufficient to maintain downslope movement after initial failure occurs. The predicted morphology of coherent slump blocks displaced and rafted upon a weakened zone at depth corresponds well with seismic-reflection data and submersible observations. ?? 1990.

  2. Simultaneous seismic and geotechnical monitoring for the characterization of superficial deformations of the mudslide in Super-Sauze, French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Marco; Joswig, Manfred; Arnhardt, Christian; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2010-05-01

    To characterize superficial deformations of the mudslide in Super-Sauze, southern French Alps, seismic and geotechnical monitoring techniques have been applied simultaneously during a field campaign in July 2009. Based on the method nanoseismic monitoring (Joswig, 2008), we installed three seismic mini-arrays with an aperture of 25-30m, each one consisting of one three-component central-station and three outer vertical-component stations. We identified two different deformation processes caused by the movement of the mudslide: fracture processes within the slope material and superficial fissure development (Walter & Joswig, 2009). The spatiotemporal occurrence of deformation processes identified by nanoseismic monitoring has been verified with geotechnical monitoring systems. GPS devices as well as a small wireless ad-hoc, multi hop sensor network (WSN) have been installed in the slope area. The network consist of 7 connection points, called nodes, that transfer data from different sensors via radio signal directly or over other nodes (Multi Hop) in real-time to a data collection point (gateway). To determine the varying deformation processes, like toppling, spreading, falling and sliding, 6 nodes were equipped with micro-sensors (each with 3-axis acceleration sensor, 2-axis tilt sensor and barometric pressure sensor). In order to monitor the deformation of a recent fissure, one node was equipped with a position-sensor (draw wire displacement transducer). Laboratory tests for the different sensors showed that tilt movements can be detected with an accuracy of +/- 0,06° and a resolution of >0,1°, accelerations with +/- 0,008g and >0,02g and displacements with +/- 0,1mm and >0,1mm. The analysis of data recorded by barometric pressure sensors is quite difficult due to the high natural pressure fluctuations in mountain areas, anyway, the detection of fluctuations of >0,5m was possible. Except the displacement transducers, the geotechnical sensors didn't detect any

  3. Geotechnical properties and preliminary assessment of sediment stability on the continental slope of the northwestern Alboran Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Ercilla, G.; Lee, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of core samples from the western Alboran Sea slope reveal a large variability in texture and geotechnical properties. Stability analysis suggests that the sediment is stable under static gravitational loading but potentially unstable under seismic loading. Slope failures may occur if horizontal ground accelerations greater than 0.16 g are seismically induced. The, Alboran Sea is an active region, on which earthquakes inducing accelerations big enough to exceed the shear strength of the soft soil may occur. Test results contrast with the apparent stability deduced from seismic profiles. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. Engineering geology applied to the design and operation of underground coal mines. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dunrud, C.R.

    1998-11-01

    The primary goal of this report is to present, in a systematic outline format, information gained from studies and experience of many geologists, engineers, and miners in the US and other countries in order to: (1) Help geologists, engineers, and other mine planners design underground coal mines that are safer, more efficient, and compatible with the environment by incorporating the information presented; (2) Ensure that mine planners are more aware of some of the more important geologic and geotechnical factors that control of affect mining; and (3) Show how geologic, geotechnical, and mining factors, commonly important to proper mine design, may be incorporated into the planning and design phase of the coal mining operations.

  5. A multidisciplinary geophysical, geotechnical and hydrogeological investigation of quick-clay landslides in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, A.; Krawczyk, C.; Polom, U.; Lundberg, E.; Adamczyk, A.; Malinowski, M.; Bastani, M.; Gurk, M.; Juhlin, C.; Persson, L.; Ismail, N.

    2012-04-01

    In Spring 2011, the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) through its Geoscientists Without Borders (GWB) program sponsored our project to study clay-related landslides in the Nordic countries. This project will study quick clay or rapid earth flow landslides in Sweden. Undisturbed quick clay resembles a water-saturated gel. When a mass of quick clay undergoes sufficient stress, it instantly turns into a flowing ooze, a process known as liquefaction. A small block of quick clay can liquefy from a stress change due to as little as a modest blow from a human hand, while a larger deposit is mainly vulnerable to greater stress changes, such as increased saturation by excess rainwater. Despite their abundance, our geophysical understanding of clay behavior in terms of both changes in the geometrical shape (clay formations) and changes in the physical properties are limited and require a better understanding. Quick clay landslides are not particularly constrained to steep slopes and have been known to slide even in low-to-moderate angle slopes. Geophysical investigations began in September 2011 over a known landslide scar near the Göta river in southwest Sweden, an area known to contain quick clays in parts of it. The investigations involved 2D and 3D P- and S-wave source and receiver surveys, geoelectrics, controlled-source and radio-magnetotellurics, ground gravity and magnetic surveys. These data in combination with existing geotechnical information and hydrogeological investigations should allow better insight into the mechanism(s) governing clay-related landslides in the Nordic countries and to provide high-resolution images of subsurface structures down to the bedrock. We will present preliminary results from the seismic investigations, including the 2D and 3D reflection and refraction surveys. The reflection seismic data show excellent quality and image the bedrock topography and internal layering above it down to about 100 m. Tomography results suggest the

  6. A progress report on the ARRA-funded geotechnical site characterization project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K.; Di Matteo, A.; Diehl, J.; Jack, S.

    2011-12-01

    For the past 18 months, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has funded geotechnical site characterizations at 189 seismographic station sites in California and the central U.S. This ongoing effort applies methods involving surface-wave techniques, which include the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique and one or more of the following: spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), active and passive multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) and passive array microtremor techniques. From this multi-method approach, shear-wave velocity profiles (VS) and the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 meters (VS30) are estimated for each site. To accommodate the variability in local conditions (e.g., rural and urban soil locales, as well as weathered and competent rock sites), conventional field procedures are often modified ad-hoc to fit the unanticipated complexity at each location. For the majority of sites (>80%), fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion-based techniques are deployed and where complex geology is encountered, multiple test locations are made. Due to the presence of high velocity layers, about five percent of the locations require multi-mode inversion of Rayleigh wave (MASW-based) data or 3-D array-based inversion of SASW dispersion data, in combination with shallow P-wave seismic refraction and/or HVSR results. Where a strong impedance contrast (i.e. soil over rock) exists at shallow depth (about 10% of sites), dominant higher modes limit the use of Rayleigh wave dispersion techniques. Here, use of the Love wave dispersion technique, along with seismic refraction and/or HVSR data, is required to model the presence of shallow bedrock. At a small percentage of the sites, surface wave techniques are found not suitable for stand-alone deployment and site characterization is limited to the use of the seismic refraction technique. A USGS Open File Report-describing the surface geology, VS profile and the

  7. Geophysical and Geotechnical Determination of Sand Resources on the Florida Atlantic Continental Shelf: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkl, C. W.; Andrews, J. L.; Suthard, B. C.; Robertson, W.

    2007-12-01

    the ability to assess sand resource potential on the shelf. Sand resources on the Florida Atlantic continental shelf amount to something on the order of about 85 x 109 m3. These potential sand volumes, based on average 3 m depth assumptions, break down to about 1 x 109 m3 for the southeast (Miami, Broward, Palm Beach counties), 4.3 x 109 m3 for the central (Martin, St. Lucie, Indian River, Brevard counties), and 78.5 x 109 m3 for the northeast (Volusia, Flagler, St. Johns, Duval, Nassau counties) Florida shelf areas. It is effective to use multiple remote sensing methods to locate large sand bodies, but more detailed geotechnical surveys are required to better estimate these sand resource potentials.

  8. International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) Established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Oslo, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, A.; Nadim, F.

    2003-12-01

    As one of 13 new `Centres of Excellence' awarded by the Norwegian Research Council with a 10-year funding schedule, the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) was established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), in January 2003. The Centre is formed through a co-operation between several institutions, which in addition to NGI are the Gelogical Survey of Norway (NGU), Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR), University of Oslo (UiO) and the Norwegian University for Science and Technology (NTNU). The Centre is located in the NGI building in Oslo, Norway. Funding is for 10 years, and the centre is staffed by researchers from the partner institutions, visiting scientists, post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. With the ultimate goal of geohazard mitigation and preventing the loss of lives and damage to infrastructure and environment, key research topics of the Centre are: Unsaturated soils and mechanisms for precipitation-induced slides in steep slopes; Risk and vulnerability analysis for geohazards; Earthquake hazard, vulnerability and risk evaluation; Rock slope failures - models and risks; Landslides in soft clay slopes (quick clay), fjord margins and coastal zones; GIS applications to geohazards; SAR applications to geohazards; Slide dynamics and mechanics of disintegration; Tsunami modelling and prediction; and Offshore Geohazards. As prospecting for hydrocarbons move into increasingly deeper waters of the world's continental margins, research on offshore geohazard forms an important activity of the new centre. Main offshore geohazards include slope instability, effects of shallow gas and gas hydrates on the behaviour of seafloor sediments, mud volcanism and diapirism. Of these, slope instability is considered to be the major hazard, because of the potentially serious third party impact. The current offshore geohazards project within ICG consists of three main themes: Assessment of offshore geohazards (site surveys); Geophysical methods for offshore

  9. Integrated Interpretation of Geophysical, Geotechnical, and Environmental Monitoring Data to Define Precursors for Landslide Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J.; Merritt, A.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Maurer, H.; Dixon, N.

    2014-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the failure mechanisms leading to first time failure or reactivation of landslides, the British Geological Survey is operating an observatory on an active, shallow landslide in North Yorkshire, UK, which is a typical example of slope failure in Lias Group mudrocks. This group and the Whitby Mudstone Formation in particular, show one of the highest landslide densities in the UK. The observatory comprises geophysical (i.e., ERT and self-potential monitoring, P- and S-wave tomography), geotechnical (i.e. acoustic emission and inclinometer), and hydrological and environmental monitoring (i.e. weather station, water level, soil moisture, soil temperature), in addition to movement monitoring using real-time kinematic GPS. In this study we focus on the reactivation of the landslide at the end of 2012, after an exceptionally wet summer. We present an integrated interpretation of the different data streams. Results show that the two lobes (east and west), which form the main focus of the observatory, behave differently. While water levels, and hence pore pressures, in the eastern lobe are characterised by a continuous increase towards activation resulting in significant movement (i.e. metres), water levels in the western lobe are showing frequent drainage events and thus lower pore pressures and a lower level of movement (i.e. tens of centimetres). This is in agreement with data from the geoelectrical monitoring array. During the summer season, resistivities generally increase due to decreasing moisture levels. However, during the summer of 2012 this seasonal pattern was interrupted, with the reactivated lobe displaying strongly decreasing resistivities (i.e. increasing moisture levels). The self-potential and soil moisture data show clear indications of moisture accumulation prior to the reactivation, followed by continuous discharge towards the base of the slope. Using the different data streams, we present 3D volumetric images of

  10. Paleoliquefaction studies in continental setting; geologic and geotechnical factors in interpretations and back-analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, Stephen F.; Pond, Eric C.; Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Stark, Timothy D.; Mitchell, James K.

    2001-01-01

    Paleoliquefaction research in the last 15 years has greatly improved our ability to interpret the paleoseismic record throughout some large geographic areas, especially in regions of infrequent large earthquakes. Paleoliquefaction studies have been used extensively in the central and eastern U.S. to assess seismic hazards, and could be used elsewhere to good purpose because paleoliquefaction studies in some field settings can reveal more than other methods, such as fault studies, about the prehistoric strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude. We present guidelines for the conduct of a paleoliquefaction study in continental deposits, mainly in terms of the geologic/seismologic setting and geotechnical properties, because a successful interpretation requires factors from all these disciplines. No single discipline suffices alone. Their interactions must be appreciated in order to understand why seismically induced liquefaction features are found in some locales and not in others. The guidelines that we present also relate to three primary issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful for interpretations: Where was the tectonic source? What was the strength of shaking? And what was the magnitude? In discussing these issues we focus on the following aspects of level-ground liquefaction: (1) mechanisms that form seismic liquefaction features in the field; (2) field settings where liquefaction features should be present if strong seismic shaking has occurred; (3) field settings where an absence of liquefaction features indicates an absence of strong seismic shaking; (4) how liquefaction features should be used to interpret the tectonic source locale of a paleo-earthquake; and (5) how effects of liquefaction can be used to back-calculate the strength of shaking as well as earthquake magnitude. Several methods are available to back-calculate the strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude, and the most commonly used methods are presented and critiqued